WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance factor calculations

  1. Calculation of skid resistance from texture measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ueckermann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of routine skid resistance measurement devices on the market. All of them are measuring the friction force between a rubber wheel and the wetted road surface. Common to all of them is that they are relatively complex and costly because generally a truck carrying a large water tank is needed to wet the surface with a defined water layer. Because of the limited amount of water they can carry they are limited in range. Besides that the measurement is depending on factors like water film thickness, temperature, measurement speed, rubber aging, rubber wear and even road evenness and curviness. All of these factors will affect the skid resistance and are difficult to control. We present a concept of contactless skid resistance measurement which is based on optical texture measurement and consists of two components: measurement of the pavement texture by means of an optical measuring system and calculation of the skid resistance based on the measured texture by means of a rubber friction model. The basic assumptions underlying the theoretical approach and the model itself based on the theory of Persson are presented. The concept is applied to a laboratory device called Wehner/Schulze (W/S machine to prove the theoretical approach. The results are very promising. A strong indication could be provided that skid resistance could be measured without contact in the future.

  2. A risk calculator for glyphosate resistance in Lolium rigidum (Gaud.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rex A; Pratley, James E; Hudson, David; Dill, Gerald M

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate resistance has been confirmed in 58 populations of Lolium rigidum (Gaud.), a major weed of crops in southern Australia. Extensive use of glyphosate in conjunction with minimal soil disturbance has been identified as high risk for resistance to that herbicide. Land managers need a simple method for rapid assessment of the risk of resistance occurring as a result of past and proposed future management practices. Modelled on risk assessment nomographs, a simple calculator for indicating the risk of evolved glyphosate resistance in L. rigidum is described. The calculator uses the generations since first use and the frequency of use of glyphosate in combination with historical cultivation levels as critical factors for determining the risk of glyphosate resistance evolution. Based on the management history of a field, a land manager can graphically determine a glyphosate resistance risk for that field. The calculator enables the farmer or the advisor to assess the risk of a weed's population becoming resistant and modify practices accordingly to manage for sustainable glyphosate use. The risk calculator could be modified for other herbicides and different weed species. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  4. Realistic 3D resistive MHD calculations on the CRAY-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.R.; Carreras, B.

    1979-01-01

    CPU times for nonlinear resistive MHD calculations are very strongly dependent on the input variables. Although some regions of parameter space can be studied very cheaply, the conditions that correspond to Tokamak plasmas are extremely time consuming to study. Unfortunately, it is not possible to extrapolate reliably from the easy cases to the interesting regime. In recent years we have improved the efficiency of our codes by two orders of magnitude. As a result it is now feasible for us to run some realistic Tokamak cases on a CDC 7600. An additional factor of four reduction in run time is obtained by going to the CRAY-1 where the most time consuming routines are vectorized. This last factor makes a program of systematic studies feasible

  5. Calculated shielding factors for selected European houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1984-12-01

    Shielding factors for gamma radiation from activity deposited on structures and ground surfaces have been calculated with the computer model DEPSHIELD for single-family and multi-storey buildings in France, United Kingdom and Denmark. For all three countries it was found that the shielding factors for single-family houses are approximately a factor of 2 - 10 higher that those for buildings with five or more storeys. Away from doors and windows the shielding factors for French, British, and Danish single-family houses are in the range 0.03 - 0.1, 0.06 - 0.4, and 0.07 - 0.3, respectively. The uncertainties of the calculations are discussed and DEPSHIELD-results are compared with other methods as well as with experimental results. (author)

  6. An innovation resistance factor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Salwa Mohd Ishak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The process and implementation strategy of information technology in construction is generally considered through the limiting prism of theoretical contexts generated from innovation diffusion and acceptance. This research argues that more attention should be given to understanding the positive effects of resistance. The study develops a theoretical framing for the Integrated Resistance Factor Model (IRFM. The framing uses a combination of diffusion of innovation theory, technology acceptance model and social network perspective. The model is tested to identify the most significant resistance factors using Partial Least Square (PLS technique. All constructs proposed in the model are found to be significant, valid and consistent with the theoretical framework. IRFM is shown to be an effective and appropriate model of user resistance factors. The most critical factors to influence technology resistance in the online project information management system (OPIMS context are: support from leaders and peers, complexity of the technology, compatibility with key work practices; and pre-trial of the technology before it is actually deployed. The study provides a new model for further research in technology innovation specific to the construction industry.

  7. Discussion of grid generation for catamaran resistance calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Rui; Huang, De-Bo; Li, Jia; Cheng, Xuan-Kai; Yu, Lei

    2010-06-01

    In order to get some useful parameters for grid generation of catamaran, the CFD software FLUENT is used to investigate the main effects of grid generation on flow field calculation. The influences of some elements are investigated with a series of calculations in the present paper, and some alteratives are proposed. The proposed alteratives based on the analysis of the effects are used for a catamaran resistance calculation, comparisons of the calculated results with experimental data show good agreement. It shows that the research result of this paper is useful for the numerical calculation of catamaran.

  8. Calculation of the dynamic air flow resistivity of fibre materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    The acoustic attenuation of acoustic fiber materials is mainly determined by the dynamic resistivity to an oscillating air flow. The dynamic resistance is calculated for a model with geometry close to the geometry of real fibre material. The model constists of parallel cylinders placed randomly.......The second procedure is an extension to oscillating air flow of the Brinkman self-consistent procedure for dc flow. The procedures are valid for volume concentrations of cylinders less than 0.1. The calculations show that for the density of fibers of interest for acoustic fibre materials the simple self....... Two case are treated: flow perpendicular to the cylinder axes, and flow parallel to the axes. In each case two new approximate procedures were used. In the first procedure, one solves the equation of flow in a Voronoi cell around the fiber, and averages over the distribution of the Voronoi cells...

  9. Criticality calculation for cluster fuel bundles using grey Dancoff factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyeong Heon Kim; Nam Zin Cho

    1999-01-01

    This paper applies the grey Dancoff factor calculated by Monte Carlo method to the criticality calculation for cluster fuel bundles. Dancoff factors for five symmetrically different pin positions of CANDU37 and CANFLEX fuel bundles in full three-dimensional geometry are calculated by Monte Carlo method. The concept of equivalent Dancoff factor is introduced to use the grey Dancoff factor in the resonance calculation based on equivalence theorem. The equivalent Dancoff factor which is based on the realistic model produces an exact fuel collision probability and can be used in the resonance calculation just as the black Dancoff factor. The infinite multiplication factors based on the black Dancoff factors calculated by collision probability or Monte Carlo method are overestimated by about 2 mk for normal condition and 4 mk for void condition of CANDU37 and CANFLEX fuel bundles in comparison with those based on the equivalent Dancoff factors

  10. Inductance and resistance calculations for a pair of rectangular conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, K.F.; Roy, A.A.; Sykulski, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review paper we present various semi-analytical and numerical calculations, for computing the inductance and resistance of a pair of rectangular conductors. Sections 1-3 deal with the dc inductance of infinitely thin strips and strips of finite thickness. In the former case, the inductance is computed using the T? method, while in the latter case it is computed by direct integration using Maple. In both cases, the results have been checked using finite element analysis. It is also sho...

  11. Review of resistance factor for steel: resistance distributions and resistance factor calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.J.; Bartlett, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the Canadian steel industry warrant a review of the steel resistance factor in CSA Standard S16 (formerly S16.1) 'Limit states design of steel structures', originally calibrated in the landmark study by Kennedy and Gad Aly in 1980. This paper presents statistical parameters for the bending, compression, and tension resistances of W, WWF, and HSS components produced since 1999 that have been derived from geometric and material properties presented in a companion paper. The resistance factor for steel was recalibrated for the live and dead load combination in the 1995 National Building Code of Canada. A resistance factor of 0.95 is suitable for laterally supported beams, stocky columns, and tension members failing by yield of the gross section, whereas the current value of 0.90 is appropriate for intermediate columns and tension members failing by fracture of the net section. (author)

  12. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  13. Calculation of coupling factor for double-period accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Xiaohao; Chen Huaibi; Zheng Shuxin

    2005-01-01

    In the design of the linear accelerating structure, the coupling factor between cavities is a crucial parameter. The error of coupling factor accounts for the electric or magnetic field error mainly. To accurately design the coupling iris, the accurate calculation of coupling factor is essential. The numerical simulation is widely used to calculate the coupling factor now. By using MAFIA code, two methods have been applied to calculate the dispersion characteristics of the single-period structure, one method is to simulate the traveling wave mode by the period boundary condition; another method is to simulate the standing wave mode by the electrical boundary condition. In this work, the authors develop the two methods to calculate the coupling factor of double-period accelerating structure. Compared to experiment, the results for both methods are very similar, and in agreement with measurement within 15% deviation. (authors)

  14. Calculation methodology of fast fission factor in a thermal reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishko Denis V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the coefficient of the fast fission, which is part of the formula of «four factors». Considered, to exist at the moment, two methods for calculation of the coefficient of the fast fission in uranium-water tight lattices. Also presents the results of calculations and comparative analysis of the data obtained by two techniques.

  15. On the Carter's Factor Calculation for Slotted Electric Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL, I. A.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The air-gap flux density in a single side slotted unsaturated machine is computed via two dimensions finite element method (2D-FEM and via some analytical approximations. The Carter's factor values are calculated using different equations and a comparison between the obtained results is presented, allowing for pertinent conclusions concerning the flux density analytical estimation or the Carter's factor calculation.

  16. Formation factor determinations by in-situ resistivity logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, M.; Ohlsson, Y.; Neretnieks, I.

    2001-01-01

    Matrix diffusion in bedrock is traditionally studied by laboratory liquid diffusion experiments, which are time consuming and expensive. A new way of studying matrix diffusion is to measure the electrical resistivity of the rock. This could be done either in laboratories or in-situ. A fast method of obtaining a formation factor log, later used in matrix diffusion calculations, for an entire borehole is proposed. It is a standard procedure in geophysical well logging to measure rock resistivity and there are well-developed tools for this in the oil industry. The SKB, Sweden, uses boreholes with a small diameter (56 mm) and this reduces the options in choosing resistivity tools. Therefore they have so far relied on the Normal log that only gives quantitative measurements in special cases, after corrections are made. Modern tools, such as the slimhole Dual-Laterolog, are accurate with a high vertical resolution. The pore fluid resistivity is required when obtaining a formation factor log. In previous work the borehole fluid resistivity has been used. A new method measures the resistivity in groundwater from local fractures. These values seem more appropriate to use as new in-situ measurements show that there may be local groundwater resistivity differences. A preliminary study shows that the conductivity could be obtained in saline Swedish groundwater by measuring the chloride concentration only. Anomalies in the formation factor log have to be sorted out by using supporting core logging and non-electrical in-situ methods. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  17. Calculation of Dose Gamma Ray Build up Factor in Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gamma ray buildup factor was calculated by analyzing the narrow- beam and broad-beam geometry equations using Taylor's formula for isotropic sources and homogeneous materials. The buildup factor was programmed using MATLAB software to operate with any radiation energy (E), atomic number (Z) and the ...

  18. Calculation of coupling factor for the heterogeneous accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Xiaohao; Chen Huaibi; Zheng Shuxin

    2006-01-01

    The converging part of electron accelerator is designed to converge the phase of injecting electrons, improving the beam quality of the accelerator. It is very crucial to calculate the coupling factor between cavities and to design the geometry structure of the coupling irises. By the E module of code MAFIA, the authors calculate the frequency of every single resonant cavity and the two eigenfrequencies of two-cavitiy line. Then we get the coupling factor between the two cavities. This method can be used to design the geometry structure of the coupling isises between every two cavities. Compared to experiment, the results of the method is very accurate. (authors)

  19. Fundamental principles of earthquake resistance calculation to be reflected in the next generation regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the pressing issues of regulation in the domain of seismic construction. The existing code of rules SNIP II-7-81* “Construction in seismic areas” provides that earthquake resistance calculation be performed on two levels of impact: basic safety earthquake (BSE and maximum considered earthquake (MCE. However, the very nature of such calculation cannot be deemed well-founded and contradicts the fundamental standards of foreign countries. The authors of the article have identified the main problems of the conceptual foundation underlying the current regulation. The first and foremost step intended to overcome the discrepancy in question is renunciation of the K1 damage tolerance factor when calculating the BSE. The second measure to be taken is implementing the response spectrum method of calculation, but the β spectral curve of the dynamic response factor must be replaced by a spectrum of worst-case accelerograms for this particular structure or a spectrum of simulated accelerograms obtained for the specific construction site. Application of the response spectrum method when calculating the MCE impact level makes it possible to proceed into the frequency domain and to eventually obtain spectra of the accelerograms. As a result we get to know the response of the building to some extent, i.e. forces, the required reinforcement, and it can be checked whether the conditions of the ultimate limit state apply. Then, the elements under the most intense load are excluded from the design model the way it is done in case of progressive collapse calculations, because the assumption is that these elements are destroyed locally by seismic load. This procedure is based on the already existing design practices of progressive collapse calculation.

  20. Calculation and experimental test of the cooling factor of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puetterich, T.; Neu, R.; Dux, R.; Whiteford, A.D.; O'Mullane, M.G.; Summers, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    The cooling factor of W is evaluated using state of the art data for line radiation and an ionization balance which has been benchmarked with experiment. For the calculation of line radiation, level-resolved calculations were performed with the Cowan code to obtain the electronic structure and excitation cross sections (plane-wave Born approximation). The data were processed by a collisional radiative model to obtain electron density dependent emissions. These data were then combined with the radiative power derived from recombination rates and bremsstrahlung to obtain the total cooling factor. The effect of uncertainties in the recombination rates on the cooling factor was studied and was identified to be of secondary importance. The new cooling factor is benchmarked, by comparisons of the line radiation with spectral measurements as well as with a direct measurement of the cooling factor. Additionally, a less detailed calculation using a configuration averaged model was performed. It was used to benchmark the level-resolved calculations and to improve the prediction on radiation power from line radiation for ionization stages which are computationally challenging. The obtained values for the cooling factor validate older predictions from the literature. Its ingredients and the absolute value are consistent with the existing experimental results regarding the value itself, the spectral distribution of emissions and the ionization equilibrium. A table of the cooling factor versus electron temperature is provided. Finally, the cooling factor is used to investigate the operational window of a fusion reactor with W as intrinsic impurity. The minimum value of nTτ E , for which a thermonuclear burn is possible, is increased by 20% for a W concentration of 3.0 x 10 -5 compared with a plasma without any impurities, except for the He ash which is considered in both cases.

  1. Application of generalized perturbation theory to flux disadvantage factor calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, O.H.; Akimov, I.S.; Naguib, K.; Hamouda, I.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of using the generalized perturbation theory to calculate the perturbation of the flux disadvantage factors of reactor cell, resulting from the variation of the cell parameters, is studied. For simplicity the one-group diffusion approximation is considered. All necessary equations are derived for variations both of the cell dimensions. Numerical results are presented in the paper

  2. Structural uncertainty in air mass factor calculation for NO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorente Delgado, Alba; Folkert Boersma, K.; Yu, Huan; Dörner, Steffen; Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Liu, Mengyao; Lamsal, Lok N.; Barkley, Michael; Smedt, De Isabelle; Roozendael, Van Michel; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas; Beirle, Steffen; Lin, Jin Tai; Krotkov, Nickolay; Stammes, Piet; Wang, Ping; Eskes, Henk J.; Krol, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Air mass factor (AMF) calculation is the largest source of uncertainty in NO2 and HCHO satellite retrievals in situations with enhanced trace gas concentrations in the lower troposphere. Structural uncertainty arises when different retrieval methodologies are applied within the scientific community

  3. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    and Gram-positive bacteria. KEY WORDS: Antenatal women, antibiotic resistance, asymptomatic bacteriuria, prevalence, risk factors. INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy is classified as either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptomatic UTI are divided into lower tract (acute cystitis) and upper ...

  4. Thermal disadvantage factor calculation by the multiregion collision probability method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgener, B.; Ozgener, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-region collision probability formulation that is capable of applying white boundary condition directly is presented and applied to thermal neutron transport problems. The disadvantage factors computed are compared with their counterparts calculated by S N methods with both direct and indirect application of white boundary condition. The results of the ABH and collision probability method with indirect application of white boundary condition are also considered and comparisons with benchmark Monte Carlo results are carried out. The studies show that the proposed formulation is capable of calculating thermal disadvantage factor with sufficient accuracy without resorting to the fictitious scattering outer shell approximation associated with the indirect application of the white boundary condition in collision probability solutions

  5. Improved SVR Model for Multi-Layer Buildup Factor Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Smuc, T.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of point kernel method applied in gamma ray dose rate calculations in shielding design and radiation safety analysis is limited by the accuracy of buildup factors used in calculations. Although buildup factors for single-layer shields are well defined and understood, buildup factors for stratified shields represent a complex physical problem that is hard to express in mathematical terms. The traditional approach for expressing buildup factors of multi-layer shields is through semi-empirical formulas obtained by fitting the results of transport theory or Monte Carlo calculations. Such an approach requires an ad-hoc definition of the fitting function and often results with numerous and usually inadequately explained and defined correction factors added to the final empirical formula. Even more, finally obtained formulas are generally limited to a small number of predefined combinations of materials within relatively small range of gamma ray energies and shield thicknesses. Recently, a new approach has been suggested by the authors involving one of machine learning techniques called Support Vector Machines, i.e., Support Vector Regression (SVR). Preliminary investigations performed for double-layer shields revealed great potential of the method, but also pointed out some drawbacks of the developed model, mostly related to the selection of one of the parameters describing the problem (material atomic number), and the method in which the model was designed to evolve during the learning process. It is the aim of this paper to introduce a new parameter (single material buildup factor) that is to replace the existing material atomic number as an input parameter. The comparison of two models generated by different input parameters has been performed. The second goal is to improve the evolution process of learning, i.e., the experimental computational procedure that provides a framework for automated construction of complex regression models of predefined

  6. On the applicability of nearly free electron model for resistivity calculations in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, J.; Popielawski, J.

    1982-09-01

    The calculations of resistivity based on the nearly free electron model are presented for many noble and transition liquid metals. The triple ion correlation is included in resistivity formula according to SCQCA approximation. Two different methods for describing the conduction band are used. The problem of applicability of the nearly free electron model for different metals is discussed. (author)

  7. Experimental control of calculation model of scale factor during fracture of circular samples with cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnyp, I.P.; Ganulich, B.K.; Pokhmurskij, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    Reliable methods of estimation of cracking resistance of low-strength plastic materials using the notched samples acceptable for laboratory tests are analysed. Experimental data on the fracture of round notched samples for a number of steels are given. A perfect comparability of calculational and experimental data confirms the legitimacy of the proposed scheme of estimation of the scale factor effect. The necessity of taking into account the strain hardening coefficient at the choice of a sample size for determining the stress intensity factor is pointed out

  8. Patient age as a factor of antibiotic resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alexander; Delorme, Thierry; Nasr, Payman

    2017-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A thorough understanding of the epidemiology and distribution of MRSA allows the development of better preventive measures and helps to control or reduce the rate of infection among the general population. A retrospective survey was performed on 511 cases of MRSA infections from inpatient, outpatient and nursing home populations over a 12-month period. To study the relationships between two continuous quantitative variables (patient age vs resistance percentage), a simple linear regression was calculated for each antibiotic to predict the antibiotic resistance percentage with respect to patient age.Results/Key findings. The pattern of antibiotic resistance with respect to the age of patients depended on the antibiotic mode of action. Antibiotics that target DNA synthesis (i.e. fluoroquinolones) display a direct correlation with the age of patients, with higher rates of resistance among the older population, while antibiotics that target ribosomal functions (i.e. aminoglycosides) or cell wall synthesis (i.e. cephalosporin) do not display an age-dependent pattern and have a consistent degree of resistance across all age classes. Antibiotics that target DNA synthesis result in a progressively higher number of resistant isolates among the older population. The results emphasize the importance of patient age on antibiotic selection as a preventive measure to reduce the rate of resistant infections in each susceptible population. This pattern suggests that physicians should take into consideration patient age as another factor in determining the best antibiotic regiment with the aim of curtailing the emergence of newer resistant phenotypes in the future.

  9. Calculating the momentum enhancement factor for asteroid deflection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberling, Tamra; Gisler, Galen; Plesko, Catherine; Weaver, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of kinetic-impact deflection of threatening near-Earth asteroids will be tested for the first time in the proposed AIDA (Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment) mission, involving NASAs DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test). The impact of the DART spacecraft onto the secondary of the binary asteroid 65803 Didymos at a speed of 5 to 7 km/s is expected to alter the mutual orbit by an observable amount. Furthermore, the velocity transferred to the secondary depends largely on the momentum enhancement factor, typically referred to as beta. Here, we use two hydrocodes developed at Los Alamos, RAGE and PAGOSA, to calculate an approximate value for beta in laboratory-scale benchmark experiments. Convergence studies comparing the two codes show the importance of mesh size in estimating this crucial parameter.

  10. TauFactor: An open-source application for calculating tortuosity factors from tomographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Cooper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TauFactor is a MatLab application for efficiently calculating the tortuosity factor, as well as volume fractions, surface areas and triple phase boundary densities, from image based microstructural data. The tortuosity factor quantifies the apparent decrease in diffusive transport resulting from convolutions of the flow paths through porous media. TauFactor was originally developed to improve the understanding of electrode microstructures for batteries and fuel cells; however, the tortuosity factor has been of interest to a wide range of disciplines for over a century, including geoscience, biology and optics. It is still common practice to use correlations, such as that developed by Bruggeman, to approximate the tortuosity factor, but in recent years the increasing availability of 3D imaging techniques has spurred interest in calculating this quantity more directly. This tool provides a fast and accurate computational platform applicable to the big datasets (>108 voxels typical of modern tomography, without requiring high computational power.

  11. Validation of calculated self-shielding factors for Rh foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaćimović, R.; Trkov, A.; Žerovnik, G.; Snoj, L.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-10-01

    Rhodium foils of about 5 mm diameter were obtained from IRMM. One foil had thickness of 0.006 mm and three were 0.112 mm thick. They were irradiated in the pneumatic transfer system and in the carousel facility of the TRIGA reactor at the Jožef Stefan Institute. The foils were irradiated bare and enclosed in small cadmium boxes (about 2 g weight) of 1 mm thickness to minimise the perturbation of the local neutron flux. They were co-irradiated with 5 mm diameter and 0.2 mm thick Al-Au (0.1%) alloy monitor foils. The resonance self-shielding corrections for the 0.006 and 0.112 mm thick samples were calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation and amount to about 10% and 60%, respectively. The consistency of measurements confirmed the validity of self-shielding factors. Trial estimates of Q0 and k0 factors for the 555.8 keV gamma line of 104Rh were made and amount to 6.65±0.18 and (6.61±0.12)×10 -2, respectively.

  12. Calculation of Operations Efficiency Factors for Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layback, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    enough time to capture variations in relay asset interactions, Earth/Mars time phasing, and seasonal variations in holidays). This model is used to estimate the ops efficiency factor for each operations configuration. The second model in a separate Excel spreadsheet is a scenario model, which uses the sol types to rack up the total number of "scenario sols" for that scenario (in other words, the ideal number of sols it would take to perform the scenario objectives). Then, the number of sols requiring ground in the loop is calculated based on the soil types contained in the given scenario. Next, the scenario contains a description of what sequence of operations configurations is used, for how many days each, and this is used with the corresponding ops efficiency factors for each configuration to calculate the "ops duration" corresponding to that scenario. Finally, a margin is applied to determine the minimum surface lifetime required for that scenario. Typically, this level of analysis has not been performed until much later in the mission, and has not been able to influence mission design. Further, the notion of moving to sustainable operations during Prime Mission - and the effect that that move would have on surface mission productivity and mission objective choices - has not been encountered until the most recent rover missions (MSL and Mars 2018).

  13. Risk Factors for Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopas Martin Rumende

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a well-known risk factor for TB in the past. The global convergence of the accelerating type 2 DM pandemic, high TB prevalence and drug-resistant TB during the past couple of decades has become a serious challenge to clinicians worldwide. Over the past few years, some studies have shown that the treatment failure rate is higher in TB patients with DM as comorbidity. Moreover, there is significant association between DM an MDR-TB. There is higher chance of TB bacilli persistence to be present in sputum of pulmonary TB patient with DM than TB-only patient after 5 months treatment, and this persistence made it necessary for more longer treatment. Presence of DM in TB patients cause a longer period for sputum conversion, therefore it may become a major cause of poor treatment outcome in TB patients. Previous studies showed that a major mechanism for the emergence of drugs resistance in TB bacilli is random mutation in the bacterial genome and the pressure of selection by anti-TB drugs. Pulmonary TB in diabetic patients usually show higher mycobacterial loads at the initiation of treatment, hence they may have higher chance of bacillary mutation and the emergence of MDR-TB with the presenting of higher bacterial loads, longer treatment is needed to clear the bacteria. Therefore, it is not suprising that a higher chance of MDR-TB patients could be find in those patients. A pharmacokinetic study noted that plasma levels of rifampicin were 53% lower in TB patients with diabetes, which might affect treatment outcomes. Inadequate immune respons of the host may also be important in this negative effect of diabetes. Depressed production of IFN-γ in diabetic patients is related to decreasing immune response to TB infection. Reduction of IL-12 response to mycobacterial stimulation in leukocytes from TB with diabetic patients suggest a compromise of innate immune response.

  14. A new method for calculating gas saturation of low-resistivity shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jiaoshiba shale gas field is located in the Fuling area of the Sichuan Basin, with the Upper Ordovician Wufeng–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm as the pay zone. At the bottom of the pay zone, a high-quality shale gas reservoir about 20 m thick is generally developed with high organic contents and gas abundance, but its resistivity is relatively low. Accordingly, the gas saturation calculated by formulas (e.g. Archie using electric logging data is often much lower than the experiment-derived value. In this paper, a new method was presented for calculating gas saturation more accurately based on non-electric logging data. Firstly, the causes for the low resistivity of shale gas reservoirs in this area were analyzed. Then, the limitation of traditional methods for calculating gas saturation based on electric logging data was diagnosed, and the feasibility of the neutron–density porosity overlay method was illustrated. According to the response characteristics of neutron, density and other porosity logging in shale gas reservoirs, a model for calculating gas saturation of shale gas was established by core experimental calibration based on the density logging value, the density porosity and the difference between density porosity and neutron porosity, by means of multiple methods (e.g. the dual-porosity overlay method by optimizing the best overlay coefficient. This new method avoids the effect of low resistivity, and thus can provide normal calculated gas saturation of high-quality shale gas reservoirs. It works well in practical application. This new method provides a technical support for the calculation of shale gas reserves in this area. Keywords: Shale gas, Gas saturation, Low resistivity, Non-electric logging, Volume density, Compensated neutron, Overlay method, Reserves calculation, Sichuan Basin, Jiaoshiba shale gas field

  15. An improved method for the real time calculation of soil resistance during driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, R.J. van; Daniels, B.J.; Middendorp, P.

    1996-01-01

    The limited time between two successive blows during pile driving has resulted in the development of simple methods to calculate the soil resistance real time. These methods are called direct methods like the Case (Goble) method and Impedance method. Other more time consuming methods are called

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  17. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of. S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic ...

  18. Antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity factors in Staphylococcus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious problem in dairy animals suffering from mastitis. In the present study, the distribution of mastitic MRSA and antibiotic resistance was studied in 107 strains of S. aureus isolated from milk samples from 195 infected udders. The characterizations pathogenic ...

  19. Risk factors for cefotaxime resistance in children with pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Made Sucipta; Ida Bagus Subanada; Samik Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a health problem in developing countries, often caused by bacterial agents. The widespread use of cefotaxime, a third-generation of cephalosporin to increased incidence of resistance to this antibiotic. Several studies have reported on risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime. Objective To oidentify risk factors for cefoxime resistence in children with pneumonia. Methods We performed a case-control study at Sanglah Hospital between January 2006-Dec...

  20. Normalized resistance interpretation, the NRI method: Review of NRI disc test applications and guide to calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvall, Göran; Smith, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method was developed in response to a call for a method to calibrate disc diffusion test results making inter-laboratory comparisons possible. The main use of NRI so far has been in individual laboratories, in medical and veterinary medicine and in the field of marine microbiology. The applications of NRI for disc diffusion tests are reviewed and, in addition, a detailed description of the calculation procedure is presented. NRI provides a fully objective method for ECOFF calculations of disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test results. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Calculations of resistivity and superconducting T/sub c/ in transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.B.; Beaulac, T.P.; Khan, F.S.; Butler, W.H.; Pinski, F.J.; Swihart, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of various electron-phonon effects which have been calculated for the metals Nb, Mo, Ta, Pd, and Cu. These effects include the mass enhancement λ, superconducting T/sub c/, electrical and thermal resistivity, Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance, and the successfully tested predictions of linewidths γ 0 of phonons. The calculations use local density approximations (LDA) energy bands, experimental phonons, and the rigid muffin tin (RMT) approximation. Mesh size noise is less than 1% and the Bloch-Boltzmann integral equation has been solved to unprecedented accuracy

  2. Calculation of Dingle temperatures and residual resistivity in dilute Al Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.A.; Lawrence, W.E.

    1981-03-01

    We have calculated the Dingle temperatures and residual resistivity for dilute Al Li using a realistic band structure and Fermi surface for aluminum, and a self consistent calculation of the bound and scattering state wavefunctions of the lithium impurity. We have examined the effect of the position of the Li impurity, and found that substitutionally it is a strong S-wave scatterer, while interstitially it is a strong P-wave scatterer (each position results in two bound states). In the former case the Dingle temperatures vary considerably over the 3d zone Fermi surface; in the latter case they do not. The resistivities are similar for the two cases. We have also examined the effect of nonlocal exchange and correlation. The Dingle temperatures typically change by 10% or 20%, but their anisotropy is not affected significantly

  3. Resistance profiles and risk factors of resistant microorganisms in bacteraemia of abdominal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Jaramago, J; Armero Ibáñez, R; Camarena Miñana, J J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M

    2017-11-01

    The presence of resistant microorganisms is a major cause of failure in initial empirical antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the resistance profile of microorganisms that cause bacteraemia of abdominal origin and to identify whether the previous use of antibiotics and the place of acquisition of bacteraemia are risk factors associated with the presence of resistant organisms. A clinical, observational, epidemiological, retrospective cohort study was conducted with all the adult patients admitted to a university hospital from 2011-2013. Antimicrobial resistance profiles were described and a 95% confidence interval chi-square test was used to determine whether the variables studied were risk factors in the isolation of resistant microorganisms. Of the 1245 patients with bacteraemia, 212 (17%) presented bacteraemia of abdominal origin. The resistance profile highlights the incidence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (50%), coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to linezolid (20.58%), enterococci resistant to vancomycin (3.12%), Escherichia coli resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (9.9%) and fluoroquinolones (35.64%), Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (8.33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to fluoroquinolones and carbapenem (25% and 25% respectively) and Acinetobacter baumanii resistant to fluoroquinolones and carbapenem (100% and 100% respectively), Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole (11.11%), single Candida krusei isolate resistant to fluconazole and Candida parapsilosis resistant to echinocandins (12.5%). In our study, previous use of antibiotics had a statistically significant association with the isolation of resistant microorganisms (P=.013) but not the place of acquisition of bacteraemia (P=.239). Establishing the incidence of resistant organisms can improve empirical antimicrobial therapy in patients with bacteraemia of abdominal origin. Previous use of

  4. Development of MATLAB Scripts for the Calculation of Thermal Manikin Regional Resistance Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A software tool has been developed via MATLAB® scripts to reduce the amount of repetitive and time-consuming calculations that are...the evaporative resistance of clothing using a sweating manikin. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2010. 3. ISO 9920. Ergonomics of...producing heat at the rate of 58 W/m2) comfortable in an environment at 21°C, air movement 0.1 m/s, or roughly the insulation of a heavy business suit

  5. Criticality calculation for cluster fuel bundles using monte carlo generated grey dancoff factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Heon; Cho, Nam Zin

    1999-01-01

    The grey Dancoff factor calculated by Monte Carlo method is applied to the criticality calculation for cluster fuel bundles. Dancoff factors for five symmetrically different pin positions of CANDU37 and CANFLEX fuel bundles in full three-dimensional geometry are calculated by Monte Carlo method. The concept of equivalent Dancoff factor is introduced to use the grey Dancoff factor in the resonance calculation based on equivalence theorem. The equivalent Dancoff factor which is based on the realistic model produces an exact fuel collision probability and can be used in the resonance calculation just as the black Dancoff factor. The infinite multiplication factors based on the black Dancoff factors calculated by collision probability or Monte Carlo method are overestimated by about 2mk for normal condition and 4mk for void condition of CANDU37 and CANFLEX fuel bundles in comparison with those based on the equivalent Dancoff factors

  6. New engineering safety factors for Loviisa NPP core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuopanportti, Jaakko; Saarinen, Simo; Lahtinen, Tuukka; Ekstroem, Karoliina

    2017-01-01

    In Loviisa NPP, there are two limiting thermal margins called the enthalpy rise margin and the linear heat rate margin that are monitored during normal operation. Engineering safety factors are applied in determination of both of these factors. The factors take into account the effect of various manufacturing tolerances, impact of the irradiation and simulation uncertainties on the local heat rate and on the enthalpy of the coolant. The engineering factors were re-evaluated during 2015 and the factors were approved by the Finnish radiation and nuclear safety authority in 2016. The re-evaluation was performed by considering all of the identified phenomena that affect the local heat rate or the enthalpy of the coolant. This paper summarizes the work that was performed during the re-evaluation of the engineering safety factors and presents the results for each uncertainty component. The new engineering safety factors are 1.115 for the linear heat rate and 1.100 for the enthalpy rise margin when the old factors were 1.12 and 1.16, respectively. The new factors improve the fuel economy by about 1%.

  7. Factors that cause trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent.

  8. The Calculated and Measured Resistance for Splices between Conductors in a MICE Superconducting Coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.; Dietderich, Dan; Higley, Hugh; Pan, Heng; Tam, Darren; Trillaud, Federic; Wang, Li; Wu, Hong; Xu, Feng Yu

    2009-03-19

    The resistance of superconducting joints within MICE coils is an important issue particularly for the coupling coils. The MICE tracker solenoids have only two superconducting joints in the three spectrometer set (end coil 1, the center coil and end coil 2). The AFC magnets may have only a single joint within the coil. The coupling coils may have as many as fifteen joints within the coil, due to relatively short piece lengths of the superconductor. LBNL and ICST looked at three types of coil joints. They are: (1) cold fusion butt joints, (2) side-by-side lap joints, and (3) up-down lap joints. A theoretical calculation of the joint resistance was done at LBNL and checked by ICST. After looking at the theoretical resistance of the three types of joints, it was decided that the cold welded butt joint was not an attractive alternative for joints within a MICE superconducting magnet coil. Side-by-side and up-down lap joints were fabricated at ICST using two types of soft solder between the conductors. These conductor joints were tested at LBNL at liquid helium temperatures over a range of magnetic fields. The joint resistance was compared with the theoretical calculations. Measurements of splice strength were also made at 300 K and 77 K.

  9. Residual resistivity of (Ga,Mn)As alloys from ab initio calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Weinberger, P.

    272-276, č. 3 (2004), s. 1987-1988 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943; GA ČR GA202/01/0764 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : magnetic semiconductors * residual resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2004

  10. Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment. Here, we attempt to define the ecological and evolutionary environmental factors that contribute to resistance development and transmission. Although mobilization of resistance genes likely occurs continuously, the great majority of such genetic events do not lead to the establishment of novel resistance factors in bacterial populations, unless there is a selection pressure for maintaining them or their fitness costs are negligible. To enable preventative measures it is therefore critical to investigate under what conditions and to what extent environmental selection for resistance takes place. In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans. © FEMS 2017.

  11. Environmental factors influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Antibiotic resistance and its wider implications present us with a growing healthcare crisis. Recent research points to the environment as an important component for the transmission of resistant bacteria and in the emergence of resistant pathogens. However, a deeper understanding of the evolutionary and ecological processes that lead to clinical appearance of resistance genes is still lacking, as is knowledge of environmental dispersal barriers. This calls for better models of how resistance genes evolve, are mobilized, transferred and disseminated in the environment. Here, we attempt to define the ecological and evolutionary environmental factors that contribute to resistance development and transmission. Although mobilization of resistance genes likely occurs continuously, the great majority of such genetic events do not lead to the establishment of novel resistance factors in bacterial populations, unless there is a selection pressure for maintaining them or their fitness costs are negligible. To enable preventative measures it is therefore critical to investigate under what conditions and to what extent environmental selection for resistance takes place. In addition, understanding dispersal barriers is not only key to evaluate risks, but also to prevent resistant pathogens, as well as novel resistance genes, from reaching humans. PMID:29069382

  12. Calculating of Coupling Factor of Microwave Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Xiaohao; Li, Derun; Zheng, Shuxin

    2005-01-01

    To design the coupler of a designing microwave electron gun, we use the "energy method" proposed by Derun Li, et al. The intrinsic Q of the electron gun cavity is very high: about 20000. The method calculates the intrinsic and external Q values of a cavity coupled to a waveguide using MAFIA code in time domain. The comparisons between simulation and experimental results are given for a set of different coupling iris apertures and height. The result shows that "energy method" works efficiently for high Q cavities.

  13. Community factors in the development of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    The global impact of antibiotic resistance is potentially devastating, threatening to set back progress against certain infectious diseases to the pre-antibiotic era. Although most antibiotic-resistant bacteria originally emerged in hospitals, drug-resistant strains are becoming more common in the community. Factors that facilitate the development of resistance within the community can be categorized as behavioral or environmental/policy. Behavioral factors include inappropriate use of antibiotics and ineffective infection control and hygiene practices. Environmental/policy factors include the continued use of antibiotics in agriculture and the lack of new drug development. A multifaceted approach that includes behavioral strategies in the community and the political will to make difficult regulatory decisions will help to minimize the problem of antimicrobial resistance globally.

  14. Infinite Multiplication Factor and Temperature Coefficient of MSR Calculated by HELIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, Z.; Necas, V.; Darilak, P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a correct model of an elementary MSR cell calculated by HELIOS. Infinite multiplication factor and temperature coefficient of reactivity were calculated for various fuel channel diameters (Authors)

  15. Correction of the heat loss method for calculating clothing real evaporative resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Zhang, Chengjiao; Lu, Yehu

    2015-08-01

    In the so-called isothermal condition (i.e., Tair [air temperature]=Tmanikin [manikin temperature]=Tr [radiant temperature]), the actual energy used for moisture evaporation detected by most sweating manikins was underestimated due to the uncontrolled fabric 'skin' temperature Tsk,f (i.e., Tsk,fclothing real evaporative resistance. In this study, correction of the real evaporative heat loss from the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system was proposed and experimentally validated on a 'Newton' sweating manikin. The real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the nude fabric 'skin' calculated by the corrected heat loss method was also reported and compared with that by the mass loss method. Results revealed that, depending on the types of tested clothing, different amounts of heat were drawn from the ambient environment. In general, a greater amount of heat was drawn from the ambient environment by the wet fabric 'skin'-clothing system in lower thermal insulation clothing than that in higher insulation clothing. There were no significant differences between clothing real evaporative resistances calculated by the corrected heat loss method and those by the mass loss method. It was therefore concluded that the correction method proposed in this study has been successfully validated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Images on Surface Potential and Resistance Calculation of Grounding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS, A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the grounding systems with a two layers soil, the calculation of the surface potential using the image method is sometimes impossible due to singularities, avoiding researchers to use the method for electrodes in the bottom layer. In the literature this problem solution is refereed as unreliable or solved with other more complex methods. This paper presents a new approach to calculate the surface potentials in a two. layer soil, for electrodes in the bottom layer, when images are at surface. The singularities in computing surface voltage, when the first image upwards lies at surface, are analysed and it's shown that a small change in top layer thickness allows an approximate solution. Surface potentials due to grid conductor are also considered and the values of resistance are compared with those from other methodologies. Singularities for a ground rod that crosses the two layers are also treated. The obtained values of resistance are not satisfactory, due to lower segments images that overlap the upper segments. This paper also proposes shifting the surface of the upper part of the ground rod, in the upper layer, or taking the modulus of the mutual resistance, to overcome this difficulty.

  17. Risk factors for multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB) is becoming a major threat to tuberculosis control programs in Ethiopia. Objectives: To determine risk factors of MDR-TB patients in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods: Case-control study was conducted from May 2013 to January 2014. Resistance to ...

  18. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  19. Developing a Repeatable Methodology to Calculate Retrograde Planning Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    distribution system. Bottlenecks and stockpiles should be minimized, in-demand unserviceable items should be rapidly repaired when economically appropriate...AO area of operation AOR area of responsibility APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service ARCENT U.S. Army Central Command ASA...Accordingly, the Class V planning factors are based only on one conflict. These figures will need to be revisited in the event of a future conflict to

  20. 47 CFR 36.604 - Calculation of the rural growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of the rural growth factor. 36.604..., REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Universal Service Fund General § 36.604 Calculation of the rural growth factor. The Rural Growth Factor (RGF) is equal to the sum of...

  1. E. coli Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Common Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadoon, Raheel Jahangir; Jalal-ud-Din, Mir; Khan, Sher Ali

    2015-11-01

    To determine the frequency of E. coli resistance to ciprofloxacin and common factors leading to it among patients presenting with urinary tract infection. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Medicine, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from December 2011 to June 2012. A total of 166 patients, > 18 years of age of both gender, who presented with features of UTI and had urine culture positive for E.coli were included in the study. The urine samples were further tested for ciprofloxacin resistance and the patients were further checked for the common factors leading to E.coli resistance to ciprofloxacin. Among 166 patients, 41 were male and 125 were female patients. Sixty-six (39.8%) E. coli isolates showed ciprofloxacin resistance. Male gender (p-value 0.001), previous history of recurrent UTI (p = 0.008, OR = 2.37), history of prior use of ciprofloxacin (p = 0.018, OR = 2.16) and history of catheterization (p = 0.005, OR = 4.80) were independent risk factors found in this study for the development of ciprofloxacin resistant UTIs. Ciprofloxacin resistance rates of E.coli were high at over 39.8%. The risk factors that affected the ciprofloxacin resistance rates of E.coli were prior use of ciprofloxacin, recurrent UTI, previous catheterization and male gender. Ciprofloxacin should be prescribed cautiously in patients with these risk factors and urine culture and sensitivity test should be performed for optimal treatment.

  2. Factors associated with use of slip-resistant shoes in US limited-service restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K; Corns, Helen L; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melanye J; Perry, Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Slips and falls are a leading cause of injury at work. Several studies have indicated that slip-resistant shoes can reduce the risk of occupational slips and falls. Few studies, however, have examined the determinants of slip-resistant shoe use. This study examined the individual and workplace factors associated with slip-resistant shoe use. 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in the USA participated in a study of workplace slipping. Demographic and job characteristic information about each participant was collected. Restaurant managers provided information on whether slip-resistant shoes were provided and paid for by the employer and whether any guidance was given regarding slip-resistant shoe use when they were not provided. Kitchen floor coefficient of friction was measured. Slip-resistant status of the shoes was determined by noting the presence of a 'slip-resistant' marking on the sole. Poisson regression with robust SE was used to calculate prevalence ratios. 320 participants wore slip-resistant shoes (67%). In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lowest in 15-19-year age group. Women were more likely to wear slip-resistant shoes (prevalence ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31). The prevalence of slip-resistant shoe use was lower when no guidance regarding slip-resistant shoes was given as compared to when they were provided by the employer (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.79). Education level, job tenure and the mean coefficient of friction had no significant effects on the use of slip-resistant shoes. Provision of slip-resistant shoes was the strongest predictor of their use. Given their effectiveness and low cost, employers should consider providing slip-resistant shoes at work.

  3. Water vapour diffusion resistance factor of Phyllostachys edulis (Moso bamboo)

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, P.; Latif, E.; Chang, W.-S.; Ansell, M.P.; Lawrence, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the water vapour diffusion resistance factor of the Moso bamboo specimens in all directions of the cylindrical coordinate system at both internode parts and node parts. The measurement was conducted by the dry cup method. Major findings included three aspects. The water vapour diffusion resistance factor results of Moso bamboo specimens present a decreasing trend from the external surface to the internal surface in the radial directions. This fact may be attributed to the ...

  4. Resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots calculated by boundary element method

    CERN Document Server

    Tsutsui, H

    2002-01-01

    In order to calculate the resistive wall impedance of the LHC beam screen without slots, the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used. The result at 1 GHz is Re(ZL/L) = 6.689×10−3 Ω/m, Re(Zx/L) = 1.251 Ω/m2, Re(Zy/L) = 1.776 Ω/m2, andRe(2Z0,2 cos/kL) = −0.525 Ω/m2, assuming σ = 5.8 × 109 /Ωm.

  5. Calculation of calibration factors and layout criteria for gamma scanning of waste drums from nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inder Schmitten, W.; Sohnius, B.; Wehner, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper present a procedure to calculate calibration factors for converting the measured gamma rate of waste drums into activity content and a layout and free release measurement criterion for waste drums. A computer program is developed that simulates drum scanning technique, which calculates calibration factors and eliminates laborious experimental measurements. The calculated calibration factors exhibit good agreement with experimentally determined values. By checking the calculated calibration factors for trial equipment layouts (including the waste drum and the scanning facility) using the layout and free release measurement criterion, a layout can be achieved that clearly determines whether there can be free release of a waste drum

  6. Development of guide thimble stress peaking factor calculation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Ki; Jeon, Sang Youn; Kim, Jae Ik; Jeon, Kyeong Lak; Kim, Kyu Tae

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Assembly for light water reactor which provides for 236 fuel rods consists of guide tubes, spacer grids, top/bottom nozzles. The guide tubes form the main structural components in conjunction with the grids, act as the main load carrying members of fuel assembly and serve as a support structure and a guide path for the control element, neutron sources and incore instruments after they are secured to upper and lower end areas. Top/bottom nozzles make the end parts of fuel assembly. And the spacer girds maintain the fuel rod array by providing positive lateral restraint to the fuel rod to the fuel rod but only frictional restraint to axial fuel rod motion. When the fuel assembly is in reactor, the tensional and compressional forces are applied to guide thimble through the top nozzle. The stresses vary with the location of guide thimble on the top nozzle plate since the different flow plate thickness between center and outer areas causes a different flexibility. The relative stress shall be considered during designing this kind of structure. And it is useful to know a coefficient to represent this relative stress difference and this value is called stress peaking factor

  7. Aluminum resistance transcription factor 1 (ART1) contributes to natural variation in rice aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factors (TFs) mediate stress resistance indirectly via physiological mechanisms driven by the array of genes they regulate. Therefore, when studying TF-mediated stress resistance, it is important to understand how TFs interact with different genetic backgrounds. Here, we fine-mapped th...

  8. Analytical and numerical calculations of resistive wall impedances for thin beam pipe structures at low frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermayer, U., E-mail: u.niedermayer@gsi.de [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-09-21

    The resistive wall impedance is one of the main sources for beam instabilities in synchrotrons and storage rings. The fast ramped SIS18 synchrotron at GSI and the projected SIS100 synchrotron for FAIR both employ thin (0.3 mm) stainless steel beam pipes in order to reduce eddy current effects. The lowest betatron sidebands are at about 100 kHz, which demands accurate impedance predictions in the low frequency (LF) range where the beam pipe and possibly also the structures behind the pipe are the dominating impedance sources. The longitudinal and transverse resistive wall impedances of a circular multi-layer pipe are calculated analytically using the field matching technique. We compare the impedances obtained from a radial wave model, which corresponds to the setup used in bench measurements, with the axial wave model, which corresponds to an actual beam moving with relativistic velocity. For thin beam pipes the induced wall current and the corresponding shielding properties of the pipe are important. In both models the wall current is obtained analytically. The characteristic frequencies for the onset of the wall current are calculated from equivalent lumped element circuits corresponding to the radial model. For more complex structures, like the SIS100 beam pipe, we use a numerical method, in which the impedance is obtained from the total power loss. The method is validated by the analytic expressions for circular beam pipes.

  9. Comparison of Different Numerical Methods for Quality Factor Calculation of Nano and Micro Photonic Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2014-01-01

    Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed.......Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed....

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in Swiss laying hens, prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisberger, M; Gobeli, S; Hoop, R; Dewulf, J; Perreten, V; Regula, G

    2011-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern to public health, and food-producing animals are known to be a potential source for transmission of resistant bacteria to humans. As legislation of the European Union requires to ban conventional cages for the housing of laying hens on the one hand, and a high food safety standard for eggs on the other hand, further investigations about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in alternative housing types are required. In this study, we determined antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria from 396 cloacal swabs from 99 Swiss laying hen farms among four alternative housing types during a cross-sectional study. On each farm, four hens were sampled and exposure to potential risk factors was identified with a questionnaire. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined using broth microdilution in Escherichia coli (n=371) for 18 antimicrobials and in Enterococcus faecalis (n=138) and Enterococcus faecium (n=153) for 16 antimicrobials. All antimicrobial classes recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for E. coli and enterococci were included in the resistance profile. Sixty per cent of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to all of the considered antimicrobials and 30% were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, 33% of the strains were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and 40% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, whereas in E. faecium these figures were 14% and 39% respectively. Risk factor analyses were carried out for bacteria species and antimicrobials with a prevalence of resistance between 15% and 85%. In these analyses, none of the considered housing and management factors showed a consistent association with the prevalence of resistance for more than two combinations of bacteria and antimicrobial. Therefore we conclude that the impact of the considered housing and management practices on the egg producing farms on resistance in laying hens is low. © 2010

  11. An equivalence relation and grey Dancoff factor calculated by monte Carlo method for irregular fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Heon

    2000-02-01

    The equivalence theorem providing a relation between a homogeneous and a heterogeneous medium has been used in the resonance calculation for the heterogeneous system. The accuracy of the resonance calculation based on the equivalence theorem depends on how accurately the fuel collision probability is expressed by the rational terms. The fuel collision probability is related to the Dancoff factor in closely packed lattices. The calculation of the Dancoff factor is one of the most difficult problems in the core analysis because the actual configuration of fuel elements in the lattice is very complex. Most reactor physics codes currently used are based on the roughly calculated black Dancoff factor, where total cross section of the fuel is assumed to be infinite. Even the black Dancoff factors have not been calculated accurately though many methods have been proposed. The equivalence theorem based on the black Dancoff factor causes some errors inevitably due to the approximations involved in the Dancoff factor calculation and the derivation of the fuel collision probability, but they have not been evaluated seriously before. In this study, a Monte Carlo program - G-DANCOFF - was developed to calculate not only the traditional black Dancoff factor but also grey Dancoff factor where the medium is described realistically. G-DANCOFF calculates the Dancoff factor based on its collision probability definition in an arbitrary arrangement of cylindrical fuel pins in full three-dimensional fashion. G-DANCOFF was verified by comparing the black Dancoff factors calculated for the geometries where accurate solutions are available. With 100,000 neutron histories, the calculated results by G-DANCOFF were matched within maximum 1% and in most cases less than 0.2% with previous results. G-DANCOFF also provides graphical information on particle tracks which makes it possible to calculate the Dancoff factor independently. The effects of the Dancoff factor on the criticality calculation

  12. Recessive Resistance to Plant Viruses: Potential Resistance Genes Beyond Translation Initiation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Hashimoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of plant viruses to propagate their genomes in host cells depends on many host factors. In the absence of an agrochemical that specifically targets plant viral infection cycles, one of the most effective methods for controlling viral diseases in plants is taking advantage of the host plant’s resistance machinery. Recessive resistance is conferred by a recessive gene mutation that encodes a host factor critical for viral infection. It is a branch of the resistance machinery and, as an inherited characteristic, is very durable. Moreover, recessive resistance may be acquired by a deficiency in a negative regulator of plant defense responses, possibly due to the autoactivation of defense signaling. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF 4E and eIF4G and their isoforms are the most widely exploited recessive resistance genes in several crop species, and they are effective against a subset of viral species. However, the establishment of efficient, recessive resistance-type antiviral control strategies against a wider range of plant viral diseases requires genetic resources other than eIF4Es. In this review, we focus on recent advances related to antiviral recessive resistance genes evaluated in model plants and several crop species. We also address the roles of next-generation sequencing and genome editing technologies in improving plant genetic resources for recessive resistance-based antiviral breeding in various crop species.

  13. PLATON SQUEEZE: a tool for the calculation of the disordered solvent contribution to the calculated structure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    The completion of a crystal structure determination is often hampered by the presence of embedded solvent molecules or ions that are seriously disordered. Their contribution to the calculated structure factors in the least-squares refinement of a crystal structure has to be included in some way. Traditionally, an atomistic solvent disorder model is attempted. Such an approach is generally to be preferred, but it does not always lead to a satisfactory result and may even be impossible in cases where channels in the structure are filled with continuous electron density. This paper documents the SQUEEZE method as an alternative means of addressing the solvent disorder issue. It conveniently interfaces with the 2014 version of the least-squares refinement program SHELXL [Sheldrick (2015). Acta Cryst. C71. In the press] and other refinement programs that accept externally provided fixed contributions to the calculated structure factors. The PLATON SQUEEZE tool calculates the solvent contribution to the structure factors by back-Fourier transformation of the electron density found in the solvent-accessible region of a phase-optimized difference electron-density map. The actual least-squares structure refinement is delegated to, for example, SHELXL. The current versions of PLATON SQUEEZE and SHELXL now address several of the unnecessary complications with the earlier implementation of the SQUEEZE procedure that were a necessity because least-squares refinement with the now superseded SHELXL97 program did not allow for the input of fixed externally provided contributions to the structure-factor calculation. It is no longer necessary to subtract the solvent contribution temporarily from the observed intensities to be able to use SHELXL for the least-squares refinement, since that program now accepts the solvent contribution from an external file (.fab file) if the ABIN instruction is used. In addition, many twinned structures containing disordered solvents are now also

  14. Calculation of the Nucleon Axial Form Factor Using Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron S. [Fermilab; Hill, Richard J. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Kronfeld, Andreas S. [Fermilab; Li, Ruizi [Indiana U.; Simone, James N. [Fermilab

    2016-10-14

    The nucleon axial form factor is a dominant contribution to errors in neutrino oscillation studies. Lattice QCD calculations can help control theory errors by providing first-principles information on nucleon form factors. In these proceedings, we present preliminary results on a blinded calculation of $g_A$ and the axial form factor using HISQ staggered baryons with 2+1+1 flavors of sea quarks. Calculations are done using physical light quark masses and are absolutely normalized. We discuss fitting form factor data with the model-independent $z$ expansion parametrization.

  15. Related Factors of Insulin Resistance in Korean Children: Adiposity and Maternal Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Sook Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased adiposity and unhealthy lifestyle augment the risk for type 2 diabetes in children with familial predisposition. Insulin resistance (IR is an excellent clinical marker for identifying children at high risk for type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to investigate parental, physiological, behavioral and socio-economic factors related to IR in Korean children. This study is a cross-sectional study using data from 111 children aged 7 years and their parents. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated using fasting glucose and insulin level as a marker of IR. All children’s adiposity indices (r = 0.309–0.318, all P-value = 0.001 and maternal levels of fasting insulin (r = 0.285, P-value = 0.003 and HOMA-IR (r = 0.290, P-value = 0.002 were positively correlated with children’s HOMA-IR level. There was no statistical difference of children’s HOMA-IR level according to children’s lifestyle habits and socioeconomic status of families. An increase of 1 percentage point in body fat was related to 2.7% increase in children’s HOMA-IR (P-value < 0.001 and an increase of 1% of maternal level of HOMA-IR was related to 0.2% increase in children’s HOMA-IR (P-value = 0.002. This study shows that children’s adiposity and maternal IR are positively associated with children’s IR.

  16. Calculating the Lightning Protection System Downconductors' Grounding Resistance at Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.

    2012-01-01

    A new Lightning Protection System (LPS) was designed and built at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B), at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, which consists of a catenary wire system (at a height of about 181 meters above ground level) supported by three insulators installed atop three towers in a triangular configuration. Nine downconductors (each about 250 meters long) are connected to the catenary wire system. Each downconductor is connected to a 7.62-meter-radius circular counterpoise conductor with six equally spaced, 6-meter-long vertical grounding rods. Grounding requirements at LC39B call for all underground and aboveground metallic piping, enclosures, raceways, and cable trays, within 7.62 meters of the counterpoise, to be bonded to the counterpoise, which results in a complex interconnected grounding system, given the many metallic piping, raceways, and cable trays that run in multiple directions around LC39B. The complexity of this grounding system makes the fall-of-potential method, which uses multiple metallic rods or stakes, unsuitable for measuring the grounding impedances of the downconductors. To calculate the grounding impedance of the downconductors, an Earth Ground Clamp (EGC) (a stakeless device for measuring grounding impedance) and an Alternative Transient Program (ATP) model of the LPS are used. The EGC is used to measure the loop impedance plus the grounding impedance of each downconductor, and the ATP model is used to calculate the loop impedance of each downconductor circuit. The grounding resistance of the downconductors is then calculated by subtracting the ATP calculated loop impedances from the EGC measurements.

  17. Calculation of intensity factors using weight function theory for a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, In Ho; An, Deuk Man

    2012-01-01

    In fracture mechanics, the weight function can be used for calculating stress intensity factors. In this paper, a two dimensional electroelastic analysis is performed on a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material with an open crack. A plane strain formulation of the piezoelectric problem is solved within the Leknitskii formalism. Weight function theory is extended to piezoelectric materials. The stress intensity factors and electric displacement intensity factor are calculated by the weight function theory

  18. Survey of anthelmintic resistance on Danish horse farms, using 5 different methods of calculating faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection of resis......This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection...... of resistance in sheep was the most sensitive procedure for detecting resistance. Using this method benzimidazole resistance was detected on 33 of 42 farms (79%) examined. Pyrantel was tested on 15 farms and FECR tests indicate resistance on 3 (30%) farms. On 2 farms on which resistance to pyrantel was detected...... resistance to benzimidazoles was also detected. On one of 16 farms examined ivermectin resistance was indicated at Day 14 but not at Day 19. On the 15 remaining farms ivermectin was effective. Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in Danish horse herds it is recommended that tests...

  19. Quantum Mechanical Calculation of the Heat of Solution and Residual Resistance of Gold in Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun

    An attempt is made to calculate the heat of solution of gold in silver on the basis of-the quantum theory-of metals. These two metals are chosen because they have the same atomic volume, and therefore are the simplest case. The steps in the argument are as follows : Suppose that a gold atom replaces a silver atom in the lattice. Then, to a certain approximation, one can represent the substitution of the silver ion by a gold ion, in its effect on the electrons, by a " potential hole " of depth ΔE and radius r0. This potential hole will alter the energy of the conduction electrons. To a first approximation the change in energy is just ΔE, which would give zero heat of mixing. A second-order term of order (ΔE)2/EF always gives a positive heat of mixing ; EF is here the Fermi energy. This term is calculated exactly by wave-mechanical methods ; it gives 0.69 ev. per atom. The same calculation- shows, however, that there is a concentration of charge in the gold atom in excess of that in the surrounding silver atoms ; this alters the potential in which the electrons move, so that a self-consistent calculation is required to obtain the true energy. For this the labour required would be almost prohibitive; therefore we use instead the Thomas-Fermi method and obtain 0.45 ev. We thus find 0.15 ev. per atom for the heat of solution, which compares well with the observed value 0.13 ev. With the help of the potential obtained with the Thomas-Fermi method the residual resistance of gold in silver is found to be 0.16 micro ohm cm. for 1% solution. The considerable discrepancy as compared with the experimental value 0.38 seems closely connected with very similar discrepancies found in other theoretical work on temperature resistance of the noble metals.

  20. Calculation of Metallization Resistivity and Thickness for MedAustron Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Stadlbauer, T

    2011-01-01

    The MedAustron facility, to be built in Wiener Neustadt (Austria), will provide protons and ions for both cancer therapy and research [1]. Different types of kicker magnets will be used in the facility. The kicker magnets are outside machine vacuum: each kicker magnet has a ceramic beam chamber whose inner surface is metalized. The resistivity and thickness of the metallization are chosen such that the induced eddy currents, resulting from the pulsed kicker magnetic field, do not unduly affect the rise/fall times or homogeneity of the magnetic field. A comparison of an analytical calculation and measurement is reported for the effect of metallization of a ceramic chamber in an existing kicker system at CERN. Conclusions concerning the metallization of the ceramic chambers for the MedAustron kicker magnets are presented.

  1. Correlation between Quantumchemically Calculated LUMO Energies and the Electrochemical Window of Ionic Liquids with Reduction-Resistant Anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Buijs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum chemical calculations showed to be an excellent method to predict the electrochemical window of ionic liquids with reduction-resistant anions. A good correlation between the LUMO energy and the electrochemical window is observed. Surprisingly simple but very fast semiempirical calculations are in full record with density functional theory calculations and are a very attractive tool in the design and optimization of ionic liquids for specific purposes.

  2. A Preliminary Study on Calculation of Inter-Pebble Dancoff Factor in a Pebble Type Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Hong Chul; Kim, Soon Young; Noh, Jae Man; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The Dancoff factor is an entering probability of the neutron escaped from specific fuel kernel to another one without the interaction with moderators. Currently, Dancoff factors are mainly evaluated from stochastic methods, hence a research on analytical method is considerably insufficient in this field. In order to analytically evaluate Dancoff factor considering double-heterogeneous effect, inter-pebble and intra-pebble Dancoff factors should be calculated, respectively. Intra-pebble Dancoff factor related with the fuel kernels in one pebble was analyzed in past study. For the evaluation of inter-pebble Dancoff factor, fuel region to region Dancoff factor (FRDF) was defined and the method to calculate the FRDF is developed in this study. The result is compared with the calculation result of the MCNP5 code

  3. Variation among cardiovascular risk calculators in relative risk increases with identical risk factor increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G Michael; Nouri, Faeze; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael R; Vandermeer, Ben; McCormack, James

    2015-09-07

    Risk estimates for the same patient can vary substantially among cardiovascular risk calculators and the reasons are not fully explained. We compared the relative risk increases for consistent risk factors changes across different cardiovascular risk calculators. Five clinicians independently selected 16 calculators providing absolute risk estimations. Hypothetical patients were generated using a combination of seven risk factors [age, gender, smoking, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol and diabetes] dichotomized to high and low risk, generating 2(7) patients (128 total). Relative risk increases due to specific risk factors were determined and compared. The 16 selected calculators were from six countries, used 5- and 10-year predictions, and estimated CVD or coronary heart disease risk. Across the different calculators for non-diabetic patients, changing age from 50 to 70 produced average relative risk increases from 82 to 395%, gender (female to male) 35-225%, smoking status 31-118%, systolic blood pressure (120-160 mmHg) 16-124%, total cholesterol (4-7 mmol/L) 51-302% and HDL (1.3-0.8 mmol/L) 27-133%. Similar results were found among diabetic patients. Some calculators appeared to have consistently higher relative risk increases over multiple risk factors. Cardiovascular risk calculators weigh the same risk factors differently. For each risk factor, the relative risk increase from the calculator with the highest increase was generally three to eight times greater than the relative risk increase from the calculator with lowest increase. This likely contributes to some of the inconsistency in risk calculator estimation. It also limits the use of risk calculators in estimating the benefits of therapy.

  4. Risk factor analysis of equine strongyle resistance to anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sallé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices. Risk factors associated with reduced anthelmintic efficacy in equine strongyles were estimated across drugs using a marginal modelling approach. Results demonstrated ivermectin efficacy (96.3% ± 14.5% FECR, the inefficacy of fenbendazole (42.8% ± 33.4% FECR and an intermediate profile for pyrantel (90.3% ± 19.6% FECR. Risk factor analysis provided support to advocate for FEC-based treatment regimens combined with individual anthelmintic dosage and the enforcement of tighter biosecurity around horse introduction. The combination of these measures resulted in a decreased risk of drug resistance (relative risk of 0.57, p = 0.02. Premises falling under this typology also relied more on their veterinarians suggesting practitionners play an important role in the sustainability of anthelmintic usage. Similarly, drug resistance risk was halved in premises with frequent pasture rotation and with stocking rate below five horses/ha (relative risk of 0.53, p < 0.01. This is the first empirical risk factor analysis for anthelmintic resistance in equids. Our findings should guide the implementation of more sustained strongyle management in the field. Keywords: Horse, Nematode, Anthelmintic resistance, Strongyle, Cyathostomin

  5. Algorithm for calculating an availability factor for the inhalation of radioactive and chemical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report presents a method of calculating the availability of buried radioactive and nonradioactive materials via an inhalation pathway. Availability is the relationship between the concentration of a substance in the soil and the dose rate to a human receptor. Algorithms presented for calculating availabiliy of elemental inorganic substances are based on atmospheric enrichment factors; those presented for calculating availability of organic substances are based on vapor pressures. The basis, use, and limitations of the developed equations are discussed. 32 references, 5 tables

  6. Activated protein C resistance testing for factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadauke, Stephan; Khor, Bernard; Van Cott, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    Activated protein C resistance assays can detect factor V Leiden with high accuracy, depending on the method used. Factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxaban and direct thrombin inhibitors including dabigatran, argatroban, and bivalirudin can cause falsely normal results. Lupus anticoagulants can cause incorrect results in most current assays. Assays that include dilution into factor V-deficient plasma are needed to avoid interference from factor deficiencies or elevations, which can arise from a wide variety of conditions such as warfarin, liver dysfunction, or pregnancy. The pros and cons of the currently available assays are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Risk factors associated with multidrug resistant tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains is an important public health problem in developing world. We conducted this study to determine risk factors associated with MDR-TB and drug susceptibility pattern to second line drug among MDR TB patients in Tanzania. Methods: Unmatched case control ...

  8. Investigation and control of factors influencing resistance upset butt welding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, N.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the factors influencing the resistance upset butt welding process to obtain an understanding of the metal behaviour and welding process characteristics, so that new automotive steels can be welded with reduced development time and fewer failures in

  9. A Method for Correcting the Calibration Factor Used in the TLD Dose Calculation Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, S.; Jin, H.; Son, J.; Song, M.

    1999-01-01

    The method is described for estimating calibration factors used in the TLD neutron dose calculation algorithm in order to assess the personal neutron dose equivalent to radiation workers in a nuclear power plant in accordance with ICRP 60 recommendations. Neutron spectra were measured at several locations inside the reactor containment building of Youngkwang Unit 4 in Korea by using a Bonner multisphere spectrometer (BMS) system. Based on the fractional distribution of measured neutron fluence, four locations were selected for in situ TLD calibration. TL responses for the four selected locations were calculated from the measured spectra and the reported fit response function of TLD-600. TL responses were also measured with Harshaw type 8806 albedo dosemeters mounted on the water phantom, and compared with the calculated TL responses. From the responses measured with Harshaw 8806 TLDs thermal neutron fluence was evaluated, and used to adjust the neutron spectrum obtained with BMS. TL responses calculated for the adjusted neutron spectra showed an excellent consistency with the measured TL responses within 15% difference. Neutron calibration factors were calculated for the measured neutron spectra and the D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf spectrum, and used to calculate correction factors, which ranged from 2.38 to 11.18. The correction factor estimated in this way for the known neutron spectrum at an area can be conveniently used to calculate the personal dose equivalent at the area from the calibration factor obtained for a calibration neutron spectrum. (author)

  10. Calculation Method of Lateral Strengths and Ductility Factors of Constructions with Shear Walls of Different Ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyoshi; Nakao, Masato; Murakami, Masahide; Miyazawa, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    For seismic design, ductility-related force modification factors are named R factor in Uniform Building Code of U.S, q factor in Euro Code 8 and Ds (inverse of R) factor in Japanese Building Code. These ductility-related force modification factors for each type of shear elements are appeared in those codes. Some constructions use various types of shear walls that have different ductility, especially for their retrofit or re-strengthening. In these cases, engineers puzzle the decision of force modification factors of the constructions. Solving this problem, new method to calculate lateral strengths of stories for simple shear wall systems is proposed and named `Stiffness—Potential Energy Addition Method' in this paper. This method uses two design lateral strengths for each type of shear walls in damage limit state and safety limit state. Two lateral strengths of stories in both limit states are calculated from these two design lateral strengths for each type of shear walls in both limit states. Calculated strengths have the same quality as values obtained by strength addition method using many steps of load-deformation data of shear walls. The new method to calculate ductility factors is also proposed in this paper. This method is based on the new method to calculate lateral strengths of stories. This method can solve the problem to obtain ductility factors of stories with shear walls of different ductility.

  11. Risk factor analysis of equine strongyle resistance to anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé, G; Cortet, J; Bois, I; Dubès, C; Guyot-Sionest, Q; Larrieu, C; Landrin, V; Majorel, G; Wittreck, S; Woringer, E; Couroucé, A; Guillot, J; Jacquiet, P; Guégnard, F; Blanchard, A; Leblond, A

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices. Risk factors associated with reduced anthelmintic efficacy in equine strongyles were estimated across drugs using a marginal modelling approach. Results demonstrated ivermectin efficacy (96.3% ± 14.5% FECR), the inefficacy of fenbendazole (42.8% ± 33.4% FECR) and an intermediate profile for pyrantel (90.3% ± 19.6% FECR). Risk factor analysis provided support to advocate for FEC-based treatment regimens combined with individual anthelmintic dosage and the enforcement of tighter biosecurity around horse introduction. The combination of these measures resulted in a decreased risk of drug resistance (relative risk of 0.57, p = 0.02). Premises falling under this typology also relied more on their veterinarians suggesting practitionners play an important role in the sustainability of anthelmintic usage. Similarly, drug resistance risk was halved in premises with frequent pasture rotation and with stocking rate below five horses/ha (relative risk of 0.53, p risk factor analysis for anthelmintic resistance in equids. Our findings should guide the implementation of more sustained strongyle management in the field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of different boost transformations for the calculation of form factors in relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theussl, L.; Noguera, S.; Amghar, A.; Desplanques, B.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of different boost expressions, pertinent to the instant, front and point forms of relativistic quantum mechanics, is considered for the calculation of the ground-state form factor of a two-body system in simple scalar models. Results with a Galilean boost as well as an explicitly covariant calculation based on the Bethe-Salpeter approach are given for comparison. It is found that the present so-called point-form calculations of form factors strongly deviate from all the other ones. This suggests that the formalism which underlies them requires further elaboration. A proposition in this sense is made. (author)

  13. Acetylsalicylic acid resistance risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarek, Wioleta; Kasprzak, Michał; Obońska, Karolina; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Wiciński, Michał; Kubica, Aldona; Kubica, Jacek; Grześk, Grzegorz

    2015-10-01

    Despite its commonly recognized benefits in the cardiovascular disease setting, an issue of resistance to this drug has lately emerged. The aim of this research was assessment of the phenomenon of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) resistance and its risk factors in patients treated for myocardial infarction. This study is a post-hoc analysis of a previous prospective study with approximately 200 patients treated for myocardial infarction with a coated formulation of ASA. The population was divided into two subgroups according to the response to ASA. ASA responsiveness was assessed using the arachidonic acid-dependent platelet aggregation (ASPI-test). The measurements were performed using the technique of impedance aggregometry. The prevalence of aspirin resistance among the study population was 6.2%. All analyzed aggregometric parameters (including ASPI-test, adenosine diphosphate dependent platelet aggregation - ADP-test, bleeding time measurement) showed significant differences between both subgroups. ASA resistant patients had higher concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leukocytes (WBC) and platelets (PLT) but lower concentrations of hemoglobin (HGB). The temporal point analysis for both subgroups showed aspirin resistance incidence peak in patients at 9 months after myocardial infarction. The prevalence of aspirin resistance in our study population is comparable with rates reported in literature among patients with cardiovascular diseases. There is a possible relation between aspirin resistance and clopidogrel resistance. Presence did not affect the incidence of the clinical end-points. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Equivalence of computer codes for calculation of coincidence summing correction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, T.; Capogni, M.; Hult, M.; Hurtado, S.; Kastlander, J.; Lutter, G.; Lépy, M.-C.; Martinkovič, J.; Ramebäck, H.; Sima, O.; Tzika, F.; Vidmar, G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to check for equivalence of computer codes that can perform calculations of true coincidence summing correction factors. All calculations were performed for a set of well-defined detector and sample parameters, without any reference to empirical data. For a p-type detector model the application of different codes resulted in satisfactory agreement in the calculated correction factors. For high-efficiency geometries in combination with an n-type detector and a radionuclide emitting abundant X-rays the results were scattered. - Highlights: • Measured and calculated true coincidence corrections differ in recent study. • We checked for equivalence of computer codes that can perform such calculations. • Codes compared with each other for a set of well-defined detector and sample models. • Satisfactory agreement between the codes for a p-type detector model. • Large differences for an n-type detector model and X-ray emitting radionuclides

  15. Aspirin resistance: effect of clinical, biochemical and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Richard; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2011-05-01

    Aspirin is one of the cornerstones of treatment for cardiovascular disease. However, some patients may be 'resistant' to its effect: this is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality. Measuring response to aspirin is often difficult and there is no accepted definition of aspirin resistance. Many assays are available to test aspirin sensitivity but most are not specific to aspirin and the degree of agreement between different assays is poor. Each assay has its own advantages and disadvantages, and there is currently no one assay that can be recommended for routine clinical practise. There are also many potential modifiers of aspirin response including aspirin dose, non-compliance, disease severity, genetic factors, inflammation, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, smoking and interacting drugs. Treating the underlying cause may improve aspirin sensitivity but current data are contradictory with no large clinical trials that have addressed this. Further work is required in this area to determine whether and how aspirin resistance is important clinically, what the best measurement is phenotypically and how this should be used in clinical practise, and whether there are any genetic predisposing factors. This will require well designed prospective studies which take into account the numerous confounding factors that can modify aspirin resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The importance of the neutral region resistance for the calculation of the interface state in Pb/p-Si Schottky contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, M.E.; Akkilic, K.; Kilicoglu, T.

    2004-01-01

    We have fabricated H-terminated Pb/p-type Si Schottky contacts with and without the native oxide layer to explain the importance of the fact that the neutral region resistance value is considered in calculating the interface state density distribution from the nonideal forward bias current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The diodes with the native oxide layer (metal-insulating layer-semiconductor (MIS)) showed nonideal I-V behavior with an ideality factor value of 1.310 and the barrier height value of 0.746eV. An ideality factor value of 1.065 and a barrier height value of 0.743eV were obtained for the diodes without the native oxide layer (MS). At the same energy position near the top of the valance band, the calculated interface states density (Nss) values, obtained without taking into account the series resistance of the devices (i.e. without subtracting the voltage drop across the series resistance from the applied voltage values V) is almost one order of magnitude larger than Nss values obtained by taking into account the series resistance

  17. Calculating Optimum sowing factor: A tool to evaluate sowing strategies and minimize seedling production cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates how to use an excel spreadsheet as a decision-making tool to determine optimum sowing factor to minimize seedling production cost. Factors incorporated into the spreadsheet calculations include germination percentage, seeder accuracy, cost per seed, cavities per block, costs of handling, thinning, and transplanting labor, and more. In addition to...

  18. QCD sum rule calculation of the Isgur-Wise form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Within the QCD sum rule approach, we develop a formalism that enables one to calculate the form factors of the heavy-light mesons in the m Q → ∞ limit. It is shown that the behavior of the universal Isgur-Wise form factor is determined by the quark propagation function in imaginary time. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence of Aspirin Resistance in Diabetic Patients and its Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    HABIZAL, Nor Halwani; ABDUL HALIM, Sanihah; BHASKAR, Shalini; WAN BEBAKAR, Wan Mohamed; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aspirin resistance has posed a major dilemma in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke. There have been many factors that have been associated with aspirin resistance. Among these factors, the inflammatory processes of diabetes and glycaemic control have been significantly associated with aspirin resistance. Our study evaluated the prevalence of aspirin resistance and its associated factors.

  20. Risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in ocular cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junsung; Choi, Sangkyung

    2015-02-01

    To identify the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in patients undergoing cataract surgery. A total of 1,125 patients (1,125 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery at Veterans Health Service Medical Center from May 2011 to July 2012 were enrolled in this study. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the patients on the day of surgery before instillation of any ophthalmic solutions. The medical records of patients with positive coagulase negative staphylococcus (CNS) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) cultures were reviewed to determine factors associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. Of 734 CNS and S. aureus cultures, 175 (23.8%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, or moxifloxacin. Use of fluoroquinolone within 3 months and within 1 year before surgery, topical antibiotic use other than fluoroquinolone, systemic antibiotic use, recent hospitalization, ocular surgery, intravitreal injection and use of eyedrops containing benzalkonium chloride were significantly more frequent in resistant isolates than in susceptible isolates. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, ocular surgery (odds ratio [OR], 8.457), recent hospitalization (OR, 6.646) and use of fluoroquinolone within 3 months before surgery (OR, 4.918) were significant predictors of fluoroquinolone resistance, along with intravitreal injection (OR, 2.976), systemic antibiotic use (OR, 2.665), use of eyedrops containing benzalkonium chloride (OR, 2.323), use of fluoroquinolone within 1 year before surgery (OR, 1.943) and topical antibiotic use other than fluoroquinolone (OR, 1.673). Recent topical fluoroquinolone use, hospitalization and ocular surgery were significantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in CNS and S. aureus isolates from ocular culture.

  1. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Paska A.; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-κB inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity

  2. Low temperature resistivity, thermoelectricity, and power factor of Nb doped anatase TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaćimović, J.; Gaál, R.; Magrez, A.; Piatek, J.; Forró, L.; Nakao, S.; Hirose, Y.; Hasegawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The resistivity of a very high quality anatase TiO2 doped with 6% of Nb was measured from 300 K down to 40 mK. No sign of superconductivity was detected. Instead, a minute quantity of cation vacancies resulted in a Kondo scattering. Measurements of thermo-electric power and resistivity were extended up to 600 K. The calculated power factor has a peak value of 14 μW/(K2cm) at 350 K, which is comparable to that of Bi2Te3 [Venkatasubramanian et al., Nature 413, 597 (2001)], the archetype thermolectrics. Taking the literature value for the thermal conductivity of Nb doped TiO2 thin films, the calculated figure of merit (ZT) is in the range of 0.1 above 300 K. This value is encouraging for further engineering of the material in order to reach ZT of 1 suitable for high temperature thermoelectrics.

  3. Relationship between increased serum tumor necrosis factor levels and insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weimin; Li Jinliang; Huang Yongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and insulin resistance (IR) in patients with essential by pertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α and free insulin (fINS)levels were measured with RIA in 41 patients with essential hypertension and 38 controls. Insulin resistance was calculated with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: The serum TNF-α levels were significantly higher in patients with essential hypertension than those in the controls (P<0.001). The HOMA-IR was also significantly higher in hypertension group than that in controls (P<0.001). Serum TNF-α levels was positively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and SBP both in hypertension group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α level was increased in hypertensive patients and positively correlated with obesity and IR. (authors)

  4. A new approximating formula for calculating gamma-ray buildup factors in multilayer shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, A.; Chiron, M.; Nimal, J.C.; Diop, C.M.; Ridoux, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study proposes a new approximating formula for calculating gamma-ray buildup factors in multilayer shields. The formula combines the buildup factors of single-layer shields with products and quotients. The feasibility of the formula for reproducing the buildup factors was tested by using point isotropic buildup factors calculated with the SN1D discrete ordinates code as reference data. The dose buildup factors of single-, double-, and multilayer shields composed of water, aluminum, iron, and lead were calculated for a spherical geometry in the energy range between 10 MeV and 40 keV and for total thicknesses of up to 30 mean free paths. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the bound electron effect of Compton scattering (incoherent scattering), the coherent scattering, the pair production, and the secondary sources of bremsstrahlung and fluorescence. The tests have shown that the approximating formula reproduces the reference data of double-layer shields very well for most cases. With the same parameters and with a new physical consideration that takes into account in a global way the degradation of the gamma-ray energy spectrum, the buildup factors of three- and five-layer shields were also very well reproduced

  5. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  6. An accurate method for calculation of stress intensification factors in elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillagou, P.; Carbonnier, J.L.; Berton, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of stress intensification factors in elbows is essential for global elastic calculations of a pipe line. Moreover, sound elastic basis are required for any plastic calculations. The currently used ASME values appear to be too conservative for combined loading configurations involving simultaneous torsion, in-plane and out-of-plane bending. This paper presents an approach to the calculation of ovalization, flexibility and stress intensification factors in an elbow and the adjacent straight portions. The proposed method is compared with shell and beam-type finite element calculations in the range of elbows currently used in French LMFBR loops, and is shown to provide results similar to shell-type finite element analysis for every combined loading configuration. (orig.)

  7. The calculation and experiment verification of geometry factors of disk sources and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhixia; Minowa, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In alpha counting the efficiency of counting system is most frequently determined from the counter response to a calibrated source. Whenever this procedure is used, however, question invariably arise as to the integrity of the standard source, or indeed the validity of the primary calibration. As a check, therefore, it is often helped to be able to calculate the disintegration rate from counting rate data. The conclusion are: 1. If the source is thin enough the error E is generally less than 5%. It is acceptable in routine measurement. When the standard source lacks for experiment we can use the geometry factor calculated instead of measured efficiency. 2. The geometry factor calculated can be used to correct the counter system, study the effect of each parameters and identify those parameters needing careful control. 3. The method of overlapping area of the source and the projection of the detector is very believable, simple and convenient for calculating geometry. (5 tabs.)

  8. Reply to comment on 'Model calculation of the scanned field enhancement factor of CNTs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Amir; Tripathi, V K

    2010-01-01

    In the paper (Ahmad and Tripathi 2006 Nanotechnology 17 3798), we derived an expression to compute the field enhancement factor of CNTs under any positional distribution of CNTs by using the model of a floating sphere between parallel anode and cathode plates. Using this expression we can compute the field enhancement factor of a CNT in a cluster (non-uniformly distributed CNTs). This expression was used to compute the field enhancement factor of a CNT in an array (uniformly distributed CNTs). We used an approximation to calculate the field enhancement factor. Hence, our expressions are correct in that assumption only. Zhbanov et al (2010 Nanotechnology 21 358001) suggest a correction that can calculate the field enhancement factor without using the approximation. Hence, this correction can improve the applicability of this model. (reply)

  9. A novel echocardiography formula for calculating predicted pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with mitral stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiliana M. Soesanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR plays an important role in the natural history, prognosis, and outcome after valve intervention in patients with mitral stenosis (MS. The existing formula to estimate PVR by means of echocardiography is not readily applicable in the MS patient subset because it does not specifically calculate the risk of PVR in MS. The aim of this study was to find a new echocardiography formula to estimate PVR in MS.Methods: This diagnostic study was conducted in 2 stages. In the first stage, 58 consecutive subjects with MS were studied to find some model formulas for estimating PVR by multiple regression. Eight echo parameters were analyzed to seek their correlation with the invasive PVR value as a gold standard. The formula that had the best correlation and was easiest to use would be selected. In the second stage, those model formulas were validated by applying them to a further 34 consecutive MS subjects.Results: Four formulas which gave a discriminator coefficient of r2 0.62–0.68 were derived.  The best model formula was proposed for further application.  The new selected formula PVR=-7.465+3.566 TRvmax –(0.23 TVs’+6.799 (RV-MPI showed good correlation (r=0.71, p<0.001 to the invasive PVR value, with good reliability. TRvmax is maximal velocity of tricuspid regurgitation, TVs’ is systolic velocity of tricuspid annulus, and RV-MPI is right ventricle index myocardial performance. ROC curve showed that the cut off point 7.2 has good sensitivity and specificity (90% and 88%, respectively to predict PVR 7 WU.Conclusion: This study has shown that a novel echocardiography formula can estimate PVR with good correlation and reliability in subjects with mitral stenosis.

  10. Peak power factor determination of the RA-6 Argentinean Research Reactor using measurement-calculations correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, F. A.; Blaumann, H.; Lopasso, E.; Longhino, J

    2009-01-01

    The maximum power of a reactor is limited by the power peaking factor. During the design stage it is calculated with neutronic calculation codes. This is not enough for ensuring its value due to modelling approximations. For the RA-6s low enrichment new core a calculus-measurement correlation method have been applied. Position and magnitude of the maximum power density estimated by calculus are used by this method. For this work 249 cooper-gold alloy (1.55% Au) wires have been distributed along the core using 19 aluminium blades. Their positions have been selected using information given by a 5 groups PUMA reactor model. Wire s activity have been measured with a HPGe detector. Gold activity have been used only for verifying the calculated core spectrum. The measured power peaking factor was 2.48±0.3 (3σ), 15% above the calculated value. About 97% of measured points had less than 20% calculation-measurement difference and about 80% had less than 10%. The power peaking factor determined by this method consolidates also the calculations models. [es

  11. Mathematical approach for the assessment of similarity factor using a new scheme for calculating weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, M C; Sarvaiya, K G; Shah, A R; Brahmbhatt, B K

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to propose a method for calculating weight in the Moore and Flanner Equation. The percentage coefficient of variation in reference and test formulations at each time point was considered for calculating weight. The literature reported data are used to demonstrate applicability of the method. The advantages and applications of new approach are narrated. The results show a drop in the value of similarity factor as compared to the approach proposed in earlier work. The scientists who need high accuracy in calculation may use this approach.

  12. Calculation of the thermal utilization factor in a heterogeneous slab cell scattering neutrons anisotropically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, A. M.; Elsherbiny, E. M.; Sobhy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The P n -spatial expansion method has been used for calculating the one speed transport utilization factor in heterogenous slab cells in which neutrons may scatter anisotropically; by considering the P 1- approximation with a two-term scattering kernel in both the fuel and moderator regions, an analytical expression for the disadvantage factor has been derived. The numerical results obtained have been shown to be much better than those calculated by the usual P 1- and P 3- approximations and comparable with those obtained by some exact methods. 3 tabs

  13. A NASTRAN DMAP procedure for calculation of base excitation modal participation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for calculating the modal participation factors for base excitation problems using a DMAP alter to the NASTRAN real eigenvalue analysis Rigid Format. The DMAP program automates the generation of the seismic mass to add to the degrees of freedom representing the shaker input directions and calculates the modal participation factors. These are shown in the paper to be a good measure of the maximum acceleration expected at any point on the structure when the subsequent frequency response analysis is run.

  14. Factors associated with acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Silva Lavagnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify possible risk factors for acquisition of Enterobacterial strains with a marker for resistance to carbapenems. Methods: exploratory case-control study performed in hospital settings. The study sample consisted of patients with biological specimens that tested positive for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (cases, with the disk diffusion test and Etest, and controls with biological samples testing negative for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. In all, 65 patients were included: 13 (20% cases and 52 (80% controls. Results: the microorganisms isolated were Serratia marcescens (6, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4, and Enterobacter cloacae (3. Univariate analysis revealed that length of hospitalization prior to sample collection (p=0.002 and having a surgical procedure (p=0.006 were statistically significant. In the multivariable logistic regression model, both were still significant, with odds ratios of 0.93 (p = 0.009; 95% CI: 0.89 to 0.98 for length of hospitalization prior to sample collection, and 9.28 (p = 0.05; 95% CI: 1.01 to 85.14 for having a surgical procedure. Conclusion: shorter hospitalization times and increased surveillance of patients undergoing surgery could play a decisive role in reducing the spread of carbapenem-resistant microorganisms in hospital settings.

  15. [Presence of resistance factors to antibiotics in multiresistant enterobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, J L; De Nardo, J; Rebollo, M; Marcenac, F; Fernández, A

    1977-01-01

    The present study was carried out with 111 multiresistant pathogenic strains of enterobacterias isolated from different sources with increased resistance to three or more antibiotics. Among the identified species are included E. coli, Shigella sp., Salmonella oranienburg, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii. In general, the minimal inhibitory concentration of antibiotics was above 100 microgram/ml and in some cases it was superior to 1000 microgram/ml. Resistance transfer factors were detected in 72% of the strains; 33% movilized the complete pattern of resistance and 67% did it partially because some of the determinants were not transfered. The Citrobacter strains show a high frequency of transference (10(-1)), while for the others species it was in the order of 10(-2)--10(-3). The use of a multi-inoculator allows to perform in a simple way the preliminar evaluation about the presence or absence of R transfer factors in multiresistant strains. This technique has shown good correlation with the data obtained by the usual dilution and plating method.

  16. Method of calculating the safety factor profile on the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianmei; Lu Yuancheng; Wan Baonian

    2001-01-01

    A method of calculating the safety factor profile on the HT-7 tokamak has been described. It is derived from Maxwell's equations, among which the authors mainly use two of them: one is the magnetic field diffusion equation, and the other is Ampere's Law. This method can be also used to evaluate the safety factor on other devices with a circular cross sections. It is helpful to the study of the plasma MHD behavior on the HT-7 tokamak

  17. Calculation Analysis of Calibration Factors of Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun; Zhu Jinhui; Xie Honggang; He Qinglin

    2009-01-01

    To determine the calibration factors of an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer measuring large area gamma-ray emitting source at deferent flying height, a series of Monte Carlo simulations were drawn. Response energy spectrums of NaI crystals in airplane caused by nature-decay-series calibration-pads, and calibration factors on different heights above Cs-137 plane source, were obtained. The calculated results agreed with the experimental data well. (authors)

  18. An automated Monte-Carlo based method for the calculation of cascade summing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. J.; Britton, R.; Davies, A. V.; McLarty, J. L.; Goodwin, M.

    2016-10-01

    A versatile method has been developed to calculate cascade summing factors for use in quantitative gamma-spectrometry analysis procedures. The proposed method is based solely on Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) nuclear data, an X-ray energy library, and accurate efficiency characterisations for single detector counting geometries. The algorithm, which accounts for γ-γ, γ-X, γ-511 and γ-e- coincidences, can be applied to any design of gamma spectrometer and can be expanded to incorporate any number of nuclides. Efficiency characterisations can be derived from measured or mathematically modelled functions, and can accommodate both point and volumetric source types. The calculated results are shown to be consistent with an industry standard gamma-spectrometry software package. Additional benefits including calculation of cascade summing factors for all gamma and X-ray emissions, not just the major emission lines, are also highlighted.

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE ISSUE CONCERNING THE LIFT RESISTANCE FACTOR OF LIGHTWEIGHT CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analytical study of the connection between the longitudinal force, acting on the light-weight car, lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail» with the lift resistance factor value is to provide a simple relationships between them. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading the freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved sections of a track. Findings. Even in the absence of «lift» accordingly the classical train stability theory, as the hinge-rod system, the presence of the longitudinal compressive forces may become a factor provoking cars derailment. The main reason of wheel climbing on rails is the combination of processes of dynamic interaction between the hunting vehicle and the track with simultaneous action of longitudinal compressive forces, and not the destabilization of train as a hingedrod system. To assess the impact of the longitudinal forces value on the lift resistance factor there are presented the calculation results for the empty gondola car motion, model No. 12-532, on 250 m radius curve with 150 mm rise and cross starting of car underframe relating to the track axis in 50 mm guiding section. The calculations were made in such a curve excluding the inertial forces from outstanding acceleration and taking into account the unbalanced acceleration with the permissible speed of 65 km/h. Originality. This study provides the technique of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces, which is somewhat different from the standard one, as well as evaluates impact of rolling stock speed on this factor. Practical value. The authors clarify the current method of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces and assess the impact of rolling stock speed on the value of this factor. From these studies one can conclude that because of cars hunting their lift is possible even when the train as

  20. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...

  1. Resistance factors for 100% dynamic testing, with and without static load tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Current department of transportation (DOT) and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) practice has highly : variable load and resistance factor design (LRFD) resistance factors, , for driven piles from design (e.g., Standard : Penetration Tests (SPT...

  2. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaoui Fourati, S; Mzid, H; Marouane, C; Kammoun, S; Messadi-Akrout, F

    2015-08-01

    Despite the availability of potent drugs and the availability of vaccine, tuberculosis remains until today one of the most worrying infectious diseases because of both its morbidity and mortality. This serious health problem is further complicated by the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant strains (XDR). The number of MDR and XDR strains has continued to increase in recent years. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the risk factors leading to the emergence of MDR-TB strains to improve its overall management. Most studies indicate that the irregular previous treatment of tuberculosis with poor adherence is the main risk factor found. Other risk factors such as digestive issues, age, sex, and immunosuppression have been reported by several studies. In Tunisia, MDR-TB prevalence remains low with 0.8% among new cases and 12% among the restatements but control of this disease is necessary and remains essentially preventive. It is based on real preventive strategies planned according to local and updated regional data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The advantage of calculating emission reduction with local emission factor in South Sumatera region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchari, Erika

    2017-11-01

    Green House Gases (GHG) which have different Global Warming Potential, usually expressed in CO2 equivalent. German has succeeded in emission reduction of CO2 in year 1990s, while Japan since 2001 increased load factor of public transports. Indonesia National Medium Term Development Plan, 2015-2019, has set up the target of minimum 26% and maximum 41% National Emission Reduction in 2019. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), defined three types of accuracy in counting emission of GHG, as tier 1, tier 2, and tier 3. In tier 1, calculation is based on fuel used and average emission (default), which is obtained from statistical data. While in tier 2, calculation is based fuel used and local emission factors. Tier 3 is more accurate from those in tier 1 and 2, and the calculation is based on fuel used from modelling method or from direct measurement. This paper is aimed to evaluate the calculation with tier 2 and tier 3 in South Sumatera region. In 2012, Regional Action Plan for Greenhouse Gases of South Sumatera for 2020 is about 6,569,000 ton per year and with tier 3 is about without mitigation and 6,229,858.468 ton per year. It was found that the calculation in tier 3 is more accurate in terms of fuel used of variation vehicles so that the actions of mitigation can be planned more realistically.

  4. Calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.D.; Harty, R.; McDonald, J.C.; Tanner, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing a standard for the performance testing of personnel extremity dosimeters for the US Department of Energy. Part of this effort requires the calculation of neutron fluence-to-dose conversion factors for finger and wrist extremities. This study focuses on conversion factors for two types of extremity models: namely the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom (as specified in the draft standard for performance testing of extremity dosimeters) and more realistic extremity models composed of tissue-and-bone. Calculations for each type of model are based on both bare and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf sources. The results are then tabulated and compared with whole-body conversion factors. More appropriate energy-averaged quality factors for the extremity models have also been computed from the neutron fluence in 50 equally spaced energy bins with energies from 2.53 x 10 -8 to 15 MeV. Tabulated results show that conversion factors for both types of extremity phantom are 15 to 30% lower than the corresponcung whole-body phantom conversion factors for 252 Cf neutron sources. This difference in extremity and whole-body conversion factors is attributable to the proportionally smaller amount of back-scattering that occurs in the extremity phantoms compared with whole-body phantoms

  5. Calculation of Coincidence Summing Correction Factors for an HPGe detector using GEANT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubrone, G.; Ortiz, J.; Gallardo, S.; Martorell, S.; Bas, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to calculate the True Coincidence Summing Correction Factors (TSCFs) for an HPGe coaxial detector in order to correct the summing effect as a result of the presence of 88 Y and 60 Co in a multigamma source used to obtain a calibration efficiency curve. Results were obtained for three volumetric sources using the Monte Carlo toolkit, GEANT4. The first part of this paper deals with modeling the detector in order to obtain a simulated full energy peak efficiency curve. A quantitative comparison between the measured and simulated values was made across the entire energy range under study. The True Summing Correction Factors were calculated for 88 Y and 60 Co using the full peak efficiencies obtained with GEANT4. This methodology was subsequently applied to 134 Cs, and presented a complex decay scheme. - Highlights: • True Summing Correction Factors have been calculated for an HPGe detector. • GEANT4 toolkit has been used to calculate the efficiency curve for different source geometries. • Quantitative comparisons have been made using appropriate statistical tests to validate the simulations. • The average differences between simulated and measurement efficiencies are lower than 2%.

  6. CWF and TABLE - Two Fortran programmes for the calculation of Coulomb penetration and shift factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.S.; James, M.F.

    1965-12-01

    CWF and TABLE are Fortran programmes, written for the IBM 7090 and English-Electric Leo Marconi KDF9 computers, that calculate the penetration and shift factors for a charged particle in a Coulomb field. The numerical methods used are those of Lutz and Karvelis. The two programmes are very similar. Input to TABLE is in the form of the centre-of-mass co-ordinates. CWF is intended for use in calculating cross-sections for neutron-induced reactions which result in charged particle emission, and the input is in the form of the neutron energy in the laboratory frame of reference, together with other necessary reaction data. (author)

  7. Development of mathematical models and methods for calculation of rail steel deformation resistance of various chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umansky, A. A.; Golovatenko, A. V.; Kadykov, V. N.; Dumova, L. V.

    2016-09-01

    Using the device of the complex “Gleeble System 3800” the physical experimental studies of deformation resistance of chrome rail steel at different thermo-mechanical deformation parameters were carried out. On the basis of mathematical processing of experimental data the statistical model of dependence of the rail steel deformation resistance on the simultaneous influence of deformation degree, rate and temperature, as well as the steel chemical composition, was developed. The nature of influence of deformation parameters and the content of chemical elements in steel on its resistance to plastic deformation is scientifically substantiated. Verification of the adequacy of the proposed model by the comparative analysis of the calculated and actual rolling forces during passes in the universal rail-and-structural steel mill JSC “EVRAZ Consolidated West Siberian Metallurgical Plant” (“EVRAZ ZSMK”) showed the possibility of its use for development and improvement of new modes of rails rolling.

  8. Internal dose conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This publication contains 50-year committed dose equivalent factors, in tabular form. The document is intended to be used as the primary reference by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for calculating radiation dose equivalents for members of the public, resulting from ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials. Its application is intended specifically for such materials released to the environment during routine DOE operations, except in those instances where compliance with 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires otherwise. However, the calculated values may be equally applicable to unusual releases or to occupational exposures. The use of these committed dose equivalent tables should ensure that doses to members of the public from internal exposures are calculated in a consistent manner at all DOE facilities

  9. Neutronic simulation calculations to assess the proliferation resistance of nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the proliferation resistance of nuclear technologies on the basis of three case studies. After a brief description of the concept of proliferation resistance the utilized computer codes and methods are presented. The first case study investigates the potential of monolithic fuel for the conversion of one-fuel-element high-flux research reactors from highly enriched to low enriched uranium using the example of the german research reactor FRM-II. The second case study assesses the proliferation potential of future tokamak based fusion reactors by using neutronic simulations of a possible plutonium production. The third example investigates the proliferation potential of spallation neutron sources to produce nuclear weapon relevant material and the proliferation resistance of such facilities. (orig.)

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourva, L.C.A.; Croft, S.

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP TM , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents a new evaluation technique for the estimation of gate utilisation factors. It uses the die-away profile of a neutron coincidence chamber generated either by MCNP TM , or by other means, to simulate the neutron detection arrival time pattern originating from independent spontaneous fission events. A shift register simulation algorithm, embedded in the MCF code, then calculates the coincidence counts scored within the electronics gate. The gate utilisation factor is then deduced by dividing the coincidence counts obtained with that obtained in the same Monte Carlo run, but for an ideal detection system with a coincidence gate utilisation factor equal to unity. The MCF code has been benchmarked against analytical results calculated for both single and double exponential die-away profiles. These results are presented along with the development of the closed form algebraic expressions for the two cases. Results of this validity check showed very good agreement. On this

  11. The Calculation Of Titanium Buildup Factor Based On Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Has, Hengky Istianto; Achmad, Balza; Harto, Andang Widi

    2001-01-01

    The objective of radioactive-waste container is to reduce radiation emission to the environment. For that purpose, we need material with ability to shield that radiation and last for 10.000 years. Titanium is one of the materials that can be used to make containers. Unfortunately, its buildup factor, which is an importance factor in setting up radiation shielding, has not been calculated. Therefore, the calculations of titanium buildup factor as a function of other parameters is needed. Buildup factor can be determined either experimentally or by simulation. The purpose of this study is to determine titanium buildup factor using simulation program based on Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo is a stochastic method, therefore is proper to calculate nuclear radiation which naturally has random characteristic. Simulation program also able to give result while experiments can not be performed, because of their limitations.The result of the simulation is, that by increasing titanium thickness the buildup factor number and dosage increase. In contrary If photon energy is higher, then buildup factor number and dosage are lower. The photon energy used in the simulation was ranged from 0.2 MeV to 2.0 MeV with 0.2 MeV step size, while the thickness was ranged from 0.2 cm to 3.0 cm with step size of 0.2 cm. The highest buildup factor number is β = 1.4540 ± 0.047229 at 0.2 MeV photon energy with titanium thickness of 3.0 cm. The lowest is β = 1.0123 ± 0.000650 at 2.0 MeV photon energy with 0.2 cm thickness of titanium. For the dosage buildup factor, the highest dose is β D = 1.3991 ± 0.013999 at 0.2 MeV of the photon energy with a titanium thickness of 3.0 cm and the lowest is β D = 1.0042 ± 0.000597 at 2.0 MeV with titanium thickness of 0.2 cm. For the photon energy and the thickness of titanium used in simulation, buildup factor and dosage buildup factor as a function of photon energy and titanium thickness can be formulated as follow β = 1.1264 e - 0.0855 E e 0 .0584 T

  12. Improvements on the calculation of the epithermal disadvantage factor for thermal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    1997-01-01

    The disadvantage factor takes into account the neutron flux variation through the fuel cell. In the fuel the flux is depressed in relation to its level in the moderator region. In order to avoid detailed calculations for each different set of cell dimensions, which turns out necessary the development of problem-dependent neutron cross section libraries, a disadvantage factor based on a two-region equivalence theory was proposed for the EPRI-CELL code. However, it uses a rational approximation to the neutron escape probability to describe the neutron transport between cell regions. Such approximation allows the use of the equivalence principals but introduces a non negligible error which results in an underestimation of the cell neutron fluxes. A new proposed treatment, that will be presented in this work, remarkably improves the numerical calculation and reduces the error of the above mentioned method. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  13. High-precision calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Jeremy [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany); Meinel, Stefan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Engelhardt, Michael G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Krieg, Stefan [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany); Julich Supercomputing Centre, Julich (Germany); Laeuchli, Jesse [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Negele, John W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Orginos, Kostas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pochinsky, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    We report a direct lattice QCD calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors GsE and GsM in the kinematic range 0 ≤ Q2 ≤ 1.2GeV2. For the first time, both GsE and GsM are shown to be nonzero with high significance. This work uses closer-to-physical lattice parameters than previous calculations, and achieves an unprecented statistical precision by implementing a recently proposed variance reduction technique called hierarchical probing. We perform model-independent fits of the form factor shapes using the z-expansion and determine the strange electric and magnetic radii and magnetic moment. As a result, we compare our results to parity-violating electron-proton scattering data and to other theoretical studies.

  14. Calculation of the power factor using the neutron diffusion hybrid equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa da Silva, Adilson; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A neutron diffusion hybrid equation with an external neutron source was used. ► Nodal expansion method to obtain the neutron flux was used. ► Nuclear power factors in each fuel element in the reactor core were calculated. ► The results obtained were very accurate. -- Abstract: In this paper, we used a neutron diffusion hybrid equation with an external neutron source to calculate nuclear power factors in each fuel element in the reactor core. We used the nodal expansion method to obtain the neutron flux for a given control rods bank position. The results were compared with results obtained for eigenvalue problem near criticality condition and fixed source problem during the start-up of the reactor, where external neutron sources are extremely important for the stabilization of external neutron detectors.

  15. Improvements on the calculation of the epithermal disadvantage factor for thermal nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    1997-12-01

    The disadvantage factor takes into account the neutron flux variation through the fuel cell. In the fuel the flux is depressed in relation to its level in the moderator region. In order to avoid detailed calculations for each different set of cell dimensions, which turns out necessary the development of problem-dependent neutron cross section libraries, a disadvantage factor based on a two-region equivalence theory was proposed for the EPRI-CELL code. However, it uses a rational approximation to the neutron escape probability to describe the neutron transport between cell regions. Such approximation allows the use of the equivalence principals but introduces a non negligible error which results in an underestimation of the cell neutron fluxes. A new proposed treatment, that will be presented in this work, remarkably improves the numerical calculation and reduces the error of the above mentioned method. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Calculation of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays for water and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. H.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   Exposure buildup factors for water and lead have been calculated by the Monte-Carlo method for an isotropic point source in an infinite homogeneous medium, using the latest cross secions available on the Internet. The types of interactions considered are ,photoelectric effect, incoherent (or bound-electron Compton. Scattering, coherent (or Rayleigh scattering and pair production. Fluorescence radiations have also been taken into acount for lead. For each material, calculations were made at 10 gamma ray energies in the 40 keV to 10 MeV range and up to penetration depths of 10 mean free paths at each energy point. The results presented in this paper can be considered as modified gamma ray exposure buildup factors and be used in radiation shielding designs.

  17. The calculated genetic barrier for antiretroviral drug resistance substitutions is largely similar for different HIV-1 subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, D.A. van de; Wensing, A.M.J.; Angarano, G.; Asjo, B.; Balotta, C.; Camacho, R.; Chaix, M.; Costagliola, D.; De Luca, A.; Derdelinckx, I.; Grossman, Z.; Hamouda, O.; Hatzakis, A.; Hemmer, R.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Horban, A.; Korn, K.; Kücherer, C.; Leitner, T.; Loveday, C.; MacRae, E.; Maljkovic, I.; Mendoza, C. de; Meyer, L.; Nielsen, C.; Op de Coul, E.L.M.; Omaasen, V.; Paraskevis, D.; Perrin, L.; Puchhammer-Stöckl, E.; Salminen, M.; Schmit, J.; Scheider, F.; Schuurman, R.; Soriano, V.; Stanczak, G.; Stanojevic, M.; Vandamme, A.; Laethem, K. van; Violin, M.; Wilde, K.; Yerly, S.; Zazzi, M.; Boucher, C.A.B.

    The genetic barrier, defined as the number of mutations required to overcome drug-selective pressure, is an important factor for the development of HIV drug resistance. Because of high variability between subtypes, particular HIV-1 subtypes could have different genetic barriers for drug

  18. Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Lubans, David R; Karunamuni, Nandini; Kennedy, Sarah; Plotnikoff, Ronald

    2017-10-01

    Regular participation in resistance training (RT) is critical to health and recommended in most international physical activity guidelines. Few people, however, participate in RT. The purpose of this review was to assess the demographic, behavioural, intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors associated with participating in RT. Eligible studies were from English peer-reviewed published articles that examined correlates or determinants of RT in adult samples. Searches were performed from August 2015 to April 2016 in six databases. We identified 51 independent data sets, from nine countries, primarily of moderate to high quality, and 23 factors related to participating in RT. Education, perceived health status, quality of life, affective judgements, self-efficacy, intention, self-regulation behaviours, subjective norm and programme leadership were associated with RT. Low education levels and poor health status were associated with low participation rates in RT. Intrapersonal factors including affective judgements, self-efficacy, and self-regulation behaviours, and interpersonal factors including subjective norms and programme leadership may be important for promoting RT behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. [Activated protein C resistance and factor V Leiden: clinical interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermazi, S; Znazen, R

    2011-10-01

    Activated protein C resistance (APCR) is a coagulation abnormality often linked to FV Leiden mutation, a single nucleotide G1691A substitution resulting in arginine 506→glutamine missense factor V mutation. FV Leiden has a frequency of 20 to 30% in groups of patients with venous thrombosis while it is of 4 to 10% in normal subjects. FV Leiden is considered as a weak risk factor of thrombosis except in homozygote. FV Leiden is implicated in deep venous thrombosis occurrence. Duration of oral anticoagulant treatment is six months in patients developing a first venous thrombosis except in patients with combined defects or a clinical context suggesting a high risk of severe relapse. Detection of APCR by coagulation methods is often used in first intention with a high specificity if plasmas tested are diluted in factor V deficient plasma. Genotyping study is essential to establish the heterozygote or homozygote statute and certain teams perform it directly. Nevertheless, APCR not related to FV Leiden could be an independent thrombosis risk factor. APCR and FV Leiden are included in laboratory investigations of thrombophilic markers in patients less than 50 years with venous thrombosis. In arterial thrombosis, FV Leiden implication is weak or absent. FV Leiden increases the risk of thrombosis in other situations as in patients with cancer. An association with recurrent miscarriages and other vasculoplacental complications is also reported in many studies but the data concerning the efficacy of antithrombotic treatment to prevent recurrence are currently insufficient. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. INTER, ENDF/B Thermal Cross-Sections, Resonance Integrals, G-Factors Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: INTER calculates thermal cross sections, g-factors, resonance integrals, fission spectrum averaged cross sections and 14.0 MeV (or other energy) cross sections for major reactions in an ENDF-6 or ENDF-5 format data file. Version 7.01 (Jan 2005): set success flag after return from beginning. 2 - Method of solution: INTER performs integrations by using the trapezoidal rule

  1. Ab initio calculation of dc resistivity in liquid Al, Na and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knider, F; Hugel, J; Postnikov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The dc conductivities of Al, Na and Pb in their liquid phase just above the melting point are calculated from first principles on the basis of density functional theory. We use the SIESTA code, molecular dynamics simulations with a Nose thermostat to generate representative structural snapshots in the liquid and Kubo-Greenwood formalism to calculate the optical conductivity. The dc conductivity comes from averaging the latter property over a number of structures and extrapolating to zero frequency. The calculated values fall within 1% of experimental data. A correction to the dipole matrix elements calculated via the momentum operator, due to non-locality of the pseudopotential, is very important for Na (where it increases the dc conductivity by about 75% to meet the experimental value), much smaller for Al and practically negligible for Pb

  2. Bradford’s law, the long tail principle, and transparency in Journal Impact Factor calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Llimos F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the commonly mentioned limitations of the Journal Impact Factor, we discuss the obsolete principle of selecting journals to create a fake-representative sample of ‘journals that matter’ and the opacity around the calculation and listing of Impact Factors. We use the example of Pharmacy Practice in 2015 for illustration. We hypothesize that a business-oriented system of measuring the science and quality of scholarly journals may not be the best option to avoid biases and conflicts of interest.

  3. Calculated dose factors for the radiosensitive tissues in bone irradiated by surface-deposited radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, F.W.; Whitwell, J.R.; Beddoe, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    The method of calculating dose factors for the haemopoietic marrow and endosteal tissues in human trabecular bone, used by Whitwell and Spiers for volume-seeking radionuclides, has been developed for the case of radionuclides which are deposited as very thin layers on bone surfaces. The Monte Carlo method is again used, but modifications to the computer program are made to allow for a surface rather than a volume source of particle emission. The principal change is the introduction of a surface-orientation factor which is shown to have a value of approximately 2, varying slightly with bone structure. Results are given for β-emitting radionuclides ranging from 171 Tm(anti Esub(β) = 0.025 MeV) to 90 Y(anti Esub(β) = 0.93 MeV), and also for the α-emitter 239 Pu. It is shown that where the particle ranges are short compared with the dimensions of the bone structures the dose factors for the surface seekers are much greater than those for the volume seekers. For long range particles the dose factors for surface- and volume-seeking radionuclides converge. Comparisons are given relating the dose factors calculated in this paper on the basis of measured bone structures to those of other workers based on single plane geometry. (author)

  4. Calculation of shielding factor of building to radiation for Daya Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Gao Zhanrong

    1999-12-01

    A point-kernel integrated technique is adopted to calculate the shielding afforded by building against a surface deposited radioactivity and a moving radioactive plume for the Daya Bay Area. In calculations the contribution from radioactivity deposited on the ground, outer wall and roof to the dose received by a reference point indoors is considered. Three sets of photon with energy 0.5 MeV, 0.75 MeV and 1.25 MeV are selected as representative of photons with low, medium and high energy. Calculation result shows that a set of shielding factors 0.22, 0.15, 0.10 and 0.03 are suitable for surface deposited radioactive sources for the houses with one-storey, two-storey, three-storey and tower respectively and another set of shielding factors 0.16, 0.10, 0.08 and 0.03 for moving radioactive plume for buildings mentioned above respectively. A comparison of results given by point-kernel integrated technique and Monte Carlo technique is done. The effect to shielding factor is discussed from the following three parameters: thickness of wall, area of windows and photon energy

  5. Nationwide surveillance of drug-resistant tuberculosis in The Netherlands: rates, risk factors and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambregts-van Weezenbeek, C. S.; Jansen, H. M.; Nagelkerke, N. J.; van Klingeren, B.; Veen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Netherlands, 1993 and 1994. To determine 1) rates of drug resistance in relation to nationality and country of birth, 2) risk factors for drug resistance, 3) treatment outcome of drug-resistant cases, and 4) rates of primary and acquired drug resistance. Retrospective study of all cases notified

  6. NOx emission calculations for bulk carriers by using engine power probabilities as weighting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Hua, Jian; Hwang, Daw-Shang

    2017-10-01

    An important marine pollution issue identified by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is NO x emissions; however, the stipulated method for determining the NO x certification value does not reflect the actual high emission factors of slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines over long-term slow steaming. In this study, an accurate method is presented for calculating the NO x emission factors and total amount of NO x emissions by using the actual power probabilities of the diesel engines in four types of bulk carriers. The proposed method is suitable for all types and purposes of diesel engines, is not restricted to any operating modes, and is highly accurate. Moreover, it is recommended that the IMO-stipulated certification value calculation method be modified accordingly to genuinely reduce the amount of NO x emissions. The successful achievement of this level of reduction will help improve the air quality, especially in coastal and port areas, and the health of local residents. As per the IMO, the NO x emission certification value of marine diesel engines having a rated power over 130 kW must be obtained using specified weighting factor (WF)-based calculation. However, this calculation fails to represent the current actual situation. Effective emission reductions of 6.91% (at sea) and 31.9% (in ports) were achieved using a mathematical model of power probability functions. Thus, we strongly recommend amending the certification value of NO x Technical Code 2008 (NTC 2008) by removing the WF constraints, such that the NO x emissions of diesel engines is lower than the Tier-limits at any load level to obtain genuine NO x emission reductions.

  7. Calculation of neutron and gamma-ray flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.G.; Lee, S.Y.; Yook, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for neutrons and gamma rays based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) N666. These data are used to calculate the dose rate distribution of neutron and gamma ray in radiation fields. Neutron flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for energies from 2.5 x 10 -8 to 20 MeV are presented; the corresponding energy range for gamma rays is 0.01 to 15 MeV. Flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors were calculated, under the assumption that radiation energy distribution has nonlinearity in the phantom, have different meaning from those values obtained by monoenergetic radiation. Especially, these values were determined with the cross section library. The flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors obtained in this work were in a good agreement to the values presented by ANSI. Those data will be useful for the radiation shielding analysis and the radiation dosimetry in the case of continuous energy distributions. (author)

  8. Derivation of correction factor to be applied for calculated results of PWR fuel isotopic composition by ORIGEN2 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Murazaki, Minoru [Tokyo Nuclear Service Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, Hiroki [The Japan Research Institute Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    For providing conservative PWR spent fuel compositions from the view point of nuclear criticality safety, correction factors applicable for result of burnup calculation by ORIGEN2 were evaluated. Its conservativeness was verified by criticality calculations using MVP. To calculate these correction factors, analyses of spent fuel isotopic composition data were performed by ORIGEN2. Maximum or minimum value of the ratio of calculation result to experimental data was chosen as correction factor. These factors are given to each set of fuel assembly and ORIGEN2 library. They could be considered as the re-definition of recommended isotopic composition given in Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook. (author)

  9. Cooperative effect of silicon and other alloying elements on creep resistance of titanium alloys: insight from first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Yue; Liu, Jian-Rong; Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui

    2016-07-28

    Creep resistance is one of the key properties of titanium (Ti) alloys for high temperature applications such as in aero engines and gas turbines. It has been widely recognized that moderate addition of Si, especially when added together with some other elements (X), e.g., Mo, significantly improves the creep resistance of Ti alloys. To provide some fundamental understandings on such a cooperative effect, the interactions between Si and X in both hexagonal close-packed α and body-centered cubic β phases are systematically investigated by using a first-principles method. We show that the transition metal (TM) atoms with the number of d electrons (Nd) from 3 to 7 are attractive to Si in α phase whereas those with Nd > 8 and simple metal (SM) alloying atoms are repulsive to Si. All the alloying atoms repel Si in the β phase except for the ones with fewer d electrons than Ti. The electronic structure origin underlying the Si-X interaction is discussed based on the calculated electronic density of states and Bader charge. Our calculations suggest that the beneficial X-Si cooperative effect on the creep resistance is attributable to the strong X-Si attraction.

  10. Calculation of air kerma to average glandular tissue dose conversion factors for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Jansen, J.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Among the quantities used for dose specification in mammography the average absorbed dose in glandular tissue is most appropriate for risk assessments. Generally, average absorbed dose in glandular tissue is derived from measurement of air kerma free-in-air combined with conversion factors obtained from radiation transport calculations in mathematical breast models. Air kerma to glandular tissue dose conversion factors are published by various authors as a function of half-value layer (HVL) for simple breast phantoms. Calculations by different authors differ in radiation transport codes, photon interaction data, photon spectra, composition and thickness of superficial layer (representing skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue), presence of compression plate, and are not performed with the tissue compositions recommended by the ICRU. Protocols for dosimetry in mammography in different European countries (UK, Netherlands, Sweden) use results from different authors. To study the influence of the parameters indicated, air kerma to glandular tissue dose conversion factors, g, are calculated using the MCNP radiation transport code. Use of different spectra can cause differences in g values up to about 7%. The use of a compression plate results in a 4.5 ± 1.5% smaller g value for the same HVL. The use of MCPLIB cross sections results in 10% higher g values compared to the use of XCOM data. The influence of the backscatter material (composition and thickness) on the g value is marginal (< 1%). The different superficial layers used result in differences in g values of up to 19%. When the breast thickness is changed from 2 cm to 8 cm, g values decrease by a factor of about 4. Employing Hammerstein's tissue compositions compared to those from the ICRU results in differences in g values up to about 14%. (Author)

  11. Effect of operating current dependent series resistance on the fill factor of a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadu, Meena; Kapoor, A.; Tripathi, K.N. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez road, -110 021 New Delhi (India)

    2002-02-01

    The fill factor of a solar cell depends upon the series resistance, reverse saturation current, diode quality factor, operating current and voltage. Since the series resistance itself depends upon the operating current (or voltage), it makes the evaluation of fill factor very complicated. In this paper, we have evaluated the fill factor of a solar cell, taking into account operating current dependence of the series resistance.

  12. A New Displacement-based Approach to Calculate Stress Intensity Factors With the Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The analysis of cracked brittle mechanical components considering linear elastic fracture mechanics is usually reduced to the evaluation of stress intensity factors (SIFs. The SIF calculation can be carried out experimentally, theoretically or numerically. Each methodology has its own advantages but the use of numerical methods has become very popular. Several schemes for numerical SIF calculations have been developed, the J-integral method being one of the most widely used because of its energy-like formulation. Additionally, some variations of the J-integral method, such as displacement-based methods, are also becoming popular due to their simplicity. In this work, a simple displacement-based scheme is proposed to calculate SIFs, and its performance is compared with contour integrals. These schemes are all implemented with the Boundary Element Method (BEM in order to exploit its advantages in crack growth modelling. Some simple examples are solved with the BEM and the calculated SIF values are compared against available solutions, showing good agreement between the different schemes.

  13. Monte Carlo calculation of dose rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil

    CERN Document Server

    Clouvas, A; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2000-01-01

    The dose rate conversion factors D/sub CF/ (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h/sup -1/ per Bq kg/sup -1/) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: 1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; 2) The GEANT code of CERN; and 3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the D/sub CF/ values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good ag...

  14. Resistance calculation of un-fully developed two-phase flow through high differential pressure regulating valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingyang; Wang Wenran; Wang Jiaying

    1999-01-01

    To reduce the flow velocity in the high differential pressure regulating valve with labyrinth. A type of complicated valve core structure were designed with tortuous flow path made from reversal double elbows. It is very difficult to calculate the pressure-drop of the un-fully developed two-phase flow under high temperature and pressure which flow through the valve core. A calculation method called 'constant (varing) pressure-drop progressing step by step design method' was developed. The complicated flow path was disintegrated into a series of independent resistance units and with the valve stem end progressing step by step the dimensions of the flow path were designed in accordance with the principle that in every position the total pressure-drop of the valve should amount to that required by the design goal curve. In the course of calculating the total pressure-drop, the valve flow path was also divided into a series of independent resistance units. The experiment results show that design flow characteristics are approximately consistent with the flow characteristics measured in the test

  15. Uranium and radium in Finnsjoen - an experimental approach for calculation of transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.; Bergman, R.

    1981-01-01

    The radiological safety studies for underground disposal of HLW show that the future individual and collective doses to an important extent may originate from groundwater borne radium and uranium which reach the biosphere. Indications that the dispersion rates presently used give rise to overestimations of calculated doses justified an investigation for more realistic turnover rates of radium and uranium than those which now are in use. Within one of the sites selected for testing, the area around lake Finnsjoen, a small number of environmental samples were collected and analyzed with respect to radium and uranium and the new transfer coefficients between soil and lake water were derived. The dose rates obtained with the new transfer factors show a close agreement for radium and a slight increase for uranium compared with earlier calculations. (Auth.)

  16. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  17. Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Ohki, H.; Syritsyn, S.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF) F3 and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor F2 due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the C P -violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and we find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for F3. Finally, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.

  18. Calculation of Limits of Fire Resistance for Structures with Fire Retardant Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivtcov Artem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to fireproof processing of steel structures. The main task is to consider different types of sections of rod elements and to choose the most effective section for a steel column from the point of view of fire protection. For the solution of this task the steel columns with various cross sections working in identical entry conditions were considered. All necessary calculations for all types of sections were carried out. Results of calculations were presented in the summary table according to which the comparative analysis was made. At the end of work the conclusion that the compound section from four equal corners is the most effective from the point of view of fire protection.

  19. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  20. Numerical tables of anomalous scattering factors calculated by the Cromer and Liberman's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1989-02-01

    Anomalous scattering factors f' and f'' have been calculated for the atoms Li through Bi, plus U, using the relativistic treatment described by Cromer and Liberman. The final f' value does not include the Jensen's correction term on the magnetic scattering. The tables are presented with the f' and f'' values (i) at 0.01 A intervals in the wavelength range from 0.1 to 2.89 A and (ii) at 0.0001 A intervals in the neighborhood of the K, L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 absorption edges. (author)

  1. Assessments of fluid friction factors for use in leak rate calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Leak before Break procedures require estimates of leakage, and these in turn need fluid friction to be assessed. In this paper available data on flow rates through idealized and real crack geometries are reviewed in terms of a single friction factor k It is shown that for {lambda} < 1 flow rates can be bounded using correlations in terms of surface R{sub a} values. For {lambda} > 1 the database is less precise, but {lambda} {approx} 4 is an upper bound, hence in this region flow calculations can be assessed using 1 < {lambda} < 4.

  2. Microscopic calculation of the enhancement factor in the electric dipole sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrocini, A.; Lagaris, I.E.; Viviani, M.; Fantoni, S.

    1985-01-01

    Correlated basis function perturbation theory with state-dependent correlations is used to calculate the nuclear photoabsorption enhancement factor K in the electric dipole sum rule for some realistic models of nuclear matter. The contribution due to 2p-2h admixtures in the ground state wave function turns out to be only a few percent of the unperturbed value. The values obtained for K are about 1.8 at experimental equilibrium density and increase almost linearly with density. We also give estimates of K for finite nuclei, obtained within the local density approximation framework. The surface effects give a contribution which is proportional 20% of the volume term. (orig.)

  3. An analytical formalism to calculate phantom scatter factors for flattening filter free (FFF) mode photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heeteak; Prado, Karl L; Yi, Byong Yong

    2014-01-01

    Phantom Scatter Factors, Sp in the Khan formalism (Khan et al 1980 J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 6 745–51) describe medium-induced changes in photon-beam intensity as a function of size of the beam. According to the British Journal of Radiology, Supplement 25, megavoltage phantom scatter factors are invariant as a function of photon-beam energy. However, during the commissioning of an accelerator with flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams (Varian TrueBeam TM  6-MV FFF and 10-MV FFF), differences were noted in phantom scatter between the filtered beams and FFF-mode beams. The purpose of this work was to evaluate this difference and provide an analytical formalism to explain the phantom scatter differences between FFF-mode and the filtered mode. An analytical formalism was devised to demonstrate the source of phantom scatter differences between the filtered and the FFF-mode beams. The reason for the differences in the phantom scatter factors between the filtered and the FFF-mode beams is hypothesized to be the non-uniform beam profiles of the FFF-mode beams. The analytical formalism proposed here is based on this idea, taking the product of the filtered phantom scatter factors and the ratio of the off-axis ratio between the FFF-mode and the filtered beams. All measurements were performed using a Varian TrueBeam TM  linear accelerator with photon energies of 6-MV and 10-MV in both filtered and FFF-modes. For all measurements, a PTW Farmer type chamber and a Scanditronix CC04 cylindrical ionization were used. The in-water measurements were made at depth dose maximum and 100 cm source-to-axis distance. The in-air measurements were done at 100 cm source-to-axis distance with appropriate build-up cap. From these measurements, the phantom scatter factors were derived for the filtered beams and the FFF-mode beams for both energies to be evaluated against the phantoms scatter factors calculated using the proposed algorithm. For 6-MV, the difference between the

  4. Calculation of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral by exact integration of the fast oscillating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, Jan A C; Rusch, Jurgen J; Urbach, H Paul

    2005-04-01

    We describe a numerical method that can be used to calculate the propagation of light in a medium of constant (possibly complex) index of refraction n. The method integrates the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral numerically. After an appropriate change of integration variables, the integrand of the diffraction integral is split into a slowly varying and an (often fast) oscillating quadratic factor. The slowly varying factor is approximated by a spline fit, and the resulting Fresnel integrals are subsequently integrated exactly. Although the method is not as fast as methods involving a fast Fourier transform, such as plane-wave propagation or Fresnel approximation, it is accurate over a greater range than these methods.

  5. A study of power adaptation factor calculation of ONED94 code by using Bayes' theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. M.; Lee, E. C.; Oh, S. Y.

    1999-01-01

    The ONED94 code developed by KAERI is a 1-dimensional 2-group diffusion theory code reactor simulation. In this code, the adaptation method for Xenon, Power shape and Control rod worth is further employed to reduce the errors in the collapsing process of cross-section data. The current power adaptation method has turned out to show several problems as not calculating adequate adaptation factors according to core axial power shape. Consequently, the Detector response method is applied to solve this problem. This method, however, also has the difficulty that the detector response matrix must be known first. Subsequently, the new adaptation method using Bayesian theorem is employed to overcome these problems. As a result, the adaptation method using Bayesian theorem could easily and accurately find an adequate adaptation factor within 1% of relative error

  6. Calculation of multiplication factors regarding criticality aiming at the storage of fissile material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Barros, M. de.

    1982-04-01

    The multiplication factors of several systems with low enrichment, 3,5% and 3,2% in the isotope 235 U, aiming at the storage of fuel of ANGRA-I and ANGRA II, through the method of Monte Carlo, by the computacional code KENO-IV and the library of section of cross Hansen - Roach with 16 groups of energy. The method of Monte Carlo is specially suitable to the calculation of the factor of multiplication, because it is one of the most acurate models of solution and allows the description of complex tridimensional systems. Various tests of sensibility of this method have been done in order to present the most convenient way of working with KENO-IV code. The safety on criticality of stores of fissile material of the 'Fabrica de Elementos Combustiveis ', has been analyzed through the method of Monte Carlo. (Author) [pt

  7. Vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance as risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Meltem; Bostan Gayret, Özlem; Hamilçıkan, Şahin; Can, Emrah; Yiğit, Özgu L

    2017-04-01

    Dyslipidemia is one of the major complications of obesity; vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are attending metabolic complications in dyslipidemic obese children. Objective. To determine if vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance are risk factors for dyslipidemia in obese children. This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics at Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey between 2014 and 2015. Obese patients whose age range was 8-14 were included in the study. The serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, insulin, alanine aminotransferase, vitamin D levels were measured; a liver ultrasonography was performed. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), was used to calculate insulin resistance. 108 obese children were included; 39 (36.11%) had dyslipidemia. The average fasting blood glucose (88.74 ± 7.58 vs. 95.31 ± 6.82; p= 0.0001), insulin level (14.71 ± 12.44 vs. 24.39 ± 15.02; p= 0.0001) and alanine aminotransferase level (23.45 ± 11.18 vs. 30.4 ± 18.95; p= 0.018) were significantly higher in the children with dyslipidemia. In the dyslipidemic obese children, the average hepatosteatosis rate and HOMA-IR level were higher; 28 (71.9%) had hepatosteatosis, 37 (94.87%) had insulin resistance; the vitamin D levels were dyslipidemia. Obese children in our region exhibit low vitamin D and increased HOMA-IR levels, which are efficient risk factors of dyslipidemia.

  8. Time domain numerical calculations of the short electron bunch wakefields in resistive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakanian, Andranik

    2010-10-01

    The acceleration of electron bunches with very small longitudinal and transverse phase space volume is one of the most actual challenges for the future International Linear Collider and high brightness X-Ray Free Electron Lasers. The exact knowledge on the wake fields generated by the ultra-short electron bunches during its interaction with surrounding structures is a very important issue to prevent the beam quality degradation and to optimize the facility performance. The high accuracy time domain numerical calculations play the decisive role in correct evaluation of the wake fields in advanced accelerators. The thesis is devoted to the development of a new longitudinally dispersion-free 3D hybrid numerical scheme in time domain for wake field calculation of ultra short bunches in structures with walls of finite conductivity. The basic approaches used in the thesis to solve the problem are the following. For materials with high but finite conductivity the model of the plane wave reflection from a conducting half-space is used. It is shown that in the conductive half-space the field components perpendicular to the interface can be neglected. The electric tangential component on the surface contributes to the tangential magnetic field in the lossless area just before the boundary layer. For high conducting media, the task is reduced to 1D electromagnetic problem in metal and the so-called 1D conducting line model can be applied instead of a full 3D space description. Further, a TE/TM (''transverse electric - transverse magnetic'') splitting implicit numerical scheme along with 1D conducting line model is applied to develop a new longitudinally dispersion-free hybrid numerical scheme in the time domain. The stability of the new hybrid numerical scheme in vacuum, conductor and bound cell is studied. The convergence of the new scheme is analyzed by comparison with the well-known analytical solutions. The wakefield calculations for a number of structures are performed

  9. Time domain numerical calculations of the short electron bunch wakefields in resistive structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanian, Andranik

    2010-10-15

    The acceleration of electron bunches with very small longitudinal and transverse phase space volume is one of the most actual challenges for the future International Linear Collider and high brightness X-Ray Free Electron Lasers. The exact knowledge on the wake fields generated by the ultra-short electron bunches during its interaction with surrounding structures is a very important issue to prevent the beam quality degradation and to optimize the facility performance. The high accuracy time domain numerical calculations play the decisive role in correct evaluation of the wake fields in advanced accelerators. The thesis is devoted to the development of a new longitudinally dispersion-free 3D hybrid numerical scheme in time domain for wake field calculation of ultra short bunches in structures with walls of finite conductivity. The basic approaches used in the thesis to solve the problem are the following. For materials with high but finite conductivity the model of the plane wave reflection from a conducting half-space is used. It is shown that in the conductive half-space the field components perpendicular to the interface can be neglected. The electric tangential component on the surface contributes to the tangential magnetic field in the lossless area just before the boundary layer. For high conducting media, the task is reduced to 1D electromagnetic problem in metal and the so-called 1D conducting line model can be applied instead of a full 3D space description. Further, a TE/TM (''transverse electric - transverse magnetic'') splitting implicit numerical scheme along with 1D conducting line model is applied to develop a new longitudinally dispersion-free hybrid numerical scheme in the time domain. The stability of the new hybrid numerical scheme in vacuum, conductor and bound cell is studied. The convergence of the new scheme is analyzed by comparison with the well-known analytical solutions. The wakefield calculations for a number of

  10. Assessing factors that influence deviations between measured and calculated reference evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodny, Marek; Nolz, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a fundamental component of the hydrological cycle, but challenging to be quantified. Lysimeter facilities, for example, can be installed and operated to determine ET, but they are costly and represent only point measurements. Therefore, lysimeter data are traditionally used to develop, calibrate, and validate models that allow calculating reference evapotranspiration (ET0) based on meteorological data, which can be measured more easily. The standardized form of the well-known FAO Penman-Monteith equation (ASCE-EWRI) is recommended as a standard procedure for estimating ET0 and subsequently plant water requirements. Applied and validated under different climatic conditions, the Penman-Monteith equation is generally known to deliver proper results. On the other hand, several studies documented deviations between measured and calculated ET0 depending on environmental conditions. Potential reasons are, for example, differing or varying surface characteristics of the lysimeter and the location where the weather instruments are placed. Advection of sensible heat (transport of dry and hot air from surrounding areas) might be another reason for deviating ET-values. However, elaborating causal processes is complex and requires comprehensive data of high quality and specific analysis techniques. In order to assess influencing factors, we correlated differences between measured and calculated ET0 with pre-selected meteorological parameters and related system parameters. Basic data were hourly ET0-values from a weighing lysimeter (ET0_lys) with a surface area of 2.85 m2 (reference crop: frequently irrigated grass), weather data (air and soil temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, wind velocity, and solar radiation), and soil water content in different depths. ET0_ref was calculated in hourly time steps according to the standardized procedure after ASCE-EWRI (2005). Deviations between both datasets were calculated as ET0_lys-ET0_ref and

  11. Calculation of the Power Peaking Factor Using CFNN and Its Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Ju Hyun; Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Choi, Geon Pil; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The local power density (LPD) and DNBR must be calculated in order to perform the main functions of the core protection calculator (CPC) and the core operation limit supervisory system (COLSS). CPC and COLSS play a role in the protection and monitoring systems of the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) and the advanced power reactor 1400 (APR1400). LPD should be estimated accurately to prevent fuel rods from melting. LPD at the hottest part of the core is called the power peaking factor (PPF, F{sub q} ). LPD at the hottest part of the core is more important than LPD at any other position in a reactor core. DNBR and PPF are the most important factors that must be continuously monitored from a safety aspect. The aim of the study is to calculate PPF in a reactor core by a cascaded fuzzy neural networks (CFNN) model according to operating conditions. The operation condition is reactor power, core inlet temperature, pressurizer pressure, mass flowrate, axial shape index (ASI), and variety of control rod position. The proposed CFNN model that is a PPF estimation algorithm is verified by using the nuclear and thermal data acquired from numerical simulations of OPR1000. The CFNN regression models were optimized by using the data set prepared as training data and tested by using verification data. The developed CFNN models were applied to the OPR 1000. As a result, the RMS error of the estimated PPF values is below 0.05%. In addition, their uncertainty was analyzed by a bootstrap method using 100 sampled development data sets.

  12. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report contains the results of a study describing the development of resistance factors for use : with the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Engineering News Record (ENR) formula for driven : piles. KDOT has verified driven pile resista...

  13. The effect of resistance training on quadriceps muscle volume and some growth factors in elderly and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negaresh, R; Ranjbar, R; Habibi, A; Mokhtarzade, M; Fokin, A; Gharibvand, M M

    2017-01-01

    Aging process is associated with loss of muscle mass, strength and growth factors dysfunction. Resistance training is one of the effective methods to overcome a decline in muscle mass, strength and also can modulate the level of myostatin, follistatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 week resistance training on different anabolic factors which influence muscle hypertrophy in elderly and young men. Fifteen elderly and sixteen young men volunteered and participated in a periodized 3-day per week progressive resistance training program for a total of 8 weeks. Daily calorie intake, muscle volume, cross-sectional area (by computed tomography) and myostatin, follistatin, IGF-1, growth hormone (GH) and testosterone were calculated before and after the training protocol. At the end of the training period, the strength in the elderly group increased significantly compared to the young group (p0,05). Quadriceps muscle volume and cross-sectional area increased more in the younger group (pchange was not different in either groups (p>0,05). Follistatin and testosterone increased in both groups (pResistance training improved hypertrophy and lead to anabolic conditions in elder and young subjects, but in different ways. In this regard, GH-IGF-1 axis and growth factors profile at the baseline had an important role in different age-related hypertrophy.

  14. Calculation of wave resistance by using Kochin function in the Rankine source method; Rankinsosuho ni okeru kochin kansu wo mochiita zoha teiko keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to avoid negative wave resistance (which is physically incomprehensible) generated in calculating wave resistance by using the Rankine source method, a proposal was made on a wave resistance calculation method using the Kochin function which describes behavior of speed potential in regions far apart from a hull. The Baba`s condition was used as a free surface condition for the speed potential which expresses wave motions around a hull. This has allowed a new Kochin function which uses as unknown the speed potential on the hull surface and the free surface near the hull to be defined and combined with the Rankine source method. A comparison was made between the calculated values for wave resistance, hull subsidence and trim change of an ore transporting vessel (SR107 type of ship) in a fully loaded condition and the result of water tank tests. The wave resistance values derived from pressure integration have all become negative when the Froude number is from 0.1 to 0.2, while no negative resistance has appeared in the calculations by using the Kochin function, but the result has agreed with that of the water tank tests. Accuracy of the calculations at low speeds was improved. The trim change in the calculations was slightly smaller than that in the water tank tests. The subsidence showed a good agreement. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  15. CI+MBPT calculations of Ar I energies, g factors, and transition line strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    Excited states of noble gas atoms present certain challenges to atomic theory for several reasons: first, relativistic effects are important and LS coupling is not optimal; second, energy intervals can be quite small, leading to strong mixing of states; third, many-body perturbation theory for hole states does not converge well. Previously, some attempts were made to solve this problem, using for example the all-order coupled-cluster approach and particle-hole configuration-interaction many-body perturbation theory (CI-MBPT) with modified denominators. However, while these approaches were promising, the accuracy was still limited. In this paper, we calculate Ar I energies, g factors, and transition amplitudes using ab initio CI-MBPT with eight valence electrons to avoid the problem of slow convergence of MBPT due to strong interaction between 3p and 3s states. We also included in CI many dominant states obtained by double excitations of the ground state configuration. Thus perturbation corrections were needed only for 1s, 2s, 2p core electrons non-included in valence-valence CI, which are quite small. We found that energy, g factors, and electric dipole matrix elements are in reasonable agreement with experiments. It is noteworthy that the theory agreed well with accurately measured g factors. Experimental oscillator strengths have large uncertainty, so in some cases we made a comparison with average values.

  16. Neutron Buildup Factors Calculation for Support Vector Regression Application in Shielding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckic, P.; Matijevic, M.; Grgic, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper initial set of data for neutron buildup factors determination using Support Vector Regression (SVR) method is prepared. The performance of SVR technique strongly depends on the quality of information used for model training. Thus it is very important to provide representable data to the SVR. SVR is a supervised type of learning so it demands data in the input/output form. In the case of neutron buildup factors estimation, the input parameters are the incident neutron energy, shielding thickness and shielding material and the output parameter is the neutron buildup factor value. So far the initial sets of data for different shielding configurations have been obtained using SCALE4.4 sequence SAS3. However, this results were obtained using group constants, thus the incident neutron energy was determined as the average value for each energy group. Obtained this way, the data provided to the SVR are fewer and therefore insufficient. More valuable information is obtained using SCALE6.2beta5 sequence MAVRIC which can perform calculations for the explicit incident neutron energy, which leads to greater maneuvering possibilities when active learning measures are employed, and consequently improves the quality of the developed SVR model.(author).

  17. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk Factors for Acquisition of Drug Resistance during Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Julia; Vlasova, Natalia; Nikishova, Elena; Tarasova, Irina; Eliseev, Platon; Maryandyshev, Andrey O.; Shemyakin, Igor G.; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Cegielski, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Acquired resistance to antituberculosis drugs decreases effective treatment options and the likelihood of treatment success. We identified risk factors for acquisition of drug resistance during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and evaluated the effect on treatment outcomes. Data were collected prospectively from adults from Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, who had pulmonary MDR TB during 2005–2008. Acquisition of resistance to capreomycin and of extensively drug-resistant TB were more likely among patients who received 3 effective drugs (9.4% vs. 0% and 8.6% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Poor outcomes were more likely among patients with acquired capreomycin resistance (100% vs. 25.9%), acquired ofloxacin resistance (83.6% vs. 22.7%), or acquired extensive drug resistance (100% vs. 24.4%). To prevent acquired drug resistance and poor outcomes, baseline susceptibility to first- and second-line drugs should be determined quickly, and treatment should be adjusted to contain >3 effective drugs. PMID:25988954

  19. Expression analysis of OsbZIP transcription factors in resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They have been shown to regulate diverse plant specific phenomena, including germination, floral induction and development, seed maturation, photomorphogenesis, biotic and abiotic stresses. Resistance response mediated by the rice blast resistance gene Pi36 is a typical signal transduction, in which 12 OsbZIP genes ...

  20. Geometric correction factor for transepithelial electrical resistance measurements in transwell and microfluidic cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, J.; Illa, X.; Gutiérrez, C.; Solé, M.; Guimerà, A.; Villa, R.

    2016-09-01

    Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements are regularly used in in vitro models to quantitatively evaluate the cell barrier function. Although it would be expected that TEER values obtained with the same cell type and experimental setup were comparable, values reported in the literature show a large dispersion for unclear reasons. This work highlights a possible error in a widely used formula to calculate the TEER, in which it may be erroneously assumed that the entire cell culture area contributes equally to the measurement. In this study, we have numerically calculated this error in some cell cultures previously reported. In particular, we evidence that some TEER measurements resulted in errors when measuring low TEERs, especially when using Transwell inserts 12 mm in diameter or microfluidic systems that have small chamber heights. To correct this error, we propose the use of a geometric correction factor (GCF) for calculating the TEER. In addition, we describe a simple method to determine the GCF of a particular measurement system, so that it can be applied retrospectively. We have also experimentally validated an interdigitated electrodes (IDE) configuration where the entire cell culture area contributes equally to the measurement, and it also implements minimal electrode coverage so that the cells can be visualized alongside TEER analysis.

  1. Risk Factors for Emergence of Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Cephalosporins among Enterobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Keith S.; Cosgrove, Sara; Harris, Anthony; Eliopoulos, George M.; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2001-01-01

    Among 477 patients with susceptible Enterobacter spp., 49 subsequently harbored third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter spp. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins were independent risk factors for resistance (relative risk [OR] = 2.3, P = 0.01); quinolone therapy was protective (OR = 0.4, P = 0.03). There were trends toward decreased risk for resistance among patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins and either aminoglycosides or imipenem. Of the patients receiving broad-spectrum cephalosporins, 19% developed resistance. PMID:11502540

  2. Calculation of the anti-trap factor in heavy water lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naudet, R.; Mougey, J.

    1965-01-01

    The calculation of the anti-trap factor of a lattice is complex when a large fraction of captures occurs in a range of energies where the spectrum in the fuel is considerably different from the simple dE/E law. This is particularly true for heavy water lattices in which the distances. between the bars are generally fairly large with respect to the slowing-down length. In order to take into account this effect it is necessary both to know the constitution of the effective resonance integral as a function of the energy, and to be able to calculate the distribution in the fuel. This report is devoted to these two problems. An improved method of treating the statistical domain makes it possible to plot the curves of the cross-sections per unit lethargy for various shapes of the fuel. Furthermore, the slowing-down of the neutrons is studied using a Monte-Carlo method which makes it possible in particular to take into account the perturbations caused by the non-moderating rods. A study is also made of the problem of shielding effects due to the captures themselves. (authors) [fr

  3. Theoretical Characterization of Visual Signatures and Calculation of Approximate Global Harmonic Frequency Scaling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinski, D. O.; Nelson, R. G.; Chase, G. M.; di Nallo, O. E.; Byrd, E. F. C.

    2016-05-01

    We are investigating the accuracy of theoretical models used to predict the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared spectra, as well as other properties, of product materials ejected from the muzzle of currently fielded systems. Recent advances in solid propellants has made the management of muzzle signature (flash) a principle issue in weapons development across the calibers. A priori prediction of the electromagnetic spectra of formulations will allow researchers to tailor blends that yield desired signatures and determine spectrographic detection ranges. Quantum chemistry methods at various levels of sophistication have been employed to optimize molecular geometries, compute unscaled harmonic frequencies, and determine the optical spectra of specific gas-phase species. Electronic excitations are being computed using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). Calculation of approximate global harmonic frequency scaling factors for specific DFT functionals is also in progress. A full statistical analysis and reliability assessment of computational results is currently underway. Work supported by the ARL, DoD-HPCMP, and USMA.

  4. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP sup T sup M , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents...

  5. Calculation of Stress Intensity Factor KⅠ Using the Exact Solution in an Infinitely Deep Crack in a Half-Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Deuk Man [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, we develop the exact field of modeⅠin an infinitely deep crack in a half-plane. Using this field, we obtain the exact stress intensity factor KⅠ. From the tractions on the crack faces induced by exact field, we calculate the stress intensity factor of this field. We compare the results with the stress intensity factor calculated using Bueckner’s weight function formula and that calculated by using Tada’s formula listed in “The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook” It was found that Bueckner’s formula yields accurate results. However, the results obtained using Tada’s formula exhibit inaccurate behavior.

  6. The nucleon as a test case to calculate vector-isovector form factors at low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leupold, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Extending a recent suggestion for hyperon form factors to the nucleon case, dispersion theory is used to relate the low-energy vector-isovector form factors of the nucleon to the pion vector form factor. The additionally required input, i.e. the pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes are determined from relativistic next-to-leading-order (NLO) baryon chiral perturbation theory including the nucleons and optionally the Delta baryons. Two methods to include pion rescattering are compared: a) solving the Muskhelishvili-Omnès (MO) equation and b) using an N/D approach. It turns out that the results differ strongly from each other. Furthermore the results are compared to a fully dispersive calculation of the (subthreshold) pion-nucleon amplitudes based on Roy-Steiner (RS) equations. In full agreement with the findings from the hyperon sector it turns out that the inclusion of Delta baryons is not an option but a necessity to obtain reasonable results. The magnetic isovector form factor depends strongly on a low-energy constant of the NLO Lagrangian. If it is adjusted such that the corresponding magnetic radius is reproduced, then the results for the corresponding pion-nucleon scattering amplitude (based on the MO equation) agree very well with the RS results. Also in the electric sector the Delta degrees of freedom are needed to obtain the correct order of magnitude for the isovector charge and the corresponding electric radius. Yet quantitative agreement is not achieved. If the subtraction constant that appears in the solution of the MO equation is not taken from nucleon+Delta chiral perturbation theory but adjusted such that the electric radius is reproduced, then one obtains also in this sector a pion-nucleon scattering amplitude that agrees well with the RS results.

  7. Method of Calculating the Correction Factors for Cable Dimensioning in Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simutkin, M.; Tuzikova, V.; Tlusty, J.; Tulsky, V.; Muller, Z.

    2017-04-01

    One of the main causes of overloading electrical equipment by currents of higher harmonics is the great increasing of a number of non-linear electricity power consumers. Non-sinusoidal voltages and currents affect the operation of electrical equipment, reducing its lifetime, increases the voltage and power losses in the network, reducing its capacity. There are standards that respects emissions amount of higher harmonics current that cannot provide interference limit for a safe level in power grid. The article presents a method for determining a correction factor to the long-term allowable current of the cable, which allows for this influence. Using mathematical models in the software Elcut, it was described thermal processes in the cable in case the flow of non-sinusoidal current. Developed in the article theoretical principles, methods, mathematical models allow us to calculate the correction factor to account for the effect of higher harmonics in the current spectrum for network equipment in any type of non-linear load.

  8. A pedestal temperature model with self-consistent calculation of safety factor and magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onjun, T; Siriburanon, T; Onjun, O

    2008-01-01

    A pedestal model based on theory-motivated models for the pedestal width and the pedestal pressure gradient is developed for the temperature at the top of the H-mode pedestal. The pedestal width model based on magnetic shear and flow shear stabilization is used in this study, where the pedestal pressure gradient is assumed to be limited by first stability of infinite n ballooning mode instability. This pedestal model is implemented in the 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code, where the safety factor and magnetic shear are solved self-consistently in both core and pedestal regions. With the self-consistently approach for calculating safety factor and magnetic shear, the effect of bootstrap current can be correctly included in the pedestal model. The pedestal model is used to provide the boundary conditions in the simulations and the Multi-mode core transport model is used to describe the core transport. This new integrated modeling procedure of the BALDUR code is used to predict the temperature and density profiles of 26 H-mode discharges. Simulations are carried out for 13 discharges in the Joint European Torus and 13 discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. The average root-mean-square deviation between experimental data and the predicted profiles of the temperature and the density, normalized by their central values, is found to be about 14%

  9. Factors underlying the natural resistance of animals against snake venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moussatché

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of mammals and reptilia with a natural resistance to snake venoms is known since a long time. This fact has been subjected to the study by several research workers. Our experiments showed us that in the marsupial Didelphis marsupialis, a mammal highly resistant to the venom of Bothrops jararaca, and other Bothrops venoms, has a genetically origin protein, a alpha-1, acid glycoprotein, now highly purified, with protective action in mice against the jararaca snake venom.

  10. Calculated neutron air kerma strength conversion factors for a generically encapsulated Cf-252 brachytherapy source

    CERN Document Server

    Rivard, M J; D'Errico, F; Tsai, J S; Ulin, K; Engler, M J

    2002-01-01

    The sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron air kerma strength conversion factor (S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f) is a parameter needed to convert the radionuclide mass (mu g) provided by Oak Ridge National Laboratory into neutron air kerma strength required by modern clinical brachytherapy dosimetry formalisms indicated by Task Group No. 43 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The impact of currently used or proposed encapsulating materials for sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf brachytherapy sources (Pt/Ir-10%, 316L stainless steel, nitinol, and Zircaloy-2) on S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f was calculated and results were fit to linear equations. Only for substantial encapsulation thicknesses, did S sub K sub N /m sub C sub f decrease, while the impact of source encapsulation composition is increasingly negligible as Z increases. These findings are explained on the basis of the non-relativistic kinematics governing the majority of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf neutron interactions. Neutron kerma and energy spectra resul...

  11. Calculation of astrophysical S-factor and reaction rate in 12C(p, γ)13N reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, A.; Sadeghi, H.; Pourimani, R.

    2018-02-01

    The 12C(p, γ)13N reaction is the first process in the CNO cycle. Also it is a source of low-energy solar neutrinos in various neutrino experiments. Therefore, it is of high interest to gain data of the astrophysical S-factor in low energies. By applying Faddeev's method, we calculated wave functions for the bound state of 13N. Then the cross sections for resonance and non-resonance were calculated through using Breit-Wigner and direct capture cross section formulae, respectively. After that, we calculated the total S-factor and compared it with previous experimental data, revealing a good agreement altogether. Then, we extrapolated the S-factor in zero energy and the result was 1.32 ± 0.19 (keV.b). In the end, we calculated reaction rate and compared it with NACRE data.

  12. The incidence and risk factors of resistant E. coli infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis: a single-centre experience with 2215 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Özlem; Bozlu, Murat; Efesoy, Ozan; Güntekin, Onur; Tek, Mesut; Akbay, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp., 3 (1·9%) MRCNS, and 2 (1·3%) Klebsiella spp. Of the positive urine cultures which yielded E. coli, 99 (76·7%) were evaluated for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of those, 83 (83·8%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant and composed of 51 (61·4%) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli ratios were 73·4 and 95·9% before 2008 and after 2008, respectively (P = 0·002). The most sensitive antibiotics for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains were imipenem (100%), amikacin (84%) and cefoperazone (83%). The use of quinolones in the last 6 months and a history of hospitalization in the last 30 days were found to be significant risk factors. We found that resistant E. coli strains might be a common microorganism in patients with this kind of complication. The risk factors for development of infection with these resistant strains were history of the use of fluoroquinolones and hospitalization.

  13. Biochemical factors associated with cassava resistance to whitefly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) an important food security crop, is inflicted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) worldwide, causing direct damage of up to 80% of yield loss. Although resistance to the pest has been associated with antibiosis, changes that occur in metabolite activity, and their effect on the pest have not been ...

  14. Biochemical factors associated with cassava resistance to whitefly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-08-17

    Aug 17, 2017 ... Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) an important food security crop, is inflicted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) worldwide, causing direct damage of up to 80% of yield loss. Although resistance to the pest has been associated with antibiosis, changes that occur in metabolite activity, and their effect on the pest ...

  15. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Iranian hospitals: virulence factors and antibiotic resistance properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Momtaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases. Indiscriminate prescription of antibiotics caused severe antibiotic resistance especially against commonly used drugs. The present investigation was carried out to study the distribution of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene, SCCmec types and antibiotic resistance properties of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Iranian hospitals. A total of 132 clinical specimens were collected from two major Iranian hospitals. Samples were cultured and their positive results were subjected to several PCR methods. The patterns of antibiotic resistance were studied using the disk diffusion method. We found that 66 out of 132 samples (50% were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The most commonly infected samples were superficial and surgical wounds (66.12%. The incidence of mecA, tetK, ermA, ermC, tetM, aacA-D, linA, msrA, vatA, vatC and vatB antibiotic resistance genes were 80.30%, 34.84%, 30.30%, 25.75%, 24.24%, 19.69%, 7.57%, 7.57%, 6.06%, 3.03% and 1.51%, respectively. Totally, 40.90% of isolates harbored the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin gene. Of 53 mec positive strains, the distribution of SCCmec V, SCCmec III, SCCmec IVa, SCCmec IVc and SCCmec IVb were 28 (52.83%, 13 (24.52%, 6 (11.32%, 4 (7.54% and 2 (3.77%, respectively. All isolates were resistant to penicillin, cephalothin, cefazoline and ceftriaxone. The high levels of Staphylococcus aureus resistance against commonly used antibiotics as well as high presence of SCCmec types of meticillin-resistant virulent strains of Staphylococcus aureus suggest that infections with these strains require more advanced hospital care with emerging demand for novel antibiotics.

  16. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Haemophilus parasuis Isolates Exhibit More Putative Virulence Factors than Their Susceptible Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jiantao; Yan, Shuxian; Yang, Yujie; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of 23 putative virulence factors among fluoroquinolone-susceptible and -resistant Haemophilus parasuis isolates was analyzed. Putative hemolysin precursor, fimbrial assembly chaperone, and type I site-specific restriction modification system R subunit genes were more prevalent among fluoroquinolone-resistant H. parasuis isolates than among fluoroquinolone-susceptible H. parasuis isolates. Fluoroquinolone resistance may be associated with an increase in the presence of some viru...

  17. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  18. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Russian Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Ae; Westra, John V.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.

    2006-01-01

    Factors influencing the adoption of Russian Varroa-Resistant honey bees were assessed. Logit results indicate factors associated with the adoption include sales, internet use, and contact with other beekeepers. Negatively associated factors are age and income. Future adoption depends upon previous use and perception.

  19. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  20. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  1. Development of LRFD resistance factors for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Bridge approach embankments and many other : transportation-related applications make use of : reinforced earth retaining structures. Mechanically : Stabilized Earth (MSE) walls are designed under : the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) : meth...

  2. Calibration of resistance factors for drilled shafts for the new FHWA design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) calibration of deep foundation in Louisiana was first completed for driven piles (LTRC Final Report 449) in May 2009 and then for drilled shafts using 1999 FHWA design method (ONeill and Reese method) (...

  3. Calibration of Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts for the New FHWA Design Method : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and American Association of State : Highway and Transportation Offi cials (AASHTO) require that all federally funded : bridges including substructures be designed using the load and resistance : factor design...

  4. Orchard factors associated with resistance and cross resistance to sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeufer, Emily E; Ngugi, Henry K

    2012-03-01

    Orchard management practices, such as destroying of overwintered inoculum and limiting the number of fungicide applications, are often recommended as tactics for slowing the development of resistance to sterol demethylation-inhibitor (DMI) fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis. However, there is little quantitative evidence relating the use of such practices to levels of resistance in orchards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of V. inaequalis isolates from Pennsylvania to DMI fungicides, and to identify orchard management factors related to the incidence of resistant isolates. In total, 644 single-spore V. inaequalis cultures obtained from 20 apple orchards in 2008 or 2009 were tested for sensitivity to myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, or difenoconazole. Growers provided management history of the sampled plots. Widespread shifts toward resistance to the three fungicides were noted, with mean effective concentration for 50% inhibition (EC(50)) values of 2.136, 0.786, and 0.187 μg/ml for myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, and difenoconazole, respectively. Cross resistance to the three fungicides was documented in high correlation (Spearman's r > 0.6) between mean EC(50) values for 14 orchards. Based on a 0.5-μg/ml threshold, 66 and 26% of isolates were resistant to myclobutanil and fenbuconazole, respectively, and 22% were cross resistant to the two fungicides. A significant between-year shift toward increased resistance was noted in two of three orchards surveyed in both years. Failure to use dormant copper sprays, older trees, larger orchards, orchards with ≤10 cultivars, and application of >4 DMI sprays were positively correlated (0.0001 4 DMI sprays were four times as likely to be resistant to fenbuconazole (odds ratio = 4.57; P = 0.015). Isolates from orchards without dormant copper sprays were twice as likely to be cross-shifted toward resistance to all three fungicides (odds ratio = 1.76; P = 0.048). Results identify management

  5. An investigation of correlation factors linking footing resistance on sand with cone penetration test results

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Kenneth; Tolooiyan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Significant research effort has led to improvements in our ability to estimate the ultimate bearing resistance of footings in sand. These techniques often estimate the footing resistance at relatively large displacements, typically 10% of the footing width, qb0.1. Cone Penetration Test (CPT) design methods typically link qb0.1 and qc through a constant reduction factor, a. A range of a factors for shallow footings have been proposed, some methods suggest that a is constant and while ...

  6. Influence of selected factors on bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of sire, extender, and addition of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL to extenders used on the percentage rate of spermatozoa survival after cold shock. Two groups of extenders were compared: without LDL addition (control variants and LDL enriched (experimental variants. Three extenders were used: AndroMed®, Bioxcell®, and Triladyl®. Experimental variants included 4–8% LDL addition into the AndroMed® and Bioxcell® extenders, and 6–10% LDL addition into the Triladyl® extender. In total, 12 samples of fresh semen were collected from 4 bulls during a period of 8 weeks. Bovine spermatozoa cold shock resistance (1 ± 1 °C, 10 min was evaluated by the percentage rate of live sperm using eosin-nigrosine staining immediately and after heat incubation (37 ± 1 °C, 120 min. The results showed the effect of sire as important and individual differences between selected sires in their sperm resistance against cold shock were confirmed. AndroMed® and Bioxcell® were found to be providing better protection of bull semen to cold shock compared to Triladyl® due to lower decline of live sperm proportion. Our results detected a positive effect of LDL addition on sperm resistance against cold shock, especially on lower decrease of live sperm percentage rate after 120 min of the heat test (P < 0.05. Further studies are needed to assess the optimal concentration of LDL in various kinds of extenders as well to state ideal time and temperature conditions for ensuring LDL reaction with sperm.

  7. Δg: The new aromaticity index based on g-factor calculation applied for polycyclic benzene rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucun, Fatih; Tokatlı, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the aromaticity of polycyclic benzene rings was evaluated by the calculation of g-factor for a hydrogen placed perpendicularly at geometrical center of related ring plane at a distance of 1.2 Å. The results have compared with the other commonly used aromatic indices, such as HOMA, NICSs, PDI, FLU, MCI, CTED and, generally been found to be in agreement with them. So, it was proposed that the calculation of the average g-factor as Δg could be applied to study the aromaticity of polycyclic benzene rings without any restriction in the number of benzene rings as a new magnetic-based aromaticity index.

  8. Geometric factor and influence of sensors in the establishment of a resistivity-moisture relation in soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, M.; Mansilla-Plaza, L.; Sánchez-de-laOrden, M.

    2017-10-01

    Prior to field scale research, soil samples are analysed on a laboratory scale for electrical resistivity calibrations. Currently, there are a variety of field instruments to estimate the water content in soils using different physical phenomena. These instruments can be used to develop moisture-resistivity relationships on the same soil samples. This assures that measurements are performed on the same material and under the same conditions (e.g., humidity and temperature). A geometric factor is applied to the location of electrodes, in order to calculate the apparent electrical resistivity of the laboratory test cells. This geometric factor can be determined in three different ways: by means of the use of an analytical approximation, laboratory trials (experimental approximation), or by the analysis of a numerical model. The first case, the analytical approximation, is not appropriate for complex cells or arrays. And both, the experimental and numerical approximation can lead to inaccurate results. Therefore, we propose a novel approach to obtain a compromise solution between both techniques, providing a more precise determination of the geometrical factor.

  9. Numerous risk factors for Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance revealed by extended anamnesis: a Bulgarian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Ilieva, Juliana; Gergova, Galina; Davidkov, Lubomir; Spassova, Zoya; Kamburov, Victor; Katsarov, Nikolai; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for primary Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance by an extended anamnesis. In total, 519 H. pylori strains from untreated symptomatic adults who answered a questionnaire were evaluated. Strain susceptibility was assessed by a breakpoint susceptibility test. Primary resistance rates were 29.5 % for metronidazole, 17.9 % for clarithromycin, 7.3 % for metronidazole+clarithromycin, 4.0 % for tetracycline and 10.8 % for ciprofloxacin. On multivariate analysis, younger (≤65 years) age was an independent predictor for metronidazole resistance. To our knowledge, for the first time, being a member of the health-care profession was revealed as a risk factor for H. pylori resistance to metronidazole and both metronidazole and clarithromycin. Respiratory and urinary tract infections were independent predictors of clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin resistance, respectively. The presence of co-infections was an independent risk factor for clarithromycin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin resistance. Surprisingly, female sex was the only predictor for tetracycline resistance. The antibiotic resistance rates were not associated with disease type, place of residence, birthplace, educational level, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or proton pump inhibitor use, smoking or dietary factors, such as consumption of coffee, yogurt, green tea, raw garlic, raw onion, honey or meat. There was a trend for higher metronidazole resistance in strains from diabetic patients. In conclusion, the extended anamnesis of H. pylori-positive patients should include data on patient age, sex, whether they are in the health-care profession, co-infections and possibly diabetes to improve the choice of empiric therapy. Tailored treatment based on the extended anamnesis is suggested, and susceptibility testing of the strains is recommended for patients at risk for antibiotic resistance, especially to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones or both metronidazole

  10. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part F. Water content in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Hasai, Hiromi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Oka, Takamitsu; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    As part of the DS02 studies to reevaluate neutrons from the atomic bomb, we cored rock samples from a pillar of Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 128 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima, and measured the depth profile of induced 152 Eu radioactivity in the rock (Hasai et al. 1987). By use of the MCNP neutron transport calculation code, the depth profile of 152 Eu in the rock was calculated, assuming a neutron distribution at the given location around the pillar based on the DS86 calculations. The depth profile was then compared with the distribution of measurements (Endo et al. 1999). For the calculation, it is necessary to know the major components of the rock. It is also necessary to estimate the water content correctly, since the cross section of hydrogen-neutron reactions is large, and neutron moderation effects of hydrogen are significant. For this purpose, the basic characteristics of water content in rock were studied, based on a few characteristic experiments to estimate the water content, which was then used in neutron transport calculations. The following describes our concepts and methods. (author)

  11. Risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli from preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duse, Anna; Waller, Karin Persson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Persson, Ylva; Bengtsson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate calf and farm factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in the feces of preweaned dairy calves in Sweden. In particular, we investigated the effects of feeding calves colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials. The secondary objective was to describe the prevalence of resistant E. coli in feces of preweaned dairy calves in Sweden. Fecal samples from 3 calves, aged 7 to 28d, from 243 farms were analyzed for the within-sample prevalence of E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and cefotaxime using selective agars supplemented with antimicrobials. In addition, resistance to 12 antimicrobials was tested in one randomly selected E. coli isolate per calf. Information was collected from the farmers via questionnaires regarding the use of colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials as calf feed and other uses of antimicrobials in the herd. Multivariable zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of various risk factors for shedding of resistant E. coli. Escherichia coli resistant to streptomycin, nalidixic acid, or cefotaxime were isolated from 90, 49, and 11% of the calves, respectively. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial was found in a random isolate of E. coli from 48% of the calves. Feeding colostrum from cows treated with antimicrobials at drying off did not affect the prevalence of resistant E. coli. In contrast, feeding milk from cows treated with antimicrobials during lactation resulted in significantly more nalidixic acid- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli than when such milk was discarded; no significant effect was seen for other resistance traits. Furthermore, an interaction was found between feeding milk from cows treated with antimicrobials and use of fluoroquinolones in cows. In general, the prevalence of resistance was lower for older calves and calves on small farms. Other factors

  12. Calculation of nitrous oxide emission from agriculture in the Netherlands : update of emission factors and leaching fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to update the NO2 emission factors for nitrogen (N) fertilizer and animal manures applied to soils, based on results of Dutch experiments, and to derive a country specific methodology to calculate nitrate leachting using a leaching fraction (FracLEACH). It is recommended to use

  13. Experiment calculated ascertainment of factors affecting the energy release in IGR reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpesheva, A.M.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present energy supply resources problem is important. Nuclear reactors can, of course, solve this problem, but at the same time there is another issue, concerning safety exploitation of nuclear reactors. That is why, for the last seven years, such experiments as 'Investigation of the processes, conducting severe accidents with core melting' are being carried out at our IGR (impulse graphite reactor) reactor. Leaving out other difficulties of such experiments, it is necessary to notice, that such experiments require more accurate IGR core energy release calculations. The final aim of the present research is verification and correction of the existing method or creation of new method of IGR core energy release calculation. IGR reactor is unique and there is no the same reactor in the world. Therefore, application of the other research reactor methods here is quite useful. This work is based on evaluation of factors affecting core energy release (physical weight of experimental device, different configuration of reactor core, i.e. location of absorbers, initial temperature of core, etc), as well as interference of absorbers group. As it is known, energy release is a value of integral reactor power. During experiments with rays, Reactor power depends on currents of ion production chambers (IPC), located round the core. It is worth to notice that each ion production chamber (IPC) in the same start-up has its own ratio coefficient between IPC current and reactor present power. This task is complicated due to 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients, that change continuously, probably, because of new loading of experimental facility and different position of control rods. That is why, in order to try about reactor power, before every start-up, we have to re-determine the 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficients for each ion production chamber (IPC). Therefore, the present work will investigate the behavior of ratio coefficient within the

  14. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part B. Effects of local environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, Robert T.; Kerr, George D.; Pace, Joseph V. III; Lillie, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the difficulties encountered by Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb analysts was achieving agreement between measured and calculated neutron activation data, particularly for the cases of materials that were activated by thermal and epithermal neutrons. In DS86 (Kerr et al. 1987) and the work reported here, the adopted standard was to calculate neutron kerma and neutron activation at 1 m above flat, wet ground as a function of distance from the burst. This two-dimensional air-over-ground model does not account for local effects, because the air-ground interface is a flat surface that offers no local shielding by terrain fluctuations, houses, walls, etc. In addition, the ground composition is assumed to be the same at all ground ranges. The composition of the surface and local environment conditions can have profound impact on the thermal neutron response at 1 m above the ground surface. Depending on the composition of the surface materials and assumptions made for the presence of buildings and other structures, calculated responses might increase or decrease the neutron activation of materials by thermal and epithermal neutrons. The examination of measured neutron activation responses suggests that wide variations did indeed occur. Measured and calculated activation data were, in some cases, found to differ by as much as 10% to 50% depending on location and distance from the hypocenter. In other cases, measured activation data taken at the same ground range often showed differences among themselves. (J.P.N.)

  15. Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in South America: history, current dissemination status and associated socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2014-04-01

    South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The study of method for calculating the accident atmospheric dispersion factor and accident washout factor for coastal nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Gao Zhanrong; Jiang Gang; Wang Shuxian; Wang Shoushu; Zhang Maoshuan; Chen Jiayi; Jia Peirong

    1998-12-01

    A model to estimate the accident probabilistic dispersion factor in which the effect of internal boundary layer is considered and a set of deterministic and probabilistic models to estimate the accident washout factor are set up based on the models of accident dispersion factor given by current guides. The accident probabilistic dispersion factor, the deterministic washout factor for different time interval after accident release, the accident probabilistic washout factor and the dose corresponding to various pathway are estimated based on the measured meteorological data on the site of a coastal nuclear power plant to be built in the east part of China. The result shows that: the value of accident probabilistic dispersion factor given by the proposed model are 5.9 times of those given by the common model; for the dose obtained during 0 to 8 h after accident release, the external exposure dose from washout deposition given by deterministic model is about 5.50 times of those from dry deposition; the ratio between external exposure dose from washout and dry deposition given by conservative probabilistic model with and without considering the effect from internal boundary layer is 9.56 and 56.7 respectively; for the realistic probabilistic model the value of above ratio is 1.93 and 11.4

  17. Identifying patients with therapy-resistant depression by using factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, K; Liest, V; Lunde, M

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attempts to identify the factor structure in patients with treatment-resistant depression have been very limited. METHODS: Principal component analysis was performed using the baseline datasets from 3 add-on studies [2 with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and one...... with transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields (T-PEMF)], in which the relative effect as percentage of improvement during the treatment period was analysed. RESULTS: We identified 2 major factors, the first of which was a general factor. The second was a dual factor consisting of a depression subscale comprising...... the negatively loaded items (covering the pure depression items) and a treatment resistant subscale comprising the positively loaded items (covering lassitude, concentration difficulties and sleep problems). These 2 dual subscales were used as outcome measures. Improvement on the treatment resistant subscale...

  18. Calculation of the orientational linear and nonlinear correlation factors of polar liquids from the rotational Dean-Kawasaki equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déjardin, P. M.; Cornaton, Y.; Ghesquière, P.; Caliot, C.; Brouzet, R.

    2018-01-01

    A calculation of the Kirkwood and Piekara-Kielich correlation factors of polar liquids is presented using the forced rotational diffusion theory of Cugliandolo et al. [Phys. Rev. E 91, 032139 (2015)]. These correlation factors are obtained as a function of density and temperature. Our results compare reasonably well with the experimental temperature dependence of the linear dielectric constant of some simple polar liquids across a wide temperature range. A comparison of our results for the linear dielectric constant and the Kirkwood correlation factor with relevant numerical simulations of liquid water and methanol is given.

  19. Semi-empirical model for the calculation of flow friction factors in wire-wrapped rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carajilescov, P.; Fernandez y Fernandez, E.

    1981-08-01

    LMFBR fuel elements consist of wire-wrapped rod bundles, with triangular array, with the fluid flowing parallel to the rods. A semi-empirical model is developed in order to obtain the average bundle friction factor, as well as the friction factor for each subchannel. The model also calculates the flow distribution factors. The results are compared to experimental data for geometrical parameters in the range: P(div)D = 1.063 - 1.417, H(div)D = 4 - 50, and are considered satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  20. Investigation of the factorization scheme dependence of finite order perturbative QCD calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Karel

    -, č. 11 (2011), 005/1-005/44 ISSN 1126-6708 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : QCD * parton distribution functions * factorization schemes * NLO Monte Carlo event generators Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.831, year: 2011

  1. Nucleon form factors from high statistics mixed-action calculations with 2+1 flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroers, Wolfram; Edwards, Robert G; Engelhardt, Michael; Fleming, George Taminga; Hagler, Philipp; Lin, Huey-Wen; Lin, Mei-Feng; Meyer, Harvey B; Musch, Bernhard; Negele, John W; Orginos, Kostas; Pochinsky, Andrew V; Procura, Massimiliano; Renner, Dru B; Richards, David G; Syritsyn, Sergey N

    2009-12-01

    We present new high-statistics results for nucleon form factors at pion masses of approximately 290, 350, 500, and 600 MeV using a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks on an improved staggered sea. We perform chiral fits to both vector and axial form factors and compare our results to experiment.

  2. Investigation into the effect of common factors on rolling resistance of belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since indentation rolling resistance accounts for the major part of total resistance of belt conveyor, it is important to compute it using a proper method during the design and application study of the belt conveyor. First, an approximate formula for computing the indentation rolling resistance is offered. In this formula, a one-dimensional Winkler foundation and a three-parameter viscoelastic Maxwell solid model of the belt backing material are used to determine the resistance to motion of a conveyor belt over idlers. With the help of this formula, the authors analyze the effect of common factors on the rolling resistance. Finally, experiments are carried out under certain condition compared with theoretical analysis. A reasonable correlation exists between the experimental results and the theoretical formulae.

  3. Renewal and maintenance of a nuclear structure data file used for the calculations of dose conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Yamaguchi, Yukichi

    1996-02-01

    The ENSDF decay data are used as fundamental data to compute radiation data in the DOSDAC code system, which was developed at JAERI, for the calculation of dose conversion factors. The ENSDF decay data have been periodically revised by reviewing new experimental data in the literature under an international network. The use of this data file enables us to calculate radiation data from information which is the newest and internationally recognized. In spite of this advantage, the decay data file is seldom used in applied fields. This is due to some problems to be solved from a viewpoint of the calculation of radiation data, as well as its complicated structure. This report describes methods for renewal and maintenance of the ENSDF decay data used for the calculation of dose conversion factors. In case that the decay data are used directly, attention should be sometimes paid to some problems, for example defects in data. In renewing and using the ENSDF decay data, the DOSDAC code system tries to avoid wrong calculations of radiation data by check and modification of defects in data through four supporting computer codes. (author)

  4. Calculation of Fire Severity Factors and Fire Non-Suppression Probabilities For A DOE Facility Fire PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elicson, Tom; Harwood, Bentley; Lucek, Heather; Bouchard, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Over a 12 month period, a fire PRA was developed for a DOE facility using the NUREG/CR-6850 EPRI/NRC fire PRA methodology. The fire PRA modeling included calculation of fire severity factors (SFs) and fire non-suppression probabilities (PNS) for each safe shutdown (SSD) component considered in the fire PRA model. The SFs were developed by performing detailed fire modeling through a combination of CFAST fire zone model calculations and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Component damage times and automatic fire suppression system actuation times calculated in the CFAST LHS analyses were then input to a time-dependent model of fire non-suppression probability. The fire non-suppression probability model is based on the modeling approach outlined in NUREG/CR-6850 and is supplemented with plant specific data. This paper presents the methodology used in the DOE facility fire PRA for modeling fire-induced SSD component failures and includes discussions of modeling techniques for: Development of time-dependent fire heat release rate profiles (required as input to CFAST), Calculation of fire severity factors based on CFAST detailed fire modeling, and Calculation of fire non-suppression probabilities.

  5. Tokamak m = 1 magnetohydrodynamic calculations in toroidal geometry using a full set of nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1988-01-01

    The linear stability and nonlinear evolution of the resistive m = 1 mode in tokamaks is studied using a full set of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in toroidal geometry. The modification of the linear and nonlinear properties of the mode by a combination of strong toroidal effects and low resistivity is the focus of this work. Linearly there is a transition from resistive kink to resistive tearing behavior as the aspect ratio and resistivity are reduced, and there is a corresponding modification of the nonlinear behavior, including a slowing of the island growth and development of a Rutherford regime, as the tearing regime is approached. In order to study the sensitivity of the stability and evolution to assumptions concerning the equation of state, two sets of full nonlinear resistive MHD equations (a pressure convection set and an incompressible set) are used. Both sets give more stable nonlinear behavior as the aspect ratio is reduced. The pressure convection set shows a transition from a Kadomtsev reconnection at large aspect ratio to a saturation at small aspect ratio. The incompressible set yields Kadomtsev reconnection for all aspect ratios, but with a significant lengthening of the reconnection time and development of a Rutherford regime at an aspect ratio approaching the transition from a resistive kink mode to a tearing mode. The pressure convection set gives an incomplete reconnection similar to that sometimes seen experimentally. The pressure convection set is, however, strictly justified only at high beta

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus fitness in vivo: calculations based on a single zidovudine resistance mutation at codon 215 of reverse transcriptase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; de Ronde, A.; Ho, D. D.; Perelson, A. S.

    1996-01-01

    We monitored a subject newly infected with a zidovudine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain and found that in the absence of drug, the viral population with the resistance-conferring tyrosine (TAC) codon 215 of reverse transcriptase was gradually replaced. By using standard formulas

  7. Assessment of theoretical and experimental results in the calculation of atmospheric dilution factors in the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, E.E.; Tossi, M.H.; Telleria, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Collective doses produced during the normal working of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant are calculated using annual atmospheric factors. This work studies the behaviour of the dilution factors in different periods of the year in order to fit the calculated dose model applying factors from seasonal, monthly or weekly periods. The Radiation Protection Group of the C.N.E.A. have carried out continuous environmental monitoring in the surroundings of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant. These studies include the measurement of air tritium concentration, radionuclide that is found principally as tritiated water vapour. This isotope, normally released by the nuclear power plant was used as a tracer to assess the atmospheric dilution factors. Factors were calculated by two methods: an experimental one, based on environmental measurements of the tritium concentration in the surroundings of the nuclear power plant and another one by applying a theoretical model based on information from the micrometeorological tower located in the mentioned place. To carry out the environmental monitoring, four monitoring stations in the surroundings of the power plant were chosen. Three of them are approximately one kilometer from the plant and the fourth is 7.5 km away, near the city of Lima. To condense and collect the atmospheric water vapour, an overcooling system was used. The measurement was performed by liquid scintillation counting, previous alkaline electrolytical enrichment of the samples. The theoretical model uses hourly values of direction and wind intensity, as well as the atmospheric dispersive properties. Values obtained during the period 1976 to 1988 allowed, applying statistical tests, to validate the theoretical model and to observe seasonal variation of the dilution factors throughout the same year and between different years. Finally, results and graphics are presented showing that the behaviour of the dilution factors in different periods of the year. It is recommended to

  8. Correction factors for photon beam quality for cylindrical ionization chambers: Monte Carlo calculations by using the PENELOPE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreras Caballero, A. A.; Hernandez Garcia, J.J.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.

    2009-01-01

    Were directly determined correction factors depending on the type camera beam quality, k, Q, and kQ, Qo, instead of the product (w, air p) Q, for three type cylindrical ionization chambers Pinpoint and divergent monoenergetic beams of photons in a wide range of energies (4-20 MV). The method of calculation used dispenses with the approaches taken in the classic procedure considered independent of braking power ratios and the factors disturbance of the camera. A detailed description of the geometry and materials chambers were supplied by the manufacturer and used as data input for the system 2006 of PENELOPE Monte Carlo calculation using a User code that includes correlated sampling, and forced interactions division of particles. We used a photon beam Co-60 as beam reference for calculating the correction factors for beam quality. No data exist for the cameras PTW 31014, 31015 and 31016 in the TRS-398 at they do not compare the results with data calculated or determined experimentally by other authors. (author)

  9. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Angonese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional economics. Methodologically, this study provides a qualitative assessment of the problem and a descriptive analysis of the resistance factors through a case-study approach. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed through content analysis. Two companies were selected for this study due to their differing characteristics. The following seven factors were analyzed for resistance to implementing integrated management systems: institutional power, ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. However, there was no evidence to characterize hierarchical power. The research findings indicate that changing management accounting systems, through the implementation of an integrated management system, faces internal resistance in these organizations. Each factor varies in intensity but is permanently present in these companies, such as ontological insecurity, trust, inertia, lack of knowledge, acceptance of routines and decoupling. These factors are awakened when the change process begins and, if they gather enough force, can stop the change.

  10. Nuclear respiratory factor-1 and bioenergetics in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radde, Brandie N.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Mai, Huy Xuan; Alizadeh-Rad, Negin; Piell, Kellianne; Van Hoose, Patrick; Cole, Marsha P.; Muluhngwi, Penn; Kalbfleisch, Ted S. [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Rouchka, Eric C. [Bioinformatics and Biomedical Computing Laboratory, Department of Computer Engineering and Computer Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Hill, Bradford G. [Department of Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Klinge, Carolyn M., E-mail: carolyn.klinge@louisville.edu [Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    Acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance is a significant clinical problem in treating patients with estrogen receptor α (ERα)+ breast cancer. We reported that ERα increases nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), which regulates nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene transcription, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NRF-1 knockdown stimulates apoptosis. Whether NRF-1 and target gene expression is altered in endocrine resistant breast cancer cells is unknown. We measured NRF-1and metabolic features in a cell model of progressive TAM-resistance. NRF-1 and its target mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were higher in TAM-resistant LCC2 and LCC9 cells than TAM-sensitive MCF-7 cells. Using extracellular flux assays we observed that LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells showed similar oxygen consumption rate (OCR), but lower mitochondrial reserve capacity which was correlated with lower Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit B in LCC1 and LCC2 cells. Complex III activity was lower in LCC9 than MCF-7 cells. LCC1, LCC2, and LCC9 cells had higher basal extracellular acidification (ECAR), indicating higher aerobic glycolysis, relative to MCF-7 cells. Mitochondrial bioenergetic responses to estradiol and 4-hydroxytamoxifen were reduced in the endocrine-resistant cells compared to MCF-7 cells. These results suggest the acquisition of altered metabolic phenotypes in response to long term antiestrogen treatment may increase vulnerability to metabolic stress. - Highlights: • NRF-1 and TFAM expression are higher in endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells. • Oxygen consumption rate is similar in endocrine-sensitive and resistant cells. • Mitochondrial reserve capacity is lower in endocrine-resistant cells. • Endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells have increased glycolysis. • Bioenergetic responses to E2 and tamoxifen are lower in endocrine-resistant cells.

  11. The effect of utilising age and sex dependent factors for calculating detriment from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A.; Davis, M.; Moseley, R.D.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Proposals have been made for a quantity that can be used to estimate possible detriment from medical radiology better than the ICRP's collective effective dose equivalent. One such approach utilises age and sex dependent 'weighting' factors. The magnitude of the effect obtained by utilising such factors when applied to an actual population has not been previously assessed. When age and sex dependent weighting factors are applied to diagnostic medical radiology for all hospital examinations conducted in the United States in 1980, estimates of detriment are reduced by one-third. (author)

  12. Study of multiplication factor sensitivity to the spread of WWER spent fuel isotopics calculated by different codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, L.

    2001-01-01

    As a sensitivity study the impact on the system reactivity was studied in the case that different calculational methodologies of spent fuel isotopic concentrations were used for WWER spent fuel inventory computations. The sets of isotopic concentrations obtained by calculations with different codes and libraries as a result of the CB2 international benchmark focused on WWER-440 burnup credit were used to show the spread of the calculated spent fuel system reactivity. Using the MCNP 4B code and changing the isotopics input data, the multiplication factor of an infinite array of the WWER-440 fuel pin cells was calculated. The evaluation of the results shows the sensitivity of the calculated reactivity to different calculational methodologies used for the spent fuel inventory computation. In the studied cases of the CB2 benchmark, the spread of the reference k-results relative to the mean was found less or about ±1% in spite of the fact that the data of isotopic concentrations were spread much more. (author)

  13. Calculation of the thermal utilisation factor in a cell made up of a given number of concentric media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amouyal, A.; Benoist, P.; Guionnet, Ch.

    1961-01-01

    The method of calculating the thermal utilisation factor, described in a previous report, is extended to the case of a cylindrical cell containing a given number of concentric media, certain of which may be empty. A collision by collision method is used in all but the peripheral medium, which may be treated by a theory of controlled diffusion. A programme for the IBM 650 calculator has been based on this method. Some numerical results are presented. An equivalent matrix formulation, due to C. Guionnet, is given as an appendix. (author) [fr

  14. New approximations for the Doppler broadening function applied to the calculation of resonance self-shielding factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Daniel A.; Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C.

    2008-01-01

    The activation technique allows much more precise measurements of neutron intensity, relative or absolute. The technique requires the knowledge of the Doppler broadening function ψ(x,ξ) to determine the resonance self-shielding factors in the epithermal range G epi (τ,ξ). Two new analytical approximations for the Doppler broadening function ψ(x,ξ) are proposed. The approximations proposed are compared with other methods found in literature for the calculation of the ψ(x,ξ) function, that is, the 4-pole Pade method and the Frobenius method, when applied to the calculation of G epi (τ,ξ). The results obtained provided satisfactory accuracy. (authors)

  15. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Resistance to Changes in Management Accounting Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Angonese; Carlos Eduardo Facin Lavarda

    2014-01-01

    Despite changes in the environment and management accounting practices, studies indicate that management accounting systems do not change or change at a much slower rate than expected. The stability of the management accounting systems used by companies may relate to resistance to changing these systems. This study analyzes the factors that contribute to resistance to implementing an integrated management system from the perspective of institutional theory, grounded in the old institutional e...

  16. Use of radioisotopes in studying factors responsible for alfalfa resistance to bacterial wiltxng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanker, I.; Kudelova, A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies are summarized dealing with possible causes of vascular dysfunction and resistance of alfalfa to bacterial wilting caused by Corynebacterium insidiosum (McCull.) H.L. Jens from the physiological and biochemical points of view. Using 32 P, 35 S, 54 Mn, 45 Ca, 65 Zn, and 86 Rb the uptake, distribution, translocation, and metabolism of these elements in plants with a different resistance against diseases were investigated. The possible use is discussed of 86 Rb as a tracer of potassium. The results suggest that the resistance of alfalfa to bacterial wilting is probably determined by several factors. (author)

  17. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  18. Ertapenem resistance in 2 tertiary-care hospitals: Microbiology, epidemiology, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Natalia; Castro, Bibiana; Berrio, Indira; Manjarrés, Miguel; Robledo, Carlos; Robledo, Jaime

    2017-10-01

    Carbapenems resistance is a growing phenomenon and a threat to public health because of the reduced therapeutic options for resistant infections. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in 2 tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. Fifty patients infected with ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae were compared with a control group consisting of 100 patients with infections caused by ertapenem susceptible enterobacteriaceae. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors that best explain ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections. The factors associated with ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections were prior exposure to carbapenems (adjusted OR 3.43; 95% IC 1.08-10.87) and prior exposure to cefepime (adjusted OR 6.46; 95% IC 1.08-38.38). Prior exposure to antibiotics is the factor that best explains the ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infection in this population, highlighting the importance of antimicrobial stewardship programs in hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and characterization of mink lung epithelial cell mutants resistant to transforming growth factor β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinkers, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mink lung epithelial cells resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) have been isolated by chemical mutagenesis and growth in the presence of platelet extracts enriched in TGF-β. Several resistant clones were isolated, at least one of which stably retained its resistance to TGF-β when grown in the absence of the factor. The cells of this clone were similar to the parent cells in morphology and growth properties. However, unlike the parent cells, the resistant cells did not show any of the following responses to 125 I TGF-β: (1) inhibition of DNA synthesis and proliferation; (2) morphological changes involving increased cell spreading; or (3) stimulation of synthesis of a 48-kilodalton secreted 35 S-protein. The resistant cells do, however, retain a functional TGF-β receptor. The TGF-β resistant cell lines may be useful in genetic studies designed to identify the biochemical events required for inhibition of epithelial cell growth by this factor

  20. Integral transport multiregion geometrical shadowing factor for the approximate collision probability matrix calculation of infinite closely packed lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jowzani-Moghaddam, A.

    1981-01-01

    An integral transport method of calculating the geometrical shadowing factor in multiregion annular cells for infinite closely packed lattices in cylindrical geometry is developed. This analytical method has been programmed in the TPGS code. This method is based upon a consideration of the properties of the integral transport method for a nonuniform body, which together with Bonalumi's approximations allows the determination of the approximate multiregion collision probability matrix for infinite closely packed lattices with sufficient accuracy. The multiregion geometrical shadowing factors have been calculated for variations in fuel pin annular segment rings in a geometry of annular cells. These shadowing factors can then be used in the calculation of neutron transport from one annulus to another in an infinite lattice. The result of this new geometrical shadowing and collision probability matrix are compared with the Dancoff-Ginsburg correction and the probability matrix using constant shadowing on Yankee fuel elements in an infinite lattice. In these cases the Dancoff-Ginsburg correction factor and collision probability matrix using constant shadowing are in difference by at most 6.2% and 6%, respectively

  1. SU-F-T-686: Considerations About Dose Protraction Factor in TCP Calculations for Prostate VMAT Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, F; Perez-Vara, C; Clavo, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dose protraction factor should be considered in order to model the TCP calculations. Nevertheless, this study describes a brief discussion showing that the lack of its inclusion should not invalidate these calculations for prostate VMAT treatments. Methods: Dose protraction factor (G) modifies the quadratic term of the linear-quadratic expression in order to take into account the sublethal damage repair of protracting the dose delivery. If the delivery takes a short time (instantaneous), G = 1. For any other dose delivery pattern, G < 1. The Lea-Catcheside dose protraction factor for external beam radiotherapy contains terms depending of on the tissue specific repair parameter (λ) and the irradiation time (T). Expanding the exponential term using a Taylor’s series and neglecting terms of order (λT) 3 , the approximation leads to G = 1. The described situation occurs for 3DCRT techniques, where treatment times are about few minutes. For IMRT techniques, fraction times are prolonged compared to 3DCRT times. Wang et al. (2003) and Fowler et al. (2004) investigated the protraction effect with respect to IMRT treatments, reporting clinically significant loss in biological effect associated with IMRT delivery times. Results: Treatment times are noticeably reduced for prostate treatments using VMAT techniques. These times are comparable to 3DCRT times, leading to consider the previous approximation. Conclusion: Dose protraction factor can be approximated by G = 1 in TCP calculations for prostate treatments using VMAT techniques.

  2. The effect of environmental factors and migration dynamics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in estuary environments

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Guangshui; Lu, Zihao; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Linxiao; Li, Qianwei; Li, Ruijing; Yang, Fan; Huo, Chuanlin; Yao, Ziwei

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the antibiotic resistance transmission mechanisms and migration dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in the natural environment is critical given the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the fate of sulfonamide-resistant fecal bacteria (E. coli) in an estuary ecosystem and to explore the role and contribution of environmental factors in this process. The prevalence of sulfonamide-resistance status of E. coli was analyzed...

  3. Calculation of indoor effective dose factors in ORNL phantoms series due to natural radioactivity in building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, D; Nikezic, D

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the effective dose in the age-dependent ORNL phantoms series, due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, was calculated. The absorbed doses for various organs or human tissues have been calculated. The MCNP-4B computer code was used for this purpose. The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP Publication 74. The obtained values of dose conversion factors for a standard room are: 1.033, 0.752 and 0.0538 nSv h-1 per Bq kg-1 for elements of the U and Th decay series and for the K isotope, respectively. The values of effective dose agreed generally with those found in the literature, although the values estimated here for elements of the U series were higher in some cases.

  4. Low back pain characterized by muscle resistance and occupational factors associated with nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Souza Petersen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the occupational factors associated with low back pain using a surveillance tool and to characterize the low back pain by the resistance of the extensor muscles of the vertebral column among nursing professionals at an Intensive Care Unit.METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The workers answered a questionnaire about occupational factors and participated in a resistance test of the extensor muscles of the vertebral column. Associations were established through Student's T-test or Mann-Whitney's U-test and correlations using Pearson's test.RESULTS: Out of 48 participants, 32 (67% suffered from low pain. For the resistance test, the subjects suffering from low back pain endured less time in comparison with asymptomatic subjects, but without significant differences (p=0.147. The duration of the pain episode showed a significant negative correlation (p=0.016 with the results of the resistance test though. The main factors identified as causes of low back pain were biomechanical and postural elements, conditions of the muscle structure and physical and organizational conditions.CONCLUSIONS: the main occupational factors associated with the low back pain were the posture and the characteristics of the physical and organizational conditions. In addition, the extensor muscles of the column showed a trend towards lesser resistance for workers in pain. This evidence is important when considering prevention and treatment strategies.

  5. Calculation of self–shielding factor for neutron activation experiments using GEANT4 and MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero–Barrientos, Jaime, E-mail: jaromero@ing.uchile.cl [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Nueva Bilbao 12501, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Universidad de Chile, DFI, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas Y Matemáticas, Avenida Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Molina, F. [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Nueva Bilbao 12501, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Aguilera, Pablo [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Nueva Bilbao 12501, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Universidad de Chile, Depto. de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago (Chile); Arellano, H. F. [Universidad de Chile, DFI, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas Y Matemáticas, Avenida Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-07-07

    The neutron self–shielding factor G as a function of the neutron energy was obtained for 14 pure metallic samples in 1000 isolethargic energy bins from 1·10{sup −5}eV to 2·10{sup 7}eV using Monte Carlo simulations in GEANT4 and MCNP6. The comparison of these two Monte Carlo codes shows small differences in the final self–shielding factor mostly due to the different cross section databases that each program uses.

  6. Assessment of clinical risk factors for drug-resistant epilepsy in children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kasprzyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological illnesses occurring in children. In approximately 20–30% of cases it is drug-resistant. Aim of the research: To assess the already-known risk factors, analyse the rarely described ones, and find new causes of epilepsy drug resistance in children, taking into account the level of impact of each factor. Material and methods : The study comprised 152 of all 383 children hospitalised in 2012 at the Neurology Department of the Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital in Lodz due to epilepsy. Based on medical documentation, neurological examination, and our own questionnaire, we divided patients into two groups: drug-resistant epilepsy or drug-sensitive epilepsy. We compared the type, level of influence, and prevalence of different factors. For statistical analysis, the 2 test was used. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Drug-resistant epilepsy was found in 64 patients (42.1%, and drug-sensitive epilepsy was found in 88 patients (57.9%. Factors that were most probable to cause drug resistance included: high prevalence of seizures (Cramer’s V = 0.66, type of epileptic syndrome (V = 0.62, psychomotor developmental delay (V = 0.62, and occurrence of status epilepticus (V = 0.6. Factors such as infections of CNS in early childhood, repeated severe infections of airways in childhood, and mother’s infectious diseases with high fever during pregnancy were rare or non occurring (Cramer’s V = 0.41, 0.32, and 0.31, respectively. Conclusions : The study confirmed the previously known causes of drug resistance and indicated the significance of underestimated inflammatory and infectious factors involving pyrexia, in children and also in mothers during pregnancy.

  7. pncA gene expression and prediction factors on pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Patricia; Lozano, Katherine; Gilman, Robert H; Valencia, Hugo J; Loli, Sebastian; Fuentes, Patricia; Grandjean, Louis; Zimic, Mirko

    2013-09-01

    Mutations in the pyrazinamidase (PZAse) coding gene, pncA, have been considered as the main cause of pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, recent studies suggest there is no single mechanism of resistance to PZA. The pyrazinoic acid (POA) efflux rate is the basis of the PZA susceptibility Wayne test, and its quantitative measurement has been found to be a highly sensitive and specific predictor of PZA resistance. Based on biological considerations, the POA efflux rate is directly determined by the PZAse activity, the level of pncA expression, and the efficiency of the POA efflux pump system. This study analyzes the individual and the adjusted contribution of PZAse activity, pncA expression and POA efflux rate on PZA resistance. Thirty M. tuberculosis strains with known microbiological PZA susceptibility or resistance were analyzed. For each strain, PZAse was recombinantly produced and its enzymatic activity measured. The level of pncA mRNA was estimated by quantitative RT-PCR, and the POA efflux rate was determined. Mutations in the pncA promoter were detected by DNA sequencing. All factors were evaluated by multiple regression analysis to determine their adjusted effects on the level of PZA resistance. Low level of pncA expression associated to mutations in the pncA promoter region was observed in pncA wild type resistant strains. POA efflux rate was the best predictor after adjusting for the other factors, followed by PZAse activity. These results suggest that tests which rely on pncA mutations or PZAse activity are likely to be less predictive of real PZA resistance than tests which measure the rate of POA efflux. This should be further analyzed in light of the development of alternate assays to determine PZA resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Topical fluoroquinolone use as a risk factor for in vitro fluoroquinolone resistance in ocular cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelmann, Robert E; Hoskins, Eliza N; Lietman, Thomas M; Keenan, Jeremy D; Gaynor, Bruce D; Cevallos, Vicky; Acharya, Nisha R

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether recent use of topical fluoroquinolones is a risk factor for in vitro fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus ocular isolates. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin was performed for all ocular isolates of S aureus at the Francis I. Proctor Foundation microbiology laboratory from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2008. The medical records of patients with positive S aureus cultures were reviewed to determine topical or systemic fluoroquinolone use within the 3 months prior to culture. The Fisher exact test was used to compare the proportion of patients who used topical fluoroquinolones in the past 3 months among fluoroquinolone-sensitive and -resistant cases. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of 200 S aureus cultures, 41 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin (20.5%). Fluoroquinolone-resistant S aureus isolates were from older patients (mean [SD] age, 65.5 [25.0] years) compared with fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (mean [SD] patient age, 52.1 [22.1] years) (P = .003). Use of fluoroquinolones within the 3 months before testing was more frequent in resistant isolates (29%) than in susceptible isolates (11%) (P = .005), as was recent hospitalization (22% of resistant isolates, 0% of susceptible isolates) (P fluoroquinolone use within 3 months was a significant predictor of fluoroquinolone resistance (P = .046), along with age, systemic immunosuppression, and topical fluoroquinolone use between 3 and 6 months before testing. Recent topical fluoroquinolone use is significantly associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in S aureus isolates from ocular cultures.

  9. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  10. Liver-derived systemic factors drive β-cell hyperplasia in insulin resistant states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Kawamori, Dan; Dirice, Ercument; Liew, Chong Wee; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Hu, Jiang; Katsuta, Hitoshi; Hollister-Lock, Jennifer; Qian, Weijun; Wagers, Amy J.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.

    2013-02-21

    Integrative organ cross-talk regulates key aspects of energy homeostasis and its dysregulation may underlie metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. To test the hypothesis that cross-talk between the liver and pancreatic islets modulates β-cell growth in response to insulin resistance, we used the Liver-specific Insulin Receptor Knockout (LIRKO) mouse, a unique model that exhibits dramatic islet hyperplasia. Using complementary in vivo parabiosis and transplantation assays, and in vitro islet culture approaches, we demonstrate that humoral, non-neural, non-cell autonomous factor(s) induce β-cell proliferation in LIRKO mice. Furthermore, we report that a hepatocyte-derived factor(s) stimulates mouse and human β-cell proliferation in ex vivo assays, independent of ambient glucose and insulin levels. These data implicate the liver as a critical source of β-cell growth factors in insulin resistant states.

  11. Comment on 'Model calculation of the scanned field enhancement factor of CNTs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhbanov, A I; Lee, Yong-Gu; Pogorelov, E G; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2010-01-01

    The model proposed by Ahmad and Tripathi (2006 Nanotechnology 17 3798) demonstrates that the field enhancement factor of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reaches a maximum at a certain length. Here, we show that this behavior should not occur and suggest our correction to this model. (comment)

  12. Exploring the Use of Multimedia Fate and Bioaccumulation Models to Calculate Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trophic magnification factor (TMF) is considered to be a key metric for assessing the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in food webs. Fugacity is an equilibrium criterion and thus reflects the relative thermodynamic status of a chemical in the environment and in ...

  13. Extension of a GIS procedure for calculating the RUSLE equation LS factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Yang, Q.; Li, R.; Liu, Q.; Moore, D.; He, P.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and revised USLE (RUSLE) are often used to estimate soil erosion at regional landscape scales, however a major limitation is the difficulty in extracting the LS factor. The geographic information system-based (GIS-based) methods which have been developed for

  14. Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance in children with Helicobacter pylori gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Hamza; Selimoglu, Mukadder A; Otlu, Baris; Yildirim, Ozge; Ozer, Ali

    2014-05-01

    There are limited data regarding the pattern of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in children. Evaluation of prevalence of drug resistance and virulence-factor genotype in children with Hp gastritis and to investigate whether there is any relation between drug resistance and genotype were our aims in this study. Ninety-eight children with polymerase chain reaction-positive Hp gastritis were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction assays were used for the determination of virulence factors. The resistance rates to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were 23.5%, 11.7%, and 3.9%, respectively. All strains carried vacA genotype, and 51%, 70.4%, 49%, 34.7%, and 25.5% were cagA-, cagE-, babA2-, iceA1-, and iceA2-positive, respectively. Of those 98 specimens, 81.6%, 19.4%, 38.8%, and 63.3% carried vacAs1, vacAs2, vacAm1, and vacAm2, respectively. Dominant vacA type was s1am2 (32.7%), followed by s1am1 (14.3%) and s2m2 (12.2%). Significant rates of clarithromycin resistance were observed in cagE-, iceA1-, babA2-, and vacAs1c-positive groups. In those with metronidazole resistance, vacAs1 and vacAs1c were more common (P < 0.05). The cagE-positive and vacA s1a/m2 genotypes, which are correlated with increased antibiotic resistance, were predominant in our population. In countries where Hp infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  15. Main factors affecting strong ground motion calculations: Critical review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.; Pecker, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the interests of guarding lives and property against the effects of earthquakes, building codes are frequently enforced when erecting conventional structures, usually calling for simple, static calculations. Where more vulnerable facilities are involved, the failure of which, or of parts of which, could subject the environment to harmful substances, more sophisticated methods are used to compute or verify their design, often accompanied by safety margins intended to compensate for uncertainties encountered at various stages of the analysis that begins with input seismic data and culminates with an effective anti-seismic design. The forthcoming discussion will deal with what is known of the characteristics of strong ground motion, highly variable according to context, without entering into the problems raised by seismotectonic studies, which actually constitute the first aspect that must be addressed when performing such an analysis. Our conclusion will be devoted to cogent R and D work in this area

  16. Calculable Corrections to Brane Black Hole Decay II Greybody Factors for Spin 1\\/2 and 1

    CERN Document Server

    Kanti, Panagiota; Kanti, Panagiota; March-Russell, John

    2003-01-01

    The production of black holes in extra-dimensional brane-world theories can lead to detectable signals via the Hawking evaporation of the black hole to brane-localized Standard Model modes. We calculate, as a function of partial wave number and number of toroidally compactified extra dimensions, the leading correction to the energy spectrum of such Hawking radiation (the greybody factors) for decay into spin 1/2 fermions and spin 1 gauge fields localised on the Standard Model brane. The greybody factors for both types of fields are enhanced as the number of extra dimensions increases.

  17. Insulin resistance and associated factors: a cross-sectional study of bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani; Cattafesta, Monica; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Zandonade, Eliana; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance is characterized by the failure of target cells to respond to normal levels of circulating insulin, and this condition is related to cardiovascular disease. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with markers of metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome in bank employees. A cross-sectional study was performed on 498 working men and women aged ≥20 years old. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) was used to determine the presence of insulin resistance based on cut-off values of ≤2.71 for normal insulin levels and >2.71 for insulin resistance, as established for the adult Brazilian population. It was observed that the 52 (10.4%) overweight individuals with insulin resistance were 4.97 times (95%CI 1.31-18.83) more likely to have high HOMA-IR values than the normal-weight participants; among those who were obese, the likelihood increased to 17.87 (95%CI 4.36-73.21). Individuals with large waist circumferences were 3.27 times (95%CI 1.03-10.38) more likely to develop insulin resistance than those who were within normal parameters. The HOMA-IR values differed between subjects with and without metabolic syndrome, with values of 2.83±2.5 and 1.10±0.81 (p=0.001), respectively. The levels of insulin, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and uric acid were also associated with insulin resistance. The prevalence of insulin resistance among bank employees is high, and insulin resistance is associated with and serves as a marker of metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome-associated metabolic abnormalities were observed, and insulin resistance may be a risk factor in this group of professionals.

  18. Documentation for Calculations of Standard Fire Resistance of Slabs and Walls of Concrete with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    that the methods are applicable for slabs and walls of light weight aggregate concrete. It is shown that the temperatures for standard fire exposed cross sections can be calculated, that the ultimate moment capacity can be calculated for slabs, and that the anchorage capacity and the shear tension capacity can...... the transient strains into account....

  19. Optimizing fish and stream-water mercury metrics for calculation of fish bioaccumulation factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Bradley; Karen Riva Murray; Barbara C. Scudder Elkenberry; Christopher D. Knightes; Celeste A. Journey; Mark A. Brigham

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation factors (BAFs; ratios of Hg in fish [Hgfish] and water[Hgwater]) are used to develop Total Maximum Daily Load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Protection of wildlife and human health depends directly on the accuracy of site-specific estimates of Hgfish and Hgwater and the predictability of the relation between these...

  20. Engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells--metastases suppressor factors as change agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Akinchan; Mann, Anita; Aggarwal, Suruchi; Kumar, Maneesh; Roy, Sumitabho Deb; Pore, Subrata Kumar; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Mahesh Kumar, Jerald; Thakur, Ram Krishna; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Building molecular correlates of drug resistance in cancer and exploiting them for therapeutic intervention remains a pressing clinical need. To identify factors that impact drug resistance herein we built a model that couples inherent cell-based response toward drugs with transcriptomes of resistant/sensitive cells. To test this model, we focused on a group of genes called metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that influence aggressiveness and metastatic potential of cancers. Interestingly, modeling of 84 000 drug response transcriptome combinations predicted multiple MSGs to be associated with resistance of different cell types and drugs. As a case study, on inducing MSG levels in a drug resistant breast cancer line resistance to anticancer drugs caerulomycin, camptothecin and topotecan decreased by more than 50-60%, in both culture conditions and also in tumors generated in mice, in contrast to control un-induced cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of engineered reversal of drug resistance in cancer cells based on a model that exploits inherent cellular response profiles.

  1. Comparison of body fat-free masses calculated from hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot resistances with DXA measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel Y; Dongmo, Edwige

    2011-11-01

    This article compares the determination of body fat-free-mass (FFM) by impedance, using either hand-to-foot resistance (R₁₃) or foot-to-foot one (R₃₄) from comparison with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements in a normal population. The first goal was to see if the foot-to-foot resistance used in body fat analysers provides less accurate information for body FFM than the hand-to-foot one used by medical impedance-meters. Another goal was to compare the prediction accuracy of six different regression equations of FFM for each sex and for each resistance relatively to DXA. The impedancemeter used in this study was a Tefal prototype with 4 plantar electrodes and 4 additional electrodes for the hands and providing hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot resistances. Coefficients of these correlations were determined by comparison with FFM measured by DXA in a 1st cohort of 170 healthy adults. For an independent validation, these equations were tested in a 2nd cohort of 86 adults who underwent the same impedance and DXA protocols, using Student's paired t-tests. The accuracy of FFM prediction increased generally with the number of physiologic parameters included in the regression, but none of our equations gave FFM predictions significantly different from DXA. FFM calculated from the foot-to-foot resistance were closer to DXA values than those calculated from hand-to-foot resistance, as their average P-value of comparison with DXA was higher at 0.695 against 0.387 for R₁₃.

  2. Appendectomy as a Risk Factor for Bacteremic Biliary Tract Infection Caused by Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Kawanishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Recent evidence has suggested that appendix plays a pivotal role in the development and preservation of intestinal immune system. The aim of this study is to examine whether prior appendectomy is associated with an increased risk for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from biliary tract infection (BTI. Methods. Charts from 174 consecutive cases of bacteremia derived from BTI were retrospectively reviewed. Using multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified among the clinical parameters, including a history of appendectomy. Results. In total, 221 bacteria strains were identified from 174 BTI events. Of those, 42 antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified in 34 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that prior appendectomy (Odds ratio (OR, 3.02; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.15–7.87; p=0.026, antibiotic use within the preceding three months (OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.26–7.64; p=0.013, and bilioenteric anastomosis or sphincterotomy (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.51–9.66; p=0.0046 were independent risk factors for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Conclusions. Prior appendectomy was an independent risk factor for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from BTI.

  3. Assessment of seismic response reduction factor for moment resisting RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanth, M.; Visuvasam, J.; Simon, J.; Packiaraj, J. S.

    2017-11-01

    The response reduction factor or response modification factor (R) plays an important role in the non-linear response of the moment resisting reinforced concrete (RC) frames. Implementing this factor in the design, accounts for the non-linear response of a structure. The study emphasizes on evaluating the actual values of the response reduction factor for moment resisting RC frames. The estimation of this factor is carried out by performing a detailed non-linear static pushover analysis of 2D framed structures of both ductile and ordinary moment resisting frames.Different parameters considered for the study includes variation of height of the structure, the zone factor and considering the effect of geometric non-linearity of the structure in the analysis. The results indicate that the values of R as given by the codes are of higher degree. From the analysis, arelationship between R-T-Z has been studied. It is found that the values of over-strength, ductility and response reduction factors are highly affected by seismic zones and time period of the structure.

  4. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors after long- term resistance training and ginger supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashak, Sirvan; Peeri, Maghsoud; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Stannard, Stephen Robert; Haghighi, Marjan Mosalman

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI ≥ 30) were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8); ginger group (GI, n = 8) that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8); and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8). Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG), systemic inflammation (CRP), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05), while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05). Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required. Key points Long- term resistance training reduced cardiovascular risk factors in obese men

  5. Neutronic simulation calculations to assess the proliferation resistance of nuclear technologies; Neutronenphysikalische Simulationsrechnungen zur Proliferationsresistenz nuklearer Technologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Matthias

    2009-07-13

    This thesis investigates the proliferation resistance of nuclear technologies on the basis of three case studies. After a brief description of the concept of proliferation resistance the utilized computer codes and methods are presented. The first case study investigates the potential of monolithic fuel for the conversion of one-fuel-element high-flux research reactors from highly enriched to low enriched uranium using the example of the german research reactor FRM-II. The second case study assesses the proliferation potential of future tokamak based fusion reactors by using neutronic simulations of a possible plutonium production. The third example investigates the proliferation potential of spallation neutron sources to produce nuclear weapon relevant material and the proliferation resistance of such facilities. (orig.)

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α induces multidrug resistance protein in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yingqian Lv, Shan Zhao, Jinzhu Han, Likang Zheng, Zixin Yang, Li Zhao Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Multidrug resistance is the major cause of chemotherapy failure in many solid tumors, including colon cancer. Hypoxic environment is a feature for all solid tumors and is important for the development of tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α is the key transcription factor that mediates cellular response to hypoxia. HIF-1α has been shown to play an important role in tumor resistance; however, the mechanism is still not fully understood. Here, we found that HIF-1α and the drug resistance-associated gene multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1 were induced by treatment of colon cancer cells with the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride. Inhibition of HIF-1α by RNA interference and dominant-negative protein can significantly reduce the induction of MRP1 by hypoxia. Bioinformatics analysis showed that a hypoxia response element is located at -378 to -373 bp upstream of the transcription start site of MRP1 gene. Luciferase reporter assay combined with mutation analysis confirmed that this element is essential for hypoxia-mediated activation of MRP gene. Furthermore, RNA interference revealed that HIF-1α is necessary for this hypoxia-driven activation of MRP1 promoter. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that HIF-1α could directly bind to this HRE site in vivo. Together, these data suggest that MRP1 is a downstream target gene of HIF-1α, which provides a potential novel mechanism for HIF-1α-mediated drug resistance in colon cancer and maybe other solid tumors as well. Keywords: hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, multidrug resistance associated protein, transcriptional regulation, chemotherapy tolerance

  7. Carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in dogs: Prevalence, associated risk factors and molecular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedley, Amy L; Dawson, Susan; Maddox, Thomas W; Coyne, Karen P; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Clegg, Peter; Nuttall, Tim; Kirchner, Miranda; Williams, Nicola J

    2017-02-01

    Resistance to antimicrobials, in particular that mediated by extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamases are frequently reported in bacteria causing canine disease as well as in commensal bacteria, which could be a potential health risk for humans they come into contact with. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence and investigate the molecular characteristics of ESBL and plasmid encoded AmpC (pAmpC)-producing E. coli in the mainland UK vet-visiting canine population and, using responses from detailed questionnaires identify factors associated with their carriage. Faecal samples were cultured for antimicrobial resistant (AMR), ESBL and pAmpC-producing E. coli. A subset of ESBL and pAmpC-producing isolates were subjected to multi-locus sequence typing and DNA microarray analyses. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to construct models to identify risk factors associated with multidrug resistant (MDR, resistance to three or more antimicrobial classes), fluoroquinolone resistant, ESBL and AmpC-producing E. coli. AMR E.coli were isolated from 44.8% (n=260) of samples, with 1.9% and 7.1% of samples carrying ESBL and pAmpC-producing E. coli, respectively. MDR E. coli were identified in 18.3% of samples. Recent use of antimicrobials and being fed raw poultry were both identified as risk factors in the outcomes investigated. A number of virulence and resistance genes were identified, including genes associated with extra-intestinal and enteropathogenic E. coli genotypes. Considering the close contact that people have with dogs, the high levels of AMR E. coli in canine faeces may be a potential reservoir of AMR bacteria or resistance determinants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Risk factors for antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and characteristics of patients infected with gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes de Vega, Irene; Baliu-Piqué, Carola; Bosch Mestres, Jordi; Vergara Gómez, Andrea; Vallés, Xavier; Alsina Gibert, Mercè

    2018-03-01

    There are very few data available regarding risk factors associated with antibiotic resistant-Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A study was conducted on 110 samples from 101 patients with gonococcal infection, in order to describe their characteristics and compare them with the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of their samples. An association was observed between resistant infections and heterosexual men, older age, concurrent sexually transmitted infection, and unsafe sexual behaviors. There is a need for improved data on the risk factors associated with antibiotic resistant gonococcal infection in order to identify risk groups, and to propose public health strategies to control this infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Complexity of Complement Resistance Factors Expressed by Acinetobacter baumannii Needed for Survival in Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Larrayoz, Amaro F; Elhosseiny, Noha M; Chevrette, Marc G; Fu, Yang; Giunta, Peter; Spallanzani, Raúl G; Ravi, Keerthikka; Pier, Gerald B; Lory, Stephen; Maira-Litrán, Tomás

    2017-10-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterial pathogen with increasing impact in healthcare settings, due in part to this organism's resistance to many antimicrobial agents, with pneumonia and bacteremia as the most common manifestations of disease. A significant proportion of clinically relevant A. baumannii strains are resistant to killing by normal human serum (NHS), an observation supported in this study by showing that 12 out of 15 genetically diverse strains of A. baumannii are resistant to NHS killing. To expand our understanding of the genetic basis of A. baumannii serum resistance, a transposon (Tn) sequencing (Tn-seq) approach was used to identify genes contributing to this trait. An ordered Tn library in strain AB5075 with insertions in every nonessential gene was subjected to selection in NHS. We identified 50 genes essential for the survival of A. baumannii in NHS, including already known serum resistance factors, and many novel genes not previously associated with serum resistance. This latter group included the maintenance of lipid asymmetry genetic pathway as a key determinant in protecting A. baumannii from the bactericidal activity of NHS via the alternative complement pathway. Follow-up studies validated the role of eight additional genes identified by Tn-seq in A. baumannii resistance to killing by NHS but not by normal mouse serum, highlighting the human species specificity of A. baumannii serum resistance. The identification of a large number of genes essential for serum resistance in A. baumannii indicates the degree of complexity needed for this phenotype, which might reflect a general pattern that pathogens rely on to cause serious infections. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of this so-called

  11. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in NYS : volume I final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The proposed LR...

  12. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in NYS : volume II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The proposed LR...

  13. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: critical role in obesity, insulin resistance, and associated comorbidities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Bucala, R.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, disturbed glucose homeostasis, low grade inflammation, and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a crucial role in many

  14. Risk Factors for Nosocomial Bacterremia Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pujol (Miquel); C. Pena; R. Pallares (Roman); J. Ayats (Josefina); J. Ariza (Javier); F. Gudiol (Francesc)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn a prospective surveillance study (February 1990–December 1991) performed at a 1000-bed teaching hospital to identify risk factors for nosocomial methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia, 309 patients were found to be colonized (n=103; 33 %) or infected (n=206; 67

  15. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of

  16. Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella

  17. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and quinolone resistance factors in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Chan; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococci is worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance was characterized and the effect of quinolone-resistance factors was analyzed in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (HLCR) Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients. Among the 81 ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus isolates, 46 showed high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance, resistance to other quinolone antibiotics, and multidrug resistance profiles. The virulence factors esp and hyl were identified in 27 (58.7%) and 25 (54.3%) of isolates, respectively. Sequence type analysis showed that 35 strains of HLCR E. faecium were clonal complex 17. Eleven strains of HLCR E. faecalis were confirmed as sequence type (ST) 28, ST 64 and ST 125. Quinolone resistance-determining region mutation was identified in HLCR Enterococcus isolates; with serine being changed in gyrA83, gyrA87 and parC80. This result shows that gyrA and parC mutations could be important factors for high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. No significant differences were observed in antimicrobial resistance patterns and genetic characteristics among the isolates from fresh produce and fecal samples. Therefore, good agricultural practices in farming and continuous monitoring of patients, food and the environment for Enterococcus spp. should be performed to prevent antimicrobial resistance and enable reduction of resistance rates. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. New equations to calculate temperature correction factors for PO2 in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, H; Ohwada, T; Sato, J; Mizuguchi, T; Hirasawa, H

    1986-01-01

    Effects of hemoglobin concentration (Hb), pH, and body temperature (T) on the relationships between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 were studied by means of a mathematical model using a Newton-Raphson iteration method. The functions between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 were affected by the above three factors. New equations considering the effects of Hb, pH, and T were proposed by modifying the equation reported by Severinghaus: delta log PO2/delta T = (L +(U-L)/(A(vPO237)B + 1))(10(-2) where U = 3.15-0.45(7.4-pH37) L = 0.68-0.09(7.4-pH37) A = 5.86(exp10(0.074(T)-0.294(7.4-pH37)-11))((Hb)0.913) B = 6.33(exp10(-0.0051(T)))((Hb)-0.113) + 0.24(7.4-pH37) and vPO237 is virtual PO237 which may exist when PO237 is corrected to standard conditions (pH = 7.4, BE = 0) by the following equations: vPO237 = PO237(exp10(fB(7.4-pH37)-0.0013(BE))) fB = (PO237/26.6)0.08-1.52 where fB is the Bohr factor. The above equations provided values of delta log PO2/delta T which fit closely to those obtained by the complex iteration method with maximum differences of less than 1.3 X 10(-3) at T = 27, indicating that maximum % errors for PO2 at T (PO2T) are less than 3.0% at T = 27 and that our equations can be applied over a wide range of Hb, pH37 and T.

  19. A feasibility assessment of calculation procedure with case study and the modification of dose conversion factor in STARDOSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, H. S.; Jang, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    STARDOSE computer code is the designed code for which is calculated the dose of control room and off-site dose on design basis accident of nuclear power plant. Input files of STARDOSE are libfile1.txt which has decay constant and dose conversion factor, and input.dat which structurally expresses the real plant model by editor. It is given much advanced result with using newer dose conversion factor in libfile1.txt. In this study, therefore, case study is performed that is made input.dat file for LOCA and libfile1.txt which is included newer dose conversion factor and core inventory on APR-1400 and UCN 5 and 6. The result of case study is compared and analyzed

  20. The Calculation of the Tracking Force in the Evolution of the Resistive Hose Instability of a Relativistic Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.; Manuilov, A. S.; Petrov, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed the tacking force exerted by a low-conductivity Ohmic plasma channel on a relativistic electron beam. It has been shown that, for the given type of evolution of the resistive hose instability of the beam along its pulse, this force substantially depends on the frequency and the increment of the increase in the given instability.

  1. Monte Carlo Simulation Used to Calculate Energy Correction Factor for Thermoluminescent Dosimeters Used by Occupational Workers on Pediatric Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, G; Filipov, D; Paschuk, S; Schelin, H R; Denyak, V

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this work is to simulate the X-ray scattered spectra by different pediatric phantoms (simulation of children subjected to barium meal procedures) to calculate an energy correction factor (ECF) to the reading of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). To perform this evaluation, the TLDs were positioned over three areas in two occupational workers: eyes, thyroid and hands. The Geant4 toolkit was used to define the spectra collected by TLDs, making possible to calculate the ECF. This work was developed in two stages: (1) evaluation of scattered spectra by different standard phantoms (newborn, 1, 5 and 10 years old); (2) definition of the ECF to the absorbed energy by each TLD. Geant4 shows to be a good toolkit to calculate the ECF and among the different characteristics evaluated, in this work, the TLD position and acceleration voltages are the most significant parameters that may influence the ECF calculated. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Composition and Spatial Patterns of Bacterial Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in 19 Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Xia, Yu; Wen, Xianghua; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance are of concern for environmental safety and public health. Accumulating evidence suggests that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are as an important sink and source of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Virulence genes (encoding virulence factors) are good indicators for bacterial pathogenic potentials. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathogenic potentials and antibiotic resistance in WWTPs, bacterial vir...

  3. Factorized implicit solution technique for calculation of flow in reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargis, D.A.; Chilukuri, R.; Stuhmiller, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A factorized implicit finite difference scheme (FIST) for solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations is presented in this paper. The overall solution strategy and treatment of interequation coupling is similar to the well-known implicit continuous fluid Eulerian (ICE) and SMAC procedures. However, several features of the implicit FIST algorithm enable use of large time steps in contrast to the ICE scheme. The FIST method of integrating the momentum equations is best described as an extension of the Peaceman-Rachford alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme. The Peaceman-Rachford ADI scheme was developed for the unsteady heat (diffusion) equation. The innovative feature of the FIST algorithm lies in implicit treatment of both advection and diffusion terms. The FIST scheme is an efficient of integrating the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The advantage of the FIST algorithm over fully implicit schemes is that FIST requires simultaneous solution of only simple-line tridiagonal matrix equations. Fully implicit algorithms, on the other hand, generally require solution of a large system of coupled algebraic equations at each time step

  4. New approximations for the Doppler broadening function applied to the calculation of resonance self-shielding factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Daniel A. [CEFET QUIMICA de Nilopolis/RJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goncalves, Alessandro C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.; Silva, Fernando C. [COPPE/UFRJ - Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The activation technique allows much more precise measurements of neutron intensity, relative or absolute. The technique requires the knowledge of the Doppler broadening function psi(x,xi) to determine the resonance self-shielding factors in the epithermal range G{sub epi} (tau,xi). Two new analytical approximations for the Doppler broadening function psi(x,xi) are proposed. The approximations proposed are compared with other methods found in literature for the calculation of the psi(x,xi) function, that is, the 4-pole Pade method and the Frobenius method, when applied to the calculation of G{sub epi} (tau,xi). The results obtained provided satisfactory accuracy. (authors)

  5. Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Peter S; Jänne, Pasi A; Johnson, Bruce E

    2009-12-15

    Gefitinib and erlotinib are ATP competitive inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and are approved around the world for the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Somatic mutations in the EGFR are found in 10 to 40% of patients with NSCLC. Patients with sensitizing somatic mutations of EGFR treated with gefitinib or erlotinib have an initial clinical response of 60 to 80%, approximately twice as high as the responses associated with the administration of conventional platinum-based chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is limited by either primary (de novo) or acquired resistance after therapy and investigations to define the mechanisms of resistance are active areas of ongoing preclinical and clinical studies. Primary resistance is typically caused by other somatic mutations in genes such as KRAS, which also have an impact on the EGFR signaling pathway or by mutations in the EGFR gene that are not associated with sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs. Two established mechanisms of acquired resistance are caused by additional mutations in the EGFR gene acquired during the course of treatment that change the protein-coding sequence or by amplification of another oncogene signaling pathway driven by the MET oncogene. This review focuses on characterized mechanisms of resistance to the EGFR TKIs and efforts to overcome the problem of resistance aimed at improving the therapy of patients with NSCLC. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7502-9).

  6. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, Christopher; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. ► Tcf3 modulates butyrate’s effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. ► Tcf3 modulation of butyrate’s effects differ by cell context. ► Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. ► Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G 1 to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or reverse butyrate resistance.

  7. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiaro, Christopher, E-mail: cchiaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Lazarova, Darina L., E-mail: dlazarova@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States); Bordonaro, Michael, E-mail: mbordonaro@tcmedc.org [Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, 525 Pine Street, Scranton, PA 18509 (United States)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that

  8. Preliminary ANS [Advanced Neutron Source] reactor cold source gain factor calculations for liquid deuterium and liquid nitrogen-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.L.

    1988-11-01

    Individual energy group gain factors are computed for liquid nitrogen-15 and liquid deuterium cold source moderators using simple one-dimensional slab and spherical geometry calculational models. The energy spectrum of the neutron source is assumed to be that of a thermalized Maxwellian flux at 20/degree/C. The slab geometry calculations indicate that the optimum thickness for neutron transmission through a slab given an isotropic incident flux is for wavelengths above .6 nm, approximately .20 m for liquid deuterium and between .28 and .32 m for liquid nitrogen-15. The gain factors at .8 nm corresponding to these thicknesses are 15.5 for liquid deuterium and 3.50 for liquid nitrogen-15. The spherical geometry analysis showed that the cold neutron current below 10 MeV of 1.36 n/m 2 -s for the neutron component entering the cavity of a .16 m thick liquid deuterium spherical shell exceeds the neutron leakage current of 1.08 n/cm 2 -s from a .38 m diameter liquid deuterium solid sphere. However, the cold neutron factors for the neutron entering the void region are considerably lower than for the solid sphere case. 15 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs

  9. The risk factors, etiology, and drug resistance of infection after plastic surgery, and corresponding measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangning; Zhang, Suhong

    2017-12-01

    Explore the risk factors, etiology, and drug resistance of infection after plastic surgery, and present corresponding measures. We retrospectively analyzed 980 patients who underwent head and facial plastic surgery from January 2013 to December 2015. Postoperative infection occurred in 169 patients. We analyzed the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in patients undergoing plastic surgery, reviewed the drug resistance of Gram negative (G-) bacteria and Gram positive (G+) bacteria, and analyzed the effects of surgical duration, prophylactic use of antibacterial agents, length of stay (LOS), and preoperative hair removal on infection after plastic surgery. G+ bacteria (mainly Staphylococcus aureus) accounted for 45.6%, while G- bacteria (mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae) accounted for 54.4% of total pathogenic bacteria in patients undergoing plastic surgery. The most commonly resistant antibacterial agents of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and cefotaxime; the most commonly resistant antibacterial agents of Klebsiella pneumoniae were sulfamethoxazole and gentamicin. The most commonly resistant antibacterial agents of Staphylococcus aureus were penicillin G, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole; for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, the most commonly resistant antibacterial agents were also penicillin G, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole. Both Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that surgical duration >3 hours, no prophylactic use of antibacterial agents, and LOS>7 days were independent risk factors for postoperative infection. G- bacteria were more prevalent in infections after plastic surgery, and most bacteria were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Strict control of surgical duration, short LOS, intraoperative prophylactic use of antibacterial agents, and no preoperative hair removal were important

  10. Role of Transcription Factor Modifications in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver not due to alcohol abuse. NAFLD is accompanied by variety of symptoms related to metabolic syndrome. Although the metabolic link between NAFLD and insulin resistance is not fully understood, it is clear that NAFLD is one of the main cause of insulin resistance. NAFLD is shown to affect the functions of other organs, including pancreas, adipose tissue, muscle and inflammatory systems. Currently efforts are being made to understand molecular mechanism of interrelationship between NAFLD and insulin resistance at the transcriptional level with specific focus on post-translational modification (PTM of transcription factors. PTM of transcription factors plays a key role in controlling numerous biological events, including cellular energy metabolism, cell-cycle progression, and organ development. Cell type- and tissue-specific reversible modifications include lysine acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation. Moreover, phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation on serine and threonine residues have been shown to affect protein stability, subcellular distribution, DNA-binding affinity, and transcriptional activity. PTMs of transcription factors involved in insulin-sensitive tissues confer specific adaptive mechanisms in response to internal or external stimuli. Our understanding of the interplay between these modifications and their effects on transcriptional regulation is growing. Here, we summarize the diverse roles of PTMs in insulin-sensitive tissues and their involvement in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

  11. Induction of tumor necrosis factor expression and resistance in a human breast tumor cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Spriggs, D; Imamura, K; Rodriguez, C; Horiguchi, J; Kufe, D W

    1987-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a polypeptide cytokine that is cytotoxic to some but not all tumor cells. The basis for resistance to the cytotoxic effects of this agent remains unclear. We have studied the development of TNF resistance in human ZR-75-1 breast carcinoma cells. ZR-75-1 cells have undetectable levels of TNF RNA and protein. However, TNF transcripts are transiently induced in these cells by exposure to recombinant human TNF. This induction of TNF RNA is associated with production...

  12. A simple method of calculating power-law velocity profile exponents from experimental data. [for boundary layer shape factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the effects of compressibility and heat transfer on laminar and turbulent shape factors H have been developed. Solving the turbulent equation for the power law velocity profile exponent N has resulted in a simple technique by which the N values of experimental turbulent profiles can be calculated directly from the integral parameters. Thus the data plotting, curve fitting, and slope measuring, which is the normal technique of obtaining experimental N values, is eliminated. The N values obtained by this method should be within the accuracy with which they could be measured.

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha infusion produced insulin resistance but no change in the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Solomon, Thomas P J; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Lars; Holst, Jens Juul; Møller, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Although TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce peripheral insulin resistance, the influence of this cytokine on the incretin effect is unknown. We investigated whether systemic inflammation induced by TNF-α infusion in healthy volunteers alters the incretin hormone response to oral and intravenous glucose loads in a crossover study design with ten healthy male volunteers (mean age 24 years, mean body mass index 23.7 kg/m(2) ). The study consisted of four study days: days 1 and 2, 6-h infusion of saline; days 3 and 4, 6-h infusion of TNF-α; days 1 and 3, 4-h oral glucose tolerance test; and days 2 and 4, 4-h corresponding intravenous isoglycaemic glucose tolerance test. Glucose tolerance tests were initiated after 2 h of saline/TNF-α infusion. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α, interleukin 6, glucose, incretin hormones, and cortisol, and serum concentrations of C-peptide and insulin were measured throughout the study days. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Prehepatic insulin secretion rates were calculated. TNF-α infusion induced symptoms of systemic inflammation; increased plasma levels of cortisol, TNF-α, and interleukin 6; and increased the HOMA-IR. The secretion of incretin hormones as well as the incretin effect remained unchanged. In healthy young male volunteers, acute systemic inflammation induced by infusion of TNF-α is associated with insulin resistance with no change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru katamaran no zoha teiko keisanho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes a method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method. Two Wigley models were put side by side to make a catamaran, speccular images were taken on a face symmetrical in the left and right sides, and only one side (the demi-hull) was used as a region to be calculated. Considering blow-out onto the demi-hull surface and still water surface, a model was constituted, in which discrete vortices were distributed on the demi-hull camber to flow the vortices out to an infinitely distance place from the stern. A free surface condition according to double model linearization by Dawson was derived for this model in terms of numerical analysis. The Kutta`s condition is incorporated when SQCM is used concurrently with the Rankine source method, but not incorporated when not used. Calculations were performed on both conditions. Wave resistance was derived by using pressure integral on the hull surface. It is better to consider the Kutta`s condition when the distance between the demi-hulls is small. However, if the distance is large, or speed is great for the boat length resulting in less interference between the demi-hulls, there is very little difference due to the Kutta`s condition. Difference in the wave shapes causes how waves are made to vary. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Wwww of... - Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for Specific Open Molding and Centrifugal Casting Process Streams 1 Table 1 to Subpart... 1 Table 1 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63—Equations To Calculate Organic HAP Emissions Factors for...

  16. Sensitivity of thermal inertia calculations to variations in environmental factors. [in mapping of Earth's surface by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.; Alley, R. E.; Schieldge, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of thermal inertia (TI) calculations to errors in the measurement or parameterization of a number of environmental factors is considered here. The factors include effects of radiative transfer in the atmosphere, surface albedo and emissivity, variations in surface turbulent heat flux density, cloud cover, vegetative cover, and topography. The error analysis is based upon data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite for July 1978 at three separate test sites in the deserts of the western United States. Results show that typical errors in atmospheric radiative transfer, cloud cover, and vegetative cover can individually cause root-mean-square (RMS) errors of about 10 percent (with atmospheric effects sometimes as large as 30-40 percent) in HCMM-derived thermal inertia images of 20,000-200,000 pixels.

  17. Factors Affecting Dissolution Resistance of AC Anodizing Al in Sodium Carbonate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Krisha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of different factors on the properties and so the dissolution resistance of the anodic film of Al. Conductance and thermometric measurements were applied to evaluate the dissolution rate. The effect of applied AC voltage concentration of sodium carbonate solution, the anodization time and the temperature of sodium carbonate solutions show a parallel increase in the dissolution resistance of studied Al in hydrochloride acid. The results show that films formed by sodium carbonate solution were of porous type and have pronounced high resistance. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction further examined the films. The anodic and cathodic behavior and the effect of the scanning rate on the polarization of Al in sodium carbonate solution were studied. The regression analysis was applied to all results. (Author)

  18. Calculation of spatial distribution of optical escape factor and its application to He I collisional-radiative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yohei; Kado, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    An integral analytical formula for a spatial distribution of the optical escape factor (OEF) in an infinite cylindrical plasma is derived as a function of an arbitrary upper state spatial density profile, the temperature ratio of the upper state to the lower state, and the optical depth of the corresponding transition. Test calculations are carried out for three different upper state profiles, i.e., uniform (rectangular), parabolic, and Gaussian upper state profiles. The OEF takes on negative values at the periphery of the parabolic and Gaussian upper state profiles. These characteristics cannot be expressed by the conventional OEF formulas derived for the center of the plasma, even though the optical depth is increased. In addition to the analytical derivation of the formula, two practical formulas are proposed: an empirical formula of the spatial distribution of the OEF for the Gaussian upper state density profile and a linear formula of the OEF distribution for upper state profiles that are expressed as linear combinations. These formulas enable us to calculate the spatial distribution of the OEF for the multiple-Gaussian upper state profile without the need for time-consuming integral calculations.

  19. Stress intensity factors and weight functions for the edge cracked plate calculated by the boundary collocation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.

    1990-09-01

    The determination of stress intensity factors for cracks exposed to arbitrary stress distribution according to the weight function method calls for knowledge of the crack opening displacements and stress intensity factor for a reference load case. The determination of these variables by means of the Boundary Collocation Method (BCM) is discussed by the example of the drawn plate with an edge crack. After derivation of the formulas for evaluation the influence is studied of the relative crack depth and the plate length on the stress intensity factor, and the results are compared with data from the literature. The crack opening displacement field is determined from the stress function established by the Boundary Collocation Method and the fracture mechanical weight function is calculated from it. The results are compared with an analytical weight function obtained on the basis of approximative crack opening displacement fields. A formula is indicated for the weight function which covers the total range from a/W=0 to a/W=1. This formula is the result of BCM computations made up to a/W=0.8 for a relative plate length of a/H > 1.5 and applies to the limit case a/W=1 known from the analysis. Finally the Boundary Collocation Method is used to calculate the mode II stress intensity factors for shear loaded plates with an edge crack. The results of the computations are compared with solutions proposed in the literature. For the edge crack loaded with constant shear stresses, which act on the crack surfaces, a numerical formula is given of the geometric function. Values applicable to the weight function are determined from the crack opening displacements. (orig.) [de

  20. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisa Fregona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis – from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. RESULTS In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24–14.05 and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81–8.43], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98–7.79, and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15–8.99. CONCLUSIONS The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo.

  1. Calculational experimental examination and ensuring of equipment and pipelines seismic resistance at starting and operating water-cooled and moderated reactor WWER-type NPPs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The results of testing of equipment at Bohunice NPP and pipeline systems at Unit 3 of Kozloduy NPP (WWER-440 type reactors) are presented in this Final Report. These results side by side with experimental values of natural frequencies and decrements also include experimental data about vibration modes of tested equipment and pipelines. For the first time the results of new calculational-experimental examination of equipment seismic resistance at Unit 2 of Armenian NPP are presented. At Kozloduy NPP direction's request the planed additional tests of some selected items were put off on 1997. Instead of postponed tests we carried out detailed analysis of our past inspections of numerous equipment seismic resistance at the Unit 5 of Kozloduy NPP. Experimental data with results of additional analysis are presented

  2. Vitamin C deficiency aggravates tumor necrosis factor α-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Zhou; Xiao-Hui, Wu; Xi-Mei, Wu; Chao-Chun, Zou

    2018-04-03

    Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a major role in the development of insulin resistance. The potential role and underlying mechanism of vitamin C, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, was investigated in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced insulin resistance. Gulonolactone oxidase knockout (Gulo -/- ) mice genetically unable to synthesize vitamin C were used to induce insulin resistance by continuously pumping small doses of TNF-α for seven days, and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 cells) were used to induce insulin resistance by treatment with TNF-α. Vitamin C deficiency aggravated TNF-α-induced insulin resistance in Gulo -/- mice, resulting in worse glucose tolerance test (GTT) results, higher fasting plasma insulin level, and the inactivation of the protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) pathway in the liver. Vitamin C deficiency also worsened liver lipid accumulation and inflammation in TNF-α-treated Gulo -/- mice. In HepG2 cells, vitamin C reversed the TNF-α-induced reduction of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, which were mediated by increasing GLUT2 levels and the activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1)/AKT/GSK3β pathway. Furthermore, vitamin C inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of not only the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), but also nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. Taken together, vitamin C is essential for preventing and improving insulin resistance, and the supplementing with vitamin C may be an effective therapeutic intervention for metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Searching for factors associated with resistance to acetylsalicylic acid used for secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabuz-Roszak, Beata; Pierzchała, Krystyna; Niewiadomska, Ewa; Skrzypek, Michał; Machowska-Majchrzak, Agnieszka

    2015-03-16

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), used for secondary prevention of stroke, including the assessment of risk factors associated with the lack of ASA anti-aggregatory action. Patients after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke in the acute (n = 111) and chronic phase (n = 87) were enrolled in the study. The assessment of platelet function was performed by whole blood impedance aggregometry using a multi-channel platelet function analyser (Multiplate). A proper response to ASA was found in 121 patients (61.1%) (ASA responders), a partial response to ASA in 59 patients (29.8%) (ASA partial responders), and ASA resistance in 18 patients (9.1%) (ASA non-responders). Acetylsalicylic acid resistance was observed more frequently in the chronic phase. The mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration was higher in ASA non-responders (p = 0.02). The mean heart rate (p = 0.03) and the mean haematocrit (p = 0.03) were higher in the group of ASA partial responders and ASA non-responders. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists were more often used in the group of ASA partial responders and ASA non-responders (p = 0.04). Diuretics were more rarely used by ASA non-responders, whereas fibrates were more rarely used by ASA partial responders. The method enabled the detection of ASA resistance in some patients with cerebrovascular disease. The study revealed some possible risk factors of ASA resistance: long ASA therapy, increased heart rate, higher LDL concentration, and higher haematocrit value. The relationship between the effect of ASA and other medications (angiotensin II receptor blockers, fibrates, diuretics) requires further study. Platelet function monitoring should be considered in patients at a greater risk of ASA resistance.

  4. Risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H E; Ciobanu, A; Plesca, V; Crudu, V; Galusca, I; Soltan, V; Cohen, T

    2013-03-01

    The Republic of Moldova, in Eastern Europe, has among the highest reported nationwide proportions of tuberculosis (TB) patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide. Default has been associated with increased mortality and amplification of drug resistance, and may contribute to the high MDR-TB rates in Moldova. To assess risk factors and timing of default from treatment for non-MDR-TB from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data on all non-MDR-TB patients reported. A total of 14.7% of non-MDR-TB patients defaulted from treatment during the study period. Independent risk factors for default included sociodemographic factors, such as homelessness, living alone, less formal education and spending substantial time outside Moldova in the year prior to diagnosis; and health-related factors such as human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, greater lung pathology and increasing TB drug resistance. Anti-tuberculosis treatment is usually initiated within an institutional setting in Moldova, and the default risk was highest in the month following the phase of hospitalized treatment (among civilians) and after leaving prison (among those diagnosed while incarcerated). Targeted interventions to increase treatment adherence for patients at highest risk of default, and improving the continuity of care for patients transitioning from institutional to community care may substantially reduce risk of default.

  5. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA, Microplate and Standard Tube (ST methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8, moderate (n = 3 and strong producers (n = 4 at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %, 7 (70 % and 9 (90 % antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 % antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

  6. Virulence factors and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella strains from periurban areas of Lima (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluque, Angela; Mosquito, Susan; Gomes, Cláudia; Riveros, Maribel; Durand, David; Tilley, Drake H; Bernal, María; Prada, Ana; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to describe the serotype, mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, and virulence determinants in Shigella spp. isolated from Peruvian children. Eighty three Shigella spp. were serogrouped and serotyped being established the antibiotic susceptibility. The presence of 12 virulence factors (VF) and integrase 1 and 2, along with commonly found antibiotic resistance genes was established by PCR. S. flexneri was the most relevant serogroup (55 isolates, 66%), with serotype 2a most frequently detected (27 of 55, 49%), followed by S. boydii and S. sonnei at 12 isolates each (14%) and S. dysenteriae (four isolates, 5%). Fifty isolates (60%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR) including 100% of S. sonnei and 64% of S. flexneri. Resistance levels were high to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (86%), tetracycline (74%), ampicillin (67%), and chloramphenicol (65%). Six isolates showed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. No isolate was resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, or ceftriaxone. The most frequent resistance genes were sul2 (95%), tet(B) (92%), cat (80%), dfrA1 (47%), blaOXA-1like (40%), with intl1 and intl2 detected in 51 and 52% of the isolates, respectively. Thirty-one different VF profiles were observed, being the ipaH (100%), sen (77%), virA and icsA (75%) genes the most frequently found. Differences in the prevalence of VF were observed between species with S. flexneri isolates, particularly serotype 2a, possessing high numbers of VF. In conclusion, this study highlights the high heterogeneity of Shigella VF and resistance genes, and prevalence of MDR organisms within this geographic region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Intercomparison of OMI NO2 and HCHO air mass factor calculations: recommendations and best practices for retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Delgado, Alba; Klaas Boersma, Folkert; Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Yu, Huan; van Roozendael, Michel; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Barkley, Michael; Lamsal, Lok; Lin, Jintai; Liu, Mengyao

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the air mass factor (AMF) calculation process used by various research groups for OMI satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. Although satellite retrievals have strongly improved over the last decades, there is still a need to better understand and reduce the uncertainties associated with every retrieval step of satellite data products, such as the AMF calculation. Here we compare and evaluate the different approaches used to calculate AMFs by several scientific groups (KNMI (WUR), IASB-BIRA, IUP-UNI. BREMEN, MPI-C, NASA GSFC, LEICESTER UNI. and PEKING UNI.). Each group calculated altitude dependent (box-) AMFs and clear sky and total tropospheric AMFs for several OMI orbits. First, European groups computed AMFs for one OMI orbit using common settings for the choice of surface albedo data, terrain height, cloud treatment and a priori vertical profile. Second, every group computed AMFs for two complete days in different seasons using preferred settings for the ancillary data and cloud treatment as a part of a Round Robin exercise. Box-AMFs comparison showed good consistency and underlined the importance of a correct treatment of the physical processes affecting the effective light path and the vertical discretization of the atmosphere. Using common settings, tropospheric NO2 AMFs in polluted pixels on average agreed within 4.7% whereas in remote pixels agreed within 3.5%. Using preferred settings relative differences between AMFs increase up to 15-30%. This increase is traced back to the different choices and assumptions made throughout the AMF calculation, which affect the final AMF values and thus the uncertainty in the AMF calculation. Differences between state of the art cloud treatment approaches highlight the importance of an accurate cloud correction: total and clear sky AMFs in polluted conditions differ by up to 40% depending on the retrieval scenario. Based on the comparison results, specific recommendations on best

  8. Numerical Calculation of the Peaking Factor of a Water-Cooled W/Cu Monoblock for a Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Zhang, Jingyang; Xu, Tiejun

    2015-09-01

    In order to accurately predict the incident critical heat flux (ICHF, the heat flux at the heated surface when CHF occurs) of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock for a divertor, the exact knowledge of its peaking factors (fp) under one-sided heating conditions with different design parameters is a key issue. In this paper, the heat conduction in the solid domain of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock is calculated numerically by assuming the local heat transfer coefficients (HTC) of the cooling wall to be functions of the local wall temperature, so as to obtain fp. The reliability of the calculation method is validated by an experimental example result, with the maximum error of 2.1% only. The effects of geometric and flow parameters on the fp of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock are investigated. Within the scope of this study, it is shown that the fp increases with increasing dimensionless W/Cu monoblock width and armour thickness (the shortest distance between the heated surface and Cu layer), and the maximum increases are 43.8% and 22.4% respectively. The dimensionless W/Cu monoblock height and Cu thickness have little effect on fp. The increase of Reynolds number and Jakob number causes the increase of fp, and the maximum increases are 6.8% and 9.6% respectively. Based on the calculated results, an empirical correlation on peaking factor is obtained via regression. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal-hydraulic design of water-cooled divertors. supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2010GB104005) and Funding of Jiangsu Innovation Program for Graduate Education, China (CXLX12_0170), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China

  9. Numerical Calculation of the Peaking Factor of a Water-Cooled W/Cu Monoblock for a Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Le; Chang Haiping; Zhang Jingyang; Xu Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately predict the incident critical heat flux (ICHF, the heat flux at the heated surface when CHF occurs) of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock for a divertor, the exact knowledge of its peaking factors (f p ) under one-sided heating conditions with different design parameters is a key issue. In this paper, the heat conduction in the solid domain of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock is calculated numerically by assuming the local heat transfer coefficients (HTC) of the cooling wall to be functions of the local wall temperature, so as to obtain f p . The reliability of the calculation method is validated by an experimental example result, with the maximum error of 2.1% only. The effects of geometric and flow parameters on the f p of a water-cooled W/Cu monoblock are investigated. Within the scope of this study, it is shown that the f p increases with increasing dimensionless W/Cu monoblock width and armour thickness (the shortest distance between the heated surface and Cu layer), and the maximum increases are 43.8% and 22.4% respectively. The dimensionless W/Cu monoblock height and Cu thickness have little effect on f p . The increase of Reynolds number and Jakob number causes the increase of f p , and the maximum increases are 6.8% and 9.6% respectively. Based on the calculated results, an empirical correlation on peaking factor is obtained via regression. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal-hydraulic design of water-cooled divertors. (paper)

  10. Function of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in cancer resistance to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jingsheng; Yin, Zhijie; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobing; Gao, Jinbo

    2018-01-01

    Drug resistance is a primary cause of chemotherapeutic failure; however, how this resistance develops is complex. A comprehensive understanding of chemotherapeutic resistance mechanisms may aid in identifying more effective drugs and improve the survival rates of patients with cancer. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), a member of the insulin receptor family, has been extensively assessed for biological activity, and its putative contribution to tumor cell development and progression. Furthermore, researchers have attended to drugs that target IGF1R since IGF1R functions as a membrane receptor. However, how IGF1R participates in chemotherapeutic resistance remains unclear. Therefore, the present study described the IGF1R gene and its associated signaling pathways, and offered details of IGF1R-induced tumor chemoresistance associated with promoting cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins and interactions with the extracellular matrix. The present study offered additional explanations for tumor chemotherapy resistance and provided a theoretical basis of IGF1R and its downstream pathways for future possible chemotherapy treatment options.

  11. Lifestyle and environmental factors associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mirghaffari, Nourollah; Poursafa, Parinaz; Gidding, Samuel S

    2009-03-01

    Reaching a better understanding of the modifiable factors associated with inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in children would be relevant to the design of further investigation and prevention strategies. To determine the association of air pollution as well as dietary and physical activity habits with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance for the first time in a population-based sample of children. We conducted a population-based study of 374 children, aged 10-18 years, and assessed the exposure of participants to air pollutants as well as their dietary and physical activity habits. In addition to anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, we determined the fasting serum levels of lipid profile, insulin and markers of inflammation and oxidation. We found independent associations between improper air quality and plasma markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. The Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) and the level of fine particulate matter were significantly associated to all biomarkers studied. The associations between different markers of air pollutants and markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference, healthy eating index and physical activity level. The association of healthy eating score with CRP and insulin resistance was mediated through anthropometric indices, and physical activity had independent association with insulin resistance. The independent influence of inflammatory/oxidative mechanisms of air pollution effects on surrogate markers of atherosclerosis from early life should be highlighted.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus in dogs with keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPinto, Alexander J; Mohammed, Hussni O; Ledbetter, Eric C

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) isolation in dogs with naturally acquired bacterial keratitis. All Staphylococcus spp. isolated from corneal samples of dogs with keratitis during a 2-year period were evaluated for methicillin resistance by bacteriologic methods. Each MRS isolate was subjected to in vitro susceptibility testing for systemic and ocular antimicrobials. Nasal swabs for culture were collected from all dogs with MRS corneal isolation to evaluate for nasal carrier status. Potential risk factors for MRS isolation were investigated by medical record review and administration of an epidemiological survey to dog owners. Collected information characterizing animal, client, and environmental variables was analyzed for association with MRS isolation. Seventy-one Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from seventy individual dogs with keratitis during the study period. Seventeen of the Staphylococcus isolates (23.9%) were methicillin resistant. The MRS isolates included Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 10), Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (n = 6), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 1). The MRS corneal isolates displayed extensive antimicrobial resistance. Four dogs (23.5%) with MRS corneal isolates had positive nasal cultures for MRS. Client occupation was significantly (P = 0.01) associated with MRS isolation, and dogs belonging to owners employed in veterinary or human healthcare fields were four times more likely to have MRS keratitis than dogs owned by clients with different professions. There were no significant associations between the other evaluated animal, client, and environmental factors. Methicillin resistance is relatively common in Staphylococcus isolates from dogs with corneal infections, particularly among dogs belonging to healthcare workers. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Behavioral and socioeconomic risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly A Trecker

    Full Text Available Globally, incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is once again the highest of the bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The bacterium can produce serious complications in those infected, and emerging resistance to third generation cephalosporins could usher in an era of potentially untreatable gonorrhea. This research aimed to identify risk factors for antibiotic resistant gonorrhea infection among clients at a Shanghai sexually transmitted infection clinic over two time periods, 2004-2005 and 2008-2011. Demographic and risk factor behavior data, and biological samples for antimicrobial resistance analysis, were collected. Statistical models were built to identify risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline. High levels of ciprofloxacin resistance (98% in our sample precluded examining its risk factors; all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Overall (P<0.001, chromosomal (P<0.001, and plasmid-mediated (P = 0.01 penicillin resistance decreased from the first to second period of the study. For tetracycline, chromosomal resistance decreased (P = 0.01 and plasmid-mediated resistance increased (P<0.001 between the first and second periods of study. In multi-level multivariable regression models, male gender (P = 0.03 and older age (P = 0.01 were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to ceftriaxone. Male gender (P = 0.03 and alcohol use (P = 0.02 were associated with increased odds of overall tetracycline resistance. Male gender was associated with increased odds of chromosomally-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.04, and alcohol use was associated with increased odds of plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.02. Additionally, individuals in middle-salary categories were found to have lower odds of plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline compared with those in the lowest salary category (P≤0

  14. IQGAP1 Protein Binds Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) and Modulates Trastuzumab Resistance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin D.; Li, Zhigang; Dillon, Deborah A.; Sacks, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20–25% of breast cancers. Increased HER2 expression is an adverse prognostic factor and correlates with decreased patient survival. HER2-positive (HER2(+)) breast cancer is treated with trastuzumab. Unfortunately, some patients are intrinsically refractory to therapy, and many who do respond initially become resistant within 1 year. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying HER2 signaling and trastuzumab resistance is essential to reduce breast cancer mortality. IQGAP1 is a ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein that contains multiple protein interaction domains. By regulating its binding partners IQGAP1 integrates signaling pathways, several of which contribute to breast tumorigenesis. We show here that IQGAP1 is overexpressed in HER2(+) breast cancer tissue and binds directly to HER2. Knockdown of IQGAP1 decreases HER2 expression, phosphorylation, signaling, and HER2-stimulated cell proliferation, effects that are all reversed by reconstituting cells with IQGAP1. Reducing IQGAP1 up-regulates p27, and blocking this increase attenuates the growth inhibitory effects of IQGAP1 knockdown. Importantly, IQGAP1 is overexpressed in trastuzumab-resistant breast epithelial cells, and reducing IQGAP1 both augments the inhibitory effects of trastuzumab and restores trastuzumab sensitivity to trastuzumab-resistant SkBR3 cells. These data suggest that inhibiting IQGAP1 function may represent a rational strategy for treating HER2(+) breast carcinoma. PMID:21724847

  15. The effect of environmental factors and migration dynamics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in estuary environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Guangshui; Lu, Zihao; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Linxiao; Li, Qianwei; Li, Ruijing; Yang, Fan; Huo, Chuanlin; Yao, Ziwei

    2018-01-26

    Understanding the antibiotic resistance transmission mechanisms and migration dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in the natural environment is critical given the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the fate of sulfonamide-resistant fecal bacteria (E. coli) in an estuary ecosystem and to explore the role and contribution of environmental factors in this process. The prevalence of sulfonamide-resistance status of E. coli was analyzed over different seasons in two estuary systems. Environmental factors and disturbance indices of anthropogenic activities were evaluated by detecting antibiotic concentrations, heavy metal abundance and other physicochemical parameters. The abundances of antibiotic-resistant E. coli were significantly attenuated during land-sea migration suggesting that estuary environments play a natural mitigation role in the contamination of freshwaters by antibiotic-resistant E. coli. Additionally, environmental factors and disturbance indices of anthropogenic activities significantly correlated with the distribution and migration of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in the estuaries. Lastly, simulation experiments suggested differential adaptability between antibiotic-resistant and non-resistant E. coli towards environmental changes in estuary environments. Meanwhile, our results indicate that low concentrations of antibiotics will not increase the competitive advantage of resistant E. coli in estuaries.

  16. ACCEPTABILITY EVALUATION FOR USING ICRP TISSUE WEIGHTING FACTORS TO CALCULATE EFFECTIVE DOSE VALUE FOR SEPARATE GENDER-AGE GROUPS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article describes radiation risk factors for several gender-age population groups according to Russian statistical and medical-demographic data, evaluates the lethality rate for separate nosologic forms of malignant neoplasms based on Russian cancer registries according to the method of the International Agency for Cancer Research. Relative damage factors are calculated for the gender-age groups under consideration. The tissue weighting factors recommended by ICRP to calculate effective doses are compared with relative damage factors calculated by ICRP for the nominal population and with similar factors calculated in this work for separate population cohorts in theRussian Federation. The significance of differences and the feasibility of using tissue weighting factors adapted for the Russian population in assessing population risks in cohorts of different gender-age compositions have been assessed.

  17. Data Mining Activity for Bone Discipline: Calculating a Factor of Risk for Hip Fracture in Long-Duration Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, R.; Sibonga, J. D.; Bouxsein, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    The factor-of-risk (Phi), defined as the ratio of applied load to bone strength, is a biomechanical approach to hip fracture risk assessment that may be used to identify subjects who are at increased risk for fracture. The purpose of this project was to calculate the factor of risk in long duration astronauts after return from a mission on the International Space Station (ISS), which is typically 6 months in duration. The load applied to the hip was calculated for a sideways fall from standing height based on the individual height and weight of the astronauts. The soft tissue thickness overlying the greater trochanter was measured from the DXA whole body scans and used to estimate attenuation of the impact force provided by soft tissues overlying the hip. Femoral strength was estimated from femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which were performed between 5-32 days of landing. All long-duration NASA astronauts from Expedition 1 to 18 were included in this study, where repeat flyers were treated as separate subjects. Male astronauts (n=20) had a significantly higher factor of risk for hip fracture Phi than females (n=5), with preflight values of 0.83+/-0.11 and 0.36+/-0.07, respectively, but there was no significant difference between preflight and postflight Phi (Figure 1). Femoral aBMD measurements were not found to be significantly different between men and women. Three men and no women exceeded the theoretical fracture threshold of Phi=1 immediately postflight, indicating that they would likely suffer a hip fracture if they were to experience a sideways fall with impact to the greater trochanter. These data suggest that male astronauts may be at greater risk for hip fracture than women following spaceflight, primarily due to relatively less soft tissue thickness and subsequently greater impact force.

  18. Virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance, and plasmid content of Escherichia coli isolated in swine commercial farms

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,M.M.; Drescher,G.; Maboni,F; Weber,S.S.; Schrank,A.; Vainstein,M.H.; Schrank,I.S.; Vargas,A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolates were evaluated. A total of 80 E. coli isolates were evaluated, being 64 from clinical samples (intestinal content and fragments of organs from diarrheic piglets), seven from feces of clinically healthy piglets and sows, and nine environmental samples (five from facilities, two from feed, one from insect, and one from waste). Molecular characterization was performed by PCR detection of fimbriae and toxin genes...

  19. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of staphylococci in canine pyoderma

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Belén; Maldonado, Alfonso; Ginel, Pedro J.; Tarradas, Carmen; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Astorga, Rafael J.; Luque, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study reports the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of staphylococci (n=105) isolated from dogs, and the factors associated with this resistance. The study animals were 23 healthy dogs (group A), 24 with first-time pyoderma (group B), and 27 with recurrent pyoderma that had undergone long-term antibiotic treatment (group C). Staphylococci were more commonly isolated from the pyoderma-affected than the healthy dogs (p , Spain.--> - (Huerta, Be...

  20. Risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in immunocompetent patients with pneumonia: Evaluation of PES pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Ito, Akihiro; Washio, Yasuyoshi; Yamazaki, Akio; Noyama, Maki; Tokioka, Fumiaki; Arita, Machiko

    2017-01-01

    The new acronym, PES pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-positive, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), was recently proposed to identify drug-resistant pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia. To evaluate the risk factors for antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in immunocompetent patients with pneumonia and to validate the role of PES pathogens. A retrospective analysis of a prospective observational study of immunocompetent patients with pneumonia between March 2009 and June 2015 was conducted. We clarified the risk factors for PES pathogens. Of the total 1559 patients, an etiological diagnosis was made in 705 (45.2%) patients. PES pathogens were identified in 51 (7.2%) patients, with 53 PES pathogens (P. aeruginosa, 34; ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae, 6; and MRSA, 13). Patients with PES pathogens had tendencies toward initial treatment failure, readmission within 30 days, and a prolonged hospital stay. Using multivariate analysis, female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.998, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.047-3.810), admission within 90 days (AOR 2.827, 95% CI 1.250-6.397), poor performance status (AOR 2.380, 95% CI 1.047-5.413), and enteral feeding (AOR 5.808, 95% CI 1.813-18.613) were independent risk factors for infection with PES pathogens. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the risk factors was 0.66 (95% CI 0.577-0.744). We believe the definition of PES pathogens is an appropriate description of drug-resistant pathogens associated with pneumonia in immunocompetent patients. The frequency of PES pathogens is quite low. However, recognition is critical because they can cause refractory pneumonia and different antimicrobial treatment is required. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Yuichiro; Ito, Ryota; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ando, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Shiraki, Akira; Goto, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Yasutaka; Iwaki, Mai; Okumura, Junya; Yamaguchi, Ikuo; Yagi, Tetsuya; Tanikawa, Yoshimasa; Sugino, Yasuteru; Shindoh, Joe; Ogasawara, Tomohiko; Nomura, Fumio; Saka, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masashi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Ryujiro; Saito, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2013-10-15

    Identification of patients with drug-resistant pathogens at initial diagnosis is essential for treatment of pneumonia. To elucidate clinical features of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), and to clarify risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in patients with CAP and HCAP. A prospective observational study was conducted in hospitalized patients with pneumonia at 10 institutions in Japan. Pathogens identified as not susceptible to ceftriaxone, ampicillin-sulbactam, macrolides, and respiratory fluoroquinolones were defined as CAP drug-resistant pathogens (CAP-DRPs). In total, 1,413 patients (887 CAP and 526 HCAP) were analyzed. CAP-DRPs were more frequently found in patients with HCAP (26.6%) than in patients with CAP (8.6%). Independent risk factors for CAP-DRPs were almost identical in patients with CAP and HCAP. These included prior hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-3.43), immunosuppression (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.05-5.11), previous antibiotic use (AOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.51-3.98), use of gastric acid-suppressive agents (AOR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.39-3.57), tube feeding (AOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.18-5.00), and nonambulatory status (AOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.40-4.30) in the combined patients with CAP and HCAP. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for counting the number of risk factors was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.74-0.84). The clinical profile of HCAP was different from that of CAP. However, physicians can predict drug resistance in patients with either CAP or HCAP by taking account of the cumulative number of the risk factors. Clinical trial registered with https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000004001&language=E ; number UMIN000003306.

  2. Accelerating the Diffusion of Wind Power: An Analysis of Resistance Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a combination of learning-by-doing (LBD) and benefitcost analysis (BCA) using a Dynamic Programming method with stochastic assumption analysis to identify factors of resistance to the diffusion of wind turbine generators. To do so, we must take into consideration that there is a "waiting option" while -- assuming the LBD concept in operation -- the price comes down in a competitive market. The application of the stochastic and dynamic programming model usi...

  3. Vigilants Factor of Childhood Urinary Tract Infections and Antibiotic Resistance in One Tourism Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Aydemir

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Nowadays, it has become quite difficult to set on empiric treatment of the urinary tract infections (UTI due to the levels of antibiotic resistance showing local differences. In our study, we aimed to find out what the antibiotic resistance, the region factors of UTI and we also wanted to observe wheather this resistance shows differences betwen diffirent age groups. METHOD: In this study we made inquiry of six questions with patient parents about region factors effects of UTI. Two hundred children who applied to pediatrics policlinic of Ahu Hetman Hospital with urinary system complaints or diagnosed to have (UTI while hospitalizing and with positive urinary culture results were included in the study. There were no known chronic disorders or no frequent recurrence of UTI history in the patients. The subjects were divided into three groups as 1 under 1 year old; 2 between 1-6 years old; 3 over 6 years old. Then the frequency of the pathogens was examined in terms of the resistance levels occurring against the antibiotics. RESULTS: The range of age the patients was between 1 and 192 months. The reproducing pathogens were Escherichiacoli 86% (n=172, Klebsiella pneumoniae 8% (n=16, Proteus mirabilis 4% (n=8 and Enterococcus spp 2% (n=4 respectively. While there was high resistance to amoxycilline (75.8%, ureidopenicillines (%46.4, 1st generation cephalosporin, (48.4% and cotrimaksazole (43.1%; there was low resistance to imipenem (1.7%, amicasin (5.6% and 3rd generation cephalosporins (14.7%. According to thes age groups, in Group 1 (¡U12 months the most effective agents were netilmicine (13%, gentamicine (13% and ceftriakson (17%; in addition to these, we can add cefuroxim-axetil (22.7% in Group 2 (12-72 months and nitrofrantoin (11% in Group 3. Under 1 year old groups didn't include this inquiry about UTL in tourism region. We made this study with a hundred seventy pation's parents ( upper of one year children than we observed some of

  4. Bacterial Profile, Antibacterial Resistance Pattern, and Associated Factors from Women Attending Postnatal Health Service at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Abebaw Bitew Kifilie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical site infection is a vital cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited countries. The rise of antibiotic resistance bacterial infection poses a big threat to this vulnerable population. However, there is lack of studies around the study area. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify bacterial profile, antibacterial resistance pattern, and associated factors among mothers attending postnatal care health service. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 107 study participants at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from 1 January 2016 to 30 May 2016. Wound swab, aspirate, and biopsy were collected and performed for culture and drug resistance testing. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to determine the associated factors for bacterial infection. Odds ratio (95% CI was calculated to determine the strength of statistically significant associated factors. Result. Bacterial growth was confirmed in 90 (84.1% of 107 study participants suspected to have surgical site infection. The predominant bacterial isolates were S. aureus (41.6%, E. coli (19.8%, K. pneumoniae (13.9%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus (12.9%, and Enterobacter spp. (4%. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline but susceptible to ceftriaxone and amikacin. Multidrug-resistant bacteria species were isolated. Using a procedure such as cesarean section and episiotomy for delivery and premature rapture of membrane had strong association with bacterial infection. Conclusion. The high prevalence of bacterial profile and isolation of multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a big threat to postnatal mothers and their children. Factors such as cesarean section, episiotomy for delivery, and premature rapture of membrane were predictors for bacterial infection. Therefore, there

  5. Moving Aerospace Structural Design Practice to a Load and Resistance Factor Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2016-01-01

    Aerospace structures are traditionally designed using the factor of safety (FOS) approach. The limit load on the structure is determined and the structure is then designed for FOS times the limit load - the ultimate load. Probabilistic approaches utilize distributions for loads and strengths. Failures are predicted to occur in the region of intersection of the two distributions. The load and resistance factor design (LRFD) approach judiciously combines these two approaches by intensive calibration studies on loads and strength to result in structures that are efficient and reliable. This paper discusses these three approaches.

  6. Calculation of the overlap factor for scanning LiDAR based on the tridimensional ray-tracing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruiqiang; Jiang, Yuesong; Wen, Luhong; Wen, Donghai

    2017-06-01

    The overlap factor is used to evaluate the LiDAR light collection ability. Ranging LiDAR is mainly determined by the optical configuration. However, scanning LiDAR, equipped with a scanning mechanism to acquire a 3D coordinate points cloud for a specified target, is essential in considering the scanning effect at the same time. Otherwise, scanning LiDAR will reduce the light collection ability and even cannot receive any echo. From this point of view, we propose a scanning LiDAR overlap factor calculation method based on the tridimensional ray-tracing method, which can be applied to scanning LiDAR with any special laser intensity distribution, any type of telescope (reflector, refractor, or mixed), and any shape obstruction (i.e., the reflector of a coaxial optical system). A case study for our LiDAR with a scanning mirror is carried out, and a MATLAB program is written to analyze the laser emission and reception process. Sensitivity analysis is carried out as a function of scanning mirror rotation speed and detector position, and the results guide how to optimize the overlap factor for our LiDAR. The results of this research will have a guiding significance in scanning LiDAR design and assembly.

  7. Factors influencing overweight children's commencement of and continuation in a resistance training program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuigan Michael R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the child overweight and obesity problem in Australia, resistance training programs have been trialled as an innovative way of assisting children increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing overweight children's participation in a resistance training trial program. Method Parent-child pairs who participated in the trial program were invited to take part in a follow-up individual interview to discuss their program experiences. In total, 22 semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 parent-child pairs. Results The factors found to be most relevant to program commencement among parents were a desire for their child to lose weight and gain confidence, the proximity of the venue, and no cost for participation. For children, the most relevant factors were the opportunity to build strength and improve fitness and having supportive parents who facilitated program initiation. The factors most relevant to continuation for parents were the quality of the program management, being able to stay for the sessions, the child's improved weight status, coordination, and confidence, and no cost for participation. Weight loss and improved confidence were also motivators for continuation among the children, along with pleasant social interaction with peers and trainers and ongoing parental support. Conclusion Different factors variably influence program commencement and program continuation in both parents and children. This has important implications for future interventions that aim to successfully recruit and retain intervention participants.

  8. Proposed risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant pathogens in hemodialysis patients hospitalized with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Uk; Park, Hye Kyeong; Kang, Hyung Koo; Lee, Jonghoo

    2017-10-12

    In patients with hemodialysis-associated pneumonia (HDAP), information on both microbiologic features and antimicrobial strategies is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate predictive factors of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in HDAP patients. This was a multicenter, retrospective, and observational study. Enrolled patients were classified into MDR or non-MDR pathogens groups according to culture results. We examined risk factors of infection with MDR pathogens and created a decision support tool using these risk factors. MDR pathogens were identified in 24 (22.8%) out of a total of 105 HDAP patients. The most common MDR pathogens were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (10 patients, 9.5%) and the isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 6.6%. Logistic regression showed two variables were associated with the isolation of MDR pathogens: recent hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.951, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.022-8.518) and PSI (Pneumonia Severity Index) score (adjusted OR: 1.023, 95% CI: 1.005-1.041). The optimal cut-off value for PSI score using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 147. According to the presence of 0, 1, or 2 of the identified risk factors, the prevalence of MDR pathogens was 7.6, 28.2 and 64.2%, respectively (p  147 are risk factors of infection with MDR pathogens in HDAP patients. This simple proposed tool would facilitate more accurate identification of MDR pathogens in these patients.

  9. High prevalence of primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis in persons with no known risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Otero

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In high multidrug resistant (MDR tuberculosis (TB prevalence areas, drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis is recommended for patients with risk factors for MDR. However, this approach might miss a substantial proportion of MDR-TB in the general population. We studied primary MDR in patients considered to be at low risk of MDR-TB in Lima, Peru. METHODS: We enrolled new sputum smear-positive TB patients who did not report any MDR-TB risk factor: known exposure to a TB patient whose treatment failed or who died or who was known to have MDR-TB; immunosuppressive co-morbidities, ex prison inmates; prison and health care workers; and alcohol or drug abuse. A structured questionnaire was applied to all enrolled participants to confirm the absence of these factors and thus minimize underreporting. Sputum from all participants was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen media and DST for first line drugs was performed using the 7H10 agar method. RESULTS: Of 875 participants with complete data, 23.2% (203 had risk factors for MDR-TB elicited after enrolment. Among the group with no reported risk factors who had a positive culture, we found a 6.3% (95%CI 4.4-8.3 (37/584 rate of MDR-TB. In this group no epidemiological characteristics were associated with MDR-TB. Thus, in this group, multidrug resistance occurred in patients with no identifiable risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high rate of primary MDR-TB in a general population with no identifiable risk factors for MDR-TB. This suggests that in a high endemic area targeting patients for MDR-TB based on the presence of risk factors is an insufficient intervention.

  10. Calculation of site specific characterisation factors for metal ecotoxicity using decoupled multi species fate and exposure modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Strandesen, Maria; Larsen, HF

    2004-01-01

    Calculation of characterisation factors (CF’s) for metal ecotoxicity typically involves fate and exposure modelling of metals in multi-media models developed for assessment of organic compounds. Metals do not follow the fate patterns of organic chemicals, and the results will therefore most likely...... misrepresent the exposure concentration of metals. However, using multiple versions of such models for individual metal species within each model region and linking these to databases containing information on speciation pattern and fate properties of the individual metal species enables the assessment...... to the part of the metal species present as complexes which is very hard to account for in single species assessment. Preliminary results on the CF’s based on single species assessment and decoupled multi species assessment will be presented for 4 common metals....

  11. Bolus calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    Matching meal insulin to carbohydrate intake, blood glucose, and activity level is recommended in type 1 diabetes management. Calculating an appropriate insulin bolus size several times per day is, however, challenging and resource demanding. Accordingly, there is a need for bolus calculators to support patients in insulin treatment decisions. Currently, bolus calculators are available integrated in insulin pumps, as stand-alone devices and in the form of software applications that can be downloaded to, for example, smartphones. Functionality and complexity of bolus calculators vary greatly, and the few handfuls of published bolus calculator studies are heterogeneous with regard to study design, intervention, duration, and outcome measures. Furthermore, many factors unrelated to the specific device affect outcomes from bolus calculator use and therefore bolus calculator study comparisons should be conducted cautiously. Despite these reservations, there seems to be increasing evidence that bolus calculators may improve glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in patients who use the devices actively and as intended. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. A clinical decision rule identifies risk factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant urinary pathogens in the emergency department: a retrospective validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faine, Brett A; Harland, Kari K; Porter, Blake; Liang, Stephen Y; Mohr, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    Identifying patients at high risk for multidrug-resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) is important for guiding empirical antimicrobial therapy. Clinical risk factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant urinary pathogens and the derivation of a simple clinical decision rule could help define health care-associated UTI. To derive a simple clinical decision rule to identify clinical risk factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant urinary pathogens. This was a retrospective case-control study of all emergency department (ED) patients from July 1, 2011, to July 1, 2012, who presented to the ED with UTI and a positive urine culture. Candidate risk factors were collected retrospectively from medical record review. We compared differences in patient characteristics stratified by the presence of an antimicrobial-resistant urinary pathogen. A total of 360 patients with UTI had a positive, noncontaminated urine culture during the study period. About 6.7% of patients (n = 24) had a multidrug-resistant (MDR) urinary infection. Logistic regression modeling identified 3 clinical factors associated with the identification of a MDR pathogen: male sex, chronic hemodialysis, and nursing home residence. A scoring system was created to identify patients with MDR pathogens. Test characteristics were calculated using bootstrapping for internal validation, with a sensitivity of 74.7% (95% CI = 55.1%-91.3%) and specificity of 85.1% (95% CI = 77.8%-86.2%), positive likelihood ratio of 4.3, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.3. Clinical factors can be used to identify UTI patients at high risk of MDR urinary pathogens. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Gene blaCTX-M Mutation as Risk Factor of Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinna Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are more than half from all antibiotics used in the world which is belong to β lactam group, but clinical effectiveness of the antibiotics are limited by antibiotic resistance of microorganisms as causative agents from infectious diseases. Several resistance mechanisms for Enterobacteriaceae are mostly caused by enzymatic hydrolysis of antibiotics specific enzymes, called β lactamases. β lactamases represent a large group of enzyme which is genetically and functionally different as extended‑spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and known as greatest threat of resistence. Plasmid localization from the encoded gene and enzyme distribution among the pathogen increases every year. Most widespread and clinically relevant ESBL are class A ESBL of Temoniera (TEM, Sulphydryl variable (SHV and Cefotaxime (CTX-M types. The purpose of this review was to analyze variant of blaCTX-M gene which cause the most increase incidence of antibiotic resistance. The methods of this review were data-based searching based on Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar, without limitation of index factor by using the keyword “blaCTX-M”, “Extended-spectrum β-lactamase”, and “antibiotic resistance”. The conclusion of the review is CTX-M type ESBL have replaced TEM and SHV type as dominant enzyme in last decade. ESBL produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged as one of major nosocomial pathogens. Nosocomial infection caused by CTX-M-15 in Klebsiella pneumoniae dramatically increased in recent years.

  14. Phylogenetic group, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli associated with bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongxia; Liu, Gang; Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Yong; Ali, Tariq; Chen, Wei; Yin, Jinhua; Han, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Escherichia coli is an important pathogen involved in the etiology of bovine mastitis. A total of 70 E. coli isolates recovered from clinical and subclinical mastitis samples were characterized with respect to their phylogenic group, virulence factors and antimicrobial susceptibility. Based on the presence of the specific genes chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2, these isolates were found to belong to three different groups: group A(25), group B1(41) and group D(4). Twenty-five (35.7%) isolates harbored at least one virulence gene, and the most prevalent virulence genes were f17A, irp2, astA, iucD and colV. The irp2-coding gene was more often detected in group A than in group B1 isolates; in contrast, colV was identified more often in group B1 isolates. The majority of isolates (87.1%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial compound. Forty-seven isolates (67.1%) were resistant to streptomycin, and those from group B1 were more resistant to streptomycin than isolates from group A. The latter feature was supported by the distribution of streptomycin resistance genes observed in group B1 compared to group A. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization in pediatric and neonatal intensive care units: risk factors for progression to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Hacer; Sutcu, Murat; Somer, Ayper; Aydın, Derya; Cihan, Rukiye; Ozdemir, Aslı; Coban, Asuman; Ince, Zeynep; Citak, Agop; Salman, Nuran

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in pediatric patients, who are initally colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. A retrospective case-control study was conducted involving pediatric and neonatal intensive care units throughout a five-year period (January 2010-December 2014). Clinical and microbiological data were extracted from Hospital Infection Control Committee reports and patients' medical records. Risk factors were assessed in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients who developed subsequent systemic infection (cases) and compared to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients who did not develop infection (controls). Throughout the study period, 2.6% of patients admitted to neonatal intensive care units and 3.6% of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care units had become colonized with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. After a mean of 10.6±1.9 days (median: 7 days, range: 2-38 days) following detection of colonization, 39.0% of the carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients in pediatric intensive care units and 18.1% of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonized patients in neonatal intensive care units developed systemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Types of systemic carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections included bacteremia (n=15, 62.5%), ventilator-associated pneumonia (n=4, 16.6%), ventriculitis (n=2, 8.3%), intraabdominal infections (n=2, 8.3%), and urinary tract infection (n=1, 4.1%). A logistic regression model including parameters found significant in univariate analysis of carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization and carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection groups revealed underlying metabolic disease (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.7-37.2), previous carbapenem use (OR: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.2-40.1), neutropenia (OR: 13.8; 95% CI: 3

  16. Risk factors for incident type 2 diabetes in individuals with a BMI of Resistance Syndrome (DESIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, A; Balkau, B; Lange, C; Tichet, J; Bonnet, F

    2010-02-01

    Risk factors for incident type 2 diabetes, in particular, hepatic markers, have rarely been studied in leaner individuals. We aimed to identify the metabolic and hepatic markers associated with incident diabetes in men and women with a BMI of or=27 kg/m(2). Risk factors for 9 year incident diabetes were compared in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) cohort. Comparisons were made between the 2,947 participants with a BMI of or=27 kg/m(2). There were 92 incident cases of diabetes in individuals with a BMI of or=27 kg/m(2). Among those who were not markedly overweight, classical biological markers were associated with 9 year incident diabetes, glycaemia being the strongest predictor. gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), either considered as a continuous variable or at levels >or=20 U/l, was associated with incident diabetes, with a stronger effect in the BMI or=27 kg/m(2) (results after adjustment for alcohol intake, alanine aminotransferase, waist circumference and the HOMA insulin resistance index). In individuals with a BMI of resistance, suggesting potential interactions between GGT, enhanced hepatic neoglucogenesis and/or early alterations of insulin secretion.

  17. Distinctive Risk Factors and Phenotype of Younger Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Age Is Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Lama; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A; Lin, Chee Paul; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg despite using ≥3 antihypertensive medications, is a well-recognized clinical entity. Patients with resistant hypertension are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those with more easily controlled hypertension. Coronary heart disease mortality rates of younger adults are stagnating or on the rise. The purpose of our study was to characterize the phenotype and risk factors of younger patients with resistant hypertension, given the dearth of data on cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with predefined age groups of a large, ethnically diverse cohort of 2170 patients referred to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients (n=2068) met the inclusion criteria and were classified by age groups, that is, ≤40 years (12.7% of total cohort), 41 to 55 years (32.1%), 56 to 70 years (36.1%), and ≥71 years (19.1%). Patients aged ≤40 years compared with those aged ≥71 years had significantly earlier onset of hypertension (24.7±7.4 versus 55.0±14.1 years; P hypertension, younger individuals have a distinct phenotype characterized by overlapping risk factors and comorbidities, including obesity, high aldosterone, and high dietary sodium intake compared with elderly. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Changes of plasma angiogenic factors during chronic resistance exercise in type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, S.P.; Gharakhanlou, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Exercise has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic resistance exercise on some plasma angiogenic factors in type 1 diabetic rats. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, diabetic and diabetic trained (n = 10 each). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats in the trained group undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble form of VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) were determined. Results: We found a significant reduction in plasma NO concentrations in diabetic rats compared to the controls (p 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 concentrations between diabetic sedentary and trained groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, VEGF/sFlt-1 ratios in diabetic animals were lower than the control group and resistance exercise could not increase this ratio in diabetic animals (p > 0.05) Conclusion: Resistance exercise could not change plasma VEGF, sFlt-1 and VEGF/sFlt-1 ratio. However, it increased plasma NO concentrations in diabetic animals. More studies are needed to determine the effects of this type of exercise on the angiogenesis process. (author)

  19. Molecular Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP poses an immediate threat to treatment worldwide. This retrospective study assessed the molecular epidemiology and determined the risk factors for and outcomes of CRKP infections in a general teaching hospital in Shanghai, China.Methods: From January 2013 to July 2015, 100 consecutive unique CRKP isolates isolated from hospitalized patients were collected. Isolates were screened for antibiotic resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction and molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Patients infected with CRKP comprised the case group and were compared to the control group of patients infected with carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae. Therapeutic effects were compared in the CRKP infection group.Results: Among the 100 CRKP isolates, the percentages of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant (XDR, and pandrug-resistant were 50.0, 50.0, and 0%, respectively. All the CRKP isolates produced KPC-2 and could be divided into 18 PFGE clusters (A–O and 70 subtypes. No dominant intra-hospital PFGE type was detected using a cutoff of 80% similarity. The ratio of CRKP infection to colonization was 51 to 49. Risk factors correlated with CRKP infection included pulmonary disease (p = 0.038, ICU stay (p = 0.002, invasive ventilation (p = 0.009, blood transfusion (p = 0.028, parenteral nutrition (p = 0.004, sputum suction (p = 0.006, medical history of previous hospitalization (p = 0.022, exposure to antibiotics 90 days before infection (p = 0.030, and antibiotic exposure during hospital stay including carbapenems (p = 0.013, enzyme inhibitors (p = 0.021, nitroimidazoles (p = 0.029, and glycopeptides (p = 0.000. Multivariable analysis showed that sputum suction (odds ratio 3.090, 95% confidence intervals 1.004–9.518, p = 0.049 was an independent risk factor for CRKP infections. Patients infected with CRKP with longer

  20. Chemical plant factors affecting resistance in sugarcane in against Scirpophaga Nivella f

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Khan, A.; Ali, A.

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted during 2000 to determine the role of various chemical plant factors viz., total minerals, nitrogen, fat contents, carbohydrate, macro an micro nutrients in the leaves of five genotypes of sugarcane i.e., BF-162, SPSG-26, L-118, CP-43/33 and CP-72/2086 by correlating the infestation of top borer, Scirpophaga Nivella F. at tillering stage. None of the genotype was found completely resistant to the pest. CP-43/33 and BF-162 proved susceptible and resistant varieties, respectively. Total mineral, manganese and copper contents did not show significant correlation with the pest infestation, whereas nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium and ferrous contents played a positive and significant role. Phosphorous, carbohydrates, fats and zinc contents played a significant and negative effect on the pest infestation at tillering stage. (author)

  1. Cardiac Development and Transcription Factors: Insulin Signalling, Insulin Resistance, and Intrauterine Nutritional Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindsamy, Annelene; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2018-01-01

    Programming with an insult or stimulus during critical developmental life stages shapes metabolic disease through divergent mechanisms. Cardiovascular disease increasingly contributes to global morbidity and mortality, and the heart as an insulin-sensitive organ may become insulin resistant, which manifests as micro- and/or macrovascular complications due to diabetic complications. Cardiogenesis is a sequential process during which the heart develops into a mature organ and is regulated by several cardiac-specific transcription factors. Disrupted cardiac insulin signalling contributes to cardiac insulin resistance. Intrauterine under- or overnutrition alters offspring cardiac structure and function, notably cardiac hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and hypertension that precede the onset of cardiovascular disease. Optimal intrauterine nutrition and oxygen saturation are required for normal cardiac development in offspring and the maintenance of their cardiovascular physiology. PMID:29484207

  2. Survivin plays as a resistant factor against tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriai, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Naoki; Moriai, Mikako; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Naoki

    2009-09-01

    Tamoxifen has been the mainstay of endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. However, approximately 40% of breast cancer patients do not respond to tamoxifen treatment. Further, most tumors eventually acquire tamoxifen resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective modalities to enhance the efficacy of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which breast cancer cells develop resistance against tamoxifen from the viewpoint of tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic molecule survivin rendered the human breast cancer cells MCF-7 resistant to tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. To examine whether the down-regulation of survivin can enhance tamoxifen-induced apoptosis, we introduced siRNA targeting the survivin gene (survivin-siRNA) into MCF-7 cells. Survivin-siRNA transfection not only induced apoptosis without tamoxifen treatment but also augmented the tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (HRIs), which are widely used to reduce the serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemia patients, decreases survivin expression in colon cancer cells. To develop a pharmacological approach for improving the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment, we determined whether HRIs can enhance tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. Lovastatin, an HRI, down-regulated the expression of survivin protein in MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the proportion of apoptotic cells induced by the tamoxifen and lovastatin combination was greater than the theoretical additive effect. These results suggest that survivin may function as a factor inducing resistance against tamoxifen-induced apoptosis, and the combined use of tamoxifen and HRI may be a novel approach to overcome tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.

  3. Contribution of SecDF to Staphylococcus aureus resistance and expression of virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger-Bächi Brigitte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SecDF is an accessory factor of the conserved Sec protein translocation machinery and belongs to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND family of multidrug exporters. SecDF has been shown in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to be involved in the export of proteins. RND proteins can mediate resistance against various substances and might be of relevance in antimicrobial therapy. The role of RND proteins in Staphylococcus aureus has not yet been determined. Results Markerless deletion mutants were constructed to analyze the impact of the so far uncharacterized RND proteins in S. aureus. While the lack of Sa2056 and Sa2339 caused no phenotype regarding growth and resistance, the secDF mutant resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype. The secDF mutant was cold sensitive, but grew normally in rich medium at 37°C. Resistance to beta-lactams, glycopeptides and the RND substrates acriflavine, ethidium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate was reduced. The secDF mutant showed an aberrant cell separation and increased spontaneous and Triton X-100 induced autolysis, although the amounts of penicillin-binding proteins in the membrane were unchanged. The impact of secDF deletion on transcription and expression of specific virulence determinants varied: While coagulase transcription and activity were reduced, the opposite was observed for the autolysin Atl. A reduction of the transcription of the cell wall anchored protein A (spa was also found. The accumulation of SpA in the membrane and lowered amounts in the cell wall pointed to an impaired translocation. Conclusions The combination of different effects of secDF deletion on transcription, regulation and translocation lead to impaired cell division, reduced resistance and altered expression of virulence determinants suggesting SecDF to be of major relevance in S. aureus. Thus SecDF could be a potential target for the control and eradication of S. aureus in the future.

  4. EMT transcription factors snail and slug directly contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslehurst, Alexandria M; Weberpals, Johanne; Davey, Scott; Squire, Jeremy; Park, Paul C; Feilotter, Harriet; Koti, Madhuri; Dharsee, Moyez; Nuin, Paulo; Evans, Ken; Geraci, Joseph; Childs, Timothy; Chen, Jian; Li, Jieran

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a molecular process through which an epithelial cell undergoes transdifferentiation into a mesenchymal phenotype. The role of EMT in embryogenesis is well-characterized and increasing evidence suggests that elements of the transition may be important in other processes, including metastasis and drug resistance in various different cancers. Agilent 4 × 44 K whole human genome arrays and selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry were used to investigate mRNA and protein expression in A2780 cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines. Invasion and migration were assessed using Boyden chamber assays. Gene knockdown of snail and slug was done using targeted siRNA. Clinical relevance of the EMT pathway was assessed in a cohort of primary ovarian tumours using data from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 arrays. Morphological and phenotypic hallmarks of EMT were identified in the chemoresistant cells. Subsequent gene expression profiling revealed upregulation of EMT-related transcription factors including snail, slug, twist2 and zeb2. Proteomic analysis demonstrated up regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the mesenchymal marker Vimentin, and down regulation of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker. By reducing expression of snail and slug, the mesenchymal phenotype was largely reversed and cells were resensitized to cisplatin. Finally, gene expression data from primary tumours mirrored the finding that an EMT-like pathway is activated in resistant tumours relative to sensitive tumours, suggesting that the involvement of this transition may not be limited to in vitro drug effects. This work strongly suggests that genes associated with EMT may play a significant role in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, therefore potentially leading to the development of predictive biomarkers of drug response or novel therapeutic strategies for overcoming drug resistance

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING VARIABILITY OF RESISTANCE IN GAROLE SHEEP NATURALLY INFECTED WITH HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Roy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance status against natural infection to Haemonchus contortus as well as influence of season, sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type on resistance levels were evaluated in 309 numbers of Garole sheep. In adult Garole sheep, egg per gram(EPG of faeces for Haemonchus contortus was varied from 300 to 1600, but overall EPG in Garole have been recorded as 829.96 ± 20.60. The effects of season, sex, and body weight and haemoglobin type on EPG were all found to be highly significant (P < 0.01. EPG count was highest during monsoon (986.27 ± 28.26, followed by summer (832.88 ± 28.26 and lowest during winter (670.74 ± 28.26 which indicated the existence of a seasonal variation of EPG. Rams had higher EPG (954.32 ± 57.93 than ewes (705.60 ± 45.79 which reflected that males appeared to be more susceptible to Haemonchus contortus infection compared to females. Animals with lower body weight (upto 10 kg showed higher EPG (1017.20 ± 54.82, then the infection level decreased as body weight increased (886.79 ± 56.23 for 10 kg to 12 kg and 737.18 ± 50.29 for 12 kg to 14 kg and lowest EPG was recorded in animals with above 14 kg body weight (678.68 ± 54.49. This study reveals Hb-BB type animals had higher EPG count (983.81 ± 18.22 in comparison to Hb-AB type animals (676.12 ± 33.96 indicating that Haemoglobin-A locus has some relation with resistance. From our study it can be concluded that resistant level of Garole sheep against Haemonchus contortus is influenced by some intrinsic factors like sex, body weight, and haemoglobin type of the sheep and also by extrinsic factor like season.

  6. Factors determining sensitivity or resistance of tumor cell lines towards artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Sieber, Sebastian; Sauer, Alexandra; Weiss, Johanna; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Clinical oncology is still challenged by the development of drug resistance of tumors that result in poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance and to develop novel therapy strategies. Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malarial drug, which also exerts profound cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. We first applied a gene-hunting approach using cluster and COMPARE analyses of microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiles. Among the genes identified by this approach were genes from diverse functional groups such as structural constituents of ribosomes (RPL6, RPL7, RPS12, RPS15A), kinases (CABC1, CCT2, RPL41), transcriptional and translational regulators (SFRS2, TUFM, ZBTB4), signal transducers (FLNA), control of cell growth and proliferation (RPS6), angiogenesis promoting factors (ITGB1), and others (SLC25A19, NCKAP1, BST1, DBH, FZD7, NACA, MTHFD2). Furthermore, we applied a candidate gene approach and tested the role of resistance mechanisms towards established anti-cancer drugs for ART resistance. By using transfected or knockout cell models we found that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) and the anti-oxidant protein, catalase, conferred resistance towards ART, while the oncogene HPV-E6 conferred sensitivity towards ART. The tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream protein, p21, as well as the anti-oxidant manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase did not affect cellular response to ART. In conclusion, our pharmacogenomic approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards ART is multi-factorial and is determined by gene expression associated with either ART sensitivity or resistance. At least some of the functional groups of genes (e.g. angiogenesis promoting factors, cell growth and proliferation-associated genes signal transducers and kinases) are also implicated in clinical responsiveness of tumors towards chemotherapy. It merits further investigation, whether ART is responsive in

  7. Correlation models between environmental factors and bacterial resistance to antimony and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunji Shi

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and copper (Cu are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III to the less toxic Sb(V are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III/Cu(II-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Sb(III (>10 mM,making them the most highly Sb(III-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III, including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III or Cu(II resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: MIC(Sb(III=606.605+0.14533 x C(Sb+0.4128 x C(Cu and MIC((Cu(II=58.3844+0.02119 x C(S+0.00199 x CP [where the MIC(Sb(III and MIC(Cu(II represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (μM, and the C(Sb, C(Cu, C(S and C(P represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals.

  8. RESULTS OF CALCULATION-EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF ELECTRO-THERMAL RESISTIBILITY OF SHEET STEEL SAMPLES TO ACTION OF RATIONED COMPONENTS OF PULSED CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Baranov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation and experimental researches of the electro-thermal resistibility of the steel sheet samples to action standard pulse current components of the artificial lightning with amplitude-time parameters (ATP, corresponded the requirements of normative documents of USA for SAE ARP 5412 & SAE ARP 5416. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of technique of high tensions and large impulsive currents (LIC, and also scientific and technical bases of planning of devices of high-voltage impulsive technique and measuring in them LIC. Сurrent amplitude ImA=±200 kA (with a tolerance of ±10 %; current action integral JA=2∙106 A2•s (with a tolerance of ±20 %; time, corresponding to the amplitude of the current ImA, tmA≤50 microseconds; the duration of the current flow τpA≤500 microseconds. Results. The results of the evaluation of the calculated and experimental studies of electro-thermal resistance of the samples of plates measuring 0,5 m  0,5 m stainless steel 1 mm thickness to the action on them artificial lightning impulse currents with rationed ATP on the requirements of normative documents of USA for SAE ARP 5412 & SAE ARP 5416. A pulse A- component have a first amplitude 192 kA, the corresponding time of 34 μs, and the duration aperiodic component amplitude 804 A, corresponding to the time 9 ms. It has been shown that the long C- component current of artificial lightning can lead to keyhole these samples. The diameter of the holes in this thin steel sheet, which is formed during the flow of current C- components can reach 15 mm. The results of calculation and experiment agree within 28 %. Originality. For the first time in world practice on the generator large pulsed currents experimental studies of resistibility of sheet steel samples to the action of artificial lightning currents with critical parameters. Practical value. Using the results obtained in the practice of lightning protection will significantly improve the

  9. Models of radionuclide distribution in the biosphere for radioactive waste storage safety assessment, collection of data and calculation of the biosphere dose conversion factors. Research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, Jiri

    2008-12-01

    The core of the report is structured as follows: The biosphere dose conversion factor (BDCF); Foreign approaches (Sweden - SKB, USA - YMP, BIOPROTA); Definition and conversion factors for activity; Effective dose rate calculation (ingestion, inhalation, external irradiation); Analysis of the activity of the surface compartment, i.e. soil; Basic conceptual models of ecosystems; BDCF calculation/determination; and Systemization of the literature. (P.A.)

  10. Presence of virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baldisserotto Comerlato

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing importance of Enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. This study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal Enterococcus isolates from inpatients in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Fifty Enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gelE, asa1 and esp genes was determined. Gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. The clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The asa1, gelE and esp genes were identified in 38%, 60% and 76% of all isolates, respectively. The first two genes were more prevalent in Enterococcus faecalis than in Enterococcus faecium, as was biofilm formation, which was associated with gelE and asa1 genes, but not with the esp gene. The presence of gelE and the activity of gelatinase were not fully concordant. No relationship was observed among any virulence factors and specific subclones of E. faecalis or E. faecium resistant to vancomycin. In conclusion, E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates showed significantly different patterns of virulence determinants. Neither the source of isolation nor the clonal relationship or vancomycin resistance influenced their distribution.

  11. Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance development in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Humberto Suarez

    Full Text Available Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3 and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3, whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5 and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9. The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

  12. Macrolide resistance mechanisms and virulence factors in erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter species isolated from chicken and swine feces and carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Suk-Kyung; Moon, Dong-Chan; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kim, Hae Ji; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Su-Ran; Jang, Gum-Chan; Lee, Kichan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-01-10

    Resistance to antimicrobials was measured in 73 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and 121 isolates of Campylobacter coli (C. coli) from chicken and swine feces and carcasses in Korea. Both bacterial species showed the highest resistance to (fluoro) quinolones (ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid) out of the nine antimicrobials tested. Erythromycin resistance was much higher in C. coli (19.0%, 23/121) than in C. jejuni (6.8%, 5/73). The mutation in the 23S rRNA gene was primarily responsible for macrolide resistance in Campylobacter isolates. Several amino acid substitutions in the L4 and L22 ribosomal proteins may play a role in the mechanism of resistance, but the role requires further evaluation. A total of eight virulence genes were detected in 28 erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter isolates. All C. jejuni isolates carried more than four such genes, while C. coli isolates carried fewer than three such genes. The high rate of resistance highlights the need to employ more prudent use of critically important antimicrobials, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, in swine and poultry production, and to more carefully monitor antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter isolates in food animals.

  13. Calculational-experimental examination and ensuring of equipment and pipelines seismic resistance at starting and operating water-cooled and moderated reactor WWER-type NPPs. Final report from 1 November 1994 to 31 October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovski, S.

    1996-01-01

    The method for examination and ensuring of equipment seismic resistance is based on the resonance character of the seismic influence on structures and equipment. Values of natural dynamic characteristics are obtained by using external source for exciting the vibrations of the testing unit. These characteristics with the floor response spectra enabled calculations of the seismic resistance. For tests of Kozloduy NPP equipment a simple shock method was used. The presentation includes the list of inspected equipment. The calculations of the equipment seismic resistance were carried out on the basis of Russian and International standards and demands

  14. Detection of Methicillin Resistance and Various Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Nasal Carriers

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    Hatice Türk Dağı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococus aureus can be found as a commensal on skin and nasal flora or it may cause local and invasive infections. S. aureus has a large number of virulence factors. Aims: To investigate the methicillin resistance and frequency of various virulence factors in S. aureus nasal isolates. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: Nasal samples collected from university students were cultured in media. S. aureus was identified by conventional methods and the Staphyloslide latex test (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, USA. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted, and the methicillin resistance was determined. The mecA, nuc, pvl and staphylococcal toxin genes were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: S. aureus was isolated in 104 of 600 (17.3% nasal samples. In total, 101 (97.1% S. aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive and the remaining 3 (2.9% were methicillin-resistant. Furthermore, all but five isolates carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin gene, with seg being predominant. The tst and eta genes were determined in 29 (27.9%, and 3 (2.9% isolates, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored see, etb, and pvl genes. Conclusion: A moderate rate of S. aureus carriage and low frequency of MRSA were detected in healthy students. S. aureus isolates had a high prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and the tst gene. In this study, a large number of virulence factors were examined in S. aureus nasal isolates, and the data obtained from this study can be used for monitoring the prevalence of virulence genes in S. aureus strains isolated from nasal carriers.

  15. Risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections in a tertiary care university hospital in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Anupurba, Shampa

    2016-10-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has increased with the widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli has been widely studied, though staphylococci and enterococci are also notably resistant. Enterococci being the second most common cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice. This study was undertaken to assess the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal UTI in a tertiary level health facility in north India. A total of 365 patients with UTI caused by enterococci were studied over a period of two years. Patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and susceptible UTI were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Resistance profile of the isolates against common antibiotics was studied by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Mechanisms for fluoroquinolone resistance was studied by efflux pump inhibitor activity and multiplex PCR targeting the qnr genes. A total of 204 (55.89%) cases and 161 (44.1%) controls were identified. The fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were significantly resistant to ampicillin, high strength aminoglycosides and vancomycin. The majority (78%) of the resistant isolates showed efflux pump activity. Treatment in indoor locations, presence of urinary catheters and pregnancy along with recent exposure to antibiotics especially fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam were identified as independent risk factors. Our results showed that fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal UTI was largely associated with indoor usage of antibiotics and use of indwelling devices. Knowledge of risk factors is important to curb this emergence of resistance.

  16. Development of recommended resistance factors for drilled shafts in weak rocks based on o-cell tests : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Since October 1st 2007, federal-funded projects including new bridges have been mandated to be designed to meet American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifi...

  17. Development of recommended resistance factors for drilled shafts in weak rocks based on o-cell tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    From October 1, 2007, the new bridges on federal-aid funded projects are mandated to be designed to meet : American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Load and Resistance Factor Design : (LRFD) Bridge Design Specificat...

  18. Variation of over strength factor for mid-rise R.C. moment resisting frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasnimi, A. A.; Mahmoodi Sahebi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The over strength of a multi-storey structure (as a multi-degree of freedom system) is one of the parameters playing the evaluation of the behaviour factor. This is an important property when the structure exhibits inelastic behaviour and is described by over strength factor. The over strength factor and strength reduction factor due to ductility are considered in most seismic design codes of practice to reduce the elastic strength demand of the structure. In spite the importance of the over strength, its influence has not yet been quantified. This paper is a part of an investigation from which the first part was published in Amirkabir Journal No.36/Winter 1998, entitled as E stimation of over strength of low-ri sed flexural R.C. frames using nonlinear analysis . This paper investigates the variation of over strength factor for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames, having several stories (5 to 15) with various spans (3 to 5) and located in high seismicity regions using non-linear inelastic analysis. The results indicate that the over strength factor of these systems efforts 25 to 40 percent reduction in the elastic strength demand of such frames

  19. Adipose Expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α: Direct Role in Obesity-Linked Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Shargill, Narinder S.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    1993-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been shown to have certain catabolic effects on fat cells and whole animals. An induction of TNF-α messenger RNA expression was observed in adipose tissue from four different rodent models of obesity and diabetes. TNF-α protein was also elevated locally and systemically. Neutralization of TNF-α in obese fa/fa rats caused a significant increase in the peripheral uptake of glucose in response to insulin. These results indicate a role for TNF-α in obesity and particularly in the insulin resistance and diabetes that often accompany obesity.

  20. Role of patient factors in therapy resistance to antiproteinuric intervention in nondiabetic and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, H; Andersen, S; Rossing, P

    2000-01-01

    patients, obtained in prior studies comparing the efficacy of various pharmacological regimens. The individual antiproteinuric response to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition positively correlated to the response to angiotensin type I (AT1) receptor blockade in diabetic (r = 0.67, P ... for individual patient factors in responsiveness or resistance to antiproteinuric intervention. In the search for strategies to improve response in these high risk patients, combination-treatment (combining different drugs, and combining drugs with dietary measures like sodium and protein restriction...

  1. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: Critical Role in Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Associated Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kleemann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, disturbed glucose homeostasis, low grade inflammation, and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is an ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a crucial role in many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that MIF also controls metabolic and inflammatory processes underlying the development of metabolic pathologies associated with obesity. This is a comprehensive summary of our current knowledge on the role of MIF in obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities, based on human clinical data as well as animal models of disease.

  2. Antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in patients with bronchiectasis: prevalence, risk factors and prognostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao YH

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Yong-hua Gao,1,* Wei-jie Guan,2,* Ya-nan Zhu,3 Rong-chang Chen,2 Guo-jun Zhang1 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 2State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Department of Emergency Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and aims: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is the most common pathogen in bronchiectasis and frequently develops resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, but little is known about the clinical impacts of PA-resistant (PA-R isolates on bronchiectasis. We, therefore, investigated the prevalence, risk factors and prognostic implications of PA-R isolates in hospitalized bronchiectasis patients.Patients and methods: Between June 2011 and July 2016, data from adult bronchiectasis patients isolated with PA at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were retrospectively analyzed. PA was classified as PA-R in case antibiogram demonstrated resistance on at least one occasion.Results: Seven hundred forty-seven bronchiectasis patients were assessed. Of these, 147 (19.7% had PA isolate in the sputum or bronchoscopic culture. PA-R and PA-sensitive accounted for 88 (59.9% and 59 (31.1% patients, respectively. In multivariate model, factors associated with PA-R isolate in bronchiectasis included prior exposure to antibiotics (odds ratio [OR] =6.18, three or more exacerbations in the previous year (OR =2.81, higher modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scores (OR =1.93 and greater radiologic severity (OR =1.15. During follow-up (median: 26 months; interquartile range: 6–59 months, 36 patients died, of whom 24 (66

  3. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, G A; Scully, J R

    2002-04-09

    Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.

  4. DEWAX Transcription Factor Is Involved in Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seulgi Ju

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The cuticle of land plants is the first physical barrier to protect their aerial parts from biotic and abiotic stresses. DEWAX, an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor, negatively regulates cuticular wax biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa overexpressing DEWAX and in Arabidopsis dewax mutant. Compared to wild type (WT leaves, Arabidopsis DEWAX OX and dewax leaves were more and less permeable to toluidine blue dye, respectively. The ROS levels increased in DEWAX OX leaves, but decreased in dewax relative to WT leaves. Compared to WT, DEWAX OX was more resistant, while dewax was more sensitive to B. cinerea; however, defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000:GFP were inversely modulated. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses indicated that the expression of defense-related genes was upregulated in DEWAX OX, but downregulated in dewax relative to WT. Transactivation assay showed that DEWAX upregulated the expression of PDF1.2a, IGMT1, and PRX37. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that DEWAX directly interacts with the GCC-box motifs of PDF1.2a promoter. In addition, ectopic expression of DEWAX increased the tolerance to B. cinerea in C. sativa. Taken together, we suggest that increased ROS accumulation and DEWAX-mediated upregulation of defense-related genes are closely associated with enhanced resistance to B. cinerea in Arabidopsis and C. sativa.

  5. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

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    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  6. Insulinaemia and insulin resistance in Caucasian general paediatric population aged 2 to 10 years: Associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alías-Hernández, Irene; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; García-García, Emilio; Muñoz-Vico, Francisco Javier; Vázquez Lopez, María Ángeles; Olvera-Porcel, María Carmen; Bonillo Perales, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine values of insulinaemia, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) among a population of prepubertal Caucasian children, to analyse factors associated with insulin resistance (IR), and to study its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Population-based study conducted on a randomly selected sample of prepubescent Caucasian subjects aged 2.00 to 9.99 years old. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were obtained, including fasting glucose, triglycerides, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and insulin. In addition, QUICKI and HOMA indices were calculated. Generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) was used to calculate centiles curves and multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with IR. A total of 654 subjects were included. Mean values obtained for insulinaemia, HOMA index, and QUICKI were 3.74 μIU/mL, 0.73, and 0.44, respectively, in the overall population and 3.32 μIU/mL, 0.64 and 0.46, respectively, in normal weight subjects. The main factor associated with IR was abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR] 3.38 [95% CI 1.44-7.94] in the subgroup aged 2.00-5.99 years and OR 9.14 [3.42-24.41] for those aged 6.00-9.99 years). An increased risk of hyperglycaemia (P = 0.043), hypertriglyceridaemia (P < .001), and HDL < p10 (P = 0.021) was described among children aged 2.00 to 5.99 years with IR, and among those aged 6.00 to 9.99 years, IR was associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridaemia (P < .001). Abdominal obesity was the main factor associated with IR. Metabolic changes associated with IR seem to be present from early stages of life, which highlights the importance of the prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of obesity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Adaptation of penelope Monte Carlo code system to the absorbed dose metrology: characterization of high energy photon beams and calculations of reference dosimeter correction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurier, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis has been performed in the framework of national reference setting-up for absorbed dose in water and high energy photon beam provided with the SATURNE-43 medical accelerator of the BNM-LPRI (acronym for National Bureau of Metrology and Primary standard laboratory of ionising radiation). The aim of this work has been to develop and validate different user codes, based on PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system, to determine the photon beam characteristics and calculate the correction factors of reference dosimeters such as Fricke dosimeters and graphite calorimeter. In the first step, the developed user codes have permitted the influence study of different components constituting the irradiation head. Variance reduction techniques have been used to reduce the calculation time. The phase space has been calculated for 6, 12 and 25 MV at the output surface level of the accelerator head, then used for calculating energy spectra and dose distributions in the reference water phantom. Results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements. The second step has been devoted to develop an user code allowing calculation correction factors associated with both BNM-LPRI's graphite and Fricke dosimeters thanks to a correlated sampling method starting with energy spectra obtained in the first step. Then the calculated correction factors have been compared with experimental and calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code system. The good agreement, between experimental and calculated results, leads to validate simulations performed with the PENELOPE code system. (author)

  8. Fire resistance of structural composite lumber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2006-01-01

    Use of structural composite lumber products is increasing. In applications requiring a fire resistance rating, calculation procedures are used to obtain the fire resistance rating of exposed structural wood products. A critical factor in the calculation procedures is char rate for ASTM E 119 fire exposure. In this study, we tested 14 structural composite lumber...

  9. Virulence factors, serogroups and antimicrobial resistance properties of Escherichia coli strains in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Yazdani, Farshad; Mozafari, Jalal; Valizadeh, Yousef

    2014-04-07

    From a clinical perspective, it is essential to know the microbial safety of fermented dairy products. Doogh and kashk are fermented dairies. These products are used by millions of people but their microbial qualities are unknown. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most commonly detected pathogens in the cases of food poisoning and food-borne illnesses. The present investigation was carried out in order to study the molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of STEC strains isolated from fermented dairy products. Six hundred fermented dairy samples were collected and immediately transferred to the laboratory. All samples were cultured immediately and those that were E. coli-positive were analyzed for the presence of O157 , O26, O103, O111, O145, O45, O91, O113, O121 and O128 STEC serogroups, tetA, tetB, blaSHV, CITM, cmlA, cat1, aadA1, dfrA1, qnr, aac (3)-IV, sul1 and ereA antibiotic resistance genes and stx1, stx2, eaeA, ehly, cnf1, cnf2, iutA, cdtB, papA, traT, sfaS and fyuA virulence factors using PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed also using disk diffusion methodology with Mueller-Hinton agar. Fifty out of 600 (8.33%) dairy samples harbored E. coli. In addition, yoghurt was the most commonly contaminated dairy. O157 (26%) and O26 (12%) were the most commonly detected serogroups. A significant difference was found between the frequency of Attaching and Effacing E. coli and Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (P resistance against tetracycline (tetA and tetB) (76% and 70%, respectively), cephalothin (blaSHV) (38%), ampicillin (CITM) (36%) and gentamicin (aac (3)-IV) (32%) were the most commonly detected. High resistance levels to tetracycline (84%), penicillin (46%), ampicillin (38%) and streptomycin (36%) were observed. Fermented dairy products can easily become contaminated by antibiotic resistant STEC strains. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in Iran. Clinicians should

  10. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.

  11. Association between prostatic resistive index and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykam, Mehmet Murat; Aktas, Binhan Kagan; Bulut, Suleyman; Ozden, Cuneyt; Deren, Tagmac; Tagci, Suleyman; Gokkaya, Cevdet Serkan; Memis, Ali

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the relationship between prostatic resistive index (RI) and cardiovascular system (CVS) risk factors in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The study included 120 patients who were attending our outpatient clinic with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The clinical, laboratory, anthropometric data, and CVS risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, history of CVS events, and smoking) of the patients were evaluated regarding the association between prostate RI level by regression analyses. The prostatic RI levels of the patients were measured using power Doppler imaging. In univariate regression analysis, there were statistically significant relationships between prostatic RI levels and the patients' age, International Prostate Symptom Score, hip circumference, fasting blood glucose, prostate specific antigen, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total prostate volume, uroflowmetric maximal flow rate, and all investigated CVS risk factors (p prostatic RI levels were found to be associated with fasting blood glucose and total prostate volume, and also with CVS risk factors including only metabolic syndrome and cigarette smoking in the multivariate regression analysis. Our results showed that prostatic RI level is significantly related to metabolic syndrome and smoking among the investigated CVS risk factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Crystal Structure of the Protease-Resistant Core Domain of Yersinia Pestis Virulence Factor Yopr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubot,F.; Cherry, S.; Austin, B.; Tropea, J.; Waugh, D.

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the plague, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to secrete and translocate virulence factors into the cytoplasm of mammalian host cells. One of the secreted virulence factors is YopR. Little is known about the function of YopR other than that it is secreted into the extracellular milieu during the early stages of infection and that it contributes to virulence. Hoping to gain some insight into the function of YopR, we determined the crystal structure of its protease-resistant core domain, which consists of residues 38--149 out of 165 amino acids. The core domain is composed of five {alpha}-helices that display unexpected structural similarity with one domain of YopN, a central regulator of type III secretion in Y. pestis. This finding raises the possibility that YopR may play a role in the regulation of type III secretion.

  13. Prognostic factors for treatment success in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y-M; Ding, S-P; Bao, Z-J; Wu, L-M; Zhen, L-B; Xia, Q; Zhu, M

    2018-03-01

    To examine the clinical outcomes and associated prognostic factors among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in China. This retrospective study involved 243 patients with MDR-TB. All patients received standard regimens containing para-amino salicylic acid (PAS) and/or cycloserine (CS). The demographic, social and clinical characteristics of patients were recorded and the patients were followed up for 24 months. Treatment success was closely associated with young age, non-farming occupations, shorter history or smoking, normal urine results, initial MDR-TB treatment regimen, increased haemoglobin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, and lower white blood cell, neutrophil and blood platelet counts (all P factors for treatment success in MDR-TB. Higher haemoglobin and TSH levels, normal urine results and initial MDR-TB treatment regimen might predict successful treatment of MDR-TB.

  14. Evaluation of Safety Index and Calibration of Load and Resistance Factors for Reinforced Concrete Beams under Bending, Shear and Torsion Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Jafari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of designing of the structural members is withstanding the members or structures against the different loading conditions such that the safety of the system could be preserved. The conventional method for designing of reinforced concrete members in Iranian concrete code is based on load and resistance factor. Although, load and resistance parameters are random variables, and in the mentioned Code the constant values have been designated for them during the designing procedure. Accounting these factors as the constants parameters will ultimately be led to the unsafe and uneconomical designs. The main purpose of this paper is probability-based designing of reinforcement concrete beams under simultaneous effects of bending, shear and torsion actions. For this purpose, analytical relations of the limit states for combination of bending, shear and torsion have been developed. Using the method, the structural designers could be fulfilled the designing of the RC beams based on the importance of structures and the required safety indexes of the owners.  The next goal of this investigation is evaluation and calibration of load and resistance factors for desired safety index. The economic and fully probabilistic designing of concrete beams for simultaneous effects of bending, shear and torsion are available by implementing the proposed design procedures. In order to calculate the safety indexes a computer program has been written in the MATLAB environment, and the Monte Carlo simulation technique has been utilized.

  15. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  16. Effects of operational and environmental factors on evolution of resistance to pyriproxyfen in the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Ellsworth, Peter C; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Carriére, Yves

    2008-12-01

    Pyriproxyfen has been an important insecticide used as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) program for the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (B biotype), in Arizona cotton. We used a simulation model to examine the effects of pyriproxyfen concentration, insecticide action thresholds, crop diversity, planting date, and pyriproxyfen decay on evolution of resistance to pyriproxyfen in B. tabaci. In the model, pyriproxyfen use was restricted to cotton with a limit of one application per season. Other model parameters were based on data from laboratory and field experiments. Whitefly population densities and the number of insecticide applications per year increased as resistance evolved. Resistance evolved slowest with a low pyriproxyfen concentration. Lower action thresholds for pyriproxyfen and higher action thresholds for insecticides other than pyriproxyfen also slowed the evolution of resistance. However, lower action thresholds for pyriproxyfen resulted in more insecticide sprays per year with a high pyriproxyfen concentration. Resistance to pyriproxyfen evolved fastest in cotton-intensive regions and slowest in multicrop regions. In regions with noncotton crops, increasing immigration to cotton slowed resistance. Resistance evolved faster with earlier planting dates, although fewer insecticide sprays were needed compared with fields planted later in the year. Faster rates of pyriproxyfen decay slowed resistance. In some cases, strategies that delayed resistance were effective from an IPM perspective. However, some strategies that delayed resistance resulted in higher population densities. Results suggest that modification of operational and environmental factors, which can be controlled by growers, could prolong the efficacy of pyriproxyfen.

  17. Associations between heart rate variability, metabolic syndrome risk factors, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Melanie I; Kiviniemi, Antti; Gill, Dawn P; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Petrella, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate variability (HRV) in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to determine associations between HRV parameters, MetS risk factors, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Participants (n = 220; aged 23-70 years) were assessed for MetS risk factors (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and 5-min supine HRV (time and frequency domain and nonlinear). HRV was compared between those with 3 or more (MetS+) and those with 2 or fewer MetS risk factors (MetS-). Multiple linear regression models were built for each HRV parameter to investigate associations with MetS risk factors and HOMA-IR. Data with normal distribution are presented as means ± SD and those without as median [interquartile range]. In women, standard deviation of R-R intervals 38.0 [27.0] ms, 44.5 [29.3] ms; p = 0.020), low-frequency power (5.73 ± 1.06 ln ms(2), 6.13 ± 1.05 ln ms(2); p = 0.022), and the standard deviation of the length of the Poincaré plot (46.8 [31.6] ms, 58.4 [29.9] ms; p = 0.014) were lower and heart rate was higher (68 [13] beats/min, 64 [12] beats/min; p = 0. 018) in MetS+ compared with MetS-, with no differences in men. Waist circumference was most commonly associated with HRV, especially frequency domain parameters. HOMA-IR was associated with heart rate. In conclusion, MetS+ women had a less favourable HRV profile than MetS- women, but there were no differences in men. HOMA-IR was associated with heart rate, not HRV.

  18. Risk factors to predict drug-resistant pathogens in hemodialysis-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Huai; Wang, Hao-Chien

    2016-08-08

    After the concept of healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP) was introduced in 2005 by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America (ATS/IDSA), pneumonia in hemodialysis patients has been classified as HCAP. Even though there are several risk factors and scoring systems of drug-resistant pathogens (DRPs) in HCAP, the risk factors for DRPs in hemodialysis-associated pneumonia are unclear. Patients who were admitted to our tertiary care hospital from January 2005 to December 2010 were screened by a discharge diagnosis of pneumonia. Patients were enrolled if they fulfilled the definition of HCAP according to the 2005 ATS/IDSA guidelines. A total of 530 subjects were diagnosed with HCAP, of whom 48 (9.1 %) received regular hemodialysis (HD group) and the other 482 did not (non-HD group). The most common pathogens in HD group were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There was a similar distribution of Gram-negative bacilli infections between the two groups except for Haemophilus influenzae and Citrobacter species. The incidence of DRPs was not significantly different between the two groups (HD vs. non-HD, 35.4 vs. 39.2 %, p = 0.607). Wound care, severe pneumonia and an age of more than 70 years were significant risk factors for DRPs. The area under the operating cure of predicting DRPs was 0.727 (0.575-0.879, p = 0.01). P. aeruginosa and MRSA were the most important pathogens in hemodialysis-associated pneumonia. Wound care, severe pneumonia and old age were significant risk factors for DRPs.

  19. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: factors relating to mortality with emphasis on resistance pattern and antimicrobial treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millena R.S. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available A retrospective case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for death among intensive care unit patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Out of 131 patients investigated, 67 (51.1% died within 30 days of being diagnosed with this infection. The mean duration of hospital stay before this diagnosis was 28.5 ± 26.5 days. No association was found between bacterial resistance and death in this study (multiresistant p= 0.26; panresistant p= 0.42, but the adequacy of the initial treatment was inversely proportional to the degree of resistance. There was a tendency towards greater mortality among patients who received combination therapy (empirical p= 0.09; definitive p= 0.08, despite the greater frequency of appropriate treatment in these patients and the similar degree of severity in the two groups. This finding may be explained by pharmacodynamic parameters that were not studied or by the extensive use of aminoglycosides in the combination therapy, which play a controversial role in combination therapy due to their potential for renal toxicity. The multivariate analysis in our study demonstrated that age [odds ratio (OR 1.04], septic shock (OR 15.4 and hypoalbuminemia (OR 0.32 were independent risk factors for death.

  1. Parathyroid cell resistance to fibroblast growth factor 23 in secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitzer, H; Ben-Dov, I Z; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2010-02-01

    Although fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) acting through its receptor Klotho-FGFR1c decreases parathyroid hormone expression, this hormone is increased in chronic kidney disease despite an elevated serum FGF23. We measured possible factors that might contribute to the resistance of parathyroid glands to FGF23 in rats with the dietary adenine-induced model of chronic kidney disease. Quantitative immunohistochemical and reverse transcription-PCR analysis using laser capture microscopy showed that both Klotho and FGFR1 protein and mRNA levels were decreased in histological sections of the parathyroid glands. Recombinant FGF23 failed to decrease serum parathyroid hormone levels or activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the glands of rats with advanced experimental chronic kidney disease. In parathyroid gland organ culture, the addition of FGF23 decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and mRNA levels in control animals or rats with early but not advanced chronic kidney disease. Our results show that because of a downregulation of the Klotho-FGFR1c receptor complex, an increase of circulating FGF23 does not decrease parathyroid hormone levels in established chronic kidney disease. This in vivo resistance is sustained in parathyroid organ culture in vitro.

  2. Risk factors associated with potentially antibiotic-resistant pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prina, Elena; Ranzani, Otavio T; Polverino, Eva; Cillóniz, Catia; Ferrer, Miquel; Fernandez, Laia; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge; Menéndez, Rosario; Mensa, Josep; Torres, Antoni

    2015-02-01

    To identify pathogens that require different treatments in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), we propose an acronym, "PES" (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes between patients with CAP caused by PES versus other pathogens, and to identify the risk factors associated with infection caused by PES. We conducted an observational prospective study evaluating only immunocompetent patients with CAP and an established etiological diagnosis. We included patients from nursing homes. We computed a score to identify patients at risk of PES pathogens. Of the 4,549 patients evaluated, we analyzed 1,597 who presented an etiological diagnosis. Pneumonia caused by PES was identified in 94 (6%) patients, with 108 PES pathogens isolated (n = 72 P. aeruginosa, n = 15 Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum β-lactamase positive, and n = 21 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). These patients were older (P = 0.001), had received prior antibiotic treatment more frequently (P associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 2.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.20-5.25; P = 0.015). The area under the curve for the score we computed was 0.759 (95% confidence interval, 0.713-0.806; P risk factors could help to identify these microbial etiologies.

  3. RESISTANCE OF KARST CAVERNS NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA TO EXTREME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashyrev O. B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the studied bacteria resistance quantitative parameters of extreme factors such as toxic metals (Cu2+, organic xenobiotics (p-nitrochlorobenzene and UV-irradiation were the aim of the research. Six strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from clays of two caverns Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia and Azotobacter vinelandii УКМ В-6017 as a reference strain have been tested. For this purpose the maximum permissible concentration of Cu2+ and p-nitrochlorobenzene in the concentration gradient and lethal doses of UV by the survival caverns have been determined. Maximum permissible concentrations for strains were as 10 ppm Cu2+, 70–120 ppm of p-nitrochlorobenzene. The maximum doses of UV-irradiation varied in the range of 55–85 J/m2 (LD99.99. It is shown that three classes of extreme factors resistance parameters of karst caverns strains are similar to the strain of terrestrial soil ecosystems. The most active studied strains reduce the concentration of p-nitrochlorobenzene in the medium in 13 times. The ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to degrade p-nitrochlorobenzene could be used in creation new environmental biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment from nitrochloroaromatic xenobiotics. Isolated strains could be used as destructors for soils bioremediation in agrobiotechnologies and to optimize plants nitrogen nutrition in terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Calculation of self-shielding coefficients, flux depression and cadmium factor for thermal neutron flux measurement of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre Luis Ferreira; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun; Mendonca, Arlindo Gilson

    1996-01-01

    A calculation methodology of Flux Depression, Self-Shielding and Cadmium Factors is presented, using the ANISN code, for experiments conducted at the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor. The correction factors were determined considering thermal neutron flux and 0.125 e 0.250 mm diameter of 197 Au wires. (author)

  5. A Somatically Diversified Defense Factor, FREP3, Is a Determinant of Snail Resistance to Schistosome Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanington, Patrick C.; Forys, Michelle A.; Loker, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, owes its continued success to freshwater snails that support production of prolific numbers of human-infective cercariae. Encounters between schistosomes and snails do not always result in the snail becoming infected, in part because snails can mount immune responses that prevent schistosome development. Fibrinogen-related protein 3 (FREP3) has been previously associated with snail defense against digenetic trematode infection. It is a member of a large family of immune molecules with a unique structure consisting of one or two immunoglobulin superfamily domains connected to a fibrinogen domain; to date fibrinogen containing proteins with this arrangement are found only in gastropod molluscs. Furthermore, specific gastropod FREPs have been shown to undergo somatic diversification. Here we demonstrate that siRNA mediated knockdown of FREP3 results in a phenotypic loss of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 of 70 (21.4%) snails of the resistant BS-90 strain of Biomphalaria glabrata. In contrast, none of the 64 control BS-90 snails receiving a GFP siRNA construct and then exposed to S. mansoni became infected. Furthermore, resistance to S. mansoni was overcome in 22 of 48 snails (46%) by pre-exposure to another digenetic trematode, Echinostoma paraensei. Loss of resistance in this case was shown by microarray analysis to be associated with strong down-regulation of FREP3, and other candidate immune molecules. Although many factors are certainly involved in snail defense from trematode infection, this study identifies for the first time the involvement of a specific snail gene, FREP3, in the phenotype of resistance to the medically important parasite, S. mansoni. The results have implications for revealing the underlying mechanisms involved in dictating the range of snail strains used by S. mansoni, and, more generally, for better understanding the phenomena of host specificity and host switching. It also

  6. Risk Factors and Outcomes of Ganciclovir-Resistant Cytomegalovirus Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Cynthia E; Knudsen, Janine L; Lease, Erika D; Jerome, Keith R; Rakita, Robert M; Boeckh, Michael; Limaye, Ajit P

    2017-07-01

    Ganciclovir-resistant (ganR) cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an emerging and important problem in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Only through direct comparison of ganR- and ganciclovir-sensitive (ganS) CMV infection can risk factors and outcomes attributable specifically to ganciclovir resistance appropriately be determined. We performed a retrospective, case-control (1:3) study of SOT recipients with genotypically confirmed ganR-CMV (n = 37) and ganS-CMV infection (n = 109), matched by donor/recipient CMV serostatus, year and organ transplanted, and clinical manifestation. We used χ2 (categorical) and Mann-Whitney (continuous) tests to determine predisposing factors and morbidity attributable to resistance, and Kaplan-Meier plots to analyze survival differences. The rate of ganR-CMV was 1% (37/3467) overall and 4.1% (32/777) among CMV donor-positive, recipient-negative patients, and was stable over the study period. GanR-CMV was associated with increased prior exposure to ganciclovir (median, 153 vs 91 days, P < .001). Eighteen percent (3/17) of lung transplant recipients with ganR-CMV had received <6 weeks of prior ganciclovir (current guideline-recommended resistance testing threshold), and all non-lung recipients had received ≥90 days (median, 160 [range, 90-284 days]) prior to diagnosis of ganR-CMV. GanR-CMV was associated with higher mortality (11% vs 1%, P = .004), fewer days alive and nonhospitalized (73 vs 81, P = .039), and decreased renal function (42% vs 19%, P = .008) by 3 months after diagnosis. GanR-CMV is associated with longer prior antiviral duration and higher attributable morbidity and mortality than ganS-CMV. Upcoming revised CMV guidelines should incorporate organ transplant-specific thresholds of prior drug exposure to guide rational ganR-CMV testing in SOT recipients. Improved strategies for prevention and treatment of ganR-CMV are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society

  7. Low openness on the revised NEO personality inventory as a risk factor for treatment-resistant depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported that low reward dependence, and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the Temperature and Character Inventory (TCI may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. Here, we analyzed additional psychological traits in these patients. METHODS: We administered Costa and McCrae's five-factor model personality inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, to antidepressant-treatment resistant depressed patients (n=35, remitted depressed patients (n=27, and healthy controls (n=66. We also evaluated the relationships between scores on NEO and TCI, using the same cohort of patients with treatment-resistant depression, as our previous study. RESULTS: Patients with treatment-resistant depression showed high scores for neuroticism, low scores for extraversion, openness and conscientiousness, without changes in agreeableness, on the NEO. However, patients in remitted depression showed no significant scores on NEO. Patients with treatment-resistant depression and low openness on NEO showed positive relationships with reward dependence and cooperativeness on the TCI. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression.

  8. Human host defense peptide LL-37 stimulates virulence factor production and adaptive resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Strempel

    Full Text Available A multitude of different virulence factors as well as the ability to rapidly adapt to adverse environmental conditions are important features for the high pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both virulence and adaptive resistance are tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network and respond to external stimuli, such as host signals or antibiotic stress, in a highly specific manner. Here, we demonstrate that physiological concentrations of the human host defense peptide LL-37 promote virulence factor production as well as an adaptive resistance against fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analyses of P. aeruginosa cells exposed to LL-37 revealed an upregulation of gene clusters involved in the production of quorum sensing molecules and secreted virulence factors (PQS, phenazine, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, elastase and rhamnolipids and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS modification as well as an induction of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps MexCD-OprJ and MexGHI-OpmD. Accordingly, we detected significantly elevated levels of toxic metabolites and proteases in bacterial supernatants after LL-37 treatment. Pre-incubation of bacteria with LL-37 for 2 h led to a decreased susceptibility towards gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Quantitative Realtime PCR results using a PAO1-pqsE mutant strain present evidence that the quinolone response protein and virulence regulator PqsE may be implicated in the regulation of the observed phenotype in response to LL-37. Further experiments with synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides IDR-1018, 1037 and HHC-36 showed no induction of pqsE expression, suggesting a new role of PqsE as highly specific host stress sensor.

  9. Converging risk factors but no association between HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hof, S; Tursynbayeva, A; Abildaev, T; Adenov, M; Pak, S; Bekembayeva, G; Ismailov, S

    2013-04-01

    Kazakhstan is a country with a low HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) burden, but a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We describe the epidemiology of multidrug resistance and HIV among TB patients, using the 2007-2011 national electronic TB register. HIV test results were available for 97.2% of TB patients. HIV prevalence among TB patients increased from 0.6% in 2007 to 1.5% in 2011. Overall, 41.6% of patients had a positive smear at diagnosis, 38.6% a positive culture and 51.7% either a positive smear or culture. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) results were available for 92.7% of culture-positive cases. Socio-economic factors independently associated with both HIV and MDR-TB were urban residency, drug use, homelessness and a history of incarceration. In adjusted analysis, HIV positivity was not associated with MDR-TB (OR 1.0, 95%CI 0.86-1.2). Overall, among TB patients with DST and HIV test results available, 65.0% were positive for neither HIV nor MDR-TB, 33.5% only for MDR-TB, 0.9% only for HIV and 0.6% for both HIV and MDR-TB. Among injection drug users, 12.5% were positive for HIV and MDR-TB. We showed increasing HIV prevalence among TB patients in Kazakhstan. HIV was not an independent risk factor for MDR-TB, but risk factors were largely overlapping and we did identify subgroups at particular risk of HIV-MDR-TB co-infection, notably drug users. Enhanced efforts are necessary to provide care to these socially vulnerable populations.

  10. Development of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh: a case-control study on risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuza Rifat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for developing multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Bangladesh. METHODS: This case-control study was set in central, district and sub-district level hospitals of rural and urban Bangladesh. Included were 250 multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients as cases and 750 drug susceptible tuberculosis patients as controls. We recruited cases from all three government hospitals treating MDR-TB in Bangladesh during the study period. Controls were selected randomly from those local treatment units that had referred the cases. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and record reviews. Unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Previous treatment history was shown to be the major contributing factor to MDR-TB in univariate analysis. After adjusting for other factors in multivariable analysis, age group "18-25" (OR 1.77, CI 1.07-2.93 and "26-45" (OR 1.72, CI 1.12-2.66, some level of education (OR 1.94, CI 1.32-2.85, service and business as occupation (OR 2.88, CI 1.29-6.44; OR 3.71, CI 1.59-8.66, respectively, smoking history (OR 1.58, CI 0.99-2.5, and type 2 diabetes (OR 2.56 CI 1.51-4.34 were associated with MDR-TB. Previous treatment was not included in the multivariable analysis as it was correlated with multiple predictors. CONCLUSION: Previous tuberculosis treatment was found to be the major risk factor for MDR-TB. This study also identified age 18 to 45 years, some education up to secondary level, service and business as occupation, past smoking status, and type 2 diabetes as comorbid illness as risk factors. National Tuberculosis programme should address these risk factors in MDR-TB control strategy. The integration of MDR-TB control activities with diabetes and tobacco control programmes is needed in Bangladesh.

  11. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregona, Geisa; Cosme, Lorrayne Belique; Moreira, Cláudia Maria Marques; Bussular, José Luis; Dettoni, Valdério do Valle; Dalcolmo, Margareth Pretti; Zandonade, Eliana; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2017-04-27

    To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Espírito Santo, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of cases of tuberculosis tested for first-line drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin) in Espírito Santo between 2002 and 2012. We have used laboratory data and registration of cases of tuberculosis - from the Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação and Sistema para Tratamentos Especiais de Tuberculose. Individuals have been classified as resistant and non-resistant and compared in relation to the sociodemographic, clinical, and epidemiological variables. Some variables have been included in a logistic regression model to establish the factors associated with resistance. In the study period, 1,669 individuals underwent anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Of these individuals, 10.6% showed resistance to any anti-tuberculosis drug. The rate of multidrug resistance observed, that is, to rifampicin and isoniazid, has been 5%. After multiple analysis, we have identified as independent factors associated with resistant tuberculosis: history of previous treatment of tuberculosis [recurrence (OR = 7.72; 95%CI 4.24-14.05) and re-entry after abandonment (OR = 3.91; 95%CI 1.81-8.43)], smoking (OR = 3.93; 95%CI 1.98-7.79), and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the time of notification of the case (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.15-8.99). The partnership between tuberculosis control programs and health teams working in the network of Primary Health Care needs to be strengthened. This would allow the identification and monitoring of individuals with a history of previous treatment of tuberculosis and smoking. Moreover, the expansion of the offer of the culture of tuberculosis and anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing would provide greater diagnostic capacity for the resistant types in Espírito Santo. Analisar a prevalência e fatores associados à tuberculose resistente

  12. Risk factors for enterococcal infection and colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, M; Drougka, E; Fligou, F; Kolonitsiou, F; Liakopoulos, A; Dodou, V; Anastassiou, E D; Petinaki, E; Marangos, M; Filos, K S; Spiliopoulou, I

    2014-12-01

    Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) are important causes of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) infections. Our goal was to identify the prevalence and risk factors for VRE colonization upon ICU admission and during ICU stay, as well as, their impact in enterococcal infection including vancomycin-susceptible cases (VSE). A prospective study regarding patients admitted in ICU (n = 497) was conducted during a 24-month period. Rectal swabs were collected upon admission and during hospitalization and inoculated onto selective medium. Enterococci were phenotypically characterized. van genes were investigated by PCR and clones were identified by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Epidemiologic data were collected from the ICU database. Risk factors for VRE carriage upon ICU admission (71/497) were: duration of previous hospitalization, glycopeptide administration, chronic heart failure, malignancy, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and previous enterococcal infection (VRE and/or VSE). Risk factors for VRE colonization during ICU stay (36/250) were: quinolone administration, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, and number of VRE-positive patients in nearby beds. Risk factors for enterococcal infection during ICU stay (15/284), including VRE and VSE cases, were: administration of third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins, cortisone use before ICU admission and VRE colonization, whereas, enteral nutrition was a protective factor. Previous VRE colonization and antibiotic usage are essential parameters for enterococcal infection (by VRE or VSE) during ICU stay. Previous enterococcal infection, co-morbidities and antibiotic usage are associated with VRE colonization upon ICU admission, whereas, patient to patient transmission, co-morbidities and antibiotic usage constitute risk factors for VRE colonization during ICU hospitalization.

  13. Farm level risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N M; Wales, A D; Ridley, A M; Davies, R H

    2016-10-01

    Data on husbandry practices, performance, disease and drug use were collected during a cross-sectional survey of 89 poultry meat farms in England and Wales to provide information on possible risk factors for the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant bacteria. Faeces samples were used to classify farms as "affected" or "not affected" by FQ-resistant (FQr) Escherichia coli or Campylobacter spp. Risk factor analysis identified the use of FQ on the farms as having by far the strongest association, among the factors considered, with the occurrence of FQr bacteria. Resistant E. coli and/or Campylobacter spp. were found on 86% of the farms with a history of FQ use. However, a substantial proportion of farms with no history of FQ use also yielded FQr organisms, suggesting that resistant bacteria may transfer between farms. Further analysis suggested that for Campylobacter spp., on-farm hygiene, cleaning and disinfection between batches of birds and wildlife control were of most significance. By contrast, for E. coli biosecurity from external contamination was of particular importance, although the modelling indicated that other factors were likely to be involved. Detailed studies on a small number of sites showed that FQr E. coli can survive routine cleaning and disinfection. It appears difficult to avoid the occurrence of resistant bacteria when FQ are used on a farm, but the present findings provide evidence to support recommendations to reduce the substantial risk of the incidental acquisition of such resistance by farms where FQ are not used.

  14. Strategies to overcome resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-08-07

    Administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as cetuximab and panitumumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy substantially prolongs survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the efficacy of these mAbs is limited due to genetic variation among patients, in particular K-ras mutations. The discovery of K-ras mutation as a predictor of non-responsiveness to EGFR mAb therapy has caused a major change in the treatment of mCRC. Drugs that inhibit transformation caused by oncogenic alterations of Ras and its downstream components such as BRAF, MEK and AKT seem to be promising cancer therapeutics as single agents or when given with EGFR inhibitors. Although multiple therapeutic strategies to overcome EGFR mAb-resistance are under investigation, our understanding of their mode of action is limited. Rational drug development based on stringent preclinical data, biomarker validation, and proper selection of patients is of paramount importance in the treatment of mCRC. In this review, we will discuss diverse approaches to overcome the problem of resistance to existing anti-EGFR therapies and potential future directions for cancer therapies related to the mutational status of genes associated with EGFR-Ras-ERK and PI3K signalings.

  15. The diphthamide modification on elongation factor-2 renders mammalian cells resistant to ricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pradeep K; Liu, Shihui; Batavia, Mariska P; Leppla, Stephen H

    2008-08-01

    Diphthamide is a post-translational derivative of histidine in protein synthesis elongation factor-2 (eEF-2) that is present in all eukaryotes with no known normal physiological role. Five proteins Dph1-Dph5 are required for the biosynthesis of diphthamide. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells mutated in the biosynthetic genes lack diphthamide and are resistant to bacterial toxins such as diphtheria toxin. We found that diphthamide-deficient cultured cells were threefold more sensitive than their parental cells towards ricin, a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP). RIPs bind to ribosomes at the same site as eEF-2 and cleave the large ribosomal RNA, inhibiting translation and causing cell death. We hypothesized that one role of diphthamide may be to protect ribosomes, and therefore all eukaryotic life forms, from RIPs, which are widely distributed in nature. A protective role of diphthamide against ricin was further demonstrated by complementation where dph mutant CHO cells transfected with the corresponding DPH gene acquired increased resistance to ricin in comparison with the control-transfected cells, and resembled the parental CHO cells in their response to the toxin. These data show that the presence of diphthamide in eEF-2 provides protection against ricin and suggest the hypothesis that diphthamide may have evolved to provide protection against RIPs.

  16. The same allele of translation initiation factor 4E mediates resistance against two Potyvirus spp. in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, M.; Møller, I.S.; Tulinius, G.

    2007-01-01

    was overcome, and virus from these plants had a codon change causing an Arg to His change at position 116 of the predicted viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Accordingly, plants carrying the wlv resistance gene were infected upon inoculation with BYMV-W derived from cDNA with a His codon at position 116......Pathogenicity of two sequenced isolates of Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) was established on genotypes of Pisum sativum L. reported to carry resistance genes to BYMV and other potyviruses. Resistance to the white lupin strain of BYMV (BYMV-W) is inherited as a recessive gene named wlv that maps...... to linkage group VI together with other Potyvirus resistances. One of these, sbm1, confers resistance to strains of Pea seedborne mosaic virus and previously has been identified as a mutant allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E gene (eIF4E). Sequence comparison of eIF4E from BYMV...

  17. Searching for Factors that Distinguish Disease-Prone and Disease-Resistant Prions via Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Kurgan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms of prion misfolding and factors that predispose an individual to prion diseases are largely unknown. Our approach to identifying candidate factors in-silico relies on contrasting the C-terminal domain of PrPC sequences from two groups of vertebrate species: those that have been found to suffer from prion diseases, and those that have not. We propose that any significant differences between the two groups are candidate factors that may predispose individuals to develop prion disease, which should be further analyzed by wet-lab investigations. Using an array of computational methods we identified possible point mutations that could predispose PrPC to misfold into PrPSc. Our results include confirmatory findings such as the V210I mutation, and new findings including P137M, G142D, G142N, D144P, K185T, V189I, H187Y and T191P mutations, which could impact structural stability. We also propose new hypotheses that give insights into the stability of helix-2 and -3. These include destabilizing effects of Histidine and T188-T193 segment in helix-2 in the disease-prone prions, and a stabilizing effect of Leucine on helix-3 in the disease-resistant prions.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermudez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n=943, with 46.7% (n=450 in the general population, 46.4% (n=493 in females, and 47.90% (n=970 in males (p=0.895. IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ2=16.726; p=2.33×10-4. Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake.

  19. The GATA Transcription Factor egl-27 Delays Aging by Promoting Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Kim, Stuart K.

    2012-01-01

    Stress is a fundamental aspect of aging, as accumulated damage from a lifetime of stress can limit lifespan and protective responses to stress can extend lifespan. In this study, we identify a conserved Caenorhabditis elegans GATA transcription factor, egl-27, that is involved in several stress responses and aging. We found that overexpression of egl-27 extends the lifespan of wild-type animals. Furthermore, egl-27 is required for the pro-longevity effects from impaired insulin/IGF-1 like signaling (IIS), as reduced egl-27 activity fully suppresses the longevity of worms that are mutant for the IIS receptor, daf-2. egl-27 expression is inhibited by daf-2 and activated by pro-longevity factors daf-16/FOXO and elt-3/GATA, suggesting that egl-27 acts at the intersection of IIS and GATA pathways to extend lifespan. Consistent with its role in IIS signaling, we found that egl-27 is involved in stress response pathways. egl-27 expression is induced in the presence of multiple stresses, its targets are significantly enriched for many types of stress genes, and altering levels of egl-27 itself affects survival to heat and oxidative stress. Finally, we found that egl-27 expression increases between young and old animals, suggesting that increased levels of egl-27 in aged animals may act to promote stress resistance. These results identify egl-27 as a novel factor that links stress and aging pathways. PMID:23271974

  20. A retrospective study of risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition among ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangmin; Ping, Yanting; Li, Leiqing; Xu, Huimin; Yan, Xiaofeng; Dai, Haibin

    2016-03-31

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is rapidly emerging as a life-threatening nosocomial infection. In this study, we aim to identify risk factors, especially antibiotic use, for CRKP infection among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This was a matched case-control study of a 67-bed ICU in a tertiary care teaching hospital from 1 January 2011 through 30 June 2013. The control cases were selected among the patients with carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP) and were matched with CRKP cases for year of ICU admission and site of infection. The clinical outcomes and antibiotic treatments were analyzed. One hundred and thirty patients were included in the study (65 cases and 65 controls). Bivariable analysis showed that age of patients (p = 0.044), number of antibiotic groups (p = 0.001), and exposure to carbapenems (p carbapenems, previous carbapenem exposure (p carbapenems is an independent risk factor for CRKP infection. Patients with this clinical factor should be targeted for interventions to reduce the subsequent risk of infection.

  1. [Prevalence and predisposing factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities. An international view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Rita

    2016-07-03

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of healthcare and long-term care-associated infections over the world, resulting high morbidity, mortality and extra costs in these settings. The authors analyze the prevalence and predisposing factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities. Systematic review using PubMed, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015 was performed. In the past ten years methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in European long-term care facilities (12.6%) was lower than in North America (33.9%). The most frequent predisposing factor was previous antimicrobial therapy, hospital admission and infection/colonisation, chronic wounds, and high care need. Based on the results, the prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an important public health priority in the European and Hungarian long-term care facilities.

  2. An improved algorithm for activated protein C resistance and factor V Leiden screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovits, Adrianna Z; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Lemire, Susan J; Lindeman, Neal I; Dorfman, David M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the performance of a Russell viper venom-based activated protein C resistance (APCR) screening test relative to DNA analysis for the factor V Leiden mutation. We evaluated the concordance between Pefakit APCR screening results and DNA analysis for 435 patients homozygous (n = 11), heterozygous (n = 310), or wild-type (n =114) for the G1691A allele. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, we found that a cutoff of 1.89 for the APCR ratio yields a sensitivity and specificity of 99.1%. In patients with discrepant genotype-phenotype correlation, their APCR may provide a more clinically relevant result. We compared several strategies for employing reflex testing and found that performing initial APCR screening followed by confirmatory molecular analysis on a subset of cases in the borderline regions between the diagnostic groups can reduce unnecessary testing by approximately 80% without compromising diagnostic accuracy.

  3. Development of reliability-based load and resistance factor design methods for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyub, Bilal M.; Hill, Ralph S. III; Balkey, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) nuclear codes and standards rely primarily on deterministic and mechanistic approaches to design. The American Institute of Steel Construction and the American Concrete Institute, among other organizations, have incorporated probabilistic methodologies into their design codes. ASME nuclear codes and standards could benefit from developing a probabilistic, reliability-based, design methodology. This paper provides a plan to develop the technical basis for reliability-based, load and resistance factor design of ASME Section III, Class 2/3 piping for primary loading, i.e., pressure, deadweight and seismic. The plan provides a proof of concept in that LRFD can be used in the design of piping, and could achieve consistent reliability levels. Also, the results from future projects in this area could form the basis for code cases, and additional research for piping secondary loads. (author)

  4. MAJOR RISK FACTORS OF THE DISEASE IN THE FOCI OF DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sh. Abildaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes contamination factors in children and adolescents from the foci of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The analysis of a study of these disease sources, the people who discontinued treatment and contacted with the children and adolescents in the foci demonstrated that these were mainly male alcoholics, as well as unemployed, intensive-phase therapy non-compliant inpatients, patients who went home without permission; 16% of them had convictions. The contacted children and adolescents from a group of patients who discontinued treatment were significantly more frequently stated to have a hyperergic response to tuberculin (10.8% than those who continued treatment (3.4% (p ≤ 0.05. Two children and 3 adolescents (15% fell ill in the treatment discontinuation group. One (3.0% adolescent did in the treatment continuation group (p ≤ 0.05.

  5. Solar radiation glazing factors for window panes, glass structures and electrochromic windows in buildings-Measurement and calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Jelle, Bjørn Petter

    2013-01-01

    Window panes, glass structures and electrochromic windows in buildings may be characterised by a number of solar radiation glazing factors, i.e. ultraviolet solar transmittance, visible solar transmittance, solar transmittance, solar material protection factor, solar skin protection factor, external visible solar reflectance, internal visible solar reflectance, solar reflectance, solar absorbance, emissivity, solar factor and colour rendering factor. Comparison of these solar quantities for d...

  6. Genotypes, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis from Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Memon§, Yongchun Yang§, Jam Kashifa, Muhammad Yaqoob, Rehana Buriroa, Jamila Soomroa, Wang Liping and Fan Hongjie*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotypes, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance traits of 34 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical mastitis in Eastern China. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC results showed resistance to erythromycin in all isolates. A high frequency of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA; 29% was observed and these isolates were also highly resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol than methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA isolates. Thirteen pathogenic factors and seven resistance genes including mecA and blaZ gene were checked through PCR. The spaX gene was found in all isolates, whereas cna, spaIg, nuc, clfA, fnbpB, hlA, hlB and seA were present in 35, 79, 85, 59, 35, 85, 71 and 38% isolates, respectively. Nine isolates carried a group of 8 different virulence genes. Moreover, macrolide resistance genes ermB and ermC were present in all isolates. High resistance rate against methicillin was found but no isolate was positive for mecA gene, whereas blaZ and tetK were detected in 82 and 56% isolates, respectively. Genes; fnbpA, seB, seC, seD, dfrK and tetM were not found in any isolate. The statistical association between phenotypic resistance and virulence genes showed, clfA, fnbpB, hlB and seA, were potentially associated with penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, methicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and oxytetracycline resistance (P≤0.05. REP-PCR based genotyping showed seven distinct genotypes (A-G prevalent in this region. This study reports the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus in sub-clinical mastitis which were also highly virulent that could be a major obstacle in the treatment of mastitis in this region of China.

  7. Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A. Young; J.R. Scully

    2001-09-12

    It is well established that Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) aluminum alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are commonly used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength. Overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). When freshly bared coupons of AA 7050 are exposed to 90 C, 90% RH air, hydrogen ingress follows inverse-logarithmic-type kinetics and is equivalent for underaged (HEAC susceptible) and overaged (HEAC resistant) tempers. However, when the native oxide is allowed to form (24 hrs in 25 C, 40% RH lab air) prior to exposure to 90 C, 90% RH air, underaged alloy shows significantly greater hydrogen ingress than the overaged alloy. Humid air is a very aggressive environment producing local ({approx}1{micro}m) hydrogen concentrations in excess of 10,000 wt. ppm at 90 C. In the copper bearing alloy, overaging also effects the apparent diffusivity of hydrogen. As AA 7050 is aged from underaged {yields} peak aged {yields} overaged, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion increases and the apparent diffusivity for hydrogen decreases, In the low copper alloy, overaging has little effect on hydrogen diffusion. Comparison of the apparent activation energies for hydrogen diffusion and for K independent (stage II) crack growth

  8. Risk factors of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia in a Medical Intensive Care Unit of University Hospital in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchai, Juthamas; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Khositsakulchai, Weerayut; Pothirat, Chaicharn

    2015-08-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Acinetobacter baumannii remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Increasing antimicrobial resistance influences the selection of antibiotic treatment especially pandrug-resistant A. baumannii. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit to identify the risk factors of VAP caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB), extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDR-AB) and pandrug-resistant A. baumannii (PDR-AB). All 337 adult patients with confirmed A. baumannii VAP were included. The incidence of MDR-AB, XDR-AB and PDR-AB were 72 (21.4%), 220 (65.3%) and 12 (3.6%), respectively. The risk factor for MDR-AB was prior use of carbapenems (OR 5.20; 95% CI 1.41-19.17). Risk factors for XDR-AB were the prior use of carbapenems (OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 1.80-21.97) and a high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.07-1.71). In PDR-AB, the risk factors were the prior use of colistin (OR, 155.95; 95% CI, 8.00-3041.98), carbapenems (OR, 12.84; 95% CI, 1.60-103.20) and a high Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.22). In conclusion, previous exposure to antibiotics and severity of VAP were risk factors of drug-resistant A. baumannii. Judicious use of carbapenems and colistin is recommended to prevent the antimicrobial-resistant strains of this organism. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Pajon, Rolando; Ram, Sanjay; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-04-01

    Among 25 serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates, we identified four (16%) with high factor H binding protein (FHbp) expression that were resistant to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with recombinant FHbp vaccines. Two of the four isolates had evidence of human FH-dependent complement downregulation independent of FHbp. Since alternative complement pathway recruitment is critical for anti-FHbp bactericidal activity, we hypothesized that in these two isolates binding of FH to ligands other than FHbp contributes to anti-FHbp bactericidal resistance. Knocking out NspA, a known meningococcal FH ligand, converted both resistant isolates to anti-FHbp susceptible isolates. The addition of a nonbactericidal anti-NspA monoclonal antibody to the bactericidal reaction also increased anti-FHbp bactericidal activity. To identify a role for FH ligands other than NspA or FHbp in resistance, we created double NspA/FHbp knockout mutants. Mutants from both resistant isolates bound 10-fold more recombinant human FH domains 6 and 7 fused to Fc than double knockout mutants prepared from two sensitive meningococcal isolates. In light of recent studies showing functional FH-PorB2 interactions, we hypothesized that PorB3 from the resistant isolates recruited FH. Allelic exchange of porB3 from a resistant isolate to a sensitive isolate increased resistance of the sensitive isolate to anti-FHbp bactericidal activity (and vice versa). Thus, some PorB3 variants functionally bind human FH, which in the presence of NspA enhances anti-FHbp resistance. Combining anti-NspA antibodies with anti-FHbp antibodies can overcome resistance. Meningococcal vaccines that target both NspA and FHbp are likely to confer greater protection than either antigen alone. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 contributes to resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drugs in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Roberto; Rosa, Roberta; Damiano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Gennaro; Gelardi, Teresa; Garofalo, Sonia; Tarallo, Valeria; De Falco, Sandro; Melisi, Davide; Benelli, Roberto; Albini, Adriana; Ryan, Anderson; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2008-08-15

    The resistance to selective EGFR inhibitors involves the activation of alternative signaling pathways, and Akt activation and VEGF induction have been described in EGFR inhibitor-resistant tumors. Combined inhibition of EGFR and other signaling proteins has become a successful therapeutic approach, stimulating the search for further determinants of resistance as basis for novel therapeutic strategies. We established human cancer cell lines with various degrees of EGFR expression and sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors and analyzed signal transducers under the control of EGFR-dependent and EGFR-independent pathways. Multitargeted inhibitor vandetanib (ZD6474) inhibited the growth and the phosphorylation of Akt and its effector p70S6 kinase in both wild-type and EGFR inhibitor-resistant human colon, prostate, and breast cancer cells. We found that the resistant cell lines exhibit, as common feature, VEGFR-1/Flt-1 overexpression, increased secretion of VEGF and placental growth factor, and augmented migration capabilities and that vandetanib is able to antagonize them. Accordingly, a new kinase assay revealed that in addition to VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2, RET, and EGFR, vandetanib efficiently inhibits also VEGFR-1. The contribution of VEGFR-1 to the resistant phenotype was further supported by the demonstration that VEGFR-1 silencing in resistant cells restored sensitivity to anti-EGFR drugs and impaired migration capabilities, whereas exogenous VEGFR-1 overexpression in wild-type cells conferred resistance to these agents. This study shows that VEGFR-1 contributes to anti-EGFR drug resistance in different human cancer cells. Moreover, vandetanib inhibits VEGFR-1 activation, cell proliferation, and migration, suggesting its potential utility in patients resistant to EGFR inhibitors.

  11. Clinical and Microbiological Features and Factors Associated with Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Men with Community-Acquired Acute Bacterial Prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Gu; Cho, Min Chul; Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the clinical and microbiological features in the patients with community-acquired acute bacterial prostatitis (CA-ABP), as well as factors that affect fluoroquinolone resistance. A retrospective analysis was performed of 209 patients hospitalized for antibiotic treatment of CA-ABP. We investigated patient age, body mass index, underlying diseases, recurrence, prostate-related factors and results of urine culture examination and antibiotic sensitivity tests. Seventeen patients (8.1%) had fluoroquinolone-resistant bacterial colonies. When we divided the subjects into groups according to the fluoroquinolone resistance, the group with resistant bacteria was significantly older, had larger prostates and had greater residual urine volumes. Bacteria were identified in 127 of 209 patients (60.8%), and the most commonly cultured included Escherichia coli (43.5%). The sensitivity of the cultured bacteria to fluoroquinolones was high compared to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and gentamicin, but similar to cefotaxime. The bacteria were more sensitive to amikacin and imipenem than to fluoroquinolone. The multivariate analysis revealed that prostate volume ≥40 ml (p = 0.024) and residual urine volume >100 ml (p = 0.004) were independent predictive factors for fluoroquinolone resistance. Fluoroquinolone monotherapy might be an effective treatment in CA-ABP. However, combination antibiotic therapy is recommended in cases with prostate volume ≥40 ml or residual urine volume >100 ml, because fluoroquinolone resistance can occur. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Calculation of computed tomography dose index to effective dose conversion factors based on measurement of the dose profile along the fan shaped beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J T; Geleijns, J; Zweers, D; Schultz, F W; Zoetelief, J

    1996-01-01

    The variation in computed tomography dose index (CTDI) to effective dose conversion factors between different types of CT scanner is large (i.e. a factor of about 2 due to differences in beam shaping filters). Consequently, scanner specific conversion factors have to be applied. For some types of scanner, however, detailed information on the construction of beam shaping filters is not provided by the manufacturers. It is of interest to investigate the use of measured dose profiles for the calculation of conversion factors. Based upon measured dose profiles, two appropriate photon spectra selected on the basis of measured half value layers, gender specific adult phantoms Adam and Eva, and the Monte Carlo neutron and photon radiation transport code (MCNP), organ and effective dose conversion factors are calculated. To validate the method, a comparison is made between results for measured and calculated beam profiles for a Philips Tomoscan 350. The results in terms of effective dose per slice per unit of CTDI are compared with published data. Relative difference in conversion factors per slice averaged over all slices used for the calculations is 13 +/- 4% between the two spectra, 10.2 +/- 0.2% between measured and calculated beam profiles and 50 +/- 191% between the phantoms of different gender. The relative difference between the averaged results for the Adam and Eva phantoms and published results for a hermaphrodite phantom is on average equal to or less than 15 +/- 13%, depending on the spectrum and beam profile used, although larger differences can occur for specific slices. It is concluded that CTDI to effective dose conversion factors can be derived on the basis of measured beam profiles.

  13. Alterations of plasma nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor, and soluble form of its receptor (sFlt-1 after resistance exercise: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahanni

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Resistance training does not alter plasma angiogenic factors (NO, VEGF, and sFlt-1, at least in normal rats. More studies are needed to show the effect of resistance training on angiogenesis process.

  14. A study of the effect of seasonal climatic factors on the electrical resistivity response of three experimental graves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, John R.; Pringle, Jamie K.

    2014-09-01

    Electrical resistivity surveys have proven useful for locating clandestine graves in a number of forensic searches. However, some aspects of grave detection with resistivity surveys remain imperfectly understood. One such aspect is the effect of seasonal changes in climate on the resistivity response of graves. In this study, resistivity survey data collected over three years over three simulated graves were analysed in order to assess how the graves' resistivity anomalies varied seasonally and when they could most easily be detected. Thresholds were used to identify anomalies, and the ‘residual volume' of grave-related anomalies was calculated as the area bounded by the relevant thresholds multiplied by the anomaly's average value above the threshold. The residual volume of a resistivity anomaly associated with a buried pig cadaver showed evidence of repeating annual patterns and was moderately correlated with the soil moisture budget. This anomaly was easiest to detect between January and April each year, after prolonged periods of high net gain in soil moisture. The resistivity response of a wrapped cadaver was more complex, although it also showed evidence of seasonal variation during the third year after burial. We suggest that the observed variation in the graves' resistivity anomalies was caused by seasonal change in survey data noise levels, which was in turn influenced by the soil moisture budget. It is possible that similar variations occur elsewhere for sites with seasonal climate variations and this could affect successful detection of other subsurface features. Further research to investigate how different climates and soil types affect seasonal variation in grave-related resistivity anomalies would be useful.

  15. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  16. Patient Factors Associated With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Septic Arthritis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Derek T; Haruno, Lee S; Daram, Shiva; Dawson, John R; Zhang, Wei; Rosenfeld, Scott B

    2018-02-16

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative organism in pediatric septic arthritis, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) being responsible for a significant portion of these infections. Early identification and initiation of proper treatment may improve outcomes by minimizing potential morbidity. The purpose of this study was to identify variables obtained on initial patient presentation associated with MRSA septic arthritis. Sixteen factors were retrospectively evaluated in 109 consecutive pediatric patients diagnosed with culture-confirmed septic arthritis. Graphical and logistical regression analyses were employed to determine factors independently predictive of MRSA septic arthritis. Twenty-seven (25%) patients had MRSA and 82 (75%) had non-MRSA septic arthritis. C-reactive protein of 13.7 mg/L or greater, duration of symptoms of 4 days or more, heart rate of 126 beats per minute or greater, and absolute neutrophil count of 8.72×10 3 cells/µL or greater were associated with MRSA septic arthritis. Ultimately, 98% of patients with 1 or no risk factors had non-MRSA and 96% of patients with MRSA septic arthritis had 2 or more positive risk factors. Elevated C-reactive protein, duration of symptoms, heart rate, and absolute neutrophil count are predictive of MRSA infection in the setting of pediatric septic arthritis and can be obtained on initial evaluation. In patients for whom there is concern for MRSA infection, this may guide more expedient treatment, such as early initiation of contact precautions and appropriate antibiotic therapy before culture results become available. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Martinique: distribution, mechanisms and relations with environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marcombe

    Full Text Available Dengue is an important mosquito borne viral disease in Martinique Island (French West Indies. The viruses responsible for dengue are transmitted by Aedes aegypti, an indoor day-biting mosquito. The most effective proven method for disease prevention has been by vector control by various chemical or biological means. Unfortunately insecticide resistance has already been observed on the Island and recently showed to significantly reduce the efficacy of vector control interventions. In this study, we investigated the distribution of resistance and the underlying mechanisms in nine Ae. aegypti populations. Statistical multifactorial approach was used to investigate the correlations between insecticide resistance levels, associated mechanisms and environmental factors characterizing the mosquito populations. Bioassays revealed high levels of resistance to temephos and deltamethrin and susceptibility to Bti in the 9 populations tested. Biochemical assays showed elevated detoxification enzyme activities of monooxygenases, carboxylesterases and glutathione S-tranferases in most of the populations. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations, revealed the presence of the "knock-down resistance" V1016I Kdr mutation at high frequency (>87%. Real time quantitative RT-PCR showed the potential involvement of several candidate detoxification genes in insecticide resistance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA performed with variables characterizing Ae. aegypti from Martinique permitted to underline potential links existing between resistance distribution and other variables such as agriculture practices, vector control interventions and urbanization. Insecticide resistance is widespread but not homogeneously distributed across Martinique. The influence of environmental and operational factors on the evolution of the resistance and mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Health system factors influencing management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in four European Union countries - learning from country experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gerard; Tsolova, Svetla; Anderson, Laura F; Gebhard, Agnes C; Heldal, Einar; Hollo, Vahur; Cejudo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero; Schmid, Daniela; Schreuder, Bert; Varleva, Tonka; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2017-04-19

    In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients' emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of rapid molecular diagnostic tests; development of context-specific treatment

  19. Development of a bioassay system for investigating insulin resistance factors of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, D.B.; Singh, R.; Martin, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if late-term pregnant serum and/or placenta could induce insulin resistance in normal adipose cells, the authors have developed an insulin sensitive bioassay system. Cells isolated from epididymal fat pads of 250-275 g Sprague Dawley rats are preincubated for 3 hours at 37 0 in media 199 and serum or placental extract. The cells are washed free of serum and tested for metabolic activity in a 2 hour incubation which measures the conversion of U- 14 C-glucose to 14 CO 2 and to 14 C-triglyceride fatty acids under basal and insulin stimulated conditions. Maximal insulin responsiveness (350-450% basal for CO 2 and 1400-1700% basal for fatty acids) is achieved using Worthington Type II collagenase and a 45-60 minute digestion period for cell isolations and Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 mM glucose, 2% Armour bovine serum albumin (CRG-7), 1000 μU/ml insulin and 110,000 to 120,000 cells in the 2 hour incubations. Using this bioasssay system the authors have found that insulin responsiveness, in terms of glucose conversion to fatty acids, is unchanged when cells are preincubated with 5% control pig serum but reduced following preincubation with late pregnant (110 day) pig serum. In future experiments the authors hope to further characterize the factor(s) in pregnant serum responsible for inducing this metabolic effect

  20. Social support a key factor for adherence to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, R D; Dhande, D J; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Kumar, A M V; Parmar, M

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is emerging as a major public health problem globally. Treatment success rates in MDR-TB across the globe are not encouraging as completing MDR-TB treatment successfully is challenging due to high proportion of lost to follow up. Using qualitative methods and grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with MDR-TB patients and treatment providers. The social cognitive framework was explored as a way to guide understanding of the factors affecting treatment adherence among MDR-TB patients. Multiple factors influenced patient's decision to adhere to MDR-TB treatment. Self-motivation, awareness about disease and treatment, counselling support, family support, nutritional support and social support were important drivers for successful treatment. Providers related that motivational counselling, nutritional support, family support and social support encouraged treatment adherence. To improve MDR-TB treatment adherence, a patient-centric approach should be considered at the programmatic level. There is a need to formulate strategy that includes motivational counselling, nutritional supplementation and social support mobilisation for treatment adherence. Participants suggested a Patient Support Group led treatment care model for better adherence and treatment success rates in MDR-TB treatment. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cryptococcal phosphoglucose isomerase is required for virulence factor production, cell wall integrity and stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wei, Dongsheng; Li, Zhongming; Sun, Zhixiong; Pan, Jiao; Zhu, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of virulence factor production in the pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans remains to be fully illustrated. We present here a finding that a gene, encoding the glycolysis enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi1), is critical for the biosynthesis of melanin and capsule, cell wall integrity and resistance to stress conditions. A leaky mutant of the yeast, LZM19, resulted from an insertion of T-DNA in the PGI1 promoter region, expressed PGI1 at a level only 1.9% of the wild type. LZM19 could synthesize the pigment melanin in the presence of 2% glucose, suggesting a status of LAC1 derepression. Phenotypically, capsule biosynthesis in LZM19 was remarkably reduced. Integrity of the cell wall and plasma membrane of LZM19 were impaired based on its sensitivity to Congo red and SDS. Also, LZM19 exhibited hypersensitivity to osmotic stress generated by 2 M NaCl or 1 M KCl, indicating possible impairment in the HOG signaling pathway. Furthermore, LZM19 failed to utilize mannose and fructose, suggesting a possible involvement of Pgi1 in the breakdown of these two sugars. Our results revealed a crucial role of PGI1 in coordination of the production of virulence factors, cell wall integrity and stress response in C. neoformans. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Are hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL causal factors in the development of insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Naishi; Fu, Jingyuan; Koonen, Debby P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Snieder, Harold; Hofker, Marten H.

    Insulin resistance often occurs with dyslipidemia as part of the metabolic syndrome and the current dominant paradigm is that insulin resistance leads to dyslipidemia. However, dyslipidemia may also cause insulin resistance; this was postulated 30 years ago, but has never been substantiated.

  3. Evaluation Of Finite Element Mesh Arrangements And Stress Intensity Factor Calculation Methods For Opening Mode Fracture Of Cracked-Cemented Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Nikraz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture mechanics is a branch of mechanics, which deals with the cracked body. Every construction material that currently in use inevitably is not flawless. The pre-existing crack may grow to cause structure failure due to low stress, which acts to a structure. Stress intensity factor (K is a single parameter in fracture mechanics, which can be used to examine if a crack, would propagate in a cracked structure under particular loading condition. Finite element method is used to analyze the cracked body to provide the displacements data around the crack tip (at quarter point elements due to load prescribed, for stress intensity factor determination. Two methods of stress intensity factor calculation, Quarter Point Displacement Technique (QPDT and Displacement Correlation Technique (DCT, were evaluated. A series of standard fracture testing were undertaken to provide the fracture load data (Pf, which coupled with the stress intensity factor analytical formula to calculate fracture toughness. The results showed that under a particular mesh arrangement, the result of finite element analysis could deviate from the analytical formula calculation result. The QPDT method is suitable for compact tension specimen but DCT seemed to be not. For cracked beam analysis, the QPDT and DCT calculations were in good agreement with the analytical formula as long as coupled with the appropriate mesh arrangement around the crack tip.

  4. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Outcomes of Isoniazid- and Rifampicin-Mono-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Leonela; Otero, Larissa; Sterling, Timothy R; Huaman, Moises A; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes. A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment. Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80%) were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8%) patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2%) patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-4.1), and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9-47.8). Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-valuemono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, pmono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes.

  5. Risk factors for healthcare-acquired urinary tract infections caused by multi-drug resistant microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Zorana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Healthcare-acquired urinary tract infections (HAUTI make up to 40% of all healthcareacquired infections and contribute significantly to hospital morbidity, mortality, and overall cost of treatment. Objective. The aim of our study was to investigate possible risk factors for development of HAUTI caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens. Methods. The prospective case-control study in a large tertiary-care hospital was conducted during a five-year period. The cases were patients with HAUTI caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens, and the controls were patients with HAUTI caused by non-MDR pathogens. Results. There were 562 (62.6% patients with MDR isolates and 336 (37.4% patients with non-MDR isolates in the study. There were four significant predictors of HAUTI caused by MDR pathogens: hospitalization before insertion of urinary catheter for more than eight days (ORadjusted = 2.763; 95% CI = 1.352-5.647; p = 0.005, hospitalization for more than 15 days (ORadjusted = 2.144; 95% CI = 1.547-2.970; p < 0.001, previous stay in another department (intensive care units, other wards or hospitals (ORadjusted = 2.147; 95% CI = 1.585-2.908; p < 0.001, and cancer of various localizations (ORadjusted = 2.313; 95% CI = 1.255-4.262; p = 0.007. Conclusion. Early removal of urinary catheter and reduction of time spent in a hospital or in an ICU could contribute to a decrease in the rate of HAUTI caused by MDR pathogens.

  6. Iron and Obesity Status-Associated Insulin Resistance Influence Circulating Fibroblast-Growth Factor-23 Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Puig, Josep; Serrano, Marta; Sabater, Mónica; Rubió, Antoni; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Fontan, Marina; Casamitjana, Roser; Xifra, Gemma; Ortega, Francisco José; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Ricart, Wifredo

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD). Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23) and C-terminal (CtFGF-23) concentrations (ELISA) were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1); and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA) and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT) in 78 subjects (52 women) with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2). Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine) contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance. PMID:23555610

  7. Iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance influence circulating fibroblast-growth factor-23 concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Fernández-Real

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 is known to be produced by the bone and linked to metabolic risk. We aimed to explore circulating FGF-23 in association with fatness and insulin sensitivity, atherosclerosis and bone mineral density (BMD. Circulating intact FGF-23 (iFGF-23 and C-terminal (CtFGF-23 concentrations (ELISA were measured in 133 middle aged men from the general population in association with insulin sensitivity (Cohort 1; and in association with fat mass and bone mineral density (DEXA and atherosclerosis (intima media thickness, IMT in 78 subjects (52 women with a wide range of adiposity (Cohort 2. Circulating iFGF-23 was also measured before and after weight loss. In all subjects as a whole, serum intact and C-terminal concentrations were linearly and positively associated with BMI. In cohort 1, both serum iFGF-23 and CtFGF-23 concentrations increased with insulin resistance. Serum creatinine contributed to iFGF-23 variance, while serum ferritin and insulin sensitivity (but not BMI, age or serum creatinine contributed to 17% of CtFGF-23 variance. In cohort 2, CtFGF-23 levels were higher in women vs. men, and increased with BMI, fat mass, fasting and post-load serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and PTH, being negatively associated with circulating vitamin D and ferritin levels. The associations of CtFGF-23 with bone density in the radius, lumbar spine and carotid IMT were no longer significant after controlling for BMI. Weight loss led to decreased iFGF-23 concentrations. In summary, the associations of circulating FGF-23 concentration with parameters of glucose metabolism, bone density and atherosclerosis are dependent on iron and obesity status-associated insulin resistance.

  8. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  9. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal enterococci from vet-visiting pets and assessment of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Martins, L; Mahú, M I; Costa, A L; Bessa, L J; Vaz-Pires, P; Loureiro, L; Niza-Ribeiro, J; de Matos, A J F; Martins da Costa, P

    2015-06-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) exhibited by enterococci isolated from faeces of pets and its underlying risk factors. From September 2009 to May 2012, rectal swabs were collected from 74 dogs and 17 cats, selected from the population of animals visiting the Veterinary Hospital of University of Porto, UPVet, through a systematic random procedure. Animal owners answered a questionnaire about the risk factors that could influence the presence of AMR in faecal enterococci. Enterococci isolation, identification and antimicrobial (AM) susceptibility testing were performed. Data analyses of multilevel, univariable and multivariable generalised linear mixed models were conducted. From all enterococci isolated (n=315), 61 per cent were considered multidrug-resistant, whereas only 9.2 per cent were susceptible to all AMs tested. Highest resistance was found to tetracycline (67.0 per cent), rifampicin (60.3 per cent), azithromycin (58.4 per cent), quinupristin/dalfopristin (54.0 per cent) and erythromycin (53.0 per cent). Previous fluoroquinolone treatments and coprophagic habits were the features more consistently associated with the presence of AMR for three (chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin) and seven (tetracycline, rifampicin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and azithromycin), respectively, out of nine AMs assessed. Evaluating risk factors that determine the presence of drug-resistant bacteria in pets, a possible source of resistance determinants to human beings, is crucial for the selection of appropriate treatment guidelines by veterinary practitioners. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Determination and Use of the Local Recovery Factor for Calculating the Effectiveness Gas Temperature for Turbine Blades / Jack B. Esgar and Alfred L. Lea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esgar, Jack B; Lea, Alfred L

    1951-01-01

    In an in experimental investigation of local recovery factors for a blade having a pressure distribution similar to that of a typical reaction-type turbine blade, it a was found that the recovery factors were essentially independent of Mach number, Reynolds number, pressure gradient, and position on the blade surface except for regions where the boundary layer was probably in the transition range from laminar to turbulent. The recommended value of local subsonic recovery factor for use in calculating the effective gas temperature for gas turbine blades was 0.89.

  11. Calculated rotational and vibrational g factors of LiH X 1S+ and evaluation of parameters in radial functions from rotational and vibration-rotational spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana; Oddershede, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The vibrational g factor, that is, the nonadiabatic correction to the vibrational reduced mass, of LiH has been calculated for internuclear distances over a wide range. Based on multiconfigurational wave functions with a large complete active space and an extended set of gaussian type basis...... functions, these calculations yielded also the rotational g factor, the electric dipolar moment, and its gradient with internuclear distance for LiH in its electronic ground state X (1)Sigma(+). The vibrational g factor g(v) exhibits a pronounced minimum near internuclear distance R = 3.65 x 10(-10) m......; the derivative of electric dipolar moment and the nonadiabatic matrix element coupling the electronic ground state to the first electronically excited state exhibit extrema near the same location that is also near the avoided crossing of the curves for potential energy for the electronic ground state and excited...

  12. Mutation in elongation factor G confers resistance to the antibiotic argyrin in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Piotr; Lukat, Peer; Hüsecken, Kristina; Dötsch, Andreas; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Hartmann, Rolf W; Müller, Rolf; Häussler, Susanne

    2012-11-05

    The natural myxobacterial product argyrin is a cyclic peptide exhibiting immunosuppressive activity as well as antibacterial activity directed against the highly intrinsically resistant opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing technology as a powerful tool to determine the mode of action of argyrin. Sequencing of argyrin-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates selected in vitro uncovered six point mutations that distinguished the resistant mutants from their susceptible parental strain. All six mutations were localized within one gene: fusA1, which encodes for the elongation factor EF-G. After the reintroduction of selected mutations into the susceptible wild type, the strain became resistant to argyrin. Surface plasmon resonance experiments confirmed the interaction of argyrin A with FusA1. Interestingly, EF-G has been previously shown to be the target of the anti-Staphylococcus antibiotic fusidic acid. Mapping of the mutations onto a structural model of EF-G revealed that the mutations conveying resistance against argyrin were clustered within domain III on the side opposite to that involved in fusidic acid binding, thus indicating that argyrin exhibits a new mode of protein synthesis inhibition. Although no mutations causing argyrin resistance have been found in other genes of P. aeruginosa, analysis of the sequence identity in EF-G and its correlation with argyrin resistance in different bacteria imply that additional factors such as uptake of argyrin play a role in the argyrin resistance of other organisms. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. ICESag37, a Novel Integrative and Conjugative Element Carrying Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Potential Virulence Factors in Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixin Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ICESag37, a novel integrative and conjugative element carrying multidrug resistance and potential virulence factors, was characterized in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus agalactiae. Two clinical strains of S. agalactiae, Sag37 and Sag158, were isolated from blood samples of new-borns with bacteremia. Sag37 was highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, and susceptible to levofloxacin and penicillin, while Sag158 was resistant to tetracycline and levofloxacin, and susceptible to erythromycin. Transfer experiments were performed and selection was carried out with suitable antibiotic concentrations. Through mating experiments, the erythromycin resistance gene was found to be transferable from Sag37 to Sag158. SmaI-PFGE revealed a new SmaI fragment, confirming the transfer of the fragment containing the erythromycin resistance gene. Whole genome sequencing and sequence analysis revealed a mobile element, ICESag37, which was characterized using several molecular methods and in silico analyses. ICESag37 was excised to generate a covalent circular intermediate, which was transferable to S. agalactiae. Inverse PCR was performed to detect the circular form. A serine family integrase mediated its chromosomal integration into rumA, which is a known hotspot for the integration of streptococcal ICEs. The integration site was confirmed using PCR. ICESag37 carried genes for resistance to multiple antibiotics, including erythromycin [erm(B], tetracycline [tet(O], and aminoglycosides [aadE, aphA, and ant(6]. Potential virulence factors, including a two-component signal transduction system (nisK/nisR, were also observed in ICESag37. S1-PFGE analysis ruled out the existence of plasmids. ICESag37 is the first ICESa2603 family-like element identified in S. agalactiae carrying both resistance and potential virulence determinants. It might act as a vehicle for the dissemination of multidrug resistance and pathogenicity among S. agalactiae.

  14. ICESag37, a Novel Integrative and Conjugative Element Carrying Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Potential Virulence Factors in Streptococcus agalactiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Xie, Lianyan; Han, Lizhong; Guo, Xiaokui; Wang, Yong; Sun, Jingyong

    2017-01-01

    ICESag37, a novel integrative and conjugative element carrying multidrug resistance and potential virulence factors, was characterized in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus agalactiae. Two clinical strains of S. agalactiae, Sag37 and Sag158, were isolated from blood samples of new-borns with bacteremia. Sag37 was highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, and susceptible to levofloxacin and penicillin, while Sag158 was resistant to tetracycline and levofloxacin, and susceptible to erythromycin. Transfer experiments were performed and selection was carried out with suitable antibiotic concentrations. Through mating experiments, the erythromycin resistance gene was found to be transferable from Sag37 to Sag158. SmaI-PFGE revealed a new SmaI fragment, confirming the transfer of the fragment containing the erythromycin resistance gene. Whole genome sequencing and sequence analysis revealed a mobile element, ICESag37, which was characterized using several molecular methods and in silico analyses. ICESag37 was excised to generate a covalent circular intermediate, which was transferable to S. agalactiae. Inverse PCR was performed to detect the circular form. A serine family integrase mediated its chromosomal integration into rumA, which is a known hotspot for the integration of streptococcal ICEs. The integration site was confirmed using PCR. ICESag37 carried genes for resistance to multiple antibiotics, including erythromycin [erm(B)], tetracycline [tet(O)], and aminoglycosides [aadE, aphA, and ant(6)]. Potential virulence factors, including a two-component signal transduction system (nisK/nisR), were also observed in ICESag37. S1-PFGE analysis ruled out the existence of plasmids. ICESag37 is the first ICESa2603 family-like element identified in S. agalactiae carrying both resistance and potential virulence determinants. It might act as a vehicle for the dissemination of multidrug resistance and pathogenicity among S. agalactiae. PMID:29051752

  15. Evaluation of cross sections and calculation of kerma factors for neutrons up to 80 MeV on {sup 12}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, M.; Watanabe, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Chiba, S.; Fukahori, T.

    1997-03-01

    We have evaluated the cross sections for neutrons with incident energies from 20 to 80 MeV on {sup 12}C for the JENDL high-energy file. The total cross sections were determined by a generalized least-squares method with available experimental data. The cross sections of elastic and inelastic scattering to the first 2{sup +} were evaluated with the theoretical calculations. The optical potentials necessary for these calculations were derived using a microscopic approach by Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux. For the evaluation of double differential emission cross sections (DDXs), we have developed a code system SCINFUL/DDX in which total 35 reactions including the 3-body simultaneous breakup process (n+{sup 12}C {yields} n+{alpha}+{sup 8}Be) can be taken into consideration in terms of a Monte Carlo method, and have calculated the DDXs of all light-emissions (A{<=}4) and heavier reaction products. The results for protons, deuterons, and alphas showed overall good agreement with experimental data. The code is also applicable for calculations of total and partial kerma factors. Total kerma factors calculated for energies from 20 to 80 MeV were compared with the measurements and the other latest evaluations from the viewpoints of medical application and nuclear heating estimation. (author)

  16. Calculation of the fuel composition and the deterministic reloading pattern in the second cycle of the BUSHEHR VVER-1000 reactor using the weighting factor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Yashar [Islamic Azad Univ., Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Pazirandeh, Ali [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ghofrani, Mohammad B. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Sadighi, Mostafa [Ofogh Consulting Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To calculate the optimum reloading pattern in the second cycle of BUSHEHR VVER-1000 reactor, it was necessary to first calculate the burnup and fuel composition of each fuel assembly at the end of the first operational cycle so that the types of applicable fuel assemblies in the second cycle could be determined. Time-dependent calculations were performed using the WIMSD-5B and CITATION-LDI2 codes coupled with thermo-hydraulic computations during the first cycle. A weighting factor was defined for all 16 types of fuel assemblies in the second cycle based on their types and fuel compositions. In the process of calculating the deterministic reloading pattern, the number of probable arrangements was reduced from 7.55 x 10{sup 22} cases to just 1 856 cases by using a weighting-factor method and the structural constraints of the reactor core. The thermo-neutronic parameters of each of the 1 856 arrangements were then calculated by coupling the WIMSD-5B and CITATION-LDI2 codes with the thermo-hydraulic program. Afterwards, the processes of screening the probable arrangements and searching for the optimal reloading pattern were carried out based on the values of these parameters.

  17. Calculation of the fuel composition and the deterministic reloading pattern in the second cycle of the BUSHEHR VVER-1000 reactor using the weighting factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, Yashar

    2016-01-01

    To calculate the optimum reloading pattern in the second cycle of BUSHEHR VVER-1000 reactor, it was necessary to first calculate the burnup and fuel composition of each fuel assembly at the end of the first operational cycle so that the types of applicable fuel assemblies in the second cycle could be determined. Time-dependent calculations were performed using the WIMSD-5B and CITATION-LDI2 codes coupled with thermo-hydraulic computations during the first cycle. A weighting factor was defined for all 16 types of fuel assemblies in the second cycle based on their types and fuel compositions. In the process of calculating the deterministic reloading pattern, the number of probable arrangements was reduced from 7.55 x 10 22 cases to just 1 856 cases by using a weighting-factor method and the structural constraints of the reactor core. The thermo-neutronic parameters of each of the 1 856 arrangements were then calculated by coupling the WIMSD-5B and CITATION-LDI2 codes with the thermo-hydraulic program. Afterwards, the processes of screening the probable arrangements and searching for the optimal reloading pattern were carried out based on the values of these parameters.

  18. Amphiregulin triggered epidermal growth factor receptor activation confers in vivo crizotinib-resistance of EML4-ALK lung cancer and circumvention by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Fukuda, Koji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Arai, Sachiko; Nanjo, Shigeki; Yamada, Tadaaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Yano, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Crizotinib, a first-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is known to be effective against echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancers. Nonetheless, the tumors subsequently become resistant to crizotinib and recur in almost every case. The mechanism of the acquired resistance needs to be deciphered. In this study, we established crizotinib-resistant cells (A925LPE3-CR) via long-term administration of crizotinib to a mouse model of pleural carcinomatous effusions; this model involved implantation of the A925LPE3 cell line, which harbors the EML4-ALK gene rearrangement. The resistant cells did not have the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells, and these cells were cross-resistant to alectinib and ceritinib as well. In cell clone #2, which is one of the clones of A925LPE3-CR, crizotinib sensitivity was restored via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by means of an EGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (erlotinib) or an anti-EGFR antibody (cetuximab) in vitro and in the murine xenograft model. Cell clone #2 did not have an EGFR mutation, but the expression of amphiregulin (AREG), one of EGFR ligands, was significantly increased. A knockdown of AREG with small interfering RNAs restored the sensitivity to crizotinib. These data suggest that overexpression of EGFR ligands such as AREG can cause resistance to crizotinib, and that inhibition of EGFR signaling may be a promising strategy to overcome crizotinib resistance in EML4-ALK lung cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Monte-Carlo calculation of the calibration factors for the interfacial area concentration and the velocity of the bubbles for double sensor conductivity probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Pena, J.; Chiva, S.; Mendez, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the estimation of the correction factors for the interfacial area concentration and the bubble velocity in two phase flow measurements using the double sensor conductivity probe. Monte-Carlo calculations of these correction factors have been performed for different values of the relative distance (ΔS/D) between the tips of the conductivity probe and different values of the relative bubble velocity fluctuation parameter. Also this paper presents the Monte-Carlo calculation of the expected value of the calibration factors for bubbly flow assuming a log-normal distribution of the bubble sizes. We have computed the variation of the expected values of the calibration factors with the relative distance (ΔS/D) between the tips and the velocity fluctuation parameter. Finally, we have performed a sensitivity study of the variation of the average values of the calibration factors for bubbly flow with the geometrical standard deviation of the log-normal distribution of bubble sizes. The results of these calculations show that the total interfacial area correction factor is very close to 2, and depends very weakly on the velocity fluctuation, and the relative distance between tips. For the velocity calibration factor, the Monte-Carlo results show that for moderate values of the relative bubble velocity fluctuation parameter (H max ≤ 0.3) and values of the relative distance between tips not too small (ΔS/D ≥ 0.2), the correction velocity factor for the bubble sensor conductivity probe is close to unity, ranging from 0.96 to 1

  20. Diagnostic Evasion of Highly-Resistant Microorganisms: A Critical Factor in Nosocomial Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Friedrich, Alexander W; Bathoorn, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Highly resistant microorganisms (HRMOs) may evade screening strategies used in routine diagnostics. Bacteria that have evolved to evade diagnostic tests may have a selective advantage in the nosocomial environment. Evasion of resistance detection can result from the following mechanisms: low-level expression of resistance genes not resulting in detectable resistance, slow growing variants, mimicry of wild-type-resistance, and resistance mechanisms that are only detected if induced by antibiotic pressure. We reviewed reports on hospital outbreaks in the Netherlands over the past 5 years. Remarkably, many outbreaks including major nation-wide outbreaks were caused by microorganisms able to evade resistance detection by diagnostic screening tests. We describe various examples of diagnostic evasion by several HRMOs and discuss this in a broad and international perspective. The epidemiology of hospital-associated bacteria may strongly be affected by diagnostic screening strategies. This may result in an increasing reservoir of resistance genes in hospital populations that is unnoticed. The resistance elements may horizontally transfer to hosts with systems for high-level expression, resulting in a clinically significant resistance problem. We advise to communicate the identification of HRMOs that evade diagnostics within national and regional networks. Such signaling networks may prevent inter-hospital outbreaks, and allow collaborative development of adapted diagnostic tests.

  1. First principles calculations of nucleon and pion form factors: understanding the building blocks of nuclear matter from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantia Alexandrou; Bojan Bistrovic; Robert Edwards; P de Forcrand; George Fleming; Philipp Haegler; John Negele; Konstantinos Orginos; Andrew Pochinsky; Dru Renner; David Richards; Wolfram Schroers; Antonios Tsapalis

    2005-01-01

    Lattice QCD is an essential complement to the current and anticipated DOE-supported experimental program in hadronic physics. In this poster we address several key questions central to our understanding of the building blocks of nuclear matter, nucleons and pions. Firstly, we describe progress at computing the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, describing the distribution of charge and current, before considering the role played by the strange quarks. We then describe the study of transition form factors to the Delta resonance. Finally, we present recent work to determine the pion form factor, complementary to the current JLab experimental determination and providing insight into the approach to asymptotic freedom

  2. First principles calculations of nucleon and pion form factors: understanding the building blocks of nuclear matter from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantia Alexandrou; Bojan Bistrovic; Robert Edwards; P de Forcrand; George Fleming; Philipp Haegler; John Negele; Konstantinos Orginos; Andrew Pochinsky; Dru Renner; David Richards; Wolfram Schroers; Antonios Tsapalis

    2005-10-01

    Lattice QCD is an essential complement to the current and anticipated DOE-supported experimental program in hadronic physics. In this poster we address several key questions central to our understanding of the building blocks of nuclear matter, nucleons and pions. Firstly, we describe progress at computing the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, describing the distribution of charge and current, before considering the role played by the strange quarks. We then describe the study of transition form factors to the Delta resonance. Finally, we present recent work to determine the pion form factor, complementary to the current JLab experimental determination and providing insight into the approach to asymptotic freedom.

  3. Overexpression of the OsERF71 Transcription Factor Alters Rice Root Structure and Drought Resistance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Geupil; Jeong, Jin Seo; Kim, Youn Shic; Ha, Sun-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to drought stress require the regulation of transcriptional networks via drought-responsive transcription factors, which mediate a range of morphological and physiological changes. AP2/ERF transcription factors are known to act as key regulators of drought resistance transcriptional networks; however, little is known about the associated molecular mechanisms that give rise to specific morphological and physiological adaptations. In this study, we functionally characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) drought-responsive AP2/ERF transcription factor OsERF71, which is expressed predominantly in the root meristem, pericycle, and endodermis. Overexpression of OsERF71, either throughout the entire plant or specifically in roots, resulted in a drought resistance phenotype at the vegetative growth stage, indicating that overexpression in roots was sufficient to confer drought resistance. The root-specific overexpression was more effective in conferring drought resistance at the reproductive stage, such that grain yield was increased by 23% to 42% over wild-type plants or whole-body overexpressing transgenic lines under drought conditions. OsERF71 overexpression in roots elevated the expression levels of genes related to cell wall loosening and lignin biosynthetic genes, which correlated with changes in root structure, the formation of enlarged aerenchyma, and high lignification levels. Furthermore, OsERF71 was found to directly bind to the promoter of OsCINNAMOYL-COENZYME A REDUCTASE1, a key gene in lignin biosynthesis. These results indicate that the OsERF71-mediated drought resistance pathway recruits factors involved in cell wall modification to enable root morphological adaptations, thereby providing a mechanism for enhancing drought resistance. PMID:27382137

  4. Calculation of the thermal utilisation factor in a cell made up of a given number of concentric media; Calcul du facteur d'utilisation thermique dans une cellule formee d'un nombre quelconque de milieux concentriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouyal, A.; Benoist, P.; Guionnet, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The method of calculating the thermal utilisation factor, described in a previous report, is extended to the case of a cylindrical cell containing a given number of concentric media, certain of which may be empty. A collision by collision method is used in all but the peripheral medium, which may be treated by a theory of controlled diffusion. A programme for the IBM 650 calculator has been based on this method. Some numerical results are presented. An equivalent matrix formulation, due to C. Guionnet, is given as an appendix. (author) [French] La methode de calcul du facteur d'utilisation thermique, exposee dans un rapport precedent, est etendue au cas d'une cellule cylindrique comportant un nombre quelconque de milieux concentriques, certains de ces milieux pouvant etre vides. On utilise une methode choc par choc dans tous les milieux excepte le milieu peripherique qui peut etre traite par une theorie de diffusion ajustee. La methode a fait l'objet d'un programme pour le calculateur IBM 650. Quelques resultats numeriques sont presentes. Une formulation matricielle equivalente, due a C. Guionnet, est exposee en annexe. (auteur)

  5. The Composition and Spatial Patterns of Bacterial Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in 19 Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Xia, Yu; Wen, Xianghua; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance are of concern for environmental safety and public health. Accumulating evidence suggests that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are as an important sink and source of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Virulence genes (encoding virulence factors) are good indicators for bacterial pathogenic potentials. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathogenic potentials and antibiotic resistance in WWTPs, bacterial virulence genes and ARGs in 19 WWTPs covering a majority of latitudinal zones of China were surveyed by using GeoChip 4.2. A total of 1610 genes covering 13 virulence factors and 1903 genes belonging to 11 ARG families were detected respectively. The bacterial virulence genes exhibited significant spatial distribution patterns of a latitudinal biodiversity gradient and a distance-decay relationship across China. Moreover, virulence genes tended to coexist with ARGs as shown by their strongly positive associations. In addition, key environmental factors shaping the overall virulence gene structure were identified. This study profiles the occurrence, composition and distribution of virulence genes and ARGs in current WWTPs in China, and uncovers spatial patterns and important environmental variables shaping their structure, which may provide the basis for further studies of bacterial virulence factors and antibiotic resistance in WWTPs.

  6. Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Factors among Escherichia coli Isolated from Conventional and Free-Range Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Koga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological contamination in commercial poultry production has caused concerns for human health because of both the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and the increase in antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains that can cause treatment failure of human infections. The aim of our study was to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of E. coli isolates from chicken carcasses obtained from different farming systems (conventional and free-range poultry. A total of 156 E. coli strains were isolated and characterized for genes encoding virulence factors described in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for 15 antimicrobials, and strains were confirmed as extended spectrum of β-lactamases- (ESBLs- producing E. coli by phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that strains from free-range poultry have fewer virulence factors than strains from conventional poultry. Strains from conventionally raised chickens had a higher frequency of antimicrobial resistance for all antibiotics tested and also exhibited genes encoding ESBL and AmpC, unlike free-range poultry isolates, which did not. Group 2 CTX-M and CIT were the most prevalent ESBL and AmpC genes, respectively. The farming systems of poultries can be related with the frequency of virulence factors and resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria.

  7. Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 3-to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, Gianni; Ongering, Eva C.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: The increasing rate of overweight and obesity is alarming. The complications of overweight and obesity at a young age are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese children aged 3-5 years.

  8. Diabetes mellitus in itself is not a risk factor for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with bacteriuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, R.; Geerlings, S. E.; de Neeling, A. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with bacteriuria. METHODS: Data were obtained from a multicentre study. A clean-voided midstream urine culture was collected from 636 women with diabetes, who were between 18 and

  9. Colonization With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Upon Intensive Care Unit Admission: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since earlier identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-colonized patients could be helpful for reducing the overall frequency of S. aureus infections, the investigation of persons colonized with MRSA is considered to be a key component of MRSA infection prevention programs, particularly among ICU patients. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of nasal and extra-nasal carriers of MRSA and risk factors associated with MRSA colonization among adult patients admitted to the ICU. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 164 adult patients who were admitted to the ICU of a teaching hospital were screened for nasal and extra-nasal carriage of MRSA. In addition, the ICU-hospitalized patients were evaluated for MRSA acquisition during their ICU stay. Results Out of the 164 patients admitted to the ICU, 12 (7.3% patients were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA carriers, and 12 (7.3% patients carried MRSA. Four (16.6% patients were colonized at single or multiple extra-nasal sites based on negative nares screening. Of the 15 remaining patients hospitalized at the ICU, one (6.7% patient acquired MRSA. The patients colonized with MRSA had more advanced ages (P = 0.008, longer hospital stays before being transferred to the ICU (P > 0.001, more underlying diseases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (P = 0.028, and had undergone surgery (P = 0.003. Patients transferred from the surgical wards to the ICU were found to have significantly higher carriage rates of MRSA (P = 0.041. Conclusions The prevalence of MRSA colonization upon ICU admission at our hospital was relatively high, and routine MRSA screening is suggested, especially for patients who have certain risk factors. In addition, extra-nasal MRSA screenings upon ICU admission will help in the early detection of MRSA.

  10. Calculational-experimental examination and ensuring of equipment and pipelines seismic resistance at starting and operating water-cooled WWER-type reactor NPPs. Final report. From 01 May 1997 - 30 April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovski, S.

    1999-01-01

    In conformity with request from Paks NPP in July 1997 the additional dynamic tests of the following units of equipment were carried out: Heat exchanger (Diesel Generator Station); Jalousie (Diesel Generator Station); Axial ventilator (Main Building, gallery of electric equipment). The natural frequencies of equipment were obtained as results of these testing. For all tested units the calculations of seismic resistance were carried out. The method of finite elements and special computer programmes of KBGU (ISPA, and others) were used. Calculations were carried out in accordance with modem standards. The calculations of tested equipment seismic resistance are carried out based on the obtained experimental data and NPP floor response spectra. The necessary recommendations for unsatisfactory equipment are worked out

  11. Insights into the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obesity and insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Finucane, Orla M

    2012-11-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has emerged as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation characterised by a progressive infiltration of immune cells, particularly macrophages, into obese adipose tissue. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) present immense plasticity. In early obesity, M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages acquire an M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β produced by M1 ATM exacerbate local inflammation promoting insulin resistance (IR), which consequently, can lead to type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the triggers responsible for ATM recruitment and activation are not fully understood. Adipose tissue-derived chemokines are significant players in driving ATM recruitment during obesity. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a chemokine-like inflammatory regulator, is enhanced during obesity and is directly associated with the degree of peripheral IR. This review focuses on the functional role of macrophages in obesity-induced IR and highlights the importance of the unique inflammatory cytokine MIF in propagating obesity-induced inflammation and IR. Given MIF chemotactic properties, MIF may be a primary candidate promoting ATM recruitment during obesity. Manipulating MIF inflammatory activities in obesity, using pharmacological agents or functional foods, may be therapeutically beneficial for the treatment and prevention of obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  12. Effect of meteorological factors and geographic location on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Blanco

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effect of meteorological conditions and geographical location on bacterial colonization rates particularly of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of season, meteorological factors, and geographic location on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE colonization.The prospective cohort included all adults admitted to 20 geographically-dispersed ICUs across the US from September 1, 2011 to October 4, 2012. Nasal and perianal swabs were collected at admission and tested for MRSA and VRE colonization respectively. Poisson regression models using monthly aggregated colonization counts as the outcome and mean temperature, relative humidity, total precipitation, season, and/or latitude as predictors were constructed for each pathogen.A total of 24,704 ICU-admitted patients were tested for MRSA and 24,468 for VRE. On admission, 10% of patients were colonized with MRSA and 12% with VRE. For MRSA and VRE, a 10% increase in relative humidity was associated with approximately a 9% increase in prevalence rate. Southerly latitudes in the US were associated with higher MRSA colonization, while northerly latitudes were associated with higher VRE colonization. In contrast to MRSA, the association between VRE colonization and latitude was observed only after adjusting for relative humidity, which demonstrates how this effect is highly driven by this meteorological factor.To our knowledge, we are the first to study the effect of meteorological factors and geographical location/latitude on MRSA and VRE colonization in adults. Increasing humidity was associated with greater MRSA and VRE colonization. Southerly latitudes in the US were associated with greater MRSA and less VRE. The effect of these factors on MRSA and VRE rates has the potential not only to inform patient management and treatment, but also infection prevention interventions.

  13. Identification of Chlorogenic Acid as a Resistance Factor for Thrips in Chrysanthemum[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A.; Maltese, Federica; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora). We identified thrips-resistant chrysanthemums applying bioassays. Subsequently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was applied to compare the metabolome of thrips-resistant and -susceptible chrysanthemums. NMR facilitates wide-range coverage of the metabolome. We show that thrips-resistant and -susceptible chrysanthemums can be discriminated on basis of their metabolomic profiles. Thrips-resistant chrysanthemums contained higher amounts of the phenylpropanoids chlorogenic acid and feruloyl quinic acid. Both phenylpropanoids are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores as well as pathogens. Thus, chlorogenic and feruloyl quinic acid are the compounds of choice to improve host plants resistance to thrips in ornamentals and crops. The effect of chlorogenic acid on thrips was further studied in bioassays with artificial diets. These experiments confirmed the negative effects on thrips. Our results prove NMR to be an important tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants. PMID:19448039

  14. Phenotypic Assays to Determine Virulence Factors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Isolates and their Correlation with Antibiotic Resistance Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasi, Mohsen; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Mehri; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infection caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains is one of the most important infections in the world. UPEC encode widespread virulence factors closely related with pathogenesis of the bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of different phenotypic virulence markers in UPEC isolates and determine their correlation with antibiotic resistance pattern. UPEC isolates from patients with different clinical symptoms of UTI were collected and screened for biofilm and hemolysin production, mannose resistant, and mannose sensitive hemagglutination (MRHA and MSHA, respectively). In addition, antimicrobial resistance pattern and ESBL-producing isolates were recorded. Of the 156 UPEC isolates, biofilm and hemolysin formation was seen in 133 (85.3%) and 53 (34%) isolates, respectively. Moreover, 98 (62.8%) and 58 (37.2%) isolates showed the presence of Types 1 fimbriae (MSHA) and P fimbriae (MRHA), respectively. Our results also showed a relationship between biofilm formation in UPEC isolated from acute cystitis patients and recurrent UTI cases. Occurrence of UTI was dramatically correlated with the patients' profiles. We observed that the difference in antimicrobial susceptibilities of the biofilm and nonbiofilm former isolates was statistically significant. The UPEC isolates showed the highest resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, and cotrimoxazole. Moreover, 26.9% of isolates were ESBL producers. This study indicated that there is a relationship between the phenotypic virulence traits of the UPEC isolates, patients' profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Detection of the phenotypic virulence factors could help to improve understanding of pathogenesis of UPEC isolates and better medical intervention.

  15. Cefditoren: Comparative efficacy with other antimicrobials and risk factors for resistance in clinical isolates causing UTIs in outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzaki Despina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate a possible role of Cefditoren, a recently marketed in Greece third-generation oral cephalosporin in urinary infections of outpatients. Methods During a multicenter survey of Enterobacteriaceae causing UTIs in outpatients during 2005–2007, Cefditoren MICs were determined by agar dilution method in a randomly selected sample of uropathogens. Susceptibility against 18 other oral/parenteral antimicrobials was determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Results A total of 563 isolates (330 Escherichia coli, 142 Proteus mirabilis and 91 Klebsiella spp was studied; MIC50/MIC90 of Cefditoren was 0.25/0.5 mg/L respectively, with 97.1% of the isolates being inhibited at 1 mg/L. All 12 strains producing ESBLs or AmpC enzymes were resistant to cefditoren. Susceptibility rates (% for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and fosfomycin were 93.1- 94.1- 96.8-93.1-71.9 and 92.8% respectively. Cefditoren MIC was significantly higher in nalidixic/ciprofloxacin non-susceptible strains; resistance to cefditoren was not associated with resistance to mecillinam, fosfomycin nitrofurantoin and aminoglycosides. Multivariate analysis demonstrated history of urinary infection in the last two weeks or three months as risk factors for cefditoren resistance. Conclusions Cefditoren exhibited enhanced in vitro activity against the most common uropathogens in the outpatient setting, representing an alternative oral treatment option in patients with risk factors for resistance to first-line antibiotics.

  16. Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Signaling Pathway in Cisplatin-Resistant Lung Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yunguang; Zheng Siyuan; Torossian, Artour; Speirs, Christina K.; Schleicher, Stephen; Giacalone, Nicholas J.; Carbone, David P.; Zhao Zhongming; Lu Bo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The development of drug-resistant phenotypes has been a major obstacle to cisplatin use in non–small-cell lung cancer. We aimed to identify some of the molecular mechanisms that underlie cisplatin resistance using microarray expression analysis. Methods and Materials: H460 cells were treated with cisplatin. The differences between cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells and parental H460 cells were studied using Western blot, MTS, and clonogenic assays, in vivo tumor implantation, and microarray analysis. The cisplatin-R cells were treated with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 and siRNA targeting IGF-1 receptor. Results: Cisplatin-R cells illustrated greater expression of the markers CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase, more rapid in vivo tumor growth, more resistance to cisplatin- and etoposide-induced apoptosis, and greater survival after treatment with cisplatin or radiation than the parental H460 cells. Also, cisplatin-R demonstrated decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and increased activation of IGF-1 receptor signaling compared with parental H460 cells in the presence of IGF-1. Human recombinant IGF binding protein-3 reversed cisplatin resistance in cisplatin-R cells and targeting of IGF-1 receptor using siRNA resulted in sensitization of cisplatin-R-cells to cisplatin and radiation. Conclusions: The IGF-1 signaling pathway contributes to cisplatin-R to cisplatin and radiation. Thus, this pathway represents a potential target for improved lung cancer response to treatment.

  17. Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. infections in a Turkish university hospital: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizbay, Murat; Guzel Tunccan, Ozlem; Karasahin, Omer; Aktas, Firdevs

    2014-01-15

    Risk factors for nosocomial carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. (CRK) infections were analyzed in this study. The incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, antimicrobial susceptibility, and outcomes of CRK infections during a seven-year period (2004-2010) were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 720 patients were included in the study. Carbapenem resistance among Klebsiella spp. were significantly increased between 2003 and 2007 (pKlebsiella spp. infections. In a multivariate analysis, prior use of imipenem (OR 3.35; CI 1.675-6.726, p<0.001), stay in ICU (OR 3.36; 95% CI 1.193-9.508; p=0.022), receiving H2 receptor antagonist (OR 4.49; 95% CI 1.011-19.951; p=0.048) were independently associated with carbapenem resistance. Respiratory tract infections were the most seen nosocomial infection. Attack mortality rate was significantly higher in patients infected with CRK strains (p<0.001). CRK strains showed significantly higher resistance rates to other antibiotics. In conclusion, the emergence and rapid spread of CRK strains in our hospital is worrisome. The patients in ICU are most important risk group for the acquisition of CRK strains. High resistant rates to other antibiotics except than colistin and tigecycline limits therapeutic options, and increases mortality rates.

  18. Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Signaling Pathway in Cisplatin-Resistant Lung Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yunguang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Zheng Siyuan [Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Torossian, Artour; Speirs, Christina K.; Schleicher, Stephen; Giacalone, Nicholas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Carbone, David P. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Zhao Zhongming, E-mail: zhongming.zhao@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Lu Bo, E-mail: bo.lu@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The development of drug-resistant phenotypes has been a major obstacle to cisplatin use in non-small-cell lung cancer. We aimed to identify some of the molecular mechanisms that underlie cisplatin resistance using microarray expression analysis. Methods and Materials: H460 cells were treated with cisplatin. The differences between cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells and parental H460 cells were studied using Western blot, MTS, and clonogenic assays, in vivo tumor implantation, and microarray analysis. The cisplatin-R cells were treated with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 and siRNA targeting IGF-1 receptor. Results: Cisplatin-R cells illustrated greater expression of the markers CD133 and aldehyde dehydrogenase, more rapid in vivo tumor growth, more resistance to cisplatin- and etoposide-induced apoptosis, and greater survival after treatment with cisplatin or radiation than the parental H460 cells. Also, cisplatin-R demonstrated decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and increased activation of IGF-1 receptor signaling compared with parental H460 cells in the presence of IGF-1. Human recombinant IGF binding protein-3 reversed cisplatin resistance in cisplatin-R cells and targeting of IGF-1 receptor using siRNA resulted in sensitization of cisplatin-R-cells to cisplatin and radiation. Conclusions: The IGF-1 signaling pathway contributes to cisplatin-R to cisplatin and radiation. Thus, this pathway represents a potential target for improved lung cancer response to treatment.

  19. Risk factors and outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pistella

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nosocomial setting, antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a growing challenge, and alarming trends in resistance are currently reported all over the world. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae producing ampC β-lactamases and extended spectrum β-lactamases are endemic in many hospitals, and are frequently resistant also to other classes of antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The risk of infections due to multi-drug resistant strains should be considered also for outpatients who have had recent contact with the health system. Both nosocomial and health-care associated infections should be treated with a combination of antibiotics active against multi-drug resistant Gram negative and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In the absence of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs, this aggressive therapeutic approach might lead to abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, with consequent increase in resistances. To contain the possible antibiotic overuse, several decisional strategies, often based on risk-score systems supporting the clinical decisions, have been proposed. In this context of high antibiotic selection pressure, carbapenem-resistant pathogens recently began to spread in many hospitals. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and P. aeruginosa, represent the new major challenges to patient safety. Against these organisms the initial empiric treatment is generally ineffective. The poor clinical outcome associated with carbapenem- resistant K. pneumoniae infections is probably due to the delete in the beginning of an appropriate antibiotic treatment, rather than to the increased virulence of pathogens. Only few therapeutic options are available, including colistin, tigecycline, aminoglycosides and carbapenems in selected cases. Several combinations of these antibiotics have been used, but no ideal regimen has been currently established.

  20. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Grambal, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory - revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective) the Beck Depression Inventory - second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial dissociation level, harm avoidance, and self-stigma, and higher amounts of hope and self-directedness. Also, individuals without a comorbid personality disorder improved considerably more than comorbid patients. According to backward-stepwise multiple regression, the best

  1. Psychological factors and treatment effectiveness in resistant anxiety disorders in highly comorbid inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociskova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie Ociskova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Ales Grambal Department of Psychiatry, Olomouc University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Czech Republic Background: Anxiety disorders are a group of various mental syndromes that have been related with generally poor treatment response. Several psychological factors may improve or hinder treatment effectiveness. Hope has a direct impact on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Also, dissociation is a significant factor influencing treatment efficiency in this group of disorders. Development of self-stigma could decrease treatment effectiveness, as well as several temperamental and character traits. The aim of this study was to explore a relationship between selected psychological factors and treatment efficacy in anxiety disorders. Subjects and methods: A total of 109 inpatients suffering from anxiety disorders with high frequency of comorbidity with depression and/or personality disorder were evaluated at the start of the treatment by the following scales: the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and the Temperament and Character Inventory – revised. The participants, who sought treatment for anxiety disorders, completed the following scales at the beginning and end of an inpatient-therapy program: Clinical Global Impression (objective and subjective the Beck Depression Inventory – second edition, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The treatment consisted of 25 group sessions and five individual sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy in combination with pharmacotherapy. There was no randomization to the type of group-therapy program. Results: Greater improvement in psychopathology, assessed by relative change in objective Clinical Global Impression score, was connected with low initial

  2. Geotechnical LFRD calculations of settlement and bearing capacity of GDOT shallow bridge foundations and retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    The AASHTO codes for Load Resistance Factored Design (LRFD) regarding shallow bridge foundations : and walls have been implemented into a set of spreadsheet algorithms to facilitate the calculations of bearing : capacity and footing settlements on na...

  3. Factors Associated with Loss to Follow-up during Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis, the Philippines, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Anna Marie Celina G.; Kurbatova, Ekaterina V.; Mangan, Joan M.; Orillaza-Chi, Ruth; Naval, Leilani C.; Balane, Glenn I.; Basilio, Ramon; Golubkov, Alexander; Joson, Evelyn S.; Lew, Woo-jin; Lofranco, Vivian; Mantala, Mariquita; Pancho, Stuart; Sarol, Jesus N.

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors associated with loss to follow-up during treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in the Philippines, we conducted a case–control study of adult patients who began receiving treatment for rifampin-resistant TB during July 1–December 31, 2012. Among 91 case-patients (those lost to follow-up) and 182 control-patients (those who adhered to treatment), independent factors associated with loss to follow-up included patients’ higher self-rating of the severity of vomiting as an adverse drug reaction and alcohol abuse. Protective factors included receiving any type of assistance from the TB program, better TB knowledge, and higher levels of trust in and support from physicians and nurses. These results provide insights for designing interventions aimed at reducing patient loss to follow-up during treatment for MDR TB. PMID:26889786

  4. Calculation and evaluation of cross-sections and kerma factors for neutrons up to 100 MeV on {sup 16}O and {sup 14}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B. [California Univ., Livermor, CA (United States). Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Young, P.G.

    1997-03-01

    We present evaluations of the interaction of neutrons with energies between 20 and 100 MeV with oxygen and nitrogen nuclei, which follows on from our previous work on carbon. Our aim is to accurately represent integrated cross sections, inclusive emission spectra, and kerma factors, in a data library which can be used in radiation transport calculations. We apply the FKK-GNASH nuclear model code, which includes Hauser-Feshbach, preequilibrium, and direct reaction mechanisms, and use experimental measurements to optimize the calculations. We determine total, elastic, and nonelastic cross sections, angle-energy correlated emission spectra for light ejectiles with A {<=} 4 and gamma-rays, and average energy depositions. Our results for charged-particle emission spectra agree well with the measurements of Subramanian et al. We compare kerma factors derived from our evaluated cross sections with experimental data, providing an integral benchmarking of our work. (author). 52 refs.

  5. Risk factors of serious postoperative complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy and risk calculators for predicting postoperative complications: a nationwide study of 17,564 patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shuichi; Miyata, Hiroaki; Konno, Hiroyuki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Wakabayashi, Go; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Mori, Masaki; Seto, Yasuyuki; Unno, Michiaki

    2017-05-01

    The morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy remains high. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to clarify the risk factors associated with serious morbidity (Clavien-Dindo classification grades IV-V), and create complication risk calculators using the Japanese National Clinical Database. Between 2011 and 2012, data from 17,564 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy at 1,311 institutions in Japan were recorded in this database. The morbidity rate and associated risk factors were analyzed. The overall and serious morbidity rates were 41.6% and 4.5%, respectively. A pancreatic fistula (PF) with an International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) grade C was significantly associated with serious morbidity (P calculations contribute to adequate patient selection. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  6. Ventilator-associated pneumonia due to extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Eylem Sercan; Horasan, Elif Sahin; Karaca, Kerem; Ersöz, Gülden; Naycı Atış, Sibel; Kaya, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is characterized by a rapid development of resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. We investigated the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB). Clinical parameters and overall in-hospital mortality rates were compared between the VAP with and without XDRAB infection groups. This study showed that VAP caused by XDRAB was not associated with in-hospital mortality. However, it was related to high Simplified Acute Physiology Score II scores and increasing durations of hospital stays. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of genetic and clinical factors on dose requirements and quality of anticoagulation therapy in Polish patients receiving acenocoumarol: dosing calculation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkanin-Bartnik, Jolanta; Pogorzelska, Hanna; Szperl, Małgorzata; Bartnik, Aleksandra; Koziarek, Jacek; Bilinska, Zofia T

    2013-11-01

    Despite the recent emergence of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists remain the primary therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and the only therapy licensed for use in patients with artificial heart valves. The aim of this study was (a) to assess the impact of clinical and genetic factors on acenocoumarol (AC) dose requirements and the percentage of time in therapeutic range (%TTR) and (b) to develop pharmacogenetic-guided AC dose calculation algorithm. We included 235 outpatients of the Institute of Cardiology (Warsaw), mean age 69.3, 46.9% women, receiving AC for artificial heart valves and/or atrial fibrillation. A multiple linear-regression analysis was performed using log-transformed effective AC dose as the dependent variable, and combining CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping with other clinical factors as independent predictors. We identified factors that influenced the AC dose: CYP2C9 polymorphisms (P=0.004), VKORC1 polymorphisms (Pgenetic factors explained 49.0% of AC dose variability. We developed a dosing calculation algorithm that is, to the best of our knowledge, the first one to assess the effect of such clinical factors as creatinine clearance and dietary vitamin K intake on the AC dose. The clinical usefulness of the algorithm was assessed on separate validation group (n=50) with 70% accuracy. Dietary vitamin K intake higher than 200 mcg/day improved international normalized ratio control (%TTR 73.3±17 vs. 67.7±18, respectively, P=0.04). Inclusion of a variety of genetic and clinical factors in the dosing calculation algorithm allows for precise AC dose estimation in most patients and thus improves the efficacy and safety of the therapy.

  8. Importance of sigma factor mutations in increased triclosan resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Thomsen, Line Elnif

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica is the second most common foodborne pathogen. The use of biocides is crucial to prevent spread of foodborne pathogens, and it would be devastating for food safety if Salmonella would become resistant to the disinfectants used. Another concern is that exposure...... to disinfectants might lead to decreased susceptibility to antibiotics. The current study aimed to identify genetic changes causing high level triclosan resistance in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and evaluate how these affected antibiotic resistance and efflux pump activity. RESULTS: Wild type strains S....... Typhimurium 4/74 and DTU3 were adapted to increasing concentrations of the biocide triclosan by serial passage. High level triclosan resistant isolates (MIC > 1000 μg/ml) were obtained. Strains were genome sequenced, and SNPs in fabI, rpoS and rpoD were found to be associated with high level resistance...

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and effects on survival of patients in a specialist palliative care unit: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Aoife; Larkin, Philip; Walsh, Cathal; O'Sullivan, Niamh

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care settings. To date, the clinical impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care is unknown. To determine prevalence and incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in a specialist palliative care setting, to identify risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation, to determine the eradication success rate and to determine the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on survival. Prospective cohort study. Data were collected for consecutive admissions to an inpatient palliative care service. Patients were screened for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation on admission and 1 week post admission. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus eradication was attempted in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive patients. Data were collected from 609 admissions for 466 individual patients. Admission screening data were available in 95.5%. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was 11.59% (54 patients). One week incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was 1.2%. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation were determined using Chi-Squared test and included high Waterlow score (p resistant Staphylococcus aureus status prior to admission (p resistant Staphylococcus aureus was eradicated in 8.1% of admissions, while 46 patients commenced on the protocol (62.2%) died before completing it. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus did not significantly impact survival but was significantly associated with having infection episodes and longer length of stay. This study identified risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in palliative care patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was eradicated in 8.1% of patients. Hence

  10. Factors affecting neutron measurements and calculations. Part C. Trace element concentrations in granite and their impact on thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehm, Werner; Huber, Thomas; Nolte, Eckehart; Kato, Kazuo; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Egbert, Stephen D.

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements such as Li, B, Sm, and Gd can, despite their low elemental concentration in mineral materials, influence thermal neutron activation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki samples, due to their high thermal neutron absorption cross sections. This was demonstrated for a granite core, where the addition of those trace elements to the elemental composition of granite reduces the production of 152 Eu by some 25% at a depth of 25 cm from the surface. If typical concentrations of those trace elements are added to DS02 reference soil, however, the production of 152 Eu one meter above ground is not changed significantly, because of the high water content of the soil. This indicates that DS02 soil represents a reasonable reference material for the air-over-ground transport calculations. It must be kept in mind, however, that the local environment of any sample investigated for thermal neutron activation might be characterized by other elemental compositions. In particular, trace element and hydrogen concentrations could be considerably different from those used for DS02 reference soil. As an example it was demonstrated that in a granite gravestone thermal neutron activation of 36 Cl close to the surface might be, in the worst case, reduced by some 30%, due to increased local granite concentration in this type of environment. Beside other parameters such as, for example, individual sample geometry, the variability of trace elements in soil might be one reason for the variability that is observed in the individual thermal neutron activation measurements (Gold 1995). It is necessary, therefore, to carefully model the exposure geometry of the exposed material, its chemical composition, and the surrounding interface materials in order to obtain the best possible agreement in comparisons between calculated and measured data for thermal neutrons. (author)

  11. Mean-field and Monte Carlo calculations of the three-dimensional structure factor for YBa2Cu3O6+x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Thomas; Andersen, Niels Hessel; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1996-01-01

    We develop a general mean-field matrix theory for calculating phase boundaries and structure factors for a class of lattice gas Hamiltonians, We investigate the oxygen ordering in YBa2Cu3O6+x by applying the theory and by Monte Carlo simulation using an extension to three dimensions of the two......-dimensional anisotropic next nearest neighbor lattice gas model. The calculation of the structure factor in three spatial dimensions on a 256 x 256 x 16 system has been implemented on a massively parallel computer, the Connection Machine CM2. This allows for an extremely accurate determination of the line shape...... of the structure factor in the entire reciprocal space in excellent agreement with the mean-field prediction. We report on the results for an oxygen stoichiometry of x = 0.4, x = 0.5, and x = 0.6 for temperatures between T = 450 and 800 K. Using a sum-rule argument we have calculated the fluctuation...

  12. Eosinophil resistance to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is mediated by the transcription factor NFIL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdrak, Konrad; Moon, Young; Straub, Christof; Stafford, Susan; Kurosky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The mainstay of asthma therapy, glucocorticoids (GCs) exert their therapeutic effects through the inhibition of inflammatory signaling and induction of eosinophil apoptosis. However, laboratory and clinical observations of GC-resistant asthma suggest that GCs' effects on eosinophil viability may depend on the state of eosinophil activation. In the present study we demonstrate that eosinophils stimulated with IL-5 show impaired pro-apoptotic response to GCs. We sought to determine the contribution of GC-mediated transactivating (TA) and transrepressing (TR) pathways in modulation of activated eosinophils' response to GC by comparing their response to the selective GC receptor (GR) agonist Compound A (CpdA) devoid of TA activity to that upon treatment with Dexamethasone (Dex). IL-5-activated eosinophils showed contrasting responses to CpdA and Dex, as IL-5-treated eosinophils showed no increase in apoptosis compared to cells treated with Dex alone, while CpdA elicited an apoptotic response regardless of IL-5 stimulation. Proteomic analysis revealed that both Nuclear Factor IL-3 (NFIL3) and Map Kinase Phosphatase 1 (MKP1) were inducible by IL-5 and enhanced by Dex; however, CpdA had no effect on NFIL3 and MKP1 expression. We found that inhibiting NFIL3 with specific siRNA or by blocking the IL-5-inducible Pim-1 kinase abrogated the protective effect of IL-5 on Dex-induced apoptosis, indicating crosstalk between IL-5 anti-apoptotic pathways and GR-mediated TA signaling occurring via the NFIL3 molecule. Collectively, these results indicate that (1) GCs' TA pathway may support eosinophil viability in IL-5-stimulated cells through synergistic upregulation of NFIL3; and (2) functional inhibition of IL-5 signaling (anti-Pim1) or the use of selective GR agonists that don't upregulate NFIL3 may be effective strategies for the restoring pro-apoptotic effect of GCs on IL-5-activated eosinophils.

  13. Carbapenem-Resistant E. cloacae in Southwest China: Molecular Analysis of Resistance and Risk Factors for Infections Caused by NDM-1-Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiong Jia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE has been considered a serious global threat, but carbapenem resistance remains relatively uncommon in E. cloacae, especially in China. The aim of this study was to characterize carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae (CR-ECL isolates from 2012 to 2016 in Southwest China. Our study revealed that 20 (15.2% of the 132 CR-ECL isolates obtained from patients were identified as NDM-1, with most isolates carrying the IncFIIA plasmids. Notably, we initially observed that the E. cloacae strain co-harbored NDM-1 and IMP-8 carbapenemases simultaneously. Analysis of the genetic environment of these two genes has revealed that the highly conserved regions (blaNDM-1-bleMBL-trpF-tat are associated with the dissemination of NDM-1, while IS26, intI1, and tniC could be involved in the spread of IMP-8. Molecular epidemiology studies showed the nosocomial outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing E. cloacae ST88. Transferring from another hospital and previous carbapenem exposure were identified as independent risk factors for the acquisition of NDM-1-producing E. cloacae. These findings emphasize the need for intensive surveillance and precautions to monitor the further spread of NDM-1 in China.

  14. Regulatory Lymphocytes Are Key Factors in MHC-Independent Resistance to EAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Resistant and susceptible mouse strains to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an inducible demyelinating experimental disease serving as animal model for multiple sclerosis, have been described. We aimed to explore MHC-independent mechanisms inducing resistance to EAE. Methods. For EAE induction, female C57BL/6 (susceptible strain and CD1 (resistant outbred strain showing heterogeneous MHC antigens mice were immunized with the 35–55 peptide of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35−55. We studied T cell proliferation, regulatory and effector cell subpopulations, intracellular and serum cytokine patterns, and titers of anti-MOG serum antibodies. Results. Upon immunization with MOG35−55, T lymphocytes from susceptible mice but not that of resistant strain were capable of proliferating when stimulated with MOG35−55. Accordingly, resistant mice experienced a rise in regulatory B cells (P=0.001 and, to a lower extent, in regulatory T cells (P=0.02 compared with C57BL/6 susceptible mice. As a consequence, MOG35−55-immunized C57BL/6 mice showed higher percentages of CD4+ T cells producing both IFN-gamma (P=0.02 and IL-17 (P=0.009 and higher serum levels of IL-17 (P=0.04 than resistant mice. Conclusions. Expansion of regulatory B and T cells contributes to the induction of resistance to EAE by an MHC-independent mechanism.

  15. Regulatory Lymphocytes Are Key Factors in MHC-Independent Resistance to EAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Nieves; Mecha, Miriam; Espejo, Carmen; Mestre, Leyre; Eixarch, Herena; Montalban, Xavier; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C.; Guaza, Carmen; Villar, Luisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Resistant and susceptible mouse strains to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an inducible demyelinating experimental disease serving as animal model for multiple sclerosis, have been described. We aimed to explore MHC-independent mechanisms inducing resistance to EAE. Methods. For EAE induction, female C57BL/6 (susceptible strain) and CD1 (resistant outbred strain showing heterogeneous MHC antigens) mice were immunized with the 35–55 peptide of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35−55). We studied T cell proliferation, regulatory and effector cell subpopulations, intracellular and serum cytokine patterns, and titers of anti-MOG serum antibodies. Results. Upon immunization with MOG35−55, T lymphocytes from susceptible mice but not that of resistant strain were capable of proliferating when stimulated with MOG35−55. Accordingly, resistant mice experienced a rise in regulatory B cells (P = 0.001) and, to a lower extent, in regulatory T cells (P = 0.02) compared with C57BL/6 susceptible mice. As a consequence, MOG35−55-immunized C57BL/6 mice showed higher percentages of CD4+ T cells producing both IFN-gamma (P = 0.02) and IL-17 (P = 0.009) and higher serum levels of IL-17 (P = 0.04) than resistant mice. Conclusions. Expansion of regulatory B and T cells contributes to the induction of resistance to EAE by an MHC-independent mechanism. PMID:24868560

  16. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  17. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Karessa L.; Dolislager, Fredrick G.; Bellamy, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  18. Resistance in gram-negative bacilli in a cardiac intensive care unit in India: Risk factors and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar Mandakini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the risk factors and outcome of patients with preexisting resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB with those who develop sensitive GNB in the cardiac intensive care unit (ICU. Of the 3161 patients ( n = 3,161 admitted to the ICU during the study period, 130 (4.11% developed health care-associated infections (HAIs with GNB and were included in the cohort study. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37.8% was the most common organism isolated followed by Klebsiella species (24.2%, E. coli (22.0%, Enterobacter species (6.1%, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5.7%, Acinetobacter species (1.3%, Serratia marcescens (0.8%, Weeksella virosa (0.4% and Burkholderia cepacia (0.4%. Univariate analysis revealed that the following variables were significantly associated with the antibiotic-resistant GNB: females ( P = 0.018, re-exploration ( P = 0.004, valve surgery ( P = 0.003, duration of central venous catheter ( P < 0.001, duration of mechanical ventilation ( P < 0.001, duration of intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation ( P = 0.018, duration of urinary catheter ( P < 0.001, total number of antibiotic exposures prior to the development of resistance ( P < 0.001, duration of antibiotic use prior to the development of resistance ( P = 0.014, acute physiology and age chronic health evaluation score (APACHE II, receipt of anti-pseudomonal penicillins (piperacillin-tazobactam ( P = 0.002 and carbapenems ( P < 0.001. On multivariate analysis, valve surgery (adjusted OR = 2.033; 95% CI = 1.052-3.928; P = 0.035, duration of mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR = 1.265; 95% CI = 1.055-1.517; P = 0.011 and total number of antibiotic exposure prior to the development of resistance (adjusted OR = 1.381; 95% CI = 1.030-1.853; P = 0.031 were identified as independent risk factors for HAIs in resistant GNB. The mortality rate in patients with resistant GNB was significantly higher than those with sensitive GNB (13.9% vs. 1.8%; P = 0.03. HAI with

  19. The biologically equivalent dose BED - Is the approach for calculation of this factor really a reliable basis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.M.; Zimmermann, J.

    2000-01-01

    To predict the effect on tumours in radiotherapy, especially relating to irreversible effects, but also to realize the retrospective assessment the so called L-Q-model is relied on at present. Internal specific organ parameters, such as α, β, γ, T p , T k , and ρ, as well as external parameters, so as D, d, n, V, and V ref , were used for determination of the biologically equivalent dose BED. While the external parameters are determinable with small deviations, the internal parameters depend on biological varieties and dispersons: In some cases the lowest value is assumed to be Δ=±25%. This margin of error goes on to the biologically equivalent dose by means of the principle of superposition of errors. In some selected cases (lung, kidney, skin, rectum) these margins of error were calculated exemplarily. The input errors especially of the internal parameters cause a mean error Δ on the biologically equivalent dose and a dispersion of the single fraction dose d dependent on the organ taking into consideration, of approximately 8-30%. Hence it follows only a very critical and cautious application of those L-Q-algorithms in expert proceedings, and in radiotherapy more experienced based decisions are recommended, instead of acting only upon simple two-dimensional mechanistic ideas. (orig.) [de

  20. Risk factors associated with default from multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, Uzbekistan: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Maeve K; Greig, Jane; Allamuratova, Sholpan; Althomsons, Sandy; Tigay, Zinaida; Khaemraev, Atadjan; Braker, Kai; Telnov, Oleksander; du Cros, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The Médecins Sans Frontières project of Uzbekistan has provided multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in the Karakalpakstan region since 2003. Rates of default from treatment have been high, despite psychosocial support, increasing particularly since programme scale-up in 2007. We aimed to determine factors associated with default in multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients who started treatment between 2003 and 2008 and thus had finished approximately 2 years of treatment by the end of 2010. A retrospective cohort analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis patients enrolled in treatment between 2003 and 2008 compared baseline demographic characteristics and possible risk factors for default. Default was defined as missing ≥60 consecutive days of treatment (all drugs). Data were routinely collected during treatment and entered in a database. Potential risk factors for default were assessed in univariate analysis using chi-square test and in multivariate analysis with logistic regression. 20% (142/710) of patients defaulted after a median of 6 months treatment (IQR 2.6-9.9). Factors associated with default included severity of resistance patterns (pre-extensively drug-resistant/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95%CI: 0.31-0.86), previous default (2.38, 1.09-5.24) and age >45 years (1.77, 1.10-2.87). The default rate was 14% (42/294) for patients enrolled 2003-2006 and 24% (100/416) for 2007-2008 enrolments (p = 0.001). Default from treatment was high and increased with programme scale-up. It is essential to ensure scale-up of treatment is accompanied with scale-up of staff and patient support. A successful first course of tuberculosis treatment is important; patients who had previously defaulted were at increased risk of default and death. The protective effect of severe resistance profiles suggests that understanding disease severity or fear may motivate against default. Targeted

  1. Presence of environmental coagulase-positive staphylococci, their clonal relationship, resistance factors and ability to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma; Olivares-Cervantes, Alma L; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Escorcia, Magdalena; Oropeza, Ricardo; Rosas, Irma

    Coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) are opportunistic pathogens carrying various mechanisms of resistance that have a large number of virulence factors, and whose ability to induce illness is associated with the host. This study aimed to investigate the presence of environmental coagulase-positive staphylococci, their susceptibility profile, clonal relationship and ability to form biofilm. The 16S rRNA genes from CoPS isolates were analyzed, and their antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using the agar dilution method in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The clonal profile was obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and biofilm formation was measured by a crystal violet retention assay. A total of 72 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from air, metal surfaces, and nostrils from humans, dogs, cats, and birds. Three species were identified: Staphylococcus aureus (17%), Staphylococcus intermedius (63%), and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (21%). Ninety three percent (93%) of the strains were resistant to at least one of 13 tested antibiotics. S. pseudintermedius strains were the only resistant ones to methicillin while most of these isolates were multidrug-resistant, had significantly higher ability to form biofilm and PFGE grouped into seven different patterns, without showing clonal dispersion among animals and environmental isolates. This study suggests that dogs, cat, and air are environmental sources potentially carrying multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius, which survives in different environments through biofilm formation and multidrug resistance, characteristics that can be transmitted horizontally to other bacteria and exacerbate the problem of antibiotic resistance in humans. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitrogen oxide emission calculation for post-Panamax container ships by using engine operation power probability as weighting factor: A slow-steaming case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Wen; Hua, Jian; Hwang, Daw-Shang

    2017-12-07

    In this study, the nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission factors and total NO x emissions of two groups of post-Panamax container ships operating on a long-term slow-steaming basis along Euro-Asian routes were calculated using both the probability density function of engine power levels and the NO x emission function. The main engines of the five sister ships in Group I satisfied the Tier I emission limit stipulated in MARPOL (International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Annex VI, and those in Group II satisfied the Tier II limit. The calculated NO x emission factors of the Group I and Group II ships were 14.73 and 17.85 g/kWhr, respectively. The total NO x emissions of the Group II ships were determined to be 4.4% greater than those of the Group I ships. When the Tier II certification value was used to calculate the average total NO x emissions of Group II engines, the result was lower than the actual value by 21.9%. Although fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions were increased by 1.76% because of slow steaming, the NO x emissions were markedly reduced by 17.2%. The proposed method is more effective and accurate than the NO x Technical Code 2008. Furthermore, it can be more appropriately applied to determine the NO x emissions of international shipping inventory. The usage of operating power probability density function of diesel engines as the weighting factor and the NO x emission function obtained from test bed for calculating NO x emissions is more accurate and practical. The proposed method is suitable for all types and purposes of diesel engines, irrespective of their operating power level. The method can be used to effectively determine the NO x emissions of international shipping and inventory applications and should be considered in determining the carbon tax to be imposed in the future.

  3. Genetic effects analysis of myeloid leukemia factor 2 and T cell receptor-beta on resistance to coccidiosis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E-S; Hong, Y H; Lillehoj, H S

    2010-01-01

    Associations between the parameters of resistance to coccidiosis and SNP in 3 candidate genes located on chromosome 1 [T cell receptor-beta (TCR-beta), myeloid leukemia factor 2 (MLF2), and lymphotactin] were determined. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 24 F1 generation and 290 F2 generation birds. Four SNP were identified in the lymphotactin gene, 12 were located in the TCR-beta gene, and 4 in the MLF2 gene. At various times after experimental infection of the F2 generation with Eimeria maxima, BW, fecal oocyst shedding, and biochemical parameters were measured as parameters of coccidiosis resistance. Single marker association test was applied to determine the associations between the 20 SNP and the parameters of coccidiosis resistance. The maximum additive genetic effect on disease resistance of an SNP in MLF2 was explained by BW (P = 0.0002). The SNP in MLF2 significantly associated with BW was also associated with fecal oocyst shedding (P = 0.001). Four SNP associated with oocyst shedding were found within the coding region of TCR-beta (P coccidiosis resistance in chickens.

  4. Embedded data collector (EDC) phase II load and resistance factor design (LRFD) : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Piles that support bridge structures are designed for the specific site characteristics and loads : that the piles are expected to bear. In Florida, driven piles are monitored during installation : (dynamically tested) to assess resistance, com...

  5. Resistance to activated protein C is a risk factor for fibrostenosis in Crohn’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Novacek, Gottfried; Miehsler, Wolfgang; Palkovits, Julia; Reinisch, Walter; Waldhör, Thomas; Kapiotis, Stylianos; Gangl, Alfred; Vogelsang, Harald

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of resistance to activated protein C (aPCR), the most common known inherited thrombophilic disorder, on the risk of intestinal operation of fibrostenosis in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD).

  6. Dietary risk factors for the de