WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance exercise session

  1. USING SESSION RPE TO MONITOR DIFFERENT METHODS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare session rating of perceived exertion for different resistance training techniques in the squat exercise. These techniques included traditional resistance training, super slow, and maximal power training. Fourteen college-age women (Mean ± SD; age = 22 ± 3 years; height = 1.68 ± 0. 07 m completed three experimental trials in a randomized crossover design. The traditional resistance training protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions of squats using 80% of 1-RM. The super slow protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 55% of 1-RM. The maximal power protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 30% of 1-RM. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE measures were obtained following each set using Borg's CR-10 scale. In addition, a session RPE value was obtained 30 minutes following each exercise session. When comparing average RPE and session RPE, no significant difference was found. However, power training had significantly lower (p < 0.05 average and session RPE (4.50 ± 1.9 and 4.5 ± 2.1 compared to both super slow training (7.81 ± 1.75 and 7.43 ± 1.73 and traditional training (7.33 ± 1.52 and 7.13 ± 1.73. The results indicate that session RPE values are not significantly different from the more traditional methods of measuring RPE during exercise bouts. It does appear that the resistance training mode that is used results in differences in perceived exertion that does not relate directly to the loading that is used. Using session RPE provides practitioners with the same information about perceived exertion as the traditional RPE measures. Taking a single measure following a training session would appear to be much easier than using multiple measures of RPE throughout a resistance training workout. However, practitioners should also be aware that the RPE does not directly relate to the relative intensity used and appears to be dependent on the mode of resistance exercise that is used

  2. Hemodynamic responses to single sessions of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov Fieril, Karolina; Glantz, Anna; Fagevik Olsen, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Previous research on maternal hemodynamic responses to a single exercise session during pregnancy is sparse, especially considering immediate responses to resistance exercise. The aim of the study was to examine blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and Rating of Perceived Exertion in healthy pregnant women during single sessions of continuous submaximal exercise in pregnancy week 21. A cross-over design was used. Twenty healthy pregnant women from four prenatal clinics in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included. On day 1, the women did 30 min of aerobic exercise and on day 3 they did 30 min of resistance exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and Rating of Perceived Exertion were measured after 15 and 30 min of exercise. After 15 and 30 min of exercise, there was a significant increase in systolic blood pressure and heart rate (p aerobic exercise (p = 0.01) than resistance exercise (p = 0.03). Resistance exercise was perceived as more intense than aerobic exercise after 15 min (p = 0.02) and 30 min (p = 0.001) of exercise. Five minutes after completing the exercise, blood pressure quickly reverted to normal although heart rate was still increased (p = 0.001). There was no correlation between heart rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion (rs  = 0.05-0.43). Maternal hemodynamic responses were essentially the same, regardless of whether the exercise was submaximal aerobic or resistance exercise, although resistance exercise was perceived as more intense. Aerobic and resistance exercise corresponding to "somewhat hard" seems to have no adverse effect with regard to maternal hemodynamic responses in healthy pregnancy. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption is unaffected by the resistance and aerobic exercise order in an exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Norton L; Oliveira, Jose

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after 2 exercise sessions with different exercise mode orders, resistance followed by aerobic exercise (R-A); aerobic by resistance exercise (A-R). Seven young men (19.6 ± 1.4 years) randomly underwent the 2 sessions. Aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill for 30 minutes (80-85% of reserve heart rate). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum on 5 exercises. Previous to the exercise sessions, V(O2), heart rate, V(CO2), and respiratory exchange rate (RER) were measured for 15 minutes and again during recovery from exercise for 60 minutes. The EPOC magnitude was not significantly different between R-A (5.17 ± 2.26 L) and A-R (5.23 ± 2.48 L). Throughout the recovery period (60 minutes), V(O2) and HR values were significantly higher than those observed in the pre-exercise period (p better to start a training session.

  4. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N G -nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats

  5. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N{sup G}-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  6. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C, hypertensive (H, and exercised hypertensive (EH. Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN, potassium chloride (KCl and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Results: Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001 in systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001 the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01 smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. Conclusion: One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  7. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Romeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twentythree healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1 a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics; 2 aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics; 3 resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min; and 4 a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises; totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009, 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009 and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004. A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion.

  8. Analysis of autonomic modulation after an acute session of resistance exercise at different intensities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolino, Juliana; Ramos, Dionei; Leite, Marceli Rocha; Rodrigues, Fernanda Maria Machado; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Tacao, Guilherme Yassuyuki; de Toledo, Alessandra Choqueta; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercises are employed as part of the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however information regarding cardiac autonomic modulation after an acute session of resistance exercise (RE) is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation, via heart rate variability after an acute session of RE applied at different intensities in COPD patients. Twelve COPD patients underwent an acute session of RE with an intensity of 60% and another of 90% of the one repetition maximum test. For analysis of autonomic modulation, heart rate was recorded beat-by-beat for 20 minutes at rest and after the training session. Heart rate variability indexes were obtained in the time and frequency domains for the assessment of autonomic modulation. Regardless of exercise intensity, RE acute sessions influenced the autonomic modulation when the recovery period was compared with the baseline. An increase in standard deviation of normal to normal RR intervals was observed throughout recovery time after the RE, as compared to baseline in both protocols: 60% and 90% of the one repetition maximum test. The spectral component of low frequency index (ms) was higher throughout recovery when compared to baseline in both protocols. The same was also observed in the spectral component of high frequency index (ms) for the protocols of 60% and 90%. RE sessions impact on the autonomic modulation of COPD patients by promoting differences in the recovery period compared to baseline, regardless of the intensity of the exercise performed.

  9. Analysis of autonomic modulation after an acute session of resistance exercise at different intensities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolino J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Juliana Nicolino,1 Dionei Ramos,1 Marceli Rocha Leite,1 Fernanda Maria Machado Rodrigues,1 Bruna Spolador de Alencar Silva,1 Guilherme Yassuyuki Tacao,1 Alessandra Choqueta de Toledo,2 Luiz Carlos Marques Vanderlei,1 Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos1 1Department of Physiotherapy, Paulista State University (UNESP, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Pathology, School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: Physical exercises are employed as part of the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; however information regarding cardiac autonomic modulation after an acute session of resistance exercise (RE is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation, via heart rate variability after an acute session of RE applied at different intensities in COPD patients. Patients and methods: Twelve COPD patients underwent an acute session of RE with an intensity of 60% and another of 90% of the one repetition maximum test. For analysis of autonomic modulation, heart rate was recorded beat-by-beat for 20 minutes at rest and after the training session. Heart rate variability indexes were obtained in the time and frequency domains for the assessment of autonomic modulation. Results: Regardless of exercise intensity, RE acute sessions influenced the autonomic modulation when the recovery period was compared with the baseline. An increase in standard deviation of normal to normal RR intervals was observed throughout recovery time after the RE, as compared to baseline in both protocols: 60% and 90% of the one repetition maximum test. The spectral component of low frequency index (ms was higher throughout recovery when compared to baseline in both protocols. The same was also observed in the spectral component of high frequency index (ms for the protocols of 60% and 90%. Conclusion: RE sessions impact on the autonomic modulation of COPD patients by promoting

  10. l-arginine modulates inflammation and muscle regulatory genes after a single session of resistance exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, S R L; Brito, V G B; Mello, W G; Oliveira, S H P

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the skeletal muscle adaptation to l-arginine supplementation prior to a single session of resistance exercise (RE) during the early phase of muscle repair. Wistar rats were randomly assigned into non-exercised (Control), RE plus vehicle (RE); RE plus l-arginine (RE+L-arg) and RE plus aminoguanidine (RE+AG) groups. Animals received four doses of either vehicle (0.9% NaCl), l-arg (1 g/b.w.), or AG (iNOS inhibitor) (50 mg/b.w.). The animals performed a single RE session until the concentric failure (ladder climbing; 80% overload) and the skeletal muscles were harvested at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hours post-RE. The RE resulted in increased neutrophil infiltrate (24 hours post-RE) (3621 vs 11852; Pl-arginine supplementation attenuates neutrophil infiltration (5622; Pl-arginine supplementation seems to attenuate the resolution of RE-induced muscle inflammation and up-regulates MyoD expression during the early phase of muscle repair. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

  12. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  13. POWERLIFTING SESSIONS PROMOTE SIGNIFICANT POST-EXERCISE HYPOTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Allegretti João

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Powerlifting (PWL is a worldwide method, frequently used in resistance training programs. However, the relationship between cardiovascular responses and PWL is still unclear in the literature. Objective: To evaluate acute cardiovascular overload and post-exercise hypotension (PEH after acute powerlifting exercise session in subjects with experience in the modality. Methods: Nine powerlifting athletes (34 ± 5 years participated voluntarily in this study. The following exercises were used in the session: squat, bench press and deadlift (95% of 1 RM, 2 to 5 repetitions. The anthropometric parameters and blood pressure (systolic, diastolic and mean were evaluated immediately, 5', 10', 30', 60' and 24 hours after the exercise session with a non-invasive automatic pressure monitor. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05 were found between rest and immediately after exercise on systolic (135 ± 6 vs. 153 ± 10 mmHg and mean (102 ± 3 vs. 108 ± 3 mmHg blood pressures, but no difference was found at diastolic (85 ± 3 vs. 85 ± 4 mmHg blood pressure. Additionally, the increase in systolic pressure did not reach values considered as a risk of cardiovascular overload. Significant PEH was found after 60 minutes (systolic: -12 ± 12%, diastolic: -5 ± 6% and mean: -7 ± 5% and 24 hours after PWL session (systolic: -5 ± 4%, diastolic: -8 ± 4% and mean: -7 ± 3%. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that a PWL session does not increase systolic blood pressure up to the risk range and promotes PEH after 60 minutes of exercise and that this cardiovascular response persisted after 24 hours post-exertion in powerlifting athletes.

  14. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  15. Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.

  16. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  17. The effect of between-set rest intervals on the oxygen uptake during and after resistance exercise sessions performed with large- and small-muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinatti, Paulo T V; Castinheiras Neto, Antonio G

    2011-11-01

    Between-set rest intervals (RIs) may influence accumulated fatigue, work volume, and therefore oxygen uptake (VO2) and energy expenditure (EE) during resistance training. The study investigated the effects of different RIs on VO2 and EE in resistance exercises performed with multiple sets and recruiting large and small-muscle mass. Ten healthy men performed 4 randomized protocols (5 sets of 10 repetitions with 15 repetition maximum workloads in either horizontal leg press [LP] or chest fly [CF] with an RI of 1 and 3 minutes). The VO2 was measured at rest, within sets, and during 90-minute postexercise recovery (excess postexercise oxygen consumption [EPOC]). The EE was estimated from VO2net (total VO2 - rest VO2). The VO2 increased in all protocols, being higher within the exercises and during EPOC in the LP than in the CF regardless of the RI. The 1-minute RI induced higher accumulated VO2 during LP (p EPOC lasted approximately 40 minutes after LP1, LP3, and CF1, being longer than after CF3 (20 minutes, p CF1 = 50.3 ± 14.4 kcal ∼ CF3 = 54.1 ± 12.0 kcal). In conclusion, total VO2 was always higher in LP than in CF. Shortening RI enhanced the accumulated fatigue throughout sets only in LP and increased VO2 in the initial few minutes of EPOC, whereas it did not influence total VO2 and EE in both exercises. Therefore, (a) the role of RI in preventing early fatigue seems to be more important when large-muscle groups are recruited; (b) resistance exercises recruiting large-muscle mass induce higher EE because of a greater EPOC magnitude.

  18. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  19. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Sérgio R.; Lima, Ricardo M.; Silva, Karina E. S.; Simões, Herbert G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the blood pressure (BP) responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat) were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR) was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg) and DBP (2-5 mmHg) in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01), while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01) was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05). Conclusion A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders. PMID:24675911

  20. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  1. Acute effect of a physical exercise session on cognitive functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute effect of a physical exercise session on cognitive functioning: Moderately active sportspersons versus sedentary individuals. Karel J. Van Deventer, Carynne Cozens, Kyle D. Du Plessis, Reghard P. La Grange ...

  2. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos submetidos a duas sessões únicas de exercícios: resistido e aeróbio Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive individuals undergoing two single exercise sessions: resistive exercise training and aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosina Maria Lignani de Miranda Bermudes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência de duas sessões únicas de exercício resistido (circuito com pesos e aeróbio sobre as alterações pressóricas, em indivíduos sedentários e normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados pela monitorização numa situação controle, sem realização de exercícios (MAPA 1 25 indivíduos, após exercício resistido (MAPA 2 e após exercício aeróbio (MAPA 3. Os exercícios resistidos foram realizados sob forma de circuito com pesos, com intensidade de 40% da força máxima individual e os exercícios aeróbicos em cicloergômetro, com intensidade entre 60% e 70% da freqüência cardíaca (FC máxima alcançada no teste ergométrico. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS de 24h e sub-períodos vigília e sono não apresentaram variações estatisticamente significantes quando comparada à MAPA2 e MAPA3 e MAPA2 e MAPA3 entre si. A pressão arterial diastólica (PAD de 24h e diurna apresentaram reduções significantes (POBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of 2 single exercise sessions on blood pressure in sedentary normotensive individuals: one of resistive exercise training (circuit weight training and the other of aerobic exercise training. METHODS: Using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, this study assessed 25 individuals as follows: in a controlled situation at rest (ABPM 1; after resistive exercise training (ABPM 2; and after aerobic exercise training (ABPM 3. Resistive exercise training was performed as circuit weight training with an intensity of 40% of each individual's maximum strength. The aerobic exercise training was performed on a cycloergometer with intensity between 60% and 70% of the maximum heart rate (HR reached during previous exercise testing. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP values during 24 hours and during subperiods of wakefulness and sleep showed no statistically significant variations when the results obtained at rest were compared with those of ABPM2 and ABPM3, and when

  3. HIGH-VOLUME RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSION ACUTELY DIMINISHES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a high-volume compared to a low-volume resistance training session on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP. Twenty male subjects with resistance training experience (6.2 ± 3.2 y, in a crossover trial, completed two resistance training protocols (high-volume: 5 sets per exercise; low-volume: 2 sets per exercise and a control session (no exercise on 3 separate occasions. MIP and MEP decreased by 13.6% (p < 0.01 and 14.7% (p < 0.01 respectively from pre-session MIP and MEP, following the high-volume session. MIP and MEP were unaffected following the low-volume or the control sessions. MIP returned to pre-session values after 40 minutes, whereas MEP remained significantly reduced after 60 minutes post-session by 9.2% compared to pre-session (p < 0.01. The findings suggest that the high-volume session significantly decreased MIP and MEP post-session, implicating a substantially increased demand on the respiratory muscles and that adequate recovery is mandatory following this mode of training.

  4. acute and session rPe responses during resistance training: Bouts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resistance exercises protocols on B-endorphin concentrations. J Appl. Physiol 1993;74:450-459. 19. Wade G. Tests and measurments. Meeting the standards of professional football. NSCA J 1982;4(3):23. 20. Singh F, Foster C, David T, McGuigan M. Monitoring different types of resistance training using session rating of ...

  5. Aerobic and combined exercise sessions reduce glucose variability in type 2 diabetes: crossover randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele R Figueira

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS.Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement, and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods.Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ∼16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P = 0.003 and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P = 0.004 were observed only after the COMB session.Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises.Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00887094.

  6. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; DeMello, Madison M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0???3.3?years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6?week...

  7. Irisin in blood increases transiently after single sessions of intense endurance exercise and heavy strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Håvard; Slettaløkken, Gunnar; Vegge, Geir; Hollan, Ivana; Whist, Jon Elling; Strand, Tor; Rønnestad, Bent R; Ellefsen, Stian

    2015-01-01

    Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that increases energy expenditure, at least in rodents. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Irisin increases acutely in blood after singular sessions of intense endurance exercise (END) and heavy strength training (STR). Secondary, we wanted to explore the relationship between body composition and exercise-induced effects on irisin, and the effect of END and STR on muscular expression of the irisin gene FNDC5. Nine moderately trained healthy subjects performed three test days using a randomized and standardized crossover design: one day with 60 minutes of END, one day with 60 minutes of STR, and one day without exercise (CON). Venous blood was sampled over a period of 24h on the exercise days. Both END and STR led to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood, peaking immediately after END and one hour after STR, before gradually returning to baseline. Irisin responses to STR, but not END, showed a consistently strong negative correlation with proportions of lean body mass. Neither END nor STR affected expression of FNDC5, measured 4h after training sessions, though both protocols led to pronounced increases in PGC-1α expression, which is involved in transcriptional control of FNDC5. The results strongly suggest that single sessions of intense endurance exercise and heavy strength training lead to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood. This was not accompanied by increased FNDC5 expression, measured 4h post-exercise. The results suggest that irisin responses to resistance exercise are higher in individuals with lower proportions of lean body mass.

  8. Effect of one session resistance exercise on skin sensibility in hypertensive and normotensive physically-active older woman. 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n6p409

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a single session of resistance training on skin sensitivity in physically active, hypertensive and normotensive older women, as well as compare skin sensitivity in both groups. Thirty-two physically active women (mean age 65.8 ± 5.1 years; weight, 69.5 ± 13.7 kg; height, 1.60 ± 0.1 mparticipated in this study and were classified as hypertensive (n = 15 or normotensive (n = 17. All participants answered a clinical history questionnaire and the Modified Baecke Questionnaire for Older Adults. Before and after the resistance training session, the skin sensitivity of the dominant hand was assessed at seven anatomical sites on the dorsal and palmar surfaces by stimulation with a Semmes-Weinstein monofilament esthesiometer. The loads employed during the resistance training session were determined one week before the experimental protocol. The Wilcoxon test showed no statistically significant differences in the skin sensibility test before and after resistance training in either groups. However, theMann-Whitney U revealed a statistically significant between-group difference in sensitivity at three sites before resistance training and at only site post-training. A single session of resistance training had no effect on the skin sensitivity of hypertensive and normotensive older women. However, hypertensive participants exhibited reduced skin sensibility at some anatomical sites as compared with normotensive women.

  9. AN OVERVIEW OF TRAINING METHODS THAT PROMOTE THE HIGHEST LIPID OXIDATION DURING AND AFTER A SINGLE EXERCISE SESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Purkart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that physical activity is the most effective way to increase lipid oxidation, its effects are influenced by several factors. The goal of this review was to identify the most effective methods that facilitate the highest lipid oxidation during and after a single exercise session. For this purpose, the available scientific literature was examined using PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases up to June 2013 with the following keywords: excess post exercise oxygen consumption, exercise fatty acid, energy expenditure exercise and interval training. From the identified 48,583 potentially relevant references, 172 of them met all the required criteria. It was found out that prolonged (> 30 min moderate intensity (55 − 70 % VO2max exercise such as walking, jogging or cycling is the most effective way to increase lipid oxidation during and after a single exercise session. Low-volume high-intensity interval exercise is supposed to be as effective as traditional exercise with continuous endurance, with the main effect on lipid oxidation after the session and similar long-term metabolic adaptations. However, more research is still needed to compare the effects of regular resistance exercise with traditional endurance and high-intensity interval exercise. Finally, nutrition is also a significant factor since food rich in fat and low in carbohydrates promotes greater lipid oxidation.

  10. Effect of Rest Interval Length on the Volume Completed During Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; Simão, Roberto; Moreira, Leonardo Marmo; de Souza, Renato Aparecido; de Souza, João Antônio Alves; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Willardson, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown) performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05). These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined. Key points The length of the rest interval between sets is an important variable when designing a resistance exercise program and may vary depending on the characteristic being emphasized (i.e. maximal strength, hypertrophy, localized muscular endurance, power). Although acknowledged, this variable is rarely monitored precisely in field settings. Previous studies that examined rest interval lengths from 1 to 5 minutes between sets for single exercises demonstrated significant differences in repetition performance and the exercise volume completed. There is a need for further research to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed over an entire resistance exercise session with different rest intervals between sets. The results of the current study indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and

  11. The effects of a session of resistance training on sleep patterns in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Valter A Rocha; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Boscolo, Rita Aurélia; Grassmann, Viviane; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a session of resistance training on the sleep patterns of elderly people. Forty men aged 65-80 years who were sedentary and clinically healthy were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 18) and the resistance group (n = 22). Both groups underwent two polysomnography tests, one at baseline and another after either a resistance training session (the resistance group) or no physical exercise (the control group). The resistance training session was based on 60% of one repetition maximum (a test that assesses the maximum force). We observed that the frequency with which the control group awoke (arousal index) increased from 16.29 ± 6.06 events/h to 20.09 ± 6.9 events/h, and in the resistance group, it decreased from 22.27 ± 11 events/h to 20.41 ± 8.57 events/h (t = 2.10 and p = 0.04). For stage-1 sleep, there was an increase from 4.96% at baseline to 5.40% in the control group, and there was a decrease in the resistance group from 8.32 to 6.21% after the exercise session (t = 2.12 and p = 0.04). A session of resistance training at 60% of one repetition maximum was able to modify the sleep pattern in men aged 65-80 years, suggesting that physical exercise has a modest influence on sleep consolidation.

  12. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  13. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  14. INFLUENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT REST INTERVAL LENGTHS IN RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSIONS FOR UPPER AND LOWER BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Senna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rest intervals between sets appear to be an important variable that can directly affect training volume and fatigue. The purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of two and five-minute rest intervals on the number of repetitions per set, per exercise and total repetitions in resistance training sessions. Fourteen trained men (23.0 ± 2. 2 yrs; 74.9 ± 4.1 kg; 1.75 ± 0.03 m completed three sets per exercise, with 10RM load in four training sessions. Two sessions involved lower body exercises (leg press, leg extension and leg curl, with two-minute (SEQA and with five-minute interval (SEQB. The other two sessions involved upper body exercises (bench press, pec-deck and triceps pulley, with two (SEQC and five-minute intervals (SEQD. For two-minute, five of six exercises presented reductions in the second set, compared with the first set, and for the third set compared with the first and second sets. For five-minute, three of the six exercises presented reductions in the third set, compared with the first sets, and two of the six for the third set, compared with the second sets. The total number of repetitions in SEQA (66.7 ± 4.9 was significantly smaller than in SEQB (80.9 ± 6.9. Similarly, the total repetitions was significantly lower in SEQC (71.1 ± 4.7 compared with SEQD (83.7 ± 6.1. The results indicate that the training session performance is reduced by shorter intervals, being the initial exercises less affected during the progression of the sets

  15. EFFECT OF REST INTERVAL LENGTH ON THE VOLUME COMPLETED DURING UPPER BODY RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Miranda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05. These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined

  16. Aerobic vs. resistance exercise in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashida, Ryuki; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Bekki, Masafumi; Omoto, Masayuki; Matsuse, Hiroo; Nago, Takeshi; Takano, Yoshio; Ueno, Takato; Koga, Hironori; George, Jacob; Shiba, Naoto; Torimura, Takuji

    2017-01-01

    Exercise is a first-line therapy for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We sought to: 1) summarize effective aerobic and resistance exercise protocols for NAFLD; and 2) compare the effects and energy consumption of aerobic and resistance exercises. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopas to January 28, 2016. From a total of 95 articles, 23 studies including 24 aerobic and 7 resistance exercise protocols were selected for the summary of exercise protocols. Twelve articles including 13 aerobic and 4 resistance exercise protocols were selected for the comparative analysis. For aerobic exercise, the median effective protocol was 4.8 metabolic equivalents (METs) for 40min/session, 3times/week for 12weeks. For resistance exercise, the median effective protocol was 3.5 METs for 45min/session, 3times/week for 12weeks. Aerobic and resistance exercise improved hepatic steatosis. No significant difference was seen in the duration, frequency, or period of exercise between the two exercise groups; however, %VO 2 max and energy consumption were significantly lower in the resistance than in the aerobic group (50% [45-98] vs. 28% [28-28], p=0.0034; 11,064 [6394-21,087] vs. 6470 [4104-12,310] kcal/total period, p=0.0475). Resistance exercise improves NAFLD with less energy consumption. Thus, resistance exercise may be more feasible than aerobic exercise for NAFLD patients with poor cardiorespiratory fitness or for those who cannot tolerate or participate in aerobic exercise. These data may indicate a possible link between resistance exercise and lipid metabolism in the liver. Both aerobic and resistance exercise reduce hepatic steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with similar frequency, duration, and period of exercise (40-45min/session 3times/week for 12weeks); however, the two forms of exercise have different characteristics. Intensity and energy consumption were significantly lower for resistance than for

  17. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Evaluating a Pre-Session Homework Exercise in a Standalone Information Literacy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Joseph E.; Barber, Catherine R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, researchers evaluate a homework exercise assigned before a standalone information literacy session. Students in a Master of Education program completed a worksheet using the ERIC database thesaurus. The researchers conducted pre- and posttests within a single library session to assess student learning, using a control group for…

  19. Effects of a Strength Training Session After an Exercise Inducing Muscle Damage on Recovery Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; Lamblin, Julien; McCall, Alan; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Abaïdia, A-E, Delecroix, B, Leduc, C, Lamblin, J, McCall, A, Baquet, G, and Dupont, G. Effects of a strength training session after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery kinetics. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 115-125, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an upper-limb strength training session the day after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery of performance. In a randomized crossover design, subjects performed the day after the exercise, on 2 separate occasions (passive vs. active recovery conditions) a single-leg exercise (dominant in one condition and nondominant in the other condition) consisting of 5 sets of 15 eccentric contractions of the knee flexors. Active recovery consisted of performing an upper-body strength training session the day after the exercise. Creatine kinase, hamstring strength, and muscle soreness were assessed immediately and 20, 24, and 48 hours after exercise-induced muscle damage. The upper-body strength session, after muscle-damaging exercise accelerated the recovery of slow concentric force (effect size = 0.65; 90% confidence interval = -0.06 to 1.32), but did not affect the recovery kinetics for the other outcomes. The addition of an upper-body strength training session the day after muscle-damaging activity does not negatively affect the recovery kinetics. Upper-body strength training may be programmed the day after a competition.

  20. Twenty-hour growth hormone secretory profiles after aerobic and resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Pierce, Joseph R; Rarick, Kevin R; Tuckow, Alexander P; Alemany, Joseph A; Sharp, Marilyn A; Kellogg, Mark D; Patton, John F

    2014-10-01

    The pulsatile secretion pattern of growth hormone (GH) is an important parameter of GH action at peripheral tissues, and more information is needed on how exercise impacts GH secretion. This study hypothesized that both aerobic and resistance exercise would exhibit dose-response relationships with respect to exercise duration and 20-h postexercise GH secretion. Eight healthy men randomly completed five separate conditions: 1) control (no exercise; CON), 2) a moderate-duration (1-h) aerobic exercise session (MA), 3) a long-duration (2-h) aerobic exercise session (LA), 4) a moderate-duration (1-h) resistance exercise session (MR), and 5) a long-duration (2-h) resistance exercise session (LR). Exercise intensity, diet, sleep, and physical activity were strictly controlled during each condition, and blood was sampled postexercise every 20 min for 20 h, and GH secretion parameters were analyzed via cluster and deconvolution analyses. Only the 2-h aerobic exercise bout resulted in a significant amplification of GH secretion as evidenced by increases in GH burst peak amplitude (∼100%), basal GH secretion rate (∼127%), total GH basal secretion (∼120%), total pulsatile secretion (∼88%), and total GH secretion (∼89%) over the control (i.e., no exercise) condition. GH secretions for the resistance exercise conditions were not different from control. The fact that the 2-h aerobic exercise condition resulted in higher energy expenditure than the other exercise conditions could offer a partial explanation for the greater GH amplification because of the metabolic effects that GH exerts in stimulating postexercise lipolysis. We conclude that extending the duration of aerobic exercise, but not resistance exercise, from 1- to 2-h significantly amplifies GH secretion during a 20-h period.

  1. A single aerobic exercise session accelerates movement execution but not central processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kit B; Sage, Michael D; Staines, W Richard; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E

    2017-03-27

    Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic exercise has disparate effects on speed of processing and movement execution. In simple and choice reaction tasks, aerobic exercise appears to increase speed of movement execution while speed of processing is unaffected. In the flanker task, aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce response time on incongruent trials more than congruent trials, purportedly reflecting a selective influence on speed of processing related to cognitive control. However, it is unclear how changes in speed of processing and movement execution contribute to these exercise-induced changes in response time during the flanker task. This study examined how a single session of aerobic exercise influences speed of processing and movement execution during a flanker task using electromyography to partition response time into reaction time and movement time, respectively. Movement time decreased during aerobic exercise regardless of flanker congruence but returned to pre-exercise levels immediately after exercise. Reaction time during incongruent flanker trials decreased over time in both an aerobic exercise and non-exercise control condition indicating it was not specifically influenced by exercise. This disparate influence of aerobic exercise on movement time and reaction time indicates the importance of partitioning response time when examining the influence of aerobic exercise on speed of processing. The decrease in reaction time over time independent of aerobic exercise indicates that interpreting pre-to-post exercise changes in behavior requires caution. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  3. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoly, H. C.; Stevens, C.; Harlaar, N.; Hutchison, K. E.; Bryan, A. D.; Magnan, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812) were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969) were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO 2 max). The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  4. Resistance strength training exercise in children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J; Stoddard, Gregory J; Weng, Cindy; Xue, Mei; Marcus, Robin L; Gappmaier, Eduard; Viollet, Louis; Johnson, Barbara A; White, Andrea T; Viazzo-Trussell, Donata; Lopes, Philippe; Lane, Robert H; Carey, John C; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-10-01

    Preliminary evidence in adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in SMA animal models suggests exercise has potential benefits in improving or stabilizing muscle strength and motor function. We evaluated feasibility, safety, and effects on strength and motor function of a home-based, supervised progressive resistance strength training exercise program in children with SMA types II and III. Up to 14 bilateral proximal muscles were exercised 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Nine children with SMA, aged 10.4 ± 3.8 years, completed the resistance training exercise program. Ninety percent of visits occurred per protocol. Training sessions were pain-free (99.8%), and no study-related adverse events occurred. Trends in improved strength and motor function were observed. A 12-week supervised, home-based, 3-day/week progressive resistance training exercise program is feasible, safe, and well tolerated in children with SMA. These findings can inform future studies of exercise in SMA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluating a Pre-session Exercise in a Standalone Information Literacy Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Goetz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers evaluate a homework exercise assigned before a standalone information literacy session. Students in a Master of Education program completed a worksheet using the ERIC database thesaurus. The researchers conducted pre- and posttests within a single library session to assess student learning, using a control group for comparison. The treatment group did not demonstrate better thesaurus skills than students who had regular library instruction alone, but results pointed the way to targeted improvements of pre-session learning materials. This approach could inform other information literacy homework applications such as flipping the classroom.

  6. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  7. Comparative effect of order based resistance exercises on number of repetitions, rating of perceived exertion and muscle damage biomarkers in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arazi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that both of the resistance exercise orders were equally effective in muscle damage parameters (CK, lactate, RPE and the average of the total number of exercise repetitions, although when the exercise session progressed, the number of repetitions performed to volitional failure decreased in last exercise in one single order, and the exercise order can influence performance.

  8. Acute molecular responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval exercise in untrained skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Jackson, Andrew P; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training involving resistance and endurance exercise may augment the benefits of single-mode training for the purpose of improving health. However, muscle adaptations, associated with resistance exercise, may be blunted by a subsequent bout of endurance exercise, via molecular interference. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), generating similar adaptations to endurance exercise, may offer an alternative exercise mode to traditional endurance exercise. This study examined the influence of an acute HIIT session on the molecular responses following resistance exercise in untrained skeletal muscle. Ten male participants performed resistance exercise (4 × 8 leg extensions, 70% 1RM, (RE)) or RE followed by HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HRmax, (RE+HIIT)). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 6 h post-RE to determine intramuscular protein phosphorylation and mRNA responses. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) decreased at 6 h in both trials (P HIIT (P HIIT with PGC-1α and PGC-1α-ex1b remaining elevated at 6 h, whereas RE-induced increases at 2 and 6 h for PGC-1α-ex1b only (P HIIT versus RE at 2 and 6 h (P HIIT may be an alternative to endurance exercise when performed after resistance exercise in the same training session to optimize adaptations. PMID:25902785

  9. A Constant-Force Resistive Exercise Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosky, Paul; Ruttley, Tara

    2010-01-01

    A constant-force resistive exercise unit (CFREU) has been invented for use in both normal gravitational and microgravitational environments. In comparison with a typical conventional exercise machine, this CFREU weighs less and is less bulky: Whereas weight plates and associated bulky supporting structures are used to generate resistive forces in typical conventional exercise machines, they are not used in this CFREU. Instead, resistive forces are generated in this CFREU by relatively compact, lightweight mechanisms based on constant-torque springs wound on drums. Each such mechanism is contained in a module, denoted a resistive pack, that includes a shaft for making a torque connection to a cable drum. During a stroke of resistive exercise, the cable is withdrawn from the cable drum against the torque exerted by the resistance pack. The CFREU includes a housing, within which can be mounted one or more resistive pack(s). The CFREU also includes mechanisms for engaging any combination of (1) one or more resistive pack(s) and (2) one or more spring(s) within each resistive pack to obtain a desired level of resistance.

  10. Resistance and aerobic exercise protects against acute endothelial impairment induced by a single exposure to hypertension during exertion

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Shane A.; Das, Emon; Wang, Jingli; Pritchard, Kirkwood; Gutterman, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance and aerobic exercise is recommended for cardiovascular health and disease prevention. However, the accompanying increase in arterial pressure during resistance exercise may be detrimental to vascular health. This study tests the vascular benefits of aerobic compared with resistance exercise on preventing impaired vascular function induced by a single weight lifting session that is associated with acute hypertension. Healthy, lean sedentary (SED) subjects, weight lifters, runners (>...

  11. Adaptations to short, frequent sessions of endurance and strength training are similar to longer, less frequent exercise sessions when the total volume is the same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Hjelvang, Line B; Dall, Niels

    2015-01-01

    ]: n = 21) performed nine 15-minute training sessions weekly, whereas a second group ("classical training" [CL]: n = 8) completed exactly the same training on a weekly basis but as three 45-minute sessions. For each group, each session comprised exclusively strength, high-intensity cardiovascular......Kilen, A, Hjelvang, LB, Dall, N, Kruse, NL, and Nordsborg, NB. Adaptations to short, frequent sessions of endurance and strength training are similar to longer, less frequent exercise sessions when the total volume is the same. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S46-S51, 2015-The hypothesis...... that the distribution of weekly training across several short sessions, as opposed to fewer longer sessions, enhances maximal strength gain without compromising maximal oxygen uptake was evaluated. Twenty-nine subjects completed an 8-week controlled parallel-group training intervention. One group ("micro training" [MI...

  12. AORTIC POST-RESISTANCE EXERCISE HYPOTENSION IN PATIENTS WITH PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia de Almeida Correia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A single session of resistance training decreases brachial blood pressure (BP in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD. However, it is not known whether similar responses occur in aortic BP, which is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effects of a single session of resistance training on aortic BP in PAD patients. Methods: This randomized, crossover, controlled trial involved 16 patients. All of them performed a session of resistance training (R - 3 x 10 reps in eight exercises, 5-7 on the OMNI Scale and a control session (C - resting for 50 min. Before and after each session, aortic BP was assessed by applanation tonometry technique. Results: There was an increase in systolic (P<0.002 and mean (P<0.001 aortic BP in both sessions; however, higher increases were observed in C session (P<0.001. Additionally, diastolic aortic BP only increased after C session (P=0.004. The hypotensive effect of the exercise on systolic, diastolic, and mean aortic BP were -12±2, -6±2, and -7±2 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion: A single session of resistance training promoted a hypotensive effect on aortic BP of patients with PAD, indicating an acute reduction in cardiovascular risk in this population. Level of Evidence I; Therapeutic studies - Investigating the results of treatment.

  13. Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Cassilhas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that resistance exercise improves cognitive functions in humans. Thus, an animal model that mimics this phenomenon can be an important tool for studying the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here, we tested if an animal model for resistance exercise was able to improve the performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task. In addition, we also evaluated the level of insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R, which plays pleiotropic roles in the nervous system. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10 for each group: control, SHAM, and resistance exercise (RES. The RES group was submitted to 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus, while the SHAM group was left in the same apparatus without exercising. Analysis of a cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum longus muscle indicated that this training period was sufficient to cause muscle fiber hypertrophy. In a step-through passive avoidance task (PA, the RES group presented a longer latency than the other groups on the test day. We also observed an increase of 43 and 94% for systemic and hippocampal IGF-1 concentration, respectively, in the RES group compared to the others. A positive correlation was established between PA performance and systemic IGF-1 (r = 0.46, P < 0.05. Taken together, our data indicate that resistance exercise improves the hippocampus-dependent memory task with a concomitant increase of IGF-1 level in the rat model. This model can be further explored to better understand the effects of resistance exercise on brain functions.

  14. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  15. Physical and Psychological Effects of a 12-Session Cancer Rehabilitation Exercise Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tricia M; Broomhall, Christine N; Crecelius, Anne R

    2016-12-01

    The positive effects of regular exercise for cancer survivors are becoming increasingly apparent. However, comprehensive examination of the benefits of modest levels of physical activity is somewhat lacking. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that participating in a 12-session exercise program will improve depression, fatigue, aerobic endurance, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer. A group of 20 older adult women with a prior cancer diagnosis were evaluated during a 6- to 10-week exercise program that occurred twice weekly. The majority of patients had breast cancer (n = 14), but treatment status varied (11 were currently undergoing treatment, and 9 were post-treatment). Each patient completed initial and exit assessments, which consisted of three physical function tests and three psychosocial questionnaires. Patient charts contained the initial and final assessment scores and personal demographics. Analyses of pre- and postprogram data using paired t tests revealed that 12 exercise sessions (each lasting about an hour) significantly improved six-minute walk test, 30-second sit-and-stand test, hand grip strength test (dominant and nondominant hand), and overall QOL scores in patients. As a result, moderate levels of exercise have a beneficial effect in this population.

  16. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  17. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Tossige-Gomes

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to

  18. Influence of resistance exercise training on glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicchia, L M; Kanaley, J A; Azevedo, J L; Miller, C S; Weinstock, R S; Carhart, R L; Ploutz-Snyder, L L

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic resistance training on glucose and insulin responses to a glucose load in women with type 2 diabetes. Subjects consisted of type 2 diabetic women (n = 7) and age-matched controls (n = 8) with normal glucose tolerance. All subjects participated in 3 oral glucose tolerance tests: pretraining, 12 to 24 hours after the first exercise session (acute) and 60 to 72 hours after the final training session (chronic). Exercise training consisted of a whole body resistance exercise program using weight-lifting machines 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Resistance training was effective in increasing strength of all muscle groups in all subjects. Integrated glucose concentration expressed as area under the curve (AUC) was 3,355.0 +/- 324.6 mmol/L. min pretraining, improved significantly (P benefits, individuals must follow a regular schedule that includes daily exercise.

  19. Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-30

    and co-workers observed significant (26) increases in dopamine values following a high intensity, low-rest bodybuilding type exercise protocol. This...and fitness of an elite bodybuilder during I year of self-administration of testosterone and anabolic steroids: a case study. Int. J. Sports Med. 6

  20. Resistance Exercises for Health and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let’s get started… First & Foremost…. “Tie-it-up”! This stabilizes your core and provides a solid foundation for resistance exercises. This is a two step process: 1st – close the pelvic floor. For men… as though you are stopping the flow of urine, it is the same for ladies but more commonly referred to as Kegel exercises. 2nd – While doing the above, tighten the lower abs (like you are preparing to be punched in the stomach). Be sure to “Tie-it-up” before doing all exercises.

  1. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise intensities on 24-hours blood pressure in normotensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido Pimentel Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effect of the intensity of aerobic and resistance exercise on the 24h BP response in normotensive women. Twenty-four women (aged 33 ± 9 years performed five experimental sessions in randomized order: CON - no exercise; AE50 - 50% of heart rate reserve (HRR; AE70 - 70% of HRR; RE40 - 40% of 1repetition maximum (RM and RE70 - 70% of 1RM. Systolic and diastolic BP and HR measurements were measured during 24h post-exercise at the participant's workplace. The AE50, AE70 and RE40 sessions led to the greatest and longest-lasting effects on the SBP, which persisted for up to 24h. For the DBP, the experimental sessions led to similar results; post exercise hypotension was observed until 7h post-exercise, with the exception of the AE70 session, which produced effects that persisted for 24h. Results shows that both aerobic and resistance exercise performed during the morning can decrease the mean BP above the baseline lasting 24 hours during a normal daily work. The aerobic exercise performed around 50% of HRR can better regulate both systolic and diastolic BP in this population.

  2. The Effect of 12 Weeks Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined Exercises on Omentin-1 Levels and Insulin Resistance among Type 2 Diabetic Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab AminiLari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have shown that omentin-1 derived from adipokines can affect physiological regulations and some metabolic dis-eases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsThe purpose of this study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic (cycle ergometer, resistance, and combined exercises on omentin-1 level, glucose and insulin resistance indices in overweight middle age women with T2DM. In this study, 60 overweight middle age diabetic women were selected using simple random sampling and they were assigned to three groups of aerobic exercise (n=12, resistant exercise (n=12 and combined exercise (n=13, and one control group (n=15. Exercises were done in a three times per week sessions for a total of 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected before each exercise session and 24 hours after of the last session.ResultsPresent study showed that fasting blood sugar decreased significantly in all intervention groups, while homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR decreased only in the aerobic and combined exercises groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the omentin-1 level only in the combined exercise group.ConclusionCompared to aerobic and resistance exercises, 12 weeks of combined exercise was more efficient in improving HOMA-IR and increasing serum omentin-1 among women with T2DM.

  3. An Experimental Model for Resistance Exercise in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Nicastro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an equipment and system of resistance exercise (RE, based on squat-type exercise for rodents, with control of training variables. We developed an operant conditioning system composed of sound, light and feeding devices that allowed optimized RE performance by the animal. With this system, it is not necessary to impose fasting or electric shock for the animal to perform the task proposed (muscle contraction. Furthermore, it is possible to perform muscle function tests in vivo within the context of the exercise proposed and control variables such as intensity, volume (sets and repetitions, and exercise session length, rest interval between sets and repetitions, and concentric strength. Based on the experiments conducted, we demonstrated that the model proposed is able to perform more specific control of other RE variables, especially rest interval between sets and repetitions, and encourages the animal to exercise through short-term energy restriction and “disturbing” stimulus that do not promote alterations in body weight. Therefore, despite experimental limitations, we believe that this RE apparatus is closer to the physiological context observed in humans.

  4. Acute and session RPE responses during resistance training: Bouts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On separate days in a counterbalanced order, subjects performed 3 sets of each exercise to volitional failure at a low intensity (LI) and a high intensity (HI) with 2 minutes rest between sets and exercises. At the end of each set, subjects estimated acute RPE for that set using a 10-point numerical scale. Thirty minutes after the ...

  5. A single session of exercise as a modulator of short-term learning in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Michael D; Beyer, Kit B; Laylor, Mark; Liang, Carmen; Roy, Eric A; McIlroy, William E

    2016-08-26

    A single session of aerobic exercise is linked to faster motor responses; however, the effect on rate of short-term learning is less clear. The objective was to evaluate the influence of a single bout of aerobic exercise on the rate of short-term acquisition of a shape-letter association task requiring a motor response. 23 [11 females, age 20.8±2.7years] healthy young adults were evaluated using a randomly assigned crossover design which was counterbalanced for order before and after moderate (exercise) and light (control) intensity cycle ergometry. Participants performed 3 blocks, with each block consisting of one round of training and testing. During training, participants were tasked with learning 6 unique shape-letter associations. Subsequent testing required a key press response to a visually presented shape pattern. Response time and error rates were used to assess acquisition over the 3 blocks of testing. Mean response time was faster post-exercise relative to the other testing periods, and approached statistical significance compared to post-control (pexercise and control conditions). Error rate reduction (test block 1 minus test block 3) revealed that individuals had the smallest change in error rate post-exercise (pexercise which approached statistical significance (p=0.06) suggesting near-perfect error rates were obtained after only 2 testing blocks post-exercise compared to 3 blocks in the other testing periods. Support for augmentation of short-term learning was mixed as errors were reduced post-exercise while response time was not different between evaluations. Future work should include neurophysiological evaluation and a retention test to better elucidate the influence of aerobic exercise on rate of short-term learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tachycardia During Resistance Exercise: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Andrew C.; Parks, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study examined a weight-trained (WT) male who had an unusually high heart rate response to heavy resistance exercise and self-administered anabolic androgenic steroids as an ergogenic aid to training. The subject was compared to 18 other WT people. His tachycardia response occurred only in the presence of a pressure load and not with a…

  7. Comparative efficacy of progressive resistance exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) and Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) are two of the protocols available in managing children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The comparative effects of these modalities on selected functional indices of ambulatory type CP were the focus of this study. Methods: ...

  8. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  9. Reliability of Strength Testing using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Laughlin, Mitzi A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) was developed for use on the International Space Station as a countermeasure against muscle atrophy and decreased strength. This investigation examined the reliability of one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing using ARED and traditional free weight (FW) exercise. Methods: Six males (180.8 +/- 4.3 cm, 83.6 +/- 6.4 kg, 36 +/- 8 y, mean +/- SD) who had not engaged in resistive exercise for at least six months volunteered to participate in this project. Subjects completed four 1RM testing sessions each for FW and ARED (eight total sessions) using a balanced, randomized, crossover design. All testing using one device was completed before progressing to the other. During each session, 1RM was measured for the squat, heel raise, and deadlift exercises. Generalizability (G) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each exercise on each device and were used to predict the number of sessions needed to obtain a reliable 1RM measurement (G . 0.90). Interclass reliability coefficients and Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) also were calculated for the highest 1RM value (1RM9sub peak)) obtained for each exercise on each device to quantify 1RM relationships between devices.

  10. Low-intensity resistance exercise does not affect cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio H.R. Andrade Lima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of a single bout of resistance exercise on cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with peripheral artery disease. METHODS: Fifteen patients with peripheral artery disease (age: 58.3±4.0 years underwent the following sessions in a random order: resistance exercise (three sets of 10 repetitions of the six resistance exercises with a workload of 5-7 in the OMNI-RES scale and control (similar to the resistance session; however, the resistance exercises were performed with no load. The frequency domain (low frequency, high frequency and sympathovagal balance and symbolic analysis (0V, 1V and 2V patterns of heart rate variability were obtained before and until one hour after the interventions. RESULTS: After the resistance exercise and control sessions, similar increases were observed in the consecutive heartbeat intervals (control: 720.8±28.6 vs. 790.9±34.4 ms; resistance exercise: 712.9±30.1 vs. 756.8±37.9 ms; p0.05. CONCLUSION: A single bout of resistance exercise did not alter cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with peripheral artery disease.

  11. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2017-01-01

    The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series) of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years) participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces) and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds) exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes) training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence. Key points The combination of balance and plyometric exercises can induce significant and substantial training improvements in muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance with adolescent youth athletes The within training session

  12. Conducting an acute intense interval exercise session during the Ramadan fasting month: what is the optimal time of the day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Chia, Michael Yong Hwa; Low, Chee Yong; Slater, Gary John; Png, Weileen; Teh, Kong Chuan

    2012-10-01

    This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on performance during an intense exercise session performed at three different times of the day, i.e., 08:00, 18:00, and 21:00 h. The purpose was to determine the optimal time of the day to perform an acute high-intensity interval exercise during the Ramadan fasting month. After familiarization, nine trained athletes performed six 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) cycle bouts followed by a time-to-exhaustion (T(exh)) cycle on six separate randomized and counterbalanced occasions. The three time-of-day nonfasting (control, CON) exercise sessions were performed before the Ramadan month, and the three corresponding time-of-day Ramadan fasting (RAM) exercise sessions were performed during the Ramadan month. Note that the 21:00 h session during Ramadan month was conducted in the nonfasted state after the breaking of the day's fast. Total work (TW) completed during the six WAnT bouts was significantly lower during RAM compared to CON for the 08:00 and 18:00 h (p Ramadan fasting had a small to moderate, negative impact on quality of performance during an acute high-intensity exercise session, particularly during the period of the daytime fast. The optimal time to conduct an acute high-intensity exercise session during the Ramadan fasting month is in the evening, after the breaking of the day's fast.

  13. Summaries of research Sessions: 14.10 host resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proceedings includes a summary of research reports relating to Citrus HLB-resistance. A number of research organizations are exploring resistance to hunaglongbing (HLB) in existing citrus varieties or citrus relatives, identifying transgenes that may provide resistance to HLB and other diseases,...

  14. Effect of fixed and self-suggested rest intervals between sets of resistance exercise on post-exercise cardiovascular behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fabiana Goessler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n4p467 This study aimed to compare differences in the number of repetitions after exercises with different rest intervals and to analyze cardiovascular parameters after resistance training. The sample comprised 10 physically activemen (23±2 years. The one-repetition maximum (1RM test was performed in the following order: bench press, guided squat bar, biceps curl and leg curl. After the 1RM test, the individual held three sessions of resistance training, on different days, with rest intervals of 1 minute, 2 minutes, and self-suggested intervals, randomized for each day. We calculated 75% of the load of the 1RM test, with three series of maximum repetitions performed to exhaustion. Cardiovascular variables were measured at rest and during 30 minutes after exercise. In the self-suggested interval, which showed an average time of rest(157±37 seconds similar to the 2-minute interval, more repetitions were performed compared to the 1-minute interval session, with no difference in relation to the 2 minute-interval session. No difference was found in systolic blood pressure and in the high frequency (HF component between the intervals, but post-exercise hypotension was observed in diastolic blood pressure after 10 minutes’ recovery in all intervals, with a longer duration in the 2-minute interval session. After 30 minutes’ recovery, an increase in the low frequency (LF component was registered for the 2-minute interval session, and anincrease in LF/HF was found at 10, 20 and 30 minutes of recovery after sessions with 1- and 2-minute intervals, demonstrating a possible predominance of sympathetic action. The self-suggested interval did not show changes in the components of heart rate variability. These findings suggest that intervals of at least 2 minutes between sets may be interesting to provide more repetitions and reduce the post-exercise sympathetic effect.

  15. Effect of fixed and self-suggested rest intervals between sets of resistance exercise on post-exercise cardiovascular behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fabiana Goessler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare differences in the number of repetitions after exercises with different rest intervals and to analyze cardiovascular parameters after resistance training. The sample comprised 10 physically activemen (23±2 years. The one-repetition maximum (1RM test was performed in the following order: bench press, guided squat bar, biceps curl and leg curl. After the 1RM test, the individual held three sessions of resistance training, on different days, with rest intervals of 1 minute, 2 minutes, and self-suggested intervals, randomized for each day. We calculated 75% of the load of the 1RM test, with three series of maximum repetitions performed to exhaustion. Cardiovascular variables were measured at rest and during 30 minutes after exercise. In the self-suggested interval, which showed an average time of rest(157±37 seconds similar to the 2-minute interval, more repetitions were performed compared to the 1-minute interval session, with no difference in relation to the 2 minute-interval session. No difference was found in systolic blood pressure and in the high frequency (HF component between the intervals, but post-exercise hypotension was observed in diastolic blood pressure after 10 minutes’ recovery in all intervals, with a longer duration in the 2-minute interval session. After 30 minutes’ recovery, an increase in the low frequency (LF component was registered for the 2-minute interval session, and anincrease in LF/HF was found at 10, 20 and 30 minutes of recovery after sessions with 1- and 2-minute intervals, demonstrating a possible predominance of sympathetic action. The self-suggested interval did not show changes in the components of heart rate variability. These findings suggest that intervals of at least 2 minutes between sets may be interesting to provide more repetitions and reduce the post-exercise sympathetic effect.

  16. Effects of plyometric exercise session on markers of bone turnover in boys and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Kimberly; Mezil, Yasmeen; Ward, Wendy E; Klentrou, Panagiota; Falk, Bareket

    2015-10-01

    The acute exercise effects on bone markers in adults are unclear, while in children, there are no such data. To investigate the acute response of biochemical markers of bone turnover to a high-impact exercise session consisting of high-mechanical loading in boys and young men. Twelve boys (10.2 ± 0.4 years) and 14 men (22.0 ± 0.8 years) underwent a protocol of plyometric jumping exercises (total 144 jumps). Venous blood samples were collected pre-, 5 min, 1 and 24 h post-exercise, and analyzed for markers of bone formation and resorption: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), osteoprotegerin (OPG), amino-terminal cross-linking telopeptide (NTx), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa beta ligand (RANKL). Boys had higher resting bone ALP (111.9 ± 29.2 vs. 30.6 ± 11.2 µg/L, p boys and men (bone ALP: 24.1 vs. 9.9%, respectively; NTx: 23.5 vs. -5%, respectively), although the group-by-time interaction was not statistically significant. OPG increased significantly (p boys and men, as reflected by the increase in bone ALP and OPG. The boys' response appears more pronounced than the men's, suggesting that during growth, cellular bone activities respond with greater magnitude to mechanical stimuli.

  17. One night of partial sleep deprivation impairs recovery from a single exercise training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Dale E; Chin, Tayla; Dikgomo, Kagiso; Hill, Lee; McKune, Andrew J; Kohn, Tertius A; Roden, Laura C

    2017-04-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on physical performance are well documented, but data on the consequence of sleep deprivation on recovery from exercise are limited. The aim was to compare cyclists' recovery from a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) after which they were given either a normal night of sleep (CON, 7.56 ± 0.63 h) or half of their usual time in bed (DEP, 3.83 ± 0.33 h). In this randomized cross-over intervention study, 16 trained male cyclists (age 32 ± 7 years), relative peak power output (PPO 4.6 ± 0.7 W kg -1 ) performed a HIIT session at ±18:00 followed by either the CON or DEP sleep condition. Recovery from the HIIT session was assessed the following day by comparing pre-HIIT variables to those measured 12 and 24 h after the session. Following a 2-week washout, cyclists repeated the trial, but under the alternate sleep condition. PPO was reduced more 24 h after the HIIT session in the DEP (ΔPPO -0.22 ± 0.22 W kg -1 ; range -0.75 to 0.1 W kg -1 ) compared to the CON condition (ΔPPO -0.05 ± 0.09 W kg -1 , range -0.19 to 0.17 W kg -1 , p = 0.008, d = -2.16). Cyclists were sleepier (12 h: p = 0.002, d = 1.90; 24 h: p = 0.001, d = 1.41) and felt less motivated to train (12 h, p = 0.012, d = -0.89) during the 24 h recovery phase when the HIIT session was followed by the DEP condition. The exercise-induced 24 h reduction in systolic blood pressure observed in the CON condition was absent in the DEP condition (p = 0.039, d = 0.75). One night of partial sleep deprivation impairs recovery from a single HIIT session in cyclists. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind this observation.

  18. Implications of resistance exercise practice to flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Eri Shiromoto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the degrees of flexibility in resistance exercise practitioners before and after a period of six months and verify the relationship between the data and the individuals’ life style. A descriptive method was used for a sample of 46 individuals from Action Academia de Maringá – Pr. The data were collected in Sptember / 2000 and March / 2001 through their frequency and evaluation files and also a goniometer to check the ischia extention. Through the ‘t’ test a significant increase in both male and female flexibility was observed. The style of life and profession may interfere in a negative way although the regular and simultaneous practice of resistance and stretching exercises seem to be a predominant factor in developing flexibility and in physical aptitude favourable degrees for health and life quality.

  19. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  20. Effects of resistance exercise bouts of different intensities but equal work on EPOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, M Kathleen; Potteiger, Jeffery A

    2002-04-01

    To compare the effect of low- and high-intensity resistance exercise of equal work output, on exercise and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Fourteen female subjects performed a no-exercise baseline control (CN), and nine exercises for two sets of 15 repetitions at 45% of their 8-RM during one session (LO) and two sets of 8 repetitions at 85% of their 8-RM during another session (HI). Measures for all three sessions included: heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (La) preexercise, immediately postexercise and 20 min, 60 min, and 120 min postexercise; and ventilation volume (VE), oxygen consumption (VO(2)), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during exercise and at intervals 0-20 min, 45-60 min, and 105-120 min postexercise. Exercise .VO(2) was not significantly different between HI and LO, but VE, [La], and HR were significantly greater for HI compared with LO. Exercise RER for HI (1.07 +/- 0.03 and LO (1.05 +/- 0.02) were significantly higher than CN (0.86 +/- 0.02), but there were no differences among conditions postexercise. EPOC was greater for HI compared with low at 0-20 min (HI,1.72 +/- 0.70 LO(2); LO, 0.9 +/- 0.65, LO(2)), 45-60 min (HI, 0.35 +/- 0.25 LO(2); LO, 0.14 +/- 0.19 LO2), and 105-120 min (HI, 0.22 +/- 0.22 LO(2); LO, 0.05 +/- 0.11, LO(2)). These data indicate that for resistance exercise bouts with an equated work volume, high-intensity exercise (85% 8-RM) will produce similar exercise oxygen consumption, with a greater EPOC magnitude and volume than low-intensity exercise (45% 8-RM).

  1. Measuring Resistance to Change at the Within-Session Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, Francois; Rios, Americo; Cabrera, Felipe

    2006-01-01

    Resistance to change is often studied by measuring response rate in various components of a multiple schedule. Response rate in each component is normalized (that is, divided by its baseline level) and then log-transformed. Differential resistance to change is demonstrated if the normalized, log-transformed response rate in one component decreases…

  2. Acute Effects of Different Stretching Techniques on the Number of Repetitions in A Single Lower Body Resistance Training Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá Marcos A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of passive static and ballistic stretching on maximal repetition performance during a resistance training session (RTS. Nine male subjects underwent three experimental conditions: ballistic stretching (BS; passive static stretching (PSS; and a specific warm-up (SW. The RTS was composed of three sets of 12RM for the following exercises: leg press 45 (LP, leg extension (LE, leg curl (LC, and plantar flexors (PF. Performance of six sessions was assessed 48 hours apart. The first visit consisted of a familiarization session including stretching methods and exercises used in the RTS. On the second and third visit, a strength test and retest were performed. During the fourth to the sixth visit, the volunteers randomly performed the following protocols: BS+RTS; PSS+RTS; or SW+RTS. For the sum of the RM number of each three-set exercise, significant differences were found between PSS vs. SW for the LP (p = 0.001; LE (p = 0.005; MF (p = 0.001; and PF (p = 0.038. For the comparison between the methods of stretching PSS vs. BS, significant differences were found only for the FP (p = 0.019. When analyzing the method of stretching BS vs. SW, significant differences were found for the LP (p = 0.014 and MF (p = 0.002. For the total sum of the RM number of three sets of the four exercises that composed the RTS, significant differences were observed (p < 0.05 in the following comparisons: PPS vs. SW (p = 0.001, PPS vs. BS (p = 0.008, and BS vs. SW (p = 0.002. Accordingly, the methods of passive static and ballistic stretching should not be recommended before a RTS.

  3. The period of the day affects the twenty-four hour blood pressure response to an acute combined exercise session in Brazilian jiu jitsu athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaello Pinheiro Mazzoccante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a combined exercise session performed at different periods of the day on the 24h blood pressure (BP response. Anaerobic threshold (AT and 12 repetition maximum (12RM tests were evaluated in nine Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes (male (22±3.7 y; 176±5.0 cm; 73.4±9.7 kg; 6.8±2.1 % body fat. Four experimental sessions were performed: resistance exercise followed by aerobic exercise [Morning (MornS and Afternoon (AfternS] and Control (C [Morning and Afternoon]. The morning sessions were conducted at 09:00 a.m. and the afternoon sessions were conducted at 3:00 p.m. The resistance exercise consisted of three sets at 90% of a 12RM for six resistance exercises. The aerobic exercise consisted of 15min at 90% of the AT. Blood pressure (BP was measured before, during and 1h (Microlife(r BP3A1C after the performance of exercises in laboratory, and then during daily activities for the succeeding 23h by ambulatory BP monitoring (Dyna-MAPA(r. Analysis of the area under the curve (AUC indicated significant reductions in blood pressure parameters at various time points during the 24h monitoring period. For systolic BP (SBP, significantly lower values were shown following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 1756.2±100.8 vs. C: 1818.2±84.3 mmHg*15h; p < .05 and total-24h (MornS: 2695.8±143.3 vs. C: 2784.1±143.2 mmHg*24h; p < .05. The total-24h mean BP (MAP was also significantly lower following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 2015.7±121.2 vs. C: 2087.3±153.8 mmHg*24h; p < .05. There were significant differences in the sleeping AUC of SBP (AfternS: 883.6±27.0 vs. C: 965.2±67.9 mmHg*9h; p< .05, diastolic BP (DBP (AfternS: 481.4±30.9 vs. MornS: 552.9±34.2 and C: 562.1±52.3 mmHg*9h; p < .01 and MBP (AfternS: 651.9±22.4 vs. MornS: 708.7±43.1 and C: 726.9±64.7 mmHg*9h; p < .01. The combined exercise performed at different periods of the day contributed distinctly to

  4. Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase Responses After Different Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callegari Gustavo A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH after performing different resistance and aerobic exercise protocols. Twelve recreationally trained men (age, 23.2 ± 5.6 years; body mass, 84.3 ± 9.3 kg; body height, 178.9 ± 4.5 cm; and BMI, 26.3 ± 2.3 kg·m2 volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects were randomly assigned to four experimental protocols (crossover: (a aerobic training at 60% of VO2max, (b aerobic training at 80% of VO2max, (c a resistance exercise (RE session with a bi-set protocol, and (d an RE session with a multiple sets protocol. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 24 hours following the experimental protocols. After 24 hours, there was a significant increase in CK for the 80% of VO2max protocol vs. the bi-set RE session (p = 0.016. Immediately after the protocols, we observed a significant increase in LDH among certain groups compared to others, as follows: multiple sets RE session vs. 60% of VO2max, bi-set RE session vs. 60% of VO2max, multiple sets RE session vs. 80% of VO2max, and bi-set RE session vs. 80% of VO2max (p = 0.008, p = 0.013; p = 0.002, p = 0.004, respectively. In conclusion, aerobic exercise performed at 80% of VO2max appears to elevate plasma CK levels more than bi-set RE sessions. However, the bi-set and multiple sets RE sessions appeared to trigger greater levels of blood LDH compared to aerobic protocols performed at 60% and 80% of VO2max.

  5. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Chaouachi, Urs Granacher, Issam Makhlouf, Raouf Hammami, David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence.

  6. Within Session Sequence of Balance and Plyometric Exercises Does Not Affect Training Adaptations with Youth Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Mehdi; Granacher, Urs; Makhlouf, Issam; Hammami, Raouf; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2017-03-01

    The integration of balance and plyometric training has been shown to provide significant improvements in sprint, jump, agility, and other performance measures in young athletes. It is not known if a specific within session balance and plyometric exercise sequence provides more effective training adaptations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of using a sequence of alternating pairs of exercises versus a block (series) of all balance exercises followed by a block of plyometric exercises on components of physical fitness such as muscle strength, power, speed, agility, and balance. Twenty-six male adolescent soccer players (13.9 ± 0.3 years) participated in an 8-week training program that either alternated individual balance (e.g., exercises on unstable surfaces) and plyometric (e.g., jumps, hops, rebounds) exercises or performed a block of balance exercises prior to a block of plyometric exercises within each training session. Pre- and post-training measures included proxies of strength, power, agility, sprint, and balance such as countermovement jumps, isometric back and knee extension strength, standing long jump, 10 and 30-m sprints, agility, standing stork, and Y-balance tests. Both groups exhibited significant, generally large magnitude (effect sizes) training improvements for all measures with mean performance increases of approximately >30%. There were no significant differences between the training groups over time. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of combining balance and plyometric exercises within a training session on components of physical fitness with young adolescents. The improved performance outcomes were not significantly influenced by the within session exercise sequence.

  7. A shorter set reduces the loss of cardiac autonomic and baroreflex control after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Xián; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Carballeira-Fernández, Eduardo; Fernández-Del-Olmo, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Set configuration may affect the recovery pattern of cardiac vagal autonomic and reflex modulation after a resistance exercise, since it is closely associated with intensity and volume and determines the metabolic involvement of the session. We tested the hypothesis that longer set configurations have a higher impact on cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity compared with shorter set configurations. We studied the effects of three set configurations with the same components of work on the cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity. Seventeen subjects performed one control session and three experimental sessions of a leg-press exercise with the same volume (40 repetitions), resting time (720 s) and intensity (10RM load): (a) 5 sets of 8 repetitions with 3 min of rest between sets (8S), (b) 10 sets of 4 repetitions with 80 s of rest between sets (4S) and (c) 40 sets of 1 repetition with 18.5 s of rest between each repetition (1S). Longer set configurations (8S and 4S) induced greater reductions of the vagal cardiac autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity (p ≤ .001) compared with a shorter set configuration (1S). Also, 1S had non-significant reductions versus the control session (p > .05). These findings suggest that a shorter set configuration can reduce the impact of resistance exercise on the post-exercise cardiac vagal autonomic control and baroreflex sensitivity.

  8. NMSBA - Twist Resist - Rotational Exercise Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Aaron [Twist Resist, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reece, Blake D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berger, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guido, Steven Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Linker, Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report contains a summary of the work completed to develop a modular, rotational exercise device. In the report are images, diagrams, and explanations of the efforts contributed to the project since its inception. The purpose of this document is to provide a walk-through of the progress on this project, from the initial design concepts to the final design and work done, so that the customer (Twist Resist), or individuals/firms who work on this project in the future will have a springboard of ideas/concepts to work from.

  9. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  10. Strength Gains as a Result of Brief, Infrequent Resistance Exercise in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Resistance exercise has been shown to counter all of these effects of aging and, in turn, reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches. The aim of this research was to consider strength increases as a result of brief, infrequent resistance exercise. The present study offers data from 33 (14 male and 19 female older adults (M=55 years who underwent brief (<15 minutes per exercise session, infrequent (2×/week, resistance exercise to a high intensity of effort (6-repetition maximum at a controlled repetition duration (10 seconds concentric : 10 seconds eccentric on 5 resistance machines (chest press, leg press, pull-down, seated row, and overhead press. Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male and 19 weeks (female. Significant strength increases were identified for all exercises. With the detailed health benefits obtainable, the present study suggests that resistance exercise can be efficacious in much smaller volumes than previously considered.

  11. Running economy is impaired following a single bout of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C D; Sleivert, G G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-volume high-intensity resistance training session influenced running economy during a subsequent aerobic treadmill run. Nine well trained distance runners (mean +/- SD; VO2max, 66.6 +/- 10.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); weight, 65.8 +/- 10.2 kg; height, 173.4 +/- 7.8 cm; age 20 +/- 1.1 years) with resistance training experience performed treadmill running at two different speeds (0.56 m x sec(-1) and 0.20 m x sec(-1) below speed corresponding to lactate equilibrium) either rested or 1, 8 or 24 hours after a 50-minute whole body resistance training session. Running economy was assessed using open circuit spirometry while heart rate was recorded telemetrically. The contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris were also determined following each resistance training session and prior to each treadmill run using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Submaximal oxygen consumption was significantly increased one hour (2.6 +/- 2.3%, p= 0.007), and eight hours (1.6 +/- 2.5%, p= 0.032), but not 24 hours after resistance training. No significant differences were found in exercising heart rate, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, ratings of perceived exertion, or running mechanics. Peak twitch torque, time to peak torque, and half relaxation time of the quadriceps femoris were significantly reduced immediately following resistance training while peak twitch torque was also lower one hour following resistance training. Running economy following a resistance training session is impaired for up to 8 hours. This change was not paralleled by a concomitant change in exercising heart rate. The mechanism responsible for increased oxygen consumption following resistance training may be related to impairment of the force generating capacity of skeletal muscle, as there was a significant decrement in the contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris following resistance training.

  12. Individual blood pressure responses to walking and resistance exercise in peripheral artery disease patients: Are the mean values describing what is happening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aluísio H R A; Miranda, Alessandra S; Correia, Marilia A; Soares, Antônio H G; Cucato, Gabriel G; Sobral Filho, Dario C; Gomes, Silvana L; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the average and individual blood pressure responses to walking and resistance exercise in patients with peripheral artery disease. Thirteen patients underwent three experimental sessions: walking exercise, resistance exercise, and control. Ambulatory blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product were obtained before and until 24 hours after sessions. The mean cardiovascular values during 24 hours, awake, and sleep periods were similar (P > 0.05) after the three experimental sessions. The analysis of individual data revealed that during 24 hours, eight of 13 patients reduced systolic or diastolic blood pressure in ≥4.0 mm Hg in at least one of the exercise session; furthermore, most of these patients presented greater responses after resistance exercise. The clinical characteristics of patients seem to influence the blood pressure responses after exercises. Individual data showed that part of patients presented clinically significant decreases in blood pressure, showing that these patients have acute cardiovascular benefits after performing an acute bout of exercise. Although, in average, a bout of walking or resistance exercise did not decrease ambulatory blood pressure in peripheral artery disease patients, the individual data revealed that most patients presented clinically relevant blood pressure reductions, especially after resistance exercise. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of resistance exercise and the use of anabolic androgenic steroids on hemodynamic characteristics and muscle damage markers in bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Nadimi, Amir; Nikookheslat, Saeed D

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic compounds of testosterone commonly used as sport performance enhancers, could cause cardiovascular dysfunction and cell damage. Even though the side effects of AAS intake have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance exercise can alter these side effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of one session resistance exercise and the use of AAS on hemodynamic characteristics and muscle damage markers in professional bodybuilders. Sixteen bodybuilders were divided into two groups: bodybuilders using AAS for at least 5 years (users; N.=8) and AAS-free bodybuilders (non-users; N.=8). The exercise protocol was a circuit strength training session involved three sets of 8-9 repetitions at 80-85% of 1-RM. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and concentrations of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured at three different time points, immediately before and after the exercise session and 24 hours following the exercise session. The users group showed greater basal levels of hemodynamic characteristics (i.e. HR and BP) and cell damage markers (i.e. CK and LDH) compared to those in the non-users group (all P0.05). These findings indicate that the use of AAS could be potentially harmful as it enhances the levels of the hemodynamic characteristics and the muscle enzymes. These harmful effects of AAS intake could be more evident in response to resistance exercise.

  14. Anabolic responses to acute and chronic resistance exercise are enhanced when combined with aquatic treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Brad S; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Riechman, Steven E; Greene, Nicholas P; Cardin, Jessica M; Crouse, Stephen F

    2015-02-01

    Aquatic treadmill (ATM) running may simultaneously promote aerobic fitness and enhance muscle growth when combined with resistance training (RT) compared with land-treadmill (LTM) running. Therefore, we examined acute and chronic physiological responses to RT, concurrent RT-LTM, and concurrent RT-ATM. Forty-seven untrained volunteers (men: n = 23, 37 ± 11 yr, 29.6 ± 4.6 kg/m(2); women: n = 24, 38 ± 12 yr, 27.53 ± 6.4 kg/m(2)) from the general population were tested for V̇o2max, body composition, and strength before and after training. All groups performed 12 wk of RT (2 wk, 3 × 8-12 sets at 60 to approximately 80% 1-repetition maximum). The RT-LTM and RT-ATM groups also performed 12 wk of LTM or ATM training (2 wk immediately post-RT and 1 wk in isolation, 60-85% V̇o2max, 250-500 kcal/session). Additionally, 25 subjects volunteered for muscle biopsy prior to and 24 h post-acute exercise before and after training. Stable isotope labeling (70% (2)H2O, 3 ml/kg) was utilized to quantify 24 h post-exercise myofibrillar fractional synthesis rates (myoFSR). Mixed-model ANOVA revealed that RT-ATM but not RT-LTM training produced greater chronic increases in lean mass than RT alone (P exercise elicited higher 24-h myoFSRs compared with RT (+5.68%/day, P exercise and training elicit greater skeletal muscle anabolism than RT alone or RT-LTM. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. A randomised study of the effects of supplemental exercise sessions after a 7-week chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Rasmussen, Mathilde; Buch, Tove Fedder

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested that the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation programs tend to attenuate with time. We aimed to investigate the effects of supplemental exercise sessions following an initial 7-week COPD rehabilitation program with regar...... Respir J 2011; DOI:10.1111/j.1752-699X.2011.00256.x....

  16. A comparison of the effects of hatha yoga and resistance exercise on mental health and well-being in sedentary adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taspinar, Betul; Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Agbuga, Bulent; Taspinar, Ferruh

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity has a positive effect on people's mental health and well-being. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of hatha yoga and resistance exercises on mental health and well-being in sedentary adults. Randomized controlled study. Fifty-one participants aged mean (SD) 25.6 (5.7) years were randomly divided into three groups: Hatha Yoga Group, Resistance Exercise Group and Control Group. The Hatha Yoga Group and Resistance Exercise Group participated in sessions three days per week for 7 weeks and the Control Group did not participate in any sessions. All the subjects were evaluated through the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Body Cathexis Scale, Nottingham Health Profile and Visual Analog Scale for fatigue pre-and post-session. Significant improvements were found in terms of all outcome measures in the Hatha Yoga Group and the resistance exercise group. No improvements were found in the Control Group. Hatha yoga more improved the dimensions fatigue, self-esteem, and quality of life, whilst resistance exercise training more improved body image. Hatha yoga and resistance exercise decreased depression symptoms at a similar level. The results indicated that hatha yoga and resistance exercise had positive effects on mental health and well-being in sedentary adults. Hatha yoga and resistance exercise may affect different aspects of mental health and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  18. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  19. Order effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on post-exercise response of non-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Di Giacinto, Gabriella; Celso, Tiziana; Di Renzo, Donatella; Sablone, Andrea; Ripari, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67) years, Mean (SD)] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (Ve), respiratory frequency (RF), proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT), resistance-endurance training (RET) and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT). AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses. Key pointsThe concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, could be a practical solution to conform to guidelines for health in the presence of lack of time.The order of concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, influences the amplitude of some post-exercise physiological responses.

  20. Effects of pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile in non-athletic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shahidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some studies have reported the health-related benefits for the pomegranate seed oil (PSO, there is not enough information on its combined effect with exercise. Therefore, in this study the effect of supplementation with pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile was considered in non-athletes men. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental double-blind randomized study non-athletic male (n=14 were divided into two groups: Exercise+Supplementation (n=7 and Exercise +Placebo (n=7. Both groups performed resistance training for 4 weeks (3 sessions per week. The experimental group consumed 2 capsules of pomegranate seed oil (400 mg and the control group received 2 placebo capsules daily. Glucose, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis formula (HOMA-IR. Results: While the average concentration of HDL-C in Supplement+Exercise group was significantly increased compared to pre-test, no significant increase was seen compared to Placebo + Exercise group (P<0.05. Between and within group comparison for the changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance was not significant. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training followed by PSO supplementation, except for HDL-C, has no significant effect on the other lipid profiles and insulin resistance in healthy non-athlete men.

  1. Protein supplementation before and after exercise does not further augment skeletal muscle hypertrophy after resistance training in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdijk, Lex B; Jonkers, Richard A M; Gleeson, Benjamin G; Beelen, Milou; Meijer, Kenneth; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Wodzig, Will K W H; Dendale, Paul; van Loon, Luc J C

    2009-02-01

    Considerable discrepancy exists in the literature on the proposed benefits of protein supplementation on the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training in the elderly. The objective was to assess the benefits of timed protein supplementation on the increase in muscle mass and strength during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in healthy elderly men who habitually consume adequate amounts of dietary protein. Healthy elderly men (n = 26) aged 72 +/- 2 y were randomly assigned to a progressive, 12-wk resistance-type exercise training program with (protein group) or without (placebo group) protein provided before and immediately after each exercise session (3 sessions/wk, 20 g protein/session). One-repetition maximum (1RM) tests were performed regularly to ensure a progressive workload during the intervention. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed at the whole-body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), limb (computed tomography), and muscle fiber (biopsy) level. The 1RM strength increased approximately 25-35% in both groups (P hypertrophy was greater in type II (placebo: 28 +/- 6%; protein: 29 +/- 4%) than in type I (placebo: 5 +/- 4%; protein: 13 +/- 6%) fibers, but the difference between groups was not significant. Timed protein supplementation immediately before and after exercise does not further augment the increase in skeletal muscle mass and strength after prolonged resistance-type exercise training in healthy elderly men who habitually consume adequate amounts of dietary protein. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00744094.

  2. Validity of Wearable Activity Monitors during Cycling and Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Benjamin D; Hebert, Edward P; Hollander, Daniel B; Williams, Brian M; Cormier, Corinne L; Naquin, Mildred R; Gillan, Wynn W; Gusew, Emily E; Kraemer, Robert R

    2018-03-01

    The use of wearable activity monitors has seen rapid growth; however, the mode and intensity of exercise could affect the validity of heart rate (HR) and caloric (energy) expenditure (EE) readings. There is a lack of data regarding the validity of wearable activity monitors during graded cycling regimen and a standard resistance exercise. The present study determined the validity of eight monitors for HR compared with an ECG and seven monitors for EE compared with a metabolic analyzer during graded cycling and resistance exercise. Fifty subjects (28 women, 22 men) completed separate trials of graded cycling and three sets of four resistance exercises at a 10-repetition-maximum load. Monitors included the following: Apple Watch Series 2, Fitbit Blaze, Fitbit Charge 2, Polar H7, Polar A360, Garmin Vivosmart HR, TomTom Touch, and Bose SoundSport Pulse (BSP) headphones. HR was recorded after each cycling intensity and after each resistance exercise set. EE was recorded after both protocols. Validity was established as having a mean absolute percent error (MAPE) value of ≤10%. The Polar H7 and BSP were valid during both exercise modes (cycling: MAPE = 6.87%, R = 0.79; resistance exercise: MAPE = 6.31%, R = 0.83). During cycling, the Apple Watch Series 2 revealed the greatest HR validity (MAPE = 4.14%, R = 0.80). The BSP revealed the greatest HR accuracy during resistance exercise (MAPE = 6.24%, R = 0.86). Across all devices, as exercise intensity increased, there was greater underestimation of HR. No device was valid for EE during cycling or resistance exercise. HR from wearable devices differed at different exercise intensities; EE estimates from wearable devices were inaccurate. Wearable devices are not medical devices, and users should be cautious when using these devices for monitoring physiological responses to exercise.

  3. Resistance and aerobic exercise protects against acute endothelial impairment induced by a single exposure to hypertension during exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shane A; Das, Emon; Wang, Jingli; Pritchard, Kirkwood; Gutterman, David D

    2011-04-01

    Resistance and aerobic exercise is recommended for cardiovascular health and disease prevention. However, the accompanying increase in arterial pressure during resistance exercise may be detrimental to vascular health. This study tests the vascular benefits of aerobic compared with resistance exercise on preventing impaired vascular function induced by a single weight lifting session that is associated with acute hypertension. Healthy, lean sedentary (SED) subjects, weight lifters, runners (>15 miles/wk), and cross trainers (chronic aerobic and resistance exercisers), underwent a single progressive leg press weight lifting session with blood pressure measurements. Brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD; an index of arterial endothelial function) was determined using ultrasonography immediately before and after weight lifting. Sublingual nitroglycerin (0.4 mg) was used to determine endothelium-independent dilation after weight lifting. All subjects were normotensive with similar blood pressure responses during exercise. Baseline FMD was lower in runners (5.4 ± 0.5%; n = 13) and cross trainers (4.44 ± 0.3%; n = 13) vs. SED (8.5 ± 0.8%; n = 13; P = 0.037). Brachial FMD improved in conditioned weight lifters (to 8.8 ± 0.9%; P = 0.007) and runners (to 7.6 ± 0.6%; P weight lifting in resistance and aerobic athletes. Resistance and aerobic exercise may confer similar protection against acute vascular insults such as exertional hypertension.

  4. The influence of muscle action on heart rate, RPE, and affective responses after upper-body resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul C; Hall, Eric E; Chmelo, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Jeffrey M; DeWitt, Rachel E; Kostura, Christine M

    2009-03-01

    Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are routinely used to monitor, assess, and prescribe aerobic exercise. Heart rate (HR) is another measure used to evaluate exercise intensity. Additionally, affective responses to aerobic exercise have been studied and seem to be influenced by the intensity of the exercise. The perceptual, HR, and affective responses to resistance exercise have not been effectively established. The purpose of this study was to examine whether differences in affect, RPE, and HR exist among college-aged women (n = 31) performing three different modes of resistance training: concentric (CE), eccentric (EE), and traditional concentric/eccentric (TE) performed at varying resistances. The women were asked to complete four sessions of resistance training on variable resistance machines: chest press, seated row, overhead press, and biceps curl. The first session was used to establish the 10-repetition maximum (RM) load for each station. Subsequent sessions involved the execution of training in one of the three test conditions: CE, EE, or TE. The participants performed three sets of each lift at 80% 10-RM, 100% 10-RM, and 120% 10-RM. The data revealed lower RPE during EE than the other test conditions. Similarly, EE elicited more mild HR response than either CE or TE. This finding is potentially important for the establishment of training programs, especially for those individuals recovering from an illness, who had been previously sedentary, and who are involved in rehabilitation of an injury.

  5. Influence of Very High Breathing Resistance on Exercise Tolerance, Part 1 - Dry Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    endurance times. 15. SUBJECT TERMS control of breathing , ventilation, CO2, carbon dioxide , hypercapnia, CO2 retention, dyspnea, exercise, performance...and D. Winters, "Effects of Carbon Dioxide and UBA-like Breathing Resistance on Exercise Endurance," Navy Experimental Diving Unit, Panama City, FL...Warkander and B. Shykoff, "Exercise carbon dioxide (CO2) retention with inhaled CO2 and breathing resistance," Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine

  6. A single alcohol drinking session is sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence. Here, we describe a two-bottle choice paradigm where C57BL/6 mice first had 24-h access to 15% alcohol or water. Afterward, they drank quinine-free alcohol (alcohol-only) or alcohol with quinine (100 μM), in a limited daily access (LDA) two-bottle-choice paradigm (2 h/day, 5 days/week, starting 3 h into the dark cycle), and achieved nearly binge-level blood alcohol concentrations. Interestingly, a single, initial 24-h experience with alcohol-only enhanced subsequent quinine-resistant drinking. In contrast, mice that drank alcohol-quinine in the 24-h session showed significantly reduced alcohol-quinine intake and preference during the subsequent LDA sessions, relative to mice that drank alcohol-only in the initial 24-h session and alcohol-quinine in LDA sessions. Thus, mice could find the concentration of quinine we used aversive, but were able to disregard the quinine after a single alcohol-only drinking session. Finally, mice had low intake and preference for quinine in water, both before and after weeks of alcohol-drinking sessions, suggesting that quinine resistance was not a consequence of increased quinine preference after weeks of drinking of alcohol-quinine. Together, we demonstrate that a single alcohol-only session was sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in C57BL/6 mice, which did not reflect changes in quinine taste palatability. Given the rapid development of quinine-resistant

  7. Effect of a single session of aerobic walking exercise on arterial pressure in community-living elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandra G; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that one exercise session (ES) on a cycloergometer or ergometric treadmill causes a reduction in blood pressure (BP). However, there are few similar studies on walking, which is the exercise modality most available to the elderly. We investigated the immediate and 24-h effects of walking on BP in independent, community-living elderly individuals. Volunteers participated in a single ES and resting control session (CS). Before and after each session, BP was measured by auscultatory and oscillometric methods. After each session, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted. An accelerometer was installed 48 h before the sessions and left in place for 5 days. The mean volunteer age was 67.7±3.5 years; 11 were hypertensive patients under treatment, and 12 were normotensive. In the total sample, there were immediate 14mm Hg and 12 mm Hg reductions in systolic BP (SBP) after the ES according to the auscultatory and oscillometric methods, respectively. Diastolic BP (DBP) was reduced by 4 mm Hg after the ES according to both methods. SBP during wakefulness and sleep and DBP during wakefulness were lower after the ES than after the CS (Psleep were determined individually (variable-time pattern) using data from the activity monitors and provided by the volunteers. The variable-time pattern was more effective in detecting reductions in BP than the fixed-time pattern.

  8. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program.

  9. Resistive Exercise for Arthritic Cartilage Health (REACH: A randomized double-blind, sham-exercise controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article provides the rationale and methodology, of the first randomised controlled trial to our knowledge designed to assess the efficacy of progressive resistance training on cartilage morphology in women with knee osteoarthritis. Development and progression of osteoarthritis is multifactorial, with obesity, quadriceps weakness, joint malalignment, and abnormal mechanical joint forces particularly relevant to this study. Progressive resistance training has been reported to improve pain and disability in osteoarthritic cohorts. However, the disease-modifying potential of progressive resistance training for the articular cartilage degeneration characteristic of osteoarthritis is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effect of high intensity progressive resistance training on articular cartilage degeneration in women with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Our cohort consisted of women over 40 years of age with primary knee osteoarthritis, according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria. Primary outcome was blinded measurement of cartilage morphology via magnetic resonance imaging scan of the tibiofemoral joint. Secondary outcomes included walking endurance, balance, muscle strength, endurance, power, and velocity, body composition, pain, disability, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Participants were randomized into a supervised progressive resistance training or sham-exercise group. The progressive resistance training group trained muscles around the hip and knee at 80% of their peak strength and progressed 3% per session, 3 days per week for 6 months. The sham-exercise group completed all exercises except hip adduction, but without added resistance or progression. Outcomes were repeated at 3 and 6 months, except for the magnetic resonance imaging scan, which was only repeated at 6 months. Discussion Our results will provide an evaluation of the disease-modifying potential of progressive

  10. A randomised study of the effects of supplemental exercise sessions after a 7-week chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneberg, Allan; Rasmussen, Mathilde; Buch, Tove Fedder; Wester, Anette; Malm, Laila; Fannikke, Gitte; Vest, Susanne

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have suggested that the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation programs tend to attenuate with time. We aimed to investigate the effects of supplemental exercise sessions following an initial 7-week COPD rehabilitation program with regard to exercise capacity and disease-specific quality of life (QoL). We performed a 7-week COPD rehabilitation program in 140 COPD patients. Patients (n = 118) who completed the initial program were randomised for additional six supervised supplemental exercise sessions or three follow-up examinations without exercise. Both groups were followed for 12 months. Primary end-points were QoL as measured by the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score and exercise capacity as measured by the endurance shuttle walking time (ESWT). A marked increase in ESWT (from 193 to 921 s) and a moderate decrease in total SGRQ score (2.5 points) was obtained during the initial 7 weeks rehabilitation program. The ESWT declined moderately and was 645 s at week 52 in both the intervention and control group. Unexpectedly, QoL increased slightly in the control group, while it decreased slightly in the intervention group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the observed changes in QoL or ESWT at any time point. In conclusion, a program of six supplemental exercise sessions following the initial 7-week COPD rehabilitation program did not have any effect on ESWT or QoL during a 1-year follow-up. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effects of two physiotherapy booster sessions on outcomes with home exercise in people with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Kyriakides, Mary; Hodges, Paul W; Hinman, Rana S

    2014-11-01

    Enhancing exercise adherence over the longer term is an important goal in self-management of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Following an initial period of more intensive exercise supervision, this study investigated whether 2 additional physiotherapy visits improved outcomes with continued home exercise over a subsequent 24-week period. A total of 78 people with medial knee OA (mean ± SD age 62.1 ± 6.9 years, mean ± SD body mass index 29.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2) , and radiographic disease severity 19% mild, 49% moderate, and 32% severe) who completed a 12-week physiotherapist-supervised exercise trial were randomly allocated to 2 30-minute physiotherapy booster sessions (delivered by 8 physiotherapists in private clinics) or no booster sessions for the subsequent 24 weeks. All participants were asked to continue home exercises 4 times weekly. Primary outcomes were change in pain, using a 100-mm visual analog scale, and self-reported physical function, measured using the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Participants and physiotherapists were unblinded to group allocation, although participants were blinded to the study hypothesis. A total of 74 participants (95%) completed the trial. There was no significant difference between groups for change in pain (mean difference [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] 0.7 mm [-9.4, 8.0]; P = 0.88) or physical function (-0.3 units [95% CI -4.0, 3.5]; P = 0.88). The mean ± SD percentage of home exercise sessions completed was 56% ± 34% in the booster group and 51% ± 37% in the control group (P > 0.05). Two booster sessions with a physiotherapist did not influence pain or physical function outcomes, or measures of home exercise adherence. These findings suggest other more effective strategies are needed to maximize longer-term adherence with the aim to achieve greater improvements in clinical outcomes from exercise in this patient population. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Compression garment promotes muscular strength recovery after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kazushige; Morishima, Takuma

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing a compression garment (CG) for 24 h on changes in muscular strength and blood parameters over time after resistance exercise. Nine trained men conducted resistance exercises (10 repetitions of 3-5 sets at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) for nine exercises) in two trials, wearing either a CG or a normal garment (CON) for 24 h after exercise. Recovery of muscular strength, blood parameters, muscle soreness, and upper arm and thigh circumference were compared between the trials. Both trials showed decreases in maximal strength after the exercise (P exercise (P strength was also improved in the CG trial 24 h after exercise (P exercise were similar in both trials. Wearing a CG after resistance exercise facilitates the recovery of muscular strength. Recovery for upper body muscles significantly improved within 3-8 h after exercise. However, facilitation of recovery of lower limb muscles by wearing the CG took a longer time.

  13. Promoting exercise maintenance: how interventions with booster sessions improve long-term rehabilitation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, Lena; Pomp, Sarah; Schwarzer, Ralf; Lippke, Sonia

    2013-11-01

    Follow-up intervention boosters are supposed to promote exercise maintenance beyond initial treatment. The current quasi-experimental study investigated the benefits of adding telephone-delivered intervention boosters to a self-management exercise intervention for rehabilitants. Psycho-social mechanisms by which the intervention boosters promote exercise maintenance were examined. Between 2009 and 2011, individuals in cardiac and orthopedic rehabilitation (N = 1,166) were allocated to either a self-management exercise intervention or a control group (i.e., questionnaire only). In addition to standard rehabilitation, participants in the intervention group were offered a series of telephone-delivered intervention boosters after 6 weeks and again after 6 months. Self-efficacy, action planning, and satisfaction with previous exercise outcomes were reassessed 12 months after discharge. Habit strength and exercise were measured 18 months after rehabilitation. The intervention with boosters promoted the maintenance of planning, self-efficacy, satisfaction, exercise, and habit strength. Changes in exercise were simultaneously mediated by changes in planning, self-efficacy, and satisfaction. Changes in habit strength were sequentially mediated by planning and exercise. Interventions with boosters that focus on action planning, self-efficacy, and satisfaction help to maintain self-directed postrehabilitation exercise. Frequent exercise performance, in turn, can strengthen exercise habits. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise programmes on smoking. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Abstract. Previous research on the cessation of smoking and the prevention of smoking recidivism using exercise training has mainly focused on aerobic training (AER).

  15. Strengthening the Gluteus Medius Using Various Bodyweight and Resistance Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Petr; Tufano, James J; Golas, Artur; Petr, Miroslav

    2016-06-01

    THE GLUTEUS MEDIUS (Gmed) IS AN IMPORTANT MUSCLE AND, IF WEAK, CAN CAUSE KNEE, HIP, OR LOWER-BACK PATHOLOGIES. THIS ARTICLE REVIEWS METHODS OF Gmed STRENGTH ASSESSMENT, PROVIDES EXERCISES THAT TARGET THE Gmed BASED ON ELECTROMYOGRAPHY, PRESENTS HOW TO IMPLEMENT Gmed STRENGTHENING IN HEAVY RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS, AND EXPLAINS THE IMPORTANCE OF INCLUDING THESE EXERCISES IN THESE PROGRAMS.

  16. Effect of one session endurance exhausting exercise on some coagulation markers of mature and immature wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadmehr MirdarHarijani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of thrombosis is lower in children and prepubertal period than adults. But its incidence increases in adolescence.The aim of this study was comparing the effect of one session of endurance exhaustive exercise in different times on some of coagulation systems markers in pre and after maturation wistar rats. Material and Methods: 27mature male wistar rats with 241±5 grams mean weight and 27 immature male rats with 97±5 grams mean weight which were 14 and 5 weeks old, respectively, after two weeks getting accustomed to the new environment and treadmill, were divided into one control and two exercising groups. Then, sampling was performed immediately and after 24 hours after exercise. Exhausting endurance exercise program involved increasing the speed of treadmill until getting exhausted. Fibrinogen, APTT, and PT were measured with the Clause and coagulation methods. The analysis was performed by using independent t-test, one-way variance analysis and tukey test. Significance level was assigned for all statistical analysis (p≤0.050. Results: Results in immature and mature rats groups indicated that amounts of fibrinogen has had significant reduction immediately after exercise (p=0.004, p=0.047, and 24 hours after exercise were significantly increased only in mature rats (p=0.000. Also, APTT in all groups decreased immediately and 24 hours after exercise but it was significant just 24 hours after exercise. Conclusion: Due to the increased fibrinogen and decreased APTT at 24 hours after exhaustive endurance exercise in mature and immature rats, it seems that performing such activities in children and inactive adults must be accompanied with special considerations.

  17. Changes of plasma angiogenic factors during chronic resistance exercise in type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, S.P.; Gharakhanlou, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Exercise has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic resistance exercise on some plasma angiogenic factors in type 1 diabetic rats. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, diabetic and diabetic trained (n = 10 each). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats in the trained group undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble form of VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) were determined. Results: We found a significant reduction in plasma NO concentrations in diabetic rats compared to the controls (p 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 concentrations between diabetic sedentary and trained groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, VEGF/sFlt-1 ratios in diabetic animals were lower than the control group and resistance exercise could not increase this ratio in diabetic animals (p > 0.05) Conclusion: Resistance exercise could not change plasma VEGF, sFlt-1 and VEGF/sFlt-1 ratio. However, it increased plasma NO concentrations in diabetic animals. More studies are needed to determine the effects of this type of exercise on the angiogenesis process. (author)

  18. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  19. Insulin resistance and exercise tolerance in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance has been linked to exercise intolerance in heart failure patients. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of coronary flow reserve (CFR), endothelial function and arterial stiffness in explaining this linkage.......Insulin resistance has been linked to exercise intolerance in heart failure patients. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of coronary flow reserve (CFR), endothelial function and arterial stiffness in explaining this linkage....

  20. The correlation of resistance exercise-induced myostatin with insulin resistance and plasma cytokines in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the correlation of resistance exercise (RE)-induced myostatin (MSTN) with insulin resistance and plasma cytokines in healthy young men. Twenty-four healthy men were randomly divided into RE (n = 12) and control (n = 12) group. After a session of familiarization, one repetition maximum (1-RM) was calculated. Circuit RE program involved 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 55 % of 1-RM. Blood samples were collected before and 24 h after the exercise. Paired t test, independent t test, and Pearson's correlation were used for analyzing data. A significant decrease in plasma level of MSTN, glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and a significant increase in plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) were found in RE group 24 h post-exercise versus pre-exercise (p healthy young men. In other word, the beneficial effect of acute RE may be reflected by changes in MSTN in healthy young individuals.

  1. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.M.; Bagatini, M.D.; Roth, M.A.; Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P.; Mello, F.F.; Lopes, L.F.D.; Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  2. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  3. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  4. Resistance exercise performed with repetitions until failure affects nocturnal blood pressure decreases in hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia de Almeida Correia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that resistance exercise reduces 24-hour blood pressure to levels below resting values, although this is not a universal finding. The number of repetitions has been shown to influence this response. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the effects of resistance exercise performed until failure (UF on 24-hour blood pressure in hypertensive women. Thirteen hypertensive women underwent three experimental sessions in random order: UF, resistance exercise with repetitions before concentric failure (BF and control (C. Prior to and up to 24 hours after the sessions, cardiovascular variables, as well as the nocturnal fall in blood pressure, the morning surge, and the presence or absence of a blood pressure dip pattern were established using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. In both wakefulness and sleep there was no significant difference among the three groups. However, after UF and C fewer patients presented a dip in blood pressure (46% and 38%, respectively compared BF (77%, p=0.047. In conclusion, the UF attenuated blood pressure dips at night in hypertensive patients.

  5. Heat sensitive persons with multiple sclerosis are more tolerant to resistance exercise than to endurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerbæk, Anders G; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jensen, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    -temperature (C(temp)) and changes in symptom intensity exists, and (b) that resistance exercise (RE), as a consequence of a minor increase in core temperature, will induce a lesser worsening of symptoms than endurance exercise (EE) in HS persons with MS. METHODS: On two separate days, 16 HS persons with MS...

  6. Benefits of a low intensity exercise programme during haemodialysis sessions in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Esteve Simo

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: (1 An adapted low intensity exercise programme improved muscle strength, functional capacity and health-related quality of life in our elderly patients on HD. (2 Our results highlight the benefits from exercise in HD patients even in this elderly population. (3 In elderly patients on HD, it is worth considering an adapted low intensity intradialytic exercise programme as a part of a comprehensive care.

  7. Construct and Concurrent Validation of a New Resistance Intensity Scale for Exercise with Thera-Band® Elastic Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Colado, Xavier Garcia-Masso, N. Travis Triplett, Joaquin Calatayud, Jorge Flandez, David Behm, Michael E. Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM and overall body (O ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB. Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise.

  8. A randomized cross-over trial to detect differences in arm volume after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Hayes, Sandi; Adamsen, Lis

    2016-01-01

    changes after resistance exercise with heavy loads in this population. The purpose of this study is to determine acute changes in arm volume after a session of low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema. METHODS......-20 repetition maximum) and heavy-load (three sets of 5-8 repetition maximum) upper-extremity resistance exercise session with a one week wash-out period between sessions. OUTCOME: Changes in extracellular fluid (L-Dex score) and arm volume (ml) will be assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual-energy x...... was calculated based on changes in L-Dex scores between baseline and 72-hours post exercise sessions. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study are relevant for exercise prescription guidelines, as well as recommendations regarding participating in activities of daily living for women following surgery for breast...

  9. Psychological Responses to Acute Aerobic, Resistance, or Combined Exercise in Healthy and Overweight Individuals: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Elkington

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological distress and depression are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. As such, a reduction in psychological distress and increase in positive well-being may be important to reduce the risk for future development of CVD. Exercise training may be a good strategy to prevent and assist in the management of psychological disorders. The psychological effects of the initial exercise sessions may be important to increase exercise adherence. The aims of this systematic review were (a to examine whether acute aerobic, resistance, or a combination of the 2 exercises improves psychological well-being and reduces psychological distress in individuals with healthy weight and those who are overweight/obese but free from psychological disorders, and (b if so, to examine which form of exercise might yield superior results. Methods: The online database PubMed was searched for articles using the PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome framework for finding scientific journals based on key terms. Results: Forty-two exercise studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 2187 participants were included (age: 18-64 years, body mass index [BMI]: 21-39 kg/m 2 . Only 6 studies included participants with a BMI in the overweight/obese classification. Thirty-seven studies included aerobic exercise, 2 included resistance exercise, 1 used a combination of aerobic and resistance, and 2 compared the effects of acute aerobic exercise versus the effects of acute resistance exercise. The main findings of the review were that acute aerobic exercise improves positive well-being and have the potential to reduce psychological distress and could help reduce the risks of future CVD. However, due to the limited number of studies, it is still unclear which form of exercise yields superior psychological benefits. Conclusions: Obese, overweight, and healthy weight individuals can exhibit psychological benefits from exercise in a single acute

  10. Psychological Responses to Acute Aerobic, Resistance, or Combined Exercise in Healthy and Overweight Individuals: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Thomas J; Cassar, Samantha; Nelson, André R; Levinger, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Psychological distress and depression are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As such, a reduction in psychological distress and increase in positive well-being may be important to reduce the risk for future development of CVD. Exercise training may be a good strategy to prevent and assist in the management of psychological disorders. The psychological effects of the initial exercise sessions may be important to increase exercise adherence. The aims of this systematic review were (a) to examine whether acute aerobic, resistance, or a combination of the 2 exercises improves psychological well-being and reduces psychological distress in individuals with healthy weight and those who are overweight/obese but free from psychological disorders, and (b) if so, to examine which form of exercise might yield superior results. Methods: The online database PubMed was searched for articles using the PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) framework for finding scientific journals based on key terms. Results: Forty-two exercise studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 2187 participants were included (age: 18-64 years, body mass index [BMI]: 21-39 kg/m2). Only 6 studies included participants with a BMI in the overweight/obese classification. Thirty-seven studies included aerobic exercise, 2 included resistance exercise, 1 used a combination of aerobic and resistance, and 2 compared the effects of acute aerobic exercise versus the effects of acute resistance exercise. The main findings of the review were that acute aerobic exercise improves positive well-being and have the potential to reduce psychological distress and could help reduce the risks of future CVD. However, due to the limited number of studies, it is still unclear which form of exercise yields superior psychological benefits. Conclusions: Obese, overweight, and healthy weight individuals can exhibit psychological benefits from exercise in a single acute exercise session

  11. Gravity-independent constant force resistive exercise unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosky, Jr., Paul E. (Inventor); Ruttley, Tara M. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention describes a novel gravity-independent exercise unit designed for use in microgravity, or on the ground, as a means by which to counter muscle atrophy and bone degradation due to disuse or underuse. Modular resistive packs comprising constant torque springs provide constant force opposing the withdrawal of an exercise cable from the device. In addition to uses within the space program, the compact resistive packs of the CFREU allow the unit to be small enough for easy use as a home gym for personal use, or as a supplement for rehabilitation programs. Resistive packs may be changed conveniently out of the CFREU according to the desired exercise regimen. Thus, the resistive packs replace the need for expensive, heavy, and bulky traditional weight plates. The CFREU may be employed by hospitals, rehabilitation and physical therapy clinics, and other related professional businesses.

  12. Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2014-06-01

    Concurrent training is defined as simultaneously incorporating both resistance and endurance exercise within a periodized training regime. Despite the potential additive benefits of combining these divergent exercise modes with regards to disease prevention and athletic performance, current evidence suggests that this approach may attenuate gains in muscle mass, strength, and power compared with undertaking resistance training alone. This has been variously described as the interference effect or concurrent training effect. In recent years, understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating training adaptation in skeletal muscle has emerged and provided potential mechanistic insight into the concurrent training effect. Although it appears that various molecular signaling responses induced in skeletal muscle by endurance exercise can inhibit pathways regulating protein synthesis and stimulate protein breakdown, human studies to date have not observed such molecular 'interference' following acute concurrent exercise that might explain compromised muscle hypertrophy following concurrent training. However, given the multitude of potential concurrent training variables and the limitations of existing evidence, the potential roles of individual training variables in acute and chronic interference are not fully elucidated. The present review explores current evidence for the molecular basis of the specificity of training adaptation and the concurrent interference phenomenon. Additionally, insights provided by molecular and performance-based concurrent training studies regarding the role of individual training variables (i.e., within-session exercise order, between-mode recovery, endurance training volume, intensity, and modality) in the concurrent interference effect are discussed, along with the limitations of our current understanding of this complex paradigm.

  13. The Use of Session RPE to Monitor the Intensity of Weight Training in Older Women: Acute Responses to Eccentric, Concentric, and Dynamic Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro S. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rating of perceived exertion (RPE is ability to detect and interpret organic sensations while performing exercises. This method has been used to measure the level of effort that is felt during weight-training at a given intensity. The purpose of this investigation was to compare session RPE values with those of traditional RPE measurements for different weight-training muscle actions, performed together or separately. Fourteen women with no former weight-training experience were recruited for the investigation. All participants completed five sessions of exercise: familiarization, maximum force, concentric-only (CONC-only, eccentric-only (ECC-only, and dynamic (DYN = CONC + ECC. The traditional RPE method was measured after each series of exercises, and the session RPE was measured 30 min after the end of the training session. The statistical analyses used were the paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and repeated measures analysis of variance. Significant differences between traditional RPE and session RPE for DYN, CONC, and ECC exercises were not found. This investigation demonstrated that session RPE is similar to traditional RPE in terms of weight-training involving concentric, eccentric, or dynamic muscle exercises, and that it can be used to prescribe and monitor weight-training sessions in older subjects.

  14. Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.

  15. Acute resistance exercise using free weights on aortic wave reflection characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu Lun; Gerhart, Hayden; Mayo, Xián; Kingsley, J Derek

    2018-01-01

    Aortic wave reflection characteristics such as the augmentation index (AIx), wasted left ventricular pressure energy (ΔE w ) and aortic haemodynamics, such as aortic systolic blood pressure (ASBP), strongly predict cardiovascular events. The effects of acute resistance exercise (ARE) using free-weight exercises on these characteristics are unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of acute free-weight resistance exercise on aortic wave reflection characteristics and aortic haemodynamics in resistance-trained individuals. Fifteen young, healthy resistance-trained (9 ± 3 years) individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions at 75% one repetition maximum for squat, bench press and deadlift. In CON, the participants rested in the supine position for 30 min. Measurements were made at baseline before sessions and 10 min after sessions. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effects of condition across time. There were no significant interactions for aortic or brachial blood pressures. Compared to rest, there were significant increases in augmentation pressure (rest: 5·7 ± 3·0 mmHg; recovery: 10·4 ± 5·7 mmHg, P = 0·002), AIx (rest: 116·8 ± 4·2%; recovery: 123·2 ± 8·4%, P = 0·002), AIx normalized at 75 bpm (rest: 5·2 ± 7·6%; recovery: 27·3 ± 13·2%, P<0·0001), ΔE w (rest: 1215 ± 674 dynes s cm -2 ; recovery: 2096 ± 1182 dynes s cm -2 , P = 0·008), and there was a significant decrease in transit time of the reflected wave (rest: 150·7 ± 5·8 ms; recovery 145·5 ± 5·6 ms, P<0·001) during recovery from ARE compared to CON. These data suggest that ARE using free-weight exercises may have no effect on aortic and brachial blood pressure but may significantly alter aortic wave reflection characteristics. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and

  16. Sleep quality improved following a single session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in older women: Results from a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor sleep quality is associated with adverse effects on health outcomes. It is not clear whether exercise can improve sleep quality and whether intensity of exercise affects any of the effects. Methods Fifteen healthy, non-obese (body mass index = 24.4 ± 2.1 kg/m2, mean ± SD), sedentary (exercise on no more than 3 times/week) older women (66.1 ± 3.9 years) volunteered for the study. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was evaluated using a graded exercise test on a treadmill with a metabolic cart. Following a 7-day baseline period, each participant completed two exercise sessions (separated by 1 week) with equal caloric expenditure, but at different intensities (60% and 45% VO2peak, sequence randomized) between 9:00 and 11:00 am. A wrist ActiGraph monitor was used to assess sleep at baseline and two nights following each exercise session. Results The average duration of the exercise was 54 and 72 min, respectively at 60% (moderate-intensity) and 45% VO2peak (light-intensity). Wake time after sleep onset was significantly shorter (p = 0.016), the number of awakenings was less (p = 0.046), and total activity counts were lower (p = 0.05) after the moderate-intensity exercise compared to baseline no-exercise condition. Conclusion Our data showed that a single moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session improved sleep quality in older women. PMID:25685605

  17. Sleep quality improved following a single session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in older women: Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2014-12-01

    Poor sleep quality is associated with adverse effects on health outcomes. It is not clear whether exercise can improve sleep quality and whether intensity of exercise affects any of the effects. Fifteen healthy, non-obese (body mass index = 24.4 ± 2.1 kg/m 2 , mean ± SD), sedentary (exercise on no more than 3 times/week) older women (66.1 ± 3.9 years) volunteered for the study. Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak ) was evaluated using a graded exercise test on a treadmill with a metabolic cart. Following a 7-day baseline period, each participant completed two exercise sessions (separated by 1 week) with equal caloric expenditure, but at different intensities (60% and 45% VO 2peak , sequence randomized) between 9:00 and 11:00 am. A wrist ActiGraph monitor was used to assess sleep at baseline and two nights following each exercise session. The average duration of the exercise was 54 and 72 min, respectively at 60% (moderate-intensity) and 45% VO 2peak (light-intensity). Wake time after sleep onset was significantly shorter ( p = 0.016), the number of awakenings was less ( p = 0.046), and total activity counts were lower ( p = 0.05) after the moderate-intensity exercise compared to baseline no-exercise condition. Our data showed that a single moderate-intensity aerobic exercise session improved sleep quality in older women.

  18. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  19. Hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises. This study also sought to assess differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle activation ratios and gender differences therein. A randomized repeated measures design was used to compare six resistance training exercises that are commonly believed to train the hamstrings, including the squat, seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg stiff leg dead lift, good morning, and Russian curl. Subjects included 34 college athletes. Outcome measures included the biceps femoris (H) and rectus femoris (Q) electromyography (EMG) and the H-to-Q EMG ratio, for each exercise. Main effects were found for the H (P ratio when analyzed for all subjects (P ratios of men, for the exercises assessed. In a separate analysis of strength matched women and men, women achieved between 35.9 to 76.0% of the H-to-Q ratios of men, for these exercises. Hamstring resistance training exercises offer differing degrees of H and Q activation and ratios. Women compared with men, are less able to activate the hamstrings and/or more able to activate the quadriceps. Women may require disproportionately greater training for the hamstrings compared with the quadriceps.

  20. Muscle metabolism during intense, heavy-resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P A; Colliander, E B; Kaiser, P

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the muscle metabolic changes occurring during intense and prolonged, heavy-resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of 9 strength trained athletes before and 30 s after an exercise regimen comprising 5 sets each of front squats, back squats, leg presses and knee extensions using barbell or variable resistance machines. Each set was executed until muscle failure, which occurred within 6-12 muscle contractions. The exercise: rest ratio was approximately 1:2 and the total performance time was 30 min. Concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP), creatine, glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), alpha-glycerophosphate (alpha-G-P) and lactate were determined on freeze-dried tissue samples using fluorometric assays. Blood samples were analyzed for lactate and glucose. The exercise produced significant reductions in ATP (p less than 0.01) and CP (p less than 0.001), while alpha-G-P more than doubled (p less than 0.05), glucose increased tenfold (p less than 0.001) and G-6-P fourfold (p less than 0.001). Muscle lactate concentration at cessation of exercise averaged 17.3 mmol X kg-1 w. w. Glycogen concentration decreased (p less than 0.001) from 160 to 118 mmol X kg-1 w. w. It is concluded that high intensity, heavy resistance exercise is associated with a high rate of energy utilization through phosphagen breakdown and activation of glycogenolysis.

  1. Resistance exercises in lipemic regulation: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rebolledo Cobos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the review study was to describe the metabolic effects of resistance exercises with a potential association with lipid metabolism and thus, its possible role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It was based on the literature with greater scientific relevance. The main results argue that, despite having less published studies aerobics, exercises based on the maturity of external resistors for strength training or resistance exercises, they have a positive influence on lipid metabolism, primarily hours after Have been executed. Some of the findings in healthy populations conclude that this type of exercise, in addition to an increase in muscle functional and neurophysiological properties, leads to an increase in plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol, in addition to promoting the reduction of total cholesterol and LDL, mainly in periods postprandial. The physiological implications of resistance exercises on the activity of enzymes with a role in lipid metabolism are not conclusive. Due to the high variability in prescribing this form of exercise, more studies may elucidate the effect of different volumes, intensities and doses of lipemic variables in healthy populations or special conditions are needed.

  2. Resistance Exercises for Health and Function - NoScript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let’s get started… First & Foremost…. “Tie-it-up”! This stabilizes your core and provides a solid foundation for resistance exercises. This is a two step process: 1st – close the pelvic floor. For men… as though you are stopping the flow of urine, it is the same for ladies but more commonly referred to as Kegel exercises. 2nd – While doing the above, tighten the lower abs (like you are preparing to be punched in the stomach). Be sure to “Tie-it-up” before doing all exercises.

  3. Determination of metabolic equivalents during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise in healthy young subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zanuso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the metabolic equivalents (METs of resistance exercise in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM and healthy young subjects and to evaluate whether there were differences between sessions executed at low- versus high-intensity resistance exercise. Twenty obese patients with T2DM (62.9±6.1 years and 22 young subjects (22.6±1.9 years performed two training sessions: one at vigorous intensity (80% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM and one at moderate intensity (60% of 1RM. Both groups carried out three strength exercises with a 2-day recovery between sessions. Oxygen consumption was continuously measured 15 min before, during and after each training session. Obese T2DM patients showed lower METs values compared with young healthy participants at the baseline phase (F= 2043.86; P<0.01, during training (F=1140.59; P<0.01 and in the post-exercise phase (F=1012.71; P<0.01. No effects were detected in the group x intensity analysis of covariance. In this study, at both light-moderate and vigorous resistance exercise intensities, the METs value that best represented both sessions was 3 METs for the obese elderly T2DM patients and 5 METs for young subjects.

  4. Exercise and obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Bum Kwak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal muscle in our body is a major site for bioenergetics and metabolism during exercise. Carbohydrates and fats are the primary nutrients that provide the necessary energy required to maintain cellular activities during exercise. The metabolic responses to exercise in glucose and lipid regulation depend on the intensity and duration of exercise. Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, recent studies have focused on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Accumulation of intramyocellular lipid may lead to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. In addition, lipid intermediates (e.g., fatty acyl-coenzyme A, diacylglycerol, and ceramide impair insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Recently, emerging evidence linking obesity-induced insulin resistance to excessive lipid oxidation, mitochondrial overload, and mitochondrial oxidative stress have been provided with mitochondrial function. This review will provide a brief comprehensive summary on exercise and skeletal muscle metabolism, and discuss the potential mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  5. Comparison of the effect of multiple short-duration with single long-duration exercise sessions on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L; Dahl-Petersen, I; Haugaard, Steen B

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated and compared the effects on glycaemic control of two different exercise protocols in elderly men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Eighteen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus carried out home-based bicycle training for 5 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned...... glucose OGTT (p = 0.04) and plasma glucose concentration areas under the curve at 120 min (p exercise groups...... increased similarly in both exercise groups. A possible explanation is that the energy expenditure associated with multiple short daily sessions may be greater than that in a single daily session. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  6. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  7. Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4) and Topical Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The INEX-4 consequence management exercise, part of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's ongoing series of International Nuclear Emergency Exercises (INEX), was developed under the auspices of the NEA/CRPPH Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM) in response to members desire to better prepare for the longer-term response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. The INEX-4 exercise was designed to allow participants to investigate the national and, in some cases, international arrangements for responding to widespread radiological contamination of the urban environment from a radiological dispersal device (or dirty bomb) and the consequence management issues likely to be raised in the medium to longer term after such an event. The experiences of participating countries were gathered through an evaluation questionnaire and are summarised in this report. The INEX-4 series was developed in 2008, and conducted throughout 2010 and 2011 with 17 participating countries using the INEX-4 scenario for an event involving a radiological dispersal device. An INEX-4 evaluation questionnaire was developed to document the process and results of the exercise, which was designed mainly to test emergency responses/actions related to consequence management and transition to recovery. The conclusions drawn from the INEX-4 experiences varied greatly, but this was to be expected given the nature of the scenario and the involvement of organisations outside of the nuclear community. The evaluation questionnaires completed by each participating country provided detailed information on the national approaches taken with respect to each of the exercise objectives and on issues relating to the international interfaces between countries. In collaboration with the NEA Secretariat, staff from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed each completed questionnaire to identify and summarise the essential information derived from the exercise for consideration by WPNEM members

  8. Insulin resistance: vascular function and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Moon-Hyon Hwang; Sewon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance associated with metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an epidemic metabolic disorder, which increases the risk of cardiovascular complications. Impaired vascular endothelial function is an early marker for atherosclerosis, which causes cardiovascular complications. Both experimental and clinical studies indicate that endothelial dysfunction in vasculatures occurs with insulin resistance. The associated physiological mechanisms are not fully appreciated yet, how...

  9. Resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zuyao; Scott, Catherine A; Mao, Chen; Tang, Jinling; Farmer, Andrew J

    2014-04-01

    Resistance and aerobic exercises are both recommended as effective treatments for people with type 2 diabetes. However, the optimum type of exercise for the disease remains to be determined to inform clinical decision-making and facilitate personalized exercise prescription. Our objective was to investigate whether resistance exercise is comparable to aerobic exercise in terms of effectiveness and safety in people with type 2 diabetes. PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and SPORTdiscus were systematically searched up to March 2013. The reference lists of eligible studies and relevant reviews were also checked. We used the following criteria to select studies for inclusion in the review: (i) the study was a randomized controlled trial; (ii) the participants were people with type 2 diabetes aged 18 years or more; (iii) the trial compared resistance exercise with aerobic exercise for a duration of at least 8 weeks, with pre-determined frequency, intensity, and duration; and (iv) the trial provided relevant data on at least one of the following: glycaemic control, blood lipids, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fitness, health status, and adverse events. The assessment of study quality was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. For effectiveness measures, differences (resistance group minus aerobic group) in the changes from baseline with the two exercises were combined, using a random-effects model wherever possible. For adverse events, the relative risks (resistance group vs. aerobic group) were combined. Twelve trials (n = 626) were included. Following the exercise interventions, there was a greater reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin with aerobic exercise than with resistance exercise (difference 0.18% (1.97 mmol/mol), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01, 0.36). This difference became non-significant with sensitivity analysis (p = 0.14). The differences in changes from baseline were also statistically significant for body mass index (difference 0.22, 95% CI 0

  10. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. However, despite suggestions that caffeine may enhance resistance exercise performance, research is equivocal on the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. It has also been suggested that dampened perception of perceived exertion and pain perception might be an explanation for any possible enhancement of resistance exercise performance due to caffeine ingestion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on repetitions to failure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise to failure. Eleven resistance trained individuals (9 males, 2 females, mean age±SD=26.4±6.4 years), took part in this double-blind, randomised cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested a caffeinated (5 mg kg(-1)) or placebo solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise. Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Resistance exercise sessions consisted of bench press, deadlift, prone row and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1 repetition maximum. Results indicated that participants completed significantly greater repetitions to failure, irrespective of exercise, in the presence of caffeine (p=0.0001). Mean±S.D of repetitions to failure was 19.6±3.7 and 18.5±4.1 in caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively. There were no differences in peak heart rate or peak blood lactate values across conditions (both p >0.05). RPE was significantly lower in the caffeine compared to the placebo condition (p=0.03) and was significantly higher during lower body exercises compared to upper body exercises irrespective of substance ingested (p=0.0001). For muscle pain perception, a significant condition by exercise interaction (p=0.027) revealed that muscle pain perception was lower in the caffeine condition, irrespective of exercise

  11. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Grigas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke.

  12. Hypotensive response after water-walking and land-walking exercise sessions in healthy trained and untrained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocalini DS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Rodriguez1, Valter Silva2, Jonato Prestes3, Roberta Luksevicius Rica4, Andrey Jorge Serra5, Danilo Sales Bocalini6, Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior71São Judas Tadeu University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2College of Physical Education of Sorocaba, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil; 3Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia-DF, Brazil; 4Department of Physical Education, Arbos College, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 5Department of Physical Education and Laboratory of Rehabilitation Science, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 6Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 7School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilBackground: The aim of this study was to compare post-exercise hypotension after acute sessions of water-walking and land-walking in healthy trained and untrained women.Methods: Twenty-three untrained (n = 12 and trained (n = 11 normotensive women performed two walking sessions in water and on land at 40% of peak VO2 for 45 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were measured 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the exercise sessions.Results: No differences were found between the groups for age and anthropometric parameters, but peak VO2 for the trained women (45 ± 8 mL/kg/minute was higher than for the untrained women (31 ± 3 mL/kg/minute. No differences were found between the groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after water immersion. The heart rate in the trained group (62 ± 3 beats per minute [bpm] was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than in the untrained group (72 ± 4 bpm on land, and after water immersion, this difference disappeared (58 ± 5 bpm in the trained women and 66 ± 5 bpm in the untrained women. Sixty minutes after water-walking, systolic blood pressure (108 ± 8 mmHg vs

  13. Salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to resistance and plyometric exercise in 12- to 14-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klentrou, Panagiota; Giannopoulou, Angeliki; McKinlay, Brandon J; Wallace, Phillip; Muir, Cameron; Falk, Bareket; Mack, Diane

    2016-07-01

    This study examined changes in salivary testosterone and cortisol following resistance and plyometric exercise protocols in active boys. In a crossover experimental design, 26 peri-pubertal (12- to 14-year-old) soccer players performed 2 exercise trials in random order, on separate evenings, 1 week apart. Each trial included a 30 min control session followed by 30 min of either resistance or plyometric exercise. Saliva was collected at baseline, post-control (i.e., pre-exercise), and 5 and 30 min post-exercise. There were no significant differences in the baseline hormone concentrations between trials or between weeks (p > 0.05). A significant effect for time was found for testosterone (p = 0.02, [Formula: see text] = 0.14), which increased from pre-exercise to 5 min post-exercise in both the resistance (27% ± 5%) and plyometric (12% ± 6%) protocols. Cortisol decreased to a similar extent in both trials (p = 0.009, [Formula: see text] = 0.19) from baseline to post-control and then to 5 min post-exercise, following its typical circadian decrease in the evening hours. However, a significant protocol-by-time interaction was observed for cortisol, which increased 30 min after the plyometrics (+31% ± 12%) but continued to decrease following the resistance protocol (-21% ± 5%). Our results suggest that in young male athletes, multiple modes of exercise can lead to a transient anabolic state, thus maximizing the beneficial effects on growth and development, when exercise is performed in the evening hours.

  14. Effect of early supervised progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised home-based exercise after fast-track total hip replacement applied to patients with preoperative functional limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L R; Mechlenburg, I; Søballe, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if 2 weekly sessions of supervised progressive resistance training (PRT) in combination with 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise is more effective than 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise in improving leg-extension power of the operated leg...... 10 weeks after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with lower pre-operative function. METHOD: A total of 73 patients scheduled for THR were randomised (1:1) to intervention group (IG, home based exercise 5 days/week and PRT 2 days/week) or control group (CG, home based exercise 7 days...... of the operated leg, at the primary endpoint 10 weeks after surgery in THR patients with lower pre-operative function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01214954....

  15. Effectiveness of resisted abdominal exercise versus resisted diaphragmatic breathing exercise on cardio vascular endurance in sports men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Gopaladhas, Anilkumar Panigrah, Elanchezhian Chinnavan, Rishikesavan Ragupathy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ackground and Purpose: The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of resisted abdominal exercise and resisted diaphragmatic breathing exercise on cardiovascular endurance to prescribe a fitness program. Study design and setting: Experimental study, YMCA Fitness Foundation Academy, Pachaiyappa Arts and Science College. Study Sample: 30 sports men. Inclusion criteria: Sportsmen with the age group of 18-30 years. Exclusion Criteria: Individuals with postural deviations like scoliosis, Kyphosis, cardiovascular diseases like history of rheumatic heart disease, obstructive lung diseases, vascular problem in lower limb. Tools: Step up and step down endurance test Procedure: 30 individuals are divided into two groups. Group-I was taught resisted diaphragmatic breathing exercise. Group-II was taught resisted abdominal exercise. Pre-test values of step up and step down, endurance level of athletes were assessed and documented. Total duration of the study is 8 weeks. At the end of 8th week post-test endurance were reassessed using step test. Results: Paired t test was used to analyze the effect of cardiovascular endurance. The post test mean values of all the variables of group-I were improved than that of group-II (p<0.005. Conclusion: Resisted diaphragm breathing has shown improvement in cardiovascular endurance in sports men.

  16. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.

  17. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M, warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M, WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE was measured. Also, heart rate (HR, systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and rate pressure product (RPP were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise.

  18. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Purabed, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion) responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M), warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M), WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured. Also, heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise.

  19. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Purabed, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion) responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M), warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M), WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured. Also, heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise. PMID:26464896

  20. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  1. Understanding Resistance to Change: The Jefferson Company Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anne H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a four-character role-play exercise designed to show how employee and management resistance to change can hinder the implementation of an organizational change effort. The Jefferson Company is an old-line printing firm with new partners that must change its technology, equipment, and operating procedures in the face of increased…

  2. Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Melov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (sarcopenia. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to sarcopenia. We evaluated whether healthy aging was associated with a transcriptional profile reflecting mitochondrial impairment and whether resistance exercise could reverse this signature to that approximating a younger physiological age. Skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy older (N = 25 and younger (N = 26 adult men and women were compared using gene expression profiling, and a subset of these were related to measurements of muscle strength. 14 of the older adults had muscle samples taken before and after a six-month resistance exercise-training program. Before exercise training, older adults were 59% weaker than younger, but after six months of training in older adults, strength improved significantly (P<0.001 such that they were only 38% lower than young adults. As a consequence of age, we found 596 genes differentially expressed using a false discovery rate cut-off of 5%. Prior to the exercise training, the transcriptome profile showed a dramatic enrichment of genes associated with mitochondrial function with age. However, following exercise training the transcriptional signature of aging was markedly reversed back to that of younger levels for most genes that were affected by both age and exercise. We conclude that healthy older adults show evidence of mitochondrial impairment and muscle weakness, but that this can be partially reversed at the phenotypic level, and substantially reversed at the transcriptome level, following six months of resistance exercise training.

  3. Musculoskeletal adaptations to training with the advanced resistive exercise device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, James A; Lee, Stuart M C; English, Kirk L; Sibonga, Jean; Smith, Scott M; Spiering, Barry A; Hagan, R Donald

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been used as a means to prevent the musculoskeletal losses associated with spaceflight. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration designed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to replace the initial device flown on the International Space Station. The ARED uses vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to simulate, in the absence of gravity, the constant mass and inertia, respectively, of free weight (FW) exercise. To compare the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise training using the ARED with the effects of training with FW. Previously untrained, ambulatory subjects exercised using one of two modalities: FW (6 men and 3 women) or ARED (8 men and 3 women). Subjects performed squat, heel raise, and dead lift exercises 3 d·wk(-1) for 16 wk. Squat, heel raise, and dead lift strength (one-repetition maximum; using FW and ARED), bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and vertical jump were assessed before, during, and after training. Muscle mass (via magnetic resonance imaging) and bone morphology (via quantitative computed tomography) were measured before and after training. Bone biomarkers and circulating hormones were measured before training and after 4, 8, and 16 wk. Muscle strength, muscle volume, vertical jump height, and lumbar spine bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography) significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the dependent variables at any time. After 16 wk of training, ARED exercise resulted in musculoskeletal effects that were not significantly different from the effects of training with FW. Because FW training mitigates bed rest-induced deconditioning, the ARED may be an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced deconditioning and should be validated during spaceflight.

  4. Acute Effects of 30 Minutes Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Cognition in a High School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harveson, Andrew T.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Podlog, Leslie; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Durrant, Lynne H.; Hall, Morgan S.; Kang, Kyoung-doo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in cognition between acute bouts of resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, and a nonexercise control in an untrained youth sample. Method: Ninety-four participants performed 30 min of aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or nonexercise separated by 7 days each in a randomized…

  5. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J.; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J.; de Oliveira, Juliana C. M. F.; Delbin, Maria A.; Mostarda, Cristiano T.; Dourado, Paulo M. M.; Caperuto, Érico C.; Irigoyen, Maria C. C.; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI. PMID:29483876

  6. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele J. Feriani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont; sedentary infarcted (Inf; PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P; infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT; and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P. After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water, hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI.

  7. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J; de Oliveira, Juliana C M F; Delbin, Maria A; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Dourado, Paulo M M; Caperuto, Érico C; Irigoyen, Maria C C; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR - treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15-20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI.

  8. Testosterone, growth hormone and IGF-I responses to acute and chronic resistive exercise in men aged 55-70 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, B J; Ryan, A J; Treuth, M M; Harman, S M; Blackman, M R; Hurley, B F; Rogers, M A

    1995-10-01

    We investigated the responses of serum testosterone (T) and human growth hormone (hGH) concentrations to a bout of heavy resistive exercise and the responses of T, hGH, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to a 16 wk progressive resistive training program in 13 men (60 +/- 4 yrs). Body composition via hydrostatic weighing and muscle strength using a 3 repetition maximum (3RM) test on 6 variable resistance exercise machines were assessed before and after the training program. Fasting blood samples were drawn on 2 consecutive days prior to training and again on 2 consecutive days after the last day of exercise. Blood was also drawn immediately before and approximately 10 min after a single exercise session during the first wk of training, and after an exercise session of the same relative resistance during the last wk of training. The training program resulted in a 37% increase in upper body strength and a 39% increase in lower body strength (both p hGH, and IGF-I were unaffected by the training program. We conclude that an acute bout of resistive exercise causes a substantial hGH response in older men, but 16 wks of progressive resistive training does not affect baseline concentrations of the anabolic hormones.

  9. The effect of resistance exercise on sleep: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Ana; Mavros, Yorgi; Heisz, Jennifer J; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-06-01

    Impaired sleep quality and quantity are associated with future morbidity and mortality. Exercise may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve sleep, however, little is known on the effect of resistance exercise. Thus, we performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on sleep quantity and quality. Thirteen studies were included. Chronic resistance exercise improves all aspects of sleep, with the greatest benefit for sleep quality. These benefits of isolated resistance exercise are attenuated when resistance exercise is combined with aerobic exercise and compared to aerobic exercise alone. However, the acute effects of resistance exercise on sleep remain poorly studied and inconsistent. In addition to the sleep benefits, resistance exercise training improves anxiety and depression. These results suggest that resistance exercise may be an effective intervention to improve sleep quality. Further research is needed to better understand the effects of acute resistance exercise on sleep, the physiological mechanisms underlying changes in sleep, the changes in sleep architecture with chronic resistance exercise, as well its efficacy in clinical cohorts who commonly experience sleep disturbance. Future studies should also examine time-of-day and dose-response effects to determine the optimal exercise prescription for sleep benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S W; Dudley, G A

    2001-11-01

    We tested the null hypothesis that creatine monohydrate loading (20 g per day for 7 days, n = 18) would not alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with loading with placebo (n = 13) in resistance-trained subjects. For the entire study group, the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 5-set performance (the number of repetitions) for unilateral, dynamic knee extension increased slightly (2% and 5%, respectively) after dietary supplementation, and these responses did not differ by condition. Maximal voluntary isometric torque and the rate of torque development did not change. During electromyostimulation, torque development and relaxation time were also unaffected. Our data suggest that creatine loading does not augment unilateral strength or multiset resistance exercise performance for knee extensions compared with placebo loading.

  11. Resistance exercise training increases the expression of irisin concomitant with improvement of muscle function in aging mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jae; So, Byunghun; Choi, Mijung; Kang, Dongheon; Song, Wook

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effect of resistance training on irisin expression with improvement in muscle strength and function in aged mice and human. In the mice study, 19 months old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into two groups; control group and resistance exercise group. Ladder climbing exercise with tail weight was performed 3 days per week for 12 weeks. In the human study, participants (aged over 65 years) were randomly assigned into exercise group or control group. Elastic band exercise program consisted of 12 weeks of 1-h session 2 days per week. In the mice study, we found an increase of irisin in serum and soleus muscle as well as improvement in muscle strength (p=0.02) and muscle quality (p=0.03) without body composition change in training animals. In the human study, isokinetic leg strength and grip strength were improved in the exercise group compared to the control group without change of body composition. In addition, the level of circulating irisin level was increased. It had a positive correlation with grip strength (R=0.526, p=0.002) and leg strength (R=0.414, p=0.003) in the exercise group. Thus, resistant training might be an efficient intervention method to increase irisin levels and prevent age-related decline in muscle function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ingestion of an Amino Acid Electrolyte Beverage during Resistance Exercise Does Not Impact Fluid Shifts into Muscle or Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnEric W. Smith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ingesting an amino acid-electrolyte (AAE beverage during upper body resistance exercise on transient muscle hypertrophy, exercise performance, markers of muscle damage, and recovery. Participants (n = 15 performed three sets of six repetitions—bench press, lat pull down, incline press, and seated row—followed by three sets of eight repetitions at 75% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum—triceps kickback, hammer curl, triceps push down, and preacher curl—with 90 s of rest between sets. The final set of the push down/preacher curl was performed to failure. Prior to and immediately post-exercise, as well as 24, 48, and 72 h post exercise, cross-sectional muscle thickness was measured. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise, as well as 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise for serum creatine kinase (CK analysis. No treatment effect was found for muscle cross-sectional area, repetitions to failure, or serum CK. A main effect (p < 0.001 was observed in the change in serum CK levels in the days following the resistance exercise session. The findings of this study suggest that the acute ingestion of a AAE beverage does not alter acute muscle thickness, performance, perceived soreness and weakness, or markers of muscle damage.

  13. Cardiovascular responses of peripheral artery disease patients during resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Ferreira Gomes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resistance training has been used for the treatment of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD. However, cardiovascular responses during this type of exercise have not been fully elucidated in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the cardiovascular responses during resistance exercise and to verify whether there are any correlations between these responses and disease severity or blood pressure levels in patients with PAD. METHODS: Seventeen PAD patients performed one set of 10 repetitions of knee extension exercise with an intensity of 50% of one repetition maximum. The responses of systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and heart rate (HR were continuously monitored using the finger photoplethysmography technique. The rate-pressure product (RPP was obtained by multiplication of SBP and HR. RESULTS: During the resistance exercises there were significant increases in SBP (126 ± 14 vs. 184 ± 20 mmHg, p<0.001, DBP (68 ± 8 vs. 104 ± 14 mmHg, p<0.001, HR (76 ± 18 vs. 104 ± 30 bpm, p<0.001 and RPP (9523 ± 2115 vs. 19103 ± 6098 mmHg x bpm, p<0.001. A negative correlation was observed between relative change (Δ in SBP and SBP at rest (r =-0.549, p=0.022. On the other hand, there was no relationship between Δ SBP and the ankle-brachial index (r=0.076, p=0.771. CONCLUSION: Increases in cardiovascular variables were observed during resistance exercise in PAD patients. The highest increases occurred in patients with lower SBP levels at resting.

  14. Does a single bout of resistance or aerobic exercise after insulin dose reduction modulate glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes? A randomised cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Brett A; Bird, Stephen R; MacIsaac, Richard J; Benson, Amanda C

    2016-10-01

    Regular exercise is advocated for individuals with type 2 diabetes, without fully understanding the acute (0-72h post-exercise) glycaemic response. This study assessed post-exercise glycaemic profiles of non-exercising individuals with insulin treated type 2 diabetes, following resistance and aerobic exercise. Randomised cross-over trial. Fourteen individuals with insulin treated type 2 diabetes (9 males, 5 females) aged 58.1±7.1 years (HbA1c: 8.0±0.6%) were allocated to single sessions of resistance (six whole-body exercises, three sets, 8-10 repetitions, 70% 1RM) and aerobic (30min cycling, 60% VO2peak) exercise, 7-days apart, with the day prior to the first exercise day of each intervention being the control condition. Immediately prior to exercise, insulin dosage was halved and breakfast consumed. Continuous glucose monitoring was undertaken to determine area under the curve and glucose excursions. Blood glucose initially increased (0-2h) following both resistance and aerobic exercise (paerobic (211±40 mmolL(-1)24h(-1)) exercise (p=0.56). Incidence of hyperglycaemia did not differ between exercise modes (p=0.68). Hypoglycaemic events were identified in three and four participants following resistance and aerobic exercise respectively: these did not require treatment. Glycaemic response is not different between exercise modes, although 50% insulin dose reduction prior to exercise impairs the expected improvement. A common clinical recommendation of 50% insulin dose reduction does not appear to cause adverse glycaemic events. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. EFFECT OF A PRE-WORKOUT ENERGY SUPPLEMENT ON ACUTE MULTI-JOINT RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a pre-workout energy supplement on acute multi- joint resistance exercise was examined in eight resistance-trained college-age men. Subjects were randomly provided either a placebo (P or a supplement (S: containing caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, creatine, β-alanine, and the amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, valine, glutamine and arginine 10 minutes prior to resistance exercise. Subjects performed 4 sets of no more than 10 repetitions of either barbell squat or bench press at 80% of their pre-determined 1 repetition- maximum (1RM with 90 seconds of rest between sets. Dietary intake 24 hours prior to each of the two training trials was kept constant. Results indicate that consuming the pre-workout energy drink 10 minutes prior to resistance exercise enhances performance by significantly increasing the number of repetitions successfully performed (p = 0.022 in S (26.3 ± 9.2 compared to P (23.5 ± 9.4. In addition, the average peak and mean power performance for all four sets was significantly greater in S compared to P (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively. No differences were observed between trials in subjective feelings of energy during either pre (p = 0.660 or post (p = 0.179 meaures. Similary, no differences between groups, in either pre or post assessments, were observed in subjective feelings of focus (p = 0.465 and p = 0.063, respectively, or fatigue (p = 0.204 and p = 0.518, respectively. Results suggest that acute ingestion of a high-energy supplement 10 minutes prior to the onset of a multi-joint resistance training session can augment training volume and increase power performance during the workout

  16. EFFECT OF IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED COLD WATER IMMERSION AFTER A HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE SESSION ON SUBSEQUENT RUN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Brophy-Williams

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of cold water immersion (CWI performed immediately or 3 h after a high intensity interval exercise session (HIIS on next-day exercise performance. Eight male athletes performed three HIIS at 90%VO2max velocity followed by either a passive recovery (CON, CWI performed immediately post-exercise (CWI(0 or CWI performed 3 h post-exercise (CWI(3. Recovery trials were performed in a counter balanced manner. Participants then returned 24 h later and completed a muscle soreness and a totally quality recovery perception (TQRP questionnaire, which was then followed by the Yoyo Intermittent Recovery Test [level 1] (YRT. Venous blood samples were collected pre-HIIS and pre-YRT to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP levels. Significantly more shuttles were performed during the YRT following CWI(0 compared to the CON trial (p=0.017, ES = 0. 8, while differences between the CWI(3 and the CON trials approached significance (p = 0.058, ES = 0.5. Performance on the YRT between the CWI(0 and CWI(3 trials were similar (p = 0.147, ES = 0. 3. Qualitative analyses demonstrated a 98% and 92% likely beneficial effect of CWI(0 and CWI(3 on next day performance, compared to CON, respectively, while CWI(0 resulted in a 79% likely benefit when compared to CWI(3. CRP values were significantly lower pre-YRT, compared to baseline, following CWI(0 (p = 0.0.36 and CWI(3 (p = 0.045, but were similar for CON (p = 0.157. Muscle soreness scores were similar between trials (p = 1.10, while TQRP scores were significantly lower for CON compared to CWI(0 (p = 0.002 and CWI(3 (p = 0.024. Immediate CWI resulted in superior next-day YRT performance compared to CON, while delayed (3 h CWI was also likely to be beneficial. Qualitative analyses suggested that CWI(0 resulted in better performance than CWI(3. These results are important for athletes who do not have immediate access to CWI following exercise

  17. Resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, induces IKKβ phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle of training-accustomed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Rahbek, Stine Klejs

    2013-01-01

    of repeated biopsy sampling on protein expression and phosphorylation was observed. In conclusion, resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, increases IKKβ phosphorylation in trained human subjects, which support the idea that IKKβ can influence the activation of mTORC1 in human skeletal muscle....... following exercise. Previously, we demonstrated that mTOR is preferentially activated in response to resistance exercise compared to endurance exercise in trained individuals without concomitant activation of Akt. In the present study, we extended this investigation by examining IκB kinase complex (IKK......), TSC1, MAPK, and upstream Akt activators, along with gene expression of selected cytokines, in skeletal muscles from these subjects. Biopsies were sampled prior to, immediately after, and in the recovery period following resistance exercise, endurance exercise, and control interventions. The major...

  18. Providing open-access online materials and hands-on sessions for GIS exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Hayakawa, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers of GIS (Geographical Information Systems/Sciences) in Japan have collaborated to provide materials for GIS lecture classes in universities for the last 20 years. The major outcomes include 1) a GIS core curriculum, 2) a GIS "body of knowledge" explaining the details of the curriculum, 3) a series of PowerPoint presentations, and 4) a comprehensive GIS textbook. However, materials for GIS exercises at university classes using GIS software have been limited in Japan. Therefore, we launched a project to provide such materials which will be available online and accessible by anybody. The materials cover broad basic aspects of GIS including geoscientific applications such as terrain analysis using digital elevation models. The materials utilize public-domain and open-source software packages such as QGIS and GRASS. The data used are also freely available ones such as those from the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. The use of the GitHub platform to distribute the materials allow easier online interactions by both material producers and users. Selected sets of the materials have been utilized for hands-on activities including both official university classes and public instructions. We have been updating the materials based on the opinions of people who took the hands-on courses for better GIS education. The current materials are in Japanese, but we plan to translate some of them into English.

  19. TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF AGILITY AND PERTURBATION EXERCISES VERSUS DYNAMIC RESISTANCE EXERCISES TO IMPROVE KNEE FUNCTION IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeutishree Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary osteoarthritis is more commonly found in post menopausal women; Secondary osteoarthritis had an underlying cause such as trauma, obesity or inflammatory arthritis. It is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage with subsequent remodeling and hypertrophy of the bone at the joint margins. Muscle weakness is associated with increased functional limitation, disability. Muscle strengthening through resistance exercises increases physical function; decreases pain due to osteoarthritis and reduces self reported disability. Agility is the ability to change direction and maintain stability and is more often important in changing direction and speed; In order to train muscle to react quickly neuromuscular training is essential; Perturbation enhances the ability of the proprioceptor signals to the muscle and prevent injuries and enhances performance. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of agility training and dynamic resistance training in patients with primary osteoarthritis. Methods: 50 subjects were assigned in two groups 25 each group and subjects were selected by convenient sampling method. Group A with agility training and Group B with dynamic resistance training. The treatment session was performed 3 days a week for 3 weeks lasting for 45minutes. Day 0 is the starting day of the session and Day-21 last day of the session. Each subject performed all the measurement with knee function assessed by Timed up and Go test (TUG and Lower extremity function Scale (LEFS. Both outcomes were tested at starting day and at the end of 21st day. Results: All the analysis was carried out in PASW version 21.0. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. The between group analysis of agility training and dynamic strengthening for LEFS and TUG in evaluation of knee function was done using independent ‘t’ test showed statistically very significant (P=0.000. Conclusions

  20. Acute effects of power and resistance exercises on hemodynamic measurements of older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho-Júnior HJ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hélio José Coelho-Júnior,1,2 Maria-Cláudia Irigoyen,3 Samuel da Silva Aguiar,2,4 Ivan de Oliveira Gonçalves,2,5 Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara,6 Marco Antonio Cenedeze,7 Ricardo Yukio Asano,2,8 Bruno Rodrigues,1 Marco Carlos Uchida1 1Applied Kinesiology Laboratory–LCA, School of Physical Education, University of Campinas, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, 2Center of Health Sciences, University of Mogi das Cruzes, Mogi das Cruzes, 3Hypertension Unit, Heart Institute (InCor, Medical School of University of São Paulo, 4School of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Águas Claras, Brasília, 5Community Center for Older People of Poá, Poá, 6Department of Immunobiology, Laboratory of Transplantation Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 7Nephrology Division, Federal University of São Paulo, 8School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of resistance training (RT and power training (PT on the hemodynamic parameters and nitric oxide (NO bioavailability of older women. Materials and methods: A randomized experimental design was used in this study. Twenty-one older women (age: 67.1±4.6 years; body mass index: 28.03±4.9 kg/m2; systolic blood pressure: 135.1±21.1 mmHg were recruited to participate in this study. Volunteers were randomly allocated into PT, RT, and control session (CS groups. The PT and RT groups underwent a single session of physical exercise equalized by training volume, characterized by 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions in 8 different exercises. However, RT group performed exercise at a higher intensity (difficult than PT (moderate group. On the other hand, concentric contractions were faster in PT group than in RT group. Hemodynamic parameters and saliva samples (for NO quantification were collected before and during an hour after exercise completion. Results: Results

  1. The effects of a resistance vs. an aerobic single session on attention and executive functioning in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Dunsky

    Full Text Available Evidence from recent studies showed that acute aerobic exercise results in improvements in different cognitive functions. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of acute bouts of aerobic versus resistance exercise on attention and executive function in adults. Thirty-nine physically active adults (age = 52±8 yr served as participants. Each participant visited the laboratory four times: on the first visit participants performed a cognitive test (NeuroTrax followed by an aerobic fitness assessment, as well as maximal strength test composed of six exercises. During visits 2-4, participants completed the cognitive test before and after the experimental condition, which consisted of either 25 min of aerobic exercise or resistance exercise, or watching a recorded interview show in a seated position (control condition. Findings indicated significantly higher changes in scores of attention after acute aerobic exercise (mean change 3.46, 95% CI -0.32, 7.27 than following the control condition (mean change -0.64, 95% CI -2.23, 0.96. The changes following resistance exercise (mean change -0.67, 95% CI -4.47, 3.13 were not significantly different from the changes following the control condition. Executive function scores showed a marginally significant improvement following acute aerobic (mean change 4.06, 95% CI 1.68, 6.44 and resistance exercise (mean change 3.69, 95% CI 0.78, 6.60, but not after control (mean change 0.91, 95% CI -1.21, 3.02. We suggest that adults should consider augmenting both modalities into their training routines, which may improve their cognition in addition to providing other physical benefits.

  2. Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filopoulos, Dean; Cormack, Stuart J; Whyte, Douglas G

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the effect of hypoxia on growth hormone (GH) release during an acute bout of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise. Using a single-blinded, randomised crossover design, 16 resistance-trained males completed two resistance exercise sessions in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; inspiratory oxygen fraction, (FiO 2 ) 0.12, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) 82 ± 2%) and normoxia (NOR; FiO 2 0.21, SpO 2 98 ± 0%). Each session consisted of five sets of three repetitions of 45° leg press and bench press at 85% of one repetition maximum. Heart rate, SpO 2 , and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured throughout the protocol. Serum lactate and GH levels were determined pre-exposure, and at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Differences in mean and integrated EMG between HYP and NOR treatments were unclear. However, there was an important increase in the peak levels and area under the curve of both lactate (HYP 5.8 ± 1.8 v NOR 3.9 ± 1.1 mmol.L -1 and HYP 138.7 ± 33.1 v NOR 105.8 ± 20.8 min.mmol.L -1 ) and GH (HYP 4.4 ± 3.1 v NOR 2.1 ± 2.5 ng.mL -1 and HYP 117.7 ± 86.9 v NOR 72.9 ± 85.3 min.ng.mL -1 ) in response to HYP. These results suggest that performing high-intensity resistance exercise in a hypoxic environment may provide a beneficial endocrine response without compromising the neuromuscular activation required for maximal strength development.

  3. Growth hormone pulsatility profile characteristics following acute heavy resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, B C; Hymer, W C; Deaver, D R; Kraemer, W J

    2001-07-01

    This investigation examined the hypothesis that acute heavy resistance exercise (AHRE) would increase overnight concentrations of circulating human growth hormone (hGH). Ten men (22 +/- 1 yr, 177 +/- 2 cm, 79 +/- 3 kg, 11 +/- 1% body fat) underwent two overnight blood draws sampled every 10 min from 1700 to 0600: a control and an AHRE condition. The AHRE was conducted from 1500 to 1700 and was a high-volume, multiset exercise bout. Three different immunoassays measured hGH concentrations: the Nichols immunoradiometric assay (Nichols IRMA), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases radioimmunoassay (NIDDK RIA), and the Diagnostic Systems Laboratory immunofunctional assay (DSL IFA). The Pulsar peak detection system was used to evaluate the pulsatility profile characteristics of hGH. Maximum hGH was lower in the exercise (10.7 microg/l) vs. the control (15.4 microg/l) condition. Mean pulse amplitude was lower in the exercise vs. control condition when measured by the Nichols IRMA and the DSL IFA. A differential pattern of release was also observed after exercise in which hGH was lower in the first half of sleep but higher in the second half. We conclude that AHRE does influence the temporal pattern of overnight hGH pulsatility. Additionally, because of the unique molecular basis of the DSL IFA, this influence does have biological relevance because functionally intact molecules are affected.

  4. Resistance exercise performance variability at submaximal intensities in older and younger adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grosicki GJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gregory J Grosicki,1 Michael E Miller,2 Anthony P Marsh1 1Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 2Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: We assessed the variability in the number of repetitions completed at submaximal loads in three resistance tasks in older (N=32, 16 female, 74.3±5.4 years and younger (N=16, 8 female, 22.8±1.8 years men and women. One repetition maximum (1RM was determined on two separate visits on three tasks: leg press (LP, leg extension (LE, and bicep curl (BC. Subjects then completed repetitions to failure on each of the three tasks during two visits, a minimum of 48 hours apart, at either 60% 1RM or 80% 1RM. High reliability for all 1RM assessments was observed. Greater muscular strength was observed in younger compared to older men and women on all tasks (P<0.05. At both 60% and 80% 1RM, considerable interindividual variability was observed in the number of repetitions completed. However, the average number of repetitions completed by younger and older men and women at 60% and 80% 1RM in each of the three tasks was similar, with the only significant difference occurring between younger and older men at 80% 1RM on the leg press (P=0.0258. We did not observe any abnormal blood pressure responses to either the 1RM testing or maximal repetition testing sessions. Considerable interindividual variability was observed in the number of repetitions completed by younger and older men and women at relative intensities typical of resistance training programs. Practitioners should give consideration to individual variability when attempting to maximize the benefits of resistance training. Keywords: resistance exercise, exercise prescription, relative intensity, reliability, older adults, blood pressure

  5. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. das Neves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1 untrained control rats, 2 untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3 rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks, the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks. After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all. Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (P<0.01. Altogether, these data indicate that fasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  6. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, W; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; Alves, C R R; Lancha, A H

    2017-11-17

    Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET) in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1) untrained control rats, 2) untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3) rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks), the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks). After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all). Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (Pfasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  7. Bone metabolism and hand grip strength response to aerobic versus resistance exercise training in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shreef, Fadwa M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H; Abd El-Kader, Shehab M

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been shown in many studies to be associated with reduced bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Currently, our understanding of how to use exercise effectively in diabetic patients in prevention of osteoporosis is incomplete and has prompted our interest to identify the type of effective osteogenic exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in handgrip strength and bone metabolism after 6 months between aerobic and resistance exercise training in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients in Jeddah area. One hundred non-insulin dependent diabetic male patients participated in this study and were divided into two equal groups; the first group (A) received aerobic exercise training, where the second group (B) received resistance exercise training. The program consisted of three sessions per week for six months. The mean values of serum calcium and Hand grip strength were significantly increased, while the mean values of parathyroid hormone were significantly decreased in both groups .Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) after treatment. Aerobic exercise training on treadmill is appropriate to improve markers of bone metabolism and hand grip strength in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

  8. Changes in myonuclear domain size do not precede muscle hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, T; Smeets, J S J; van Kranenburg, J; Kies, A K; van Loon, L J C; Verdijk, L B

    2016-02-01

    Muscle fibre hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in myonuclear number, an increase in myonuclear domain size or both. It has been suggested that increases in myonuclear domain size precede myonuclear accretion and subsequent muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged exercise training. In this study, we assessed the changes in muscle fibre size, myonuclear and satellite cell content throughout 12 weeks of resistance-type exercise training in young men. Twenty-two young men (23 ± 1 year) were assigned to a progressive, 12-weeks resistance-type exercise training programme (3 sessions per week). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise training. Muscle fibre size, myonuclear content, myonuclear domain size and satellite cell content were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Type I and type II muscle fibre size increased gradually throughout the 12 weeks of training (type I: 18 ± 5%, type II: 41 ± 6%, P muscle fibres. No changes in type I and type II myonuclear domain size were observed at any time point throughout the intervention. Satellite cell content increased significantly over time in both type I and type II muscle fibres (P muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in vivo in humans. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Xanthine Oxidase Activity Is Associated with Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Inflammatory and Oxidative Status Markers in Metabolic Syndrome: Effects of a Single Exercise Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pandolfo Feoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO activity in metabolic syndrome in subjects submitted to a single exercise session. We also investigated parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status. Materials/Methods. A case-control study (9 healthy and 8 MS volunteers was performed to measure XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid peroxidation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP content, glucose levels, and lipid profile. Body mass indices, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels were also determined. The exercise session consisted of 3 minutes of stretching, 3 minutes of warm-up, 30 minutes at a constant dynamic workload at a moderate intensity, and 3 minutes at a low speed. The blood samples were collected before and 15 minutes after the exercise session. Results. Serum XO activity was higher in MS group compared to control group. SOD activity was lower in MS subjects. XO activity was correlated with SOD, abdominal circumference, body mass indices, and hsCRP. The single exercise session reduced the SOD activity in the control group. Conclusions. Our data support the association between oxidative stress and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and suggest XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  10. Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Cotter, Joshua A; Devor, Steven T; Lucas, Alexander R; Fairman, Ciaran M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p participation (p resistance training; and affective responses were unrelated to motivational correlates of resistance training.

  11. Habitual exercise decreases systolic blood pressure during low-intensity resistance exercise in healthy middle-aged and older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Takeshi; Kotato, Takahiro; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako

    2016-10-01

    Since aerobic exercise (e.g., walking) and resistance exercise (e.g., lifting objects and mopping) are both parts of the activities of daily living, an exaggerated elevation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) during aerobic and resistance exercise is an early marker of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effects of habitual exercise on SBP during low-intensity resistance exercise using both cross-sectional and interventional approaches. First, in 57 normotensive women (61.9 ± 1.0 yr of age), daily physical activity level, as assessed by triaxial accelerometry, was correlated with SBP during resistance exercise at 20 and 40% of the 1 repetition maximum (r = -0.408 and r = -0.348, respectively). Maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with SBP during exercise at 20% (r = -0.385) and 40% (r = -0.457). Physical activity level or maximal oxygen uptake was identified as a predictor of SBP during the exercise in stepwise regression analysis, independent of SBP at rest and other factors (R 2 = 0.729-0.781). Second, 66 men and women (64.6 ± 0.9 yr of age) participated in a 6-wk intervention as a part of the training (walking, 4.3 ± 0.3 days/wk, 55.6 ± 4.1 min/day, 70.7 ± 1.2% of maximal heart rate) or control group. SBP during resistance exercise in the training group decreased after the intervention (before vs. after: 20%, 143 ± 4 vs. 128 ± 4 mmHg; and 40%, 148 ± 5 vs. 134 ± 4 mmHg). In the control group, there were no significant differences in SBP before and after the intervention. SBP during resistance exercise after the intervention was lower in the training group relative to the control group. These results suggest that habitual exercise decreases SBP during low-intensity resistance exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. The Feasibility of performing resistance exercise with acutely ill hospitalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockwood Kenneth

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For older adults, hospitalization frequently results in deterioration of mobility and function. Nevertheless, there are little data about how older adults exercise in the hospital and definitive studies are not yet available to determine what type of physical activity will prevent hospital related decline. Strengthening exercise may prevent deconditioning and Pilates exercise, which focuses on proper body mechanics and posture, may promote safety. Methods A hospital-based resistance exercise program, which incorporates principles of resistance training and Pilates exercise, was developed and administered to intervention subjects to determine whether acutely-ill older patients can perform resistance exercise while in the hospital. Exercises were designed to be reproducible and easily performed in bed. The primary outcome measures were adherence and participation. Results Thirty-nine ill patients, recently admitted to an acute care hospital, who were over age 70 [mean age of 82.0 (SD= 7.3] and ambulatory prior to admission, were randomized to the resistance exercise group (19 or passive range of motion (ROM group (20. For the resistance exercise group, participation was 71% (p = 0.004 and adherence was 63% (p = 0.020. Participation and adherence for ROM exercises was 96% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Using a standardized and simple exercise regimen, selected, ill, older adults in the hospital are able to comply with resistance exercise. Further studies are needed to determine if resistance exercise can prevent or treat hospital-related deterioration in mobility and function.

  13. One session of strength exercise does not promote negative changes in the structure venous leg and thigh in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenilson de Araújo Júnior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the venous diameter is associated with the incompetence of the venous system of lower limb. In order to analyze the acute effects of one session of strength exercise (SE on superficial venous diameter (VD of the lower limbs (LL. Twenty-two men (22 ± 2 years old, 81.2 ± 13.4kg weight, 173.0 ± 4.0 cm height and 18.6 ± 3.3% estimated body fat performed a circuit of  three SE, with 3 sets of 6 repetitions, controlled by metronome, with a load of 85% (1-RM and 3 minutes rest. The VDs of the internal saphenous vein (ISV, in right and left LL, were measured at baseline and immediately after each set with color eco-Doppler. Data were analyzed by means of a one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. There was a significant effect of time for the right and left VSI (p= 0.001, the VDs at baseline were higher than in series for both. Furthermore, between sets, there was a significant decrease between the first and second (p= 0.009 and an increase between the second and third series (p= 0.027 for the right ISV. For the left ISV, only measured after the first and second are different (p= 0.001. There was a trend toward reduction in VD after the acute bout of strength exercise, indicating that their practice is efficient for the performance of this structure.

  14. Comparable Effects of Brief Resistance Exercise and Isotime Sprint Interval Exercise on Glucose Homeostasis in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas K. Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise (RES on glycemic homeostasis to isotime sprint interval exercise (SIE using a within-subjects design. Nineteen nondiabetic males (age: 23.3±0.7 yrs; height: 173.1±1.2 cm; weight: 79.1±4.8 kg; % fat: 22.5±2.5% were studied. RES involved nine exercises of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-RM using a 2 : 2 s tempo and was interspersed with a one-minute recovery; SIE involved four 30 s’ all-out cycling effort interspersed with four minutes of active recovery. Plasma glucose and insulin in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were assessed 12 h after exercise. In comparison to a no exercise control trial (CON, the area under curve (AUC of plasma glucose was reduced with both RES and SIE (P0.05. Such findings suggest that the RES may represent a potential alternative to the SIE in the development of time-efficient lifestyle intervention strategies for improving diabetes risk factors in healthy populations.

  15. Resistance training program for fatigue management in the workplace: exercise protocol in a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hélio Gustavo; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Valentim, Daniela Pereira; da Silva, Patricia Rodrigues; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2016-12-22

    Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18-65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE) comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM). The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on adherence to the program, which may result in significant and

  16. Resistance training program for fatigue management in the workplace: exercise protocol in a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Gustavo Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. Methods/Design This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18–65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM. The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on

  17. Short-term l-arginine supplementation attenuates elevation of interleukin 6 level after resistance exercise in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcos Antonio do; Lira, Fábio Dos Santos; Punaro, Giovana Rita; Mello, Marco Túlio de; Tufik, Sérgio; Higa, Elisa Mieko Suemitsu

    2017-12-01

    l-Arginine (l-arg) supplementation and resistance exercise can induce changes in inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines; however, it has not been investigated in obese hypertensive men. This study examines the effects of short-term l-arg supplementation and acute resistance exercise (AREX) on cytokine levels in obese hypertensive men. Eight obese hypertensive men aged 46 ± 6 yrs. with an average body weight of 92.56 ± 9.9 kg and a BMI of 31.68 ± 2.18 kg/m 2 participated in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover study. The patients were distributed into exercise groups based on the type of supplementation (6 g/day of placebo or l-arg for 7 days). Supplementation periods were separated by a seven-day washout period. The AREX regimen consisted of eight exercises with an exercise intensity of 60% of 1 repetition maximum. The interleukins IL-1ra, IL-6, and IL-10 and the IL-6/IL10 ratio were determined at rest, immediately after exercise and 1 h after exercise sessions. IL-1ra levels exhibited a significant difference both immediately and 1 h after exercise when the l-arg and placebo groups were compared (P supplementation attenuates the cytokine increase after AREX, in particular peak IL-6 levels decrease and exercise induced decreases in IL-10 levels are attenuated. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyphenol supplementation alters intramuscular apoptotic signaling following acute resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jeremy R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Jajtner, Adam R; Church, David D; Beyer, Kyle S; Riffe, Joshua J; Muddle, Tyler W D; Herrlinger, Kelli L; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 28-days of supplementation with an aqueous proprietary polyphenol blend (PPB) sourced from Camellia sinensis on intramuscular apoptotic signaling following an acute lower-body resistance exercise protocol and subsequent recovery. Untrained males (n = 38, 21.8 ± 2.7 years, 173.4 ± 7.9 cm, 77.6 ± 14.6 kg) were randomized to PPB (n = 14), placebo (PL; n = 14) or control (CON; n = 10). Participants completed a lower-body resistance exercise protocol comprised of the squat, leg press, and leg extension exercises. Skeletal muscle microbiopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis preexercise (PRE), 1-h (1HR), 5-h (5HR), and 48-h (48HR) post-resistance exercise. Apoptotic signaling pathways were quantified using multiplex signaling assay kits to quantify total proteins (Caspase 3, 8, 9) and markers of phosphorylation status (JNK, FADD, p53, BAD, Bcl-2). Changes in markers of muscle damage and intramuscular signaling were analyzed via separate repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Change in Bcl-2 phosphorylation at 1H was significantly greater in PL compared to CON (P = 0.001). BAD phosphorylation was significantly elevated at 5H in PL compared to PPB (P = 0.015) and CON (P = 0.006). The change in JNK phosphorylation was significantly greater in PPB (P = 0.009), and PL (P = 0.017) compared to CON at 1H, while the change for PL was elevated compared to CON at 5H (P = 0.002). A main effect was observed (P < 0.05) at 1H, 5H, and 48H for p53 and Caspase 8, with Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 elevated at 48H. These data indicate that chronic supplementation with PPB alters apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle following acute muscle-damaging resistance exercise. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. Association of Resistance Exercise, Independent of and Combined With Aerobic Exercise, With the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Esmée A; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Artero, Enrique G; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2017-08-01

    To determine the association of resistance exercise, independent of and combined with aerobic exercise, with the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study cohort included adults (mean ± SD age, 46±9.5 years) who received comprehensive medical examinations at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, between January 1, 1987, and December, 31, 2006. Exercise was assessed by self-reported frequency and minutes per week of resistance and aerobic exercise and meeting the US Physical Activity Guidelines (resistance exercise ≥2 d/wk; aerobic exercise ≥500 metabolic equivalent min/wk) at baseline. The incidence of MetS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. We used Cox regression to generate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Among 7418 participants, 1147 (15%) had development of MetS during a median follow-up of 4 years (maximum, 19 years; minimum, 0.1 year). Meeting the resistance exercise guidelines was associated with a 17% lower risk of MetS (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96; P=.009) after adjusting for potential confounders and aerobic exercise. Further, less than 1 hour of weekly resistance exercise was associated with 29% lower risk of development of MetS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.89; P=.003) compared with no resistance exercise. However, larger amounts of resistance exercise did not provide further benefits. Individuals meeting both recommended resistance and aerobic exercise guidelines had a 25% lower risk of development of MetS (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.89; Pexercise, even less than 1 hour per week, was associated with a lower risk of development of MetS, independent of aerobic exercise. Health professionals should recommend that patients perform resistance exercise along with aerobic exercise to reduce MetS. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiologic and metabolic responses to a continuous functional resistance exercise workout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Kristen M; Cordero, Jeanine; Good, Jon; Brown, Dale D; McCaw, Steven T

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and perceptual responses to a continuous functional exercise workout. Ten men and 10 women (21.2 +/- 2.4 and 21.0 +/- 1.5 years) completed a maximal oxygen uptake test, strength test, and body composition analysis. Subjects then participated in 3 familiarization sessions, during which they followed a videotaped routine that consisted of a series of functional resistance exercises performed in a continuous manner. Subjects performed the same routine in a final session, during which VO2, VCO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), RPE, and heart rate were measured and blood samples were taken and analyzed for blood lactic acid concentration. Descriptive statistics were calculated for RPE, RER, blood lactic acid concentration, energy expenditure, and absolute and relative oxygen uptake and heart rate. Energy expenditure was calculated using VO2 and RER. Independent t-tests were used to examine differences between men and women for oxygen consumption, weight lifted, and energy expenditure during the workout. Subjects had a mean VO2 of 27.8 ml.kg.min (51% of VO2 peak and 47.8% of VO2 reserve), a mean heart rate of 156 bpm (83% of maximum heart rate), and a mean RER of 0.91. The mean RPE was 5.9, and the mean difference between pre and post lactic acid concentration was 2.5 mmol.L. The mean total caloric expenditure was 289 kcal. Men lifted significantly heavier weights and expended more total calories than women. Caloric expenditure (kcal x kg x min), VO2, and weight lifted were similar between men and women when expressed relatively. Performing dynamic functional exercises in a continuous manner resulted in energy expenditure values, but not relative VO2 values, that meet the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations.

  1. The effect of exercise on insulin resistance in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba S Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Regular aerobic exercises improve insulin resistance, abdominal fat distribution, and body weight in obese diabetic and nondiabetic women with polycystic ovary, and they are advised to perform regular aerobic exercises.

  2. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10°C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Effects of 7 days of arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on blood flow, plasma L-arginine, nitric oxide metabolites, and asymmetric dimethyl arginine after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Darryn S; Boucher, Tony; Reid, Jeremy; Skelton, Garson; Clark, Mandy

    2011-08-01

    Arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) supplements are alleged to increase nitric oxide production, thereby resulting in vasodilation during resistance exercise. This study sought to determine the effects of AAKG supplementation on hemodynamics and brachial-artery blood flow and the circulating levels of L-arginine, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx; nitrate/nitrite), asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), and L-arginine:ADMA ratio after resistance exercise. Twenty-four physically active men underwent 7 days of AAKG supplementation with 12 g/day of either NO(2) Platinum or placebo (PLC). Before and after supplementation, a resistance-exercise session involving the elbow flexors was performed involving 3 sets of 15 repetitions with 70-75% of 1-repetition maximum. Data were collected immediately before, immediately after (PST), and 30 min after (30PST) each exercise session. Data were analyzed with factorial ANOVA (p L-arginine was increased in the NO(2) group (p = .001). NOx was shown to increase in both groups at PST (p = .001) and at 30PST (p = .001) but was not different between groups. ADMA was not affected between tests (p = .26) or time points (p = .31); however, the L-arginine:ADMA ratio was increased in the NO(2) group (p = .03). NO(2) Platinum increased plasma L-arginine levels; however, the effects observed in hemodynamics, brachial-artery blood flow, and NOx can only be attributed to the resistance exercise.

  4. The antihypertensive effects of aerobic versus isometric handgrip resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Garrett I; Taylor, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D; MacDonald, Hayley V; Lamberti, Lauren; Chen, Ming-Hui; Farinatti, Paulo; Kraemer, William J; Panza, Gregory A; Zaleski, Amanda L; Deshpande, Ved; Ballard, Kevin D; Mujtaba, Mohammadtokir; White, C Michael; Pescatello, Linda S

    2017-02-01

    Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure (BP) on average 5-7 mmHg among those with hypertension; limited evidence suggests similar or even greater BP benefits may result from isometric handgrip (IHG) resistance exercise. We conducted a randomized controlled trial investigating the antihypertensive effects of an acute bout of aerobic compared with IHG exercise in the same individuals. Middle-aged adults (n = 27) with prehypertension and obesity randomly completed three experiments: aerobic (60% peak oxygen uptake, 30 min); IHG (30% maximum voluntary contraction, 4 × 2 min bilateral); and nonexercise control. Study participants were assessed for carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity pre and post exercise, and left the laboratory wearing an ambulatory BP monitor. SBP and DBP were lower after aerobic versus IHG (4.8 ± 1.8/3.1 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.01/0.04) and control (5.6 ± 1.8/3.6 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.02/0.04) over the awake hours, with no difference between IHG versus control (P = 0.80/0.83). Pulse wave velocity changes following acute exercise did not differ by modality (aerobic increased 0.01 ± 0.21 ms, IHG decreased 0.06 ± 0.15 ms, control increased 0.25 ± 0.17 ms, P > 0.05). A subset of participants then completed either 8 weeks of aerobic or IHG training. Awake SBP was lower after versus before aerobic training (7.6 ± 3.1 mmHg, P = 0.02), whereas sleep DBP was higher after IHG training (7.7 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.02). Our findings did not support IHG as antihypertensive therapy but that aerobic exercise should continue to be recommended as the primary exercise modality for its immediate and sustained BP benefits.

  5. Biomechanical Modeling of the Deadlift Exercise on the HULK Device to Improve the Efficacy of Resistive Exercise Microgravity Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodnik, K. M.; Thompson, W. K.; Gallo, C. A.; Crentsil, L.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Perusek, G. P.; Sheehan, C. C.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Extended spaceflight typically results in the loss of muscular strength and bone density due to exposure to microgravity. Resistive exercise countermeasures have been developed to maintain musculoskeletal health during spaceflight. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the "gold standard" of available devices; however, its footprint and volume are too large for use in space capsules employed in exploration missions. The Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) device, with its smaller footprint, is a prototype exercise device for exploration missions. This work models the deadlift exercise being performed on the HULK device using biomechanical simulation, with the long-term goal to improve and optimize astronauts' exercise prescriptions, to maximize the benefit of exercise while minimizing time and effort invested.

  6. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  7. Functional-task exercise versus resistance strength exercise to improve daily function in older women : A randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, MM; van Meeteren, NLU; Duursma, SA; Verhaar, HJJ; de Vreede, P.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a functional-task exercise program and a resistance exercise program have different effects on the ability of community-living older people to perform daily tasks. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Community leisure center in Utrecht, the

  8. Association of Resistance Exercise, Independent of and Combined With Aerobic Exercise, With the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.A.; Lee, D.C.; Sui, X.; Artero, E.G.; Ruiz, J.R.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Lavie, C.J.; Blair, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of resistance exercise, independent of and combined with aerobic exercise, with the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort included adults (mean +/- SD age, 46+/-9.5 years) who received comprehensive medical

  9. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

  10. Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched-chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Ekblom, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis is stimulated by resistance exercise and intake of amino acids, in particular leucine. Moreover, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling by leucine is potentiated by the presence of other essential amino acids (EAA). However, the contribution...... of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to this effect is yet unknown. Here we compare the stimulatory role of leucine, BCAA, and EAA ingestion on anabolic signaling following exercise. Accordingly, eight trained volunteers completed four sessions of resistance exercise during which they ingested either placebo......, leucine, BCAA, or EAA (including the BCAA) in random order. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, immediately after exercise, and following 90 and 180 min of recovery. Following 90 min of recovery the activity of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) was greater than at rest in all four trials (PlaceboLeucine

  11. Animal models of resistance exercise and their application to neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Smith, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that participation in regular resistance exercise (e.g., strength training) is associated with improvements in mental health, memory, and cognition. However, less is known about the neurobiological mechanisms mediating these effects. The goal of this mini-review is to describe and evaluate the available animal models of resistance exercise that may prove useful for examining CNS activity. Various models have been developed to examine resistance exercise in laboratory animals. Resistance exercise models vary in how the resistance manipulation is applied, either through direct stimulation of the muscle (e.g., in situ models) or through behavior maintained by operant contingencies (e.g., whole organism models). Each model presents distinct advantages and disadvantages for examining central nervous system (CNS) activity, and consideration of these attributes is essential for the future investigation of underlying neurobiological substrates. Potential neurobiological mechanisms mediating the effects of resistance exercise on pain, anxiety, memory, and drug use have been efficiently and effectively investigated using resistance exercise models that minimize stress and maximize the relative contribution of resistance over aerobic factors. Whole organism resistance exercise models that (1) limit the use of potentially stressful stimuli and (2) minimize the contribution of aerobic factors will be critical for examining resistance exercise and CNS function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of a cold beverage during an exercise session combining both strength and energy systems development training on core temperature and markers of performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFata Danielle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies have investigated the effects of hydration on performance measures, few studies have investigated how the temperature of the ingested liquid affects performance and core temperature during an exercise session. The hypothesis of the present study was that cold water would improve thermoregulation and performance as measured by bench repetitions to fatigue, broad jump for force and power and total time to exhaustion for cardiovascular fitness Methods Forty-five, physically fit, adult males (30.28 ± 5.4 yr, 1.77 ± 7.8 m, 83.46 ± 11.5 kg; 13.7 ± 4.8 %BF; 49.8 ± 6.3 ml/kg/min V02 completed two 60-minute exercise sessions. Subjects consumed either COLD (4°C or room temperature (RT water (22°C in randomized order. Core temperature was measured every 15 minutes throughout each trial using a digestible thermometer. Three performance tests were performed upon completion of the exercise session: bench press to fatigue, standing broad jump, and bicycle time to exhaustion Results Although both groups significantly increased their core temperature (p Conclusion Drinking cold water can significantly mediate and delay the increase in core body temperature during an exercise session in a moderate climate with euhydrated subjects. The ingestion of COLD improved performance for 49% and 51% of the participants in the broad jump and TTE performance tests respectively, but did not reach statistical significance. Moreover, although minimal, subjects experienced a decrease in performance on the bench press during the COLD.

  13. Assessing explosive power production using the backward overhead shot throw and the effects of morning resistance exercise on afternoon performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Laura G; Battaglini, Claudio L; McMurray, Robert G; Shields, Edgar W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if performing a morning total-body resistance exercise workout affects explosive power in an afternoon session. The secondary goal was to assess the usefulness of the backward overhead shot throw (BOST) as a measure of explosive power in experienced thrower in the sport of athletics. Throwers (N = 14) performed 1 control and 1 experimental trial on separate days. The control consisted of BOST and a vertical jump (VJ) testing performed in the afternoon. For the experimental trial, the participants reported for a short resistance training session in the morning then repeating the BOST and VJ testing 4-6 hours later. The BOST distance (meters) and VJ peak power (watts) were correlated in both trials (r ∼ 0.64, p < 0.05). The BOST distance improved in experimental trial over control (p < 0.05), but VJ power failed to improve. The results indicate that a morning resistance exercise bout can improve competitive throwing performance later on the same day. The results also suggest that BOST may be a useful performance testing tool for throwers in the sports of athletics.

  14. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2

  15. A persistent increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by both fast-twitch and slow-twitch skeletal muscles after a single exercise session by old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Sharma, Naveen; Arias, Edward B; Castorena, Carlos M; Cartee, Gregory D

    2013-06-01

    Exercise has been demonstrated to enhance subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) by predominantly type II (fast-twitch) muscle of old rats, but previous research has not evaluated exercise effects on GU by type I (slow-twitch) muscle from old rats. Accordingly, we studied male Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats (24 months old) and determined GU (0, 100, 200, and 5,000 μU/ml insulin) of isolated soleus (predominantly type I) and epitrochlearis (predominantly type II) muscles after one exercise session. Epitrochlearis (100, 200, and 5,000 μU/ml insulin) and soleus (100 and 200 μU/ml insulin) GU were greater at 3-h postexercise vs. age-matched sedentary controls. Insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr1162/1163) was unaltered by exercise in either muscle. Akt phosphorylation (pAkt) was greater for exercised vs. sedentary rats in the epitrochlearis (Ser473 and Thr308 with 100 and 200 μU/ml, respectively) and soleus (Ser473 with 200 μU/ml). AS160 phosphorylation (pAS160) was greater for exercised vs. sedentary rats in the epitrochlearis (Thr642 with 100 μU/ml), but not the soleus. Exercised vs. sedentary rats did not differ for total protein abundance of insulin receptor, Akt, AS160, or GLUT4 in either muscle. These results demonstrate that both predominantly type I and type II muscles from old rats are susceptible to exercise-induced improvement in insulin-mediated GU by mechanisms that are independent of enhanced insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation or altered abundance of important signaling proteins or GLUT4. Exercise-induced elevation in pAkt, and possibly pAS160, may contribute to this effect in the epitrochlearis of old rats, but other mechanisms are likely important for the soleus.

  16. Acute resistance exercise induces antinociception by activation of the endocannabinoid system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago; Silva, José Felippe Pinho da; Aguiar, Daniele; Paula, Ana Maria de; Cruz, Jader; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) is also known as strength training, and it is performed to increase the strength and mass of muscles, bone strength, and metabolism. RE has been increasingly prescribed for pain relief. However, the endogenous mechanisms underlying this antinociceptive effect are still largely unexplored. Thus, we investigated the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in RE-induced antinociception. Male Wistar rats were submitted to acute RE in a weight-lifting model. The nociceptive threshold was measured by a mechanical nociceptive test (paw pressure) before and after exercise. To investigate the involvement of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids in RE-induced antinociception, cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists, endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors, and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor were injected before RE. After RE, CB1 cannabinoid receptors were quantified in rat brain tissue by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In addition, endocannabinoid plasma levels were measured by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. RE-induced antinociception was prevented by preinjection with CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor inverse agonists. By contrast, preadministration of metabolizing enzyme inhibitors and the anandamide reuptake inhibitor prolonged and enhanced this effect. RE also produced an increase in the expression and activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in rat brain tissue and in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal regions and an increase in endocannabinoid plasma levels. The present study suggests that a single session of RE activates the endocannabinoid system to induce antinociception.

  17. Blood pressure reactivity to mental stress is attenuated following resistance exercise in older hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauche R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Gauche,1 Ricardo M Lima,1,2 Jonathan Myers,2 André B Gadelha,1 Silvia GR Neri,1 Claudia LM Forjaz,3 Lauro C Vianna1 1Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil; 2Cardiology Division, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System and Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of resistance exercise (RE on autonomic control and blood pressure (BP reactivity during mental stress (MS in treated older hypertensive women. Methods: Ten older hypertensive women (age =71.1±5.5 years; body mass index =24.2±3.9; mean BP [MBP] =85.4±3.5 underwent a protocol consisting of BP and heart rate variability (HRV output assessments at baseline and during MS, and these measurements were taken before and 60 minutes after two bouts of RE (traditional and circuit. MS was induced through a computerized 3-minute Stroop color–word test before and 1 hour after each exercise session; BP was measured every minute during MS, and HRV was monitored as a measure of cardiac autonomic control. Results: A significant effect of time on systolic BP (∆pre =17.4±12.8 versus ∆post =12.5±9.6; P=0.01, diastolic BP (∆pre =13.7±7.1 versus ∆post =8.8±4.5; P=0.01, and MBP (∆pre =14.0±7.7 versus ∆post =9.3±5.4; P<0.01 after RE was observed, with no differences between the two sessions. In addition, a significant effect of time on log-normalized low-frequency component of HRV (ms2; 5.3±0.8 pre-exercise MS versus 4.8±1.0 baseline value; P=0.023 was also observed, showing a significant change from baseline to MS before RE, but not after RE sessions. These results may be related to a lessened RE-mediated cardiac sympathetic activity during MS. Conclusion: RE is an effective tool to reduce BP reactivity to MS, which could therefore be associated with an acute reduction in cardiovascular risk. This

  18. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S

    2010-01-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam...

  19. The Effect of 8-week Aerobic and Concurrent (aerobic- resistance Exercise Training on Serum IL-6 Levels and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Yousefipoor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductoin: Increased level of serum IL-6 is related to development of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. The American Diabetes Association and the American College of Sports Medicine recommend that combination of resistance and aerobic exercise is favorable for patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise and concurrent (aerobic-resistance exercise on serum IL-6 Levels and insulin resistance in Type 2 Diabetic patients. Methods: In this study, from patients referring to Kermanshah Diabetes Association, 24 volunteers participated in the study as subjects and were divided into aerobic (n=8, concurrent (n=8, and control group (n=8 randomly. Training program for the aerobic group included 3 sessions of running per week with 60 to 80% maximal heart rate for 8 weeks but the concurrent group in addition to running, performed resistance training of major muscles groups. Before and after the intervention, body weight, BMI, fasting blood glucose, serum IL-6 and HOMA-IR were measured. Results: HOMA-IR and fasting blood glucose were significantly decreased in both training groups after intervention, but showed no significant changes in the control group. No significant changes were observed for serum IL-6 levels, body weight or BMI. Conclusion: performing 8 weeks of aerobic or concurrent training with improvement of insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose could be helpful for type 2 diabetic patients; however, it cannot significantly affect serum IL-6 levels, body weight, or BMI in these patients.

  20. Force and power characteristics of a resistive exercise device for use in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Hans E.; Tesch, Per A.

    We have developed a non-gravity dependent mechanical device, which provides resistance during coupled concentric and eccentric muscle actions, through the inertia of a spinning fly-wheel (Fly-Wheel Ergometry; FWE). Our research shows that lower-limb FWE exercise can produce forces and thus muscular stress comparable to what is typical of advanced resistance training using free weights. FWE also offers greater training stimuli during eccentric relative to concentric muscle actions, as evidenced by force and electromyographic (EMG) measurements. Muscle use of specific muscle groups, as assessed by the exercise-induced contrast shift of magnetic resonance images, is similar during lower-limb FWE and the barbell squat. Unlike free-weight exercise, FWE allows for maximal voluntary effort in each repetition of an exercise bout. Likewise, FWE exercise, not unassisted free-weight exercise, produces eccentric "overload". Collectively, the inherent features of this resistive exercise device and the results of the physiological evaluations we have performed, suggest that resistance exercise using FWE could be used as an effective exercise counter-measure in space. The flywheel principle can be employed to any exercise configuration and designed into a compact device allowing for exercises stressing those muscles and bone structures, which are thought to be most affected by long-duration spaceflight.

  1. Potential benefits of resistance exercise training on nutritional status in renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, C; Grossi, L; Dwyer, J

    1998-01-01

    Resistance or strength exercise training may help reverse the malnutrition common among patients in chronic renal failure and delay the progression of renal disease. Resistance training is characterized by resisting, lifting, and lowering weights. It results in muscle mass accretion, improved physical function, and slowed progression of muscle wasting. Resistance exercise training for a period of 8 to 12 weeks results in significant increases in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function in frail "healthy" elderly individuals as well as in specific patient populations. States of malnutrition leading to muscle wasting directly affect lean tissue mass and functional capacity. Even at dietary protein intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowances, resistance training appears to exert an anabolic effect by improving energy intake and protein use allowing nitrogen retention. The potential benefits of resistance exercise extend beyond this direct impact on protein metabolism. They include improvements in functional capacity such as gait, balance, mobility, strength, exercise tolerance, improved glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and self-efficacy and self-esteem. Currently, the effects of resistance exercise in renal patients are unknown, although they are well shown in the case of other diseases. The potential benefits that resistance exercise training may have on muscle mass and function, nutritional status, hyperglycemia, disease progression, and the overall mental well-being of renal patients deserve further investigation. As an adjunct to current treatment modalities for chronic renal failure, resistance exercise may serve as a cost-effective, interdisciplinary, noninvasive approach to counteract malnutrition and improve the quality of life.

  2. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  3. Effect of Long Term Regular Resistance Exercise on Heart Function and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahbar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Numerous studies have been conducted to assess the effects of acute resistance exercises on the structure and the function of heart, but little works done on effects of chronic resistance exercises. So, the objective of current study was to investigate the long term effect of regular exercises on cardiac function and oxidative stress.   Methods: Forty male Wistar rats in the weight range of 250- 300 g were used in this study. They were divided in 2 following groups: The 3 months exercises test group and control group which remained without exercises. Regular resistive exercise was carried out according to the model proposed by Tamaki et al. Test group rats exercised for three months. Finally the hearts of 10 rats in each group were taken for homogenization, oxidative stress measurement and the other ten were examined for heart function. Malondialdhyde as an index of oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxides and catalase as an indicator of antioxidant capacity with special kits were specifically measured.   Results: Regular resistive exercise didn't significantly affect the rats' weight, but heart weight in exercise group showed a significant increase (p<0.05. There was a significant decrease in heart rate in exercise group (p<0.05. Left ventricle contraction strength and coronary flow had a significant increase in exercise group in comparison with control group (p<0.05. There was not any significant difference in Malondialdhyde and antioxidant enzymes activity.   Conclusion: This study showed that, heart efficiency had a significant improvement under effect of regular resistive exercise. Meanwhile, regular resistive exercise didn’t have any significant effect on oxidative stress and heart antioxidant defense capacity.

  4. Comparison of the eight weeks of supplementation Creatine and Glutamine consumption along with resistance exercise on the level of ALP in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A eskandari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: in recent years, in order to improve power, speed, the increase in the volume of the musculature, preventing sports injuries and maintain the muscle performance athletes use from different resistance exercises and food supplements. In this regard, present study has been conducted with the aim of comparison the influence of an 8 week period consumption of creatine (2 gr.kg-1.day-1 in 1st week and 0.48 gr.kg-1.day-1during 2nd to 8th weeks and glutamine (1 gr.kg-1.day-1 from first to eighth weeks along with resistance exercise on level of ALP of female mice. Materials and methods: This experimental study was done on 80 Small adult female mice of Surrey species (28 ± 5 gram. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups of: resistance exercise, resistance exercise + creatine, resistance exercise + glutamine, resistance exercise + glutamine + creatine, creatine, glutamine, creatine + glutamine and control groups (N= 10. Resistance exercise (5 days a week was including: climbing (4 sets, 5 times repetition with two minutes rest between the sets from a ladder (with the height of one meter and including 26 steps and bearing 30 percent of the weight of the Mouse body (hanging from tail in the first week and the increasing it up to 200 percent of body weight till the last week of the experiment. During 48 hours after the last practice session of resistance exercise, the blood sample was taken and the the level of ALP has been measured. Findings:The results showed that the level of ALP enzyme in creatine + glutamine + resistance exercise groug had been increased in comparison with the control group (144.3 ± 15.86 in comparison with 234.7 ± 25.69 U.L-1 P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate Creatine and Glutamine supplementation consumption along with resistance exercise increases in the level of ALP enzyme in the liver of mice.

  5. Antioxidant Expression Response to Free Radicals in Active Men and Women Fallowing to a Session Incremental Exercise; Numerical Relationship Between Antioxidants and Free Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaiee, Behrouz; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Siahkuhian, Marefat; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-06-01

    Energy production is a necessary process to continue physical activities, and exercise is associated with more oxygen consumption and increase of oxidative stress. what seems important is the numerical relationship between antioxidant and free radicals. Although the activity of some enzymes increases with physical activities, but it is possible that gene expression of this enzyme is not changed during exercise. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant enzymes gene expression and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in men and women affected by a session of incremental exercise and to carefully and numerically assess the relationship between MDA changes and gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. 12 active men and 12 active women (21 - 24 years old) participated voluntarily in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the subjects in three phases, before and after graduated exercise test (GXT) and 3 hours later (recovery). The gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme increased significantly in women in the recovery phase (P free radicals during incremental exercises challenges gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, despite the negative effects of free radicals, in women, activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes respond appropriately to free radicals.

  6. Comparison of oxygen uptake during and after the execution of resistance exercises and exercises performed on ergometers, matched for intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaça-Alves José

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the values of oxygen uptake (VO2 during and after strength training exercises (STe and ergometer exercises (Ee, matched for intensity and exercise time. Eight men (24 ± 2.33 years performed upper and lower body cycling Ee at the individual’s ventilatory threshold (VE/VCO2. The STe session included half squats and the bench press which were performed with a load at the individual blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l. Both sessions lasted 30 minutes, alternating 50 seconds of effort with a 10 second transition time between upper and lower body work. The averaged overall VO2 between sessions was significantly higher for Ee (24.96 ± 3.6 ml·kg·min-1 compared to STe (21.66 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1 (p = 0.035, but this difference was only seen for the first 20 minutes of exercise. Absolute VO2 values between sessions did not reveal differences. There were more statistically greater values in Ee compared to STe, regarding VO2 of lower limbs (25.44 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.83 ± 2·24 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.038 and upper limbs (24.49 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.54 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.047. There were further significant differences regarding the moment effect (p<0.0001 of both STe and Ee sessions. With respect to the moment × session effect, only VO2 5 minutes into recovery showed significant differences (p = 0.017. In conclusion, although significant increases in VO2 were seen following Ee compared to STe, it appears that the load/intensity, and not the material/equipment used for the execution of an exercise, are variables that best influence oxygen uptake.

  7. Human Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells in Adaptations to Exercise; Effects of Resistance Exercise Contraction Mode and Protein Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean

    2014-01-01

    . In conclusion, protein supplementation may accelerate SC proliferation as part of regeneration or remodeling processes after maximal eccentric exercise. Paper II. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of exercise contraction mode. The aim of paper II was to investigate...... the effect of contraction mode specific resistance training and protein supplementation on whole muscle and tendon hypertrophy. Quadriceps muscle and patellar tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging pre and post 12 weeks of eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc...... compared to Placebo. Exercise contraction mode did not influence muscle or tendon hypertrophy. In conclusion, hydrolysed whey protein may augment both muscle and tendon hypertrophy independently of exercise contraction mode during training. Paper III. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein...

  8. Fatigue Resistance Assessed in Five Tasks for a Single Session of Sleep Deprivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaiken, Scott R; Harville, Donald L; Harrison, Richard; Fischer, Joe; Fisher, Dion; Whitmore, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    ..., as part of a larger project investigating genetic factors in fatigue-resistance. We considered a rule based on percent-change decrement with fatigue and another rule based on residuals of task performance predicted...

  9. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  10. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  11. New exercise-integrated technology can monitor the dosage and quality of exercise performed against an elastic resistance band by adolescents with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Bandholm, Thomas; McGirr, Kate A

    2016-01-01

    . The system made it possible to capture detailed data about the TUT, repetitions and sets during home-based exercises together with pain intensity before and after each exercise. [Rathleff MS, Bandholm T, McGirr KA, Harring SI, Sørensen AS, Thorborg K (2016) New exercise-integrated technology can monitor......QUESTION: Is the exercise-integrated Bandcizer™ system feasible for recording exercise dosage (time under tension (TUT) and repetitions) and pain scores among adolescents with patellofemoral pain? Do adolescents practise the exercises as prescribed (TUT and repetitions)? Do adolescents accurately...... report the exercises they do in an exercise diary? DESIGN: Observational feasibility study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age with patellofemoral pain. INTERVENTION: Participants were prescribed three exercise sessions per week (one with and two without supervision) for 6...

  12. Carbohydrate Supplementation and Immune Responses After Acute Exhaustive Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    European Journal of Applied Physiology, 73, 93–97. Mackinnon, L.T. (2000). Chronic exercise training effects on immune function. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 32... Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 39(5), S172. Vu Tran, Z. (1997). Estimating sample size in repeated-measures analysis of variance. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 1, 89–102. PR OO F

  13. Adaptive Motor Resistance Video Game Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using computer configured exercise equipment and an electric motor provided physical resistance in conjunction with a game system, such as a video game system, where the exercise system provides real physical resistance to a user interface. Results of user interaction with the user interface are integrated into a video game, such as running on a game console. The resistance system comprises: a subject interface, software control, a controller, an electric servo assist/resist motor, an actuator, and/or a subject sensor. The system provides actual physical interaction with a resistance device as input to the game console and game run thereon.

  14. Participation of endogenous opioids in the antinociception induced by resistance exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Galdino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is a low-cost intervention that promotes health and contributes to the maintenance of the quality of life. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of different resistance exercise protocols on the nociceptive threshold of rats. Female Wistar rats were used to perform exercises in a weight-lifting exercise model. The following groups were examined (N = 6 per group: untrained rats (control group; an acute protocol group consisting of rats submitted to 15 sets of 15 repetitions of resistance exercise (acute group; rats exercised with 3 sets of 10 repetitions, three times per week for 12 weeks (trained group, and a group consisting of trained rats that were further submitted to the acute protocol (trained-acute group. The nociceptive threshold was measured by the paw-withdrawal test, in which the withdrawal threshold (escape reaction was measured by an apparatus applying force to the plantar surface of the animal paw. The opioid antagonist naloxone (2 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously 10 min before the exercise protocols. The trained group demonstrated antinociception only up to day 45 of the 12-week training period. A significant increase (37%, P < 0.05 in the nociceptive threshold was produced immediately after exercise, decreasing to 15% after 15 min, when the acute exercise protocol was used. Naloxone reversed this effect. These data show that the acute resistance exercise protocol was effective in producing antinociception for 15 min. This antinociceptive effect is mediated by the activation of opioid receptors.

  15. Acute Effect on Arterial Stiffness after Performing Resistance Exercise by Using the Valsalva Manoeuvre during Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yip Vincent Mak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Performing resistance exercise could lead to an increase in arterial stiffness. Objective. We investigate the acute effect on arterial stiffness by performing Valsalva manoeuvre during resistance exercise. Materials and Methods. Eighteen healthy young men were assigned to perform bicep curls by using two breathing techniques (exhalation and Valsalva manoeuvre during muscle contraction on two separate study days. Carotid pulsed wave velocity (cPWV was measured as an indicator to reflect the body central arterial stiffness using a high-resolution ultrasound system, and its value was monitored repeatedly at three predefined time intervals: before resistance exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15 minutes after exercise. Results. At the 0th minute after resistance exercise was performed using the Valsalva manoeuvre during exertion, a significant increase in cPWV (4.91 m/s ± 0.52 compared with the baseline value (4.67 m/s ± 0.32, P=0.008 was observed, and then it nearly returned to its baseline value at the 15th minute after exercise (4.66 m/s ± 0.44, P=0.010. These findings persisted after adjusting for age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion. Our result suggests short duration of resistance exercise may provoke a transient increase in central arterial stiffness in healthy young men.

  16. Comparison study of resistance exercise nomenclature adopted among professionals and undergraduate physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mendes de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p233   In the past few years, increased popularity of resistance training (RT and a significant increase in the number of professionals and undergraduate in Physical Education students have been observed. A variety of names has been usually adopted for the same resistance exercise in fields. The aim of the study was to compare the resistance exercise nomenclature adopted by physical education professionals and students, and also to identify the frequencies of names adopted for these resistance exercises. The study included 191 graduate students and active physical education professionals of RT centers and gyms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten exercises traditionally performed on RT programs were selected. The results indicated that there was no association between the nomenclature of exercises and academic degree for all exercises included in the survey. However, there was significant difference (p <0.001 among response frequencies for each exercise, for the whole sample. In this sense, this study enabled identifying significant differences in the nomenclature of resistance exercises. Therefore, nomenclature standardization is essential to establish a direction and clearness in communication among professionals.

  17. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Ruas, Jorge L; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2015-12-15

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca(2+) leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca(2+) release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca(2+)-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group.

  18. Does Regular Exercise without Weight Loss Reduce Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YoonMyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts to tackle childhood obesity, it is recognized as one of the biggest health problems globally. Childhood obesity is a leading cause of many comorbid conditions such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as well as type 2 diabetes. A strong body of evidence suggests that regular exercise without calorie restriction or weight loss is associated with reduced insulin resistance as well as improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. However, despite the well-known benefits associated with regular exercise alone, the independent role of exercise training without calorie restriction on insulin resistance is still uncertain in youth. Some studies observed that both the aerobic and resistance type of exercise training without calorie restriction resulted in meaningful changes in insulin sensitivity, suggesting that exercise alone is an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing insulin resistance in overweight and obese youth. However, only few studies are available on the optimal dose of exercise training without calorie restriction or preferred exercise modality for reducing insulin resistance, which warrants further investigations in the pediatric population.

  19. Progressive resistive exercise in weaning high quadriplegics from the ventilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, R M; Weiss, M S

    1987-04-01

    Acutely high level quadriplegics may experience neuromuscular respiratory insufficiency secondary to loss of use of intercostal and abdominal muscles as well as partial involvement of the phrenic nerve. Frequently, these patients will require mechanical ventilation in the initial stages of their treatment. These patients may present difficulty with weaning off the ventilator. In addition, poor respiratory reserve increases the risk of episodic decompensation. We have instituted a progressive resistive exercise protocol (PRE) analogous to PRE commonly used in training skeletal muscle, to wean patients off the ventilator. This involves determining the patient's endurance to the development of fatigue while off the ventilator. Patients are re-evaluated weekly until they are weaned from the ventilator. Three case studies are reported in which this protocol was used. In addition to our standard respiratory therapy and physical therapy protocols, values for vital capacity and maximum inspiratory force at admission and post-weaning were recorded. After completion of the programme, none of the patients required re-intubation or subsequent mechanical ventilation. This method of diaphragm training may be useful in weaning high level quadriplegics from the ventilator.

  20. A randomized controlled trial on the effects of combined aerobic-resistance exercise on muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and health-related quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Pietilainen, Kirsi H; Santos, Vitoria; Goncalves, Helena; Ramos, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a 12-weeks combined aerobic-resistance exercise therapy on fatigue and isokinetic muscle strength, glycemic control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in moderately affected type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. A randomized controlled trial design was employed. Forty-three T2DM patients were assigned to an exercise group (N.=22), performing 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes of combined aerobic-resistance exercise for 12-weeks; or a no exercise control group (N.=21). Both groups were evaluated at a baseline and after 12-weeks of exercise therapy for: 1) muscle strength and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry; 2) plasma glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C); and 3) HRQoL utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire. The exercise therapy led to improvements in muscle fatigue in knee extensors (-55%) and increased muscle strength in knee flexors and extensors (+15 to +30%), while HbA1C decreased (-18%). In addition, the exercising patients showed sizeable improvements in HRQoL: physical function (+53%), vitality (+21%) and mental health (+40%). Twelve-weeks of combined aerobic-resistance exercise was highly effective to improve muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and several aspects of HRQoL in T2DM patients. These data encourage the use of aerobic and resistance exercise in the good clinical care of T2DM.

  1. Effect of resistance training using bodyweight in the elderly: Comparison of resistance exercise movement between slow and normal speed movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuya; Tanimoto, Michiya; Oba, Naoko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether a slow movement protocol can be applied to resistance training using bodyweight. In addition, the intervention program combined plyometric exercise with resistance exercise to improve physical function overall. A total of 39 active elderly adults participated in a 16-week intervention. The program consisted of five resistance exercises and four plyometric exercises using their own bodyweight with a single set for each exercise. Participants were assigned to one of two experimental groups. One group carried out resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation (3-s concentric, 3-s eccentric and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition). The other group as a movement comparison followed the same regimen, but at normal speed (1-s eccentric and 1-s concentric actions with 1-s rest between each repetition). Muscle size, strength and physical function were measured before and after the intervention period. After the intervention, strengths of upper and lower limbs, and maximum leg extensor power were significantly improved in both groups. Muscle size did not change in either group. There were no significant differences in any of the parameters between groups. The intervention program using only own bodyweight that comprised resistance exercise with slow movement and plyometric exercise can improve physical function in the elderly, even with single sets for each exercise. However, there was no enhanced muscle hypertrophic effect. Further attempts, such as increasing performing multiple sets, would be required to induce muscle hypertrophy. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; 15: 1270-1277. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Muscle strength and stiffness in resistance exercise: Force transmission in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hans; Bukiet, Bruce; Anderson, Ellen Z; Burch, Jared; Findley, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Physical therapists and osteopaths want to know the quantitative force transmitted in the tissues during resistance exercise and also the relationship between tissue strength and the specific type of resistance exercise of the skeletal muscles. This paper uses the strain energy function for large deformations associated with the active and passive response of transversely isotropic skeletal muscle tissue to evaluate muscle strength and force transmitted in tissues during resistance exercises for the quadriceps muscle at the knee during isometric training exercise at different knee angles in vivo. It is found that after an exercise program, the muscle stiffness is halved when the bending angle of the knee increases from 50° to 100°. The muscle strength generated is marginally greater at 100° than at 50°. The stress transmitted in the lateral direction for 100° bending is double that for 50°. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of glutamine on the effect of resistance exercise on cardiac ANP in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various nutritional supplements (herbs, vitamins, and micronutrients improve responses and adaptations to resistance exercise. ANP is a heart hormone that contributes to fluid, electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis through its natriuretic and vasodilative actions. In the present study, the adaptation of ANP in response to resistance exercise was investigated in rats supplemented with glutamine for five weeks. The results showed that supplementation with glutamine did not influence the number of ANP granules per atrial cardiocyte in sedentary animals. In exercised-trained rats, the number and diameter of the granules was significantly higher in comparison with the control group and in exercised animals supplemented with glutamine there was significant increase in the number and diameter of ANP granules compared with controls. Altogether, these data indicated that in resistance exercise rats, glutamine significantly enhances cardiac ANP thus implicating the beneficial effects of glutamine supplementation to the ANP system.

  4. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  5. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Mohammadjafari, Heidar; Asadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS) volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO]), antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT]), and glucose (GLU) levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg), MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL), and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL) compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05). Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001), MDA (p = 0.001), GPx (p = 0.001), NO (p = 0.04), CAT (p = 0.02) and GLU (p = 0.001) concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02) and MDA (p = 0.05) concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men.

  6. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  7. Human Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells in Adaptations to Exercise; Effects of Resistance Exercise Contraction Mode and Protein Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of adapting to a change in demands. The preservation of this adaptability relies partly on a pool of resident myogenic stem cells (satellite cells, SCs). Extrinsic factors such as mechanical load (e.g. resistance exercise) and dietary...... recovery from eccentric exercise In paper I, we evaluated the effect of a single bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on fiber type specific SC content by immunohistochemistry. Subjects received either hydrolysed whey protein (Whey) or iso-caloric carbohydrate (Placebo) in the days post eccentric...... the effect of contraction mode specific resistance training and protein supplementation on whole muscle and tendon hypertrophy. Quadriceps muscle and patellar tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging pre and post 12 weeks of eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc...

  8. Resistance Exercise Program: Intervention To Reduce Inflammation And Improve Nutritional Status In Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moraes

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, statistically significant improvements were observed in body composition, albumin and CRP levels after 6 months of resistance exercises. Therefore, RE provide better prognosis in HD patients reducing cardiovascular risk, inflammation and loss of muscle mass.

  9. Resistance exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis: Need for immediate intervention and proper counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Maysaa A; Saab, Basem R

    2016-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis results from damage to skeletal muscle. Improper resistance training may result in rhabdomyolysis, which can cause acute kidney injury, serious metabolic abnormalities, compartmental syndrome and even death. Proper counselling for athletes may prevent this condition. We present two patients with unilateral swelling after resistance exercise. The workup revealed rhabdomyolysis. We highlight the importance of counselling to prevent rhabdomyolysis secondary to resistance exercise. Trainers and primary care physicians need to be educated about the main features of rhabdomyolysis and urgently refer trainees suspected of having this condition. Treatment consists mainly of hydration and correction of metabolic abnormalities. Primary care physicians need to counsel patients on ways to prevent rhabdomyolysis. Trainers and primary care physicians should instruct novice trainees who are performing resistance exercise to start low and gradually increase the load. Training with loads of 60-70% of one repetition maximum for 8-12 repetitions and use of one to three sets per exercise is recommended.

  10. Systolic and Diastolic Left Ventricular Mechanics during and after Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Eric J; Stembridge, Mike; Shave, Rob; Samuel, T Jake; Stone, Keeron; Esformes, Joseph I

    2017-10-01

    To improve the current understanding of the impact of resistance exercise on the heart, by examining the acute responses of left ventricular (LV) strain, twist, and untwisting rate ("LV mechanics"). LV echocardiographic images were recorded in systole and diastole before, during and immediately after (7-12 s) double-leg press exercise at two intensities (30% and 60% of maximum strength, one-repetition maximum). Speckle tracking analysis generated LV strain, twist, and untwisting rate data. Additionally, beat-by-beat blood pressure was recorded and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and LV wall stress were calculated. Responses in both exercise trials were statistically similar (P > 0.05). During effort, stroke volume decreased, whereas SVR and LV wall stress increased (P mechanics (P 0.05). Immediately after exercise, systolic LV mechanics returned to baseline levels (P mechanics, but increases diastolic mechanics after exercise, suggesting that resistance exercise has a differential impact on systolic and diastolic heart muscle function. The findings may explain why acute resistance exercise has been associated with reduced stroke volume but chronic exercise training may result in increased LV volumes.

  11. Photobiomodulation Leads to Reduced Oxidative Stress in Rats Submitted to High-Intensity Resistive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenita Antonia de Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether oxidative stress markers are influenced by low-intensity laser therapy (LLLT in rats subjected to a high-intensity resistive exercise session (RE. Female Wistar rats divided into three experimental groups (Ctr: control, 4J: LLLT, and RE and subdivided based on the sampling times (instantly or 24 h postexercise underwent irradiation with LLLT using three-point transcutaneous method on the hind legs, which was applied to the gastrocnemius muscle at the distal, medial, and proximal points. Laser (4J or placebo (device off were carried out 60 sec prior to RE that consisted of four climbs bearing the maximum load with a 2 min time interval between each climb. Lipoperoxidation levels and antioxidant capacity were obtained in muscle. Lipoperoxidation levels were increased (4-HNE and CL markers instantly post-RE. LLLT prior to RE avoided the increase of the lipid peroxidation levels. Similar results were also notified for oxidation protein assays. The GPx and FRAP activities did not reduce instantly or 24 h after RE. SOD increased 24 h after RE, while CAT activity did not change with RE or LLLT. In conclusion, LLLT prior to RE reduced the oxidative stress markers, as well as, avoided reduction, and still increased the antioxidant capacity.

  12. The effect of active and passive recovery on creatine kinase and C-reactive protein after an exercise session in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Mostafavi Darani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: One of the important issues in the context of exercise physiology is apply the best recovery methods completely after intense physical activities. Recovery methods will decrease the risk of muscle damage and subsequent inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the recovery procedures on changes of creatine kinase (CK and C-reactive protein (CRP after an exercise session simulated in professional football players. Methods: Thirty Iran's Azadegan League football players were participated in this research (age: 22.4 ± 2.38, height: 179.1 ± 2.63 cm, weight: 68.5 ± 4.82 kg, body mass index: 21.5 ± 2.10 kg/m2. After exercise protocol, simulation team randomly divided the participants into three groups (n = 10 under an active recovery on land, floating in the cold water (10°C, and passive recovery for 12 min. The levels of serum CK and CRP were collected immediately, 24 h, and 48 h after the exercise protocol. Findings: The results showed a significant decrease in CK and CRP after training in cold-water immersion method comparing to the other methods (P < 0.05. In addition, the level of CRP was significantly less than passive recovery 48 h postexercise recovery (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that if recovery in cold water was used immediately after exercise, much better results are obtained in future periods. This means that immersion method in cold water probably leads to decreased signs of muscle soreness and inflammatory responses in male football players.

  13. Structural remodeling of coronary resistance arteries: effects of age and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mina A; Taylor, Curtis R; Chen, Bei; La, Hae-Sun; Maraj, Joshua J; Kilar, Cody R; Behnke, Bradley J; Delp, Michael D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2014-09-15

    Age is known to induce remodeling and stiffening of large-conduit arteries; however, little is known of the effects of age on remodeling and mechanical properties of coronary resistance arteries. We employed a rat model of aging to investigate whether 1) age increases wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries, and 2) exercise training reverses putative age-induced increases in wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries. Young (4 mo) and old (21 mo) Fischer 344 rats remained sedentary or underwent 10 wk of treadmill exercise training. Coronary resistance arteries were isolated for determination of wall-to-lumen ratio, effective elastic modulus, and active and passive responses to changes in intraluminal pressure. Elastin and collagen content of the vascular wall were assessed histologically. Wall-to-lumen ratio increased with age, but this increase was reversed by exercise training. In contrast, age reduced stiffness, and exercise training increased stiffness in coronary resistance arteries from old rats. Myogenic responsiveness was reduced with age and restored by exercise training. Collagen-to-elastin ratio (C/E) of the wall did not change with age and was reduced with exercise training in arteries from old rats. Thus age induces hypertrophic remodeling of the vessel wall and reduces the stiffness and myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries. Exercise training reduces wall-to-lumen ratio, increases wall stiffness, and restores myogenic function in aged coronary resistance arteries. The restorative effect of exercise training on myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries may be due to both changes in vascular smooth muscle phenotype and expression of extracellular matrix proteins. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S; Poulsen, Otto M; Bjørnlund, Inger Birthe T; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be examined. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation and perceived loading during upper-extremity resistance exercises with dumbbells compared with elastic tubing. A single-group, repeated-measures study design was used. Exercise evaluation was conducted in a laboratory setting. Sixteen female workers (aged 26-55 years) without serious musculoskeletal diseases and with a mean neck and shoulder pain intensity of 7.8 on a 100-mm visual analog scale participated in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in 5 selected muscles during the exercises of lateral raise, wrist extension, and shoulder external rotation during graded loadings with dumbbells (2-7.5 kg) and elastic tubing (Thera-Band, red to silver resistance). The order of exercises and loadings was randomized for each individual. Electromyographic amplitude was normalized to the absolute maximum EMG amplitude obtained during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and exercise testing. Immediately after each set of exercise, the Borg CR10 scale was used to rate perceived loading during the exercise. Resistance exercise with dumbbells as well as elastic tubing showed increasing EMG amplitude and perceived loading with increasing resistance. At the individually maximal level of resistance for each exercise-defined as the 3 repetitions maximum-normalized EMG activity of the prime muscles was not significantly different between dumbbells (59%-87%) and elastic tubing (64%-86%). Perceived loading was moderately to very strongly related to normalized EMG activity (r=.59-.92). Limitations The results of this study apply only for exercises performed in a controlled manner (ie, without sudden jerks

  15. Aerobic and resistance exercise in systemic sclerosis: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Natália Cristina; Portes, Leslie Andrews; Pettersson, Henrik; Alexanderson, Helene; Boström, Carina

    2017-12-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) experience reduced exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy subjects. There are also indications of reduced levels of physical activity. To present the current knowledge of physical exercise in SSc. Most studies presently available [three case studies, one single subject experimental design, one study comparing patients with healthy controls, one quasi experimental design (pre-post), two clinical trials and two random controlled trials] have included small samples of patients, mostly composed of patients with and without pulmonary involvement. It seems that patients with SSc without pulmonary involvement are able to perform and benefit from aerobic exercises of at least moderate intensity. Exercise tolerance, aerobic capacity, walking distance, muscle strength and muscle function as well as health-related quality of life (HRQL) have been found to be improved after participation in programmes including aerobic exercise and aerobic exercise combined with resistance exercises. Improvements seem to be only partially retained at follow up. Patients with pulmonary involvement may also experience improved muscle strength, physical and aerobic capacity, as well as HRQL following exercise. Patients with SSc without pulmonary involvement can be recommended to be as physically active as the general population. Patients with mild pulmonary involvement can be recommended to be physically active by engaging in exercises of moderate intensity and to participate in moderate-load resistance exercises. Health professionals should inform patients with SSc about the importance of physical activity and avoidance of a sedentary lifestyle. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of hydraulic-resistance exercise on strength and power in untrained healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SungChul; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Kusunoki, Masanobu; Okada, Akiyoshi; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of hydraulic-resistance exercise (HDRE) in improving strength and power in healthy older adults. Thirty-nine older adults (68.6 ± 4.9 years; 15 men, 24 women) were divided into a training group or control group (CON). Hydraulic-resistance exercise consisted of a 12-week supervised program, 50 min · d(-1), 3 d · wk(-1). Hydraulic-resistance exercise was used for 10 exercises: Chest press and pull, shoulder press and pull, low back flexion and extension squat, leg adduction/abduction, leg press, and elbow extension/flexion. The number of the sets and the hydraulic-resistance dial setting (D) were gradually increased in 3 stages during the 12-week program. Strength, rating of perceived exertion, and relative intensity during exercise increased significantly from stage to stage whereas repetition velocity decreased. Total work was higher in the second stage compared with the first but lower in the final stage because of reduced repetitions. Peak torque at D2 and D11 increased (p power at D2 and D11 also increased (p Hydraulic-resistance exercise elicits significant improvements in strength and power in older adults. Therefore, HDRE is an effective form of resistance training that provides benefits using low and moderate intensity of training for older adults.

  17. Resistance exercise reduces memory impairment induced by monosodium glutamate in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Paulo Cesar Oliveira; Quines, Caroline Brandão; Jardim, Natália Silva; Leite, Marlon Regis; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Monosodium glutamate causes cognitive impairment. Does resistance exercise improve the performance of rats treated with monosodium glutamate? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance exercise is effective against monosodium glutamate-induced memory impairment in male and female rats. Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavour enhancer in diets, causes cognitive impairment in rodents. Exercise has been reported to protect against impairment of memory in humans. In this study, we investigated whether resistance exercise improves the performance of male and female rats treated with MSG in tests of memory and motor co-ordination. Wistar rats received MSG [4 g (kg body weight) -1  day -1 , s.c.] from postnatal day 1 to 10. At postnatal day 60, the animals started a resistance exercise protocol in an 80 deg inclined vertical ladder apparatus and performed it during 7 weeks. Rats performed object recognition and location memory tests. Resistance exercise reduced impairment in motor co-ordination of male and female rats treated with MSG. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in exploratory preference in the long-term recognition memory for novel objects of male rats treated with MSG. In MSG-treated female rats, resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in exploratory preference in the novel object location test. The exploratory preference of female rats in the long-term recognition memory test was similar in all groups. The short-term memory was not altered by MSG or resistance exercise in male and female rats. This study demonstrates that MSG affected the memory of male and female rats in different ways. Resistance exercise was effective against the decrease in recognition for male rats and in location memory for female rats treated with MSG. This report demonstrates the beneficial effects of resistance exercise against the prejudice of motor condition and impairment of memory induced

  18. High-Velocity Resistance Exercise Protocols in Older Women: Effects on Cardiovascular Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo P.; Novaes, Jefferson; Oliveira, Ricardo J.; Gentil, Paulo; Wagner, Dale; Bottaro, Martim

    2007-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y) performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP). All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP) involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5) or 15 (DP15) seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), rate pressure product (RPP), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05) with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women. Key pointsThe assessment of cardiovascular responses to high-velocity resistance exercise in older individuals is very important for exercise prescription and rehabilitation in elderly population.Discontinuous protocol decrease myocardial oxygen consumption (HR x SBP) during the performance of dynamic high-velocity resistance exercise in older women.The decrease in RPP (~ 8.5%) during the discontinuous protocol has clinical implications when developing high-velocity resistance exercise strategies for elderly individuals. PMID:24149492

  19. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE in untrained men (n = 23 and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m² underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001 above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7% (P<0.001 after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02, 3-6 h (r = 0.16 or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10. Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05 with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  1. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, T; Dalgas, U; Gade, A B

    2016-01-01

    responses to resistance exercise training in medicated PwMS. Thirty-five people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with interferon (IFN)-β, were randomized to a 24-week progressive resistance training (PRT) or control group. Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-23, tumor......Exercise is a well-established part of rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), and it has been hypothesized to stimulate an anti-inflammatory environment that might be disease modifying. Yet, investigations on exercise-induced immune responses are scarce and generally not paying...

  2. Verification, Validation and Credibility Assessment of a Computational Model of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C. R.; Humphreys, B. T.; Mulugeta, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the resistive exercise device used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to mitigate bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to microgravity (micro g). The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a multi-body dynamics model of biomechanics models for use in spaceflight exercise physiology research and operations. In an effort to advance model maturity and credibility of the ARED model, the DAP performed verification, validation and credibility (VV and C) assessment of the analyses of the model in accordance to NASA-STD-7009 'Standards for Models and Simulations'.

  3. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  4. Light-load resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy signaling in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. METHODS: Untrained healthy men (age: +65...... and 12g whey protein at 7 hours post-exercise; N=10) or placebo (4g maltodextrin/hour; N=10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7 and 10 hours post-exercise from both the resting and exercised leg. Myofibrillar-FSR and activity of select targets from the mTORC1-signalling cascade were...

  5. Foot-ground reaction force during resistive exercise in parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An interim resistance exercise device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to spaceflight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (1 G) vs. microgravity (0 G) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: There were four subjects who performed three exercises (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) using the iRED during 1 G and 0 G at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in the three orthogonal axes (x, y, z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = square root(x2 + y2 + z2)). Linear displacement (LD) was measured using a linear transducer. Peak force (Fpeak) and an index of total work (TWi) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p resistive exercises during spaceflight that include the movement of a large portion of their body mass will require much greater external resistive force during 0 G than 1 G exercise to provide a sufficient stimulus to maintain muscle and bone mass.

  6. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K J; Reitelseder, S; Petersen, S G

    2011-01-01

    protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake......Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...... before exercise (CasPre), caseinate intake immediately after exercise (CasPost), whey intake immediately after exercise (Whey), or intake of a non-caloric control drink (Control). Muscle myofibrillar and collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured by a primed continuous infusion of L-[1...

  7. Acute effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on the number of repetitions performed during a multiple set resistance exercise protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keese, Felipe; Farinatti, Paulo; Massaferri, Renato; Matos-Santos, Lenifran; Silva, Nadia; Monteiro, Walace

    2013-11-01

    It has been proposed that fatigue during strength exercise is negatively influenced by prior proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching. However, it is possible that the effects of PNF on muscle endurance are affected by stretching duration. This study investigated the influence of PNF on the number of repetitions of the leg curl exercise performed with multiple sets and submaximal load. Nineteen men (age 25 ± 1 years, weight 75.8 ± 4.2 kg, height 178.1 ± 3.8 cm, 10-repetition maximum [RM] 78.3 ± 6.9 kg) performed 4 sets of leg curl with 10RM load with and without previous PNF (3 sets of hip flexion either with knees extended or flexed, duration ~2.5 minutes). The total number of repetitions decreased along sets in both situations (38.6% in control and 41.0% in PNF sessions, p < 0.001). However, no difference between control and PNF was detected for the number of repetitions in each set (first set, p = 0.330; second set, p = 0.072; third set, p = 0.061; fourth set, p = 0.150). In conclusion, the number of repetitions performed in multiple sets of the leg curl was not decreased by prior PNF stretching. Therefore, it appears that a moderate level of PNF could be used before resistance exercise with a minimal negative effect.

  8. Changes in resting mitogen-activated protein kinases following resistance exercise overreaching and overtraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Justin X; Fry, Andrew C; Galpin, Andrew J; Sterczala, Adam J; Thomason, Donald B; Moore, Christopher A; Weiss, Lawrence W; Chiu, Loren Z F

    2016-12-01

    Many physiological maladaptations persist after overreaching and overtraining resistance exercise (RE). However, no studies have investigated changes in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) after overtraining in humans, despite their critical role regulating exercise-induced muscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in total and resting phosphorylation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK following a period of RE overreaching or overtraining. Following 2-4 weeks of normal training (low volume/low intensity), two groups of males performed either a high-power overreaching protocol (HPOR n = 6, mean ± SD, age 23 ± 3.4 years, mass 86.5 ± 17.7 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.06 m) or high-intensity overtraining protocol (HIOT n = 8, age 19.8 ± 1.8 years, mass 76.8 ± 6.7 kg, height 1.8 ± 0.06 m). Resting muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline (BL; end of normal training period) and 24 h after the final session of stressful training (i.e., HPOR or HIOT programs). Total MAPK and ratio of phosphorylated/total (p-MAPK)- ERK1/2, JNK, and p38-MAPK were analyzed via western blotting. 2 × 2 (group × time) ANOVA determined differences in MAPK between BL and post-training protocols. Compared to BL, total-ERK increased after HPOR, but decreased after HIOT (p ≤ 0.05). p-ERK1/2/total-ERK increased after HIOT (p ≤ 0.05). The ratio of p-JNK/total-JNK and p-ERK1/2/total-ERK decreased after HPOR (p ≤ 0.05); however, this result was primarily due to increased total MAPK content. p-p38-MAPK decreased after HPOR (p ≤ 0.05). Total and p-MAPK are differentially expressed after HPOR and HIOT RE. These changes are likely involved in the maladaptation reported in overreaching and overtraining exercise. This is the first study describing altered MAPK in RE overtrained and overreached humans.

  9. Effect of resistance exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on members of the STARS signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, Kristian; Rahbek, Stine K; Lamon, Severine; Farup, Jean; Stefanetti, Renae J; Wallace, Marita A; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) pathway is suggested to provide a link between external stress responses and transcriptional regulation in muscle. However, the sensitivity of STARS signalling to different mechanical stresses has not been investigated. In a comparative study, we examined the regulation of the STARS signalling pathway in response to unilateral resistance exercise performed as either eccentric (ECC) or concentric (CONC) contractions as well as prolonged training; with and without whey protein supplementation. Skeletal muscle STARS, myocardian-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) and serum response factor (SRF) mRNA and protein, as well as muscle cross-sectional area and maximal voluntary contraction, were measured. A single-bout of exercise produced increases in STARS and SRF mRNA and decreases in MRTF-A mRNA with both ECC and CONC exercise, but with an enhanced response occurring following ECC exercise. A 31% increase in STARS protein was observed exclusively after CONC exercise (P protein levels increased similarly by 48% with both CONC and ECC exercise (P hypertrophy and produced increases in MRTF-A protein of 125% and 99%, respectively (P protein. There was no effect of whey protein supplementation. These results show that resistance exercise provides an acute stimulation of the STARS pathway that is contraction mode dependent. The responses to acute exercise were more pronounced than responses to accumulated training, suggesting that STARS signalling is primarily involved in the initial phase of exercise-induced muscle adaptations. PMID:23753523

  10. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren; Petersen, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...... protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake...... and caseinate feeding immediately after heavy resistance exercise in elderly individuals, and MPS is similar with caseinate ingestion before and after exercise....

  11. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Judith Bretland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout.Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control. Randomised control trial design was employed.Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory.Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted.Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  12. Effect of Linear and Non-linear Resistance Exercise on Anaerobic Performance among Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Esmaeili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of strength training are improving muscle strength, power and muscle endurance. The objective of the current study is to compare two popular linear and nonlinear resistance exercises interventions on the anaerobic power.  Previous research has shown differences intervention by the linear and non-linear resistance exercise in performance and strength in male athletes. By the way there are not enough data regarding female subjects. Eighteen young women subjects participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided in two linear (n=8 and nonlinear (n=10 groups. An 11-week exercise protocol was applied in both groups. The anaerobic power and the body composition variables were measured in the pre and posttests. The results of this research substantiated that there was no difference in the peak anaerobic power between the linear and nonlinear models of the resistance exercise. The results of the current study proved greater improvement in the nonlinear model in contrast to the linear one in two groups at the final phase of the exercise [F(1,16=6.270 , p=0.023]. Greater improvement of the anaerobic power in the undulating group may have been influenced by less overtraining risk in the nonlinear model. The increase of the muscle and lean body mass (LBM directly improved the anaerobic power by increasing the Atp-pc energy system. It was also observed that the nonlinear model of the resistance exercise experienced noticeable improvement in the body composition.  Both linear and non-linear models of resistance exercise improve anaerobic power, but at difference's situation coach and researcher should choose the best method according to type of sport and competition's season. Keywords: Anaerobic power, Energy system, resistance exercise, performance

  13. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (Pmuscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  14. Hormonal, Metabolic and Cardiorespiratory Responses of Young and Adult Athletes to a Single Session of High Intensity Cycle Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Florian; Härtel, Sascha; Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Strahler, Jana; Bös, Klaus; Sperlich, Billy

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a single High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5±0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7±4.6 years) performed HIIT (four consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55±3.3 nmol/l to 15.13±9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07±4.7 nmol/l to 19.19±12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p

  15. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, L.; Reitelseder, S.; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same indivi...

  16. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded.......001) during hamstring curl performed with elastic resistance (7.58 +/- 0.08) compared with hamstring curl performed in a machine (5.92 +/- 0.03). Conclusions Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more...... inclinometers. Results Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine...

  17. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ponce-Bravo, Christian Ponce, Belén Feriche, Paulino Padial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG, or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG. Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT, choice reaction time (C-RT and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05. Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05 after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05. Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

  18. Effects of low- and high-volume resistance exercise on postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Goloi, Evagelia; Petridou, Anatoli; Dipla, Konstantina; Mougios, Vassilis; Kellis, Spiros

    2007-03-01

    Postprandial lipaemia (PL) is associated with the metabolic syndrome, CVD and endothelial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce PL. Although resistance exercise is recommended for the improvement of the quality of life, management of body weight and prevention of several disorders, its effect on PL has received little attention. The present study examined the effects of low-volume resistance exercise (LVRE) and high-volume resistance exercise (HVRE) on PL. Ten healthy young men performed three trials, each conducted over 2 d. On the afternoon of day 1, they either refrained from exercise (control), performed LVRE (two sets of eight exercises, twelve repetitions at twelve repetitions maximum (RM) in each set; energy expenditure 0 x 76 MJ), or performed HVRE (four sets of eight exercises, twelve repetitions at 12 RM in each set; energy expenditure 1 x 40 MJ). On the morning of day 2 they consumed a meal containing 67 kJ/kg body weight, of which 65 % energy was from fat. Blood samples were obtained in the fasted state and for 6 h postprandially. The total area under the TAG curve (AUC; mmol/l x h) was lower (Ppostprandial lipaemic response.

  19. High-power resistance exercise induces MAPK phosphorylation in weightlifting trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Andrew J; Fry, Andrew C; Chiu, Loren Z F; Thomason, Donald B; Schilling, Brian K

    2012-02-01

    Power is critical to muscle performance, specifically in athletic populations. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK 1/2), p38, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)) are intracellular signal transduction mechanisms that partially regulate exercise-induced skeletal muscle alterations. These pathways are highly responsive to exercise, but their reaction to high power, multi-joint resistance exercise is yet to be examined. Nine weightlifting-trained men performed 15 sets of three repetitions of a dynamic clean pull exercise at 85% of their one repetition maximum. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained prior to (pre) and after the 8th (mid) and 15th set (post) of exercise. Three subjects returned to serve as non-exercising controls for a similar sequence of biopsies (CON). The ratio of phosphorylated MAPK to total MAPK increased significantly for p38 (3.0 fold, p  0.05), and thus the biopsy procedure itself did not account for the entire increase in MAPK phosphorylation during EX. These data indicate MAPK pathways are activated early and remain elevated throughout the duration of high power resistance exercise. These findings help describe the mechanisms partially responsible for chronic adaptations in response to high intensity, high power resistance training in humans.

  20. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers response to aerobic versus resisted exercise training for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H; Al-Shreef, Fadwa M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a main risk for morbidity, associated with alterations in systemic inflammation. Recent studies proved that morbidity and mortality of COPD is related to systemic inflammation as it contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, increase of inflammatory cytokines adversely affects quality of life, alteration in ventilatory and skeletal muscles functions. Moreover, exercise training has many beneficial effects in correction of the adverse effects of COPD. This study aimed to compare the response of inflammatory cytokines of COPD to aerobic versus resisted exercises. One hundred COPD diseased patients participated in this study and were randomly included in two groups; the first group received aerobic exercise, whereas the second group received resisted exercise training for 12 weeks. The mean values of TNF-α, Il-2, IL-4, IL-6 and CRP were significantly decreased in both groups. Also; there was a significant difference between both groups at the end of the study with more reduction in patients who received aerobic exercise training. Aerobic exercise is more appropriate than resisted exercise training in modulating inflammatory cytokines level in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  1. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances performance and dampens muscle pain following resistance exercise to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M J; Oxford, S W

    2012-06-01

    This double-blind, within-subjects experiment examined the effects of acute caffeine ingestion on perceptions of muscle pain following a bout of high-intensity, upper-body resistance exercise to failure. Moderately trained males (N.=18) ingested a dose of caffeine (5 mg · kg-1) or placebo in a randomised and counterbalanced order and 1 hour later completed bench press exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1 repetition maximum. Repetitions completed was taken as a measure of performance, peak heart rate was determined via heart rate telemetry during the exercise bout, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and upper body muscle pain was recorded immediately upon failure of the exercise task and peak blood lactate concentration was determined post-exercise. Caffeine resulted in improved repetitions to failure (t [17]=3.119, P=0.006), greater peak blood lactate (t [17] =5.080, P=0.0001) and lower RPE (t 17=-3.431, P=0.003) compared to placebo. Muscle pain perception was also significantly lower in the caffeine condition compared to placebo (t [17]=-2.567, P=0.04). These results support prior studies using aerobic based exercise modes in suggesting that caffeine ingestion can dampen exercise-induced muscle pain. Specifically, caffeine ingestion enhances muscular strength performance and reduces upper body muscle pain perception immediately following a bout of high-intensity resistance exercise to failure.

  2. Hemodynamic and vascular response to resistance exercise with L-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Christopher A; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-04-01

    L-arginine, the precursor to nitric oxide (NO), has been shown to improve endothelial function in patients with endothelial dysfunction. Resistance exercise has been shown to increase arterial stiffness acutely with no definitive cause. It is possible that a reduction in NO bioavailability is responsible for this. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute L-arginine supplementation and resistance exercise on arterial function. Eighteen (N = 18) young men (24.2 +/- 0.7 yr) volunteered for this study. In a crossover design, subjects underwent body composition testing, 1-repetition maximum testing for the bench press and the biceps curls and performed two acute bouts of resistance exercise in which they consumed either placebo or 7 g L-arginine before each resistance exercise bout. Anthropometric measures, augmentation index (AIx), arterial stiffness, and forearm blood flow (FBF) were assessed before and after each treatment condition. There were significant (P L-arginine; furthermore, blood flow was not augmented with supplementation. On the basis of these data, l-arginine does not appear to change the hemodynamic and vascular responses to resistance exercise.

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  4. Concomitant changes in cross-sectional area and water content in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Uhrbrand, Anders; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how one bout (1EX) and three bouts (3EX) of strenuous resistance exercise affected the cross-sectional area (CSA) and water content (WC) of the quadriceps muscle and patella tendon (PT), 4 h and 52 h after the last exercise bout. Ten healthy untrained male subjects performed...... was significantly reduced at 52 h (3EX: 14 ± 2%) compared with baseline and (3EX: 13 ± 1%) compared with 4 h. Present data demonstrate that strenuous resistance exercise results in an acute increase in muscle WC and underlines the importance of ensuring sufficient time between the last exercise bout...

  5. Impact of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on the Health of HIV-Infected Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Lyerly, G. William; Jaggers, Jason R.; Dudgeon, Wesley D.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals infected with HIV experience numerous comorbidities caused by the disease progression and medications, lack of (or inability to perform) physical activity, malnutrition, or a combination of these causes. Common symptoms include loss of muscle mass, fatigue, lypodystrophy, lypoatrophy, and decreases in strength, functional capacity, and overall quality of life. Studies have shown that exercise is a potential treatment of many of these symptoms. Research suggests that exercise may produce beneficial physiological changes in the HIV-infected population such as improved body composition and increases in both strength and endurance. In addition, psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety have been shown to be positively affected by exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature regarding effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on HIV-infected individuals. PMID:20508736

  6. Differential Impact of Acute High-Intensity Exercise on Circulating Endothelial Microparticles and Insulin Resistance between Overweight/Obese Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, Cody; Robinson, Emily; Wan, Zhongxiao; Martinez, Nic; Hummel, Michelle L.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background An acute bout of exercise can improve endothelial function and insulin sensitivity when measured on the day following exercise. Our aim was to compare acute high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE) to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese men and women. Methods Inactive males (BMI = 30 ± 3, 25 ± 6 yr, n = 6) and females (BMI = 28 ± 2, 21 ± 3 yr, n = 7) participated in three experimental trials in a randomized counterbalanced crossover design: 1) No exercise control (Control); 2) HICE (20 min cycling @ just above ventilatory threshold); 3) HIIE (10 X 1-min @ ∼90% peak aerobic power). Exercise conditions were matched for external work and diet was controlled post-exercise. Fasting blood samples were obtained ∼18 hr after each condition. CD62E+ and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were assessed by flow cytometry and insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results There was a significant sex X exercise interaction for CD62E+ EMPs, CD31+/CD42b- EMPs, and HOMA-IR (all Pexercise type. There was a significant increase in HOMA-IR in males but a decrease in females following HIIE compared to Control (Pexercise. A single session of HICE and HIIE reduced circulating EMPs measured on the morning following exercise in males but in females CD62E+ EMPs were increased following HICE. Next day HOMA-IR paradoxically increased in males but was reduced in females following HIIE. Future research is needed to investigate mechanisms responsible for potential differential responses between males and females. PMID:25710559

  7. Effects of 6 months of aerobic and resistance exercise training on carotid artery intima media thickness in overweight and obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkee; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-12-01

    We studied the effects of exercise on carotid intima-media thickness, luminal diameter, and flow velocity in overweight and obese older women, and the associations between carotid parameters changes and other variables. A total of 41 overweight and obese older women (aged 65-77 years, fat mass percent ≥ 32%), who were divided into a control group (n = 20) and a supervised combined exercise group (n = 21). The 24-week combined exercise program (aerobic and resistance exercise) consisted of sessions 40-80 min in length 5 days per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist. Body composition, blood pressure, physical function and carotid variables were assessed. The differences in all variables, and the relative changes between baseline and 24 weeks' follow up were evaluated. Carotid intima-media thickness, systolic carotid luminal diameter, peak systolic flow velocity and end diastolic flow velocity showed a significant group × time interaction. No interaction was observed for diastolic luminal diameter. In the exercise group, the change of carotid intima-media thickness was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, maximal walking speed, 1-mile walking time and maximal oxygen uptake. Also, the change of peak systolic flow velocity was significantly associated with skeletal muscle mass, diastolic blood pressure and maximum walking speed. Combined exercise can effectively improve carotid intima-media thickness in overweight and obese older women. In addition, exercise training increases the systolic carotid luminal diameter and flow velocity in older women. Therefore, regular combined exercise might help prevent atherosclerotic disease by improving the carotid artery. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2304-2310. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. Autophagy is induced by resistance exercise in young men but unfolded protein response is induced regardless of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentilä, Jaakko; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti A; Hulmi, Juha J

    2018-04-02

    Autophagy and unfolded protein response (UPR) appear to be important for skeletal muscle homeostasis and may be altered by exercise. Our aim was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise and training on indicators of UPR and autophagy in healthy untrained young men (n = 12, 27 ± 4 years) and older men (n = 8, 61 ± 6 years) as well as in resistance-trained individuals (n = 15, 25 ± 5 years). Indicators of autophagy and UPR were investigated from the muscle biopsies after a single resistance exercise bout and after 21 weeks of resistance training. Lipidated LC3II as an indicator of autophagosome content increased at 48 hours post resistance exercise (P resistance-training period (P resistance exercise in untrained young and older men (P resistance-training period regardless of age. UPR was unchanged within the first few hours after the resistance exercise bout regardless of the training status. Changes in autophagy and UPR ER indicators did not correlate with a resistance-training-induced increase in muscle strength and size. Autophagosome content is increased by resistance training in young previously untrained men, but this response may be blunted by aging. However, unfolded protein response is induced by an unaccustomed resistance exercise bout in a delayed manner regardless of age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy During Resistance Exercise at 80% 1RM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Jefferson M; Lima, Jorge P; Saavedra, Francisco J; Reis, Victor M

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) method to assess the energy cost in resistance exercises (RE). The aim of the study was to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic energy release during resistance exercises performed at 80% 1-RM in four exercises (half squat, bench press, triceps extension and lat pull down), as well as the accuracy of its estimation. The sample comprised 14 men (age = 26.6 ± 4.9 years; height = 177.7 ± 0.1 cm; body mass = 79.0 ± 11.1 kg; and estimated fat mass = 10.5 ± 4.6%). Test and re-test of 1-RM were applied to every exercise. Low-intensity bouts at 12, 16, 20, and 24% of 1-RM were conducted. Energy cost was then extrapolated to 80% 1-RM exhaustive bout and relative energy contribution were assessed. By utilizing the AOD method, the results of the present study suggest a great proportion of anaerobic metabolism during exercise at 80% 1-RM in the four RE that were analyzed: Bench press = 77,66±6,95%; Half squat = 87,44±6,45%; Triceps extension = 63,91±9,22%; Lat pull down = 71,99±13,73 %. The results of the present study suggest that AOD during resistance exercises presents a pattern that does not match the reports in the literature for other types of exercise. The accuracy of the total energy demand estimation at 80% 1-RM was acceptable in the Bench press, in the Triceps extension and in the Lat pull down, but no in the Half squat. More studies are warranted to investigate the validity of this method in resistance exercise.

  10. The Effects Combining Cryocompression Therapy following an Acute Bout of Resistance Exercise on Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. DuPont, Brek J. Meuris, Vincent H. Hardesty, Emily C. Barnhart, Landon H. Tompkins, Morricia J.P. Golden, Clayton J. Usher, Paul A. Spence, Lydia K. Caldwell, Emily M. Post, Matthew K. Beeler, William J. Kraemer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Compression and cold therapy used separately have shown to reduce negative effects of tissue damage. The combining compression and cold therapy (cryocompression as a single recovery modality has yet to be fully examined. To examine the effects of cryocompression on recovery following a bout of heavy resistance exercise, recreationally resistance trained men (n =16 were recruited, matched, and randomly assigned to either a cryocompression group (CRC or control group (CON. Testing was performed before and then immediately after exercise, 60 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours after a heavy resistance exercise workout (barbell back squats for 4 sets of 6 reps at 80% 1RM, 90 sec rest between sets, stiff legged deadlifts for 4 sets of 8 reps at 1.0 X body mass with 60 sec rest between sets, 4 sets of 10 eccentric Nordic hamstring curls, 45 sec rest between sets. The CRC group used the CRC system for 20-mins of cryocompression treatment immediately after exercise, 24 hours, and 48 hours after exercise. CON sat quietly for 20-mins at the same time points. Muscle damage [creatine kinase], soreness (visual analog scale, 0-100, pain (McGill Pain Q, 0-5, fatigue, sleep quality, and jump power were significantly (p < 0.05 improved for CRC compared to CON at 24 and 48 hours after exercise. Pain was also significantly lower for CRC compared to CON at 60-mins post exercise. These findings show that cryocompression can enhance recovery and performance following a heavy resistance exercise workout.

  11. Remote Adaptive Motor Resistance Training Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using a computer configured exercise system equipped with an electric motor to provide physical resistance to user motion in conjunction with means for sharing exercise system related data and/or user performance data with a secondary user, such as a medical professional, a physical therapist, a trainer, a computer generated competitor, and/or a human competitor. For example, the exercise system is used with a remote trainer to enhance exercise performance, with a remote medical professional for rehabilitation, and/or with a competitor in a competition, such as in a power/weightlifting competition or in a video game. The exercise system is optionally configured with an intelligent software assistant and knowledge navigator functioning as a personal assistant application.

  12. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carpio Rivera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Carpio-Rivera, E. y Solera-Herrera, A. (2012. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women. Pensar en Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 10 (2, 1-12. The purpose of this study was to observe the acute effect of different exercises executed in circuit on the resting blood pressure of hypertensive women. Nine trained persons (aged 53.22 ± 4.67 years, hypertensive but medicated with enalapril, participated in four training treatments, each carried out on different days under a randomized repeated measures design: (1 A: aerobic training condition (steps training; (2 R: resistance training condition (machine training (3 AR: aerobic and resistance training condition (alternating aerobic and resistance training every 30 seconds (4 C: control condition (30 minutes resting. Exercise conditions were performed during 30 minutes at 70% of maximum heart rate and resting blood pressure was measured 5 minutes before and immediately after each condition. A two-way analysis of variance detected a significant interaction between conditions and measurements (p<0.05 on systolic blood pressure (sBP. Tukey Post-hoc analyses showed a significant increase of sBP following the three exercise conditions (A: +19 mmHg; R: +28 mmHg; AR: +22 mmHg, while the sBP remained unchanged during the control condition. In contrast, there was no significant effect of any type of exercise on diastolic blood pressure (dBP. In conclusion, the acute elevation in sBP following this type of resistance exercise was similar to the increase produced by aerobic exercise.

  13. RESISTIVE EXERCISES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURNHAM, STAN; MCCRAW, LYNN W.

    A STUDY WAS CONCERNED WITH A COMPARISON OF ISOTONIC, ISOMETRIC, AND SPEED EXERCISE PROGRAMS AS A MEANS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH, ENDURANCE, SPEED, AND POWER. SUBJECTS FOR THE INVESTIGATION WERE 93 FRESHMEN AND SOPHOMORE MEN ENROLLED IN A PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASS. AFTER MEASUREMENT OF INITIAL STATUS IN THE ATTRIBUTES UNDER CONSIDERATION, THE…

  14. Effects of aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Ueda, Shin-Ya; Usui, Tatsuya; Sotobayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Hayato; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Okumoto, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2010-03-01

    To prevent falls in Japan, both gait and resistance training of the lower extremities are recommended. However, resistance training for the elderly induces muscle damage. Recently, aquatic exercise using water buoyancy and resistance have commonly been performed by the elderly. We have now produced new water-resistance equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of aquatic exercise training using the new equipment for the elderly. Subjects were divided into two groups: a resistance group of 12 subjects (using water-resistance equipment) and a non-resistance group of eight subjects (without the equipment). The aquatic exercise training was 90 min, three times per week for 8 weeks, and mostly consisted of walking. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, physical performance testing, and profile of mood states (POMS). Significant improvements were observed in muscle strength in plantar flexion, and the timed up and go test (TUG) in both groups. Additionally, 10-m obstacle walking and 5-m maximum walking speed and length with eye-open were significantly improved in the resistance group. Also, a low negative correlation was found between the degree of change in TUG and POMS (tension and anxiety) scores in the resistance group. As it became easier to maintain posture, stand, and move, tension and anxiety in everyday life were alleviated with improvement of strength of the lower extremities and balance function. The present aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment may be used by the elderly to improve balance and walking ability, which are associated with the prevention of falls.

  15. Myofibrillar disruption following acute concentric and eccentric resistance exercise in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, M J; Interisano, S A; Tarnopolsky, M A; Roy, B D; MacDonald, J R; Yarasheski, K E; MacDougall, J D

    2000-08-01

    We have previously quantified the extent of myofibrillar disruption which occurs following an acute bout of resistance exercise in untrained men, however the response of well-trained subjects is not known. We therefore recruited six strength-trained men, who ceased training for 5 days and then performed 8 sets of 8 uni-lateral repetitions, using a load equivalent to 80% of their concentric (Con) 1-repetition maximum. One arm performed only Con actions by lifting the weight and the other arm performed only eccentric actions (Ecc) by lowering it. Needle biopsy samples were obtained from biceps brachii of each arm approximately 21 h following exercise, and at baseline (i.e., after 5 days without training), and subsequently analyzed using electron microscopy to quantify myofibrillar disruption. A greater (P 0.05) from baseline values. The proportion of disrupted fibres and the magnitude of disruption (quantified by sarcomere counting) was considerably less severe than previously observed in untrained subjects after an identical exercise bout. Mixed muscle protein synthesis, assessed from approximately 21-29 h post-exercise, was not different between the Con- and Ecc-exercised arms. We conclude that the Ecc phase of resistance exercise is most disruptive to skeletal muscle and that training attenuates the severity of this effect. Moreover, it appears that fibre disruption induced by habitual weightlifting exercise is essentially repaired after 5 days of inactivity in trained men.

  16. Benefits of resistance exercise in lean women with fibromyalgia: involvement of IGF-1 and leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjersing, Jan L; Larsson, Anette; Palstam, Annie; Ernberg, Malin; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Löfgren, Monika; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2017-03-14

    Chronic pain and fatigue improves by exercise in fibromyalgia (FM) but underlying mechanisms are not known. Obesity is increased among FM patients and associates with higher levels of pain. Symptom improvement after aerobic exercise is affected by body mass index (BMI) in FM. Metabolic factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and leptin may be involved. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the role of metabolic factors in lean, overweight and obese women during resistance exercise, in relation to symptom severity and muscle strength in women with FM. Forty-three women participated in supervised progressive resistance exercise, twice weekly for 15-weeks. Serum free and total IGF-1, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), adiponectin, leptin and resistin were determined at baseline and after 15-weeks. Level of current pain was rated on a visual analogue scale (0-100 mm). Level of fatigue was rated by multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI-20) subscale general fatigue (MFIGF). Knee extension force, elbow flexion force and handgrip force were assessed by dynamometers. Free IGF-1 (p = 0.047), IGFBP3 (p = 0.025) and leptin (p = 0.008) were significantly decreased in lean women (n = 18), but not in the overweight (n = 17) and the obese (n = 8). Lean women with FM benefited from resistance exercise with improvements in current pain (p= 0.039, n = 18), general fatigue (MFIGF, p = 0.022, n = 18) and improved elbow-flexion force (p = 0.017, n = 18). In overweight and obese women with FM there was no significant improvement in pain or fatigue but an improvement in elbow flexion (p = 0.049; p = 0.012) after 15 weeks of resistance exercise. The clearest clinical response to resistance exercise was found in lean patients with FM. In these individuals, individualized resistance exercise was followed by changes in IGF-1 and leptin, reduced pain, fatigue and improved muscular strength. In overweight and obese women FM

  17. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchward-Venne Tyler A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Provision of dietary amino acids increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS, an effect that is enhanced by prior resistance exercise. As a fundamentally necessary process in the enhancement of muscle mass, strategies to enhance rates of MPS would be beneficial in the development of interventions aimed at increasing skeletal muscle mass particularly when combined with chronic resistance exercise. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on current findings regarding the nutritional regulation of MPS and highlight nutrition based strategies that may serve to maximize skeletal muscle protein anabolism with resistance exercise. Such factors include timing of protein intake, dietary protein type, the role of leucine as a key anabolic amino acid, and the impact of other macronutrients (i.e. carbohydrate on the regulation of MPS after resistance exercise. We contend that nutritional strategies that serve to maximally stimulate MPS may be useful in the development of nutrition and exercise based interventions aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle mass which may be of interest to elderly populations and to athletes.

  18. Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Dirks, Marlou L; van der Zwaluw, Nikita; Verdijk, Lex B; van de Rest, Ondine; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2012-10-01

    Protein supplementation has been proposed as an effective dietary strategy to augment the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in elderly people. Our objective was to assess the impact of protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and physical performance during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly men and women. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel among 62 frail elderly subjects (78 ± 1 year). These elderly subjects participated in a progressive resistance-type exercise training program (2 sessions per week for 24 weeks) during which they were supplemented twice daily with either protein (2 * 15 g) or a placebo. Lean body mass (DXA), strength (1-RM), and physical performance (SPPB) were assessed at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention. Lean body mass increased from 47.2 kg (95% CI, 43.5-50.9) to 48.5 kg (95% CI, 44.8-52.1) in the protein group and did not change in the placebo group (from 45.7 kg, 95% CI, 42.1-49.2 to 45.4 kg, 95% CI, 41.8-48.9) following the intervention (P value for treatment × time interaction = .006). Strength and physical performance improved significantly in both groups (P = .000) with no interaction effect of dietary protein supplementation. Prolonged resistance-type exercise training represents an effective strategy to improve strength and physical performance in frail elderly people. Dietary protein supplementation is required to allow muscle mass gain during exercise training in frail elderly people. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110369. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of exercise type and dose on pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard; Roos, Ewa M.

    2011-01-01

    the most optimal exercise program characterized by number of supervised sessions, type of exercise, relative exercise intensity and duration of exercise sessions. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on published exercise studies identified by a comprehensive literature was performed...... between intervention- and control group after an exercise program, divided by the pooled standard deviation. SMDs were combined by using a random effects meta-analysis model; incl. both 95% confidence intervals and prediction intervals. Stratified analyses and meta-regression analyses were used to examine...... the benefits of the aerobic exercise, focusing on the quadriceps only, may increase benefits of resistance training....

  20. Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Imposed and Self-Selected Loads in Recreationally Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Joshua A; Garver, Matthew J; Dinyer, Taylor K; Fairman, Ciaran M; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    Cotter, JA, Garver, MJ, Dinyer, TK, Fairman, CM, and Focht, BC. Ratings of perceived exertion during acute resistance exercise performed at imposed and self-selected loads in recreationally trained women. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2313-2318, 2017-Resistance exercise (RE) is commonly used to elicit skeletal muscle adaptation. Relative intensity of a training load links closely with the outcomes of regular RE. This study examined the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute bouts of RE using imposed (40% and 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and self-selected (SS) loads in recreationally trained women. Twenty physically active women (23.15 ± 2.92 years), who reported regular RE training of at least 3 weekly sessions for the past year, volunteered to participate. During the initial visit, participants completed 1RM testing on 4 exercises in the following order: leg extension, chest press, leg curl, and lat pull-down. On subsequent visits, the same exercises were completed at the SS or imposed loads. The RPE was assessed after the completion of each set of exercises during the 3 RE conditions using the Borg-15 category scale. Self-selected loads corresponded to an average of approximately 57%1RM (±7.62). Overall, RPE increased with load (40%1RM = 11.26 [±1.95]; SS 57%1RM = 13.94 [±1.58]; and, 70%1RM = 15.52 [±2.05]). Reflecting the linear pattern found between load and perceived effort, the present data provide evidence that RPE levels less than 15 likely equate to loads which are not consistent with contemporary American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for enhancing musculoskeletal health which includes strength and hypertrophy. Women desiring increases in strength and lean mass likely need to train at an exertion level at or surpassing a rating of 15 on the Borg-15 category. This article examined the modification of training load on perceived exertion, but other variables, such as the number of repetitions completed, may also be

  1. Oxygen Uptake and Heart Rate Kinetics after Different Types of Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Jeferson M.; Werneck, Francisco Z.; Coelho, Emerson F.; Damasceno, Vinicius O.; Reis, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) kinetics after exercise are important indicators of fitness and cardiovascular health. However, these variables have been little investigated in resistance exercise (RE). The current study compared post-exercise kinetics of VO2 and the HR among different types of REs. The study included 14 males (age: 26.5±5.4 years, body mass: 80.1±11.4 kg, body height: 1.77±0.07 m, fat content: 11.3±4.6%) with RE experience. Dynamic muscle strength was measured using one repetition maximum (1RM) with regard to the half-squat, bench press, pull-down, and triceps pushdown exercises. The participants performed a maximum number of repetitions at 80% of 1RM for each exercise, separated by a recovery period of 60 minutes. VO2 was measured using ergospirometry. VO2 and HR kinetics were assessed using the time constant of the recovery curves, and excess oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated afterward. Significant differences were not observed across the exercises with regard to VO2 kinetics. However, the half-squat exercise elicited a greater EPOC than the bench press and triceps pushdown exercises (pEPOC, but not VO2 kinetics. PMID:25414756

  2. Oxygen uptake and heart rate kinetics after different types of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Jeferson M; Werneck, Francisco Z; Coelho, Emerson F; Damasceno, Vinicius O; Reis, Victor M

    2014-09-29

    Oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) kinetics after exercise are important indicators of fitness and cardiovascular health. However, these variables have been little investigated in resistance exercise (RE). The current study compared post-exercise kinetics of VO2 and the HR among different types of REs. The study included 14 males (age: 26.5±5.4 years, body mass: 80.1±11.4 kg, body height: 1.77±0.07 m, fat content: 11.3±4.6%) with RE experience. Dynamic muscle strength was measured using one repetition maximum (1RM) with regard to the half-squat, bench press, pull-down, and triceps pushdown exercises. The participants performed a maximum number of repetitions at 80% of 1RM for each exercise, separated by a recovery period of 60 minutes. VO2 was measured using ergospirometry. VO2 and HR kinetics were assessed using the time constant of the recovery curves, and excess oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated afterward. Significant differences were not observed across the exercises with regard to VO2 kinetics. However, the half-squat exercise elicited a greater EPOC than the bench press and triceps pushdown exercises (pEPOC, but not VO2 kinetics.

  3. Effect of resistance-type exercise training with or without protein supplementation on cognitive functioning in frail and pre-frail elderly: secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Rest, Ondine; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Tieland, Michael; Adam, Jos J; Hiddink, Gert Jan; van Loon, Luc J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity has been proposed as one of the most effective strategies to prevent cognitive decline. Protein supplementation may exert an additive effect. The effect of resistance-type exercise training with or without protein supplementation on cognitive functioning in frail and pre-frail elderly people was assessed in a secondary analysis. Two 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention studies were carried out in parallel. Subjects performed a resistance-type exercise program of two sessions per week (n=62) or no exercise program (n=65). In both studies, subjects were randomly allocated to either a protein (2×15 g daily) or a placebo drink. Cognitive functioning was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery focusing on the cognitive domains episodic memory, attention and working memory, information processing speed, and executive functioning. In frail and pre-frail elderly, resistance-type exercise training in combination with protein supplementation improved information processing speed (changes in domain score 0.08±0.51 versus -0.23±0.19 in the non-exercise group, p=0.04). Exercise training without protein supplementation was beneficial for attention and working memory (changes in domain scores 0.35±0.70 versus -0.12±0.69 in the non-exercise group, p=0.02). There were no significant differences among the intervention groups on the other cognitive tests or domain scores. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  5. EFFECT OF MODERATE ALTITUDE ON PERIPHERAL MUSCLE OXYGENATION DURING LEG RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN YOUNG MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Training at moderate altitude (~1800m is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL. They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (% from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 % than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %. SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 % than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %. Differences (SL - 1800AL in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660. These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore , that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles.

  6. Resistance exercise improves physical fatigue in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Anna; Palstam, Annie; Larsson, Anette; Löfgren, Monika; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Bjersing, Jan; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2016-07-30

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects approximately 1-3 % of the general population. Fatigue limits the work ability and social life of patients with FM. A few studies of physical exercise have included measures of fatigue in FM, indicating that exercise can decrease fatigue levels. There is limited knowledge about the effects of resistance exercise on multiple dimensions of fatigue in FM. The present study is a sub-study of a multicenter randomized controlled trial in women with FM. The purpose of the present sub-study was to examine the effects of a person-centered progressive resistance exercise program on multiple dimensions of fatigue in women with FM, and to investigate predictors of the potential change in fatigue. A total of 130 women with FM (age 22-64 years) were included in this assessor-blinded randomized controlled multicenter trial examining the effects of person-centered progressive resistance exercise compared with an active control group. The intervention was performed twice a week for 15 weeks. Outcomes were five dimensions of fatigue measured with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Information about background was collected and the women also completed several health-related questionnaires. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to analyze predictors of change in fatigue in the total population. A higher improvement was found at the post-treatment examination for change in the resistance exercise group, as compared to change in the active control group in the MFI-20 subscale of physical fatigue (resistance group Δ -1.7, SD 4.3, controls Δ 0.0, SD 2.7, p = 0.013), with an effect size of 0.33. Sleep efficiency was the strongest predictor of change in the MFI-20 subscale general fatigue (beta = -0.54, p = 0.031, R (2) = 0.05). Participating in resistance exercise (beta = 1.90, p = 0.010) and working fewer hours per week (beta = 0.84, p = 0.005) were independent significant predictors of change in physical

  7. Response of mef2 Gene of Slow and Fast Twitch Muscles of Wistar Male Rats to One Bout of Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fathi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 (mef2 gene relates with multiple myogenic transcriptional factors that induces activation Muscle-specific genes. MEF2 contributes in muscular cells development and differentiation as well as in fibers transition in response to stimulants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of one bout of resistance exercise (RE on mef2 gene expression in fast and slow skeletal muscles of Wistar male rats. Methods: For this experimental study, 15 rats from Pasteur Institute were prepared and housed under natural conditions (temperature, light/dark (12:12 cycle, with ad libitum access to food and water and then randomly divided assigned to RE (n=10 and control groups (n=5; the RE group performed one RE session. 3 and 6 hours following, the rats were anaesthetized and sacrificed, then the soleus and Extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles were removed. determine mef2 gene expression rate, the Quantitative Real time RT-PCR was used. Data were analyzed by one sample and independent samples t test. Results: In EDL muscle, in response to one RE session, the mef2 gene expression increased non significantly at 3 hour (p=0/093 and increased significantly (p=/008 at 6 hour after exercise, but in soleus muscle, the mef2 gene expression decreased significantly at 3 hour (p=0/01, and at 6 hour after RE session there was no observed significant change (p=0.247. Conclusion: Mef2 expression gene is differently changes in muscle fibers, which are likely associated with changes in fiber type in response to resistance exercise.

  8. Positive muscle protein net balance and differential regulation of atrogene expression after resistance exercise and milk protein supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Resistance exercise and amino acid availability are positive regulators of muscle protein net balance (NB). However, anabolic responses to resistance exercise and protein supplementation deserve further elucidation. The purpose was to compare intakes of whey, caseinate (both: 0.30 g/kg lean...

  9. The effects of resistance exercise and oral nutritional supplementation during hemodialysis on indicators of nutritional status and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Alemañy, Geovana; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; Olvera-Soto, Guadalupe; Gomez-Guerrero, Irma; Aguire-Esquivel, Guillermo; Cantu-Quintanilla, Guillermo; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Miranda-Alatriste, Paola; Espinosa-Cuevas, Angeles

    2016-10-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Studies have assessed the positive effect of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) or resistance exercise (RE) on nutritional status (NS) markers in patients undergoing HD. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ONS and RE on NS and the quality of life (QOL) of 36 patients undergoing HD. In a randomized clinical trial, patients were divided into the following two groups: a control group (ONS) that received a can of ONS during their HD sessions and an intervention group (ONS + RE) that received a can of ONS and underwent a 40-min session of RE during their HD sessions. Both interventions lasted 12 weeks. The patients' anthropometric, biochemical, dietetic and bioelectrical impedance measurements as well as their QOL, evaluated using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form, were recorded. At baseline, 55.5% of patients presented with PEW according to International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism criteria (20 patients). We found statistically significant changes from baseline in both groups, such as increases in body weight, body mass index, midarm circumference, midarm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, fat mass percentage, handgrip strength, phase angle and serum albumin. A decrease in the prevalence of PEW was observed in both groups at the end of the intervention. A delta comparison between groups showed no statistically significant differences in the anthropometric and biochemical parameters. No significant improvement was observed in QOL and body composition measured by bioimpedance vector analysis. Dietary energy and protein intake increased significantly during the study period for all patients. Oral nutritional supplementation during HD improves NS. The addition of RE during HD does not seem to augment the acute anabolic effects of intradialytic ONS on NS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA

  10. Does Regular Exercise without Weight Loss Reduce Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, YoonMyung; Park, HaNui

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts to tackle childhood obesity, it is recognized as one of the biggest health problems globally. Childhood obesity is a leading cause of many comorbid conditions such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as well as type 2 diabetes. A strong body of evidence suggests that regular exercise without calorie restriction or weight loss is associated with reduced insulin resistance as well as improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. However, desp...

  11. Physiological and metabolic responses as function of the mechanical load in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Sebastian; Wirtz, Nicolas; Flenker, Ulrich; Kleinöder, Heinz

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the mechanical load during resistance exercise and the elicited physiological responses. Ten resistance-trained healthy male subjects performed 1 set of resistance exercise each at 55%, 70%, and 85% of 1 repetition maximum for as many repetitions as possible and in 4 training modes: 4-1-4-1 (4 s concentric, 1 s isometric, 4 s eccentric, and 1 s isometric successive actions), 2-1-2-1, 1-1-1-1, and explosive (maximum velocity concentric). Mean concentric power and total concentric work were determined. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was measured during exercise and for 30 min post exercise. Total volume of consumed oxygen (O2 consumed) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were calculated. Maximum blood lactate concentration (LAmax) was also determined. V̇O2 exhibited a linear dependency on mean concentric power. Mean concentric power did not have a detectable effect on EPOC and LAmax. An augmentation of total concentric work resulted in significant linear increase of O2 consumed and EPOC. Total concentric work caused a significant increase in LAmax. In general, a higher mechanical load induced a larger physiological response. An increase in mean concentric power elicited higher aerobic energy turnover rates. However, a higher extent of total concentric work augments total energy cost covered by oxidative and (or) glycolytic pathways.

  12. HIGH-VELOCITY RESISTANCE EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN OLDER WOMEN: EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP. All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5 or 15 (DP15 seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, rate pressure product (RPP, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, and blood lactate (BLa were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05 with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women

  13. Low Intensity Resistance Exercise Training with Blood Flow Restriction: Insight into Cardiovascular Function, and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi Sub; Harveson, Andrew; Weavil, Joshua C; Seo, Kook E.

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated functional exercise capacity in elderly and diseased populations is a common problem, and stems primarily from physical inactivity. Decreased function and exercise capacity can be restored by maintaining muscular strength and mass, which are key factors in an independent and healthy life. Resistance exercise has been used to prevent muscle loss and improve muscular strength and mass. However, the intensities necessary for traditional resistance training to increase muscular strengt...

  14. Effects of aquatic backward locomotion exercise and progressive resistance exercise on lumbar extension strength in patients who have undergone lumbar diskectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Sin; Park, Jaebum; Shim, Jae Kun

    2010-02-01

    To compare the effects of aquatic backward locomotion exercise and progressive resistance exercise with a machine on lumbar extension strength in patients who have undergone diskectomy for a lumbar disk herniation. Prospective comparative study. Department of Kinesiology at a state university. Male patients (N=30) with disk herniation at spinal levels L3 to S1 completed this study as subjects. After the diskectomy for a lumbar disk herniation, all patients had 6 weeks of rest time. At the end of the rest period, the aquatic backward locomotion exercise and progressive resistance exercise groups, respectively, started first 6 weeks of underwater training and lumbar extension training twice per week. After completion of the first 6-week training, subjects participated in a second 6-week training. After the whole 12-week training, subjects had no training for 6 weeks (detraining) and a follow-up 6-week training (retraining). The control (CON) group did not undergo any training. For each test, maximum voluntary isometric lumbar extension strength was measured in 7 trunk positions (72 degrees , 60 degrees , 48 degrees , 36 degrees , 24 degrees , 12 degrees , and 0 degrees of the trunk angle). The progressive resistance exercise and aquatic backward locomotion exercise groups showed increases in lumbar extension strength after the first 6-week training, although they were not statistically different from the CON group. After a second 6-week training, the progressive resistance exercise and aquatic backward locomotion exercise groups showed statistically significant increases in their strength levels as compared with the CON group. After the detraining period, the strength levels of the progressive resistance exercise and aquatic backward locomotion exercise groups did not statistically differ from the CON group. After the retraining period, the progressive resistance exercise and aquatic backward locomotion exercise groups showed increases in their strength levels, which

  15. Resistance exercise dosage in older adults: single- versus multiset effects on physical performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether variation in resistance exercise volume affects muscle function and physical performance response in older adults. A randomized trial with subjects assigned to a single-set (1-SET) or three-set (3-SET) exercise group. An exercise facility at the University of Queensland. Twenty-eight community-dwelling men and women aged 65 to 78. Progressive resistance training consisting of seven exercises targeting the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body performed on exercise machines twice weekly for 20 weeks at eight-repetition maximum (RM) intensity. Muscle function included isotonic muscle strength (1-RM) of the seven exercises, isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength, and muscle endurance for the chest press and leg press exercises. Physical performance included timed chair rise, usual and fast 6-m walk, 6-m backwards walk, 400-m walk, floor rise to standing, and stair climbing ability. In addition, body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Isotonic muscle strength increased in both exercise groups for all seven exercises (P<.01), with the gain in the 3-SET group greater (P<.05) for the seated row, triceps extension, and knee extension (analysis of covariance). Similarly, muscle endurance gains were greater for the 3-SET than the 1-SET group (P<.01), with no significant difference between groups for isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength. Both groups improved (P<.05) in the chair rise (1-SET, 10.1%; 3-SET, 13.6%), 6-m backwards walk (1-SET, 14.3%; 3-SET, 14.8%), 400-m walk (1-SET, 3.8%; 3-SET, 7.4%), and stair climbing test (1-SET, 7.7%; 3-SET, 6.4%), with the only difference between groups for the 400-m walk (P<.05). There was no difference between groups for change in body composition. Resistance training consisting of only single-set exercises is sufficient to significantly enhance muscle function and physical performance, although muscle strength and endurance gains are greater with higher

  16. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Gallagher, Iain J; Hartman, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNA molecules, may regulate protein synthesis, while resistance exercise training (RT) is an efficient strategy for stimulating muscle protein synthesis in vivo. However, RT increases muscle mass, with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. We therefore...

  17. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K J; Reitelseder, S; Petersen, S G

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...

  18. The development and validation of using inertial sensors to monitor postural change in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleadhill, Sam; Lee, James Bruce; James, Daniel

    2016-05-03

    This research presented and validated a method of assessing postural changes during resistance exercise using inertial sensors. A simple lifting task was broken down to a series of well-defined tasks, which could be examined and measured in a controlled environment. The purpose of this research was to determine whether timing measures obtained from inertial sensor accelerometer outputs are able to provide accurate, quantifiable information of resistance exercise movement patterns. The aim was to complete a timing measure validation of inertial sensor outputs. Eleven participants completed five repetitions of 15 different deadlift variations. Participants were monitored with inertial sensors and an infrared three dimensional motion capture system. Validation was undertaken using a Will Hopkins Typical Error of the Estimate, with a Pearson׳s correlation and a Bland Altman Limits of Agreement analysis. Statistical validation measured the timing agreement during deadlifts, from inertial sensor outputs and the motion capture system. Timing validation results demonstrated a Pearson׳s correlation of 0.9997, with trivial standardised error (0.026) and standardised bias (0.002). Inertial sensors can now be used in practical settings with as much confidence as motion capture systems, for accelerometer timing measurements of resistance exercise. This research provides foundations for inertial sensors to be applied for qualitative activity recognition of resistance exercise and safe lifting practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined protein-rich diet with resistance exercise intervention to counteract sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrema, Annemarthe L.; Westerman, Marjan J.; Dongen, Ellen Van J.I.; Kudla, Urszula; Veltkamp, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    Interventions combining protein-rich diets with resistance exercises seem a promising avenue in helping to prevent sarcopenia. However, compliance to health interventions is generally low. The aim of the present study was to provide qualitative insights into the drivers and barriers that older

  20. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle: Focus on Insulin Resistance and Exercise Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul S. Deshmukh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle proteomics are challenging. This review describes the technical limitations of skeletal muscle proteomics as well as emerging developments in proteomics workflow with respect to samples preparation, liquid chromatography (LC, MS and computational analysis. These technologies have not yet been fully exploited in the field of skeletal muscle proteomics. Future studies that involve state-of-the-art proteomics technology will broaden our understanding of exercise-induced adaptations as well as molecular pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

  1. Highly demanding resistive vibration exercise program is tolerated during 56 days of strict bed-rest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rittweger, J.; Belavy, D.; Hunek, P.; Gast, U.; Boerst, H.; Feilcke, B.; Armbrecht, G.; Mulder, E.; Schubert, H.; Richardson, C.; Haan, A. de; Stegeman, D.F.; Schiessl, H.; Felsenberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have tried to find countermeasures against musculoskeletal de-conditioning during bed-rest, but none of them yielded decisive results. We hypothesised that resistive vibration exercise (RVE) might be a suitable training modality. We have therefore carried out a bed-rest study to

  2. Highly demanding resistive vibration exercise program is tolerated during 56 days of strict bed-rest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rittweger, J.; Belavy, D.; Hunek, P.; Gast, U.; Boerst, H.; Feilcke, B.; Armbrecht, G.; Mulder, E.R.; Schubert, H.; Richardson, C.; de Haan, A.; Stegeman, D.F.; Schiessl, H.; Felsenberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have tried to find countermeasures against musculoskeletal de-conditioning during bed rest, but none of them yielded decisive results. We hypothesised that resistive vibration exercise (RVE) might be a suitable training modality. We have therefore carried out a bed-rest study to

  3. effect of a low-intensity resistance exercise programme with blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3 Division of Sport Science, College of Science and Technology, Konkuk University,. Chungju-si, Republic of Korea ... individual basis is suggested. This can be accomplished by making the belt shorter than the ..... more effective than a 3% reduction of circumference for performance of individual BFR resistance exercises.

  4. Effect of resistance exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on members of the STARS signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, Kristian; Rahbek, Stine K; Lamon, Severine; Farup, Jean; Stefanetti, Renae J; Wallace, Marita A; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) pathway is suggested to provide a link between external stress responses and transcriptional regulation in muscle. However, the sensitivity of STARS signalling to different mechanical stresses has not been investigated. In a comparative study, we examined the regulation of the STARS signalling pathway in response to unilateral resistance exercise performed as either eccentric (ECC) or concentric (CONC) contractions as well as prolonged training; with and without whey protein supplementation. Skeletal muscle STARS, myocardian-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) and serum response factor (SRF) mRNA and protein, as well as muscle cross-sectional area and maximal voluntary contraction, were measured. A single-bout of exercise produced increases in STARS and SRF mRNA and decreases in MRTF-A mRNA with both ECC and CONC exercise, but with an enhanced response occurring following ECC exercise. A 31% increase in STARS protein was observed exclusively after CONC exercise (P STARS pathway that is contraction mode dependent. The responses to acute exercise were more pronounced than responses to accumulated training, suggesting that STARS signalling is primarily involved in the initial phase of exercise-induced muscle adaptations.

  5. Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Valerie B; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Stetzer, Bradley P; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2006-05-01

    Exercise improves glucose metabolism and delays the onset and/or reverses insulin resistance in the elderly by an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we examined the effects of exercise training on glucose metabolism, abdominal adiposity, and adipocytokines in obese elderly. Sixteen obese men and women (age = 63 +/- 1 yr, body mass index = 33.2 +/- 1.4 kg/m2) participated in a 12-wk supervised exercise program (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, treadmill/cycle ergometry at 85% of heart rate maximum). Visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat, and total abdominal fat were measured by computed tomography. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by hydrostatic weighing. An oral glucose tolerance test was used to determine changes in insulin resistance. Exercise training increased maximal oxygen consumption (21.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 24.3 +/- 1.0 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), P 0.05). VF (176 +/- 20 vs. 136 +/- 17 cm2, P < 0.0001), subcutaneous fat (351 +/- 34 vs. 305 +/- 28 cm2, P < 0.03), and total abdominal fat (525 +/- 40 vs. 443 +/- 34 cm2, P < 0.003) were reduced through training. Circulating leptin was lower (P < 0.003) after training, but total adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained unchanged. Insulin resistance was reversed by exercise (40.1 +/- 7.7 vs. 27.6 +/- 5.6 units, P < 0.01) and correlated with changes in VF (r = 0.66, P < 0.01) and maximal oxygen consumption (r = -0.48, P < 0.05) but not adipocytokines. VF loss after aerobic exercise training improves glucose metabolism and is associated with the reversal of insulin resistance in older obese men and women.

  6. Oral L-arginine before resistance exercise blunts growth hormone in strength trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; Harber, Vicki; Bell, Gordon J

    2014-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise and L-arginine have both been shown to independently elevate plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations; however, their combined effect is controversial. The purpose was to investigate the combined effects of resistance exercise and L-arginine supplementation on plasma L-arginine, GH, GH secretagogues, and IGF-1 in strength trained participants. Fourteen strength trained males (age: 25 ± 4 y; body mass: 81.4 ± 9.0 kg; height: 179.4 ± 6.9 cm; and training experience: 6.3 ± 3.4 y) participated in a randomized double-blind crossover design (separated by ~7 days). Subjects reported to the laboratory at 08:00 in a fasted state, consumed L-arginine (ARG; 0.075 g·kg-1 body mass) or a placebo (PLA) before performing an acute bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of 8 exercises, 10 repetitions at ~75% 1RM). Blood samples were collected at rest, before exercise, and at 0, 15, 30, and 60 min of rest-recovery. The ARG condition significantly increased plasma L-arginine concentrations (~120%) while no change was detected in the PLA condition. There were no differences between conditions for GH, GH-releasing hormone, ghrelin, or IGF-1 at any time point. GH-inhibiting hormone was significantly lower in the ARG condition. However, integrated area under the curve for GH was blunted in the ARG condition (L-arginine = 288.4 ± 368.7 vs. placebo = 487.9± 482.0 min·ng·mL1, p L-arginine ingested before resistance exercise significantly elevated plasma L-arginine concentration but attenuated plasma GH in strength trained individuals despite a lower GHIH. Furthermore our data shows that the GH suppression was not due to a GH or IGF-1 induced autonegative feedback loop.

  7. Development of a High Fidelity Dynamic Module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) Using Adams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, B. T.; Thompson, W. K.; Lewandowski, B. E.; Cadwell, E. E.; Newby, N. J.; Fincke, R. S.; Sheehan, C.; Mulugeta, L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. DAP provides expertise and computation tools to its research customers for model development, integration, or analysis. DAP is currently supporting the NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project by integrating their biomechanical models of specific exercise movements with dynamic models of the devices on which the exercises were performed. This presentation focuses on the development of a high fidelity dynamic module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on board the ISS. The ARED module, illustrated in the figure below, was developed using the Adams (MSC Santa Ana, California) simulation package. The Adams package provides the capabilities to perform multi rigid body, flexible body, and mixed dynamic analyses of complex mechanisms. These capabilities were applied to accurately simulate: Inertial and mass properties of the device such as the vibration isolation system (VIS) effects and other ARED components, Non-linear joint friction effects, The gas law dynamics of the vacuum cylinders and VIS components using custom written differential state equations, The ARED flywheel dynamics, including torque limiting clutch. Design data from the JSC ARED Engineering team was utilized in developing the model. This included solid modeling geometry files, component/system specifications, engineering reports and available data sets. The Adams ARED module is importable into LifeMOD (Life Modeler, Inc., San Clemente, CA) for biomechanical analyses of different resistive exercises such as squat and dead-lift. Using motion capture data from ground test subjects, the ExPC developed biomechanical exercise models in LifeMOD. The Adams ARED device module was then integrated with the exercise subject model into one integrated dynamic model. This presentation will describe the

  8. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE. Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n=32 or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n=20. Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P<0.05 interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9% and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9% while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%. Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities.

  9. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Abstract Background and purpose: Children with hemophilia are at risk for reduced bone mineral density (BMD), muscle strength and functional ability as a result of reduced leisure-time activity and less involvement in intense activities. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance ...

  10. Skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in exercise and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente

    2006-01-01

    Lipids as fuel for energy provision originate from different sources: albumin-bound long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) in the blood plasma, circulating very-low-density lipoproteins-triacylglycerols (VLDL-TG), fatty acids from triacylglycerol located in the muscle cell (IMTG), and possibly fatty acids...... of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, including possible molecular mechanisms involved, is discussed....

  11. Inhibition of myostatin signaling through Notch activation following acute resistance exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G MacKenzie

    Full Text Available Myostatin is a TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle size. Due to the complexity of the molecular pathway between myostatin mRNA/protein and changes in transcription, it has been difficult to understand whether myostatin plays a role in resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To circumvent this problem, we determined the expression of a unique myostatin target gene, Mighty, following resistance exercise. Mighty mRNA increased by 6 h (82.9 ± 24.21% and remained high out to 48 h (56.5 ± 19.67% after resistance exercise. Further examination of the soleus, plantaris and tibialis anterior muscles showed that the change in Mighty mRNA at 6 h correlated with the increase in muscle size associated with this protocol (R(2 = 0.9996. The increase in Mighty mRNA occurred both independent of Smad2 phosphorylation and in spite of an increase in myostatin mRNA (341.8 ± 147.14% at 3 h. The myostatin inhibitor SKI remained unchanged. However, activated Notch, another potential inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, increased immediately following resistance exercise (83 ± 11.2% and stayed elevated out to 6 h (78 ± 16.6%. Electroportion of the Notch intracellular domain into the tibialis anterior resulted in an increase in Mighty mRNA (63 ± 13.4% that was equivalent to the canonical Notch target HES-1 (94.4 ± 7.32%. These data suggest that acute resistance exercise decreases myostatin signaling through the activation of the TGFβ inhibitor Notch resulting in a decrease in myostatin transcriptional activity that correlates well with muscle hypertrophy.

  12. Number of repetition after different rest intervals between static stretching and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, 30-minute interval between static stretching and resistance exercises was needed to achieve greater repetition performance. Thus, static stretching for lower limbs may be avoided before a resistance training session.

  13. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a Question Reviewed by Barry J. Make, ...

  14. ISS Squat and Deadlift Kinematics on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, N.; Caldwell, E.; Sibonga, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2014-01-01

    Visual assessment of exercise form on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on orbit is difficult due to the motion of the entire device on its Vibration Isolation System (VIS). The VIS allows for two degrees of device translational motion, and one degree of rotational motion. In order to minimize the forces that the VIS must damp in these planes of motion, the floor of the ARED moves as well during exercise to reduce changes in the center of mass of the system. To help trainers and other exercise personnel better assess squat and deadlift form a tool was developed that removes the VIS motion and creates a stick figure video of the exerciser. Another goal of the study was to determine whether any useful kinematic information could be obtained from just a single camera. Finally, the use of these data may aid in the interpretation of QCT hip structure data in response to ARED exercises performed in-flight. After obtaining informed consent, four International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers participated in this investigation. Exercise was videotaped using a single camera positioned to view the side of the crewmember during exercise on the ARED. One crewmember wore reflective tape on the toe, heel, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder joints. This technique was not available for the other three crewmembers, so joint locations were assessed and digitized frame-by-frame by lab personnel. A custom Matlab program was used to assign two-dimensional coordinates to the joint locations throughout exercise. A second custom Matlab program was used to scale the data, calculate joint angles, estimate the foot center of pressure (COP), approximate normal and shear loads, and to create the VIS motion-corrected stick figure videos. Kinematics for the squat and deadlift vary considerably for the four crewmembers in this investigation. Some have very shallow knee and hip angles, and others have quite large ranges of motion at these joints. Joint angle analysis showed that crewmembers

  15. Single vs. Multi-Joint Resistance Exercises: Effects on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo; Soares, Saulo; Bottaro, Martim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some authors suggest that single joint (SJ) exercises promote greater muscle hypertrophy because they are easier to be learned and therefore have less reliance on neural factors. On the other hand, some authors recommend an emphasis on multi-joint (MJ) exercises for maximizing muscle strength, assuming that MJ exercises are more effective than SJ exercises because they enable a greater magnitude of weight to be lifted. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of MJ vs. SJ exercises on muscle size and strength gains in untrained young men. Patients and Methods: Twenty-nine young men, without prior resistance training experience, were randomly divided into two groups. One group performed (n = 14) only MJ exercises involving the elbow flexors (lat. pull downs), while the other (n = 15) trained the elbow flexors muscles using only SJ exercises (biceps curls). Both groups trained twice a week for a period of ten weeks. The volunteers were evaluated for peak torque of elbow flexors (PT) in an isokinetic dynamometer and for muscle thickness (MT) by ultrasonography. Results: There were significant increases in MT of 6.10% and 5.83% for MJ and SJ, respectively; and there were also significant increases in PT for MJ (10.40%) and SJ (11.87%). However, the results showed no difference between groups pre or post training for MT or PT. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that MJ and SJ exercises are equally effective for promoting increases in upper body muscle strength and size in untrained men. Therefore, the selection between SJ and MJ exercises should be based on individual and practical aspects, such as, equipment availability, movement specificity, individual preferences and time commitment. PMID:26446291

  16. Effect of hydration state on strength, power, and resistance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, Daniel A; Maresh, Carl M; Farrell, Mark J; Yamamoto, Linda M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Spiering, Barry A; Casa, Douglas J; Anderson, Jeffrey M

    2007-10-01

    Although many studies have attempted to examine the effect of hypohydration on strength, power, and high-intensity endurance, few have successfully isolated changes in total body water from other variables that alter performance (e.g., increased core temperature), and none have documented the influence of hypohydration on an isotonic, multiset, multirepetition exercise bout typical of resistance exercise training. Further, no investigations document the effect of hypohydration on the ability of the central nervous system to stimulate the musculature, despite numerous scientists suggesting this possibility. The purposes of this study were to examine the isolated effect of hydration state on 1) strength, power, and the performance of acute resistance exercise, and 2) central activation ratio (CAR). Seven healthy resistance-trained males (age = 23 +/- 4 yr, body mass = 87.8 +/- 6.8 kg, body fat = 11.5 +/- 5.2%) completed three resistance exercise bouts in different hydration states: euhydrated (EU), hypohydrated by approximately 2.5% body mass (HY25), and hypohydrated by approximately 5.0% body mass (HY50). Investigators manipulated hydration status via exercise-heat stress and controlled fluid intake 1 d preceding testing. Body mass decreased 2.4 +/- 0.4 and 4.8 +/- 0.4% during HY25 and HY50, respectively. No significant differences existed among trials in vertical jump height, peak lower-body power (assessed via jump squat), or peak lower-body force (assessed via isometric back squat). CAR tended to decrease as hypohydration increased (EU = 95.6 +/- 4.9%, HY25 = 94.0 +/- 3.1%, HY50 = 92.5 +/- 5.1%; P = 0.075, eta(p)(2) = 0.41). When evaluated as a function of the percentage of total work completed during a six-set back squat protocol, hypohydration significantly decreased resistance exercise performance during sets 2-3 and 2-5 for HY25 and HY50, respectively. These data indicate that hypohydration attenuates resistance exercise performance; the role of central drive

  17. The Effect of 8 Weeks Aerobic Exercise on Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Motahari-Tabari, Narges; Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Shirzad-e-Ahoodashty, Mahbobeh; Yousefi-Abdolmaleki, Elham; Teimourzadeh, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes complications are the main reasons behind morbidity and mortality preventable by healthy diet and physical activity. There are few studies about the effect of aerobic exercises on insulin resistance in human. Also various training protocols are associated with different results. Since approaches to decrease insulin resistance may be followed by more effectiveness treatment, this study assessed the effect of aerobic exercise on insulin resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. In this r...

  18. Endocrine responses and acute mTOR pathway phosphorylation to resistance exercise with leucine and whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Lane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leucine ingestion reportedly activates the mTOR pathway in skeletal muscle, contributing to a hypertrophy response. The purpose of the study was to compare the post-resistance exercise effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation on endocrine responses and muscle mTOR pathway phosphorylation. On visit 1, subjects (X±SD; n=20; age=27.8±2.8yrs provided baseline blood samples for analysis of cortisol, glucose and insulin; a muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle to assess mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation; and were tested for maximum strength on the leg press and leg extension exercises. For visits 2 and 3, subjects were randomized in a double-blind crossover design to ingest either leucine and whey protein (10g+10g; supplement or a non-caloric placebo. During these visits, 5 sets of 10 repetitions were performed on both exercises, immediately followed by ingestion of the supplement or placebo. Blood was sampled 30 min post-, and a muscle biopsy 45 min post-exercise. Western blots quantified total and phosphorylated proteins. Insulin increased (α<.05 with supplementation with no change in glucose compared to placebo. Relative phosphorylation of AKT and rpS6 were greater with leucine and whey supplementation compared to placebo. Supplementation of leucine and whey protein immediately after heavy resistance exercise increases anabolic signaling in human skeletal muscle.

  19. Effectiveness of resistance exercise compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Cybelle; Moraes, Silvia Regina Arruda De; Novaes, Karyne Albino; Bezerra, Márcio Almeida; Silveira, Patrícia Verçoza De Castro; Lemos, Andrea

    Physical exercise has been used to mitigate the metabolic effects of diabetes mellitus. To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise when compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy on metabolic and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Papers were searched on the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and SCIELO, without language or date of publication limits. Clinical trials that compared resistance exercise to aerobic exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not use insulin therapy were included. The quality of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the GRADE system and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, respectively. Meta-analysis was also used, whenever possible. Two reviewers extracted the data independently. Eight eligible articles were included in this study, with a total of 336 individuals, with a mean age of 48-58 years. The protocols of aerobic and resistance exercise varied in duration from eight to 22 weeks, 30-60min/day, three to five times/week. Overall the available evidence came from a very low quality of evidence and there was an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption (mean difference: -2.86; 95% CI: -3.90 to -1.81; random effect) for the resistance exercise and no difference was found in Glycated hemoglobin, Body mass index, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Resistance exercise appears to be more effective in promoting an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption in protocols longer than 12 weeks and there is no difference in the control of glycemic and lipid levels between the two types of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  1. Effectiveness of hamstring knee rehabilitation exercise performed in training machine vs. elastic resistance: electromyography evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Persson, Roger; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine exercise, slightly lower (P machine (5.92 ± 0.03). Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more extended knee angles and with higher perceived loading as hamstring curls using training machines.

  2. Resistance training improves cardiac output, exercise capacity and tolerance to positive airway pressure in Fontan physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Rachael L; O'Meagher, Shamus; Karmali, Alia; Rae, Caroline L; Liess, Carsten; Kemp, Graham J; Puranik, Raj; Singh, Nalin; Celermajer, David S

    2013-09-30

    Subjects with Fontan-type circulation have no sub-pulmonary ventricle and thus depend exquisitely on the respiratory bellows and peripheral muscle pump for cardiac filling. We hypothesised that resistance training to augment the peripheral muscle pump might improve cardiac filling, reduce inspiratory-dependence of IVC return to the heart and thus improve exercise capacity and cardiac output on constant positive airway pressure (CPAP). Eleven Fontan subjects (32+/-2 years, mean+/-SEM) had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and exercise testing (CPET); six underwent 20 weeks of high-intensity resistance training; others were non-exercising controls. After training, CPET was repeated. Four trainers had MRI with real-time flow measurement at rest, exercise and on CPAP in the trained state and following a 12-month detrain. In the trained state, muscle strength increased by 43% (p=0.002), as did total muscle mass (by 1.94 kg, p=0.003) and peak VO2 (by 183 ml/min, p=0.02). After detraining, calf muscle mass and peak workload had fallen significantly (pexercise (by 16 ml, p=0.04); inspiratory-dependent IVC blood return during exercise was 40% higher (p=0.02). On CPAP, cardiac output was lower in the detrained state (101 vs. 77 ml/s, p=0.03). Resistance muscle training improves muscle mass, strength and is associated with improved cardiac filling, stroke volume, exercise capacity and cardiac output on CPAP, in adults with Fontan-type circulation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. EMG analysis of human inspiratory muscle resistance to fatigue during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segizbaeva, M O; Donina, Zh A; Timofeev, N N; Korolyov, Yu N; Golubev, V N; Aleksandrova, N P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of inspiratory muscle fatigue and to assess the resistance to fatigue of the diaphragm (D), parasternal (PS), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), and scalene (SC) muscles. Nine healthy, untrained male subjects participated in this study. Electromyographic activity (EMG) of D, PS, SCM, and SC was recorded during an incremental cycling test to exhaustion (workload of 1.0 W/kg with 0.5 W/kg increments every 5 min). The before-to-after exercise measurements of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and EMG power spectrum changes were performed. The maximal inspiratory pressure declined about 8.1 % after exercise compared with that in the control condition (124.3 ± 8.5 vs. 114.2 ± 8.9 cmH2O) (P > 0.05), whereas the peak magnitude of integrated electrical activity of D, PS, SCM, and SC during the post-exercise Müller maneuver was significantly greater in all subjects than that pre-exercise. The extent of inspiratory muscles fatigue was evaluated by analysis of a shift in centroid frequency (fc) of EMG power spectrum. Exercise-induced D fatigue was present in three subjects and PS fatigue was another in two; whereas both D and PC fatigue were observed in four subjects. All subjects demonstrated a significant reduction in fc of SCM and SC. Results indicate that early signs of the fatiguing process might be detected in the D, PS, SCM, and SC muscles during exercise to exhaustion. Fatigue of either D or PS muscles develops selectively or together during exhaustive exercise, depending on the recruitment pattern of respiratory muscles. Accessory inspiratory muscles of the neck are less resistant to fatigue compared with the D and PS muscles.

  4. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise program improves task performance in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Rebecca A; Cress, M Elaine; Higgins, Melinda K; Smith, Andrew L; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2011-09-01

    To assess the effects of a home-based aerobic and resistance training program on the physical function of adults with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II and III patients and systolic heart failure (HF). Randomized controlled trial. Home based. Stable patients (N=24; mean age, 60 ± 10 y; left ventricular ejection fraction, 25% ± 9%; 50% white; 50% women) with New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes II and III (NYHA class III, 58%) systolic heart failure (HF). A 12-week progressive home-based program of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise. Attention control wait list participants performed light stretching and flexibility exercises. A 10-item performance-based physical function measure, the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance test (CS-PFP10), was the major outcome variable and included specific physical activities measured in time to complete a task, weight carried during a task, and distance walked. Other measures included muscle strength, HRQOL (Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), functional capacity (Duke Activity Status Index), and disease severity (brain natriuretic peptide) levels. After the exercise intervention, 9 of 10 specific task activities were performed more rapidly, with increased weight carried by exercise participants compared with the attention control wait list group. Exercise participants also showed significant improvements in CS-PFP10 total score (Pexercise program may improve performance of routine physical activities of daily living by using a home-based exercise approach. Performance-based measures such as the CS-PFP10 may provide additional insights into physical function in patients with HF that more commonly used exercise tests may not identify. Early detection of subtle changes that may signal declining physical function that are amenable to intervention potentially may slow further loss of function in this patient population. Copyright © 2011 American

  5. Resistance Exercise Attenuates High-Fructose, High-Fat-Induced Postprandial Lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie R. Wilburn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Meals rich in both fructose and fat are commonly consumed by many Americans, especially young men, which can produce a significant postprandial lipemic response. Increasing evidence suggests that aerobic exercise can attenuate the postprandial increase in plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs in response to a high-fat or a high-fructose meal. However, it is unknown if resistance exercise can dampen the postprandial lipemic response to a meal rich in both fructose and fat. Methods Eight apparently healthy men (Mean ± SEM; age = 27 ± 2 years participated in a crossover study to examine the effects of acute resistance exercise on next-day postprandial lipemia resulting from a high-fructose, high-fat meal. Participants completed three separate two-day conditions in a random order: (1 EX-COMP: a full-body weightlifting workout with the provision of additional kilocalories to compensate for the estimated net energy cost of exercise on day 1, followed by the consumption of a high-fructose, high-fat liquid test meal the next morning (day 2 (~600 kcal and the determination of the plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and TAG responses during a six-hour postprandial period; (2 EX-DEF: same condition as EX-COMP but without exercise energy compensation on day 1; and (3 CON: no exercise control. Results The six-hour postprandial plasma insulin and lactate responses did not differ between conditions. However, the postprandial plasma TAG concentrations were 16.5% and 24.4% lower for EX-COMP (551.0 ± 80.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes and EX-DEF (499.4 ± 73.5 mg/dL x 360 minutes, respectively, compared to CON (660.2 ± 95.0 mg/dL x 360 minutes ( P < 0.05. Conclusions A single resistance exercise bout, performed ~15 hours prior to a high-fructose, high-fat meal, attenuated the postprandial TAG response, as compared to a no-exercise control condition, in healthy, resistance-trained men.

  6. Effect of early progressive resistance training compared with home-based exercise after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Søballe, Kjeld

    Introduction Muscle strength and physical function deficits persist after total hip replacement (THR). Training effect evidence after THR is lacking. This study investigates the effect of supervised progressive resistance training in early post-THR rehabilitation on muscle strength and functional...... in CG (1.58 [0.8;2.4] sec) (p=0.05). No significant differences were found in stair test; yet, borderline significance (p=0.06-0.09) favoured IG in STS and isometric strength. Conclusion 7 days/week of home-based exercise was just as effective as 5 days/week of home-based exercise plus 2 days...

  7. Acute effect of resistance exercise performed at different intensities on the hemodynamics of normotensive men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Assis Saldanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of resistance exercise performed at different intensities on the hemodynamics of normotensive men. The study included 10 normotensive and recreationally-trained men (25.40 ± 6.90 years performed the following three experimental protocols in a randomized order: a 60% of 8RM; b 80% of 8RM; c 100% of 8RM. All protocols performed six exercises (Leg Press, Vertical Bench Press, Leg Flexion, Close-Grip Seated Row, Leg Extension and Shoulder Press with three sets of eight repetitions for each exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR and double product (DP were measured at rest, at the end of exercise and during the 60-minute post-exercise. The findings showed that there was a significant reduction in the faster SBP with a longer duration (p 0.05. There were significantly higher elevations in HR and DP for 100% of 8RM at all times (p<0.0001. We conclude that high intensities (100% of 8RM promote post-exercise hypotension with faster responses and greater duration and increase HR and DP in normotensive men.

  8. Impact of Resisted Exercise on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD in Elderly Patients in Alkharj, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Kamal M. A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have evaluated the effect of resisted exercise on COPD in adult but there is limited data on the effectiveness of resistance exercise on COPD in elderly patients. The effect of three months resisted exercise training on pulmonary functions for COPD in elderly patients has been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of resisted exercise on COPD in elderly patients at Alkharj, Saudi Arabia. Forty obese elderly patients with moderate COPD with age of 60-70 years were selected from the patients living in Alkharj, KSA for this study. Their body mass index (BMI ranged from 30 to > 40 kg/m2 .They were randomly divided into two groups, each group consisted of 20 patients, group A received a program of resisted exercise(RE 3 times/week with breathing exercise and group B received only breathing exercise without any program of resisted exercise. The pulmonary functions changes (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, PEF, FEF25-75% and MVV were measured at the beginning of the study and after twelve weeks. Showed that resisted exercise had greater improvement in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, PEF, FEF25-75% and MVV were respectively (+0.1, +0.19, +4.2, +0.44, +0.09 and +3.8 when compared to the second group, little changes were respectively (+0.04, +0.04, +0.5, +0.45, +.03 and +1.2. It was concluded that a program of resisted exercise showed significant improvement in pulmonary functions in elderly patients with COPD in a short term (up to twelve weeks.

  9. Combination of a structured aerobic and resistance exercise improves glycaemic control in pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklempe Kokic, Iva; Ivanisevic, Marina; Biolo, Gianni; Simunic, Bostjan; Kokic, Tomislav; Pisot, Rado

    2017-10-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus, defined as any carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy, is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes, both for the mother and her child. To investigate the impact of a structured exercise programme which consisted of aerobic and resistance exercises on the parameters of glycaemic control and other health-related outcomes in pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Thirty-eight pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus were randomised to two groups. Experimental group was treated with standard antenatal care for gestational diabetes mellitus, and regular supervised exercise programme plus daily brisk walks of at least 30min. Control group received only standard antenatal care for gestational diabetes mellitus. The exercise programme was started from the time of diagnosis of diabetes until birth. It was performed two times per week and sessions lasted 50-55min. The experimental group had lower postprandial glucose levels at the end of pregnancy (Pexercise programme had a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose levels at the end of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Reid, Robert D; Friedenreich, Christine M; Ladha, Aliya B; Proulx, Caroline; Vallance, Jeffrey K H; Lane, Kirstin; Yasui, Yutaka; McKenzie, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Breast cancer chemotherapy may cause unfavorable changes in physical functioning, body composition, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life (QOL). We evaluated the relative merits of aerobic and resistance exercise in blunting these effects. We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial in Canada between 2003 and 2005 that randomly assigned 242 breast cancer patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy to usual care (n = 82), supervised resistance exercise (n = 82), or supervised aerobic exercise (n = 78) for the duration of their chemotherapy (median, 17 weeks; 95% CI, 9 to 24 weeks). Our primary end point was cancer-specific QOL assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia scale. Secondary end points were fatigue, psychosocial functioning, physical fitness, body composition, chemotherapy completion rate, and lymphedema. The follow-up assessment rate for our primary end point was 92.1%, and adherence to the supervised exercise was 70.2%. Unadjusted and adjusted mixed-model analyses indicated that aerobic exercise was superior to usual care for improving self-esteem (P = .015), aerobic fitness (P = .006), and percent body fat (adjusted P = .076). Resistance exercise was superior to usual care for improving self-esteem (P = .018), muscular strength (P exercise groups but did not reach statistical significance. Exercise did not cause lymphedema or adverse events. Neither aerobic nor resistance exercise significantly improved cancer-specific QOL in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but they did improve self-esteem, physical fitness, body composition, and chemotherapy completion rate without causing lymphedema or significant adverse events.

  11. Evaluating the Training Effects of Two Swallowing Rehabilitation Therapies Using Surface Electromyography--Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise and the Shaker Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yoon, Wai Lam; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of two dysphagia interventions, the Chin Tuck against Resistance (CTAR) and Shaker exercises, were evaluated based on two principles in exercise science-muscle-specificity and training intensity. Both exercises were developed to strengthen the suprahyoid muscles, whose contractions facilitate the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter, thereby improving bolus transfer. Thirty-nine healthy adults performed two trials of both exercises in counter-balanced order. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings were simultaneously collected from suprahyoid muscle group and sternocleidomastoid muscle during the exercises. Converging results using sEMG amplitude analyses suggested that the CTAR was more specific in targeting the suprahyoid muscles than the Shaker exercise. Fatigue analyses on sEMG signals further indicated that the suprahyoid muscle group were equally or significantly fatigued (depending on metric), when participants carried out CTAR compared to the Shaker exercise. Importantly, unlike during Shaker exercise, the sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly less activated and fatigued during CTAR. Lowering the chin against resistance is therefore sufficiently specific and intense to fatigue the suprahyoid muscles.

  12. [Effects of aerobic exercise combined with resistance training on the cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity of patients with stable coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S X; Chen, Y Y; Xie, K L; Zhang, W L

    2017-12-24

    Objective: To observe the effects of aerobic exercise combined with resistance training on the cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) . Methods: From June 2014 to December 2015, 73 patients with stable CAD in our department were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups: the control group ( n= 38) and the exercise group ( n= 35) . Patients in both groups received conventional medical treatment for CAD and related cardiac health education. While for patients in exercise group, a twelve-week aerobic exercise combined with resistance training program were applied on top of conventional treatment and health education. Cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity were evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: (1) The exercise capacity was significantly increased in the exercise group after 12 weeks training as compared to baseline level: peak oxygen uptake per kilogram ( (26.25±5.14) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) vs. (20.88±4.59) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) , anaerobic threshold ( (15.24±2.75) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) vs. (13.52±2.92) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)], peak oxygen pulse ( (11.91±2.89) ml/beat vs. (9.77±2.49) ml/beat) , peak Watts ( (113.2±34.0) W vs. (103.7±27.9) W) , peak metabolic equivalent ( (7.57±1.46) METs vs. (6.00±1.32) METs) (all Pexercise group than in control group (all Pcoronary artery disease. This combined exercise program can significantly improve the cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity of patients with stable coronary artery disease.

  13. Acute resistance exercise modulates microRNA expression profiles: Combined tissue and circulatory targeted analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall F D'Souza

    Full Text Available A subset of short non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRs, have been identified in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. Expressed within cells, miRs are also present in circulation (c-miR and have a putative role in cross-tissue signalling. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a single bout of high intensity resistance exercise (RE on skeletal muscle and circulatory miRs harvested simultaneously. Resistance trained males (n = 9, 24.6 ± 4.9 years undertook a single bout of high volume RE with venous blood and muscle biopsies collected before, 2 and 4hr post-exercise. Real time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR analyses was performed on 30 miRs that have previously been shown to be required for skeletal muscle function. Of these, 6 miRs were significantly altered within muscle following exercise; miR-23a, -133a, -146a, -206, -378b and 486. Analysis of these same miRs in circulation demonstrated minimal alterations with exercise, although c-miR-133a (~4 fold, p = 0.049 and c-miR-149 (~2.4 fold; p = 0.006 were increased 4hr post-exercise. Thus a single bout of RE results in the increased abundance of a subset of miRs within the skeletal muscle, which was not evident in plasma. The lack a qualitative agreement in the response pattern of intramuscular and circulating miR expression suggests the analysis of circulatory miRs is not reflective of the miR responses within skeletal muscle after exercise.

  14. Overnight responses of the circulating IGF-I system after acute, heavy-resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, B C; Kraemer, W J; Marx, J O; Arciero, P J; Dohi, K; Kellogg, M D; Loomis, G A

    2001-04-01

    This study evaluated the individual components of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) system [i.e., total and free IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and -3, and the acid-labile subunit (ALS)] in 10 young, healthy men (age: 22 +/- 1 yr, height: 177 +/- 2 cm, weight: 79 +/- 3 kg, body fat: 11 +/- 1%) overnight for 13 h after two conditions: a resting control (Con) and an acute, heavy-resistance exercise protocol (Ex). The Ex was a high-volume, multiset exercise protocol that alternated between 10- and 5-repetition maximum sets with 90-s rest periods between sets. The Ex was performed from 1500 to 1700; blood was obtained immediately postexercise and sampled throughout the night (every 10 min for the first hour and every hour thereafter) until 0600 the next morning. For the first hour, significant differences (P Con: 3,531 ng/ml). For the overnight responses, no differences were observed for total or free IGF-I or IGFBP-3, whereas IGFBP-2 increased (Ex: 561 > Con: 500 ng/ml) and ALS decreased (Ex: 35 < Con: 39 microg/ml) after exercise. The results from this study suggest that the impact that resistance exercise exerts on the circulating IGF-I system is not in the alteration of the amount of IGF-I but rather of the manner in which IGF-I is partitioned among its family of binding proteins. Thus acute, heavy-resistance exercise can lead to alterations in the IGF-I system that can be detected in the systemic circulation.

  15. Effect of Training Status on Oxygen Consumption in Women After Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Melissa J; Waggener, Green T; Swan, Pamela D

    2016-03-01

    This study compared acute postexercise oxygen consumption in 11 trained women (age, 46.5 ± 1.6 years; body mass index [BMI], 28.4 ± 1.7 kg·m(-2) and 11 untrained women (age, 46.5 ± 1.5 years; BMI, 27.5 ± 1.5 kg·m(-2)) after resistance exercise (RE). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 8 exercises (8-12 repetitions at 50-80% 1 repetition maximum). Oxygen consumption (VO2 ml·min(-1)) was measured before and after (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 minutes) RE. Immediately after cessation of RE (time 0), oxygen consumption increased in both trained and untrained women and remained significantly above baseline through 60 minutes after exercise (p consumption during recovery was 31.3 L in trained women and 27.4 L in untrained women (p = 0.07). In trained women, total oxygen consumption was strongly related to absolute (kg) lean mass (r = 0.88; p consumption (r = 0.67; p ≤ 0.05). In trained women, 86% of the variance in oxygen consumption was explained by lean mass and exercise duration, whereas volume-load explained 45% in untrained women. Our findings suggest that, in women, resistance training increases metabolic activity of lean tissue. Postexercise energy costs of RE are determined by the duration of stimulation provided by RE rather than absolute work (volume-load) performed. This phenomenon may be related to type II muscle fibers and increased protein synthesis.

  16. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity (resistance exercise (HIT and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30–50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as “single-set-to-failure protocol,” while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press. LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93±1.15% were significant (p=.001; however, no significant group differences were detected (p=.395. Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7±14.7%, p=.002, versus WB-EMS 7.3±10.3%, p=.012 with no significant (p=.215 between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.

  17. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). RESULTS: When comparing...... tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions......BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps...

  18. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on resistance to fatigue of respiratory muscles during exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segizbaeva, M O; Timofeev, N N; Donina, Zh A; Kur'yanovich, E N; Aleksandrova, N P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on resistance to fatigue of the diaphragm (D), parasternal (PS), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and scalene (SC) muscles in healthy humans during exhaustive exercise. Daily inspiratory muscle strength training was performed for 3 weeks in 10 male subjects (at a pressure threshold load of 60% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) for the first week, 70% of MIP for the second week, and 80% of MIP for the third week). Before and after training, subjects performed an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. Maximal inspiratory pressure and EMG-analysis served as indices of inspiratory muscle fatigue assessment. The before-to-after exercise decreases in MIP and centroid frequency (fc) of the EMG (D, PS, SCM, and SC) power spectrum (Pinspiratory muscle fatigue during exhaustive exercise, and a significant improvement in maximal work performance. We conclude that the IMT elicits resistance to the development of inspiratory muscles fatigue during high-intensity exercise.

  19. Do metabolites that are produced during resistance exercise enhance muscle hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankel, Scott J; Mattocks, Kevin T; Jessee, Matthew B; Buckner, Samuel L; Mouser, J Grant; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-11-01

    Many reviews conclude that metabolites play an important role with respect to muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise, but their actual physiologic contribution remains unknown. Some have suggested that metabolites may work independently of muscle contraction, while others have suggested that metabolites may play a secondary role in their ability to augment muscle activation via inducing fatigue. Interestingly, the studies used as support for an anabolic role of metabolites use protocols that are not actually designed to test the importance of metabolites independent of muscle contraction. While there is some evidence in vitro that metabolites may induce muscle hypertrophy, the only study attempting to answer this question in humans found no added benefit of pooling metabolites within the muscle post-exercise. As load-induced muscle hypertrophy is thought to work via mechanotransduction (as opposed to being metabolically driven), it seems likely that metabolites simply augment muscle activation and cause the mechanotransduction cascade in a larger proportion of muscle fibers, thereby producing greater muscle growth. A sufficient time under tension also appears necessary, as measurable muscle growth is not observed after repeated maximal testing. Based on current evidence, it is our opinion that metabolites produced during resistance exercise do not have anabolic properties per se, but may be anabolic in their ability to augment muscle activation. Future studies are needed to compare protocols which produce similar levels of muscle activation, but differ in the magnitude of metabolites produced, or duration in which the exercised muscles are exposed to metabolites.

  20. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  1. Resistance exercise, disability, and pain catastrophizing in obese adults with back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; George, Steven Z; Seay, Amanda N; Vincent, Kevin R; Hurley, Robert W

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different resistance exercise protocols on self-reported disability, fear avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and back pain symptoms in obese, older adults with low back pain (LBP). Obese adults (n = 49, 60-85 yr) with chronic LBP were randomized into a total body resistance exercise intervention (TOTRX), lumbar extensor exercise intervention (LEXT), or a control group (CON). Main outcomes included perceived disability (Oswestry Disability Index, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire). Psychosocial measures included the Fear Avoidance Beliefs survey, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. LBP severity was measured during three functional tasks: walking, stair climbing, and chair rise using an 11-point numerical pain rating scale. The TOTRX group had greater reductions in self-reported disability scores due to back pain (Oswestry Disability Index, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire) compared with those in the LEXT (P change in psychological outlook may assist obese, older adults with chronic back pain in reconsidering the harmfulness of the pain and facilitate regular participation in other exercise programs.

  2. Impact of Endurance Exercise Training in the Fasted State on Muscle Biochemistry and Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: Can These Effects be of Particular Clinical Benefit to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin-Resistant Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dominique; De Strijcker, Dorien; Calders, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Exercise training intervention is a cornerstone in the care of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR), and it is pursued in order to optimize exercise interventions for these patients. In this regard, the nutritional state of patients during exercise (being in the fed or fasted state) can be of particular interest. The aim of the present review is to describe the impact of endurance exercise (training) in the fasted versus fed state on parameters of muscle biochemistry and metabolism linked to glycemic control or insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. From these data it can then be deduced whether exercise training in the fasted state may be relevant to patients with T2DM or IR. In healthy subjects, acute endurance exercise in the fasted state is accompanied by lower blood insulin and elevated blood free fatty acid concentrations, stable blood glucose concentrations (in the first 60-90 min), superior intramyocellular triacylglycerol oxidation and whole-body lipolysis, and muscle glycogen preservation. Long-term exercise training in the fasted state in healthy subjects is associated with greater improvements in insulin sensitivity, basal muscle fat uptake capacity, and oxidation. Therefore, promising results of exercise (training) in the fasted state have been found in healthy subjects on parameters of muscle biochemistry and metabolism linked to insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Whether exercise training intervention in which exercise sessions are organized in the fasted state may be more effective in improving insulin sensitivity or glycemic control in T2DM patients and insulin-resistant individuals warrants investigation.

  3. Panel Session

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    2004-01-01

    In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach.......In this panel session, four researchers will discuss the role of a theoretical foundation, in particular AT, in the design of information technology based artefacts. The general discussion will take of from a specific examination of the ActAD approach....

  4. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2014-01-01

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats

  5. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives: The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8; sedentary diabetic (n = 8; and trained diabetic (n = 8. Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2% and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3% without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions: Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  6. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão [Departamento de Educação Física - UFS, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  7. Haemodynamics of aerobic and resistance blood flow restriction exercise in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Craig A; May, Anthony K; Brandner, Christopher R; Warmington, Stuart A

    2015-11-01

    Light-load blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) may provide a novel training method to limit the effects of age-related muscle atrophy in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the haemodynamic response to resistance and aerobic BFRE between young adults (YA; n = 11; 22 ± 1 years) and older adults (OA; n = 13; 69 ± 1 years). On two occasions, participants completed BFRE or control exercise (CON). One occasion was leg press (LP; 20 % 1-RM) and the other was treadmill walking (TM; 4 km h(-1)). Haemodynamic responses (HR, Q, SV and BP) were recorded during baseline and exercise. At baseline, YA and OA were different for some haemodynamic parameters (e.g. BP, SV). The relative responses to BFRE were similar between YA and OA. Blood pressures increased more with BFRE, and also for LP over TM. Q increased similarly for BFRE and CON (in both LP and TM), but with elevated HR and reduced SV (TM only). While BFR conferred slightly greater haemodynamic stress than CON, this was lower for walking than leg-press exercise. Given similar response magnitudes between YA and OA, these data support aerobic exercise being a more appropriate BFRE for prescription in older adults that may contribute to limiting the effects of age-related muscle atrophy.

  8. Effects of exercise training on coronary collateralization and control of collateral resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary collateral vessels serve as a natural protective mechanism to provide coronary flow to ischemic myocardium secondary to critical coronary artery stenosis. The innate collateral circulation of the normal human heart is typically minimal and considerable variability occurs in extent of collateralization in coronary artery disease patients. A well-developed collateral circulation has been documented to exert protective effects upon myocardial perfusion, contractile function, infarct size, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thus therapeutic augmentation of collateral vessel development and/or functional adaptations in collateral and collateral-dependent arteries to reduce resistance into the ischemic myocardium represent a desirable goal in the management of coronary artery disease. Tremendous evidence has provided documentation for the therapeutic benefits of exercise training programs in patients with coronary artery disease (and collateralization); mechanisms that underlie these benefits are numerous and multifaceted, and currently under investigation in multiple laboratories worldwide. The role of enhanced collateralization as a major beneficial contributor has not been fully resolved. This topical review highlights literature that examines the effects of exercise training on collateralization in the diseased heart, as well as effects of exercise training on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle control of regional coronary tone in the collateralized heart. Future directions for research in this area involve further delineation of cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in effects of exercise training on collateralized myocardium, as well as development of novel therapies based on emerging concepts regarding exercise training and coronary artery disease. PMID:21565987

  9. Resistance Exercise Reduces Skeletal Muscle Cachexia and Improves Muscle Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune, inflammatory disease associated with cachexia (reduced muscle and increased fat. Although strength-training exercise has been used in persons with RA, it is not clear if it is effective for reducing cachexia. A 46-year-old woman was studied to determine: (i if resistance exercise could reverse cachexia by improving muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional area, and muscle function; and (2 if elevated apoptotic signaling was involved in cachexia with RA and could be reduced by resistance training. A needle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the RA subject before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. Knee extensor strength increased by 13.6% and fatigue decreased by 2.8% Muscle mass increased by 2.1%. Average muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased by 49.7%, and muscle nuclei increased slightly after strength training from 0.08 to 0.12 nuclei/μm2. In addition, there was a slight decrease (1.6% in the number of apoptotic muscle nuclei after resistance training. This case study suggests that resistance training may be a good tool for increasing the number of nuclei per fiber area, decreasing apoptotic nuclei, and inducing fiber hypertrophy in persons with RA, thereby slowing or reversing rheumatoid cachexia.

  10. Aerobic or Resistance Exercise, or Both, in Dieting Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Aguirre, Lina; Gurney, A Burke; Waters, Debra L; Sinacore, David R; Colombo, Elizabeth; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Qualls, Clifford

    2017-05-18

    Obesity causes frailty in older adults; however, weight loss might accelerate age-related loss of muscle and bone mass and resultant sarcopenia and osteopenia. In this clinical trial involving 160 obese older adults, we evaluated the effectiveness of several exercise modes in reversing frailty and preventing reduction in muscle and bone mass induced by weight loss. Participants were randomly assigned to a weight-management program plus one of three exercise programs - aerobic training, resistance training, or combined aerobic and resistance training - or to a control group (no weight-management or exercise program). The primary outcome was the change in Physical Performance Test score from baseline to 6 months (scores range from 0 to 36 points; higher scores indicate better performance). Secondary outcomes included changes in other frailty measures, body composition, bone mineral density, and physical functions. A total of 141 participants completed the study. The Physical Performance Test score increased more in the combination group than in the aerobic and resistance groups (27.9 to 33.4 points [21% increase] vs. 29.3 to 33.2 points [14% increase] and 28.8 to 32.7 points [14% increase], respectively; P=0.01 and P=0.02 after Bonferroni correction); the scores increased more in all exercise groups than in the control group (Paerobic groups (17.2 to 20.3 [17% increase] and 17.6 to 20.9 [18% increase], respectively) than in the resistance group (17.0 to 18.3 [8% increase]) (Paerobic group (265 to 270 kg [4% increase]) (Pexercise groups but did not change significantly in the control group. Lean mass decreased less in the combination and resistance groups than in the aerobic group (56.5 to 54.8 kg [3% decrease] and 58.1 to 57.1 kg [2% decrease], respectively, vs. 55.0 to 52.3 kg [5% decrease]), as did bone mineral density at the total hip (grams per square centimeter; 1.010 to 0.996 [1% decrease] and 1.047 to 1.041 [0.5% decrease], respectively, vs. 1.018 to 0.991 [3

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise on insulin resistance and central adiposity disappeared after the discontinuation of intervention in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglong Le

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The AE program used in these studies was effective to reduce insulin resistance and/or FM in central body region among overweight and obese women. However, when exercise intervention was discontinued, the beneficial effects following both short- and long-term intervention disappeared. Thus maintaining exercise seems to be required if one wants to reap the benefits of exercise in the long-term.

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. ... repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  13. Functional and morphological effects of resistance exercise on disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nicastro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The reduction of skeletal muscle loss in pathological states, such as muscle disuse, has considerable effects in terms of rehabilitation and quality of life. Since there is no currently effective and safe treatment available for skeletal muscle atrophy, the search for new alternatives is necessary. Resistance exercise (RE seems to be an important tool in the treatment of disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by promoting positive functional (strength and power and structural (hypertrophy and phenotypic changes adaptive responses. Human and animal studies using different types of resistance exercise (flywheel, vascular occlusion, dynamic, isometric, and eccentric have obtained results of great importance. However, since RE is a complex phenomenon, lack of strict control of its variables (volume, frequency, intensity, muscle action, rest intervals limits the interpretation of the impact of the manipulation on skeletal muscle remodeling and function under disuse. The aim of this review is to critically describe the functional and morphological role of resistance exercise in disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy with emphasis on the principles of training.

  14. Dose-response of 1, 3, and 5 sets of resistance exercise on strength, local muscular endurance, and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Fleck, Steven J; Leite, Thalita; Leite, Richard D; Pinto, Ronei S; Fernandes, Liliam; Simão, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    The study's purpose was to compare the response of performing 1, 3, and 5 sets on measures of performance and muscle hypertrophy. Forty-eight men, with no weight training experience, were randomly assigned to one of the 3 training groups, 1 SET, 3 SETS, 5 SETS, or control group. All training groups performed 3 resistance training sessions per week for 6 months. The 5 repetition maximum (RM) for all training groups increased in the bench press (BP), front lat pull down (LPD), shoulder press (SP), and leg press (LP) (p ≤ 0.05), with the 5 RM increases in the BP and LPD being significantly greater for 5 SETS compared with the other training groups (p ≤ 0.05). Bench press 20 RM in the 3-SET and 5-SET groups significantly increased with the increase being significantly greater than the 1-SET group and the 5-SET group increase being significantly greater than the 3-SET group (p ≤ 0.05). LP 20 RM increased in all training groups (p ≤ 0.05), with the 5-SETS group showing a significantly greater increase than the 1-SET group (p ≤ 0.05). The 3-SET and 5-SET groups significantly increased elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) with the 5-SET increase being significantly greater than the other 2 training groups (p ≤ 0.05). The 5-SET group significantly increased elbow extensor MT with the increase being significantly greater than the other training groups (p ≤ 0.05). All training groups decreased percent body fat, increased fat-free mass, and vertical jump ability (p ≤ 0.05), with no differences between groups. The results demonstrate a dose-response for the number of sets per exercise and a superiority of multiple sets compared with a single set per exercise for strength gains, muscle endurance, and upper arm muscle hypertrophy.

  15. WIse-2005: Combined Aerobic and Resistive Exercise May Help Mitigate Bone Loss During 60-D Simulated Microgravity in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Trappe, S. M.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Exercise can attenuate bone loss associated with disuse during bed rest (BR), an analog of space flight. Previous studies have examined the efficacy of aerobic or resistive exercise countermeasures, but not in combination. We sought to determine the effect of a combined resistive and aerobic exercise regimen on bone metabolism during BR. After a 20-d ambulatory adaptation to confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-d head-down-tilt BR. Control subjects (CN, n=8) performed no countermeasures. Exercise subjects, (EX, n=8) participated in exercise alternating daily between supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure and resistive fly-wheel exercise (6-d wk(sup -1)). In the last week of BR, bone resorption was greater (p less than 79 plus or minus 44%, mean plus or minus SD) and EX groups (64 50%). N-telopeptide also increased (CN: 51 plus or minus 34%; EX: 43 plus or minus 56%). However, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, tended to be higher in EX (26 plus or minus 18%) than in CN (8 plus or minus 33%) groups. The combination of resistive and aerobic exercise does not prevent bone resorption, but may promote formation, potentially mitigating the net bone loss associated with simulated microgravity. This study was supported by CNES, CSA, ESA, NASA, and NASA grant NNJ04HF71G to ARH. MEDES (French Institute for Space Medicine and Physiology) organized the study.

  16. Concurrent aerobic plus resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise alone to improve health outcomes in paediatric obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Peterson, Mark D; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    To determine if the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise is superior to aerobic exercise alone for the health of obese children and adolescents. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised search of 3 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry). Studies that compared the effect of supervised concurrent exercise versus aerobic exercise interventions, with anthropometric and metabolic outcomes in paediatric obesity (6-18 years old). The mean differences (MD) of the parameters from preintervention to postintervention between groups were pooled using a random-effects model. 12 trials with 555 youths were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with aerobic exercise alone, concurrent exercise resulted in greater reductions in body mass (MD=-2.28 kg), fat mass (MD=-3.49%; and MD=-4.34 kg) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD=-10.20 mg/dL); as well as greater increases in lean body mass (MD=2.20 kg) and adiponectin level (MD=2.59 μg/mL). Differences were larger for longer term programmes (>24 weeks). Concurrent aerobic plus resistance exercise improves body composition, metabolic profiles, and inflammatory state in the obese paediatric population. CRD42016039807. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. [Inspiratory muscle resistance to fatigue during exercise and simulated airway obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segizbaeva, M O; Aleksandrova, N P

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue can develop during simulated airway obstruction. The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of inspiratory muscle fatigue and to assess the resistance to fatigue of diaphragm (D), parasternal (PS), sternocleidomastoid (SM) and scalene (SC). 8 healthy untrained subjects participated in this study. To identify signs of inspiratory muscles fatigue development electromyographic activity of D, PS, SCM and SC was recorded during 5-min exercise with loaded breathing (40 cm H2O/L · s(-1)). The before-to-after exercise measurements of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and EMG power spectrum changes were performed. Maximal inspiratory pressure declined about 12% after exercise test compared with control, whereas the peak magnitude of integrated electrical activity of D, PS, SCM and SC during post-exercise Muller's maneuver was significantly greater than in pre-exercise test in all subjects. The extent ofinspiratory muscles fatigue was evaluated by analysis of shift in centroid frequency (fc) of EMG power spectrum. All subjects demonstrated a significant reduction in fc of PS, SCM and SC.fc of D was not changed. Diaphragm is more resistantto fatigue during obstructive breathing compared with PS, SCM and SC. The data suggest that the reduction of maximum inspiratory pressure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also caused primarily by the weakening of the accessory muscles, while the weakness of the diaphragm may occur in the later stages of the disease. The functional failure of accessory muscles is an additional factor, which, along with the additional breathing resistance increases the load on the diaphragm, promoting its fatigue and reduced respiratory reserve.

  18. Effects of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Free Acid Ingestion and Resistance Exercise on the Acute Endocrine Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jeremy R.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Boone, Carleigh H.; Robinson, Edward H.; Mangine, Gerald T.; Wells, Adam J.; Fragala, Maren S.; Fukuda, David H.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the endocrine response to a bout of heavy resistance exercise following acute β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) ingestion. Design. Twenty resistance trained men were randomized and consumed either 1 g of HMB-FA (BetaTor) or placebo (PL) 30 min prior to performing an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol. Blood was obtained before (PRE), immediately after (IP), and 30 min after exercise (30P). Circulating concentrations of testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and insulin were assayed. Data were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC) was analyzed by the trapezoidal rule. Results. The resistance exercise protocol resulted in significant elevations from PRE in testosterone (P < 0.01), GH (P < 0.01), and insulin (P = 0.05) at IP, with GH (P < 0.01) and insulin (P < 0.01) remaining elevated at 30P. A significant interaction was noted between groups in the plasma GH response at IP, which was significantly higher following HMB-FA compared to PL (P < 0.01). AUC analysis revealed an elevated GH and IGF-1 response in the HMB-FA group compared to PL. Conclusion. HMB-FA prior to resistance exercise augments the GH response to high volume resistance exercise compared to PL. These findings provide further support for the potential anabolic benefits associated with HMB supplementation. PMID:25792982

  19. Effects of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Free Acid Ingestion and Resistance Exercise on the Acute Endocrine Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Townsend

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the endocrine response to a bout of heavy resistance exercise following acute β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA ingestion. Design. Twenty resistance trained men were randomized and consumed either 1 g of HMB-FA (BetaTor or placebo (PL 30 min prior to performing an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol. Blood was obtained before (PRE, immediately after (IP, and 30 min after exercise (30P. Circulating concentrations of testosterone, growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, and insulin were assayed. Data were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC was analyzed by the trapezoidal rule. Results. The resistance exercise protocol resulted in significant elevations from PRE in testosterone P<0.01, GH P<0.01, and insulin P=0.05 at IP, with GH P<0.01 and insulin P<0.01 remaining elevated at 30P. A significant interaction was noted between groups in the plasma GH response at IP, which was significantly higher following HMB-FA compared to PL P<0.01. AUC analysis revealed an elevated GH and IGF-1 response in the HMB-FA group compared to PL. Conclusion. HMB-FA prior to resistance exercise augments the GH response to high volume resistance exercise compared to PL. These findings provide further support for the potential anabolic benefits associated with HMB supplementation.

  20. Gluteus Maximus and Hamstring Activation During Selected Weight-Bearing Resistance Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Kevin; Walker, John; Yuen, Derrick

    2018-03-01

    McCurdy, K, Walker, J, and Yuen, D. Gluteus maximus and hamstring activation during selected weight-bearing resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 594-601, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare the gluteus maximus (GM) and hamstring group (HG) electromyographic (EMG) activation levels among selected weight-bearing resistance exercises. Eighteen young adult females with previous resistance training experience completed the study. Strength was assessed on the bilateral squat (BS) (3 repetition maximum [RM]), modified single-leg squat (MSLS) (3RM), and stiff-leg deadlift (SLDL) (8RM) to determine an 8RM load for all lifts. Surface EMG was collected after 48 hours of rest using wireless Trigno IM Sensors using EMMA software (Delsys), which also collected and synchronized 3D hip and knee motion. A maximum voluntary isometric contraction was determined for the GM and HG to normalize the EMG data. During EMG data collection, 3 repetitions were completed using an 8RM load on all 3 exercises. Gluteus maximus EMG was significantly greater than HG EMG on the BS (40.3 vs. 24.4%, p < 0.001), MSLS (65.6 vs. 40.1 %, p < 0.012), and SLDL (40.5 vs. 29.9 %, p < 0.047). The MSLS produced significantly greater HG EMG (p = 0.001) compared with the SLDL, whereas the SLDL was significantly greater (p = 0.004) than the BS. The MSLS GM EMG was also significantly greater (p < 0.001) than the SLDL and BS, whereas no difference was found between the SLDL and BS. Comparing the activation of the 2 muscle groups in all exercises, the GM seems to be the primary muscle recruited whereas the MSLS seems to produce greater GM and HG activation. The data indicate that it would be most beneficial to include the MSLS during GM and HG training.

  1. Baroreflex-mediated heart rate and vascular resistance responses 24 h after maximal exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Plasma volume, heart rate (HR) variability, and stimulus-response relationships for baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and HR were studied in eight healthy men after and without performing a bout of maximal exercise to test the hypotheses that acute expansion of plasma volume is associated with 1) reduction in baroreflex-mediated HR response, and 2) altered operational range for central venous pressure (CVP). METHODS: The relationship between stimulus (DeltaCVP) and vasoconstrictive reflex response (DeltaFVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors was assessed with lower-body negative pressure (LBNP, 0, -5, -10, -15, -20 mm Hg). The relationship between stimulus (Deltamean arterial pressure (MAP)) and cardiac reflex response (DeltaHR) during loading of arterial baroreceptors was assessed with steady-state infusion of phenylephrine (PE) designed to increase MAP by 15 mm Hg alone and during application of LBNP (PE+LBNP) and neck pressure (PE+LBNP+NP). Measurements of vascular volume and autonomic baroreflex responses were conducted on two different test days, each separated by at least 1 wk. On one day, baroreflex response was tested 24 h after graded cycle exercise to volitional exhaustion. On another day, measurement of baroreflex response was repeated with no exercise (control). The order of exercise and control treatments was counterbalanced. RESULTS: Baseline CVP was elevated (P = 0.04) from a control value of 10.5 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg 24 h after exercise. Average DeltaFVR/DeltaCVP during LBNP was not different (P = 0.942) between the exercise (-1.35 +/- 0.32 pru x mm Hg-1) and control (-1.32 +/- 0.36 pru x mm Hg-1) conditions. However, maximal exercise caused a shift along the reflex response relationship to a higher CVP and lower FVR. HR baroreflex response (DeltaHR/DeltaMAP) to PE+LBNP+NP was lower (P = 0.015) after maximal exercise (-0.43 +/- 0.15 beats x min-1 x mm Hg-1) compared with the control

  2. Exercise carbon dioxide (CO2) retention with inhaled CO2 and breathing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E; Warkander, Dan E

    2012-01-01

    Combined effects on respiratory minute ventilation (VE)--and thus, on end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(ET)CO2)--of breathing resistance and elevated inspired carbon dioxide (CO2) had not been determined during heavy exercise. In this Institutional Review Board-approved, dry, sea-level study, 12 subjects in each of three phases exercised to exhaustion at 85% peak oxygen uptake while V(E) and P(ET)CO2 were measured. Participants inhaled 0%, 1%, 2% or 3% CO2 in air, or 0% or 2% CO2 in oxygen, with or without breathing resistance, mimicking the U.S. Navy's MK 16 rebreather underwater breathing apparatus (UBA). Compared to air baseline (0% inspired CO2 in air without resistance): (1) Oxygen decreased baseline V(E) (p carbon dioxide partial pressure and respiratory effort. Because elevated CO2 may not increase V(E) if breathing resistance and VE are high, rebreather UBA safety requires very low inspired CO2.

  3. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Luczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals ( and novice female resistance trained exercisers ( from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases. While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  4. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  5. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs. PMID:26464884

  6. Hypotensive effects of resistance exercises performed at different intensities and same work volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polito Marcos Doederlein

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of two sequences of resistance exercises (RE, with different intensities but same training volume, on post-exercise blood pressure responses. Sixteen young subjects with previous experience in RE were evaluated during three non-following days in chest press, legpress, pulley pull down, leg curl, shoulder press, and biceps curl. On the first day, the load associated with six maximal repetitions (6RM were determined for each exercise. On the second day, three sets of 6RM were performed (SEQ6, with a two minute interval between the sets. On the last day, the same procedure was repeated, but using 12 repetitions with 50% of 6RM load (SEQ12. Rest BP was measured before the sequences by auscultatory method. Post-exercise resting BP was measured each 10 minutes by ambulatory BP monitoring during 60 minutes. The magnitude and duration of BP variability were compared by repeated ANOVA measures followed by Tuckey post-hoc test (p < 0.05. A significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure (DBP was observed in the first 20 minutes after SEQ12, but not after SEQ6. SEQ12 elicited significant decline in systolic blood pressure (SBP, at least during the first 50 minutes after the exercise, while significant reductions were observed in all measures after SEQ6. There were no significant differences between the absolute values of DBP and SBP after both sequences. In conclusion: a RE had hypotensive effects on blood pressure, mainly SBP; b the absolute decline of SBP seem not to be influenced by different interactions between workload and number of repetitions; c higher workloads seem to extend the total time of SBP post-exercise reduction; d the number of repetitions seems to have more influence on DBP than SBP, but for a short period of time.

  7. Investigation the Response of Some Proteins That Involved in Cachexia Syndrome to Acute Resistance Exercise in Healthy Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of plasma Myostatin and insulin growth factor like-1 (IGF-1, as two most important proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome, to acute resistance exercise in healthy elderly people. Methods & Materials: Twelve healthy older men (Age=67±1.3 years, BMI=25±1.4 kg/m2 volunteered for participation in this study. 72 hours after the determination of muscular maximal strength (by 1-RM test, subjects participated in acute resistance exercises via 75% 1-RM. In this research, two blood samples were collected at before and immediately after the exercise from Antecubital vein. Plasma Myostatin and serum levels of IGF-1 were measured by ELISA methods. Paired T-Test used for statical analyses of research data. Significant level was set at P≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that plasma Myostatin significantly decreased in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. Also the serum levels of IGF-1 increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. In turn, the results reveled that the IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resistance exercise through increases of IGF-1 and decreases of Myostatin causes increment of IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio. According to the results of this study it seems prescription of resistance exercise could positive changes in proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome in elderly people. Presumably, through this way we can prevent from Cachexia and its many physiological and physical related dysfunctions in theses people. Although more study is needed to clear its mechanisms.

  8. Effects of resistance and endurance exercise on bone mineral status of young women: a randomized exercise intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow-Harter, C; Bouxsein, M L; Lewis, B T; Carter, D R; Marcus, R

    1992-07-01

    A substantial body of cross-sectional data and a smaller number of intervention trials generally justify optimism that regular physical activity benefits the skeleton. We conducted an 8 month controlled exercise trial in a group of healthy college women (mean age = 19.9 years) who were randomly assigned to a control group or to progressive training in jogging or weight lifting. We measured the following variables: bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine (L2-4) and right proximal femur using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dynamic muscle strength using the 1-RM method, and endurance performance using the 1.5 mile walk/run field test. A total of 31 women completed the 8 month study. For women completing the study, compliance, defined as the percentage of workout sessions attended, was 97% for the runners (range 90-100%) and 92% (range 88-100%) for the weight trainers. Body weight increased by approximately 2 kg in all groups (p less than 0.05). Weight training was associated with significant increases (p less than 0.01) in muscle strength in all muscle groups. Improvement ranged from 10% for the deep back to 54% for the leg. No significant changes in strength scores were observed in the control or running groups. Aerobic performance improved only in the running group (16%, p less than 0.01). Lumbar BMD increased (p less than 0.05) in both runners (1.3 +/- 1.6%) and weight trainers (1.2 +/- 1.8%). These results did not differ from each other but were both significantly greater than results in control subjects, in whom bone mineral did not change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: underlying causes and modification by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christian K; Hevener, Andrea L; Barnard, R James

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors that includes obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Although there has been significant debate regarding the criteria and concept of the syndrome, this clustering of risk factors is unequivocally linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Regardless of the true definition, based on current population estimates, nearly 100 million have MS. It is often characterized by insulin resistance, which some have suggested is a major underpinning link between physical inactivity and MS. The purpose of this review is to: (i) provide an overview of the history, causes and clinical aspects of MS, (ii) review the molecular mechanisms of insulin action and the causes of insulin resistance, and (iii) discuss the epidemiological and intervention data on the effects of exercise on MS and insulin sensitivity.

  10. Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance: Underlying Causes and Modification by Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christian K.; Hevener, Andrea L.; Barnard, R. James

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors that includes obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Although there has been significant debate regarding the criteria and concept of the syndrome, this clustering of risk factors is unequivocally linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Regardless of the true definition, based on current population estimates, nearly 100 million have MS. It is often characterized by insulin resistance, which some have suggested is a major underpinning link between physical inactivity and MS. The purpose of this review is to: (i) provide an overview of the history, causes and clinical aspects of MS, (ii) review the molecular mechanisms of insulin action and the causes of insulin resistance, and (iii) discuss the epidemiological and intervention data on the effects of exercise on MS and insulin sensitivity. PMID:23720280

  11. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Ingestion Stimulates Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following Resistance Exercise in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Jackman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of intact protein or essential amino acids (EAA stimulates mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1 signaling and muscle protein synthesis (MPS following resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of myofibrillar-MPS to ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs only (i.e., without concurrent ingestion of other EAA, intact protein, or other macronutrients following resistance exercise in humans. Ten young (20.1 ± 1.3 years, resistance-trained men completed two trials, ingesting either 5.6 g BCAA or a placebo (PLA drink immediately after resistance exercise. Myofibrillar-MPS was measured during exercise recovery with a primed, constant infusion of L-[ring13C6] phenylalanine and collection of muscle biopsies pre and 4 h-post drink ingestion. Blood samples were collected at time-points before and after drink ingestion. Western blotting was used to measure the phosphorylation status of mTORC1 signaling proteins in biopsies collected pre, 1-, and 4 h-post drink. The percentage increase from baseline in plasma leucine (300 ± 96%, isoleucine (300 ± 88%, and valine (144 ± 59% concentrations peaked 0.5 h-post drink in BCAA. A greater phosphorylation status of S6K1Thr389 (P = 0.017 and PRAS40 (P = 0.037 was observed in BCAA than PLA at 1 h-post drink ingestion. Myofibrillar-MPS was 22% higher (P = 0.012 in BCAA (0.110 ± 0.009%/h than PLA (0.090 ± 0.006%/h. Phenylalanine Ra was ~6% lower in BCAA (18.00 ± 4.31 μmol·kgBM−1 than PLA (21.75 ± 4.89 μmol·kgBM−1; P = 0.028 after drink ingestion. We conclude that ingesting BCAAs alone increases the post-exercise stimulation of myofibrillar-MPS and phosphorylation status mTORC1 signaling.

  12. Testosterone responses after resistance exercise in women: influence of regional fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, B C; Kraemer, W J; Gotshalk, L A; Marx, J O; Volek, J S; Bush, F A; Häkkinen, K; Newton, R U; Fleck, S J

    2001-12-01

    Regional fat distribution (RFD) has been associated with metabolic derangements in populations with obesity. For example, upper body fat patterning is associated with higher levels of free testosterone (FT) and lower levels of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG). We sought to determine the extent to which this relationship was true in a healthy (i.e., non-obese) female population and whether RFD influenced androgen responses to resistance exercise. This study examined the effects of RFD on total testosterone (TT), FT, and SHBG responses to an acute resistance exercise test (ARET) among 47 women (22+/-3 years; 165+/-6 cm; 62+/-8 kg; 25+/-5%BF; 23+/-3 BMI). RFD was characterized by 3 separate indices: waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), ratio of upper arm fat to mid-thigh fat assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ratio), and ratio of subscapular to triceps ratio (SB/TRi ratio). Skinfolds were measured for the triceps, chest, subscapular, mid-axillary, suprailaic, abdomen, and thigh regions. The ARET consisted of 6 sets of 10 RM squats separated by 2-min rest periods. Blood was obtained pre- and post- ARET. TT, FT, and SHBG concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Subjects were divided into tertiles from the indices of RFD, and statistical analyses were performed by an ANOVA with repeated measures (RFD and exercise as main effects). Significant (p testosterone, and anthropometric markers of adiposity correlate with testosterone concentrations.

  13. Hormonal responses of multiset versus single-set heavy-resistance exercise protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotshalk, L A; Loebel, C C; Nindl, B C; Putukian, M; Sebastianelli, W J; Newton, R U; Häkkinen, K; Kraemer, W J

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare serum growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and whole blood lactate (L) responses to single set (1S) versus multiple set (3S) heavy-resistance exercise protocols. Eight recreationally weight-trained men completed two identical resistance exercise workouts (1S vs. 3S). Blood was obtained preexercise (PRE), immediately postexercise (OP), and 5 min (5P), 15 min (15P), 30 min (30P) and 60 min (60P) postexercise and was analyzed for GH, T, C, and L levels. For 1S and 3S, GH, L, and T significantly increased from PRE to OP and remained significantly elevated to 60P, except for 1S. For GH, T, and L, 3S showed significantly greater increases compared to 1S. For C, 3S and 1S were increased significantly from resting at OP, 5P, and 15P; 3S increased compared to 1S at 5P, 15P and 30P. Higher volumes of total work produce significantly greater increases in circulating anabolic hormones during the recovery phase following exercise.

  14. Resistance exercise combined with essential amino acid supplementation improved walking ability in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Shigeo; Okamoto, Y; Ogasahara, K; Yanagisawa, S; Ohtani, M; Kobayashi, K

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of resistance exercise combined with essential amino acid supplementation on psoas major muscle (PMM) hypertrophy and walking ability in elderly individuals. Twenty-nine healthy elderly individuals were assigned to 3 groups: (1) E (exercise), (2) A3 (exercise combined with 3.0 g of essential amino acid supplementation), and (3) A6 (exercise combined with 6.0 g of essential amino acid supplementation). To evaluate walking ability, the participants underwent the following 3 types of tests: the (1) 10-meter walk (10-W), (2) 10-meter walk involving crossing of obstacles (10-W + O), and (3) 6-minute walk (6M-W) tests. The 6-month training program resulted in significant PMM hypertrophy in all groups independent of amino acid supplementation. The extent of hypertrophy in the participants who took amino acids was dose-dependent, although the differences were not significant. Groups A3 and A6 demonstrated improvements in the 10-W and 10-W + O tests, whereas no improvement was observed in group E, regardless of PMM hypertrophy. Furthermore, group A6 showed an improvement in the 6M-W test. These results suggest that our training program causes PMM hypertrophy, whereas the training program combined with essential amino acid supplementation improves walking ability.

  15. Postactivation Potentiation Following Acute Bouts of Plyometric versus Heavy-Resistance Exercise in Collegiate Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Kumar Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Postactivation potentiation is referred to as an acute and temporary enhancement of muscle performance resulting from previous muscle contraction. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of plyometric exercise (PLY and heavy-resistance exercise (RES on the blood lactate level (BLa and physical performance. Fourteen male collegiate soccer players were randomized to perform either RES or PLY first and then crossed over to perform the opposite intervention. PLY consisted of 40 jumps, whereas RES comprised ten single repetitions at 90% of one repetition maximum. BLa and physical performance (countermovement jump height and 20-m sprint were measured before and at 1 and 10 min following the exercise. No significant difference was observed in the BLa for both exercises (PLY and RES. Relative to baseline, countermovement jump (CMJ height was significantly better for the PLY group after 1 min (P=0.004 and after 10 min (P=0.001 compared to that of the RES group. The 20-m sprint time was significantly better for PLY at 10 min (P=0.003 compared to that of RES. The present study concluded that, compared to RES, PLY causes greater potentiation, which leads to improved physical performance. This trial is registered with NCT03150277.

  16. Rapid Response of Long-Standing, Treatment-Resistant Non-Catatonic Mutism in Paranoid Schizophrenia with Single ECT session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mansoor Ahmad; Rather, Yasir Hassan; Shah, Majid Shafi; Wani, Rayees Ahmad; Hussain, Arshad

    2014-11-01

    Mutism is a common manifestation of catatonia, but mutism due to other forms of psychopathology and neurological disorders have also been described. Although not common, long-standing mutism has also been a feature of non-catatonic schizophrenia and traditionally responds less to conventional therapies. We describe a rare case of paranoid schizophrenia presenting with continuous mutism for about 4 years. This 26-year-old male had symptoms of schizophrenia without catatonia. After failed trial of adequate pharmacotherapy and psychological intervention and considering his level of dysfunction, he was started on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). To our surprise, he improved with a single session of ECT while he was on concurrent pharmacotherapy. We also discuss the possible explanation for this rapid effect of ECT in such clinical presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-catatonic mutism of schizophrenia of this long duration responding so promptly to ECT, although there are other reports as well in literature, but multiple ECT sessions were applied in those cases. Non-catatonic mutism is perhaps presenting as a cultural variant in this part of the world and whenever encountered, ECT should be an option. Further research should be carried out to validate this idea.

  17. Breakout Sessions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Participants are split into small groups for detailed discussion on their chosen topic. To register please click on 'See details' link from the agenda and then on the link to send an email to the session for which you would like to book. Please don't change the subject line of the email.

  18. Aerobic versus resistance exercise training in modulation of insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokine levels in obese type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab M. Abd El-Kader

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that adipocytokines secreted by adipose tissue play a role in the development of obesity-related complications and diabetes. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic complications in obese type 2 diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of aerobic versus resistance training on insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokine in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Forty obese type 2 diabetic patients of both sexes with body mass index (BMI ranging from 31 to 35 kg/m2, non smokers, and free from respiratory, kidney, liver, metabolic and neurological disorders, were selected for this study. Their ages ranged from 34 to 56 years. The subjects were divided into two equal groups: the first group received aerobic exercise training. The second group (B received resisted exercise training three times a week for three months. The mean values of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA index for insulin sensitivity and glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c, were significantly decreased in both groups. Also, there was a significant difference between the groups after treatment on all measured variables. It is suggested that in obese type 2 diabetic patients aerobic exercise is more appropriate for modulating insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokine levels than is resisted exercise training.

  19. Protein Supplementation Augments Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy but Does Not Modulate Satellite Cell Content During Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Frail Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Marlou L; Tieland, Michael; Verdijk, Lex B; Losen, Mario; Nilwik, Rachel; Mensink, Marco; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-07-01

    Protein supplementation increases gains in lean body mass following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older adults. We assessed whether the greater increase in lean body mass can be attributed to muscle fiber type specific hypertrophy with concomitant changes in satellite cell (SC) content. A total of 34 frail elderly individuals (77 ± 1 years, n = 12 male adults) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel. Participants performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance-type exercise training (2 sessions per week) during which they were supplemented twice-daily with milk protein (2 × 15 g) or a placebo. Muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention, to determine type I and type II muscle fiber specific cross-sectional area (CSA), SC content, and myocellular characteristics. In the placebo group, a trend for a 20% ± 11% increase in muscle fiber CSA was observed in type II fibers only (P = .051), with no increase in type I muscle fiber CSA. In the protein group, type I and II muscle fiber CSA increased by 23% ± 7% and 34% ± 10% following 6 months of training, respectively (P  .05). No changes in myonuclear content and SC contents were observed over time in either group (both P > .05). Regression analysis showed that changes in myonuclear content and domain size are predictive of muscle fiber hypertrophy. Protein supplementation augments muscle fiber hypertrophy following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older people, without changes in myonuclear and SC content. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Bout of Circuit Resistance Exercise With Moderateintensity in Inactive Obese Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari Jafarabadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a state characterized by a low-grade inflammation that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to assess serum interleukin-18 (IL-18, interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR in response to circuit resistance exercise in obese and normal-weight subjects with different levels of physical activity. Methods: Thirty-two healthy male students participated in the present study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their BMI and level of physical activity: active obese (n=8, active non-obese (n=8, inactive obese (n=8, and inactive non-obese (n=8. To determine serum IL-6, IL-18, CRP, glucose and insulin concentrations, fasting and post-exercise blood samples were obtained. Subjects performed a bout of circuit resistance exercise in 2 sets with 10 repetitions at 60% of 1RM. Results: Obese subjects comparing non-obese ones showed significant increase in IL-6 and significant decrease in IL-18 concentrations in response to exercise (p<0.05. There was no significant difference between active normal and inactive normal subjects in response to exercise. Also, there were not significant differences in four groups in response to exercise. Discussion: The significant decrease in IL-18 concentration in the obese group comparing normal group in response to exercise was probably due to anti-inflammatory effects of exercise. Also, recommending this kind of exercise for obese persons with low level of physical activity can improve insulin resistance.

  2. Post exercise cardiovascular effects of different resistance exercise protocols for trunk and upper limbs Efeito de diferentes protocolos de exercício de força para o tronco e membros superiores nas respostas cardiovasculares pós-exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Lins Menêses

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the post exercise cardiovascular effects of different resistance exercise protocols for trunk and upper limbs. Methods: Fifteen males (22.3 ± 0.9 years underwent three experimental sessions randomly: control session (C, resistance exercise session at 50% of one repetition maximum (1-RM (E50%, and resistance exercise session at 70% of 1-RM (E70%. Three sets of 12, 9 and 6 repetitions were performed for each exercise. Blood pressure (BP, heart rate (HR and rate pressure product (RPP were measured before and during 90 minutes after each session. Results: Systolic BP decreased (PObjetivo: Analisar o efeito de diferentes protocolos de exercício de força para o tronco e membros superiores nas respostas cardiovasculares pós-exercício. Métodos: Quinze homens (22.3 ± 0.9 anos realizaram três sessões de exercício de força para tronco e membros superiores aleatoriamente: sessão controle (C, sessão de exercício de força a 50% de 1-repetição máxima (1-RM (E50% e sessão de exercício de força a 70% de 1-RM (E70%. Foram realizadas três séries de 12, 9 e 6 repetições, respectivamente, para cada exercício. A pressão arterial (PA, a frequência cardíaca (FC e o duplo produto (DP foram medidos antes e durante 90 minutos após cada sessão. Resultados: a PA sistólica diminuiu (P<.05 e a PA diastólica aumentou (P<.05 de forma semelhante após C, E50% e E70%. Entretanto, a FC e o DP diminuíram após C (P<.01, mantiveram-se após E50% e aumentaram após E70% (P<.01. Conclusão: A intensidade do exercício de força não influenciou a resposta da PA pós-exercício, contudo, a sobrecarga cardiovascular foi maior após E70%.

  3. Establishing a dose-response relationship between acute resistance-exercise and the immune system: Protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlezak, Adam Michael; Szlezak, Siri Lauluten; Keane, James; Tajouri, Lotti; Minahan, Clare

    2016-12-01

    Exercise immunology research has traditionally focussed on aerobic-exercise, however it has become apparent in more recent years that resistance-exercise can also considerably affect host immunobiology. To date however, no systematic process has been used to establish a dose-response relationship between resistance-exercise and the immune system. The present systematic review was thus conducted to determine the dose-response effects of a bout of resistance-exercise on acute leukocyte counts. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, over the date range of 1989-2016. Following the PICO elements, eligibility criteria included: i) participants: healthy humans aged 18-40; ii) intervention: a single bout of resistance-exercise; iii) comparator: at least one comparator group; iv) outcome: acute measures of circulating leukocyte counts. Specific exclusion criteria were also applied. Risk of bias and quality of evidence was assessed using the PEDro scale. Due to the individual designs of the admitted studies, a qualitative analysis (systematic narrative synthesis) was employed in the present review. The results of the present review demonstrate that a single bout of resistance-exercise induces an acute monocytosis, neutrophilia, and lymphocytosis. It became apparent that the reviewed literature either does not consistently specify, or does not describe with sufficient detail, the time-course between the onset of exercise and the collection of blood. We recommend that researchers consider addressing this in future studies, and also collect blood measures during exercise to aid with comparison of temporal effects. Regarding the determination of a dose-response relationship, an acute neutrophilia, monocytosis and lymphocytosis appears to occur more rapidly and to a greater magnitude following a single bout of high-dose vs low-dose resistance-exercise

  4. The Effect of Inspiratory Resistance on Exercise Performance and Perception in Moderate Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Vaughan, Jeremiah; Quinn, Tyler D; Followay, Brittany; Roberge, Raymond; Glickman, Ellen L; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Seo, Yongsuk, Jeremiah Vaughan, Tyler D. Quinn, Brittany Followay, Raymond Roberge, Ellen L. Glickman, and Jung-Hyun Kim. The effect of inspiratory resistance on exercise performance and perception in moderate normobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 18:417-424, 2017. Respirators are simple and efficient in protecting workers against toxic airborne substances; however, their use may limit the physical performance of workers. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inspiratory resistance on physical performance and breathing perception in normobaric hypoxia. Nine healthy men wore a tight-fitting respiratory mask outfitted with one of four different inspiratory resistors (R) (0, 1.5, 4.5, 7.5 cm H 2 O/L/Sec) while exercising at normobaric hypoxia (17% O 2 ) at submaximal exercise workloads of 50, 100, and 150 W on a cycle ergometer for 10 minutes each, followed by a maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) test to exhaustion. Maximal power output at R7.5 was significantly lower than R0 (p = 0.016) and R1.5 (p = 0.035). Respiration rate was significantly reduced at R4.5 (p = 0.011) and R7.5 (p ≤ 0.001) compared with R0. Minute ventilation was significantly decreased in R7.5 compared with R0 (p = 0.003), R1.5 (p = 0.010), and R4.5 (p = 0.016), whereas VO 2 was not significantly changed. Breathing comfort (BC) and breathing effort (BE) were significantly impaired in R7.5 (BC: p = 0.025, BE: p = 0.001) and R4.5 (BC: p = 0.007, BE: p = 0.001) compared with R0, but rating of perceived exertion (RPE) remained unchanged. Added inspiratory resistance limited maximal power output and increased perceptions of BC and BE in normobaric hypoxia. However, low-to-moderate inspiratory resistance did not have a deleterious effect on VO 2 or RPE at submaximal or maximal exercise. Perceptual and physiological characteristics of respirators of varying inspiratory resistances should be considered by manufacturers and end users during

  5. The Effects of Resistance Exercise on Cocaine Self-Administration, Muscle Hypertrophy, and BDNF Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C.; Abel, Jean M.; Lacy, Ryan T.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Witte, Maryam A.; Lynch, Wendy J.; Smith, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise is associated with positive outcomes in drug abusing populations and reduces drug self-administration in laboratory animals. To date, most research has focused on aerobic exercise, and other types of exercise have not been examined. This study examined the effects of resistance exercise (strength training) on cocaine self-administration and BDNF expression, a marker of neuronal activation regulated by aerobic exercise. Methods Female rats were assigned to either exercising or sedentary conditions. Exercising rats climbed a ladder wearing a weighted vest and trained six days/week. Training consisted of a three-set “pyramid” in which the number of repetitions and resistance varied across three sets: eight climbs carrying 70% body weight (BW), six climbs carrying 85% BW, and four climbs carrying 100% BW. Rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and cocaine self-administration was examined. Behavioral economic measures of demand intensity and demand elasticity were derived from the behavioral data. BDNF mRNA expression was measured via qRT-PCR in the nucleus accumbens following behavioral testing. Results Exercising rats self-administered significantly less cocaine than sedentary rats. A behavioral economic analysis revealed that exercise increased demand elasticity for cocaine, reducing consumption at higher unit prices. Exercising rats had lower BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens core than sedentary rats. Conclusions These data indicate that resistance exercise decreases cocaine self-administration and reduces BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens after a history of cocaine exposure. Collectively, these findings suggest that strength training reduces the positive reinforcing effects of cocaine and may decrease cocaine use in human populations. PMID:27137405

  6. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  7. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...

  8. Effect of light-load resistance exercise on postprandial amino acid transporter expression in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K

    2017-01-01

    An impaired amino acid sensing is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. We tested whether light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects postprandial amino acid transporter (AAT) expression in aging skeletal muscle. Untrained, healthy men (age: +65 years) were subjected to 13 h...... and 12 g at 7 h) (BOLUS, N = 10), or hourly isocaloric maltodextrin drinks (placebo, N = 10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7, and 10 h postexercise from both the resting and exercised leg, from which the membrane protein and mRNA expression of select AATs were analyzed by Western Blot...... decrease in SNAT2 mRNA expression was observed. LL-RE increased membrane-associated AAT protein expression and mRNA expression. Altered AAT protein expression was only seen in groups that ingested whey protein, with the greatest effect observed after hourly feeding. This points toward an importance of AATs...

  9. Differential stimulation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis with protein ingestion at rest and after resistance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Daniel R; Tang, Jason E; Burd, Nicholas A; Rerecich, Tracy; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether there is a differential stimulation of the contractile myofibrillar and the cellular sarcoplasmic proteins after ingestion of protein and how this is affected by resistance exercise. Fasted (FAST) muscle protein synthesis was measured in seven healthy young men with a primed constant infusion of l-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine. Participants then performed an intense bout of unilateral resistance exercise followed by the consumption of 25 g of whey protein to maximally stimulate protein synthesis. In the rested (FED) leg myofibrillar (MYO) protein synthesis was elevated (P 0.05). In contrast, MYO protein synthesis in the exercised (FED-EX) leg was stimulated above FAST at 1, 3 and 5 h (∼100, 216, and 229%, respectively; P < 0.01) with the increase at 5 h being greater than FED (P < 0.01). Thus, the synthesis of muscle contractile proteins is stimulated by both feeding and resistance exercise early (1 h) but has a greater duration and amplitude after resistance exercise. Sarcoplasmic (SARC) protein synthesis was similarly elevated (P < 0.01) above FAST by ∼104% at 3 h in both FED and FED-EX suggesting SARC protein synthesis is stimulated by feeding but that this response is not augmented by resistance exercise. In conclusion, myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis are similarly, but transiently, stimulated with protein feeding. In contrast, resistance exercise rapidly stimulates and sustains the synthesis of only the myofibrillar protein fraction after protein ingestion. These data highlight the importance of measuring the synthetic response of specific muscle protein fractions when examining the effects of exercise and nutrition. PMID:19124543

  10. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Reitelseder, Søren; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same indivi...... in healthy young men. However, LL resistance training was inferior to HL training in evoking adaptive changes in muscle size and contractile strength and was insufficient to induce changes in MHC composition.......Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same.......05) in HL but remained unchanged in LL (4 +/- 5%, not significant). Finally, MHC IIX protein expression was decreased with HL but not LL, despite identical total workload in HL and LL. Our main finding was that LL resistance training was sufficient to induce a small but significant muscle hypertrophy...

  11. Satellite cell response to concurrent resistance exercise and high-intensity interval training in sedentary, overweight/obese, middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Turner, Mark C; Nimmo, Myra A

    2018-02-01

    Sarcopenia can begin from the 4-5th decade of life and is exacerbated by obesity and inactivity. A combination of resistance exercise (RE) and endurance exercise is recommended to combat rising obesity and inactivity levels. However, work continues to elucidate whether interference in adaptive outcomes occur when RE and endurance exercise are performed concurrently. This study examined whether a single bout of concurrent RE and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) alters the satellite cell response following exercise compared to RE alone. Eight sedentary, overweight/obese, middle-aged individuals performed RE only (8 × 8 leg extensions at 70% 1RM), or RE + HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HR max on a cycle ergometer). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before and 96 h after the RE component to determine muscle fiber type-specific total (Pax7 + cells) and active (MyoD + cells) satellite cell number using immunofluorescence microscopy. Type-I-specific Pax7 + (P = 0.001) cell number increased after both exercise trials. Type-I-specific MyoD + (P = 0.001) cell number increased after RE only. However, an elevated baseline value in RE + HIIT compared to RE (P = 0.046) was observed, with no differences between exercise trials at 96 h (P = 0.21). Type-II-specific Pax7 + and MyoD + cell number remained unchanged after both exercise trials (all P ≥ 0.13). Combining a HIIT session after a single bout of RE does not interfere with the increase in type-I-specific total, and possibly active, satellite cell number, compared to RE only. Concurrent RE + HIIT may offer a time-efficient way to maximise the physiological benefits from a single bout of exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese, middle-aged individuals.

  12. Effects of resistance exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Jessica R; Mazzochi, John W; Smith, Caroline J; Morris, David M; Collier, Scott R

    2015-05-01

    Short sleep duration and poor quality of sleep have been associated with health risks including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Prior research has suggested that regular aerobic exercise improves the quality of sleep; however, less is known regarding resistance exercise (RE) and how RE may affect sleep architecture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of timing of RE on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure. College-aged subjects engaged in 5 laboratory visits. Visits 1 (C) and 2 provided a non-RE control day and established the 10-repetition maximum on each of 9 RE machines, respectively. During visits 3-5, the subjects reported at 0700 hours (7A), 1300 hours (1P), and 1900 hours (7P) in a randomized order to perform 30 minutes of RE. Ambulatory blood pressure and sleep-monitoring devices were worn during sleep after C, 7A, 1P, and 7P. Time to fall asleep was significantly different between RE conditions 7A and 1P and between 7A and 7P. All exercise conditions exhibited significantly fewer times woken than the non-RE control day, with 7P resulting in significantly less time awake after initially falling asleep as compared with C. Although timing of RE does not seem to statistically impact sleep stages or nocturnal blood pressure, these data indicate that engaging in RE at any time of the day may improve quality of sleep as compared with no RE. Resistance exercise may offer additional benefits regarding the ability to fall asleep and stay asleep to populations with osteoporosis, sarcopenia, anxiety, or depression.

  13. Efficacy of a progressive resistance exercise program to increase toe flexor strength in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Karen J; Caputi, Peter; Potter, Jan M; Steele, Julie R

    2016-12-01

    Reduced toe flexor strength is an independent predictor of falls in older people. However it is unknown whether strengthening programs can restore toe flexor strength in older individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a progressive resistance training program, focused specifically on the foot muscles, could improve toe flexor strength in community-dwelling older people. After baseline testing, 85 men and women (age range 60-90years) were randomized to either a supervised, progressive resistance training (n=43) or a home-based exercise (n=42) group for 12weeks. A further 32 participants were recruited for a control group. The primary outcome measures were hallux and lesser toe flexor strength pre- and post-intervention. Secondary outcome measures were exercise compliance, components of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire and single-leg balance time. Average class attendance was 89% with 68 participants from the two intervention groups (80%) completing the follow-up assessments. Participants in the supervised, progressive resistance training group significantly increased their toe strength (up to 36%; Pstrength in either the home-based or control groups. This increased toe strength was accompanied by a significant improvement in perceived general foot health and single-leg balance time compared to the other groups (Pexercises are a viable intervention to increase toe flexor strength in older adults. A clinical trial is now required to determine whether this intervention can reduce the number of falls suffered by older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development, feasibility, and efficacy of a customized exercise device to deliver intradialytic resistance training in patients with end stage renal disease: Non-randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Danwin; Green, Simon; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Barnard, Robert; Cheema, Birinder S

    2016-10-01

    Introduction This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of a novel resistance training device used within an intradialytic progressive resistance training (PRT) intervention. Methods Non-randomized, within-subjects crossover design with outcomes assessed at baseline (week 0), postcontrol (week 13) and post-PRT intervention (week 26). Twenty-two hemodialysis patients (59% men, 71 ± 11 years) performed PRT three sessions per week for 12 weeks. The resistance training device was developed to enable the performance of 2 upper body and 3 lower body exercises, unilaterally and bilaterally, both before and during dialysis, with loads of 2.5 to 59 kg. Feasibility outcomes included adverse events, adherence and training load progression. Changes in upper and lower body muscular strength, six-minute walk, aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression were evaluated. Findings The PRT intervention was delivered without serious adverse events, resulted in 71.2% ± 23.3% adherence and significant adaptation of all training loads from pre to mid to post training (83.8%-185.6%, all P Emotional) significantly increased (all P outcomes. Discussion PRT using the novel resistance training device was feasible and improved measures of physical and psychological health. This device can be utilized in most dialysis centers. Future studies are required to evaluate dose-response effects of PRT prescriptions in subpopulations, and the translation of PRT to standard dialysis practice. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. beta2-Adrenergic receptor downregulation and performance decrements during high-intensity resistance exercise overtraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Andrew C; Schilling, Brian K; Weiss, Lawrence W; Chiu, Loren Z F

    2006-12-01

    Previous research on overtraining due to excessive use of maximal resistance exercise loads [100% 1 repetition maximum (1 RM)] indicates that peripheral muscle maladaptation contributes to overtraining-induced performance decrements. This study examined the cellular and molecular responses of skeletal muscle to performance decrements due to high-relative-intensity (%1 RM) resistance exercise overtraining. Weight-trained men were divided into overtrained (OT, n = 8) and control (Con, n = 8) groups. The OT group performed 10 x 1 at 100% 1 RM daily for 2 wk, whereas the Con group performed normal training 2 days/wk. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, voluntary static and dynamic muscle performances, and nocturnal urinary epinephrine were assessed before (pre) and after (post) overtraining. Overtraining occurred as indicated by a decrease in 1-RM strength for the OT group (mean +/- SE; OT pre = 159.3 +/- 10.1 kg, OT post = 151.4 +/- 9.9 kg, Con pre = 146.0 +/- 12.9 kg, Con post = 144.9 +/- 13.3 kg), as well as a 36.3% decrease in mean power at 100% 1-RM loads. Normal training could be resumed only after 2-8 wk of training cessation. Muscle beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR; fmol/mg protein) density significantly decreased by 37.0% for the OT group and was unchanged for the Con group (-1.8%). Nocturnal urinary epinephrine for the OT group increased by 49%, although this was not significant (effect size = 0.42). The ratio of nocturnal urinary epinephrine to beta(2)-AR density suggested a decreased beta(2)-AR sensitivity for the OT group (2.4-fold increase). Overtraining occurred based on decreased muscular force and power. Desensitization of the beta(2)-AR system suggests that this may be an important contributor to performance decrements due to excessive use of maximal resistance exercise loads.

  17. Concurrent training and caffeine supplementation on resistance training performance - A short research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Ugatti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation (4.5 mg⋅kg−1 on lower body resistance training (RT performance preceded with and without an acute bout of endurance exercise. In a double-blinded crossover study, 10 moderately active males (20.6±2.1 yo carried out six exercise sessions (2 x 1RM sessions; 2 x resistance sessions; 2 concurrent sessions. Resistance exercise sessions (CAF+RES and PLA+RES were carried out with 4 maximum sets of leg press, leg extension and leg curl to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min inter-set and inter-session rest interval. Sessions consisted on 4 maximum sets to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min of rest interval between sets and exercises. Concurrent training sessions (CAF+CON and PLA+CON were identical but were preceded by 30 min of continuous treadmill running at 75-85% HRmax. Physical performance showed a significant main effect for treatment (p < 0.0001, protocol (p < 0.02, exercises (p < 0.0001 and sets (p < 0.0001. Physical performance during RES was reduced after endurance exercise, indicating a cumulative effect of CON. Caffeine supplementation blunted this cumulative effect. We conclude that caffeine supplementation could be used to improve the RT performance when it is done immediately after an aerobic training.

  18. Protective Effect of Curcumin Supplementation and Light Resistance Exercises on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in a Severe Endurance Training Period in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gorzi

    2017-07-01

    Background and aim: Extreme endurance exercises lead to oxidative stress in athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin supplement supplementation and light resistance training on the activity of SOD and MDA levels of male Wistar rats during a 8-week endurance training. Methods: In the present experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of six control groups, curcumin, endurance training, exercise, after one week of information (age 9 weeks and weight 255.62 ± 19.69 grams. Endurance + resistance, endurance training + curcumin and endurance training + curcumin + resistance. Incremental endurance training (8 weeks, 5 sessions per week was performed on a special treadmill. Speed ​​and running time in the last week reached 35 m / min and 70 minutes. Resistance training (8 weeks, 2 sessions per week was performed on vertical ladder by closing the rat's weight to the tail. Rats received supplemental curcumin by intraperitoneal injection (8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 30 mg / kg body weight. SOD activity of the muscle was measured using ELISA kits and serum MDA levels using Tobartic acid (TBARS method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA.   Results: The antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD in the endometrial muscle of endurance group (1.08 ± 0.222 μg / ml was significantly lower than control group (22.2 ± 0.481 kg (P = 0.043, and SOD activity in the endurance + resistance group (1.87 ± 0.172, p = 0.44, endurance + curcumin (2.24 ± 0.222; P = 0.039, and endurance + curcumin + resistance (0.202 ± 0.15, p = 0.029 was significantly higher than endurance group. The levels of malondialdehyde in the endurance group (4.27 ± 0.438 nmol / ml protein were significantly higher in comparison with the control group (3.42 ± 0.350 (0.331 and Also, serum MDA levels in endurance + resistance groups (± 3.03 ± 0.342, p = 0.003, endurance + curcumin (p = 0.001, p <0.001, and endurance + curcumin

  19. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  20. Land-based versus aquatic resistance therapeutic exercises for older women with sarcopenic obesity: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Vasconcelos, Karina Simone; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; de Araújo, Marília Caixeta; Pinheiro, Ana Cisalpino; Maia, Marcela Machado; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2013-09-16

    Sarcopenic obesity is a health condition that combines excess adipose tissue and loss of muscle mass and strength. Sarcopenic obesity predisposes to more functional disabilities than obesity or sarcopenia alone. Progressive resistance exercises are recommended for older people as a potential treatment for sarcopenia and also for obesity. However, there is a lack of evidence indicating which programmes are best applied to older people, and no studies have investigated their effects on sarcopenic obese people. The aims of this protocol study are to investigate and compare the efficacy of land-based and aquatic resistance exercise programmes on improving muscle performance, functional capacity and quality of life of older women with sarcopenic obesity. This is a protocol study for a parallel randomised controlled clinical trial. Eligible participants are older women (≥65 years) with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m 2 and hand grip strength ≤21 kg force. A total sample of 36 participants will be randomly allocated to one of the intervention groups in blocks of three: land-based, aquatic or control. Each intervention group will undergo 2-week sessions of a 10-week therapeutic exercise programme for strength, power and endurance training of the lower-limb muscles. Participants in the control group will not participate in any strengthening activity for lower limbs and will receive telephone calls once a week. Baseline and final evaluation of outcomes will encompass muscle performance of the lower limbs assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer; functional tests of usual walking speed, maximal walking speed (shuttle walking test), stair speed and the Short Physical Performance Battery; and health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Questionnaire - SF-36). Data collectors will be blinded to randomisation and will not be in touch with participants during the interventions. This study is the first randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate resistance

  1. Resistance exercise decreases heroin self-administration and alters gene expression in the nucleus accumbens of heroin-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Fronk, Gaylen E; Abel, Jean M; Lacy, Ryan T; Bills, Sarah E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2018-02-02

    Preclinical studies consistently report that aerobic exercise decreases drug self-administration and other forms of drug-seeking behavior; however, relatively few studies have examined other types of physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resistance exercise (i.e., strength training) on heroin self-administration and mRNA expression of genes known to mediate opioid reinforcement and addictive behavior in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of heroin-exposed rats. Female rats were obtained during late adolescence and divided into two groups. Resistance exercise rats were trained to climb a vertical ladder wearing a weighted vest; sedentary control rats were placed repeatedly on the ladder oriented horizontally on its side. All rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to self-administer heroin on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. mRNA expression in the NAc core and shell was examined following behavioral testing. Resistance exercise significantly decreased heroin self-administration, resulting in a downward shift in the dose-effect curve. Resistance exercise also reduced mRNA expression for mu opioid receptors and dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors in the NAc core. Resistance exercise increased mRNA expression of dopamine D5 receptors in the NAc shell and increased mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (exons I, IIB, IIC, IV, VI, IX) in the NAc core. These data indicate that resistance exercise decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin and produces changes in opioid and dopamine systems in the NAc of heroin-exposed rats.

  2. Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Exercise Capacity, Muscle Strength and Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, Mansueto; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Oliveira Carvalho, Vitor; Brites, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Many HIV-infected patients demonstrate disability and lower aerobic capacity. The inclusion of resistance training combined with aerobic exercise in a single program is known as combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CARE) and seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle weakness, as well as aerobic capacity in HIV-infected patients. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, CINAHL (from the earliest date available to august 2014) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients. Weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. Seven studies met the study criteria. CARE resulted in improvement in Peak VO2 WMD (4.48 mL·kg-1·min-1 95% CI: 2.95 to 6.0), muscle strength of the knee extensors WMD (25.06 Kg 95% CI: 10.46 to 39.66) and elbow flexors WMD (4.44 Kg 95% CI: 1.22 to 7.67) compared with no exercise group. The meta-analyses also showed significant improvement in Health status, Energy/Vitality and physical function domains of quality of life for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group. A nonsignificant improvement in social function domain of quality of life was found for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise may improve peak VO2, muscle strength and health status, energy and physical function domains of quality of life and should be considered as a component of care of HIV-infected individuals.

  3. Respostas hormonais agudas a diferentes intensidades de exercícios resistidos em mulheres idosas Acute hormonal responses to different intensities of resistance exercises in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    to minimize muscle mass and strength decline observed with advancing age, however, its acute hormonal responses need to be better characterized. The purposes of the present study were characterize and compare the acute hormonal responses to different resistance exercises intensities performed by older women. Sample was composed by 15 women with a mean age of 67,5 years, who performed, in a randomized order, three visits at the laboratory: 1 resistance exercises performed at 50% of 1-RM (G50; 2 resistance exercises performed at 80% of 1-RM (G80 and 3 control session (GC. Blood samples were taken immediately before and after (T0 and T1, respectively each session, as well as three and 48 hour after (T2 and T3, respectively, for subsequent hormonal analyses by the enzyme immunoassay chemiluminescent method. ANOVA and ANCOVA were used, respectively, to examine intra and inter sessions differences. No significant differences were observed between sessions for any of the evaluated hormone. In T2, cortisol concentrations were significantly reduced when compared to T0 for the three examined sessions, while testosterone was reduced after (T2 GC. Only G80 elicited a significant transient elevation in testosterone/cortisol ratio and none of the sessions provoked alterations on serum GH concentrations. It's concluded that resistance exercises performed at 50% or 80% of 1-RM do not acutely induce significant elevation of cortisol, testosterone or GH in the studied population. On the other hand, the session performed at 80% of 1-RM promoted significant elevations on the testosterone/cortisol ratio three hours post exercises when compared to basal values, in older women.

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. Common household items ( ...

  6. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  7. Human inflammatory and resolving lipid mediator responses to resistance exercise and ibuprofen treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markworth, James F.; Vella, Luke; Lingard, Benjamin S.; Tull, Dedreia L.; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Maddipati, Krishna Rao

    2013-01-01

    Classical proinflammatory eicosanoids, and more recently discovered lipid mediators with anti-inflammatory and proresolving bioactivity, exert a complex role in the initiation, control, and resolution of inflammation. Using a targeted lipidomics approach, we investigated circulating lipid mediator responses to resistance exercise and treatment with the NSAID ibuprofen. Human subjects undertook a single bout of unaccustomed resistance exercise (80% of one repetition maximum) following oral ingestion of ibuprofen (400 mg) or placebo control. Venous blood was collected during early recovery (0–3 h and 24 h postexercise), and serum lipid mediator composition was analyzed by LC-MS-based targeted lipidomics. Postexercise recovery was characterized by elevated levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and 2-derived prostanoids (TXB2, PGE2, PGD2, PGF2α, and PGI2), lipooxygenase (5-LOX, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX)-derived hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), and leukotrienes (e.g., LTB4), and epoxygenase (CYP)-derived epoxy/dihydroxy eicosatrienoic acids (EpETrEs/DiHETrEs). Additionally, we detected elevated levels of bioactive lipid mediators with anti-inflammatory and proresolving properties, including arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins (LXA4 and LXB4), and the EPA (E-series) and DHA (D-series)-derived resolvins (RvD1 and RvE1), and protectins (PD1 isomer 10S, 17S-diHDoHE). Ibuprofen treatment blocked exercise-induced increases in COX-1 and COX-2-derived prostanoids but also resulted in off-target reductions in leukotriene biosynthesis, and a diminished proresolving lipid mediator response. CYP pathway product metabolism was also altered by ibuprofen treatment, as indicated by elevated postexercise serum 5,6-DiHETrE and 8,9-DiHETrE only in those receiving ibuprofen. These findings characterize the blood inflammatory lipid mediator response to unaccustomed resistance exercise in humans and show that acute proinflammatory signals are mechanistically linked to the induction of a

  8. Comportamento da Lordose Lombar no Exercício Resistido / Lumbar lordosis behavior in Resisted Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Beatriz Manara Lellis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar a curvatura lombar durante a execução de exercícios resistidos. Materiais e Métodos: Foram analisadas 81 pessoas, durante a execução de cinco aparelhos diferentes de exercício resistido. Fez-se um registro fotográfico da coluna lombar durante os exercícios, seguido da análise de quatro variáveis: manutenção da lordose fisiológica, hiperlordose, retificação da curvatura e inversão da curvatura. Resultados: Em todos os aparelhos houve a modificação do comportamento da lordose lombar durante a execução dos