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Sample records for resistance diseases including

  1. Powdery Mildew Disease Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Shauna C.

    2010-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to characterize the PMR5 protein, a member of the DUF231/TBR family, and to determine its role in plant cell wall biogenesis. Since the pmr5 mutants are also resistant to the fungal powdery mildew pathogen, we wished to determine what specific cell wall changes are associated with disease resistance and why. The graduate student working on this project made mutations in the putative active site of PMR5, assuming it is a member of the SGNH/GDSL esterase superfamily (Anantharaman and Aravind, 2010, Biology Direct 5, 1). These mutants were inactive in planta suggesting that PMR5 is a functional enzyme and not a binding protein or chaperone. In addition, she determined that cell wall preparations from the pmr5 mutant exhibited a modest reduction (13%) in total acetyl groups. To pursue characterization further, the graduate student expressed the PMR5 protein in a heterologous E. coli system. She could purify PMR5 using a two step protocol based on tags added to the N and C terminus of the protein. She was able to show the PMR5 protein bound to pectins, including homogalacturonan, but not to other cell wall components (e.g., xyloglucans, arabinans). Based on these observations, a postdoctoral fellow is currently developing an enzyme assay for PMR5 based on the idea that it may be acetylating the homogalacturonic acid pectin fraction. Our initial experiments to localize PMR5 subcellularly suggested that it occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, since the various pectins are believed to be synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, we felt it necessary to repeat our results using a native promoter expression system. Within the past year, we have demonstrated conclusively that PMR5 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, a location that sets it apart from most cell wall biogenesis and modification enzymes. The graduate student contributed to the characterization of two suppressor mutants, which were selected as restoring powdery

  2. Linezolid susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori, including strains with multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Gergova, Galina; Yaneva, Penka; Mitov, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Only a few studies have evaluated Helicobacter pylori susceptibility to linezolid. The aim of the present study was to assess linezolid susceptibility in H. pylori, including strains with double/multidrug resistance. The susceptibility of 53 H. pylori strains was evaluated by Etest and a breakpoint susceptibility testing method. Helicobacter pylori resistance rates were as follows: amoxicillin, 1.9%; metronidazole, 37.7%; clarithromycin, 17.0%; tetracycline, 1.9%; levofloxacin, 24.5%; and linezolid (>4 mg/L), 39.6%. The linezolid MIC50 value was 31.2-fold higher than that of clarithromycin and 10.5-fold higher than that of levofloxacin; however, 4 of 11 strains with double/multidrug resistance were linezolid-susceptible. The MIC range of the oxazolidinone agent was larger (0.125-64 mg/L) compared with those in the previous two reports. The linezolid resistance rate was 2.2-fold higher in metronidazole-resistant strains and in strains resistant to at least one antibiotic compared with the remaining strains. Briefly, linezolid was less active against H. pylori compared with clarithromycin and levofloxacin, and linezolid resistance was linked to resistance to metronidazole as well as to resistance to at least one antibiotic. However, linezolid activity against some strains with double/multidrug resistance may render the agent appropriate to treat some associated H. pylori infections following in vitro susceptibility testing of the strains. Clinical trials are required to confirm this suggestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, P.N.; Kinyua, M.G.; Karanja, L.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  4. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can make it hard to breathe. Certain vaccinepreventable diseases can also increase swelling of your airways and lungs. The combination of the two can lead to pneumonia and other serious respiratory illnesses. Vaccines are one of the safest ways ...

  5. Diseases of the abdomen including the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, C.; Tanaka, H.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the following diseases: fatty liver; cystic disease of the liver; liver abscess; liver cirrhosis; hepatic hemangioma; cholelithiasis; primary liver cancer; cholangioma; cancer of the common bile duct; pancreatic cyst; pancreatic calculi; chronic pancreatitis; pancreatic pseudocyst; chronic pancreatitis: pancreatic fatty degeneration; cancer of the pancreas; nonfunctioning kidney: chalk kidney; polycystic kidney; perirenal calcified abscess; renal infarct; cancer of the renal pelvis; adrenal pheochromocytoma; adenoma of the adrenal cortex; leiomyosarcoma of the stomach; malignant mesothelioma; intraperitoneal abscess; perityphlic abscess; retroperitoneal reticulum cell sarcoma; and retroperitoneal cyst

  6. Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineley, Kelly T; Jahrling, Jordan B; Denner, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone regulating metabolism. Insulin binding to cell surface insulin receptors engages many signaling intermediates operating in parallel and in series to control glucose, energy, and lipids while also regulating mitogenesis and development. Perturbations in the function of any of these intermediates, which occur in a variety of diseases, cause reduced sensitivity to insulin and insulin resistance with consequent metabolic dysfunction. Chronic inflammation ensues which exacerbates compromised metabolic homeostasis. Since insulin has a key role in learning and memory as well as directly regulating ERK, a kinase required for the type of learning and memory compromised in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), insulin resistance has been identified as a major risk factor for the onset of AD. Animal models of AD or insulin resistance or both demonstrate that AD pathology and impaired insulin signaling form a reciprocal relationship. Of note are human and animal model studies geared toward improving insulin resistance that have led to the identification of the nuclear receptor and transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) as an intervention tool for early AD. Strategic targeting of alternate nodes within the insulin signaling network has revealed disease-stage therapeutic windows in animal models that coalesce with previous and ongoing clinical trial approaches. Thus, exploiting the connection between insulin resistance and AD provides powerful opportunities to delineate therapeutic interventions that slow or block the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:25237037

  7. Influences of the disease resistance conferred by the individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To research possible influences of the disease resistance conferred by different trans-resistance genes on the transgenic rice plants in their yields and grain quality, three transgenic rice lines, including two with the resistance genes Pi-d2 and Pi-d3, respectively, for rice blast, and one with the resistance gene Xa21 for rice ...

  8. Resistive mode in rotating plasma columns including the hall current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.

    1983-01-01

    A new resistive mode is shown to exist in rotating plasma columns. The mode is localized in the neighbourhood of the radius where the angular velocity of the bulk plasma is equal to minus half the local angular velocity of the ions. This singular point is caused by the Hall term in the generalized Ohm law. The growth rate of the mode scales with eta sup(1/2), where eta is the plasma resistivity. (Author) [pt

  9. Induced disease resistance signaling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.W.M.; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To protect themselves from disease, plants have evolved sophisticated inducible defense mechanisms in which the signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene often play crucial roles. Elucidation of signaling pathways controlling induced disease resistance is a major objective in

  10. Natural disease resistance in threatened staghorn corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V Vollmer

    Full Text Available Disease epidemics have caused extensive damage to tropical coral reefs and to the reef-building corals themselves, yet nothing is known about the abilities of the coral host to resist disease infection. Understanding the potential for natural disease resistance in corals is critically important, especially in the Caribbean where the two ecologically dominant shallow-water corals, Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata, have suffered an unprecedented mass die-off due to White Band Disease (WBD, and are now listed as threatened under the US Threatened Species Act and as critically endangered under the IUCN Red List criteria. Here we examine the potential for natural resistance to WBD in the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis by combining microsatellite genotype information with in situ transmission assays and field monitoring of WBD on tagged genotypes. We show that six percent of staghorn coral genotypes (3 out of 49 are resistant to WBD. This natural resistance to WBD in staghorn corals represents the first evidence of host disease resistance in scleractinian corals and demonstrates that staghorn corals have an innate ability to resist WBD infection. These resistant staghorn coral genotypes may explain why pockets of Acropora have been able to survive the WBD epidemic. Understanding disease resistance in these corals may be the critical link to restoring populations of these once dominant corals throughout their range.

  11. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook ... Percent of visits to office-based physicians with COPD indicated on the medical record: 3.2% Source: ...

  12. Radiation therapy for resistant sternal hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulger, S.; Barut, H.; Tunc, M.; Aydinkarahaliloglu, E.; Aydin, E.; Karaoglanoglu, N.; Gokcek, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infectious disease for which there are known treatment procedures and effective antibiotics; however, there are resistant cases that do not respond to medication or surgery. We report a case diagnosed as hydatid disease of the chest wall and treated with radiation therapy (RT) after medical and surgical therapy had failed. In conclusion, RT represents an alternative treatment modality in resistant cases. (orig.)

  13. Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Endocrine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Peppa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the existing literature data concerning the involvement of skeletal muscle (SM in whole body glucose homeostasis and the contribution of SM insulin resistance (IR to the metabolic derangements observed in several endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, adrenal disorders and thyroid function abnormalities. IR in PCOS is associated with a unique postbinding defect in insulin receptor signaling in general and in SM in particular, due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Adrenal hormone excess is also associated with disrupted insulin action in peripheral tissues, such as SM. Furthermore, both hyper- and hypothyroidism are thought to be insulin resistant states, due to insulin receptor and postreceptor defects. Further studies are definitely needed in order to unravel the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In summary, the principal mechanisms involved in muscle IR in the endocrine diseases reviewed herein include abnormal phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins, altered muscle fiber composition, reduced transcapillary insulin delivery, decreased glycogen synthesis, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  14. Induced multiple disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borojevic, K.; Worland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The existence of genes suppressing resistance to leaf rust, stem rust and yellow rust in hexaploid wheat has been suggested. If such genes are deleted or inactivated, a more resistant variety may be obtained. In mutant lines of the wheat variety San Pastore, selected after treatment with 20,000 rad of gamma-rays, resistance to leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust, and to some extent to Erysiphe graminis was determined. The mutants responded to infection by producing necrotic flecks in the presence of high level of disease inoculum. Similar flecks develop under stress condition. It is likely that the mother variety San Pastore carries genes for resistance which are masked by suppressor genes. Irradiation inactivates suppressors so that resistance genes which were previously masked are expressed. The first results of monosomic analysis indicate that chromosomes of groups 4 and 5 or possibly 7 may be critical for expression of resistance in the mutant lines. (author)

  15. Disease resistance in sugarcane – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramesh Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops cultivated world-wide both under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. The crop gains economic importance by virtue of its industrial potential in terms of products like crystal white sugar, bagasse, pressmud, power etc. Among the various production constraints of the crop, diseases are seen as a major threat for sustaining the productivity of sugarcane. Conventional Breeding is a lengthy process and it involves almost more than 10 years for the release of a commercial variety. Many varieties with superior agronomical traits have succumbed to diseases like red rot and smut during the course of cultivation, which hitherto at the time of release were rated to be resistant. The breakdown of disease resistance is attributed to the possible emergence of new virulent pathotypes. This situation has warranted a pertinent need to have a thorough understanding on inheritance pattern and mechanism of disease resistance in sugarcane, which would aid for quick screening of disease resistant clones and successful management of the diseases, respectively. Overall, there is a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant disease resistance, thanks to the advent of robust molecular tools. An integration of the tools of “Omics” namely genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc. has further strengthened in deciphering plant-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. With the accomplishments in elucidating sugarcane ESTs, which was ably supported by employing the next generation sequencing platforms to unlock the secrets of pathogenomics in sugarcane, it is now made possible to further improve our understanding on disease resistance in sugarcane. Giving the scenario, the future looks evenmore promising, wherein convincing results are in the offing to thoroughly unravel the enigmatic relationship between sugarcane and its important pathogens.

  16. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, J.; Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Sasek, A.

    1983-01-01

    Mutation induction has been used over a period of 20 years to obtain mutants of wheat with improved disease resistance. 34 wheat cultivars have been treated with X-rays, gamma rays, thermal neutrons or EMS. A great number of mutants were selected. Their mutational origin was verified by electrophoretic analysis of gliadin spectra. Resistances have been confirmed over several generations. None of the mutants have been released yet for commercial cultivation because of shortcomings in yield or susceptibility to other diseases. The use of mutants in cross-breeding is considered. (author)

  17. Induced resistance to rust disease in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Amitava; Singh, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable yield reduction in lentil is due to rust caused by Uromyces fabae. So far the sources of resistance to rust are available in the small seeded background. There is a need to develop rust resistant/tolerant bold seeded cultivars. Mutations were induced by gamma rays (10 and 15 kR) for incorporating resistance to rust in K-75(Mallika), a high yielding bold seeded, but rust susceptible cultivar at Pantnagar which is the hot spot for this disease. Dry seeds (300) were irradiated for each treatment. In M 1 generation, individual plants from each treatment were selfed and harvested separately which constituted the M 2 generation. In M 2 individual plant progenies were scored following a rating scale of 1 (Free) to 9(highly susceptible). At 15 kR dose, 8 plants were resistant (score 3.0) and 14 plants were tolerant (score 5.0) to rust, while in control and 10 kR populations, all plants were susceptible or highly susceptible having score of 7 or 9, respectively. The M 2 plants segregated in ratio of 1 resistant: 3 susceptible. The progenies of resistant/tolerant M 2 plants were bred true in the M 3 generation suggesting that the resistance to rust is controlled by one recessive gene. (author)

  18. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2016-11-07

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of 'bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, Micromega detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  19. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegler, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of 'bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, MICROMEGAS detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  20. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  1. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F

    2014-02-01

    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance to infectious diseases is a heritable trait in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H

    2015-12-01

    Selection for disease resistance is a powerful way to improve the health status of herds and to reduce the use of antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to estimate 1) the genetic parameters for simple visually assessed disease syndromes and for a composite trait of resistance to infectious disease including all syndromes and 2) their genetic correlations with production traits in a rabbit population. Disease symptoms were recorded in the selection herds of 2 commercial paternal rabbit lines during weighing at the end of the test (63 and 70 d of age, respectively). Causes of mortality occurring before these dates were also recorded. Seven disease traits were analyzed: 3 elementary traits visually assessed by technicians on farm (diarrhea, various digestive syndromes, and respiratory syndromes), 2 composite traits (all digestive syndromes and all infectious syndromes), and 2 mortality traits (digestive mortality and infectious mortality). Each animal was assigned only 1 disease trait, corresponding to the main syndrome ( = 153,400). Four production traits were also recorded: live weight the day before the end of test on most animals ( = 137,860) and cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and perirenal fat percentage of the carcass on a subset of slaughtered animals ( = 13,765). Records on both lines were analyzed simultaneously using bivariate linear animal models after validation of consistency with threshold models applied to logit-transformed traits. The heritabilities were low for disease traits, from 0.01 ± 0.002 for various digestive syndromes to 0.04 ± 0.004 for infectious mortality, and moderate to high for production traits. The genetic correlations between digestive syndromes were high and positive, whereas digestive and respiratory syndromes were slightly negatively correlated. The genetic correlations between the composite infectious disease trait and digestive or respiratory syndromes were moderate. Genetic correlations between disease and

  3. The nutritional geometry of liver disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; Cogger, Victoria C; Macia, Laurence; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Le Couteur, David G; George, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    Nutrition has a profound effect on chronic liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most observational studies and clinical trials have focussed on the effects of total energy intake, or the intake of individual macronutrients and certain micronutrients, such as vitamin D, on liver disease. Although these studies have shown the importance of nutrition on hepatic outcomes, there is not yet any unifying framework for understanding the relationship between diet and liver disease. The Geometric Framework for Nutrition (GFN) is an innovative model for designing nutritional experiments or interpreting nutritional data that can determine the effects of nutrients and their interactions on animal behaviour and phenotypes. Recently the GFN has provided insights into the relationship between dietary energy and macronutrients on obesity and ageing in mammals including humans. Mouse studies using the GFN have disentangled the effects of macronutrients on fatty liver and the gut microbiome. The GFN is likely to play a significant role in disentangling the effects of nutrients on liver disease, especially NAFLD, in humans. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katie L.; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D. PMID:22947656

  5. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; Phocas, F; Gourdine, J-L; Bijma, P; Mandonnet, N

    2013-02-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasite resistance and resilience traits. The overall breeding goal included traits for production, reproduction, and parasite resilience and resistance to ensure a balanced selection outcome. The production traits were BW and dressing percentage (DP). The reproduction trait was fertility (FER), which was the number of doe kiddings per mating. The resistance trait was worm fecal egg count (FEC), which is a measurement of the number of gastro-intestinal parasite eggs found in the feces. The resilience trait was the packed cell volume (PCV), which is a measurement of the volume of red blood cells in the blood. Dressing percentage, BW, and FEC were measured at 11 mo of age, which is the mating or selling age. Fertility and PCV were measured on females at each kidding period. The breeding program accounting for the overall breeding goal and a selection index including all traits gave annual selection responses of 800 g for BW, 3.75% for FER, 0.08% for DP, -0.005 ln(eggs/g) for FEC, and 0.28% for PCV. The expected selection responses for BW and DP in this breeding program were reduced by 2% and 6%, respectively, compared with a breeding program not accounting for FEC and PCV. The overall breeding program, proposed for the Creole breed, offers the best breeding strategy in terms of expected selection responses, making it possible to improve all traits together. It offers a good balance between production and adaptation traits and may present some interest for the selection of other goat breeds in the tropics.

  6. Modeling deployment of Pierce’s disease resistant grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deployment of Pierce’s disease resistant grapevines is a key solution to mitigating economic losses caused by Xylella fastidiosa. While Pierce’s disease resistant grapevines under development display mild symptoms and have lower bacterial populations than susceptible varieties, all appear to remain ...

  7. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, van S.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics,

  8. Working Towards Disease Resistance in Peanuts Through Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant cultivars are the most desirable approach to disease control in agriculture. Early and late leaf spot are the most important foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. Significant progress for leaf spot resistance in peanut can be achieved through biotechnology. The National Peanut Research ...

  9. Breeding of Yangfumai No.5 with multiple disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jianhua; Wang Jinrong

    2013-01-01

    To control the damage of wheat yellow mosaic disease and powdery mildew, new wheat cultivar with high-yield, disease-resistant was bred. Yangfumai 9311 with yellow mosaic disease resistant was used as donor parent to backcross with recurrent parent Yangmai 11, and combined with conventional breeding techniques and irradiation methods, a new wheat variety Yangfumai No.5 was developed and registered in 2011. Yangfumai No.5 with resistance of yellow mosaic disease and powdery mildew is suitable to grow in the Yangtze River region. (authors)

  10. Insecticide resistance in vector Chagas disease: evolution, mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María Inés

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection restricted to America. The disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to human through the feces of infected triatomine insects. Because no treatment is available for the chronic forms of the disease, vector chemical control represents the best way to reduce the incidence of the disease. Chemical control has been based principally on spraying dwellings with insecticide formulations and led to the reduction of triatomine distribution and consequent interruption of disease transmission in several areas from endemic region. However, in the last decade it has been repeatedly reported the presence triatomnes, mainly Triatoma infestans, after spraying with pyrethroid insecticides, which was associated to evolution to insecticide resistance. In this paper the evolution of insecticide resistance in triatomines is reviewed. The insecticide resistance was detected in 1970s in Rhodnius prolixus and 1990s in R. prolixus and T. infestans, but not until the 2000s resistance to pyrthroids in T. infestans associated to control failures was described in Argentina and Bolivia. The main resistance mechanisms (i.e. enhanced metabolism, altered site of action and reduced penetration) were described in the T. infestans resistant to pyrethrods. Different resistant profiles were demonstrated suggesting independent origin of the different resistant foci of Argentina and Bolivia. The deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans was showed to be controlled by semi-dominant, autosomally inherited factors. Reproductive and developmental costs were also demonstrated for the resistant T. infestans. A discussion about resistance and tolerance concepts and the persistence of T. infestans in Gran Chaco region are presented. In addition, theoretical concepts related to toxicological, evolutionary and ecological aspects of insecticide resistance are discussed in order to understand the particular scenario of pyrethroid

  11. Advances and Challenges in Genomic Selection for Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse; Rutkoski, Jessica

    2016-08-04

    Breeding for disease resistance is a central focus of plant breeding programs, as any successful variety must have the complete package of high yield, disease resistance, agronomic performance, and end-use quality. With the need to accelerate the development of improved varieties, genomics-assisted breeding is becoming an important tool in breeding programs. With marker-assisted selection, there has been success in breeding for disease resistance; however, much of this work and research has focused on identifying, mapping, and selecting for major resistance genes that tend to be highly effective but vulnerable to breakdown with rapid changes in pathogen races. In contrast, breeding for minor-gene quantitative resistance tends to produce more durable varieties but is a more challenging breeding objective. As the genetic architecture of resistance shifts from single major R genes to a diffused architecture of many minor genes, the best approach for molecular breeding will shift from marker-assisted selection to genomic selection. Genomics-assisted breeding for quantitative resistance will therefore necessitate whole-genome prediction models and selection methodology as implemented for classical complex traits such as yield. Here, we examine multiple case studies testing whole-genome prediction models and genomic selection for disease resistance. In general, whole-genome models for disease resistance can produce prediction accuracy suitable for application in breeding. These models also largely outperform multiple linear regression as would be applied in marker-assisted selection. With the implementation of genomic selection for yield and other agronomic traits, whole-genome marker profiles will be available for the entire set of breeding lines, enabling genomic selection for disease at no additional direct cost. In this context, the scope of implementing genomics selection for disease resistance, and specifically for quantitative resistance and quarantined pathogens

  12. Simulation of thermal reset transitions in resistive switching memories including quantum effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villena, M. A.; Jiménez-Molinos, F.; Roldán, J. B. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); González, M. B.; Campabadal, F. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Suñé, J.; Miranda, E. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193 (Spain); Romera, E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-06-07

    An in-depth study of reset processes in RRAMs (Resistive Random Access Memories) based on Ni/HfO{sub 2}/Si-n{sup +} structures has been performed. To do so, we have developed a physically based simulator where both ohmic and tunneling based conduction regimes are considered along with the thermal description of the devices. The devices under study have been successfully fabricated and measured. The experimental data are correctly reproduced with the simulator for devices with a single conductive filament as well as for devices including several conductive filaments. The contribution of each conduction regime has been explained as well as the operation regimes where these ohmic and tunneling conduction processes dominate.

  13. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a European cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossen, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Information on the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal flora is considered an important reservoir of resistance. Within ‘The Appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics in primary health care in Europe with

  14. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  15. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K.S.; Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2014-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  16. Selection on resilience improves disease resistance and tolerance to infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Rashidi, H.

    2017-01-01

    Response to infection in animals has 2 main mechanisms: resistance (ability to control pathogen burden) and tolerance (ability to maintain performance given the pathogen burden). Selection on disease resistance and tolerance to infections seems a promising avenue to increase productivity of animals

  17. Molecular detection of disease resistance genes to powdery mildew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to detect the presence of disease resistance genes to infection of wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) in selected wheat cultivars from China using molecular markers. Genomic DNA of sixty cultivars was extracted and tested for the presence of selected prominent resistance genes to ...

  18. How does brain insulin resistance develop in Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Fernanda G; Lourenco, Mychael V; Ferreira, Sergio T

    2014-02-01

    Compelling preclinical and clinical evidence supports a pathophysiological connection between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes. Altered metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance are key pathological features of both diseases. For many years, it was generally considered that the brain was insensitive to insulin, but it is now accepted that this hormone has central neuromodulatory functions, including roles in learning and memory, that are impaired in AD. However, until recently, the molecular mechanisms accounting for brain insulin resistance in AD have remained elusive. Here, we review recent evidence that sheds light on how brain insulin dysfunction is initiated at a molecular level and why abnormal insulin signaling culminates in synaptic failure and memory decline. We also discuss the cellular basis underlying the beneficial effects of stimulation of brain insulin signaling on cognition. Discoveries summarized here provide pathophysiological background for identification of novel molecular targets and for development of alternative therapeutic approaches in AD. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains to five antibiotics, including levofloxacin, in Northwestern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Caliskan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is the main factor that affects the efficacy of current therapeutic regimens against Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to determine the rates of resistance to efficacy clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and metronidazole among H. pylori strains isolated from Turkish patients with dyspepsia. METHODS: H. pylori was cultured from corpus and antrum biopsies that were collected from patients with dyspeptic symptoms, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. pylori was determined using the E-test (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole and levofloxacin according to the EUCAST breakpoints. Point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of clarithromycin-resistant strains were investigated using real-time PCR. RESULTS: A total of 98 H. pylori strains were isolated, all of which were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Of these strains, 36.7% (36/98 were resistant to clarithromycin, 35.5% (34/98 were resistant to metronidazole, and 29.5% (29/98 were resistant to levofloxacin. Multiple resistance was detected in 19.3% of the isolates. The A2143G and A2144G point mutations in the 23S rRNA-encoding gene were found in all 36 (100% of the clarithromycin-resistant strains. Additionally, the levofloxacin MIC values increased to 32 mg/L in our H. pylori strains. Finally, among the clarithromycin-resistant strains, 27.2% were resistant to levofloxacin, and 45.4% were resistant to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that treatment failure after clarithromycin- or levofloxacin-based triple therapy is not surprising and that metronidazole is not a reliable agent for the eradication of H. pylori infection in Turkey.

  20. Disease Resistant Fish and Shellfish Are within Reach: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Gjedrem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease in fish and shellfish is one of the main problems facing aquaculture production. Therefore, all attempts should be made to increase the rate of survival and, thus, reduce economic losses. Much has been done to develop vaccines and medical treatments to reduce mortality; and however, farming of aquatic species has a long way to go to optimize the environmental conditions for the animals and, thus, reduce stress and improve animal welfare. However, the good news is that there is the potential to increase disease resistance by selective breeding. By challenge-testing fingerlings from a number of families per generation, and including the rate of survival in the breeding goal, the results so far are very promising. By focusing on one disease at a time it is possible to increase the rate of survival by at least 12.5% per generation for most diseases studied. Unfortunately, selective breeding is only used to a small degree in aquatic species. In 2010, it was estimated that only 8.2% of aquaculture production was based on genetically improved stocks.

  1. Genetic Signature of Resistance to White Band Disease in the Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Libro

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to multiple factors including rising sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and disease outbreaks. Over the last 30 years, White Band Disease (WBD alone has killed up to 95% of the Caribbean`s dominant shallow-water corals--the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmata. Both corals are now listed on the US Endangered Species Act, and while their recovery has been slow, recent transmission surveys indicate that more than 5% of staghorn corals are disease resistant. Here we compared transcriptome-wide gene expression between resistant and susceptible staghorn corals exposed to WBD using in situ transmission assays. We identified constitutive gene expression differences underlying disease resistance that are independent from the immune response associated with disease exposure. Genes involved in RNA interference-mediated gene silencing, including Argonaute were up-regulated in resistant corals, whereas heat shock proteins (HSPs were down-regulated. Up-regulation of Argonaute proteins indicates that post-transcriptional gene silencing plays a key, but previously unsuspected role in coral immunity and disease resistance. Constitutive expression of HSPs has been linked to thermal resilience in other Acropora corals, suggesting that the down-regulation of HSPs in disease resistant staghorn corals may confer a dual benefit of thermal resilience.

  2. Genetic Signature of Resistance to White Band Disease in the Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libro, Silvia; Vollmer, Steven V

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to multiple factors including rising sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and disease outbreaks. Over the last 30 years, White Band Disease (WBD) alone has killed up to 95% of the Caribbean`s dominant shallow-water corals--the staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and the elkhorn coral A. palmata. Both corals are now listed on the US Endangered Species Act, and while their recovery has been slow, recent transmission surveys indicate that more than 5% of staghorn corals are disease resistant. Here we compared transcriptome-wide gene expression between resistant and susceptible staghorn corals exposed to WBD using in situ transmission assays. We identified constitutive gene expression differences underlying disease resistance that are independent from the immune response associated with disease exposure. Genes involved in RNA interference-mediated gene silencing, including Argonaute were up-regulated in resistant corals, whereas heat shock proteins (HSPs) were down-regulated. Up-regulation of Argonaute proteins indicates that post-transcriptional gene silencing plays a key, but previously unsuspected role in coral immunity and disease resistance. Constitutive expression of HSPs has been linked to thermal resilience in other Acropora corals, suggesting that the down-regulation of HSPs in disease resistant staghorn corals may confer a dual benefit of thermal resilience.

  3. More nutritious bananas resist disease | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... English · Français ... By inserting resistant varieties (like FHIA-17 and FHIA-23) between traditional, susceptible plants, we 'trap' ... This has a direct impact on food security by restoring the productivity of the traditional varieties.

  4. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... practice. However, the useful life-span of many resistant cultivars is only a few years, due to the breakdown of the .... Thus, suppression of insect feeding by transgenic .... different types of defense-responsive genes were found.

  5. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  6. Breeding for disease resistance in cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao production must increase in order to meet the projected rise in the demand for chocolate. Approximately one-third of global production is lost annually to diseases and insects. Four diseases account for the greatest losses worldwide: black pod, caused by four Phytophthora spp; witches’ broom...

  7. STRESS AS PREDISPOSING FACTOR OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES INCLUDING PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi-Nurul M Dewi-Nurul

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is hypothesized as a common pathway for several related chronic diseases of man. Psychosocial stress as modified by perceptions and coping by patients can lead to physical processes. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI studies have suggested that psychosocial stress can alter immune function and increase vulnerability to illnesses. The patients also have high sensitivity to periodontal disease (PD. This article describes the association of stress as a physiological response to diseases such as PD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and inflammatory bowel disease. The psychosocial stress can lead to physiological processes through 1 the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis leading to glucocortico-steroid secretion; 2 the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamine; or 3 the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in the release of sex hormones. These processes may affect chronic diseases. It can be concluded that psychosocial stress in periodontal disease patients must be considered and social support must be provided in order to achieve an optimum periodontal therapy result.

  8. Renal resistive index and mortality in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Clarisse; Thomas, George; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Gornik, Heather L; Nally, Joseph V; Navaneethan, Sankar D

    2015-08-01

    Renal resistive index (RRI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive, diabetic, and elderly patients. We studied the factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70) and its associations with mortality in chronic kidney disease patients without renal artery stenosis. We included 1962 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) who also had RRI measured (January 1, 2005, to October 2011) from an existing chronic kidney disease registry. Participants with renal artery stenosis (60%-99% or renal artery occlusion) were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to study factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70), and its association with mortality was studied using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards model. Hypertension was prevalent in >90% of the patients. In the multivariable logistic regression, older age, female sex, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, higher systolic blood pressure, and the use of β blockers were associated with higher odds of having RRI≥0.70. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 428 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, RRI≥0.70 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.65; Pchronic kidney disease. Noncardiovascular/non-malignancy-related deaths were higher in those with RRI≥0.70. RRI≥0.70 is associated with higher mortality in hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients without clinically significant renal artery stenosis after accounting for other significant risk factors. Its evaluation may allow early identification of those who are at risk thereby potentially preventing or delaying adverse outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Thyroid hormone resistance misdiagnosed as Graves' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH syndrome is a very rare disorder characterized by mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor beta and is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Patients with RTH are usually euthyroid but rarely may present with signs and symptoms consistent with hyperthyroidism. Here, we describe the case of a young girl with goiter who was previously misdiagnosed to have hyperthyroidism and was subsequently diagnosed to be suffering from RTH.

  10. Markers associated with disease resistance in Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern oyster, Crassostrea viginica, is an economically important aquaculture species in the USA, but production has been impacted by diseases such as dermo and MSX. Efforts have been put into the development of disease-resistant oyster lines using selective breeding techniques. However, these met...

  11. Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the most popular leafy vegetable that is cultivated mainly in moderate climate. Consumers demand lettuce with good visual appearance and free of disease. Improved disease resistance of new cultivars is achieved by combining desirable genes (or alleles) from existing cu...

  12. Molecular characterization of early blight disease resistant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani is one of the major factors limiting potato production worldwide. Developing highly resistant cultivars is the most effective way to control the disease. In this study, 20 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 6 simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers were ...

  13. SSR Markers Assessed for Peanut Smut Disease Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut smut disease, caused by Thecaphora frezii (Carranza & Lindquist), can result in yield losses higher than 50%. Several strategies have been developed for disease management but they are still insufficient. The smut genetic resistance found in wild species and Bolivian landraces is currently th...

  14. Molecular Breeding Strategy and Challenges toward Improvement of Blast Disease Resistance in Rice Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh eAshkani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a staple and most important security food crop consumed by almost half of the world’s population. More rice production is needed due to the rapid population growth in the world. Rice blast caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop in different part of the world. Breakdown of blast resistance is the major cause of yield instability in several rice growing areas. There is a need to develop strategies providing long-lasting disease resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, giving protection for a long time over a broad geographic area, promising for sustainable rice production in the future. So far, molecular breeding approaches involving DNA markers, such as QTL mapping, marker-aided selection, gene pyramiding, allele mining and genetic transformation have been used to develop new resistant rice cultivars. Such techniques now are used as a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to conventional methods allowing rapid introgression of disease resistance genes into susceptible varieties as well as the incorporation of multiple genes into individual lines for more durable blast resistance. The paper briefly reviewed the progress of studies on this aspect to provide the interest information for rice disease resistance breeding. This review includes examples of how advanced molecular method have been used in breeding programs for improve blast resistance. New information and knowledge gained from previous research on the recent strategy and challenges toward improvement of blast disease such as pyramiding disease resistance gene for creating new rice varieties with high resistance against multiple diseases will undoubtedly provide new insights into the rice disease control.

  15. Searching for Factors that Distinguish Disease-Prone and Disease-Resistant Prions via Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Kurgan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms of prion misfolding and factors that predispose an individual to prion diseases are largely unknown. Our approach to identifying candidate factors in-silico relies on contrasting the C-terminal domain of PrPC sequences from two groups of vertebrate species: those that have been found to suffer from prion diseases, and those that have not. We propose that any significant differences between the two groups are candidate factors that may predispose individuals to develop prion disease, which should be further analyzed by wet-lab investigations. Using an array of computational methods we identified possible point mutations that could predispose PrPC to misfold into PrPSc. Our results include confirmatory findings such as the V210I mutation, and new findings including P137M, G142D, G142N, D144P, K185T, V189I, H187Y and T191P mutations, which could impact structural stability. We also propose new hypotheses that give insights into the stability of helix-2 and -3. These include destabilizing effects of Histidine and T188-T193 segment in helix-2 in the disease-prone prions, and a stabilizing effect of Leucine on helix-3 in the disease-resistant prions.

  16. Mutagenesis and breeding for disease resistance in capsicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccardo, F.; Sree Ramulu, K.

    1977-01-01

    The principal diseases, for which no sources have so far been found within the cultivars of Capsicum annuum in Italy, are caused by Verticillium dahliae, Phytophthora capsici and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The wild species C. pendulum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. chacoense, C. pubescens and C. eximium were analysed to find out if the sources for resistance to the three diseases are available. It was observed that particularly the species C. frutescens and C. chinense had good sources of resistance to V. dahliae and Ph. capsici. However, the occurrence of reproductive barriers between the wild and cultivated species appears to be a problem for the transfer of disease-resistant genes. For CMV, none of the wild species showed good resistance; so in this case a screening technique was set up using mutagenic agents to isolate resistant types in the prominent agronomic cultivars of C. annuum. Also, for V. dahliae and Ph. capsici, mutation screening techniques were set up to induce disease resistance character directly in the cultivars of C. annuum, without causing any changes in the most important agronomic characters of the cultivars. (author)

  17. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials , Including Artemisone...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials , Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant...potent antimalarial activity (2, 3). Despite having a rapid mecha- nism of action, artemisinin resistance eventually emerged and was first detected

  18. Prospects for the development of disease-resistant temperate fruit plants by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.I.; Wilson, D.

    1977-01-01

    In most of the present conventional fruit breeding programmes disease resistance has become an important objective. Progress is slow because of the long generation time and the genetic complexity of most tree fruit species. The complexity is such that cultivars can only be maintained as clones and it is unlikely that identical genotypes could ever be sexually produced. Hence, the prospect of changing a few characters in an otherwise unchanged genetic background, as might be done by somatic mutation, is attractive. The occurence of natural mutations in some fruit cultivars and the induction of mutations in others demonstrates that such an approach is possible for some characters at least and these may include disease resistance. The yet limited success of mutation breeding in fruit crops may be due in part to the innate difficulties with this group of plants but may also be a consequence of the faulty methods that have been used in the past. New techniques of inducing and selecting mutants in fruit trees are reported, with particular reference to disease resistance and some basic guidelines for success are suggested. The type of disease resistance required will undoubtedly affect the approach used. In theory, monogenic resistance seems more likely to respond to change by mutation induction than polygenic resistance. However, the multiple effects seen in the natural spur-type apple mutants and in the preliminary results with induced apple mutations at Long Ashton suggest that field resistance to some major diseases may not be an unreasonable target

  19. Advances in the theory and application of BSF cells. [including electrical resistivity and photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelkorn, J.; Lamneck, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics and behavior of p(+), p solar cells were investigated. The p(+), p cells were made by the removal of the n(+) surface layers from n(+), p p(+), BSF cells followed by application of a suitable contact to the resultant p(+), p structures. The open circuit voltage of p(+), p cells was found to increase with increasing 'p' bulk resistivity. The measured open circuit velocity-temperature coefficients were positive and increased with increasing resistivity. An outline of prior limitations in solar cell design is presented, and the removal of these limitations through use of BSF effects is pointed out. The study of BSF effects made feasible production of very thin high efficiency silicon cells as well as high resistivity-high efficiency cells, two desirable types of silicon cells which were previously impossible to make.

  20. Experimental mutation of disease resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisova, A.; Hanis, M.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.

    1980-01-01

    In 1968 to 1974, 19 cultivars and lines of wheat were treated with mutagens (i.e., with X rays, gamma radiation, neutrons, EMS). ALtogether 140 lines were obtained showing better resistance and/or tolerance to black stem rust, yellow rust, stem rust of wheat, powdery mildew of cereals, and root-rot of wheat. The frequency of the induced mutations was sufficiently high, i.e., 0.0012 to 0.078 mutants per 100 plants of M 2 . The major part of mutant lines showed a lower agronomical value due to negative pleiotropy of mutant genes and a changed genetic background of mutants. Some mutant lines can be used as the starting material in hybridization programmes. (author)

  1. Improvement of Scratch and Wear Resistance of Polymers by Fillers Including Nanofillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Brostow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have lower resistance to scratching and wear than metals. Liquid lubricants work well for metals but not for polymers nor for polymer-based composites (PBCs. We review approaches for improvement of tribological properties of polymers based on inclusion of fillers. The fillers can be metallic or ceramic—with obvious consequences for electrical resistivity of the composites. Distinctions between effectiveness of micro- versus nano-particles are analyzed. For example, aluminum nanoparticles as filler are more effective for property improvement than microparticles at the same overall volumetric concentration. Prevention of local agglomeration of filler particles is discussed along with a technique to verify the prevention.

  2. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.; Benc, S.

    1977-01-01

    The induction of mutations in cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been part of the breeding programme at the Plant Breeding Station at Stupice since 1960. A total of 26 cultivars or selections of winter wheat, 4 cultivars or selections of spring wheat, 2 cultivars of field beans, and 43 selections of spring barley have been treated since 1960. A total of 140 mutant lines of wheat and 37 mutant lines of barley with improved disease resistance of a race-specific type have been obtained. Several mutation programme derived cultivars have been registered in Czechoslovakia (''Diamant'', ''Ametyst'', ''Favorit'', ''Hana'', ''Rapid'', and ''Atlas'' in barley, and ''Alfa'' in field beans), but none of them is a mutation for disease resistance. A series of mutants have been used in crossing programmes. Approaches to improve the efficiency of mutation breeding for disease resistance are suggested. (author)

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sandhya S.; Zhang, Liping; Mitch, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance refers to reduced sensitivity of organs to insulin-initiated biologic processes that result in metabolic defects. Insulin resistance is common in patients with end-stage renal disease but also occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), even when the serum creatinine is minimally increased. Following insulin binding to its receptor, auto-phosphorylation of the insulin receptor is followed by kinase reactions that phosphorylate insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt. In fact, low levels of Akt phosphorylation (p-Akt) identifies the presence of the insulin resistance that leads to metabolic defects in insulin-initiated metabolism of glucose, lipids and muscle proteins. Besides CKD, other complex conditions (e.g., inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic acidosis, aging and excess angiotensin II) reduce p-Akt resulting in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in each of these conditions is due to activation of different, E3 ubiquitin ligases which specifically conjugate ubiquitin to IRS-1 marking it for degradation in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Consequently, IRS-1 degradation suppresses insulin-induced intracellular signaling, causing insulin resistance. Understanding mechanisms of insulin resistance could lead to therapeutic strategies that improve the metabolism of patients with CKD. PMID:26444029

  4. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  5. Definition, identification and treatment of resistant hypertension in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Yelena R; Bomback, Andrew S

    2014-07-01

    Resistant hypertension, the inability to achieve goal blood pressure despite the use of three or more appropriately dosed antihypertensive drugs (including a diuretic), remains a common clinical problem, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). While the exact prevalence and prognosis of resistant hypertension in CKD patients remain unknown, resistant hypertension likely contributes significantly to increased cardiovascular risk and progression of kidney disease in this population. We review the identification and evaluation of patients with resistant hypertension, including the importance of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the identification of 'white-coat', 'masked' and 'non-dipper' hypertension, the latter of which has particular clinical and therapeutic importance in patients with resistant hypertension and CKD. We then discuss treatment strategies for resistant hypertension that target the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying resistance to treatment, including persistent volume excess, incomplete renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and inadequate nocturnal blood pressure control. Finally, we propose a treatment algorithm for evaluation and treatment of resistant hypertension in patients with CKD. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Standard method for detecting Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus disease-resistant silkworm varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qiong

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV disease is one of the most serious silkworm diseases, and it has caused great economic losses to the sericulture industry. So far, the disease has not been controlled effectively by therapeutic agents. Breeding resistant silkworm varieties breeding may be an effective way to improve resistance to BmNPV and reduce economic losses. A precise resistance-detection method will help to accelerate the breeding process. For this purpose, here we described the individual inoculation method (IIM. Details of the IIM include pathogen BmNPV preparation, mulberry leaf size, pathogen volume, rearing conditions, course of infection, and breeding conditions. Finally, a resistance comparison experiment was performed using the IIM and the traditional group inoculation method (GIM. The incidence of BmNPV infection and the within-group variance results showed that the IIM was more precise and reliable than the GIM.

  7. Mapping X-Disease Phytoplasma Resistance in Prunus virginiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan R. Lenz; Wenhao Dai

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplasmas such as “Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni,” the causal agent of X-disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis. This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) is a promising model to be used for the plant-phytoplasma interaction due to its documented ability to resist X-disease infection. A consensus chokecherry genetic map “Cho” was developed with JoinMap 4.0 by joining two parental maps. The new map contains a com...

  8. Induced mutation for disease resistance in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, A.

    1984-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been used for developing genotypes that may contain resistance to: a) A necrotic strain of common mosaic virus, in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.); b) Soil fungi causing root rots in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.); c) The fungus Uromyces fabae that causes rust in lentil plants (Lens culinaria). Seeds of these three species were treated with gamma rays in doses of 1,000, 3,000, 6,000, and 9,000 rads. Treated materials and controls were grown during 1979. Chickpea M2 plants were grown in a naturally infested soil with soil-borne fungi. Lentil plants were sprayed with a suspension of spores of the rust fungus. Common bean M2 plants were sprayed with a solution containing virus particles. Ninety-three symptomless chickpea plants were identified in the M2 population. For lentil there were 47 symptomless plants and for common bean, 244 M2 plants with minor virus damage. Eight M3 progenies of chickpea, originated from symptomless M2 plants, had a high rate of survival and showed none or very little damage by root rots. In addition, some morphological changes were detected in other M3 chickpea progenies. Two progenies had larger leaflets, as compared to the control plants and those of other progenies. One progeny showed a more erect growth habit. These new traits have been attributed to genetic changes induced by the radiation treatments. By contrast to these promising results with chickpea no progress has been detected in the plant populations of common bean and lentil. (author)

  9. Treatment of resistant glomerular diseases with adrenocorticotropic hormone gel: a prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Canetta, Pietro A; Beck, Laurence H; Ayalon, Rivka; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Appel, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has shown promising results in glomerular diseases resistant to conventional therapies, but the reported data have solely been from retrospective, observational studies. In this prospective, open-label study (NCT01129284), 15 subjects with resistant glomerular diseases were treated with ACTH gel (80 units subcutaneously twice weekly) for 6 months. Resistant membranous nephropathy (MN), minimal change disease (MCD), and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) were defined as failure to achieve sustained remission of proteinuria off immunosuppressive therapy with at least 2 treatment regimens; resistant IgA nephropathy was defined as >1 g/g urine protein:creatinine ratio despite maximally tolerated RAAS blockade. Remission was defined as stable or improved renal function with ≥50% reduction in proteinuria to 50% reductions in proteinuria while on ACTH, with proteinuria consistently <1 g/g by 6 months. Three of 15 subjects reported significant steroid-like adverse effects with ACTH, including weight gain and hyperglycemia, prompting early termination of therapy without any clinical response. ACTH gel is a promising treatment for resistant glomerular diseases and should be studied further in controlled trials against currently available therapies for resistant disease. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Mining the Genus Solanum for Increasing Disease Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, J.H.; Kwang-Ryong Jo,; Vosman, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant Breeding is the art of selecting and discarding genetic material to achieve crop improvement. Favourable alleles resulting in quality improvement or disease resistance must be added, while unfavourable alleles must be removed. The source for novel alleles can be other varieties, landraces or

  11. The role of ethylene perception in plant disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraats, Bart Peter Johan

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that is involved in responses of the plant to various stress situations, such as pathogen attack. The role of ethylene in plant-pathogen interactions seems to be diverse. Exposure of plants to ethylene can induce disease resistance, but treatment with ethylene during

  12. RAPD markers associated with resistance to blackleg disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a serious disease of Brassica species. Genetic analysis of resistance to L. maculans was carried out with 15 accessions from the USDA Brassica germplasm collections, representing diploids (A, C), and tetraploid (AC) genomes, respectively; and 9 cultivars from the National ...

  13. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  14. The Italian elm breeding program for Dutch elm disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Santini; Francesco Pecori; Luisa Ghelardini

    2012-01-01

    In the 20th century, elms across Europe and North America were devastated by two pandemics of Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the introduction of two fungal pathogens: Ophiostoma ulmi, followed by O. novo-ulmi. At the end of 1920s, research into a resistance to DED began in Europe and then in the United States. No...

  15. Regeneration systems for pyramiding disease resistance into walnut rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to regenerate selected walnut rootstocks adventitiously. This is an essential step to be able to produce transgenic walnut rootstocks with superior traits, such as disease resistance. A series of plant tissue culture experiments were conducted on RX1 and VX211 rootstocks wit...

  16. Resistance training and predicted risk of coronary heart disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training, designed to prevent the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) based on the Framingham Risk Assessment (FRA) score. Twenty-five healthy sedentary men with low CHD risk were assigned to participate in a 16-week (three days per week) ...

  17. Sensitive response and resistance to bery disease ( Colletotrichum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedling hypocotyls and attached green coffee berries of 11 Coffea arabica varieties and a Robusta coffee cultivar, with different levels of resistance to coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae), were examined under a microscope for differences in the development of infections caused by single-conidium isolates of ...

  18. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  19. Sulfate and Chloride Resistance of High Fluidity Concrete including Fly Ash and GGBS for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Jea Myoung; Cho, Myung Sug

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash mixed concrete has been used for NPP concrete structures in Korea in order to prevent aging and improve durability since the Shin.Kori no.1,2 in 2005. Concentrated efforts to develop technology for the streamlining of construction work and to affect labor savings have been conducted in construction. The application of high fluidity concrete for nuclear power plants has been the research subject with the aim of further rationalization of construction works. Since high fluidity concrete can have the characteristics of high density and high strength without compaction. However, high fluidity concrete can cause thermal cracking by heat of hydration. For this reason, the amount of pozzolan binder should be increased in high fluidity concrete for nuclear power plants. In this study, the resistance of high fluidity concrete on sulfate and chloride was compared with that of the concrete currently using for nuclear power plants

  20. Wrought stainless steel butt-welding fittings: including reference to other corrosion resistant materials - approved 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    ANSI B16.9 is the American Standard for steel butt-welding fittings and although not so stated, it is implied that its scope deals primarily with the schedules of wall thicknesses which are common to carbon steel and the grades of alloy steel piping that are selected for pressure and temperature considerations. The purpose of this standard is to provide industry with a set of dimensional standards for butt-welding fittings that can be used with these light wall pipes of corrosion resisting materials. The center-to-end dimensions of all fittings are identical with those in ANSI B16.9 which give to industry the advantage of uniform design room practice and a maximum utilization of existing die equipment. The only departure from this is in the lap-joint stub end where for purposes of economy the face-to-end of the product has been reduced for use with thin wall piping

  1. Insulin Resistance and Alzheimer’s Disease: Bioenergetic Linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. Neth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunction is a well-established feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, evidenced by brain glucose hypometabolism that can be observed potentially decades prior to the development of AD symptoms. Furthermore, there is mounting support for an association between metabolic disease and the development of AD and related dementias. Individuals with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D, hyperlipidemia, obesity, or other metabolic disease may have increased risk for the development of AD and similar conditions, such as vascular dementia. This association may in part be due to the systemic mitochondrial dysfunction that is common to these pathologies. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is a significant feature of AD and may play a fundamental role in its pathogenesis. In fact, aging itself presents a unique challenge due to inherent mitochondrial dysfunction and prevalence of chronic metabolic disease. Despite the progress made in understanding the pathogenesis of AD and in the development of potential therapies, at present we remain without a disease-modifying treatment. In this review, we will discuss insulin resistance as a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of AD, as well as the metabolic and bioenergetic disruptions linking insulin resistance and AD. We will also focus on potential neuroimaging tools for the study of the metabolic dysfunction commonly seen in AD with hopes of developing therapeutic and preventative targets.

  2. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W

    2016-04-01

    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike.

  3. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and field beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.; Kamel, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    Wheat disease in Egypt is reviewed and results of mutation breeding by γ irradiation for disease resistance in wheat and field beans are described. Wheat mutants of the variety Giza 155 resistant to leaf rust, Giza 156 resistant to both leaf and yellow rusts, and Tosson with a reasonable level of combined resistance to the three rusts in addition to mutants of the tetraploid variety Dakar 52 with a good level of stem and yellow rust resistance are required. Their seeds were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 krad. Of 3000-3700 M 2 plants from each variety and dosage, 22 plants from both Giza 155 and Giza 156, although susceptible, showed a lower level of disease development. In 1975, M 3 families of these selected plants and 6000 plants from bulked material were grown from each variety and dosage at two locations. Simultaneously, an additional population consisting of 3000 mutagen-treated seeds was grown to have a reasonable chance of detecting mutants; 2 heads from each plant were harvested. These will be grown next season (1976) to make a population of 25,000-30,000 M 2 plants and screened to composite cultures of specific rusts. Vicia faba seeds of field bean varieties Giza 1, Giza 2 and Rebaya 40, equally susceptible to rust and chocolate spot, were subjected to 3, 5 and 7 krad of 60 Co gamma radiation and 800 M 1 plants were grown in 1972 per variety and dose. Up to this later growing season (M 3 ) no resistance was detected in M 3 plank

  4. Enhanced tomato disease resistance primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanyuan; Chen, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-01

    Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza) with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, PR1, PR2, and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC, and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT) plant, a jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant (spr2), and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza

  5. Sensitivity of docetaxel-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells to microtubule-destabilizing agents including vinca alkaloids and colchicine-site binding agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Wang

    Full Text Available One of the main reasons for disease recurrence in the curative breast cancer treatment setting is the development of drug resistance. Microtubule targeted agents (MTAs are among the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of breaset cancer and therefore overcoming taxane resistance is of primary clinical importance. Our group has previously demonstrated that the microtubule dynamics of docetaxel-resistant MCF-7TXT cells are insensitivity to docetaxel due to the distinct expression profiles of β-tubulin isotypes in addition to the high expression of p-glycoprotein (ABCB1. In the present investigation we examined whether taxane-resistant breast cancer cells are more sensitive to microtubule destabilizing agents including vinca alkaloids and colchicine-site binding agents (CSBAs than the non-resistant cells.Two isogenic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were selected for resistance to docetaxel (MCF-7TXT and the wild type parental cell line (MCF-7CC to examine if taxane-resistant breast cancer cells are sensitive to microtubule-destabilizing agents including vinca alkaloids and CSBAs. Cytotoxicity assays, immunoblotting, indirect immunofluorescence and live imaging were used to study drug resistance, apoptosis, mitotic arrest, microtubule formation, and microtubule dynamics.MCF-7TXT cells were demonstrated to be cross resistant to vinca alkaloids, but were more sensitive to treatment with colchicine compared to parental non-resistant MCF-7CC cells. Cytotoxicity assays indicated that the IC50 of MCF-7TXT cell to vinorelbine and vinblastine was more than 6 and 3 times higher, respectively, than that of MCF-7CC cells. By contrast, the IC50 of MCF-7TXT cell for colchincine was 4 times lower than that of MCF-7CC cells. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that all MTAs induced the disorganization of microtubules and the chromatin morphology and interestingly each with a unique pattern. In terms of microtubule and chromain morphology, MCF-7TXT cells were

  6. Elastin organization in pig and cardiovascular disease patients' pericardial resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Leurgans, Thomas; Nissen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral vascular resistance is increased in essential hypertension. This involves structural changes of resistance arteries and stiffening of the arterial wall, including remodeling of the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that biopsies of the human parietal pericardium, obtained during...... coronary artery bypass grafting or cardiac valve replacement surgeries, can serve as a source of resistance arteries for structural research in cardiovascular disease patients. We applied two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy to study the parietal pericardium and isolated pericardial resistance...... of 100 mm Hg) is fiber like, and no prominent external elastic lamina could be observed. This microarchitecture is very different from that in rat mesenteric arteries frequently used for resistance artery research. In conclusion, we add three-dimensional information on the structure of the extracellular...

  7. Antibacterial and antibiotic resistance modifying activity of the extracts from Allanblackia gabonensis, Combretum molle and Gladiolus quartinianus against Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankam, Aimé G; Kuiate, Jules R; Kuete, Victor

    2015-06-30

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is becoming a serious problem worldwide. The discovery of new and effective antimicrobials and/or resistance modulators is necessary to tackle the spread of resistance or to reverse the multi-drug resistance. We investigated the antibacterial and antibiotic-resistance modifying activities of the methanol extracts from Allanblackia gabonensis, Gladiolus quartinianus and Combretum molle against 29 Gram-negative bacteria including multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the samples meanwhile the standard phytochemical methods were used for the preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extracts. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins in all studied extracts. Other chemical classes of secondary metabolites were selectively presents. Extracts from A. gabonensis and C. molle displayed a broad spectrum of activity with MICs varying from 16 to 1024 μg/mL against about 72.41% of the tested bacteria. The extract from the fruits of A. gabonensis had the best activity, with MIC values below 100 μg/mL on 37.9% of tested bacteria. Percentages of antibiotic-modulating effects ranging from 67 to 100% were observed against tested MDR bacteria when combining the leaves extract from C. molle (at MIC/2 and MIC/4) with chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. The overall results of the present study provide information for the possible use of the studied plant, especially Allanblackia gabonensis and Combretum molle in the control of Gram-negative bacterial infections including MDR species as antibacterials as well as resistance modulators.

  8. Mapping X-Disease Phytoplasma Resistance in Prunus virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Ryan R; Dai, Wenhao

    2017-01-01

    Phytoplasmas such as " Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni," the causal agent of X-disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis. This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) is a promising model to be used for the plant-phytoplasma interaction due to its documented ability to resist X-disease infection. A consensus chokecherry genetic map "Cho" was developed with JoinMap 4.0 by joining two parental maps. The new map contains a complete set of 16 linkage groups, spanning a genetic distance of 2,172 cM with an average marker density of 3.97 cM. Three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with X-disease resistance were identified contributing to a total of 45.9% of the phenotypic variation. This updated genetic linkage map and the identified QTL will provide the framework needed to facilitate molecular genetics, genomics, breeding, and biotechnology research concerning X-disease in chokecherry and other Prunus species.

  9. Mapping X-Disease Phytoplasma Resistance in Prunus virginiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R. Lenz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas such as “Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni,” the causal agent of X-disease of stone fruits, lack detailed biological analysis. This has limited the understanding of plant resistance mechanisms. Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L. is a promising model to be used for the plant-phytoplasma interaction due to its documented ability to resist X-disease infection. A consensus chokecherry genetic map “Cho” was developed with JoinMap 4.0 by joining two parental maps. The new map contains a complete set of 16 linkage groups, spanning a genetic distance of 2,172 cM with an average marker density of 3.97 cM. Three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with X-disease resistance were identified contributing to a total of 45.9% of the phenotypic variation. This updated genetic linkage map and the identified QTL will provide the framework needed to facilitate molecular genetics, genomics, breeding, and biotechnology research concerning X-disease in chokecherry and other Prunus species.

  10. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in wheat and field beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hak, T.M.; Kamel, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Wheat and broad-bean diseases cause considerable losses under Egyptian conditions; therefore, an attempt was made to induce useful mutations in both crops resistant to diseases which may be of direct or indirect use in breeding programmes. The methodology of artificial inoculation, evaluation, selection, radiation levels used are reported, in addition to the economic importance of the varieties used. This work passed through two phases, the first started in the 1972/73 crop season with a small population, while the second in 1974/75 with a larger one to have a better chance of detecting resistant mutants. In the first phase, a total of 3563M 1 wheat plants was grown in addition to approximately 3600-44,000M 2 and 77,646M 3 plants. Twenty-two M 2 plants were selected as showing lower level of leaf rust development, but further tests showed these plants are not true mutants since they rusted at the same level of their parent varieties. Out of the M 3 plants none showed good resistance. In the second phase, 36,000, 277,080 and 289,492 plants of M 1 , M 2 and M 3 , respectively, were grown and 73M 2 plants were selected as showing complete resistance to leaf and stem rusts. In field beans out of the first phase, a total of 5760, 37,200 and 33,240M 1 , M 2 and M 3 plants, respectively, was grown and none showed a good level of disease resistance although some were less diseased. These were further tested and proved not true mutants for reduced disease development. In the second phase, 8747, 203,520 and 90,285 plants of M 1 , M 2 and M 3 , respectively, were grown and 27M 2 plants were selected as showing a lower level of chocolate spot and rust development. The paper also discusses the use of single versus composite cultures in mutation breeding for disease resistance. (author)

  11. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  12. [Insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowicki, J

    1994-10-01

    In polycystic ovarian disease there is a strong association between hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism but not with obesity alone. The magnitude of peripheral insulin resistance is similar to that seen in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Mild hyperinsulinemia in PCOD patients is not impair the carbohydrate metabolism. The elimination of the cause of hyperandrogenism by bilateral oophorectomy, long-acting Gn-RH agonist or antiandrogen cyproterone acetate did not improve the associated insulin resistance. In opposition to insulin resistance in the tissues responsible for metabolism of carbohydrate, the ovary remains sensitive to the effects of pancreatic hormone. Presumably this mechanism involved the interaction with IGF-I receptors to stimulate thecal and stromal androgen production. Insulin may sensitize the stroma to the stimulatory effect of LH. In the mechanism of follicular arrest take part increased level of binding proteins for IGF-I, mainly IGFBP 2, -4 and 5 inhibit FSH and IGF-I action.

  13. Remodelling of the microarchitecture of resistance arteries in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Leurgans, Thomas

    Small resistance artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension [1, 2] and diabetes (types I and II) [3, 4]. In particular, the media-to-lumen ratio (M:L) is predictive of cardiovascular events. The exact nature of this resistance artery remodeling...... in comparison to other well-studied microvascular beds (e.g. rat mesentery). In the future we aim to compare the microarchitecture of small resistance arteries from parietal pericardial biopsies between patients with and without (treated) hypertension, diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease. 1. Buus, N.H., et...... al., Small artery structure during antihypertensive therapy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension. J Hypertens, 2013. 31(4): p. 791-7. 2. Mathiassen, O.N., et al., Small artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential...

  14. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  15. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  16. A unified pathogenesis for kidney diseases, including genetic diseases and cancers, by the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Yil

    2017-06-01

    Every cell of an organism is separated and protected by a cell membrane. It is proposed that harmony between intercellular communication and the health of an organism is controlled by a system, designated the protein-homeostasis-system (PHS). Kidneys consist of a variety of types of renal cells, each with its own characteristic cell-receptor interactions and producing characteristic proteins. A functional union of these renal cells can be determined by various renal function tests, and harmonious intercellular communication is essential for the healthy state of the host. Injury to a kind of renal cells can impair renal function and induce an imbalance in total body health. Every acute or chronic renal disease has unknown etiologic substances that are responsible for renal cell injury at the molecular level. The immune/repair system of the host should control the etiologic substances acting against renal cells; if this system fails, the disease progresses to end stage renal disease. Each renal disease has its characteristic pathologic lesions where immune cells and immune proteins, such as immunoglobulins and complements, are infiltrated. These immune cells and immune proteins may control the etiologic substances involved in renal pathologic lesions. Also, genetic renal diseases and cancers may originate from a protein deficiency or malfunctioning protein under the PHS. A unified pathogenesis for renal diseases, including acute glomerulonephritis, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, genetic renal diseases such as Alport syndrome, and malignancies such as Wilms tumor and renal cell carcinoma, is proposed using the PHS hypothesis.

  17. Insulin Resistance and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers....../HDL-C, or impaired fasting glucose (serum glucose ≥110 mg/dL) to traditional risk factors in separate Cox multivariable analyses and assessed risk discrimination and reclassification. The study end point was major CVD events (nonfatal and fatal coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke) within 10 years, which...

  18. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Tisné

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma, and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease.

  19. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, Sébastien; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Syahputra, Indra; Cochard, Benoît; Denis, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma, and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease. PMID:28592650

  20. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, Sébastien; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Syahputra, Indra; Cochard, Benoît; Denis, Marie

    2017-06-07

    Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma , and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease. Copyright © 2017 Tisné et al.

  1. Insecticide resistance in disease vectors from Mayotte: an opportunity for integrated vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocquet, Nicolas; Darriet, Frédéric; Zumbo, Betty; Milesi, Pascal; Thiria, Julien; Bernard, Vincent; Toty, Céline; Labbé, Pierrick; Chandre, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Mayotte, a small island in the Indian Ocean, has been affected for many years by vector-borne diseases. Malaria, Bancroftian filariasis, dengue, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever have circulated or still circulate on the island. They are all transmitted by Culicidae mosquitoes. To limit the impact of these diseases on human health, vector control has been implemented for more than 60 years on Mayotte. In this study, we assessed the resistance levels of four major vector species (Anopheles gambiae, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) to two types of insecticides: i) the locally currently-used insecticides (organophosphates, pyrethroids) and ii) alternative molecules that are promising for vector control and come from different insecticide families (bacterial toxins or insect growth regulators). When some resistance was found to one of these insecticides, we characterized the mechanisms involved. Larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate the level of resistance. When resistance was found, we tested for the presence of metabolic resistance through detoxifying enzyme activity assays, or for target-site mutations through molecular identification of known resistance alleles. Resistance to currently-used insecticides varied greatly between the four vector species. While no resistance to any insecticides was found in the two Aedes species, bioassays confirmed multiple resistance in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus (temephos: ~ 20 fold and deltamethrin: only 10% mortality after 24 hours). In An. gambiae, resistance was scarce: only a moderate resistance to temephos was found (~5 fold). This resistance appears to be due only to carboxyl-esterase overexpression and not to target modification. Finally, and comfortingly, none of the four species showed resistance to any of the new insecticides. The low resistance observed in Mayotte's main disease vectors is particularly interesting, because it leaves a range of tools useable by vector control

  2. Brownian dynamics simulations of a flexible polymer chain which includes continuous resistance and multibody hydrodynamic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason E.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2005-01-01

    Using methods adapted from the simulation of suspension dynamics, we have developed a Brownian dynamics algorithm with multibody hydrodynamic interactions for simulating the dynamics of polymer molecules. The polymer molecule is modeled as a chain composed of a series of inextensible, rigid rods with constraints at each joint to ensure continuity of the chain. The linear and rotational velocities of each segment of the polymer chain are described by the slender-body theory of Batchelor [J. Fluid Mech. 44, 419 (1970)]. To include hydrodynamic interactions between the segments of the chain, the line distribution of forces on each segment is approximated by making a Legendre polynomial expansion of the disturbance velocity on the segment, where the first two terms of the expansion are retained in the calculation. Thus, the resulting linear force distribution is specified by a center of mass force, couple, and stresslet on each segment. This method for calculating the hydrodynamic interactions has been successfully used to simulate the dynamics of noncolloidal suspensions of rigid fibers [O. G. Harlen, R. R. Sundararajakumar, and D. L. Koch, J. Fluid Mech. 388, 355 (1999); J. E. Butler and E. S. G. Shaqfeh, J. Fluid Mech. 468, 204 (2002)]. The longest relaxation time and center of mass diffusivity are among the quantities calculated with the simulation technique. Comparisons are made for different levels of approximation of the hydrodynamic interactions, including multibody interactions, two-body interactions, and the "freely draining" case with no interactions. For the short polymer chains studied in this paper, the results indicate a difference in the apparent scaling of diffusivity with polymer length for the multibody versus two-body level of approximation for the hydrodynamic interactions.

  3. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): a clinicoradiological profile of three cases including two with skeletal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Priya; Babyn, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Originally described as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder with a distinctive microscopic appearance. A rare entity, RDD is often under-diagnosed because of a low index of suspicion by both radiologist and pathologist. Through this article, we wish to apprise radiologists of the spectrum of disease that can be encountered in this disorder. RDD can mimic other common childhood skeletal diseases including benign Langerhans cell histiocytosis and lymphoma. The clinical and radiological manifestations of RDD vary depending upon organ involvement, and its imaging features are often confused with those of other disorders. RDD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unifocal and multifocal skeletal involvement caused by granulomatous diseases, infections, pseudogranulomatous lesions and malignancy. As long-term outcome is usually good, a conservative approach is justified in most cases. Contrasted with its typical appearance, presenting with bilateral symmetrical cervical adenopathy (as shown in one patient), we also report extranodal involvement of bone in two patients. Extranodal disease occurs along with concomitant nodal disease in about 43% of patients. In 23% of patients, isolated extranodal RDD can be seen, most commonly in the head and neck. In two of our patients, we observed extranodal involvement with skeletal involvement away from the head and neck not associated with lymphadenopathy. Skeletal involvement in RDD without lymphadenopathy is rare, occurring only in 2% of all the patients reported to date. (orig.)

  4. Nutritional Management of Insulin Resistance in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Wylie-Rosett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is an emerging global health concern. It is the most common form of chronic liver disease in Western countries, affecting both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses a broad spectrum of fatty liver disease, ranging from simple steatosis (NAFL to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. First-line therapy for NAFLD includes weight loss achieved through diet and physical activity. However, there is a lack of evidenced-based dietary recommendations. The American Diabetes Association’s (ADA recommendations that aim to reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease may also be applicable to the NAFLD population. The objectives of this review are to: (1 provide an overview of NAFLD in the context of insulin resistance, and (2 provide a rationale for applying relevant aspects of the ADA recommendations to the nutritional management of NAFLD.

  5. Review: Potential biotechnological assets related to plant immunity modulation applicable in engineering disease-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marilia Santos; Arraes, Fabrício Barbosa Monteiro; Campos, Magnólia de Araújo; Grossi-de-Sa, Maira; Fernandez, Diana; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima

    2018-05-01

    This review emphasizes the biotechnological potential of molecules implicated in the different layers of plant immunity, including, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS), and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) that can be applied in the development of disease-resistant genetically modified (GM) plants. These biomolecules are produced by pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes) or plants during their mutual interactions. Biomolecules involved in the first layers of plant immunity, PTI and ETS, include inhibitors of pathogen cell-wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs), plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and susceptibility (S) proteins, while the ETI-related biomolecules include plant resistance (R) proteins. The biomolecules involved in plant defense PTI/ETI responses described herein also include antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and ribosome-inhibiting proteins (RIPs), as well as enzymes involved in plant defensive secondary metabolite biosynthesis (phytoanticipins and phytoalexins). Moreover, the regulation of immunity by RNA interference (RNAi) in GM disease-resistant plants is also considered. Therefore, the present review does not cover all the classes of biomolecules involved in plant innate immunity that may be applied in the development of disease-resistant GM crops but instead highlights the most common strategies in the literature, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thyroid profiles in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone and episodes of thyrotoxicosis, including repeated painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Matsuo; Otsuka, Fumiko; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ban, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Thyrotoxic disease can be difficult to recognize in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) because the clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis cannot be observed, and thyrotropin (TSH) may not be suppressed because of hormone resistance. Painless thyroiditis is a relatively common cause of thyrotoxicosis, but its occurrence in RTH has not been reported. We assessed the thyroid profile in a patient with RTH and episodes of thyrotoxicosis who experienced repeated painless thyroiditis. A 44-year-old Japanese woman with RTH, which was confirmed by the presence of a P453A mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene, showed a slight elevation of the basal levels of thyroid hormones, which indicated that her pituitary RTH was mild. She experienced a slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia concomitant with TSH suppression. A diagnosis of painless thyroiditis was made because of the absence of TSH receptor antibodies, low Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland, and transient suppression followed by a slight elevation of TSH following the elevation of thyroid hormones. The patient's complaints of general malaise and occasional palpitations did not change throughout the course of painless thyroiditis. Three years later, painless thyroiditis occurred again without any deterioration of the clinical manifestations. Mild pituitary RTH can be overcome by slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia during mild thyrotoxicosis. When pituitary resistance is severe and TSH is not suppressed, thyrotoxicosis may be overlooked.

  7. "Nanoantibiotics": a new paradigm for treating infectious diseases using nanomaterials in the antibiotics resistant era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ae Jung; Kwon, Young Jik

    2011-12-10

    Despite the fact that we live in an era of advanced and innovative technologies for elucidating underlying mechanisms of diseases and molecularly designing new drugs, infectious diseases continue to be one of the greatest health challenges worldwide. The main drawbacks for conventional antimicrobial agents are the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. Drug resistance enforces high dose administration of antibiotics, often generating intolerable toxicity, development of new antibiotics, and requests for significant economic, labor, and time investments. Recently, nontraditional antibiotic agents have been of tremendous interest in overcoming resistance that is developed by several pathogenic microorganisms against most of the commonly used antibiotics. Especially, several classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs) and nanosized carriers for antibiotics delivery have proven their effectiveness for treating infectious diseases, including antibiotics resistant ones, in vitro as well as in animal models. This review summarizes emerging efforts in combating against infectious diseases, particularly using antimicrobial NPs and antibiotics delivery systems as new tools to tackle the current challenges in treating infectious diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  9. 'CM 88' - A multiple disease resistant chickpea mutant variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.A.; Hassan, Mahmudul; Sadiq, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Chickpea is the most important grain legume crop of Pakistan. Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum F. sp cicer) are most serious diseases, having the potential to devastate a crop. A multiple disease resistant and high yielding mutant CM 88 has been developed through 100 Gy gamma irradiation treatment of variety 'C 727'. This was once a widely grown and popular variety, which lost its resistance to Ascochyta and was replaced. The selection of mutants was performed in the M2 generation grown in the Ascochyta blight nursery and sixteen mutants were selected. In the subsequent generations CM 88 proved resistant to both Ascochyta blight and Fusarium wilt, and exhibited superiority in agronomic characteristics. CM 88 was also tested for many years in the various yield trials on research stations and farmers fields throughout the country. In these trials it out yielded both the parent and standard varieties. The mutant CM 88 has been approved by the Punjab Seed Council on 27 October 1994 for general cultivation in the Punjab Province, especially the Thal area which accounts for more than 70% of the area under chickpea cultivation. (author)

  10. The disease related deaths due to differentiated thyroid carcinomas treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, Lj.; Kermeci, K.; Malesevic, M.; Mihailovic, J.; Srbovan, D.; Popadic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the disease related deaths of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine. Patients and Methods: 364 DTC patients were treated from 1977 to the end of 2000. All patients were operated, treated by radioiodine and by hormonal therapy, external radiotherapy was applied in 22 and chemotherapy in 6 of them. 54 treated patients were lost from the follow-up. The course of disease and outcomes are known in 310 patients, among them 53 patients died. The disease related deaths occurred in 33 (10.6%) patients. Results: Between 33 patients whose deaths were in relation with DTC the disease progression was the cause of deaths in 30 (9.7% of treated) patients (the locoregional disease in 10, distant metastases /M1/ in 17, locoregional disease + M1 in 3 patients). From the late complications of treatment died 3 (1%) patients (all of them were in complete remission to the deaths). The mean survival of these 33 patients from the diagnosis to the end of the life was 6.9 years, median 5.1 years, range 2 months to 23.9 years. The five years survived 54.6% of them, 10 years 21.2% and more than 20 years 3%. M1 had 72.7% of patients (lung and/or bone M1 were present in 91.7% of them), N1 had 69.7% and in 30.3% local tumor was T4. In relation to all treated patients died 14.6% men compared to 9% women (p<0.05), 15.7% of patients 45 years old or older compared to 4.4% of younger then 45 years (p<0.001) and 21.3% of patients with follicular type of DTC compared to 7.3% with papillary type (p<0.001). From all patients without radioiodine accumulation in tumor tissue died 60%. Conclusion: The DTC related deaths were the consequence of M1 and less frequently the result of locoregional disease (T4 and/or N1) in about 1/10 of all treated patients. The deaths as result of the late complications of treatment were exceptional. The deaths were significantly more frequent between males, patients 45 years old or older and patients

  11. Emergence of Lamivudine-Resistant HBV during Antiretroviral Therapy Including Lamivudine for Patients Coinfected with HIV and HBV in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijia; Zhu, Ting; Song, Xiaojing; Huang, Ying; Yang, Feifei; Guan, Shuo; Xie, Jing; Gohda, Jin; Hosoya, Noriaki; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Liu, Wenjun; Gao, George Fu; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Li, Taisheng; Ishida, Takaomi

    2015-01-01

    In China, HIV-1-infected patients typically receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) that includes lamivudine (3TC) as a reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) (ART-3TC). Previous studies from certain developed countries have shown that, in ART-3TC, 3TC-resistant HBV progressively emerges at an annual rate of 15–20% in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV. This scenario in China warrants investigation because >10% of all HIV-infected patients in China are HBV carriers. We measured the occurrence of 3TC-resistant HBV during ART-3TC for HIV-HBV coinfection and also tested the effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) used as an additional RTI (ART-3TC/TDF) in a cohort study in China. We obtained 200 plasma samples collected from 50 Chinese patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV (positive for hepatitis B surface antigen) and examined them for the prevalence of 3TC-resistant HBV by directly sequencing PCR products that covered the HBV reverse-transcriptase gene. We divided the patients into ART-3TC and ART-3TC/TDF groups and compared the efficacy of treatment and incidence of drug-resistance mutation between the groups. HIV RNA and HBV DNA loads drastically decreased in both ART-3TC and ART-3TC/TDF groups. In the ART-3TC group, HBV breakthrough or insufficient suppression of HBV DNA loads was observed in 20% (10/50) of the patients after 96-week treatment, and 8 of these patients harbored 3TC-resistant mutants. By contrast, neither HBV breakthrough nor treatment failure was recorded in the ART-3TC/TDF group. All of the 3TC-resistant HBV mutants emerged from the cases in which HBV DNA loads were high at baseline. Our results clearly demonstrated that ART-3TC is associated with the emergence of 3TC-resistant HBV in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV and that ART-3TC/TDF reduces HBV DNA loads to an undetectable level. These findings support the use of TDF-based treatment regimens for patients coinfected with HIV-1 and HBV. PMID:26288093

  12. Diabetes mellitus, a complex and heterogeneous disease, and the role of insulin resistance as a determinant of diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalliedde, Janaka; Gnudi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous condition. The individualization of care and treatment necessitates an understanding of the individual patient's pathophysiology of DM that underpins their DM classification and clinical presentation. Classical type-2 diabetes mellitus is due to a combination of insulin resistance and an insulin secretory defect. Type-1 diabetes is characterized by a near-absolute deficiency of insulin secretion. More recently, advances in genetics and a better appreciation of the atypical features of DM has resulted in more categories of diabetes. In the context of kidney disease, patients with DM and microalbuminuria are more insulin resistant, and insulin resistance may be a pathway that results in accelerated progression of diabetic kidney disease. This review summarizes the updated classification of DM, including more rarer categories and their associated renal manifestations that need to be considered in patients who present with atypical features. The benefits and limitations of the tests utilized to make a diagnosis of DM are discussed. We also review the putative pathways and mechanisms by which insulin resistance drives the progression of diabetic kidney disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Omics Approach to Identify Factors Involved in Brassica Disease Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo; Bhadauria, Vijai; Cartea, Maria E; Rodríguez, Victor M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding plant's defense mechanisms and their response to biotic stresses is of fundamental meaning for the development of resistant crop varieties and more productive agriculture. The Brassica genus involves a large variety of economically important species and cultivars used as vegetable source, oilseeds, forage and ornamental. Damage caused by pathogens attack affects negatively various aspects of plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Over the last few decades, advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to biotic stress conditions. In this regard, various 'omics' technologies enable qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the abundance of various biological molecules in a high-throughput manner, and thus allow determination of their variation between different biological states on a genomic scale. In this review, we have described advances in 'omic' tools (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) in the view of conventional and modern approaches being used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie Brassica disease resistance.

  14. Short-term Evaluation of a Comprehensive Education Program Including Inhaler Training and Disease Management on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kwang Ha; Chung, Wou Young; Park, Joo Hun; Hwang, Sung Chul; Kim, Tae Eun; Oh, Min Jung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Sang Ha; Yum, Ho Kee

    2017-10-01

    Proper education regarding inhaler usage and optimal management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is essential for effectively treating patients with COPD. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive education program including inhaler training and COPD management. We enlisted 127 patients with COPD on an outpatient basis at 43 private clinics in Korea. The patients were educated on inhaler usage and disease management for three visits across 2 weeks. Physicians and patients were administered a COPD assessment test (CAT) and questionnaires about the correct usage of inhalers and management of COPD before commencement of this program and after their third visit. The outcomes of 127 COPD patients were analyzed. CAT scores (19.6±12.5 vs. 15.1±12.3) improved significantly after this program (pmanagement and the correct technique for using inhalers than those who did not have improved CAT scores (peducation program including inhaler training and COPD management at a primary care setting improved CAT scores and led to patients' better understanding of COPD management. Copyright©2017. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

  15. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  16. Intracellular, genetic or congenital immunisation--transgenic approaches to increase disease resistance of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Brem, G

    1996-01-26

    Novel approaches to modify disease resistance or susceptibility in livestock are justified not only by economical reasons and with respect to animal welfare but also by recent advancements in molecular genetics. The control or elimination of infectious pathogens in farm animals is historically achieved by the use of vaccines and drugs and by quarantine safeguards and eradication. Currently, research on the improvement of disease resistance based on nucleic acid technology focuses on two main issues: additive gene transfer and the development of nucleic acid vaccines. The strategies aim at the stable or transient expression of components known to influence non-specific or specific host defence mechanisms against infectious pathogens. Thus, candidates for gene transfer experiments include all genes inducing or conferring innate and acquired immunity as well as specific disease resistance genes. Referring to the site and mode of action and the source of the effective agent the strategies are termed 'intracellular', 'genetic' and 'congenital' immunisation. The targeted disruption (deletive gene transfer) of disease susceptibility genes awaits the establishment of totipotential embryonic cell lineages in farm animals. The cytokine network regulates cellular viability, growth and differentiation in physiological and pathophysiological states. The identification of the JAK-STAT pathway used by many cytokines for their intracellular signal propagation has provided not only new target molecules for modulating the immune response but will also permit the further elucidation of host-pathogen interactions and resistance mechanisms.

  17. Evaluation of chronic kidney disease patients for insulin resistance in tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.; Hayat, A.; Khan, S.A.; Ahmad, T.M.; Majeed, N.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the patients of chronic kidney disease for insulin resistance. Study Design: Cross sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the chemical pathology department of Army Medical College/Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Nov 2016 to Apr 2017. Material and Methods: Fifty patients were recruited for this study with deranged renal functions and/or having any structural renal abnormality for more than 3 months. These patients did not have any history of diabetes and dialysis. Fifty ages matched healthy individuals were included as controls. Renal function tests, lipid profile, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin levels were performed in all subjects. Insulin resistance was calculated by using homeostatic model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results of this study were analyzed on SPSS version 23. Results: Fasting insulin levels were much higher in the patient with chronic kidney disease as compared to controls (p-value=0.001). HOMA-IR in cases was also significantly higher. Statistical comparison of lipid profile showed significant difference of only triglycerides level. Conclusion: HOMA-IR is markedly raised in the patients of chronic kidney disease. This indicates a significant association of chronic kidney disease with insulin resistance. (author)

  18. Simulation of AZ-PN100 resist pattern fluctuation in X-ray lithography, including synchrotron beam polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheckler, E.W.; Ogawa, Taro; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Takeda, Eiji; Oizumi, Hiroaki.

    1993-01-01

    A new simulation model for nanometer-scale pattern fluctuation in X-ray lithography is presented and applied to a study of AZ-PN100 negative chemical amplification resist. The exposure simulation considers polarized photons from a synchrotron radiation (SR) source. Monte Carlo simulation of Auger and photoelectron generation is followed by electron scattering simulation to determine the deposited energy distribution at the nanometer scale, including beam polarization effects. An acid-catalyst random walk model simulates the post-exposure bake (PEB) step. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and developed resist thickness measurements are used to fit PEB and rate models for AZ-PN100. A polymer removal model for development simulation predicts the macroscopic resist shape and pattern roughness. The simulated 3σ linewidth variation is in excess of 24 nm. Simulation also shows a detrimental effect if the beam polarization is perpendicular to the line. Simulation assuming a theoretical ideal exposure yields a 50 nm minimum line for standard process conditions. (author)

  19. Phenotypic and Genotypic Resistance of Salmonella Isolates from Healthy and Diseased Pigs in China During 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Yueguang; Zhu, Shun; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Sun, Mengzhen; Zou, Geng; Meng, Xianrong; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Rui; Li, Shaowen

    2017-07-01

    The antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella strains is rapidly increasing worldwide, which poses significant threats to animal and public health. In this study, a total of 249 porcine Salmonella isolates collected in China during 2008-2015 were examined, including 155 clinical isolates from diseased pigs and 94 nonclinical isolates from healthy pigs. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration of seven antimicrobial agents, 96.4% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the tested antibiotics and 81.0% of them showed multidrug resistance. The highest antimicrobial resistance was observed for tetracycline (85.9%), and the lowest was found for cefotaxime (13.3%). The isolates from diseased pigs exhibited significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from healthy pigs. Twenty-two isolates from healthy pigs were resistant to ciprofloxacin, which may inhibit the curative effectiveness of fluoroquinolones on bacterial food-borne poisoning and infections in humans caused by contaminated food. Moreover, cefotaxime resistance of the strains isolated from diseased pigs during 2013-2015 was significantly higher compared with the strains isolated during 2008-2010. Further study showed that the correlation between phenotypic and genotypic resistance varied among the isolates from different sources, and in many cases, the presence of resistance genes was not consistent with the resistance to the corresponding antimicrobials. These results are very significant for veterinary practice and public health.

  20. Mechanisms linking brain insulin resistance to Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matioli, Maria Niures P.S.; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) can increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review briefly describes current concepts in mechanisms linking DM and insulin resistance/deficiency to AD. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) resistance can contribute to neurodegeneration by several mechanisms which involve: energy and metabolism deficits, impairment of Glucose transporter-4 function, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of AGEs, ROS and RNS with increased production of neuro-inflammation and activation of pro-apoptosis cascade. Impairment in insulin receptor function and increased expression and activation of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) have also been described. These processes compromise neuronal and glial function, with a reduction in neurotransmitter homeostasis. Insulin/IGF resistance causes the accumulation of AβPP-Aβ oligomeric fibrils or insoluble larger aggregated fibrils in the form of plaques that are neurotoxic. Additionally, there is production and accumulation of hyper-phosphorylated insoluble fibrillar tau which can exacerbate cytoskeletal collapse and synaptic disconnection. PMID:29213950

  1. PDT in periodontal disease of HAART resistance patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovani, Elcio M.; Noro-Filho, Gilberto A.; Caputo, Bruno V.; Casarin, Renato; Costa, Claudio; Salgado, Daniela; Santos, Camila C.

    2016-03-01

    HIV/Aids patients present a change of microbiota associated with host immunodeficiency. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) showed as a promising and viable alternative in reducing microbiota. Present study evaluate effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in periodontal disease of AIDS patients with highly activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure, measuring the clinical periodontal parameters and periodontal microbiota. Twelve patients with HARRT resistance (R group) divided into two groups (control and PDT) and 12 patients with no HAART resistance (NR group) divided into two groups (control and PDT). The results show the difference in baseline of CD4 cells count, NR group 640.0 +/- 176.2 cells/mm3 R group and 333.3 +/- 205.8 cells / mm3 (pperiodontal parameters (PD and CAL), PDT was more effective than the control group only in the NR group (p periodontal parameters between the both R groups (p>0.05%). Microbiological evaluation in R group presents a general reduction in the Aa at 3 and 6 months. Furthermore, demonstrated a reduction of Pg in all groups at 6 months and in R group at 3 months. The impact assessment of photodynamic therapy in patients with different levels of immunosuppression determined that the combination of mechanical periodontal treatment with photodynamic therapy in patients with HAART failure did not cause additional benefits. Therefore, PDT in this study could not been indicated in HAART resistance patients.

  2. Mechanisms linking brain insulin resistance to Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Niures P.S. Matioli

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that Diabetes Mellitus (DM can increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD. This review briefly describes current concepts in mechanisms linking DM and insulin resistance/deficiency to AD. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF resistance can contribute to neurodegeneration by several mechanisms which involve: energy and metabolism deficits, impairment of Glucose transporter-4 function, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of AGEs, ROS and RNS with increased production of neuro-inflammation and activation of pro-apoptosis cascade. Impairment in insulin receptor function and increased expression and activation of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE have also been described. These processes compromise neuronal and glial function, with a reduction in neurotransmitter homeostasis. Insulin/IGF resistance causes the accumulation of AβPP-Aβ oligomeric fibrils or insoluble larger aggregated fibrils in the form of plaques that are neurotoxic. Additionally, there is production and accumulation of hyper-phosphorylated insoluble fibrillar tau which can exacerbate cytoskeletal collapse and synaptic disconnection.

  3. Insulin Resistance in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Tser Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome and its components are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD development. Insulin resistance (IR plays a central role in the metabolic syndrome and is associated with increased risk for CKD in nondiabetic patients. IR is common in patients with mild-to-moderate stage CKD, even when the glomerular filtration rate is within the normal range. IR, along with oxidative stress and inflammation, also promotes kidney disease. In patients with end stage renal disease, IR is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and is linked to protein energy wasting and malnutrition. Systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, elevated serum adipokines and fetuin-A, metabolic acidosis, vitamin D deficiency, depressed serum erythropoietin, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and suppressors of cytokine signaling all cause IR by suppressing insulin receptor-PI3K-Akt pathways in CKD. In addition to adequate renal replacement therapy and correction of uremia-associated factors, thiazolidinedione, ghrelin, protein restriction, and keto-acid supplementation are therapeutic options. Weight control, reduced daily prednisolone dosage, and the use of cyclosporin decrease the risk of developing new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation. Improved understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying IR in CKD may lead to more effective therapeutic strategies to reduce uremia-associated morbidity and mortality.

  4. Breeding of new variety Yangfumai 4 with high resistance to wheat yellow mosaic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jianhua; Wang Jinrong; Liu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To control the infection of wheat yellow mosaic disease,new wheat variety with high-yield, disease-resistant was selected. Ningmai 9, which carries yellow mosaic disease resistant genes, was used as original material. Combination of conventional breeding technique and radiation methods, a new wheat variety Yangfumai 4 was developed during 1996-2007, and registered in 2008. The new wheat variety with high yield and resistance to yellow mosaic disease is suitable to plant in the Yangtze River region. (authors)

  5. Multiple disease resistance to fungal and oomycete pathogens using a recombinant inbred line population in pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporating disease resistance into cultivars is a primary focus of modern breeding programs. Resistance to pathogens is often introgressed from landrace or wild individuals with poor fruit quality into commercial-quality cultivars. Sites of multiple disease resistance (MDR) are regions or “hotspo...

  6. Clinicopathological review of immunohistochemically defined Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease-including some interesting cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Gil Myeong; Kim, Jo-Heon; Lim, Gil Chai; Kim, Jinseok

    2012-10-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (KFD) is a benign, self-limited disease characterized by tender regional lymphadenopathy with fever. KFD remains a poorly defined disease, and no clear diagnostic criteria are available. Here, we assess the clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic findings of KFD cases and report two unusual cases. Forty KFD patients that underwent lymph node (LN) biopsy and diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining, from January 2003 to November 2010, were enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients had a mean age of 29.3 years, and 29 (72.5 %) were women. Affected LNs were mainly located unilaterally in the cervical area. Mean LN size was 15.3 mm. Twenty-eight (70 %) patients had LN tenderness, and 25 (62.5 %) patients had fever. Leukopenia was observed in 18 of 35 evaluable patients. C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated in most patients. Anti-nuclear antibody was positive in four of 19 evaluable patients, but all had been diagnosed with concurrent systemic lupus erythematosus. Histologically, the 40 cases were classified into three types, that is, as proliferative (37.5 %), necrotizing (55.0 %), or xanthomatous (7.5 %). Interesting cases: Case 1 was a 35-year-old female with KFD and uveitis, retinal vasculitis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Case 2 was a 47-year-old male with KFD and bone marrow involvement and presented with severe bicytopenia. Although KFD is an uncommon self-limited benign disorder, it must be included in the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy with fever and cytopenia. It is important that the clinical features of KFD be understood to reach a correct diagnosis.

  7. Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes in treatment-resistant hypertension in patients with coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Fayyad, Rana; Laskey, Rachel; Demicco, David A; Deedwania, Prakash; Kostis, John B; Messerli, Franz H

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension has been recognized. However, much of the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes are largely unknown, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. We evaluated 10,001 patients with coronary artery disease who were enrolled in the Treating to New Targets trial. Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg despite 3 antihypertensive agents or hypertension. In a multivariable model adjusting for baseline differences, the treatment-resistant hypertension group had a 64% increase in primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-1.94; P hypertension group. In addition, patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension had a 71% increase in major coronary event (P hypertension group. Results were largely similar whether the definition of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension was based on a blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg despite 3 agents or a blood pressure hypertension is associated with a marked increase in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, including an increase in all-cause death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hip and pelvis diseases on lumbar AP radiographs including both hip joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Soo; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Jeong Ho; Song, Ha Heon; Shim, Dae Moo [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    To determine the frequency of disease, and to evaluate the methods used for lumbar spine radiography in Korea. Sixty university and training hospitals were randomly selected and asked to describe the projections, film size and radiographic techniques employed for routine radiography in patients with suspected disease of the lumbar spine. Plain radiographs of 1215 patients, taken using 14x17 inch film and depicting both hip joints and the lumbar region, were analysed between March 1999 and February 2000. In 15 patients (1.2%), the radiographs revealed hip or pelvic lesion, confirmed as follows: avascular necrosis of the femoral head (n=11, with bilateral lesion in four cases); sustained ankylosing spondylitis (n=2); acetabular dysplasia (n=1); and insufficiency fracture of the pubic rami secondary to osteoporosis (n=1). In 11 or the 20 hospitals which responded, 14{sup x}17{sup f}ilm was being used for lumbar radiography, while in the other nine, film size was smaller. Plain radiography of the lumbar spine including both hip joints, may be a useful way to simultaneously evaluate lesions not only of the lumbar spine but also of the hip and/or pelvis.

  9. Broader prevalence of Wolbachia in insects including potential human disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, C D; Gonçalves, D S; Baton, L A; Shimabukuro, P H F; Carvalho, F D; Moreira, L A

    2015-06-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular, maternally transmitted bacteria considered the most abundant endosymbionts found in arthropods. They reproductively manipulate their host in order to increase their chances of being transmitted to the offspring, and currently are being used as a tool to control vector-borne diseases. Studies on distribution of Wolbachia among its arthropod hosts are important both for better understanding why this bacterium is so common, as well as for its potential use as a biological control agent. Here, we studied the incidence of Wolbachia in a broad range of insect species, collected from different regions of Brazil, using three genetic markers (16S rRNA, wsp and ftsZ), which varied in terms of their sensitivity to detect this bacterium. The overall incidence of Wolbachia among species belonging to 58 families and 14 orders was 61.9%. The most common positive insect orders were Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, with Diptera and Hemiptera having the highest numbers of Wolbachia-positive families. They included potential human disease vectors whose infection status has never been reported before. Our study further shows the importance of using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for high-throughput and sensitive Wolbachia screening.

  10. The resistance response of sunflower genotypes to black stem disease under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza DARVISHZADEH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phoma black stem, caused by Phoma macdonaldii, is one of the most important diseases of sunflower in the world. The sources of resistance to Phoma black stem were investigated. A total of 184 genotypes, including some recombinant inbred lines (RILs, several M6 mutant lines obtained by gamma irradiation of seed of the genotype AS 613, and other genotypes from different countries, were evaluated against an aggressive French isolate (MP6 in controlled conditions. The study was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Each replicate consisted of 10–12 seedlings. Twenty μL of spore suspension (106 pycnidiospores mL-1 were deposited on the intersection of the cotyledon petiole and the hypocotyl of sunflower plantlets at the two-leaf stage. The percentage of the area exhibiting disease symptoms was scored on the two cotyledon petioles of each of the plantlets three, five and seven days after inoculation. The disease progress rate (rd, as the slope of the regression line for disease severity against time, was also calculated. Analysis of variance detected significant differences among sunflower genotypes for disease severity 7 days after inoculation,as well as for the disease progress rate. A strong correlation (r=0.96, P<0.01 was found between disease severity 7 days after inoculation and the disease progress rate. The inbred lines F1250/03 (origin: Hungary, M5-54-1, M6-862-1 (mutant lines, SDR 18 (origin: USA and two wild Helianthus accessions, 1012 Nebraska and 211 Illinois, (wild type were highly resistant to Phoma black stem. These findings will assist breeders in choosing parent plants for breeding durable resistance to Phoma black stem.

  11. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Efficacy of a Multimodal Cognitive Rehabilitation Including Psychomotor and Endurance Training in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reuter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction might occur early in the course of Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training is thought to improve cognitive performance. However, transfer of improvements achieved in paper and pencil tests into daily life has been difficult. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a multimodal cognitive rehabilitation programme including physical exercises might be more successful than cognitive training programmes without motor training. 240 PD-patients were included in the study and randomly allocated to three treatment arms, group A cognitive training, group B cognitive training and transfer training and group C cognitive training, transfer training and psychomotor and endurance training. The primary outcome measure was the ADAS-Cog. The secondary outcome measure was the SCOPA-Cog. Training was conducted for 4 weeks on a rehabilitation unit, followed by 6 months training at home. Caregivers received an education programme. The combination of cognitive training using paper and pencil and the computer, transfer training and physical training seems to have the greatest effect on cognitive function. Thus, patients of group C showed the greatest improvement on the ADAS-Cog and SCOPA-COG and were more likely to continue with the training programme after the study.

  13. Is cytomegalovirus infection related to inflammatory bowel disease, especially steroid-resistant inflammatory bowel disease? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ya-li Lv, Fei-fei Han, Yang-jie Jia, Zi-rui Wan, Li-li Gong, He Liu, Li-hong Liu Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Numerous studies have been conducted to analyze the association between HCMV infection and risk of IBD and steroid-resistant IBD, but no clear consensus had been reached. Objectives: The aim of this study was to confirm this relationship precisely by doing a systematic review and meta-analysis. Study design: We identified relevant studies through a search of PubMed and Embase. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they 1 evaluated the association between HCMV infection and IBD disease; 2 evaluated the association between HCMV infection and steroid-resistant IBD disease; 3 were case–control studies or nested case–control studies; 4 provided the numbers (or percentage of positivity for HCMV infection in cases and controls, respectively. Data were extracted and analyzed independently by two investigators. Results and conclusion: A total of 18 studies including 1,168 patients and 951 health groups was identified, and HCMV infection was distinctly confirmed as a risk factor for the occurrence and development of IBD. When involving 17 studies including 1,306 IBD patients, a total of 52.9% of patients in the cytomegalovirus (CMV-positive groups were observed to have steroid resistance, compared with 30.2% of patients in the CMV-negative groups. There was a significant difference in the risk of steroid resistance between people exposed to HCMV infection and those not exposed HCMV infection in IBD patients. This meta-analysis suggested that HCMV infection is associated with an increased risk for IBD and steroid-resistant IBD. Keywords: cytomegalovirus, infection, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, meta-analysis

  14. Tagging of resistance gene(s) to rhizomania disease in sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rhizomania disease is one of the most important diseases in Iran and some other parts of the world which potentially could play a role in decreasing sugar yield in fields. One approach to combat with this disease is the use of resistance varieties. This varieties have been identified which are having resistance genes to ...

  15. The molecular basis of disease resistance in higher plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xxxxxx

    Therefore, manipulating a single transcription factor could have the same effect as manipulating a set of specific genes within the plant. As highlighted above, transgenic plants allow the targeted ... including molecular techniques and genetics will provide insights into pathogen-defense mechanism and subsequent disease ...

  16. Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Marek Krasowski; Judy Loo; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of beech bark proteins from trees resistant and susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) was conducted. Sixteen trees from eight geographically isolated stands, 10 resistant (healthy) and 6 susceptible (diseased/infested) trees, were studied. The genetic complexity of the sample unit, the sampling across a wide geographic area, and the complexity of...

  17. Evaluation of sugarcane introgression lines for resistance to brown rust disease caused by Puccinia melanocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Wen-Feng, Li; Ying-Kun, Huang; Xin, Lu; Zhi-Ming, Luo; Jiong, Yin; Hong-Li, Shan; Rong-Yue, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane brown rust disease caused by Puccinia melanocephala is one of the important fungal diseases affecting sugarcane yield around the world. Cultivar resistance is the most appropriate control method for this disease. In this study, 62 introgression lines chosen from the crossing Saccharum officinarum L. cv. Ludashi x Erianthus rockii Yunnan 95-19 were evaluated for brown rust resistance using artificial inoculation. More than 30% of the introgression lines were identified as resistant. ...

  18. A maize resistance gene functions against bacterial streak disease in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bingyu; Lin, Xinghua; Poland, Jesse; Trick, Harold; Leach, Jan; Hulbert, Scot

    2005-01-01

    Although cereal crops all belong to the grass family (Poacea), most of their diseases are specific to a particular species. Thus, a given cereal species is typically resistant to diseases of other grasses, and this nonhost resistance is generally stable. To determine the feasibility of transferring nonhost resistance genes (R genes) between distantly related grasses to control specific diseases, we identified a maize R gene that recognizes a rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, wh...

  19. Cost of tobacco-related diseases, including passive smoking, in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, S M; Ho, L M; Lapsley, H M; Chau, J; Cheung, W L; Ho, S Y; Pow, M; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J

    2006-04-01

    Costs of tobacco-related disease can be useful evidence to support tobacco control. In Hong Kong we now have locally derived data on the risks of smoking, including passive smoking. To estimate the health-related costs of tobacco from both active and passive smoking. Using local data, we estimated active and passive smoking-attributable mortality, hospital admissions, outpatient, emergency and general practitioner visits for adults and children, use of nursing homes and domestic help, time lost from work due to illness and premature mortality in the productive years. Morbidity risk data were used where possible but otherwise estimates based on mortality risks were used. Utilisation was valued at unit costs or from survey data. Work time lost was valued at the median wage and an additional costing included a value of USD 1.3 million for a life lost. In the Hong Kong population of 6.5 million in 1998, the annual value of direct medical costs, long term care and productivity loss was USD 532 million for active smoking and USD 156 million for passive smoking; passive smoking accounted for 23% of the total costs. Adding the value of attributable lives lost brought the annual cost to USD 9.4 billion. The health costs of tobacco use are high and represent a net loss to society. Passive smoking increases these costs by at least a quarter. This quantification of the costs of tobacco provides strong motivation for legislative action on smoke-free areas in the Asia Pacific Region and elsewhere.

  20. Reliability and limitation of various diagnostic methods including nuclear medicine in myocardial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyasu, Yoshiki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Yamazaki, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, nuclear method, cardiac catheterization, left ventriculography and endomyocardial biopsy (biopsy) were performed in 40 cases of cardiomyopathy (CM), 9 of endocardial fibroelastosis and 19 of specific heart muscle disease, and the usefulness and limitation of each method was comparatively estimated. In CM, various methods including biopsy were performed. The 40 patients were classified into 3 groups, i.e., hypertrophic (17), dilated (20) and non-hypertrophic.non-dilated (3) on the basis of left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy of the ventricular wall. The hypertrophic group was divided into 4 subgroups: 9 septal, 4 apical, 2 posterior and 2 anterior. The nuclear study is useful in assessing the site of the abnormal ventricular thickening, perfusion defect and ventricular function. Echocardiography is most useful in detecting asymmetric septal hypertrophy. The biopsy gives the sole diagnostic clue, especially in non-hypertrophic.non-dilated cardiomyopathy. ECG is useful in all cases but correlation with the site of disproportional hypertrophy was not obtained. (J.P.N.)

  1. Including refugees in disease elimination: challenges observed from a sleeping sickness programme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Robert, Okello; Kansiime, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring equity between forcibly-displaced and host area populations is a key challenge for global elimination programmes. We studied Uganda's response to the recent refugee influx from South Sudan to identify key governance and operational lessons for national sleeping sickness programmes working with displaced populations today. A refugee policy which favours integration of primary healthcare services for refugee and host populations and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect sleeping sickness at this health system level makes Uganda well-placed to include refugees in sleeping sickness surveillance. Using ethnographic observations of coordination meetings, review of programme data, interviews with sleeping sickness and refugee authorities and group discussions with health staff and refugees (2013-2016), we nevertheless identified some key challenges to equitably integrating refugees into government sleeping sickness surveillance. Despite fears that refugees were at risk of disease and posed a threat to elimination, six months into the response, programme coordinators progressed to a sentinel surveillance strategy in districts hosting the highest concentrations of refugees. This meant that RDTs, the programme's primary surveillance tool, were removed from most refugee-serving facilities, exacerbating existing inequitable access to surveillance and leading refugees to claim that their access to sleeping sickness tests had been better in South Sudan. This was not intentionally done to exclude refugees from care, rather, four key governance challenges made it difficult for the programme to recognise and correct inequities affecting refugees: (a) perceived donor pressure to reduce the sleeping sickness programme's scope without clear international elimination guidance on surveillance quality; (b) a problematic history of programme relations with refugee-hosting districts which strained supervision of surveillance quality; (c) difficulties that

  2. Mutation breeding for downy mildew resistance in pearl millet. Nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions in disease-resistant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, B.R.; Thakur, S.R.; Prakash, N.; Mehta, S.L.; Bhakta, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Under the need to rescue hybrid pearl millet cultivation in India from devastating damage by downy mildew, a mutation induction project was started in 1971 to make the commonly used male sterile parent Tift 23A resistant to the disease. Simultaneously sources of resistance from West Africa were used in crossbreeding by which climatic adaptation and male sterility had to be transferred. A number of mildew-resistant hybrids were developed, both from induced mutation and introduction. The resistant male sterile lines were further examined as to their common features and differences from susceptible lines. A strong evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction was obtained by biochemical and ultrastructural investigations. (author)

  3. Newcastle disease: An in-depth review including epidemiology and molecular diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of birds with strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), (synonyms: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), pigeon PMV-1 (PPMV-1)) are associated with two clinical outcomes: 1) Newcastle disease (ND) results from infections with virulent APMV-1, and is also called Exotic ND (END) in U. S...

  4. Cultural Characteristics of Rhizoctonia cerealis Isolated from Diseased Wheat Fields and Evaluation of the Resistance of Korean Winter Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Sook Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It was identified as a sharp eyespot (Rhizoctonia cerealis that the isolates from abnormal symptoms in wheat that showed yellowing leaves, necrotic spot on stem base and dead tillers. These isolates have slower growth property and fewer mycelia than Rhizoctonia solani AG-1(1A (KACC 40106. They showed binuclear cell, same media cultural and DNA characteristics to R. cerealis. They caused same symptoms on leaves and stem base appeared in artificial inoculation test, comparing to diseased wheat fields and also affect to maturing of kernels. They have optimal growth temperature and acidity on the artificial media as 20~25℃ and pH 5~7, respectively. In the investigation of varietal resistance of Korean winter cereal crops to sharp eyespot, there was no resistant in wheat cultivars that all materials infected over 20% diseased ratio. 12 cultivars including ``Anbaekmil``, however, considered to moderate resistance with 20 to 30% infection ratio. The others crops using in feeding, whole crop barley, oat, rye and triticale were resistant below 15% diseased degree except the rye that showed over 50% infection rate. It was the first evaluation to sharp eyespot resistance for the Korean feeding crop cultivars. Most tested Korean barley cultivars for malting and food were moderate and susceptible to the sharp eyespot. Only 3 hulled barley, ``Tapgolbori``, ``Albori`` and ``Seodunchalbori``, showed resistance with less than 10% diseased ratio. All tested naked barley cultivars showed susceptible response to the disease.

  5. A mathematical model of insulin resistance in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatz, Elise M; Coleman, Randolph A

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces a mathematical model representing the biochemical interactions between insulin signaling and Parkinson's disease. The model can be used to examine the changes that occur over the course of the disease as well as identify which processes would be the most effective targets for treatment. The model is mathematized using biochemical systems theory (BST). It incorporates a treatment strategy that includes several experimental drugs along with current treatments. In the past, BST models of neurodegeneration have used power law analysis and simulation (PLAS) to model the system. This paper recommends the use of MATLAB instead. MATLAB allows for more flexibility in both the model itself and in data analysis. Previous BST analyses of neurodegeneration began treatment at disease onset. As shown in this model, the outcomes of delayed, realistic treatment and full treatment at disease onset are significantly different. The delayed treatment strategy is an important development in BST modeling of neurodegeneration. It emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis, and allows for a more accurate representation of disease and treatment interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review: Endurance and Resistance Exercises Effects on Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nikou

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review article is to provide scientific evidence how resistance training and aerobic exercise are key constituents of health, fitness and longevity, and bring to realization that including both of them in our physical activity programs allows patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD to increase their exercise capacity. To date cardiovascular disease (CVD remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although genetic factors and age are important in determining the risk, other factors, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and diet are also major risk factors associated with the disease. Researches show that cardiac rehabilitation (CR is effective in reducing mortality risk after myocardial infarction (MI, and variety of exercise prescriptions can improve O2 peak, and possibly improve the quality of life of patients with CVD. Peak aerobic power (O2 peak, muscle strength, quality of life (QOL and physical activity have been reduced in patient with coronary artery disease (CAD that lead to a high prevalence CVD risk factors. These abnormalities increase with age too. Exercise interventions that can improve O2peak, muscle strength, and may also result in an improvement in QOL. In conclusion, it is now widely acknowledged that exercise training is an important component of the management of CVD that can improve functional capacity, quality of life, and prognosis.

  7. In vitro antibacterial and chemical properties of essential oils including native plants from Brazil against pathogenic and resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella da Silva; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Albano, Mariana; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Doyama, Julio Toshimi; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobials products from plants have increased in importance due to the therapeutic potential in the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, we aimed to examine the chemical characterisation (GC-MS) of essential oils (EO) from seven plants and measure antibacterial activities against bacterial strains isolated from clinical human specimens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and sensitive (MSSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium) and foods (Salmonella Enteritidis). Assays were performed using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and MIC90%) (mg/mL) by agar dilution and time kill curve methods (log CFU/mL) to aiming synergism between EO. EO chemical analysis showed a predominance of terpenes and its derivatives. The highest antibacterial activities were with Cinnamomun zeylanicum (0.25 mg/mL on almost bacteria tested) and Caryophyllus aromaticus EO (2.40 mg/mL on Salmonella Enteritidis), and the lowest activity was with Eugenia uniflora (from 50.80 mg/mL against MSSA to 92.40 mg/mL against both Salmonella sources and P. aeruginosa) EO. The time kill curve assays revealed the occurrence of bactericide synergism in combinations of C. aromaticus and C. zeylanicum with Rosmarinus. officinalis. Thus, the antibacterial activities of the EO were large and this can also be explained by complex chemical composition of the oils tested in this study and the synergistic effect of these EO, yet requires further investigation because these interactions between the various chemical compounds can increase or reduce (antagonism effect) the inhibitory effect of essential oils against bacterial strains.

  8. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Chae Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA, has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM. BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  9. Screening for anthracnose disease resistance in strawberry using a detached leaf assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoculation of detached strawberry leaves with Colletotrichum species may provide a rapid, non-destructive method of identifying anthracnose resistant germplasm. The reliability and validity of assessing disease severity is critical to disease management decisions. We inoculated detached strawberr...

  10. Inheritance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss spleen size and correlation with bacterial cold water disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious disease causes substantial loss in aquaculture and selective breeding for increased innate resistance offers an attractive strategy for controlling disease. In 2005, the NCCCWA implemented a selective breeding program to increase rainbow trout survival following challenge with Flavobacte...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  13. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant S aureus, in nine European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossen, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information about the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antimicrobial drugs has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal microbiota is thought to be an important reservoir of resistance. We aimed to compare the prevalence of nasal S aureus

  14. The renal arterial resistive index and stage of chronic kidney disease in patients with renal allograft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Stine O; Thiesson, Helle C; Poulsen, Lene N

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft.......The study investigated the optimal threshold value of renal arterial resistive index as assessed by Doppler ultrasonography determining chronic kidney disease stage 4 or higher in patients with renal allograft....

  15. Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Resistance in Circumpolar Inuit Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvermosegaard, Maria; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health issue in indigenous populations in the Arctic. These diseases have emerged concomitantly with profound social changes over the past 60 years. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on CVD risk among Arctic Inuit. Literature on prevalence, incidence, and time trends for CVD and its risk factors in Arctic Inuit populations was reviewed. Most evidence supports a similar incidence of coronary heart disease and a higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease among Arctic Inuit than seen in western populations. Factors that may increase CVD risk include aging of the population, genetic susceptibility, and a rapid increase in obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in parallel with decreasing physical activity and deterioration of the lipid profile. In contrast, and of great importance, there has been a decrease in smoking and alcohol intake (at least documented in Greenland), and contaminant levels are declining. Although there have been marked socioeconomic and dietary changes, it remains unsolved and to some extent controversial how this may have influenced cardiovascular risk among Arctic Inuit. The increase in life expectancy, in combination with improved prognosis for patients with manifest CVD, will inevitably lead to a large increase in absolute numbers of individuals affected by CVD in Arctic Inuit populations, exacerbated by the rise in most CVD risk factors over the past decades. For preventive purposes and for health care planning, it is crucial to carefully monitor disease incidence and trends in risk factors in these vulnerable Arctic populations. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  17. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented.We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34, remitted depression (n = 25, acute depression (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 64. Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F, hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D.The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  18. A Study of Remitted and Treatment-Resistant Depression Using MMPI and Including Pessimism and Optimism Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. Methods We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. Results ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. Conclusions The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts. PMID:25279466

  19. The perspectives of polygenic resistance in breeding for durable disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, P.

    2002-01-01

    Polygenic resistance is generally quantitative without clear race specific effects. With the onset of molecular markers technologies, the identification of chromosome regions that are involved in quantitative resistance has become feasible. These regions are designated quantitative trait loci

  20. Constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Moonkyung; Cho, Jung Hyun; Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Kang, Ha-Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Soh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, PepEST in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and SA-dependent PR proteins. A pepper esterase gene (PepEST) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In this study, we found that exogenous application of recombinant PepEST protein on the surface of the unripe pepper fruits led to a potentiated state for disease resistance in the fruits, including generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes that encode mostly small proteins with antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the role of PepEST in plant defense, we further developed transgenic pepper plants overexpressing PepEST under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular analysis confirmed the establishment of three independent transgenic lines carrying single copy of transgenes. The level of PepEST protein was estimated to be approximately 0.002 % of total soluble protein in transgenic fruits. In response to the anthracnose fungus, the transgenic fruits displayed higher expression of PR genes, PR3, PR5, PR10, and PepThi, than non-transgenic control fruits did. Moreover, immunolocalization results showed concurrent localization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and PR3 proteins, along with the PepEST protein, in the infected region of transgenic fruits. Disease rate analysis revealed significantly low occurrence of anthracnose disease in the transgenic fruits, approximately 30 % of that in non-transgenic fruits. Furthermore, the transgenic plants also exhibited resistance against C. acutatum and C. coccodes. Collectively, our results suggest that overexpression of PepEST in pepper confers enhanced resistance against the anthracnose fungi by activating the defense signaling

  1. Benefits of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise on albuminuria in diabetic and non-diabetic Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Kabasawa, Keiko; Hosojima, Michihiro; Yata, Yusuke; Saito, Mariko; Tanaka, Noriko; Tanaka, Junta; Tanabe, Naohito; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Saito, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    Albuminuria is a biomarker for chronic kidney disease and an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. A recent meta-analysis concluded that these risks increase with urinary albumin concentration, even when below the microalbuminuria threshold. Thus, minimizing urinary albumin may be a valuable therapeutic goal regardless of disease status. We investigated the benefits and safety of a 12-week lifestyle modification program including diet and combined aerobic and resistance exercise for reducing albuminuria in 295 normoalbuminuric or microalbuminuric Japanese adults, including 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 104 with metabolic syndrome (MS), and 145 with hypertension (HT). In the study population, the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) was reduced significantly (ΔUACR -3.8 ± 16.8 mg/g, P < 0.001) with no change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ΔeGFR -0.4 ± 7.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.343). The reduction in UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05). The UACR was also reduced in the T2DM, MS, and HT groups with no change in eGFR. Reduced UACR was associated with decreased fasting plasma glucose in the MS group and decreased systolic blood pressure in the HT group. The UACR was also reduced in 46 subjects using renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with no change in eGFR. Our 12-week lifestyle modification program reduced UACR, maintained eGFR, and improved multiple fitness findings in Japanese subjects including T2DM, MS, and HT patients.

  2. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marta S; Pereira, Anabela; Araújo, Susana M; Castro, Bruno B; Correia, António C M; Henriques, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR) dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of fecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of fecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull feces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin, and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and feces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull feces (29 and 32%) were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%). Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull feces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes bla TEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A), and tet(B), were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (bla CTX-M-1 and bla SHV-12) and seagull feces (bla CMY-2). Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull feces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived fecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  3. Seawater is a reservoir of multi-resistant Escherichia coli, including strains hosting plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Alves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine antibiotic resistance (AR dissemination in coastal water, considering the contribution of different sources of faecal contamination. Samples were collected in Berlenga, an uninhabited island classified as Natural Reserve and visited by tourists for aquatic recreational activities. To achieve our aim, AR in Escherichia coli isolates from coastal water was compared to AR in isolates from two sources of faecal contamination: human-derived sewage and seagull faeces. Isolation of E. coli was done on Chromocult agar. Based on genetic typing 414 strains were established. Distribution of E. coli phylogenetic groups was similar among isolates of all sources. Resistances to streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and amoxicillin were the most frequent. Higher rates of AR were found among seawater and faeces isolates, except for last-line antibiotics used in human medicine. Multi-resistance rates in isolates from sewage and seagull faeces (29% and 32% were lower than in isolates from seawater (39%. Seawater AR profiles were similar to those from seagull faeces and differed significantly from sewage AR profiles. Nucleotide sequences matching resistance genes blaTEM, sul1, sul2, tet(A and tet(B, were present in isolates of all sources. Genes conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins were detected in seawater (blaCTX-M-1 and blaSHV-12 and seagull faeces (blaCMY-2. Plasmid-mediated determinants of resistance to quinolones were found: qnrS1 in all sources and qnrB19 in seawater and seagull faeces. Our results show that seawater is a relevant reservoir of AR and that seagulls are an efficient vehicle to spread human-associated bacteria and resistance genes. The E. coli resistome recaptured from Berlenga coastal water was mainly modulated by seagulls-derived faecal pollution. The repertoire of resistance genes covers antibiotics critically important for humans, a potential risk for human health.

  4. Receptor-like proteins involved in plant disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, M.; Kock, de M.J.D.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Race-specific resistance in plants against microbial pathogens is governed by several distinct classes of resistance (R) genes. This review focuses on the class that consists of the plasma membrane-bound leucine-rich repeat proteins known as receptor-like proteins (RLPs). The first isolated

  5. Biological changes in Barley mutants resistant to powdery mildew disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I. M.; Fahim, M. M.; Moustafa, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    physiological studies showed that all kinds of chlorophyll (a), (b) and (a + b) content in infected plant were decreased while, the carotenes pigment were increased. Infection generally reduced total sugars content of all resistant mutants. Infected resistant mutant showed more phenols content and peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase activities than healthy ones of the mutants. (Author)

  6. SolRgene: an online database to explore disease resistance genes in tuber-bearing Solanum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vleeshouwers Vivianne GAA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important food crop, but highly susceptible to many pathogens. The major threat to potato production is the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which causes the devastating late blight disease. Potato breeding makes use of germplasm from wild relatives (wild germplasm to introduce resistances into cultivated potato. The Solanum section Petota comprises tuber-bearing species that are potential donors of new disease resistance genes. The aim of this study was to explore Solanum section Petota for resistance genes and generate a widely accessible resource that is useful for studying and implementing disease resistance in potato. Description The SolRgene database contains data on resistance to P. infestans and presence of R genes and R gene homologues in Solanum section Petota. We have explored Solanum section Petota for resistance to late blight in high throughput disease tests under various laboratory conditions and in field trials. From resistant wild germplasm, segregating populations were generated and assessed for the presence of resistance genes. All these data have been entered into the SolRgene database. To facilitate genetic and resistance gene evolution studies, phylogenetic data of the entire SolRgene collection are included, as well as a tool for generating phylogenetic trees of selected groups of germplasm. Data from resistance gene allele-mining studies are incorporated, which enables detection of R gene homologs in related germplasm. Using these resources, various resistance genes have been detected and some of these have been cloned, whereas others are in the cloning pipeline. All this information is stored in the online SolRgene database, which allows users to query resistance data, sequences, passport data of the accessions, and phylogenic classifications. Conclusion Solanum section Petota forms the basis of the SolRgene database, which contains a

  7. Intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training program improves insulin resistance and fasting plasma glucose in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marquis-Gravel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.

  8. A maize resistance gene functions against bacterial streak disease in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingyu; Lin, Xinghua; Poland, Jesse; Trick, Harold; Leach, Jan; Hulbert, Scot

    2005-10-25

    Although cereal crops all belong to the grass family (Poacea), most of their diseases are specific to a particular species. Thus, a given cereal species is typically resistant to diseases of other grasses, and this nonhost resistance is generally stable. To determine the feasibility of transferring nonhost resistance genes (R genes) between distantly related grasses to control specific diseases, we identified a maize R gene that recognizes a rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, which causes bacterial streak disease. Bacterial streak is an important disease of rice in Asia, and no simply inherited sources of resistance have been identified in rice. Although X. o. pv. oryzicola does not cause disease on maize, we identified a maize gene, Rxo1, that conditions a resistance reaction to a diverse collection of pathogen strains. Surprisingly, Rxo1 also controls resistance to the unrelated pathogen Burkholderia andropogonis, which causes bacterial stripe of sorghum and maize. The same gene thus controls resistance reactions to both pathogens and nonpathogens of maize. Rxo1 has a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat structure, similar to many previously identified R genes. Most importantly, Rxo1 functions after transfer as a transgene to rice, demonstrating the feasibility of nonhost R gene transfer between cereals and providing a valuable tool for controlling bacterial streak disease.

  9. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL.

  10. Improvement of resistant hypertension by nocturnal hemodialysis in a patient with end-stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojing; Hu, Xiaohong; Mei, Changlin; Yu, Shengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a common and refractory complication of hemodialysis (HD) patients and is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here we present a case of resistant hypertension treated successfully by nocturnal HD. A 63-year-old female with end-stage kidney disease was hospitalized for severe headache, objective vertigo and persistent vomiting for 1 month on February 6, 2012. She had been on intermittent HD for 3 months, and her blood pressure maintained 200-240/100-130 mm Hg even after using 7 kinds of antihypertensive drugs including olmesartan, benazepril, nitrendipine, arotinolol, terazosin, clonidine and torasemide. A CT of the abdomen revealed a mild hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland (fig. 1). However, plasma renin, angiotensin and aldosterone were all within the normal range. Nocturnal extended HD was initiated with a blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a dialysis time of 7 h. After 3 months of nocturnal HD, all symptoms were relieved and her systolic blood pressure started to decrease by 10-20 mm Hg. Six months later, the predialysis blood pressure was decreased to 140-160/90-100 mm Hg and the antihypertensive drugs were reduced to 4 kinds. Meanwhile, the blood biochemical parameters including hemoglobin, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were all controlled well during 2 years of treatment. This case indicates that nocturnal extended HD is probably a promising and effective choice for resistant hypertension in HD patients.

  11. Resistance screening trials on coconut varieties to Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaicoe Robert Nketsia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD is a coconut lethal yellowing type disease (LY and is the single most serious threat to coconut cultivation in Ghana. The recommended disease management strategy is the cultivation of disease-resistant coconut varieties. More than 38 varieties have been screened for their resistance to CSPWD since 1956 and the results are reviewed in this paper. Two varieties, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf (SGD and Vanuatu Tall (VTT, have shown high resistance to the disease, and their hybrid (SGD × VTT is under observation to determine its performance. A programme to rehabilitate the CSPWD-devastated areas was started in 1999. Emerging results indicate that the MYD × VTT hybrid being used for the programme, succumbs to the disease under intense disease pressure. A redirection of the rehabilitation programme and the screening of more varieties are recommended.

  12. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amer F; Hassan, Mohamed I; Amein, Karam A

    2015-12-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  13. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M V; Ahmad, I; Ingram, D S [Botany School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  14. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, M.V.; Ahmad, I.; Ingram, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M 1 and M 2 progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  15. Evaluation of some garlic (Allium Sativum L.) mutants resistant to white rot disease by RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulsi, I.; Al-Safadi, B.; Mir ali, N.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2002-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to evaluate genetic diversity among eight garlic mutants resistant to white rot disease (Sclerotium cepivorum) and two controls. Twelve of 13 synthetic random primers were found to identify polymorphism in amplification products. Mutants characterised with moderate resistance to white rot were closely related to the control using cluster and correlation analyses. On the other hand, highly resistant mutants were quite distant from the control with low correlation coefficients. The banding patterns produced by primer OPB-15 (GGAAGGGTGTT) with highly resistant mutants may be used as genetic markers for early selection of resistant plants. (author)

  16. A physical map of the heterozygous grapevine 'Cabernet Sauvignon' allows mapping candidate genes for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrin Simone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome physical maps facilitate genome sequencing, sequence assembly, mapping of candidate genes, and the design of targeted genetic markers. An automated protocol was used to construct a Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map. The quality of the result was addressed with regard to the effect of high heterozygosity on the accuracy of contig assembly. Its usefulness for the genome-wide mapping of genes for disease resistance, which is an important trait for grapevine, was then assessed. Results The physical map included 29,727 BAC clones assembled into 1,770 contigs, spanning 715,684 kbp, and corresponding to 1.5-fold the genome size. Map inflation was due to high heterozygosity, which caused either the separation of allelic BACs in two different contigs, or local mis-assembly in contigs containing BACs from the two haplotypes. Genetic markers anchored 395 contigs or 255,476 kbp to chromosomes. The fully automated assembly and anchorage procedures were validated by BAC-by-BAC blast of the end sequences against the grape genome sequence, unveiling 7.3% of chimerical contigs. The distribution across the physical map of candidate genes for non-host and host resistance, and for defence signalling pathways was then studied. NBS-LRR and RLK genes for host resistance were found in 424 contigs, 133 of them (32% were assigned to chromosomes, on which they are mostly organised in clusters. Non-host and defence signalling genes were found in 99 contigs dispersed without a discernable pattern across the genome. Conclusion Despite some limitations that interfere with the correct assembly of heterozygous clones into contigs, the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map is a useful and reliable intermediary step between a genetic map and the genome sequence. This tool was successfully exploited for a quick mapping of complex families of genes, and it strengthened previous clues of co-localisation of major NBS-LRR clusters and

  17. Role of Peripheral Vascular Resistance for the Association Between Major Depression and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Wiborg, Ove; Aalkjær, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Major depression and cardiovascular diseases are 2 of the most prevalent health problems in Western society, and an association between them is generally accepted. Although the specific mechanism behind this comorbidity remains to be elucidated, it is clear that it has a complex multifactorial....... The changes in arterial structure, contractile and relaxing functions associated with depression symptoms are discussed, and the role of these abnormalities for the pathology of major depression and cardiovascular diseases are suggested....... character including a number of neuronal, humoral, immune, and circulatory pathways. Depression-associated cardiovascular abnormalities associate with cardiac dysfunctions and with changes in peripheral resistance. Although cardiac dysfunction in association with depression has been studied in detail...

  18. Antibody-Based Agents in the Management of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Pietro; Rindi, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including sepsis, pneumonia, arthritis, and endocarditis. Ineffective treatment of a number of staphylococcal infections with antibiotics is due to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant strains following decades of antibiotic usage. This has generated renewed interest within the scientific community in alternative therapeutic agents, such as anti-S. aureus antibodies. Although the role of antibodies in the management of S. aureus diseases is controversial, the success of this pathogen in neutralizing humoral immunity clearly indicates that antibodies offer the host extensive protection. In this review, we report an update on efforts to develop antibody-based agents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, and their therapeutic potential in the passive immunization approach to the treatment and prevention of S. aureus infections. PMID:29533985

  19. Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, B.; Sengeløv, G.; Tjørnelund, J.

    2002-01-01

    Tetracyclines used in veterinary therapy invariably will find their way as parent compound and degradation products to the agricultural field. Major degradation products formed due to the limited stability of parent tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline) in aqueous...... at the same concentration level as tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline on both the sludge and the tetracycline-sensitive soil bacteria. Further, both 5a,6-anhydrotetracychne and 5a,6-anhydrochlortetracycline had potency on tetracycline-resistant bacteria supporting a mode of action different...

  20. Effects of antibiotic resistance (AR) and microbiota shifts on Campylobacter jejuni-mediated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Phillip T; Mansfield, Linda S

    2017-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen recently designated a serious antimicrobial resistant (AR) threat. While most patients with C. jejuni experience hemorrhagic colitis, serious autoimmune conditions can follow including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the acute neuropathy Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS). This review examines inter-relationships among factors mediating C. jejuni diarrheal versus autoimmune disease especially AR C. jejuni and microbiome shifts. Because both susceptible and AR C. jejuni are acquired from animals or their products, we consider their role in harboring strains. Inter-relationships among factors mediating C. jejuni colonization, diarrheal and autoimmune disease include C. jejuni virulence factors and AR, the enteric microbiome, and host responses. Because AR C. jejuni have been suggested to affect the severity of disease, length of infections and propensity to develop GBS, it is important to understand how these interactions occur when strains are under selection by antimicrobials. More work is needed to elucidate host-pathogen interactions of AR C. jejuni compared with susceptible strains and how AR C. jejuni are maintained and evolve in animal reservoirs and the extent of transmission to humans. These knowledge gaps impair the development of effective strategies to prevent the emergence of AR C. jejuni in reservoir species and human populations.

  1. Proton pump inhibitor resistance, the real challenge in gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, Michele; Emerenziani, Sara; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Ribolsi, Mentore

    2013-10-21

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases. Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) represent the mainstay of treatment both for healing erosive esophagitis and for symptom relief, several studies have shown that up to 40% of GERD patients reported either partial or complete lack of response of their symptoms to a standard PPI dose once daily. Several mechanisms have been proposed as involved in PPIs resistance, including ineffective control of gastric acid secretion, esophageal hypersensitivity, ultrastructural and functional changes in the esophageal epithelium. The diagnostic evaluation of a refractory GERD patients should include an accurate clinical evaluation, upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry and ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring, which allows to discriminate non-erosive reflux disease patients from those presenting esophageal hypersensitivity or functional heartburn. Treatment has been primarily based on doubling the PPI dose or switching to another PPI. Patients with proven disease, not responding to PPI twice daily, are eligible for anti-reflux surgery.

  2. Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases: when is insecticide resistance a problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rivero

    Full Text Available Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. Here, we review evidence that insecticide resistance may have an impact on the quality of vectors and, specifically, on three key determinants of parasite transmission: vector longevity, competence, and behaviour. We argue that, in some instances, insecticide resistance is likely to result in a decrease in vector longevity, a decrease in infectiousness, or in a change in behaviour, all of which will reduce the vectorial capacity of the insect. If this effect is sufficiently large, the impact of insecticide resistance on disease management may not be as detrimental as previously thought. In other instances, however, insecticide resistance may have the opposite effect, increasing the insect's vectorial capacity, which may lead to a dramatic increase in the transmission of the disease and even to a higher prevalence than in the absence of insecticides. Either way-and there may be no simple generality-the consequence of the evolution of insecticide resistance for disease ecology deserves additional attention.

  3. Nuclear and allied approaches in improvement of wheat for disease and pest resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawhney, R N

    1987-09-01

    The paper attempts to review information on the role of physical and chemical mutagens used directly and indirectly in the improvement of wheat for disease and pest resistance. The illustrations relate to transfer of many useful genes for resistance to rusts and pest from alien sources to Triticum aestivum. Popular wheats have been rectified for resistance to rusts mostly without any negative effects on yield potential. The mutation approach has also been successful in the development of multilines. Multiline constituting mutant components conferring simultaneous resistance to more than one rust pathogen has an additional value. The use of induced mutagenesis in breaking linkage between the genes conferring resistance and other genes for undesirable characters has been described. New disease resistant mutant variations with additional changes of positive effect have been obtained for practical utilization with widening the genetic base of future breeding programmes. (author). 56 refs.

  4. Differential disease resistance response in the barley necrotic mutant nec1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunga Laura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ion fluxes are considered to be an integral part of signal transduction during responses to pathogens, only a few ion channels are known to participate in the plant response to infection. CNGC4 is a disease resistance-related cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Arabidopsis thaliana CNGC4 mutants hlm1 and dnd2 display an impaired hypersensitive response (HR, retarded growth, a constitutively active salicylic acid (SA-mediated pathogenesis-related response and elevated resistance against bacterial pathogens. Barley CNGC4 shares 67% aa identity with AtCNGC4. The barley mutant nec1 comprising of a frame-shift mutation of CNGC4 displays a necrotic phenotype and constitutively over-expresses PR-1, yet it is not known what effect the nec1 mutation has on barley resistance against different types of pathogens. Results nec1 mutant accumulated high amount of SA and hydrogen peroxide compared to parental cv. Parkland. Experiments investigating nec1 disease resistance demonstrated positive effect of nec1 mutation on non-host resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst at high inoculum density, whereas at normal Pst inoculum concentration nec1 resistance did not differ from wt. In contrast to augmented P. syringae resistance, penetration resistance against biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, the causal agent of powdery mildew, was not altered in nec1. The nec1 mutant significantly over-expressed race non-specific Bgh resistance-related genes BI-1 and MLO. Induction of BI-1 and MLO suggested putative involvement of nec1 in race non-specific Bgh resistance, therefore the effect of nec1on mlo-5-mediated Bgh resistance was assessed. The nec1/mlo-5 double mutant was as resistant to Bgh as Nec1/mlo-5 plants, suggesting that nec1 did not impair mlo-5 race non-specific Bgh resistance. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that nec1 mutation alters activation of systemic acquired resistance

  5. Disease resistance breeding in rose: current status and potential of biotechnological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debener, Thomas; Byrne, David H

    2014-11-01

    The cultivated rose is a multispecies complex for which a high level of disease protection is needed due to the low tolerance of blemishes in ornamental plants. The most important fungal diseases are black spot, powdery mildew, botrytis and downy mildew. Rose rosette, a lethal viral pathogen, is emerging as a devastating disease in North America. Currently rose breeders use a recurrent phenotypic selection approach and perform selection for disease resistance for most pathogen issues in a 2-3 year field trial. Marker assisted selection could accelerate this breeding process. Thus far markers have been identified for resistance to black spot (Rdrs) and powdery mildew and with the ability of genotyping by sequencing to generate 1000s of markers our ability to identify markers useful in plant improvement should increase exponentially. Transgenic rose lines with various fungal resistance genes inserted have shown limited success and RNAi technology has potential to provide virus resistance. Roses, as do other plants, have sequences homologous to characterized R-genes in their genomes, some which have been related to specific disease resistance. With improving next generation sequencing technology, our ability to do genomic and transcriptomic studies of the resistance related genes in both the rose and the pathogens to reveal novel gene targets to develop resistant roses will accelerate. Finally, the development of designer nucleases opens up a potentially non-GMO approach to directly modify a rose's DNA to create a disease resistant rose. Although there is much potential, at present rose breeders are not using marker assisted breeding primarily because a good suite of marker/trait associations (MTA) that would ensure a path to stable disease resistance is not available. As our genomic analytical tools improve, so will our ability to identify useful genes and linked markers. Once these MTAs are available, it will be the cost savings, both in time and money, that will

  6. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa-resistant postural instability in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.E.; Allum, J.H.J.; Carpenter, M.G.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Speelman, J.D.; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation on levodopa-resistant balance impairment in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease and 18 matched controls. Instability was quantitatively assessed using standardized multidirectional dynamic posturography. Patients were tested after

  7. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation and levodopa-resistant postural instability in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jasper E.; Allum, John H. J.; Carpenter, Mark G.; Esselink, Rianne A.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Borm, George F.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effect of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation on levodopa-resistant balance impairment in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease and 18 matched controls. Instability was quantitatively assessed using standardized multidirectional dynamic posturography. Patients were tested after

  8. Integron, Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Included in the Norwegian Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Marianne; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Slettemeås, Jannice Schau; Böckerman, Inger; Norström, Madelaine

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (n=331) isolates from humans with bloodstream infections were investigated for the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons. The integron cassettes arrays were characterized and the findings were compared with data from similar investigations on resistant E. coli from meat and meat products (n=241) produced during the same time period. All isolates were obtained from the Norwegian monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens and in the veterinary sector. Methods used included PCR, sequencing, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing and subtyping, pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis and serotyping. Integrons of class 1 and 2 occurred significantly more frequently among human isolates; 45.4% (95% CI: 39.9-50.9) than among isolates from meat; 18% (95% CI: 13.2 -23.3), (pfood source and from a human clinical sample highlights the possible role of meat as a source of resistance elements for pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Proteome Analysis of Disease Resistance against Ralstonia solanacearum in Potato Cultivar CT206-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangryeol Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important crops worldwide. Its commercial cultivars are highly susceptible to many fungal and bacterial diseases. Among these, bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes significant yield loss. In the present study, integrated proteomics and genomics approaches were used in order to identify bacterial wilt resistant genes from Rs resistance potato cultivar CT-206-10. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis identified eight differentially abundant proteins including glycine-rich RNA binding protein (GRP, tomato stress induced-1 (TSI-1 protein, pathogenesis-related (STH-2 protein and pentatricopeptide repeat containing (PPR protein in response to Rs infection. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR identified up-regulation in transcript levels of all these genes upon Rs infection. Taken together, our results showed the involvement of the identified proteins in the Rs stress tolerance in potato. In the future, it would be interesting to raise the transgenic plants to further validate their involvement in resistance against Rs in potato.

  10. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Helgerud, Jan; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P.; Krasnov, Aleksei; Helland, Ståle; Takle, Harald Rune

    2013-01-01

    Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming per...

  11. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food bean and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses Onim, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is being reported on a project aiming at genetic improvement of cowpea and Phaseolus bean for better disease resistance using induced mutations. The diseases of concern are anthracnose, angular leaf spot, halo blight and bean rust. Selection was effective in M 3 and M 4 generations and provided some lines with different resistance and yield levels, which will have to be examined further. (author)

  12. Evolution of insect pest and disease resistant, high-yielding and improved quality varieties of cotton by use of ionizing radiation. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of induced mutations for disease resistance in crop plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasti, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Disease resistant, high yielding and higher quality cotton varieties were developed. 42 interspecific hybrid progenies of earlier crosses between Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium tomentosum or Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum were included. Out of these, 22 progenies in F 3 generation were irradiated by gamma radiation doses of 20 and 25 kR. A list is given of interspecific hybrid progenies, as are the lists of boll rot susceptible and resistant plants in the irradiated and non-irradiated populations and/or successful crosses made between 1977 and 1978

  13. Perspective of Spanish medical students regarding undergraduate education in infectious diseases, bacterial resistance and antibiotic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fabra, David; Dyar, Oliver J; Del Pozo, José Luis; Amiguet, Juan Antonio; Colmenero, Juan de Dios; Fariñas, María Del Carmen; López-Medrano, Francisco; Portilla, Joaquín; Praena, Julia; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Pulcini, Céline; Paño-Pardo, José Ramón

    2018-02-08

    One of the main tools to optimize antibiotics use is education of prescribers. The aim of this article is to study undergraduate education in the field of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship from the perspective of Spanish medical students. An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed among sixth grade students using different channels in Europe, within the ESGAP Student-Prepare survey. The questionnaire included 45 questions about knowledge, attitudes and perceptions about diagnosis, bacterial resistance, use of antibiotics and undergraduate training in infectious diseases. We present here the Spanish results. A total of 441 surveys were received from 21 medical schools. A total of 374 responses (84.8%) were obtained from the 8 most represented faculties, with a response rate of 28.9%. Most students felt adequately prepared to identify clinical signs of infection (418; 94.8%) and to accurately interpret laboratory tests (382; 86.6%). A total of 178 (40.4%) acknowledged being able to choose an antibiotic with confidence without consulting books or guidelines. Only 107 (24.3%) students considered that they had received sufficient training in judicious use of antibiotics. Regarding learning methods, the discussion of clinical cases, infectious diseases units rotatories and small group workshops were considered the most useful, being evaluated favorably in 76.9%, 76% and 68.8% of the cases. Medical students feel more confident in the diagnosis of infectious diseases than in antibiotic treatment. They also feel the need to receive more training in antibiotics and judicious antibiotic use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Value of Resistive lndex of the lntrascrotal Artery in ScrotaI Inflammatory Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Won Hee; Yoon, Yeo Dong; Hwang, Sung Su; Choi, Byung Gil; Son, Kyung Myung; Lee, Sung Yong; Kim, Ki Tae; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1995-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to investigate the utility of resistive indices(RIs) of intratesticular and epididymal arteries in inflammatory scrotal disease. Gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic images were obtained in 19 consecutive patients of scrotal inflammatory disease from Nov.1993 to Oct. 1994. Eleven cases of epididymitis and 11 of epididymoorchitis(EO) were included. RIs of epididymal and centripetal arteries were calculated in 19 patients and 30 cases of control. All EO and epididymitis cases showed increased color signal at color Doppler ultrasonogram at representative sites. Mean RI of centripetal artery was 0.46±0.06 in EO and 0.66±0.07 in normal control, hence RI in EO was significantly lower than that of normal control(P<0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity was 91% when the value of 0.5 or less is estimated abnormal.Mean RI of centripetal artery was 0.67±0.07 in epididymitis, and was not significantly different from that of normal control(P=0.687). Mean RI of epididymal artery in epididymitis and EO was 0.48±0.12 and resistive index of all patients were below 0.7. Color Doppler can demonstrate the hyperemic response to scrotal inflammatory disease that it can supplement the gray scale finding leading to increased diagnostic confidence. RI of centripetal artery may be confirmative in the diagnosis of inflammatory scrotal inflammatory scrotal diseases when increased color flow on color flow imaging is present

  15. MIRO and IRbase: IT Tools for the Epidemiological Monitoring of Insecticide Resistance in Mosquito Disease Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Emmanuel; Topalis, Pantelis; Vontas, John; Louis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    Background Monitoring of insect vector populations with respect to their susceptibility to one or more insecticides is a crucial element of the strategies used for the control of arthropod-borne diseases. This management task can nowadays be achieved more efficiently when assisted by IT (Information Technology) tools, ranging from modern integrated databases to GIS (Geographic Information System). Here we describe an application ontology that we developed de novo, and a specially designed database that, based on this ontology, can be used for the purpose of controlling mosquitoes and, thus, the diseases that they transmit. Methodology/Principal Findings The ontology, named MIRO for Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology, developed using the OBO-Edit software, describes all pertinent aspects of insecticide resistance, including specific methodology and mode of action. MIRO, then, forms the basis for the design and development of a dedicated database, IRbase, constructed using open source software, which can be used to retrieve data on mosquito populations in a temporally and spatially separate way, as well as to map the output using a Google Earth interface. The dependency of the database on the MIRO allows for a rational and efficient hierarchical search possibility. Conclusions/Significance The fact that the MIRO complies with the rules set forward by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry introduces cross-referencing with other biomedical ontologies and, thus, both MIRO and IRbase are suitable as parts of future comprehensive surveillance tools and decision support systems that will be used for the control of vector-borne diseases. MIRO is downloadable from and IRbase is accessible at VectorBase, the NIAID-sponsored open access database for arthropod vectors of disease. PMID:19547750

  16. Testing of disease-resistance of pokeweed antiviral protein gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of pokeweed antiviral protein gene (PAP) into plants was shown to improve plant resistance to several viruses or fungi pathogens with no much negative effect on plant growth. The non-virulent defective PAP inhibits only the virus but does not interfere with the host. A non-virulent defective PAP gene ...

  17. The genetic variance of resistance in M3 lines of rice against leaf blight disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono

    1979-01-01

    Seeds of Pelita I/1 rice variety were irradiated with 20, 30, 40 and 50 krad of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Plants of M 3 lines were inoculated with bacterial leaf blight, Xanthomonas oryzae (Uzeda and Ishiyama) Downson, using clipping method. The coefficient of genetic variability of resistance against leaf blight disease increased with increasing dose. Highly significant difference in the genetic variance of resistance were found between the treated samples and the control. Dose of 20 krad gave good probability for selection of plants resistant against leaf blight disease. (author)

  18. Sources of resistance to cassava anthracnose disease | Owolade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 436 African landraces and 497 improved cassava genotypes were planted in 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 growing seasons.. These were evaluated for their reactions to cassava anthracnose disease (CAD) under natural infection conditions at Ibadan (a high infection zone). The severity of the disease was ...

  19. Prospects of Understanding the Molecular Biology of Disease Resistance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the important crops grown worldwide and is considered as an important crop for global food security. Rice is being affected by various fungal, bacterial and viral diseases resulting in huge yield losses every year. Deployment of resistance genes in various crops is one of the important methods of disease management. However, identification, cloning and characterization of disease resistance genes is a very tedious effort. To increase the life span of resistant cultivars, it is important to understand the molecular basis of plant host–pathogen interaction. With the advancement in rice genetics and genomics, several rice varieties resistant to fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens have been developed. However, resistance response of these varieties break down very frequently because of the emergence of more virulent races of the pathogen in nature. To increase the durability of resistance genes under field conditions, understanding the mechanismof resistance response and its molecular basis should be well understood. Some emerging concepts like interspecies transfer of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and transgenerational plant immunitycan be employed to develop sustainable broad spectrum resistant varieties of rice.

  20. Potential biochemical markers for selection of disease resistance in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badere, R.S.; Koche, D.K.; Choudhary, A.D.; Pawar, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek (Green gram), a major pulse crop is prone to damaging diseases caused by Erysiphe polygoni, Cercospora canescens and Rhizoctonia sp. Therefore, the development of multiple resistance is a major breeding objective in green gram. Resistance to powdery mildew has already been developed, however, there are no reports on the development of resistance to Cercospora in green gram. Owing to limitation of conventional screening methods, the improvement for multiple disease resistance is inadequate, in this crop. It needs an efficient and quick selection method, for screening the plant population at an early stage. It is well established that the resistant interaction, in plants, involves accumulation of antibiotic compound phytoalexin (Genestein in Vigna radiata) and induction of enzymes such as β-1,3 gulcanase and Chitinases. These compounds are not only induced by pathogens but also pathogen-derived elicitors. These biochemical compounds can be used as resistance indicative biochemical markers for screening the natural or mutagen induced genetic diversity in populations of Vigna radiata in non-destructive manner. It, however, needs a systematic study of plant defense response. This paper deals with the response of resistant and susceptible cultivars of vigna radiata to Cercospora elicitor and development of non-destructive selection method for disease resistance. (author)

  1. Global stability for infectious disease models that include immigration of infected individuals and delay in the incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Uggenti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We begin with a detailed study of a delayed SI model of disease transmission with immigration into both classes. The incidence function allows for a nonlinear dependence on the infected population, including mass action and saturating incidence as special cases. Due to the immigration of infectives, there is no disease-free equilibrium and hence no basic reproduction number. We show there is a unique endemic equilibrium and that this equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable for all parameter values. The results include vector-style delay and latency-style delay. Next, we show that previous global stability results for an SEI model and an SVI model that include immigration of infectives and non-linear incidence but not delay can be extended to systems with vector-style delay and latency-style delay.

  2. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms may determine Crohn's disease behavior in patients from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa P. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Conflicting data from studies on the potential role of multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease may result from the analysis of genetically and geographically distinct populations. Here, we investigated whether multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in patients from Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We analyzed 123 Crohn's disease patients and 83 ulcerative colitis patients to determine the presence of the multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms C1236T, G2677T and C3435T. In particular, the genotype frequencies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients were analyzed. Genotype-phenotype associations with major clinical characteristics were established, and estimated risks were calculated for the mutations. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the genotype frequencies of the multidrug resistance 1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In contrast, the C1236T polymorphism was significantly more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.047. A significant association was also found between the multidrug resistance 1 C3435T polymorphism and the stricturing form of Crohn's disease (OR: 4.13; p = 0.009, whereas no association was found with penetrating behavior (OR: 0.33; p = 0.094. In Crohn's disease, a positive association was also found between the C3435T polymorphism and corticosteroid resistance/refractoriness (OR: 4.14; p = 0.010. However, no significant association was found between multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and UC subphenotypic categories. CONCLUSION: The multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism C3435T is associated with the stricturing phenotype and an inappropriate response to therapy in Crohn's disease. This association with Crohn's disease may support additional pathogenic roles for the multidrug resistance 1 gene in regulating gut

  3. A novel Capsicum gene inhibits host-specific disease resistance to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Gregory; Monroy-Barbosa, Ariadna; Bosland, Paul W

    2013-05-01

    A novel disease resistance inhibitor gene (inhibitor of P. capsici resistance [Ipcr]), found in the chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) variety 'New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399' (NMCA10399), inhibits resistance to Phytophthora capsici but not to other species of Phytophthora. When a highly P. capsici-resistant variety was hybridized with NMCA10399, the resultant F1 populations, when screened, were completely susceptible to P. capsici for root rot and foliar blight disease syndromes, despite the dominance inheritance of P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. The F2 population displayed a 3:13 resistant-to-susceptible (R:S) ratio. The testcross population displayed a 1:1 R:S ratio, and a backcross population to NMCA10399 displayed complete susceptibility. These results demonstrate the presence of a single dominant inhibitor gene affecting P. capsici resistance in chile pepper. Moreover, when lines carrying the Ipcr gene were challenged against six Phytophthora spp., the nonhost resistance was not overcome. Therefore, the Ipcr gene is interfering with host-specific resistance but not the pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular pattern nonhost responses.

  4. Resistance to Fusarium dry root rot disease in cassava accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alves Santos de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify sources of resistance to dry root rot induced by Fusarium sp. in cassava accessions. A macroconidial suspension (20 µL of 11 Fusarium sp. isolates was inoculated in cassava roots, from 353 acessions plus seven commercial varieties. Ten days after inoculation, the total area colonized by the pathogen on the root pulp was evaluated by digital image analysis. Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five groups regarding resistance. The root lesion areas ranged from 18.28 to 1,096.07 mm² for the accessions BGM 1518 and BGM 556, respectively. The genotypes BGM 1042, BGM 1552, BGM 1586, BGM 1598, and BGM 1692 present the best agronomical traits.

  5. gene effects for resistance to groundnut rossette disease in exotic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-25

    Feb 25, 2016 ... The materials were evaluated for biotic and abiotic stresses, but succumbed to groundnut rosette disease .... done, where male parents were planted 10 days ... pm) for 21 days. .... particular environment is paramount for.

  6. prevalence of angular leaf spot disease and sources of resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-02-17

    Feb 17, 2017 ... Angular leaf spot (Pseudocercospora griseola Crous U, Brown) is one of the ..... Incidence of six foliar bean diseases in two agro ecological zones of eastern Democratic Republic of .... use of poor quality farmer-saved seed.

  7. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 14. No. 4, pp. ... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga-South, P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi, Kenya .... streak disease has been identified in various maize recycling and development of pure-lines at.

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Resistance in Circumpolar Inuit Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvermosegaard, Maria; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health issue in indigenous populations in the Arctic. These diseases have emerged concomitantly with profound social changes over the past 60 years. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on CVD risk among Arctic Inuit. Literature...... on prevalence, incidence, and time trends for CVD and its risk factors in Arctic Inuit populations was reviewed. Most evidence supports a similar incidence of coronary heart disease and a higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease among Arctic Inuit than seen in western populations. Factors that may increase...... intake (at least documented in Greenland), and contaminant levels are declining. Although there have been marked socioeconomic and dietary changes, it remains unsolved and to some extent controversial how this may have influenced cardiovascular risk among Arctic Inuit. The increase in life expectancy...

  9. Overexpression of a citrus NDR1 ortholog increases disease resistance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging devastating diseases, such as Huanglongbing (HLB) and citrus canker, have caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry worldwide. Genetic engineering is a powerful approach that could allow us to increase citrus resistance against these diseases. The key to the success of this approach r...

  10. Overexpression of a modified plant thionin enhances disease resistance to citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the United States citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivar has been identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an ec...

  11. Toward The identification Of candidate genes involved in black pod disease resistance in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. Some of the diseases, such as black pod rot (Phytophtora spp), frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri) and witches’ broom (M. perniciosa), produce significant losses in all or in some of the various pro...

  12. Rapid cloning of disease-resistance genes in plants using mutagenesis and sequence capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic solutions to protect crops against pests and pathogens are preferable to agrichemicals 1. Wild crop relatives carry immense diversity of disease resistance (R) genes that could enable more sustainable disease control. However, recruiting R genes for crop improvement typically involves long b...

  13. Application of hordothionins and cecropin B for engineering bacterial disease resistance into plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florack, D.

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial diseases can cause a drastic decrease of yield in certain crops. Breeding for bacterial disease resistance therefore is of utmost necessity. Up to now, traditional plant breeding was the only method to reach this goal. Recent developments in genetic engineering technology however

  14. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in the African diaspora: rationale for including chronic kidney disease in the metabolic syndrome definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."

  15. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Jørgensen, Sven M; Helgerud, Jan; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P; Krasnov, Aleksei; Helland, Ståle J; Takle, Harald

    2013-01-21

    Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon.Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming performance in a screening test and then exercise trained for 10 weeks using one of two constant-velocity or two interval-velocity training regimes for comparison against control trained fish (low speed continuously). Disease resistance was assessed by a viral disease challenge test (infectious pancreatic necrosis) and gene expression analyses of the host response in selected organs. An inherently good swimming performance was associated with improved disease resistance, as good swimmers showed significantly better survival compared to poor swimmers in the viral challenge test. Differences in mortalities between poor and good swimmers were correlated with cardiac mRNA expression of virus responsive genes reflecting the infection status. Although not significant, fish trained at constant-velocity showed a trend towards higher survival than fish trained at either short or long intervals. Finally, only constant training at high intensity had a significant positive effect on fish growth compared to control trained fish. This is the first evidence suggesting that inherent swimming performance is associated with disease resistance in fish.

  16. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming performance in a screening test and then exercise trained for 10 weeks using one of two constant-velocity or two interval-velocity training regimes for comparison against control trained fish (low speed continuously. Disease resistance was assessed by a viral disease challenge test (infectious pancreatic necrosis and gene expression analyses of the host response in selected organs. Results An inherently good swimming performance was associated with improved disease resistance, as good swimmers showed significantly better survival compared to poor swimmers in the viral challenge test. Differences in mortalities between poor and good swimmers were correlated with cardiac mRNA expression of virus responsive genes reflecting the infection status. Although not significant, fish trained at constant-velocity showed a trend towards higher survival than fish trained at either short or long intervals. Finally, only constant training at high intensity had a significant positive effect on fish growth compared to control trained fish. Conclusions This is the first evidence suggesting that inherent swimming performance is associated with disease resistance in fish.

  17. Evaluation of Lettuce Germplasm Resistance to Gray Mold Disease for Organic Cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ki Shim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 212 accessions of lettuce germplasm to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. The lettuce germplasm were composed of five species: Lactuca sativa (193 accessions, L. sativa var. longifolia (2 accessions, L. sativa var. crispa (2 accessions, L. saligna (2 accessions, and L. serriola (1 accession; majority of these originated from Korea, Netherlands, USA, Russia, and Bulgaria. After 35 days of spray inoculation with conidial suspension (3×10⁷ conidia/ml of B. cinerea on the surface of lettuce leaves, tested lettuce germplasm showed severe symptoms of gray mold disease. There were 208 susceptible accessions to B. cinerea counted with 100% of disease incidence and four resistant accessions, IT908801, K000598, K000599, and K021055. Two moderately resistant accessions of L. sativa, K021055 and IT908801, showed 20% of disease incidence of gray mold disease at 45 days after inoculation; and two accessions of L. saligna, K000598 and K000599, which are wild relatives of lettuce germplasm with loose-leaf type, showed complete resistance to B. cinerea. These four accessions are candidates for breeding lettuce cultivars resistant to gray mold disease.

  18. Application of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy for the Identification of Disease Resistant Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Anna O; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    New approaches for identifying disease resistant trees are needed as the incidence of diseases caused by non-native and invasive pathogens increases. These approaches must be rapid, reliable, cost-effective, and should have the potential to be adapted for high-throughput screening or phenotyping. Within the context of trees and tree diseases, we summarize vibrational spectroscopic and chemometric methods that have been used to distinguish between groups of trees which vary in disease susceptibility or other important characteristics based on chemical fingerprint data. We also provide specific examples from the literature of where these approaches have been used successfully. Finally, we discuss future application of these approaches for wide-scale screening and phenotyping efforts aimed at identifying disease resistant trees and managing forest diseases.

  19. Pathogen infection distribution and drug resistance analysis of patients with severe liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi CHEN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the infection distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in patients with severe liver disease, and provide reference for clinical medication. Methods Retrospective analysis of the microbiological specimens from patients with severe liver disease in Department of Infection of our hospital from August 2014 to November 2016 and the drug susceptibility testing were carried out by means of K-B disc diffusion method after bacterial culturing, and the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens were analyzed. Results Totally 17 of 73 patients with severe liver disease developed hospital infection (23.3%. 104 strains of bacteria were isolated and 78 strains out of them were multidrug-resistant bacteria (75.0%. Among them, 28(26.9% strains were gram-positive coccus, mainly consisting of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and 58(55.8% were gram-negative coccus, mainly composed of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii, and 18(17.3% strains fungi. S.aureus and enterococci were resistant to penicillin, erythromycin and levofloxacin, the resistance rates were above 80.0%, but had low resistance rates to vancomycin, teicoplanin and tigecycline. The resistance rates of E.coli and K.pneumoniae to piperacillin, cefazolin and cefuroxime sodium were above 85.0%, but they had lower resistance rates to tigecycline and amikacin. Acinetobacter baumannii was 100% resistant to piperacillin and tazobactam, ceftazidime, imipenem and amikacin, but had low resistance to tigecycline and minocycline. Conclusions Multi-drug resistant bacteria are the main bacterial pathogens in patients with severe liver disease and have a high resistance rate to commonly used antibiotics, empirical treatment in the population at high risk of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections requires the use of broad-spectrum or high-grade antibiotics (e.g. carbapenems or tigecycline and drugs against specific pathogenic

  20. HOPM1 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sheng Yang [Okemos, MI; Nomura, Kinya [East Lansing, MI

    2011-11-15

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein HopM1.sub.1-300 mediated protection is enhanced, such as increased protection to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1 and/or there is an increase in activity of an ATMIN associated plant protection protein, such as ATMIN7. Reagents of the present invention further provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  1. Review of insecticide resistance and behavioral avoidance of vectors of human diseases in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Physiological resistance and behavioral responses of mosquito vectors to insecticides are critical aspects of the chemical-based disease control equation. The complex interaction between lethal, sub-lethal and excitation/repellent ('excito-repellent’) properties of chemicals is typically overlooked in vector management and control programs. The development of “physiological” resistance, metabolic and/or target site modifications, to insecticides has been well documented in many insect groups and disease vectors around the world. In Thailand, resistance in many mosquito populations has developed to all three classes of insecticidal active ingredients currently used for vector control with a majority being synthetic-derived pyrethroids. Evidence of low-grade insecticide resistance requires immediate countermeasures to mitigate further intensification and spread of the genetic mechanisms responsible for resistance. This can take the form of rotation of a different class of chemical, addition of a synergist, mixtures of chemicals or concurrent mosaic application of different classes of chemicals. From the gathered evidence, the distribution and degree of physiological resistance has been restricted in specific areas of Thailand in spite of long-term use of chemicals to control insect pests and disease vectors throughout the country. Most surprisingly, there have been no reported cases of pyrethroid resistance in anopheline populations in the country from 2000 to 2011. The precise reasons for this are unclear but we assume that behavioral avoidance to insecticides may play a significant role in reducing the selection pressure and thus occurrence and spread of insecticide resistance. The review herein provides information regarding the status of physiological resistance and behavioral avoidance of the primary mosquito vectors of human diseases to insecticides in Thailand from 2000 to 2011. PMID:24294938

  2. Multiple insecticide resistances in the disease vector Culex p. quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocquet, Nicolas; Milesi, Pascal; Makoundou, Patrick; Unal, Sandra; Zumbo, Betty; Atyame, Célestine; Darriet, Frédéric; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Thiria, Julien; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Iyaloo, Diana P; Weill, Mylène; Chandre, Fabrice; Labbé, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines (OC), Organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PYR) families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure. In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides, enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families (OC, OP and PYR) is widespread at a regional scale. However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. Moreover, two resistance alleles displayed clinal distributions in Mayotte and La Réunion, probably as a result of a heterogeneous selection due to local treatment practices. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies (e.g. insecticide rotation). In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used. It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to control populations

  3. Multiple insecticide resistances in the disease vector Culex p. quinquefasciatus from Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pocquet

    Full Text Available Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines (OC, Organophosphates (OP and pyrethroids (PYR families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure. In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides, enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families (OC, OP and PYR is widespread at a regional scale. However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. Moreover, two resistance alleles displayed clinal distributions in Mayotte and La Réunion, probably as a result of a heterogeneous selection due to local treatment practices. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies (e.g. insecticide rotation. In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used. It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to

  4. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Japanese scoring systems to predict resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin in Kawasaki disease were unreliable for Caucasian Israeli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arane, Karen; Mendelsohn, Kerry; Mimouni, Michael; Mimouni, Francis; Koren, Yael; Simon, Dafna Brik; Bahat, Hilla; Helou, Mona Hanna; Mendelson, Amir; Hezkelo, Nofar; Glatstein, Miguel; Berkun, Yackov; Eisenstein, Eli; Aviel, Yonatan Butbul; Brik, Riva; Hashkes, Philip J; Uziel, Yosef; Harel, Liora; Amarilyo, Gil

    2018-05-24

    This study assessed the validity of using established Japanese risk scoring methods to predict intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance to Kawasaki disease in Israeli children. We reviewed the medical records of 282 patients (70% male) with Kawasaki disease from six Israeli medical centres between 2004-2013. Their mean age was 2.5 years. The risk scores were calculated using the Kobayashi, Sano and Egami scoring methods and analysed to determine if a higher risk score predicted IVIG resistance in this population. Factors that predicted a lack of response to the initial IVIG dose were identified. We found that 18% did not respond to the first IVIG dose. The three scoring methods were unable to reliably predict IVIG resistance, with sensitivities of 23-32% and specificities of 67-87%. Calculating a predictive score that was specific for this population was also unsuccessful. The factors that predicted a lacked of response to the first IVIG dose included low albumin, elevated total bilirubin and ethnicity. The established risk scoring methods created for Japanese populations with Kawasaki disease were not suitable for predicting IVIG resistance in Caucasian Israeli children and we were unable to create a specific scoring method that was able to do this. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro screening methods for assessing plant disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebeda, A.; Svabova, L.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of biotechnological and phytopathological techniques provides an alternative approach to classical resistance breeding methods. Such techniques have been increasingly used since the 1980s, in parallel with the progress in plant biotechnology. In the approach of resistance screening and selection in vitro, both experimental objects, i.e., the plant and the pathogen, must first be transferred to in vitro conditions, and finally, the plant material must be transferred back to in vivo conditions and adapted to the outside settings. Specific attention must be paid to the methods of pathogen preparation for use in screening and selection in vitro. The selection agents are classified according to their origin, the methods of preparation, nature and content of active substances, and effective utilisation for screening or selection in vitro. Basic principles and methodological aspects of the in vitro work (explant cultures, sources of in vitro variability, screening and selection methods, types of selection agents) as well as examples of practical applications in the breeding of different crops are critically reviewed in this chapter. (author)

  7. Molecular evolution of the disease resistance gene Rx in Solanum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butterbach, P.B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) is the fourth most important food crop with an annual yield of about 300 million tons over the world. The history of the domestication of potato shows that disease-causing agents followed the tracks of potato cultivation in temperate climates

  8. Genetic anaylsis of a disease resistance gene from loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinghua Huang; Nili Jin; Alex Diner; Chuck Tauer; Yan Zhang; John Damicone

    2003-01-01

    Rapid advances in molecular genetics provide great opportunities for studies of host defense mechanisms. Examination of plant responses to disease at the cellular and molecular level permits both discovery of changes in gene expression in the tissues attacked by pathogens, and identification of genetic components involved in the interaction between host and pathogens....

  9. High yielding and disease resistant mutants of sorghum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinoso, A; Murty, B R; Taborda, F [Faculty of Agronomy, University of Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    1987-07-01

    The programme was assisted by IAEA under project VEN/5/005 since 1978. It aims at improvement of plant type, earliness and resistance to Macrophomina in the locally adapted varieties Criollo Rojo Pequeno (CRP) and Criollo Blanco Alto (CBA). The mutagenic treatment consisted of seed irradiation at 20, 30 and 40 kR of gamma rays and chemical mutagenesis using sodium azide followed by 5000 kR gamma radiation. The 16 best mutants were evaluated in multilocation trials during M{sub 6}-M{sub 9} 1981-1984: Mutants from CRP namely 1279, 1543, 1265, 2085, 1251 and 1359 and four mutant from CBA, 109, 467, 469 and 81-1227 were found to be superior to their parents and the existing commercial hybrids. CRP 1279, 1543 and 2085 are already under large scale cultivation by farmers and under process for cultivar certification by the Ministry of Agriculture.

  10. High yielding and disease resistant mutants of sorghum in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, A.; Murty, B.R.; Taborda, F.

    1987-01-01

    The programme was assisted by IAEA under project VEN/5/005 since 1978. It aims at improvement of plant type, earliness and resistance to Macrophomina in the locally adapted varieties Criollo Rojo Pequeno (CRP) and Criollo Blanco Alto (CBA). The mutagenic treatment consisted of seed irradiation at 20, 30 and 40 kR of gamma rays and chemical mutagenesis using sodium azide followed by 5000 kR gamma radiation. The 16 best mutants were evaluated in multilocation trials during M 6 -M 9 1981-1984: Mutants from CRP namely 1279, 1543, 1265, 2085, 1251 and 1359 and four mutant from CBA, 109, 467, 469 and 81-1227 were found to be superior to their parents and the existing commercial hybrids. CRP 1279, 1543 and 2085 are already under large scale cultivation by farmers and under process for cultivar certification by the Ministry of Agriculture

  11. Recombination Rate Heterogeneity within Arabidopsis Disease Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuha; Reinhard, Carsten; Serra, Heïdi; Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Underwood, Charles J; Zhao, Xiaohui; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Yelina, Nataliya E; Griffin, Catherine; Jackson, Matthew; Mézard, Christine; McVean, Gil; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Henderson, Ian R

    2016-07-01

    Meiotic crossover frequency varies extensively along chromosomes and is typically concentrated in hotspots. As recombination increases genetic diversity, hotspots are predicted to occur at immunity genes, where variation may be beneficial. A major component of plant immunity is recognition of pathogen Avirulence (Avr) effectors by resistance (R) genes that encode NBS-LRR domain proteins. Therefore, we sought to test whether NBS-LRR genes would overlap with meiotic crossover hotspots using experimental genetics in Arabidopsis thaliana. NBS-LRR genes tend to physically cluster in plant genomes; for example, in Arabidopsis most are located in large clusters on the south arms of chromosomes 1 and 5. We experimentally mapped 1,439 crossovers within these clusters and observed NBS-LRR gene associated hotspots, which were also detected as historical hotspots via analysis of linkage disequilibrium. However, we also observed NBS-LRR gene coldspots, which in some cases correlate with structural heterozygosity. To study recombination at the fine-scale we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze ~1,000 crossovers within the RESISTANCE TO ALBUGO CANDIDA1 (RAC1) R gene hotspot. This revealed elevated intragenic crossovers, overlapping nucleosome-occupied exons that encode the TIR, NBS and LRR domains. The highest RAC1 recombination frequency was promoter-proximal and overlapped CTT-repeat DNA sequence motifs, which have previously been associated with plant crossover hotspots. Additionally, we show a significant influence of natural genetic variation on NBS-LRR cluster recombination rates, using crosses between Arabidopsis ecotypes. In conclusion, we show that a subset of NBS-LRR genes are strong hotspots, whereas others are coldspots. This reveals a complex recombination landscape in Arabidopsis NBS-LRR genes, which we propose results from varying coevolutionary pressures exerted by host-pathogen relationships, and is influenced by structural heterozygosity.

  12. Risk assessment of UVB effects on resistance to infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garssen, J.; Goettsch, W.; Slob, W.; Loveren, H. van; de Gruijl, F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative risk assessment of lowered resistance to infections in humans due to (solar) ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. We followed the steps for risk assessment as defined by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences: (1) hazard identification, (2) dose-response assessment, (3) exposure assessment, and (4) risk characterization. For step 1, the suppressory effects of UVB radiation on the immune system has been reviewed, supplemented with new data, and analyzed. Experiments on UV-induced immunosuppression cannot be performed with humans for ethical reasons, but herpes simplex virus infection appears to be the human paradigm. Thus, UVB radiation appears to be a potential hazard to immunologic functions. Step 2 is crucial, but dose-response relationships for infections have never been measured in humans. We used our earlier dose-response rat data for suppression of lymphocyte stimulation and computed that the UVB dose resulting in a 50% reduction of lymphocyte stimulation by Listeria monocytogenes is 6.800 J/m 2 . Using mixed skin lymphocyte response assays we found that humans are 3.8 times less sensitive than rats (interspecies variation [IEV]). To account for the 2.5 percentile of most susceptible individuals in a population, an additional factor (intraspecies variation [IAV]) was introduced (0.5 for humans). Using these data, we computed that 13.100 J/m 2 of UVB radiation emitted by FS40 lamps would suppress 50% of the proliferative response of lymphocytes to L. monocytogenes in most sensitive skin type 2 humans. In step 3, we assumed the action spectrum for the responses analyzed by us as identical to an action spectrum for suppression of contact hypersensitivity that is available in the literature. In step 4, we calculated that approximately 100 min of solar exposure at around noon in Italy or Spain would suppress the resistance to infections by L. monocytogenes in the most sensitive humans. (author)

  13. Risk assessment of UVB effects on resistance to infectious diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garssen, J.; Goettsch, W.; Slob, W.; Loveren, H. van [National Institute of Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands); de Gruijl, F. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative risk assessment of lowered resistance to infections in humans due to (solar) ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. We followed the steps for risk assessment as defined by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences: (1) hazard identification, (2) dose-response assessment, (3) exposure assessment, and (4) risk characterization. For step 1, the suppressory effects of UVB radiation on the immune system has been reviewed, supplemented with new data, and analyzed. Experiments on UV-induced immunosuppression cannot be performed with humans for ethical reasons, but herpes simplex virus infection appears to be the human paradigm. Thus, UVB radiation appears to be a potential hazard to immunologic functions. Step 2 is crucial, but dose-response relationships for infections have never been measured in humans. We used our earlier dose-response rat data for suppression of lymphocyte stimulation and computed that the UVB dose resulting in a 50% reduction of lymphocyte stimulation by Listeria monocytogenes is 6.800 J/m{sup 2}. Using mixed skin lymphocyte response assays we found that humans are 3.8 times less sensitive than rats (interspecies variation [IEV]). To account for the 2.5 percentile of most susceptible individuals in a population, an additional factor (intraspecies variation [IAV]) was introduced (0.5 for humans). Using these data, we computed that 13.100 J/m{sup 2} of UVB radiation emitted by FS40 lamps would suppress 50% of the proliferative response of lymphocytes to L. monocytogenes in most sensitive skin type 2 humans. In step 3, we assumed the action spectrum for the responses analyzed by us as identical to an action spectrum for suppression of contact hypersensitivity that is available in the literature. In step 4, we calculated that approximately 100 min of solar exposure at around noon in Italy or Spain would suppress the resistance to infections by L. monocytogenes in the most sensitive humans. (author).

  14. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    2013-07-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  15. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee

    2013-01-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  16. Mutation breeding for disease resistance in food beans and cowpea in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onim, J.F.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is being used in attempts to obtain more disease resistant variants of bean, cowpea and pigeon pea. In bean M 2 populations large genetic variation for morphological and physiological characters has been observed, but also differences in anthracnose, angular leaf spot and rust. Cowpea appears to be rather resistant to mutagen treatment and although some variation was induced, the number of mutants appears smaller than in Phaseolus vulgaris. (author)

  17. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Breeding for soybean resistance to anthracnose disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backman, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This is the report of a mission to evaluate projects using mutation breeding techniques to develop resistance in soybeans to anthracnose disease. The project to date is generally successful in that training has been provided to numerous scientists in Thailand, and this will lead to improved University teaching and better research. Several changes in experimental procedure are suggested to increase the chances of finding anthracnose resistance in soybean

  18. Insulin Signaling, Resistance, and the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Mouse Models to Disease Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major underlying mechanism for the “metabolic syndrome”, which is also known as insulin resistance syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is increasing at an alarming rate, becoming a major public and clinical problem worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is represented by a group of interrelated disorders, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. It is also a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. Animal studies demonstrate that insulin and its signaling cascade normally control cell growth, metabolism and survival through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphotidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), of which activation of PI-3K-associated with insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 (IRS1, 2) and subsequent Akt→Foxo1 phosphorylation cascade has a central role in control of nutrient homeostasis and organ survival. Inactivation of Akt and activation of Foxo1, through suppression IRS1 and IRS2 in different organs following hyperinsulinemia, metabolic inflammation, and over nutrition may provide the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome in humans. Targeting the IRS→Akt→Foxo1 signaling cascade will likely provide a strategy for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and its complications. This review discusses the basis of insulin signaling, insulin resistance in different mouse models, and how a deficiency of insulin signaling components in different organs contributes to the feature of the metabolic syndrome. Emphasis will be placed on the role of IRS1, IRS2, and associated signaling pathways that couple to Akt and the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor Foxo1. PMID:24281010

  19. Surveillance programs for detection and characterization of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance: results from the Division of Infectious Diseases, UNIFESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Arnaldo L; Janini, Mario; Salomão, Reinaldo; Medeiros, Eduardo A S; Wey, Sergio B; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2009-09-01

    Several epidemiological changes have occurred in the pattern of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases during the past 25 years. Social and demographic changes possibly related to this phenomenon include a rapid population growth, the increase in urban migration and movement across international borders by tourists and immigrants, alterations in the habitats of animals and arthropods that transmit disease, as well as the raise of patients with impaired host defense abilities. Continuous surveillance programs of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance are warranted for detecting in real time new pathogens, as well as to characterize molecular mechanisms of resistance. In order to become more effective, surveillance programs of emergent pathogens should be organized as a multicenter laboratory network connected to the main public and private infection control centers. Microbiological data should be integrated to guide therapy, adapting therapy to local ecology and resistance patterns. This paper presents an overview of data generated by the Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, along with its participation in different surveillance programs of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases.

  20. Companion cropping with potato onion enhances the disease resistance of tomato against Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuepeng eFu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping could alleviate soil-borne diseases, however, few studies focused on the immunity of the host plant induced by the interspecific interactions. To test whether or not intercropping could enhance the disease resistance of host plant, we investigated the effect of companion cropping with potato onion on tomato Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae. To investigate the mechanisms, the root exudates were collected from tomato and potato onion which were grown together or separately, and were used to examine the antifungal activities against V. dahliae in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, RNA-seq was used to examine the expression pattern of genes related to disease resistance in tomato companied with potato onion compared to that in tomato grown alone, under the condition of infection with V. dahliae. The results showed that companion cropping with potato onion could alleviate the incidence and severity of tomato Verticillium wilt. The further studies revealed that the root exudates from tomato companied with potato onion significantly inhibited the mycelia growth and spore germination of V. dahliae. However, there were no significant effects on these two measurements for the root exudates from potato onion grown alone or from potato onion grown with tomato. RNA-seq data analysis showed the disease defense genes associated with pathogenesis-related proteins, biosynthesis of lignin, hormone metabolism and signal transduction were expressed much higher in the tomato companied with potato onion than those in the tomato grown alone, which indicated that these defense genes play important roles in tomato against V. dahliae infection, and meant that the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae was enhanced in the companion copping with potato onion. We proposed that companion cropping with potato onion could enhance the disease resistance of tomato against V. dahliae by regulating the expression of genes related

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis and the Expression of Disease-Resistant Genes in Oryza meyeriana under Native Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    Full Text Available Oryza meyeriana (O. meyeriana, with a GG genome type (2n = 24, accumulated plentiful excellent characteristics with respect to resistance to many diseases such as rice shade and blast, even immunity to bacterial blight. It is very important to know if the diseases-resistant genes exist and express in this wild rice under native conditions. However, limited genomic or transcriptomic data of O. meyeriana are currently available. In this study, we present the first comprehensive characterization of the O. meyeriana transcriptome using RNA-seq and obtained 185,323 contigs with an average length of 1,692 bp and an N50 of 2,391 bp. Through differential expression analysis, it was found that there were most tissue-specifically expressed genes in roots, and next to stems and leaves. By similarity search against protein databases, 146,450 had at least a significant alignment to existed gene models. Comparison with the Oryza sativa (japonica-type Nipponbare and indica-type 93-11 genomes revealed that 13% of the O. meyeriana contigs had not been detected in O. sativa. Many diseases-resistant genes, such as bacterial blight resistant, blast resistant, rust resistant, fusarium resistant, cyst nematode resistant and downy mildew gene, were mined from the transcriptomic database. There are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes (Xa1 and Xa26 differentially or specifically expressed in O. meyeriana. The 4 Xa1 contigs were all only expressed in root, while three of Xa26 contigs have the highest expression level in leaves, two of Xa26 contigs have the highest expression profile in stems and one of Xa26 contigs was expressed dominantly in roots. The transcriptomic database of O. meyeriana has been constructed and many diseases-resistant genes were found to express under native condition, which provides a foundation for future discovery of a number of novel genes and provides a basis for studying the molecular mechanisms associated with disease

  2. Mutational rectification for resistance to diseases in rice and bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.N.; Kar, G.N.; Sen, B.

    1976-01-01

    The mutation breeding programme with a view to rectify the defects of severe susceptibility to important diseases of a few varieties of rice and bread wheat was undertaken using different mutagenic treatments with radiation (X-rays and gamma rays), chemical mutagens (EMS, NMU, NEU) and combination of radiation and chemical mutagens (gamma rays + EMS). In rice two mutant strains have shown moderate resistance to helminthosporiose, one strain to both helminthosporiose and blast and five strains resistant to bacterial leaf blight under artificial epiphytotic conditions. In bread wheat, out of large M 2 population, derived from different mutagenic treatments, the frequencies of appearance of mutants resistant to rust diseases were observed to be 0.03 percent in H.D. 1944 from 0.2 percent EMS treatment, 0.06 percent in H.D. 1999 from 0.01 percent NEU treatment and 0.07 percent in Kalyan Sona from combined treatment with 20 krad gamma rays and 0.4 percent EMS. The mutants bred true for resistance upto M 6 generations. A few of the mutants, resistant to different diseases in rjce and bread wheat, proved to be very promising in yield. An early (earlier to Kalyan Sona by 25 days) mutant, derived from Kalyan Sona, topped in yield out of 49 varieties tested in 1974l75 in Delhi and Pusa. The Kalyan Sona early tested in 1974-75 in Delhi and Pusa. The Kalyan Sona early mutant is having resistance to yellow and brown rusts. (author)

  3. Insights from agriculture for the management of insecticide resistance in disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Thomas, Matthew B

    2018-04-01

    Key to contemporary management of diseases such as malaria, dengue, and filariasis is control of the insect vectors responsible for transmission. Insecticide-based interventions have contributed to declines in disease burdens in many areas, but this progress could be threatened by the emergence of insecticide resistance in vector populations. Insecticide resistance is likewise a major concern in agriculture, where insect pests can cause substantial yield losses. Here, we explore overlaps between understanding and managing insecticide resistance in agriculture and in public health. We have used the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors, developed under the auspices of the World Health Organization Global Malaria Program, as a framework for this exploration because it serves as one of the few cohesive documents for managing a global insecticide resistance crisis. Generally, this comparison highlights some fundamental differences between insect control in agriculture and in public health. Moreover, we emphasize that the success of insecticide resistance management strategies is strongly dependent on the biological specifics of each system. We suggest that the biological, operational, and regulatory differences between agriculture and public health limit the wholesale transfer of knowledge and practices from one system to the other. Nonetheless, there are some valuable insights from agriculture that could assist in advancing the existing Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management framework.

  4. Brain Insulin Resistance and Deficiency as Therapeutic Targets in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease [AD] is the most common cause of dementia in North America. Despite 30+ years of intense investigation, the field lacks consensus regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of sporadic AD, and therefore we still do not know the best strategies for treating and preventing this debilitating and costly disease. However, growing evidence supports the concept that AD is fundamentally a metabolic disease with substantial and progressive derangements in brain glucose utilization and responsiveness to insulin and insulin-like growth factor [IGF] stimulation. Moreover, AD is now recognized to be heterogeneous in nature, and not solely the end-product of aberrantly processed, misfolded, and aggregated oligomeric amyloid-beta peptides and hyperphosphorylated tau. Other factors, including impairments in energy metabolism, increased oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin and IGF resistance, and insulin/IGF deficiency in the brain should be incorporated into all equations used to develop diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to AD. Herein, the contributions of impaired insulin and IGF signaling to AD-associated neuronal loss, synaptic disconnection, tau hyperphosphorylation, amyloid-beta accumulation, and impaired energy metabolism are reviewed. In addition, we discuss current therapeutic strategies and suggest additional approaches based on the hypothesis that AD is principally a metabolic disease similar to diabetes mellitus. Ultimately, our ability to effectively detect, monitor, treat, and prevent AD will require more efficient, accurate and integrative diagnostic tools that utilize clinical, neuroimaging, biochemical, and molecular biomarker data. Finally, it is imperative that future therapeutic strategies for AD abandon the concept of uni-modal therapy in favor of multi-modal treatments that target distinct impairments at different levels within the brain insulin/IGF signaling cascades. PMID:22329651

  5. Fractal scale-free networks resistant to disease spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng; Zou, Tao; Chen, Guisheng

    2008-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that scale-free networks are prone to epidemic propagation; in the paper we demonstrate that, on the contrary, disease spreading is inhibited in fractal scale-free networks. We first propose a novel network model and show that it simultaneously has the following rich topological properties: scale-free degree distribution, tunable clustering coefficient, 'large-world' behavior, and fractal scaling. Existing network models do not display these characteristics. Then, we investigate the susceptible–infected–removed (SIR) model of the propagation of diseases in our fractal scale-free networks by mapping it to the bond percolation process. We establish the existence of non-zero tunable epidemic thresholds by making use of the renormalization group technique, which implies that power law degree distribution does not suffice to characterize the epidemic dynamics on top of scale-free networks. We argue that the epidemic dynamics are determined by the topological properties, especially the fractality and its accompanying 'large-world' behavior

  6. Scale-Dependent Assessment of Relative Disease Resistance to Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Skelsey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping trials may not take into account sufficient spatial context to infer quantitative disease resistance of recommended varieties in commercial production settings. Recent ecological theory—the dispersal scaling hypothesis—provides evidence that host heterogeneity and scale of host heterogeneity interact in a predictable and straightforward manner to produce a unimodal (“humpbacked” distribution of epidemic outcomes. This suggests that the intrinsic artificiality (scale and design of experimental set-ups may lead to spurious conclusions regarding the resistance of selected elite cultivars, due to the failure of experimental efforts to accurately represent disease pressure in real agricultural situations. In this model-based study we investigate the interaction of host heterogeneity and scale as a confounding factor in the inference from ex-situ assessment of quantitative disease resistance to commercial production settings. We use standard modelling approaches in plant disease epidemiology and a number of different agronomic scenarios. Model results revealed that the interaction of heterogeneity and scale is a determinant of relative varietal performance under epidemic conditions. This is a previously unreported phenomenon that could provide a new basis for informing the design of future phenotyping platforms, and optimising the scale at which quantitative disease resistance is assessed.

  7. A 1,681-locus consensus genetic map of cultivated cucumber including 67 NB-LRR resistance gene homolog and ten gene loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luming; Li, Dawei; Li, Yuhong; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Weng, Yiqun

    2013-03-25

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop that is susceptible to many pathogens, but no disease resistance (R) genes have been cloned. The availability of whole genome sequences provides an excellent opportunity for systematic identification and characterization of the nucleotide binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) type R gene homolog (RGH) sequences in the genome. Cucumber has a very narrow genetic base making it difficult to construct high-density genetic maps. Development of a consensus map by synthesizing information from multiple segregating populations is a method of choice to increase marker density. As such, the objectives of the present study were to identify and characterize NB-LRR type RGHs, and to develop a high-density, integrated cucumber genetic-physical map anchored with RGH loci. From the Gy14 draft genome, 70 NB-containing RGHs were identified and characterized. Most RGHs were in clusters with uneven distribution across seven chromosomes. In silico analysis indicated that all 70 RGHs had EST support for gene expression. Phylogenetic analysis classified 58 RGHs into two clades: CNL and TNL. Comparative analysis revealed high-degree sequence homology and synteny in chromosomal locations of these RGH members between the cucumber and melon genomes. Fifty-four molecular markers were developed to delimit 67 of the 70 RGHs, which were integrated into a genetic map through linkage analysis. A 1,681-locus cucumber consensus map including 10 gene loci and spanning 730.0 cM in seven linkage groups was developed by integrating three component maps with a bin-mapping strategy. Physically, 308 scaffolds with 193.2 Mbp total DNA sequences were anchored onto this consensus map that covered 52.6% of the 367 Mbp cucumber genome. Cucumber contains relatively few NB-LRR RGHs that are clustered and unevenly distributed in the genome. All RGHs seem to be transcribed and shared significant sequence homology and synteny with the melon genome suggesting conservation of

  8. Insulin Resistance Predicts Medial Temporal Hypermetabolism in Mild Cognitive Impairment Conversion to Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A.; Modanlo, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by progressive hypometabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. Peripheral insulin resistance (IR) increases AD risk. No studies have examined associations between FDG metabolism and IR in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, as well as MCI conversion to AD. We studied 26 cognitively normal (CN), 194 MCI (39 MCI-progressors, 148 MCI-stable, 2 years after baseline), and 60 AD subjects with baseline FDG-PET from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Mean FDG metabolism was derived for AD-vulnerable regions of interest (ROIs), including lateral parietal and posteromedial cortices, medial temporal lobe (MTL), hippocampus, and ventral prefrontal cortices (vPFC), as well as postcentral gyrus and global cerebrum control regions. The homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was used to measure IR. For AD, higher HOMA-IR predicted lower FDG in all ROIs. For MCI-progressors, higher HOMA-IR predicted higher FDG in the MTL and hippocampus. Control regions showed no associations. Higher HOMA-IR predicted hypermetabolism in MCI-progressors and hypometabolism in AD in medial temporal regions. Future longitudinal studies should examine the pathophysiologic significance of the shift from MTL hyper- to hypometabolism associated with IR. PMID:25576061

  9. Sex-specific effect of juvenile diet on adult disease resistance in a field cricket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint D Kelly

    Full Text Available Food limitation is expected to reduce an individual's body condition (body mass scaled to body size and cause a trade-off between growth and other fitness-related traits, such as immunity. We tested the condition-dependence of growth and disease resistance in male and female Gryllus texensis field crickets by manipulating diet quality via nutrient content for their entire life and then subjecting individuals to a host resistance test using the live bacterium Serratia marcescens. As predicted, crickets on a high-quality diet eclosed more quickly, and at a larger body size and mass. Crickets on a high-quality diet were not in better condition at the time of eclosion, but they were in better condition 7-11 days after eclosion, with females also being in better condition than males. Despite being in better condition, however, females provided with a high-quality diet had significantly poorer disease resistance than females on a low-quality diet and in poor condition. Similarly, males on low- and high-quality diets did not differ in their disease resistance, despite differing in their body condition. A sex difference in disease resistance under diet-restriction suggests that females might allocate resources toward immunity during development if they expect harsh environmental conditions as an adult or it might suggest that females allocate resources toward other life history activities (i.e. reproduction when food availability increases. We do not know what immune effectors were altered under diet-restriction to increase disease resistance, but our findings suggest that increased immune function might provide an explanation for the sexually-dimorphic increase in longevity generally observed in diet-restricted animals.

  10. Relationship of hypovitaminosis d and insulin resistance in patients with coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Orlovsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR - is one of the predictors of cardiovascular disease and progression of atherosclerosis, regardless of major classical risk factors. IR has become a global epidemic. Experimental data indicate that low concentration of vitamin D associated with IR, diabetes mellitus type 2, by reducing the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin and dysfunction of β-pancreatic cells. Randomized studies showed that vitamin D supplements have a preventive role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The present study aims to examine the association between serum vitamin D concentrations and indicators of carbohydrate metabolism, indexes of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in the patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: This study included 135 patients with CHD stable angina pectoris class II – III. The mean age was 64,7±0,97 years, 40% were women (n = 54. Patients were divided into two groups: I – with isolated CHD (70 patients and II - CHD combined with MS (65 patients. MS was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, 2005. The study did not include patients who received vitamin D2, D3 and multivitamins containing these vitamins for last 6 months, patients with malabsorption fat syndrome, acute and chronic liver disease, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, urolithiasis, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Also excluded from the study were patients with DM type 1 and type 2 taking glucose-lowering drugs. Serum 25(OHD and insulin were measured by enzyme immunoassay (25-OH Vitamin D Immunodiagnostics Systems Limited (UK; DRG (USA. RESULT: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was present in 91,9 % of the tested patients. Among subnormal values prevailed insufficiency in 51,9 % (70 pers., deficit diagnosed in 40.0% of patients (54 pers.. Established that patients with CHD associated with MS have a significantly more pronounced hypovitaminosis D

  11. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant) and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible) trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early

  12. Transcriptome of American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in response to bacterial challenge: insights into potential mechanisms of disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Ian C; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Aguiar, Derek; Lane, Christopher E; Istrail, Sorin; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The American oyster Crassostrea virginica, an ecologically and economically important estuarine organism, can suffer high mortalities in areas in the Northeast United States due to Roseovarius Oyster Disease (ROD), caused by the gram-negative bacterial pathogen Roseovarius crassostreae. The goals of this research were to provide insights into: 1) the responses of American oysters to R. crassostreae, and 2) potential mechanisms of resistance or susceptibility to ROD. The responses of oysters to bacterial challenge were characterized by exposing oysters from ROD-resistant and susceptible families to R. crassostreae, followed by high-throughput sequencing of cDNA samples from various timepoints after disease challenge. Sequence data was assembled into a reference transcriptome and analyzed through differential gene expression and functional enrichment to uncover genes and processes potentially involved in responses to ROD in the American oyster. While susceptible oysters experienced constant levels of mortality when challenged with R. crassostreae, resistant oysters showed levels of mortality similar to non-challenged oysters. Oysters exposed to R. crassostreae showed differential expression of transcripts involved in immune recognition, signaling, protease inhibition, detoxification, and apoptosis. Transcripts involved in metabolism were enriched in susceptible oysters, suggesting that bacterial infection places a large metabolic demand on these oysters. Transcripts differentially expressed in resistant oysters in response to infection included the immune modulators IL-17 and arginase, as well as several genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. The identification of potential genes and processes responsible for defense against R. crassostreae in the American oyster provides insights into potential mechanisms of disease resistance.

  13. Quantitative disease resistance: to better understand parasite-mediated selection on major histocompatibility complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Helena; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan

    2012-02-07

    We outline a descriptive framework of how candidate alleles of the immune system associate with infectious diseases in natural populations of animals. Three kinds of alleles can be separated when both prevalence of infection and infection intensity are measured--qualitative disease resistance, quantitative disease resistance and susceptibility alleles. Our descriptive framework demonstrates why alleles for quantitative resistance and susceptibility cannot be separated based on prevalence data alone, but are distinguishable on infection intensity. We then present a case study to evaluate a previous finding of a positive association between prevalence of a severe avian malaria infection (GRW2, Plasmodium ashfordi) and a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele (B4b) in great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus. Using the same dataset, we find that individuals with allele B4b have lower GRW2 infection intensities than individuals without this allele. Therefore, allele B4b provides quantitative resistance rather than increasing susceptibility to infection. This implies that birds carrying B4b can mount an immune response that suppresses the acute-phase GRW2 infection, while birds without this allele cannot and may die. We argue that it is important to determine whether MHC alleles related to infections are advantageous (quantitative and qualitative resistance) or disadvantageous (susceptibility) to obtain a more complete picture of pathogen-mediated balancing selection.

  14. Unraveling the key to the resistance of canids to prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fernández-Borges

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of prions is their ability to infect some species but not others and prion resistant species have been of special interest because of their potential in deciphering the determinants for susceptibility. Previously, we developed different in vitro and in vivo models to assess the susceptibility of species that were erroneously considered resistant to prion infection, such as members of the Leporidae and Equidae families. Here we undertake in vitro and in vivo approaches to understand the unresolved low prion susceptibility of canids. Studies based on the amino acid sequence of the canine prion protein (PrP, together with a structural analysis in silico, identified unique key amino acids whose characteristics could orchestrate its high resistance to prion disease. Cell- and brain-based PMCA studies were performed highlighting the relevance of the D163 amino acid in proneness to protein misfolding. This was also investigated by the generation of a novel transgenic mouse model carrying this substitution and these mice showed complete resistance to disease despite intracerebral challenge with three different mouse prion strains (RML, 22L and 301C known to cause disease in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that dog D163 amino acid is primarily, if not totally, responsible for the prion resistance of canids.

  15. The improvement of rice varieties for major pest and diseases resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahi, I.; Silitonga, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1971, the rice breeding program in Indonesia has developed on intensive program to improve varieties for yield potential, resistancy to major pests and diseases, early maturity good grain and eating quality. In recent years, the attacks of insects and diseases are very severe in rice cultivation in Asia. Much of the losses were due to acontinuous planting or certain varieties. Between 1966 and 1973 tungro occured in epidemic proportions on separate occasions in Indonesia, Thailand, Nort East India, Bangladesh, and Philippine. Since 1973, investation of brown planthopper and green leafhopper several damaged rice crop in most parts of Indonesia. Presently, rice improvement are directed to develop high yielding rice varieties that are resistant to brown planthopper, ragged stunt virus, blast, green leafhopper, and gallmidge. Screening for pests and diseases are conducted in the laboratory as well as in the field. The adoption of those improved varieties by farmers has contributed greatly in our efforts to attain self sufficiency in rice production in Indonesia. GH 147 -M-40 krad-Pn-89 (irradiated Barito) showed resistant to brown planthopper biotype 1 and 2 and moderately resistant to biotype 3. Napa 40 krad-St-12 has resistant reaction to blast. (authors). 4 refs, 8 tabs

  16. Increased Levels of Antinutritional and/or Defense Proteins Reduced the Protein Quality of a Disease-Resistant Soybean Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Daniele O B; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José Tadeu A; Farias, Davi F; Castelar, Ivan; Oliveira, Henrique P; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-07-22

    The biochemical and nutritional attributes of two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars, one susceptible (Seridó) and the other resistant (Seridó-RCH) to stem canker, were examined to assess whether the resistance to pathogens was related to levels of antinutritional and/or defense proteins in the plant and subsequently affected the nutritional quality. Lectin, urease, trypsin inhibitor, peroxidase and chitinase activities were higher in the resistant cultivar. Growing rats were fed with isocaloric and isoproteic diets prepared with defatted raw soybean meals. Those on the Seridó-RCH diet showed the worst performance in terms of protein quality indicators. Based on regression analysis, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, peroxidase and chitinase appear to be involved in the resistance trait but also in the poorer nutritional quality of Seridó-RCH. Thus, the development of cultivars for disease resistance may lead to higher concentrations of antinutritional compounds, affecting the quality of soybean seeds. Further research that includes the assessment of more cultivars/genotypes is needed.

  17. Evaluation of induced mutants of wheat for resistance to fungal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.; Fuentes P, R.; Andrade S, N.; Seeman F, P.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluation of induced mutants of wheat for resistance to fungal diseases. Seeds of spring wheat cultivars Austral and Huenufen were exposed to gamma radiation in doses of 0.10 and 0.25 KGy with the objective of producing genotypes resistant to the main fungal diseases, with a high protein content and grain yield, for the southern region of Chile (39 sup(o)-44 sup(o) Latitude south). The selection process and evaluation up to the generation M sub(8) has made possible to identify mutants with a higher protein content and grain yield. Progress made in improving resistance to Puccinia striiformis and tolerance to Septoria spp., has also been important. Some selected mutants, conditioned to their future performance, could be directly used as commercial varieties and other mutants, on crosses with regionally adapted cultivars. (author)

  18. Association mapping of fruit, seed and disease resistance traits in Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    An association mapping approach was employed to find markers for color, size, girth and mass of fruits; seed number and butterfat content; and resistance to black pod and witches’ broom diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

  19. C-reactive protein, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.W.; Olsen, M.H.; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR), a metabolic disorder, are closely related. CRP and IR have both been identified as significant risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors...

  20. Induced disease resistance of satsuma mandarings against penicillium digitatum by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Rae Dong

    2017-01-01

    Gamma irradiation, which is a type of ionizing radiation, can be used as a fruit inducible factor. In the present study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the resistance of mandarin fruits against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of postharvest green mold disease, were investigated. Pretreatment of a low dose of gamma irradiation effectively reduced the disease incidence and lesion diameter of mandarin fruits inoculated with P. digatatum during storage for 14 d. Interestingly, exposed to 400 Gy of gamma irradiation significantly maintained firmness and stimulated the synthesis of defense-related enzymes, (e.g., β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase) and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes (e.g., PR-1 and PR-2). Therefore, the gamma irradiation-induced resistance against P. digatatum involves both changes of phenolic compounds and the induction of expression of defense-related genes. In addition, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that induced disease resistance by gamma irradiation signifcantly inhibits the growth of P. digatatum in mandarin fruits. These results suggest that the exposure of gamma irradiation is a potential methods for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to postharvest fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of mandarin fruit

  1. Development of diagnostic markers from disease resistance QTLs for marker-assisted breeding in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding for disease resistance in peanut cultivars has been constrained due to both a narrow genetic base and a low degree of polymorphism. Earlier attempts have resulted in the development of a few hundreds of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in peanut that could define broad QTL on the physic...

  2. Genotype x environment interaction and growth stability of several elm clones resistant to Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Santini; Francesco Pecori; Alessia L. Pepori; Luisa Ghelardini

    2012-01-01

    The elm breeding program carried out in Italy at the Institute of Plant Protection - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricercje (CNR) during the last 40 years aimed to develop Dutch elm disease (DED)-resistant elm selections specific to the Mediterranean environment. The need for genotypes adapted to Mediterranean conditions was evident from the poor performance of the Dutch...

  3. Barley yellow dwarf disease as a target of breeding for resistance (short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Golnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to give a brief review of some points of wide knowledge of barley yellow dwarf (BYD disease and its breeding for resistance program.Yd2 gene has been shortly characterised. Current situation in Poland has been underlined.

  4. Induced disease resistance of satsuma mandarings against penicillium digitatum by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Rae Dong [Dept. of Applied Biology, Institute of Environmentally Friendly Agriculture, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Gamma irradiation, which is a type of ionizing radiation, can be used as a fruit inducible factor. In the present study, the effects of gamma irradiation on the resistance of mandarin fruits against Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of postharvest green mold disease, were investigated. Pretreatment of a low dose of gamma irradiation effectively reduced the disease incidence and lesion diameter of mandarin fruits inoculated with P. digatatum during storage for 14 d. Interestingly, exposed to 400 Gy of gamma irradiation significantly maintained firmness and stimulated the synthesis of defense-related enzymes, (e.g., β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase) and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes (e.g., PR-1 and PR-2). Therefore, the gamma irradiation-induced resistance against P. digatatum involves both changes of phenolic compounds and the induction of expression of defense-related genes. In addition, scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that induced disease resistance by gamma irradiation signifcantly inhibits the growth of P. digatatum in mandarin fruits. These results suggest that the exposure of gamma irradiation is a potential methods for inducing the disease resistance of fruit to postharvest fungal pathogens and for extending the postharvest life of mandarin fruit.

  5. Inheritance of black sigatoka disease resistance in plantain-banana (Musa spp.) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R; Vuylsteke, D

    1994-10-01

    Black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet), an airborne fungal leaf-spot disease, is a major constraint to plantain and banana (Musa spp.) production world-wide. Gaining further knowledge of the genetics of host-plant resistance will enhance the development of resistant cultivars, which is considered to be the most appropriate means to achieve stable production. Genetic analysis was conducted on 101 euploid (2x, 3x and 4x) progenies, obtained from crossing two susceptible triploid plantain cultivars with the resistant wild diploid banana 'Calcutta 4'. Segregating progenies, and a susceptible reference plantain cultivar, were evaluated over 2 consecutive years. Three distinct levels of host response to black sigatoka were defined as follows: susceptible ( 10). Segregation ratios for resistance at the 2x level fitted a genetic model having one major recessive resistance allele (bs 1) and two independent alleles with additive effects (bsr 2 and bsr 3). A similar model explains the results at the 4x level assuming that the favourable resistance alleles have a dosage effect when four copies of them are present in their respective loci (bs i (4) ). The proposed model was further validated by segregation data of S 1 progenies. Mechanisms of black sigatoka resistance are discussed in relation to the genetic model.

  6. Patients with neuromyelitis optica have a more severe disease than patients with relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis, including higher risk of dying of a demyelinating disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Bernardi Bichuetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although neuromyelitis optica (NMO is known to be a more severe disease than relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS, few studies comparing both conditions in a single center have been done. Methods: Comparison of our previously published cohort of 41 NMO patients with 177 RRMS patients followed in the same center, from 1994 to 2007. Results: Mean age of onset was 32.6 for NMO and 30.2 for RRMS (p=0.2062 with mean disease duration of 7.4 years for NMO and 10.3 years for RRMS. Patients with NMO had a higher annualized relapse rate (1.0 versus 0.8, p=0.0013 and progression index (0.9 versus 0.6, p≪0.0001, with more patients reaching expanded disability status scale (EDSS 6.0 (39 versus 17%, p=0.0036. The odds ratio for reaching EDSS 6.0 and being deceased due to NMO in comparison to RRMS were, respectively, 3.14 and 12.15. Conclusion: Patients with NMO have a more severe disease than patients with RRMS, including higher risk of dying of a demyelinating disease.

  7. Model Selection and Evaluation Based on Emerging Infectious Disease Data Sets including A/H1N1 and Ebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to apply simple ODE models in the area of modeling the spread of emerging infectious diseases and show the importance of model selection in estimating parameters, the basic reproduction number, turning point, and final size. To quantify the plausibility of each model, given the data and the set of four models including Logistic, Gompertz, Rosenzweg, and Richards models, the Bayes factors are calculated and the precise estimates of the best fitted model parameters and key epidemic characteristics have been obtained. In particular, for Ebola the basic reproduction numbers are 1.3522 (95% CI (1.3506, 1.3537, 1.2101 (95% CI (1.2084, 1.2119, 3.0234 (95% CI (2.6063, 3.4881, and 1.9018 (95% CI (1.8565, 1.9478, the turning points are November 7,November 17, October 2, and November 3, 2014, and the final sizes until December 2015 are 25794 (95% CI (25630, 25958, 3916 (95% CI (3865, 3967, 9886 (95% CI (9740, 10031, and 12633 (95% CI (12515, 12750 for West Africa, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, respectively. The main results confirm that model selection is crucial in evaluating and predicting the important quantities describing the emerging infectious diseases, and arbitrarily picking a model without any consideration of alternatives is problematic.

  8. Multisystem Disease, Including Eosinophilia and Progressive Hyper-Creatine-Kinase-emia over 10 Years, Suggests Mitochondrial Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eosinophilia has not been reported as a manifestation of a mitochondrial disorder (MID. Here, we report a patient with clinical features suggesting a MID and permanent eosinophilia, multisystem disease, and progressive hyper-creatine-kinase (CK-emia for at least 10 years. Materials and Methods: Methods applied included a clinical exam, blood chemical investigations, electrophysiological investigations, imaging, and invasive cardiological investigations. The patient was repeatedly followed up over several years. He required replacement cardiac surgery. Results: In a 57-year-old male, eosinophilia was first detected at the age of 44 years and has remained almost constantly present until today. In addition to eosinophilia, he developed progressive hyper-CK-emia at the age of 47 years. His history was further positive for hepatopathy, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, renal insufficiency, spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture, double vision, exercise intolerance, muscle aching, mild hypoacusis, sensory neuropathy, seizures, and mitral insufficiency/stenosis requiring valve replacement therapy, oral anticoagulation, and pacemaker implantation. Based on the multisystem nature of his abnormalities and permanent hyper-CK-emia, a MID was suspected. Conclusion: Eosinophilia can be associated with a MID with myopathy, possibly as a reaction to myofiber necrosis. If eosinophilia is associated with progressive hyper-CK-emia and multisystem disease, a MID should be suspected.

  9. Variability of yield traits and disease resistance in winter triticale genetic resources accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kociuba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A systematic gathering of winter triticale accessions was started in Poland in 1982 by the Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Seed Science at the Agricultural University in Lublin (at present its name is: Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Plant Biotechnology at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. First, breeding lines obtained in local breeding stations were gathered. Next, accessions were imported from the following world gene banks: Beltsville, Gatersleben, and VIR. Interesting hybrid materials obtained in research centers were also included in the collection. Now, the collection includes 2349 accessions (1329 of winter triticale and 1020 of spring triticale. The evaluation is conducted in a 4-year cycle of field experiments using the same methods. The gathered accessions represent a large range of variability of both morphological and commercial traits. The large differentiation of accessions especially concerns traits such as: plant height, number and weight of grains per spi- ke, protein content in grain, field resistance to powdery mildew, brown rust and leaf and spike diseases.

  10. Efficacy of a combined oral formulation of derquantel-abamectin against the adult and larval stages of nematodes in sheep, including anthelmintic-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Peter R; Hodge, Andrew; Maeder, Steven J; Wirtherle, Nicole C; Nicholas, David R; Cox, George G; Conder, George A

    2011-09-27

    Derquantel (DQL), a semi-synthetic member of a novel anthelmintic class, the spiroindoles, in combination with abamectin (ABA) [as the combination product STARTECT(®)] is a new entry for the treatment and control of parasites in sheep. The 19 studies reported herein were conducted in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom to demonstrate the efficacy of derquantel-abamectin (DQL-ABA) against a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal and respiratory nematodes of sheep, and to support registration of the combination product. Eleven studies were conducted using natural or experimental parasite infections with unknown or unconfirmed resistance, while eight studies utilised isolates/strains with confirmed or well characterised resistance to one or more currently available anthelmintics, including macrocyclic lactones. All studies included DQL-ABA and negative control groups, and in selected studies one or more reference anthelmintic groups were included. In all studies the commercial formulation of DQL-ABA was administered orally at 2mg/kg DQL and 0.2mg/kg ABA; placebo was administered in the same volume as DQL-ABA; and reference anthelmintics were administered as per label recommendations, except in one instance where levamisole was administered at twice the label dose. Infection, necropsy, worm collection and worm counting procedures were performed using standard techniques. Efficacy was calculated based on the percentage reduction in geometric mean worm count relative to negative control for each nematode species and lifecycle stage targeted. Twenty-two isolates/strains used in the eight studies targeting resistant worms had proven resistance: three to one anthelmintic class, eleven to two classes and eight to three or more classes; of these resistant strains, 16 demonstrated resistance to a macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic. Regardless of resistance status in the 19 studies, DQL-ABA controlled a broad range of economically important gastrointestinal

  11. Incidence, adherence, and antibiotic resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species causing human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, C A; Stempsey, W

    1984-09-01

    Fifty-two isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species recovered from the blood or intravenous catheters of patients with clinically significant disease were compared to 60 similar isolates from patients who were presumably colonized. All isolates were identified and evaluated for ability to adhere to smooth surfaces, and resistance to anti-staphylococcal penicillins. S. epidermidis, S. hominis, and S. haemolyticus were the most frequently occurring species, representing 65%, 15%, and 10%, respectively, of disease isolates and 57%, 25%, and 8% of colonizers. The seven other species recovered accounted for only 10% of the total in both groups. Differences in isolation rates of each species within the two groups were not significant and were reflective of their reported incidence in the normal flora. All species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (except S. capitis and S. cohnii, which were isolated in very small numbers) were capable of adhering to smooth surfaces. S. hominis disease isolates were all capable of adherence, and the difference between the disease isolates and colonizers was statistically significant (p less than 0.02). This was not true for any other species that was analyzed nor for all isolates considered as a whole. Resistance to anti-staphylococcal penicillins was documented for all coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species, and was more frequent in S. epidermidis disease isolates than colonizers (p less than 0.05). No correlation was found between resistance to antistaphylococcal penicillins and ability to adhere.

  12. Characterization and selection of location for resistance to sugarcane brown rust disease under cuban conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Montalván Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane brown rust disease is caused by fungus Puccinia melanocephala Sydow & P. Sydow and it is one of the more importance diseases. The environment where the sugarcane is cultivated is constituted by numerous factors and its combination contributes to the formation of different development and production conditions, what influences in the varietal disease resistance. With the objective of to characterize and to define the resistance tests location to the brown rust disease were carried out experiments in 6 location of the country. Eleven varieties and six patterns were studied. The climatic variables were analyzed during the period in each location and they were carried out evaluations in different ages of the plant and number of the leaves. The quantity of pustules, long of the most frequent pustules, size of the biggest pustules and area per - centage occupied by pustules were evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically. Differential behavior of the locations and the importance of the relative humidity and the temperatures in the manifestation of the disease symptoms were proven. All the locations were important although similarity exists between Matanzas and Villa Clara and between Camagüey and Holguín. Mayabeque and Santiago de Cuba didn’t present similarity with any other one. These 6 locations can be used for the resistance tests and to define the progenitors’ Santiago de Cuba, Holguín, Villa Clara and Mayabeque

  13. Enhanced Arabidopsis disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea induced by sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Meizhao; Yi, Huilan

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is a common air pollutant that has complex impacts on plants. The effect of prior exposure to 30mgm -3 SO 2 on defence against Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) in Arabidopsis thaliana and the possible mechanisms of action were investigated. The results indicated that pre-exposure to 30mgm -3 SO 2 resulted in significantly enhanced resistance to B. cinerea infection. SO 2 pre-treatment significantly enhanced the activities of defence-related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-1,3-glucanase (BGL) and chitinase (CHI). Transcripts of the defence-related genes PAL, PPO, PR2, and PR3, encoding PAL, PPO, BGL and CHI, respectively, were markedly elevated in Arabidopsis plants pre-exposed to SO 2 and subsequently inoculated with B. cinerea (SO 2 + treatment group) compared with those that were only treated with SO 2 (SO 2 ) or inoculated with B. cinerea (CK+). Moreover, SO 2 pre-exposure also led to significant increases in the expression levels of MIR393, MIR160 and MIR167 in Arabidopsis. Meanwhile, the expression of known targets involved in the auxin signalling pathway, was negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs. Additionally, the transcript levels of the primary auxin-response genes GH3-like, BDL/IAA12, and AXR3/IAA17 were markedly repressed. Our findings indicate that 30mgm -3 SO 2 pre-exposure enhances disease resistance against B. cinerea in Arabidopsis by priming defence responses through enhancement of defence-related gene expression and enzyme activity, and miRNA-mediated suppression of the auxin signalling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Feeding frequency affects stress, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding frequency on stress, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala (average weight: 9.92 ± 0.06 g). Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding frequencies (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 times/day) following the same ration size for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 10 days. Daily gain index of fish fed 3-5 times/day was significantly higher than that of the other groups. High feeding frequencies induced significantly elevated plasma levels of both cortisol and lactate. Fish fed 3-4 times/day exhibited relatively low liver catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as malondialdehyde contents, but obtained significantly higher reduced glutathione levels and post-challenged haemato-immunological parameters (include blood leukocyte and erythrocyte counts as well as plasma lysozyme, alternative complement, acid phosphatase and myeloperoxidase activities) compared with that of the other groups. After challenge, the lowest mortality was observed in fish fed 4 times/day. It was significantly lower than that of fish fed 1-3 times/day, but exhibited no statistical difference with that of the other groups. In conclusion, both low and high feeding frequencies could cause oxidative stress of juvenile M. amblycephala, as might consequently lead to the depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A. hydrophila infection. The optimal feeding frequency to enhance growth and boost immunity of this species at juvenile stage is 4 times/day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Article Commentary: Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Liver Disease. A Deadly Trio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Lonardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary to the paper by Donadon V. et al (Clinical Medicine: Endocrinology and Diabetes. 2009;2:25–33. the association and significance of insulin resistance with chronic liver disease are shortly reviewed and the molecular mechanisms underlying the diabetogenic and oncogenic potentials of advanced liver disease are summarized. Literature studies demonstrate that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC can be part of the natural history of NASH. HCCs in patients with features of metabolic syndrome as the only risk factor for liver disease have distinct morphological characteristics and mainly occur in the absence of significant fibrosis in the background liver. Moreover, data indicate that the presence of diabetes carries an approximately three to four-fold increased risk of HCC and such a risk is strongly increased by concurrent viral infections. Finally, the relationship between insulin resistance, steatosis and diabetes in NAFLD and HCV infection will be commented, along with the directions for future studies.

  16. Cardiac Development and Transcription Factors: Insulin Signalling, Insulin Resistance, and Intrauterine Nutritional Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindsamy, Annelene; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2018-01-01

    Programming with an insult or stimulus during critical developmental life stages shapes metabolic disease through divergent mechanisms. Cardiovascular disease increasingly contributes to global morbidity and mortality, and the heart as an insulin-sensitive organ may become insulin resistant, which manifests as micro- and/or macrovascular complications due to diabetic complications. Cardiogenesis is a sequential process during which the heart develops into a mature organ and is regulated by several cardiac-specific transcription factors. Disrupted cardiac insulin signalling contributes to cardiac insulin resistance. Intrauterine under- or overnutrition alters offspring cardiac structure and function, notably cardiac hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and hypertension that precede the onset of cardiovascular disease. Optimal intrauterine nutrition and oxygen saturation are required for normal cardiac development in offspring and the maintenance of their cardiovascular physiology. PMID:29484207

  17. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  18. An antibody that confers plant disease resistance targets a membrane-bound glyoxal oxidase in Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiu-Shi; Xing, Shu; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Qu, Bo; Jiang, Jin-He; Fan, Chao; Yang, Peng; Liu, Jin-Long; Hu, Zu-Quan; Xue, Sheng; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-05-01

    Plant germplasm resources with natural resistance against globally important toxigenic Fusarium are inadequate. CWP2, a Fusarium genus-specific antibody, confers durable resistance to different Fusarium pathogens that infect cereals and other crops, producing mycotoxins. However, the nature of the CWP2 target is not known. Thus, investigation of the gene coding for the CWP2 antibody target will likely provide critical insights into the mechanism underlying the resistance mediated by this disease-resistance antibody. Immunoblots and mass spectrometry analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels containing cell wall proteins from Fusarium graminearum (Fg) revealed that a glyoxal oxidase (GLX) is the CWP2 antigen. Cellular localization studies showed that GLX is localized to the plasma membrane. This GLX efficiently catalyzes hydrogen peroxide production; this enzymatic activity was specifically inhibited by the CWP2 antibody. GLX-deletion strains of Fg, F. verticillioides (Fv) and F. oxysporum had significantly reduced virulence on plants. The GLX-deletion Fg and Fv strains had markedly reduced mycotoxin accumulation, and the expression of key genes in mycotoxin metabolism was downregulated. This study reveals a single gene-encoded and highly conserved cellular surface antigen that is specifically recognized by the disease-resistance antibody CWP2 and regulates both virulence and mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium species. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae confers resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, T; Arakawa, Y; Ohta, M; Ichiyama, S; Wacharotayankun, R; Kato, N

    1993-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae NU2936 was isolated from a patient and was found to produce a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase (MOX-1) which conferred resistance to broad spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam, flomoxef, ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. Resistance could be transferred from K. pneumoniae NU2936 to Escherichia coli CSH2 by conjugation with a transfer frequency of 5 x 10(-7). The structural gene of MOX-1 (blaMOX-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli HB101. The MIC of moxalactam for E. coli HB101 producing MOX-1 was > 512 micrograms/ml. The apparent molecular mass and pI of this enzyme were calculated to be 38 kDa and 8.9, respectively. Hg2+ and Cu2+ failed to block enzyme activity, and the presence of EDTA in the reaction buffer did not reduce the enzyme activity. However, clavulanate and cloxacillin, serine beta-lactamase inhibitors, inhibited the enzyme activity competitively (Kis = 5.60 and 0.35 microM, respectively). The kinetic study of MOX-1 suggested that it effectively hydrolyzed broad-spectrum beta-lactams. A hybridization study confirmed that blaMOX-1 is encoded on a large resident plasmid (pRMOX1; 180 kb) of strain NU2936. By deletion analysis, the functional region was localized within a 1.2-kb region of the plasmid. By amino acid sequencing, 18 of 33 amino acid residues at the N terminus of MOX-1 were found to be identical to those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC. These findings suggest that MOX-1 is a plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase that provides enteric bacteria resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam. Images PMID:8517725

  20. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 1. Estimating the burden of disease associated with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Robin; Heimersson, Sara; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M

    2014-08-19

    The environmental performance of wastewater and sewage sludge management is commonly assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA), whereas pathogen risk is evaluated with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This study explored the application of QMRA methodology with intent to include pathogen risk in LCA and facilitate a comparison with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA. Pathogen risk was estimated for a model wastewater treatment system (WWTS) located in an industrialized country and consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary wastewater treatment, anaerobic sludge digestion, and land application of sewage sludge. The estimation was based on eight previous QMRA studies as well as parameter values taken from the literature. A total pathogen risk (expressed as burden of disease) on the order of 0.2-9 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year of operation was estimated for the model WWTS serving 28,600 persons and for the pathogens and exposure pathways included in this study. The comparison of pathogen risk with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA is detailed in part 2 of this article series.

  1. Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates from Clinically Diseased Pigs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Ik; Kim, Jong Wan; Chae, Myeongju; Jung, Ji-A; So, Byungjae; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Ha-Young

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from clinically diseased pigs collected from 2008 to 2014 in Korea. Isolates were also characterized according to the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Among 94 Salmonella isolates, 81 (86.2%) were identified as being of the Salmonella Typhimurium serotype, followed by Salmonella Derby (6 of 94, 6.4%), Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- (4 of 94, 4.3%), Salmonella Enteritidis (2 of 94, 2.1%), and Salmonella Brandenburg (1 of 94, 1.1%). The majority of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were resistant to tetracycline (92.6%), followed by streptomycin (88.9%) and ampicillin (80.2%). Overall, 96.3% of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates showed multidrug-resistant phenotypes and commonly harbored the resistance genes bla TEM (64.9%), flo (32.8%), aadA (55.3%), strA (58.5%), strB (58.5%), sulII (53.2%), and tetA (61.7%). The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of 45 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from individual farms revealed 27 distinct patterns that formed one major and two minor clusters in the dendrogram analysis, suggesting that most of the isolates (91.1%) from diseased pigs were genetically related. These findings can assist veterinarians in the selection of appropriate antimicrobial agents to combat Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and genetic status in Salmonella Typhimurium for the detection of emerging resistance trends.

  2. Immunomodulation and disease resistance in postyearling rainbow trout infected with Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Christine L.; Ottinger, C.A.; Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis, the myxosporean parasite that causes whirling disease, has a number of deleterious effects on its salmonid host. Although it is well established that juvenile salmonids in the active stages of whirling disease mount an immune response to the pathogen, the occurrence and longevity of any related immunomodulatory effects are unknown. In this study, postyearling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with M. cerebralis were examined for leukocyte functions and for resistance to Yersinia ruckeri, a bacterial pathogen of salmonids. Compared with uninfected controls, M. cerebralis-infected fish showed lower proliferative lymphocyte responses to four mitogens (concanavalin A, pokeweed mitogen, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide). Conversely, M. cerebralis-infected fish displayed greater bactericidal activity of anterior kidney macrophages than did uninfected fish. After bath challenges with K. ruckeri, M. cerebralis-infected fish had slightly lower survival and a more rapid onset of mortality than did the control fish. Renal tissue and fecal samples from M. cerebralis-infected and uninfected survivors were cultured for the presence of K. ruckeri, and no difference in prevalence was noted between the two groups. Because immunomodulatory changes in the M. cerebralis-infected fish involved functional enhancement and suppression of different leukocyte populations, disease resistance among M. cerebralis-infected fish in the later stages of whirling disease will probably vary with the secondary pathogen and the nature of immune response the pathogen evokes.

  3. Merkel Cell Carcinomas Arising in Autoimmune Disease Affected Patients Treated with Biologic Drugs, Including Anti-TNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, John Charles; Bononi, Ilaria; Puozzo, Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Foschi, Valentina; Lanza, Giovanni; Gafà, Roberta; Gaboriaud, Pauline; Touzé, Françoise Antoine; Selvatici, Rita; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to characterize Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) arisen in patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologic drugs. Experimental Design: Serum samples from patients with MCC were analyzed for the presence and titer of antibodies against antigens of the oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). IgG antibodies against the viral oncoproteins large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigens and the viral capsid protein-1 were analyzed by indirect ELISA. Viral antigens were recombinant LT/ST and virus-like particles (VLP), respectively. MCPyV DNA sequences were studied using PCR methods in MCC tissues and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were carried out in MCC tissues to reveal MCPyV LT oncoprotein. Results: MCPyV DNA sequences identified in MCC tissues showed 100% homology with the European MKL-1 strain. PBMCs from patients tested MCPyV-negative. Viral DNA loads in the three MCC tissues were in the 0.1 to 30 copy/cell range. IgG antibodies against LT/ST were detected in patients 1 and 3, whereas patient 2 did not react to the MCPyV LT/ST antigen. Sera from the three patients with MCC contained IgG antibodies against MCPyV VP1. MCC tissues tested MCPyV LT-antigen-positive in IHC assays, with strong LT expression with diffuse nuclear localization. Normal tissues tested MCPyV LT-negative when employed as control. Conclusions: We investigated three new MCCs in patients affected by rheumatologic diseases treated with biologic drugs, including TNF. A possible cause-effect relationship between pharmacologic immunosuppressive treatment and MCC onset is suggested. Indeed, MCC is associated with MCPyV LT oncoprotein activity. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3929-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Evolution of high yielding chickpea varieties, having improved plant type and disease resistance, through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.; Hussan, M.; Haq, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The breeding programme on the use of induced mutations, in chickpea for genetic variability for better plant type, grain yield and disease resistance has been started. The chickpea mutant variety is one of the leading varieties being extensively grown throughout Pakistan and has played its role in stabilizing the chickpea production in the country. Four chickpea varieties were treated, each with two dosed of gamma rays. The main purpose of the mutagenic treatment of these varieties/cultivars, was induce multiple resistance. (A.B.)

  5. Functional markers based molecular characterization and cloning of resistance gene analogs encoding NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins in finger millet (Eleusine coracana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Preety; Jha, Anand Kumar; Pandey, P K; Gupta, Arun K; Kumar, Anil

    2011-06-01

    Magnaporthe grisea, the blast fungus is one of the main pathological threats to finger millet crop worldwide. A systematic search for the blast resistance gene analogs was carried out, using functional molecular markers. Three-fourths of the recognition-dependent disease resistance genes (R-genes) identified in plants encodes nucleotide binding site (NBS) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. NBS-LRR homologs have only been isolated on a limited scale from Eleusine coracana. Genomic DNA sequences sharing homology with NBS region of resistance gene analogs were isolated and characterized from resistant genotypes of finger millet using PCR based approach with primers designed from conserved regions of NBS domain. Attempts were made to identify molecular markers linked to the resistance gene and to differentiate the resistant bulk from the susceptible bulk. A total of 9 NBS-LRR and 11 EST-SSR markers generated 75.6 and 73.5% polymorphism respectively amongst 73 finger millet genotypes. NBS-5, NBS-9, NBS-3 and EST-SSR-04 markers showed a clear polymorphism which differentiated resistant genotypes from susceptible genotypes. By comparing the banding pattern of different resistant and susceptible genotypes, five DNA amplifications of NBS and EST-SSR primers (NBS-05(504,) NBS-09(711), NBS-07(688), NBS-03(509) and EST-SSR-04(241)) were identified as markers for the blast resistance in resistant genotypes. Principal coordinate plot and UPGMA analysis formed similar groups of the genotypes and placed most of the resistant genotypes together showing a high level of genetic relatedness and the susceptible genotypes were placed in different groups on the basis of differential disease score. Our results provided a clue for the cloning of finger millet blast resistance gene analogs which not only facilitate the process of plant breeding but also molecular characterization of blast resistance gene analogs from Eleusine coracana.

  6. Inheritance of resistance to cotton blue disease Herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmério Pupim Junior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of cotton blue disease resistance by cotton plants. Populations derived from the CD 401 and Delta Opal resistant varieties were evaluated, through a greenhouse test with artificial inoculation by viruliferous aphids. Cotton blue disease resistance is conditioned by one dominant gene, both in CD 401 and Delta Opal varieties.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul. Populações derivadas das variedades resistentes CD 401 e Delta Opal foram avaliadas em casa de vegetação, por meio da inoculação de pulgões virulíferos. A resistência à doença-azul do algodoeiro é condicionada por um gene dominante, tanto em 'DC 401' quanto em 'Delta Opal'.

  7. Reduced coronary flow and resistance reserve in primary scleroderma myocardial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitenberg, A.; Foult, J.M.; Kahan, A.; Perennec, J.; Devaux, J.Y.; Menkes, C.J.; Amor, B.

    1986-01-01

    The maximum coronary vasodilator capacity after intravenous dipyridamole (0.14 mg X kg-1 X min-1 X 4 minutes) was studied in seven patients with primary scleroderma myocardial disease and compared to that of seven control subjects. Hemodynamic data and left ventricular angiographic data were not different in the two groups. The coronary flow reserve was evaluated by the dipyridamole/basal coronary sinus blood flow ratio (D/B CSBF) and the coronary resistance reserve by the dipyridamole/basal coronary resistance ratio (D/B CR). Coronary reserve was greatly impaired in the group with primary scleroderma myocardial disease: D/B CSBF was lower than in the control group (2.54 +/- 1.37 vs 4.01 +/- 0.56, respectively; p less than 0.05) and D/B CR was higher than in the control group (0.47 +/- 0.25 vs 0.23 +/- 0.04, respectively; p less than 0.05). Such a decreased coronary flow and resistance reserve in patients with primary scleroderma myocardial disease was not explained by an alteration of left ventricular function. It may be an important contributing factor in the pathogenesis of primary scleroderma myocardial disease

  8. Suspected resistance of MDT-MB in Multibacillary Leprosy of Hansen's disease: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudo Irawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to multidrug therapy (MDT is one of the complications in the treatment of Hansen’s disease/Morbus Hansen (MH. There are two types of resistancy, which are primary and secondary. MDT-multibacillary (MB resistance must be suspected when no clinical improvement and the acid-fast bacilli (AFB index is not reduced after 12 months of therapy. A 28-year-old woman with paresthesia on her face, arms and legs since 2.5 years ago, accompanied by thickening of the right posterior tibial nerve. The AFB examination showed a bacteriological index (BI of 15/6 and morphological index (MI of 0.50%. The second case, a 42-year-old man came with paresthetic lesions on his face, chest, back, both arms and legs since 2 years ago, accompanied by thickening of ulnar and lateral peroneal nerve. The BI was 12/5 and the MI was 0.40%. Both patients were diagnosed with borderline lepromatous type of MH and received MDT-MB for 12 months. Diagnosis of suspected resistance was established because no clinical improvement or any significant decrease of AFB index after completing the MDT treatment. The patients had secondary resistance after polymerase chain reaction evaluation showed that they were still rifampicin-sensitive. There was clinical improvement and significant decrease in FAB index after the patients continued the MDT-MB treatment with 600 mg additional rifampicin. The diagnosis of bacterial resistance should be made based on clinical evaluation before completion of treatment. Based on the two case reports, the resistance suspected may be secondary. Treatment using additional regimen can be initiated once the resistance has been proven.

  9. Genome Wide Analysis of Nucleotide-Binding Site Disease Resistance Genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglong Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding site (NBS disease resistance genes play an important role in defending plants from a variety of pathogens and insect pests. Many R-genes have been identified in various plant species. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, using computational analysis of the B. distachyon genome, we identified 126 regular NBS-encoding genes and characterized them on the bases of structural diversity, conserved protein motifs, chromosomal locations, gene duplications, promoter region, and phylogenetic relationships. EST hits and full-length cDNA sequences (from Brachypodium database of 126 R-like candidates supported their existence. Based on the occurrence of conserved protein motifs such as coiled-coil (CC, NBS, leucine-rich repeat (LRR, these regular NBS-LRR genes were classified into four subgroups: CC-NBS-LRR, NBS-LRR, CC-NBS, and X-NBS. Further expression analysis of the regular NBS-encoding genes in Brachypodium database revealed that these genes are expressed in a wide range of libraries, including those constructed from various developmental stages, tissue types, and drought challenged or nonchallenged tissue.

  10. Multicentre investigation of pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in Chinese patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiuqing; Cui, Junchang; Wang, Jing; Chang, Yan; Fang, Qiuhong; Bai, Changqing; Zhou, Xiumei; Zhou, Hong; Feng, Huasong; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Weiguo; Wen, Zhongguang; Wang, Ping; Liu, Yi; Yu, Ling; Li, Chunsun; Chen, Liangan

    2015-10-01

    A prospective observational study to investigate the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in Beijing, China. Patients with AECOPD were recruited from 11 general hospitals. Sputum specimens were cultured and bacteria identified. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined for each isolate, and presence of antibiotic resistance genes was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 109/318 patients (34.28%); 124 isolates of 22 pathogenic bacterial species were identified, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.94%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.94%), Acinetobacter baumannii (11.29%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (8.87%), and Staphylococcus aureus (7.26%). S. aureus was sensitive to tigecycline, teicoplanin, vancomycin and linezolid but resistant to penicillin and levofloxacin. K.pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and E. coli were susceptible to amikacin and cefoperazone. K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa are the most common pathogenic bacteria in AECOPD cases in Beijing, China. Our antibiotic resistance findings may be helpful in selecting antibiotic therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. VSNL1 Co-expression networks in aging include calcium signaling, synaptic plasticity, and Alzheimer’s disease pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C W Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visinin-like 1 (VSNL1 gene encodes Visinin-like protein 1, a peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD. Little is known, however, about normal VSNL1 expression in brain and the biologic networks in which it participates. Frontal cortex gray matter from 209 subjects without neurodegenerative or psychiatric illness, ranging in age from 16–91, were processed on Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST and Human SNP Array 6.0. VSNL1 expression was unaffected by age and sex, and not significantly associated with SNPs in cis or trans. VSNL1 was significantly co-expressed with genes in pathways for Calcium Signaling, AD, Long Term Potentiation, Long Term Depression, and Trafficking of AMPA Receptors. The association with AD was driven, in part, by correlation with amyloid precursor protein (APP expression. These findings provide an unbiased link between VSNL1 and molecular mechanisms of AD, including pathways implicated in synaptic pathology in AD. Whether APP may drive increased VSNL1 expression, VSNL1 drives increased APP expression, or both are downstream of common pathogenic regulators will need to be evaluated in model systems.

  12. Observations on the presence of insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Wu Guo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of insulin resistance in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: Fasting and 2h post oral 75g glucose blood sugar (with oxidase method), insulin and C-peptide (with RIA) levels were examined in 52 patients with EH, 40 patients with CHD and 35 controls. Results: The fasting and 2h post o- ral glucose serum levels of glucose, insulin and C-peptide in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.01), suggesting presence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Conclusion: Impaired glucose tolerance due to insulin resistance was demonstrated in the studied patients with EH or CHD. (authors)

  13. Persistence of insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian disease after inhibition of ovarian steroid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffner, M E; Kaplan, S A; Bersch, N; Golde, D W; Landaw, E M; Chang, R J

    1986-03-01

    Six nonobese women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) showed significant hyperinsulinemia, compared with controls after oral glucose (P less than 0.05). As an indicator of insulin sensitivity, in vitro proliferation of erythrocyte progenitor cells of PCOD subjects exposed to physiologic concentrations of insulin was significantly blunted (P less than 0.001). Monocyte insulin receptor binding was not impaired in the PCOD subjects. Three of the PCOD patients were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for 6 months, which resulted in marked suppression of ovarian androgen secretion but no demonstrable changes in in vivo or in vitro indicators of insulin resistance. Thus insulin resistance in PCOD subjects appears to be unrelated to ovarian hyperandrogenism (or acanthosis or obesity). Although certain tissues are insulin-resistant in PCOD patients, the ovary may remain sensitive and overproduce androgens in response to high circulating insulin levels.

  14. Refining a major QTL controlling spotted wilt disease resistance in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)and evaluating its contribution to the resistance variations in peanut germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), has been one of major diseases in cultivated peanut grown in the southeastern United States (US) since 1990. Previously a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling spotted wilt disease resistance was mapped to an interval of 2.55 cent...

  15. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenferink, Anke; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul Dlpm; Frith, Peter A; Zwerink, Marlies; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; van der Palen, Job; Effing, Tanja W

    2017-08-04

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals of motivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease. Exacerbation action plans are considered to be a key component of COPD self-management interventions. Studies assessing these interventions show contradictory results. In this Cochrane Review, we compared the effectiveness of COPD self-management interventions that include action plans for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) with usual care. To evaluate the efficacy of COPD-specific self-management interventions that include an action plan for exacerbations of COPD compared with usual care in terms of health-related quality of life, respiratory-related hospital admissions and other health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials, trials registries, and the reference lists of included studies to May 2016. We included randomised controlled trials evaluating a self-management intervention for people with COPD published since 1995. To be eligible for inclusion, the self-management intervention included a written action plan for AECOPD and an iterative process between participant and healthcare provider(s) in which feedback was provided. We excluded disease management programmes classified as pulmonary rehabilitation or exercise classes offered in a hospital, at a rehabilitation centre, or in a community-based setting to avoid overlap with pulmonary rehabilitation as much as possible. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved disagreements by reaching consensus or by involving a third review author. Study authors were contacted to obtain additional information and missing outcome data where possible. When appropriate, study results were pooled using a random-effects modelling meta-analysis. The primary

  16. Association of Insulin Resistance With Cerebral Glucose Uptake in Late Middle-Aged Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Starks, Erika J; Birdsill, Alex C; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) involves insulin signaling impairment. Patients with AD and individuals at risk for AD show reduced glucose metabolism, as indexed by fludeoxyglucose F 18-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). To determine whether insulin resistance predicts AD-like global and regional glucose metabolism deficits in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD and to examine whether insulin resistance-predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism is associated with worse cognitive performance. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 150 cognitively normal, late middle-aged (mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.8] years) adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) study, a general community sample enriched for AD parental history. Participants underwent cognitive testing, fasting blood draw, and FDG-PET at baseline. We used the homeostatic model assessment of peripheral insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Regression analysis tested the statistical effect of HOMA-IR on global glucose metabolism. We used a voxelwise analysis to determine whether HOMA-IR predicted regional glucose metabolism. Finally, predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was regressed against cognitive factors. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, AD parental history status, and a reference region used to normalize regional uptake. Regional glucose uptake determined using FDG-PET and neuropsychological factors. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower global glucose metabolism (β = -0.29; P factor scores. Our results show that insulin resistance, a prevalent and increasingly common condition in developed countries, is associated with significantly lower regional cerebral glucose metabolism, which in turn may predict worse memory performance. Midlife may be a critical period for initiating treatments to lower peripheral insulin resistance to maintain neural metabolism

  17. PRGdb 3.0: a comprehensive platform for prediction and analysis of plant disease resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna-Cruz, Cristina M; Paytuvi-Gallart, Andreu; Di Donato, Antimo; Sundesha, Vicky; Andolfo, Giuseppe; Aiese Cigliano, Riccardo; Sanseverino, Walter; Ercolano, Maria R

    2018-01-04

    The Plant Resistance Genes database (PRGdb; http://prgdb.org) has been redesigned with a new user interface, new sections, new tools and new data for genetic improvement, allowing easy access not only to the plant science research community but also to breeders who want to improve plant disease resistance. The home page offers an overview of easy-to-read search boxes that streamline data queries and directly show plant species for which data from candidate or cloned genes have been collected. Bulk data files and curated resistance gene annotations are made available for each plant species hosted. The new Gene Model view offers detailed information on each cloned resistance gene structure to highlight shared attributes with other genes. PRGdb 3.0 offers 153 reference resistance genes and 177 072 annotated candidate Pathogen Receptor Genes (PRGs). Compared to the previous release, the number of putative genes has been increased from 106 to 177 K from 76 sequenced Viridiplantae and algae genomes. The DRAGO 2 tool, which automatically annotates and predicts (PRGs) from DNA and amino acid with high accuracy and sensitivity, has been added. BLAST search has been implemented to offer users the opportunity to annotate and compare their own sequences. The improved section on plant diseases displays useful information linked to genes and genomes to connect complementary data and better address specific needs. Through, a revised and enlarged collection of data, the development of new tools and a renewed portal, PRGdb 3.0 engages the plant science community in developing a consensus plan to improve knowledge and strategies to fight diseases that afflict main crops and other plants. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Biomarkers of evasive resistance predict disease progression in cancer patients treated with antiangiogenic therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircher, Andreas; Jöhrer, Karin; Kocher, Florian; Steiner, Normann; Graziadei, Ivo; Heidegger, Isabel; Pichler, Renate; Leonhartsberger, Nicolai; Kremser, Christian; Kern, Johann; Untergasser, Gerold; Gunsilius, Eberhard; Hilbe, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antiangiogenic agents are approved for the treatment of oncological diseases. However, almost all patients develop evasive resistance mechanisms against antiangiogenic therapies. Currently no predictive biomarker for therapy resistance or response has been established. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify biomarkers predicting the development of therapy resistance in patients with hepatocellular cancer (n = 11), renal cell cancer (n = 7) and non-small cell lung cancer (n = 2). Thereby we measured levels of angiogenic growth factors, tumor perfusion, circulating endothelial cells (CEC), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) and tumor endothelial markers (TEM) in patients during the course of therapy with antiangiogenic agents, and correlated them with the time to antiangiogenic progression (aTTP). Importantly, at disease progression, we observed an increase of proangiogenic factors, upregulation of CEC/CEP levels and downregulation of TEMs, such as Robo4 and endothelial cell-specific chemotaxis regulator (ECSCR), reflecting the formation of torturous tumor vessels. Increased TEM expression levels tended to correlate with prolonged aTTP (ECSCR high = 275 days vs. ECSCR low = 92.5 days; p = 0.07 and for Robo4 high = 387 days vs. Robo4 low = 90.0 days; p = 0.08). This indicates that loss of vascular stabilization factors aggravates the development of antiangiogenic resistance. Thus, our observations confirm that CEP/CEC populations, proangiogenic cytokines and TEMs contribute to evasive resistance in antiangiogenic treated patients. Higher TEM expression during disease progression may have clinical and pathophysiological implications, however, validation of our results is warranted for further biomarker development. PMID:26956051

  19. Resistant Hypertension: An Incurable Disease or Just a Challenge For Our Medical Skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pilla, Marina; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Taddei, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Resistant hypertension is classically defined as a clinical condition in which target blood pressure values of 140/90 mmHg are not achieved despite an optimal pharmacological therapy of at least three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic. The aim of this review is to give an outline of the nosography of this disorder, highlighting the differences between true and apparent resistant hypertension. Since the proportions of patients who can be defined as resistant to antihypertensive treatment is elevated, this distinction is mandatory in order to identify only those who need special clinical attention and, possibly, newer non-traditional techniques. While at first glance resistant hypertension may appear as an insuperable problem, an accurate clinical work-up of these patients, aimed at excluding reversible causes and optimizing pharmacological treatment, represents an effective solution in most cases.

  20. Erythropoietin resistance in end-stage renal disease patient with gastric antral vascular ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Ji Re Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe observed a case of recombinant human erythropoietin resistance caused by Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia in a 40-year-old female with ESRD on hemodialysis. Some associated factors such as autoimmune disease, hemolysis, heart and liver disease were discarded on physical examination and complementary tests. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history and endoscopic appearance of watermelon stomach. The histologic findings are fibromuscular proliferation and capillary ectasia with microvascular thrombosis of the lamina propria. However, these histologic findings are not necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia is a serious condition and should be considered in ESRD patients on hemodialysis with anemia and resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin because GAVE is potentially curable with specific endoscopic treatment method or through surgical procedure.

  1. Agrarian diet and diseases of affluence – Do evolutionary novel dietary lectins cause leptin resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jönsson Tommy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global pattern of varying prevalence of diseases of affluence, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, suggests that some environmental factor specific to agrarian societies could initiate these diseases. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that a cereal-based diet could be such an environmental factor. Through previous studies in archaeology and molecular evolution we conclude that humans and the human leptin system are not specifically adapted to a cereal-based diet, and that leptin resistance associated with diseases of affluence could be a sign of insufficient adaptation to such a diet. We further propose lectins as a cereal constituent with sufficient properties to cause leptin resistance, either through effects on metabolism central to the proper functions of the leptin system, and/or directly through binding to human leptin or human leptin receptor, thereby affecting the function. Testing the hypothesis Dietary interventions should compare effects of agrarian and non-agrarian diets on incidence of diseases of affluence, related risk factors and leptin resistance. A non-significant (p = 0.10 increase of cardiovascular mortality was noted in patients advised to eat more whole-grain cereals. Our lab conducted a study on 24 domestic pigs in which a cereal-free hunter-gatherer diet promoted significantly higher insulin sensitivity, lower diastolic blood pressure and lower C-reactive protein as compared to a cereal-based swine feed. Testing should also evaluate the effects of grass lectins on the leptin system in vivo by diet interventions, and in vitro in various leptin and leptin receptor models. Our group currently conducts such studies. Implications of the hypothesis If an agrarian diet initiates diseases of affluence it should be possible to identify the responsible constituents and modify or remove them so as to make an agrarian diet healthier.

  2. Immunomodulation and hormonal disruption without compromised disease resistance in perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposed Japanese quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Judit E.G.; Nain, Sukhbir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of oral perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on Japanese quail at concentrations found in American and Belgian workers at PFOA manufacturing facilities. Three arms of the immune system were tested; T cell, B cell, and innate immunity. After 6 weeks exposure, quail were challenged with E. coli infection to test the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity, disease resistance. The T cell response was lower in the high exposure groups. Antibody mediated, and innate immune responses were not different. Growth rate was higher, whereas thyroid hormone levels were lower in PFOA-exposed birds. Morbidity/mortality from disease challenge was not different among the control and PFOA-exposed groups, and no overt PFOA toxicity was observed pre-disease challenge. Although PFOA at ‘worst case scenario’ levels caused T cell immunosuppression, this did not translate into increased disease susceptibility, demonstrating that immunotoxicity testing must be interpreted with caution since disease resistance is the ultimate concern. -- Highlights: •Birds orally exposed to high levels of PFOA for 8 wks showed no signs of toxicity. •PFOA exposure caused immunotoxicity by suppressing the T cell mediated response. •PFOA exposure did not affect antibody mediated, or innate immunity. •PFOA exposure did not cause increased morbidity/mortality after E. coli infection. •PFOA exposed birds showed endocrinological changes that may warrant further study. -- Oral exposure of quail to the pollutant, PFOA, resulted in hormonal and immunological changes, but did not compromise disease resistance after challenge by a common avian pathogen

  3. Development of transgenic finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) resistant to leaf blast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacimuthu, S; Ceasar, S Antony

    2012-03-01

    Finger millet plants conferring resistance to leaf blast disease have been developed by inserting a rice chitinase (chi11) gene through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plasmid pHyg-Chi.11 harbouring the rice chitinase gene under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter was introduced into finger millet using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (pSB1). Transformed plants were selected and regenerated on hygromycin-supplemented medium. Transient expression of transgene was confirmed by GUS histochemical staining. The incorporation of rice chitinase gene in R0 and R1 progenies was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Expression of chitinase gene in finger millet was confirmed by Western blot analysis with a barley chitinase antibody. A leaf blast assay was also performed by challenging the transgenic plants with spores of Pyricularia grisea. The frequency of transient expression was 16.3% to 19.3%. Stable frequency was 3.5% to 3.9%. Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of 3.1 kb chitinase gene. Western blot analysis detected the presence of 35 kDa chitinase enzyme. Chitinase activity ranged from 19.4 to 24.8. In segregation analysis, the transgenic R1 lines produced three resistant and one sensitive for hygromycin, confirming the normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Transgenic plants showed high level of resistance to leaf blast disease compared to control plants. This is the first study reporting the introduction of rice chitinase gene into finger millet for leaf blast resistance.

  4. Mutant lines of currant tomato, valuable germplasm with multiple disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorova, G.F.; Khrustaleva, V.V.; Shcherbakov, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were carried out for two years on eight mutant lines of currant tomato at the Krymsk Experimental Breeding Station of the N.I. Vavilov All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Plant-Growing (VIR). The station is situated in an area of commercial field tomato growing (Krasnodar region). The mutant lines of currant tomato (VIR specimen No. k-4053) were obtained through chronic gamma-irradiation. A disease resistance evaluation of the mutants was carried out for Verticillium wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum Rein. and Berth.), for black bacterial spotting (Xanthomonas vesicatoria Dows.), for tobacco mosaic virus Nicotiana 1 Smith), for streak virus (Nicotiana 1), for the combination TMV with X and Y potato viruses, for cucumber virus (Cucumis 1), and also for top rot. Fifty plants of each mutant line were evaluated and checks were made three times in each season. A comparison of the currant tomato mutants with the standard tomato varieties demonstrates the better resistance shown by the mutant germplasm to the main pathogens. The degree to which some currant tomato mutants were affected by Verticillium was lower than that of the most VerticiIlium-resistant samples of tomato evaluated between 1975 and 1981. The mutants of currant tomato should therefore be of interest as germplasm in breeding tomatoes for improved multiple disease resistance

  5. Nutritional Modulation of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

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    Hannele Yki-Järvinen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD covers a spectrum of disorders ranging from simple steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cirrhosis. NAFL increases the risk of liver fibrosis. If the liver is fatty due to causes of insulin resistance such as obesity and physical inactivity, it overproduces glucose and triglycerides leading to hyperinsulinemia and a low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentration. The latter features predispose to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Understanding the impact of nutritional modulation of liver fat content and insulin resistance is therefore of interest for prevention and treatment of NAFLD. Hypocaloric, especially low carbohydrate ketogenic diets rapidly decrease liver fat content and associated metabolic abnormalities. However, any type of caloric restriction seems effective long-term. Isocaloric diets containing 16%–23% fat and 57%–65% carbohydrate lower liver fat compared to diets with 43%–55% fat and 27%–38% carbohydrate. Diets rich in saturated (SFA as compared to monounsaturated (MUFA or polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids appear particularly harmful as they increase both liver fat and insulin resistance. Overfeeding either saturated fat or carbohydrate increases liver fat content. Vitamin E supplementation decreases liver fat content as well as fibrosis but has no effect on features of insulin resistance.

  6. Mutation breeding for disease resistance using in-vitro culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    Breeding for disease resistance is a major aspect of plant breeding, which may take at least 20% of a plant breeder's time, effort and budget. Nevertheless, numerous resistance problems remain unsolved and present major constraints to the production of food, feed, fiber and industrial commodities. The application of novel biotechnology and genetic engineering will extend the possibilities of conventional plant breeding. Therefore a meeting of experts in plant protection, plant breeding and in-vitro culture technology was convened by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division in Vienna. The experts were asked to discuss and give advice on prospects of biotechnology, especially plant in-vitro cultures, to contribute towards improved chances of success in mutation breeding for disease resistance. The plant breeder, in searching for resistance to a particular pathogen, like for any other desirable character, needs genetic variation to begin with. In addition he needs an appropriate screening method to detect the desired character. Science has developed so fast that it is now time to apply the existing knowledge of biotechnology to practical problems in agriculture, also in developing countries. In the near future this may be true also for novel techniques of genetic engineering. The usefulness and feasibility of the application of in-vitro techniques for these purposes varies with crops and pathogens, but also depends on the strength of plant breeding and plant pathology and the facilities available in a particular country. The members of the Advisory Group attempted to discuss the various aspects and to reach sound conclusions

  7. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Anke; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul; Frith, Peter A.; Zwerink, Marlies; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; van der Palen, J.A.M.; Effing, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Background  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals ofmotivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease.

  8. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Anke; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul D.L.P.M.; Frith, Peter A.; Zwerink, Marlies; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; van der Palen, Job; Effing-Tijdhof, Tanja W

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals of motivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease.

  9. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.

  10. Enhanced resistance to stripe rust disease in transgenic wheat expressing the rice chitinase gene RC24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Wang, Jian; Du, Zhen; Zhang, Chen; Li, Lan; Xu, Ziqin

    2013-10-01

    Stripe rust is a devastating fungal disease of wheat worldwide which is primarily caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici. Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing rice class chitinase gene RC24 were developed by particle bombardment of immature embryos and tested for resistance to Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici. under greenhouse and field conditions. Putative transformants were selected on kanamycin-containing media. Polymease chain reaction indicated that RC24 was transferred into 17 transformants obtained from bombardment of 1,684 immature embryos. Integration of RC24 was confirmed by Southern blot with a RC24-labeled probe and expression of RC24 was verified by RT-PCR. Nine transgenic T1 lines exhibited enhanced resistance to stripe rust infection with lines XN8 and BF4 showing the highest level of resistance. Southern blot hybridization confirmed the stable inheritance of RC24 in transgenic T1 plants. Resistance to stripe rust in transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants was confirmed over two consecutive years in the field. Increased yield (27-36 %) was recorded for transgenic T2 and T3 XN8 and BF4 plants compared to controls. These results suggest that rice class I chitinase RC24 can be used to engineer stripe rust resistance in wheat.

  11. Insulin resistance, body composition, and fat distribution in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Ran; Chang, Eun Jae

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body composition, especially distribution of body fat, and insulin resistance on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. One hundred obese children (66 boys, 34 girls) with (n=60) and without NAFLD (n=40) were assessed. Anthropometry, laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasonography, and dual energy x-ray absorption metry (DXA) were evaluated in all subjects. Subject age and measurements of liver enzymes, γ- glutamyl transpeptidase (γGT), uric acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance were significantly different between the non-NAFLD group and NAFLD group. Body fat and trunk fat percentage were significantly different between the two groups (pfat percentage was not (p=0.683). Insulin resistance correlated significantly with body fat and trunk fat percentages, age, liver enzymes, γGT, and uric acid in obese children. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that insulin resistance and trunk fat percentage significantly affected the development of NAFLD in obese children. Body fat, especially abdominal fat, influences the development of insulin resistance and subsequent NAFLD in obese children. Therefore, body composition measurement using DXA, in conjunction with biochemical tests, may be beneficial in evaluating obese children with NAFLD.

  12. Characterization of integron mediated antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolated from diseased swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David G.; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F.; Ayers, Sherry; Friedman, Sharon; Sherwood, Julie; Breider-Foley, Missy; Nolan, Lisa K.

    2003-01-01

    Forty-two Salmonella isolates obtained from diseased swine were genetically characterized for the presence of specific antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Twenty of these isolates were characterized as S. Typhimurium DT104 strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relatedness and revealed 20 distinct genetic patterns among the 42 isolates. However, all DT104 isolates fell within 2 closely related genetic clusters. Other Salmonella isolates were genetically grouped together according to serotype. All DT104 isolates displayed the penta-resistance phenotype to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin was most common among the non-DT104 Salmonella isolates. All DT104 strains contained 2 chromosomal integrons of 1000 and 1200 base pairs. The DNA sequencing revealed that the 2 integrons contained genes encoding a resistance to streptomycin and ampicillin, respectively. None of the non-DT104 strains showed the same pattern, although several strains possessed integrons of 1000 base pairs or larger. However, the majority of non-DT104 Salmonella strains did not possess any integrons. Two Salmonella isolates displayed tolerance to the organic solvent cyclohexane, indicating the possibility that they are overexpressing chromosomal regulatory genes marA or soxS or the associated multidrug efflux pump, acrAB. This research suggests that integrons contribute to antimicrobial resistance among specific swine Salmonella serotypes; however, they are not as widely disseminated among non-Typhimurium swine Salmonella serotypes as previously thought. PMID:12528827

  13. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Analysis of ISAba Elements and blaOXA-23-like Genes Including A New Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas eBahador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB causes serious nosocomial infections, especially in ICU wards of hospitals, worldwide. Expression of blaOXA genes is the chief mechanism of conferring carbapenem resistance among CR-AB. Although some blaOXA genes have been studied among CR-AB isolates from Iran, their blaOXA-23-like genes have not been investigated. We used a multiplex-PCR to detect Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases of 85 isolates, and determined that 34 harbored blaOXA-23-like genes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping, followed by DNA sequencing of blaOXA-23-like amplicons of CR-AB from each AFLP group was used to characterize their blaOXA-23-like genes. We also assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CR-AB isolates, and tested whether they harbored insertion sequences ISAba1 and ISAba4. Sequence comparison with reference strain A. baumannii (NCTC12156 revealed five types of mutations in blaOXA-23-like genes; including one novel variant and four mutants that were already reported from China and the USA. All of the blaOXA-23-like genes mutations were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against imipenem. ISAba1 and ISAba4 sequences were detected upstream of blaOXA-23 genes in 19% and 7% of isolates, respectively. The isolation of CR-AB with new blaOXA-23 mutations including some that have been reported from the USA and China highlights CR-AB pervasive distribution, which underscores the importance of concerted national and global efforts to control the spread of CR-AB isolates worldwide.

  14. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Dalcantara Ongouya Mouekouba

    Full Text Available Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST, second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(- and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4. Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  15. A mathematical model relating response durations to amount of subclinical resistant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, W M; Richards, M A; Slevin, M L; Souhami, R L

    1991-02-15

    A mathematical model is presented which seeks to determine, from examination of the response durations of a group of patients with malignant disease, the mean and distribution of the resistant tumor volume. The mean tumor-doubling time and distribution of doubling times are also estimated. The model assumes that in a group of patients there is a log-normal distribution both of resistant disease and of tumor-doubling times and implies that the shapes of certain parts of an actuarial response-duration curve are related to these two factors. The model has been applied to data from two reported acute leukemia trials: (a) a recent acute myelogenous leukemia trial was examined. Close fits were obtained for both the first and second remission-duration curves. The model results suggested that patients with long first remissions had less resistant disease and had tumors with slower growth rates following second line treatment; (b) an historical study of maintenance therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was used to estimate the mean cell-kill (approximately 10(4) cells) achieved with single agent, 6-mercaptopurine. Application of the model may have clinical relevance, for example, in identifying groups of patients likely to benefit from further intensification of treatment.

  16. APPLICATIONS OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER AND Bacillus sp. BIOPESTICIDE FOR INCREASING TOMATO RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL WILT DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Prihatiningsih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt on tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a crucial disease, because it can reduce yield until 50%. The aims of this research were: 1 to find out biopesticide formula for Bacillus sp.growth, 2 to test Bacillus sp. against R. solanacearum in vitro, 3 to test potassium fertilizer combined with Bacillus sp. for enhancing tomato resistance to the bacterial wilt disease. The research was conducted in 2 steps i.e to test the persistence of Bacillus sp. in biopesticide formula, and to test the best combination of both potassium and the Bacillus sp. biopesticide. The results showed that Bacillus B298 was the best isolate in its persistence on the biopesticide formula of organic growth medium+CaCO3+CMC 1%+mannitol 1%, and in inhibiting R. solanacearum. The best biopesticide formula for the Bacillus sp. persistence was growth organic media+ CaCO3+CMC 1%+mannitol 1%. Bacillus sp. was able to increase tomato resistance to the bacterial wilt disease from the category of susceptible to be tolerant and becoming resistant.

  17. The effect of insulin resistance on amygdale glucose metabolism alterations in experimental Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. V. Gorina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Glucose metabolism is tightly regulated in the brain. Aberrant glucose metabolism is an important feature of neurodegenerative diseases, as inAlzheimer’s disease. The transport of glucose to the cell membrane is realized through the activity of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP which controls transfer of glucose transporter to the plasma membrane. IRAP is considered as one of the key markers of insulin resistance in Alzheimer’s disease. However, the question of the mechanism of the action of the IRAP remains open. The aim of the study was to study the effect of IRAP expression on cells of the neuronal and glial lineage, glucose transporter (GLUT4 expression in the brain amygdala on emotional memory in animals with experimental Alzheimer’s disease.Materials and methods. The study was performed with two experimental models of Alzheimer’s disease in mice. The experimental group was mice of the CD1 line, males aged 4 months (Alzheimer’s disease model with the intra-hippocampal administration of beta-amyloid 1-42 (1 µl bilaterally in the CA1 area. The control group was mice of the CD1 line, males aged 4 months (sham-operated animals with the intrahippocampal administration of Phosphate buffered salin (1 µl bilaterally in the CA1. The genetic model of Alzheimer’s disease is the B6SLJ-Tg line mice (APPSwFlLon, PSEN1*M146L*L286V 6799Vas, males aged 4 months. The control group consisted of C57BL/6xSJL mice, males aged 4 months. Evaluation of emotional memory was carried out using “Fear conditioning” protocol. Expression of molecule-markers of insulin-resistance in the amygdala was studied by immunohistochemistry followed by confocal microscopy.Results. Aberrant associative learning and emotional memory was revealed in animals with an experimental model of Alzheimer’s disease. A decrease (p ≤ 0,05 of IRAP expression on cells of neuronal and glial nature, associated with GLUT4 down-regulation was detected in amygdala of

  18. Phenolic compounds, methylxanthines and antioxidant activity in cocoa mass and chocolates produced from "witch broom disease" resistant and non resistant cocoa cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Paula Bacelar; Maciel,Leonardo Fonseca; Opretzka,Luiza Carolina França; Soares,Sergio Eduardo; Bispo,Eliete da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The "witch broom disease" caused by the fungus called Moniliophthora perniciosa is one of the most important cocoa diseases in Latin America, causing around 70% production reduction in the southern Bahia. In attempt to solve the problem, many cultivars resistant to the disease have been recommended to farmers. On the other hand, the chocolate flavour is composed by many compounds whose formation depends on the genetic background, environment where cocoa is grown and processing operations. The...

  19. Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ze; Gao, Huijun; Liu, Ping; Liu, Shuzhen; Luo, Tao; Jin, Shuai; Xu, Qiang; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2013-03-16

    From field harvest to the consumer's table, fresh citrus fruit spends a considerable amount of time in shipment and storage. During these processes, physiological disorders and pathological diseases are the main causes of fruit loss. Heat treatment (HT) has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage; however, limited molecular information related to this treatment is currently available at a systemic biological level. Mature 'Kamei' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruits were selected for exploring the disease resistance mechanisms induced by HT during postharvest storage. Proteomic analyses based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and metabolomic research based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) were conducted. The results show resistance associated proteins were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp, such as beta-1, 3-glucanase, Class III chitinase, 17.7 kDa heat shock protein and low molecular weight heat-shock protein. Also, redox metabolism enzymes were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp, including isoflavone reductase, oxidoreductase and superoxide dismutase. Primary metabolic profiling revealed organic acids and amino acids were down-regulated in heat treated pericarp; but significant accumulation of metabolites, including tetradecanoic acid, oleic acid, ornithine, 2-keto-d-gluconic acid, succinic acid, turanose, sucrose, galactose, myo-inositol, glucose and fructose were detected. Noticeably, H2O2 content decreased, while, lignin content increased in heat treated pericarp compared to the control, which might increase fruit resistibility in response to external stress. Also, flavonoids, substances which are well-known to be effective in reducing external stress, were up-regulated in heat treated pericarp. This study provides a broad picture of differential accumulation of proteins and metabolites in

  20. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus suis isolates from pigs with or without streptococcal disease in England between 2009 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Garcia, Juan; Wang, Jinhong; Restif, Olivier; Holmes, Mark A; Mather, Alison E; Weinert, Lucy A; Wileman, Thomas M; Thomson, Jill R; Langford, Paul R; Wren, Brendan W; Rycroft, Andrew; Maskell, Duncan J; Tucker, Alexander W

    2017-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus suis, a global zoonotic pathogen of pigs, has been mostly studied only in diseased animals using surveys that have not evaluated changes over time. We compared patterns of resistance between S. suis isolates from clinical cases of disease (CC) and non-clinical case (NCC) pigs in England, collected over two discrete periods, 2009-2011 and 2013-2014. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 17 antimicrobials (nine classes) were determined on 405 S. suis isolates categorised by sampling period and disease association to assess changes in resistance over time and association with disease. First, isolates were characterized as resistant or susceptible using published clinical breakpoints. Second, epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFF) were derived from MIC values, and isolates classified as wild type (WT) below the ECOFF and non-wild type (NWT) above the ECOFF. Finally, isolate subsets were analysed for shifts in MIC distribution. NCC isolates were more resistant than CC isolates to cephalosporins, penams, pleuromutilins, potentiated sulphonamides and tetracyclines in both study periods. Resistance levels among CC isolates increased in 2013-2014 relative to 2009-2011 for antimicrobials including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, pleuromutilins, potentiated sulphonamides and tetracyclines. The prevalence of isolates categorised as NWT for five or more classes of antimicrobials was greater among NCC than CC isolates for both time periods, and increased with time. This study used standardised methods to identify significant shifts in antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of S. suis isolated from pigs in England, not only over time but also between isolates from known clinical cases or disease-free pigs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Molecular mapping of qBK1 WD , a major QTL for bakanae disease resistance in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sais-Beul; Hur, Yeon-Jae; Cho, Jun-Hyeon; Lee, Jong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Heon; Cho, Soo-Min; Song, You-Chun; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan; Kim, Tae-sung; Park, Yong-Jin; Oh, Myung-Kyu; Park, Dong-Soo

    2018-01-01

    Background Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring ba...

  2. Association analysis for disease resistance to Fusarium oxysporum in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Fernández-Pozo, Noé; Mueller, Lukas A; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2016-03-18

    Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum is the most important disease in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. The development of resistant cultivars is considered one of the most cost-effective means to reduce the impact of this disease. In order to do so, it is necessary to provide breeders with molecular markers and promising germplasm for introgression of different resistance loci as part of breeding schemes. Here we described an association mapping study in cape gooseberry with the goal to: (i) select promising materials for use in plant breeding and (ii) identify SNPs associated with the cape gooseberry resistance response to the F. oxysporum pathogen under greenhouse conditions, as potential markers for cape gooseberry breeding. We found a total of 21 accessions with different resistance responses within a diversity panel of 100 cape gooseberry accessions. A total of 60,663 SNPs were also identified within the same panel by means of GBS (Genotyping By Sequencing). Model-based population structure and neighbor-joining analyses showed three populations comprising the cape gooseberry panel. After correction for population structure and kinship, we identified SNPs markers associated with the resistance response against F. oxysporum. The identification of markers was based on common tags using the reference genomes of tomato and potato as well as the root/stem transcriptome of cape gooseberry. By comparing their location with the tomato genome, 16 SNPs were found in genes involved in defense/resistance response to pathogens, likewise when compared with the genome of potato, 12 markers were related. The work presented herein provides the first association mapping study in cape gooseberry showing both the identification of promising accessions with resistance response phenotypes and the identification of a set of SNP markers mapped to defense/resistance response genes of reference genomes. Thus, the work also provides new knowledge on candidate

  3. The effect of progressive resistance training on aerobic fitness and strength in adults with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Matthew; Mavros, Yorgi; Freeston, Jonathan; Fiatarone Singh, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Design We aimed to evaluate the effect of progressive resistance training on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength in coronary heart disease, when compared to control or aerobic training, and when combined with aerobic training. Secondary aims were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of progressive resistance training on other physiological and clinical outcomes. Methods and results Electronic databases were searched from inception until July 2016. Designs included progressive resistance training vs control, progressive resistance training vs aerobic training, and combined training vs aerobic training. From 268,778 titles, 34 studies were included (1940 participants; 71.9% male; age 60 ± 7 years). Progressive resistance training was more effective than control for lower (standardized mean difference 0.57, 95% confidence interval (0.17-0.96)) and upper (1.43 (0.73-2.13)) body strength. Aerobic fitness improved similarly after progressive resistance training (16.9%) or aerobic training (21.0%); (standardized mean difference -0.13, 95% confidence interval (-0.35-0.08)). Combined training was more effective than aerobic training for aerobic fitness (0.21 (0.09-0.34), lower (0.62 (0.32-0.92)) and upper (0.51 (0.27-0.74)) body strength. Twenty studies reported adverse event information, with five reporting 64 cardiovascular complications, 63 during aerobic training. Conclusion Isolated progressive resistance training resulted in an increase in lower and upper body strength, and improved aerobic fitness to a similar degree as aerobic training in coronary heart disease cohorts. Importantly, when progressive resistance training was added to aerobic training, effects on both fitness and strength were enhanced compared to aerobic training alone. Reporting of adverse events was poor, and clinical gaps were identified for women, older adults, high intensity progressive resistance training and long-term outcomes, warranting future trials to confirm safety and

  4. Newly Diagnosed Meniere's Disease: Clinical Course With Initiation of Noninvasive Treatment Including an Accounting of Vestibular Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbeih, Firas; Christov, Florian; Gluth, Michael B

    2018-05-01

    To describe the course of Meniere's disease with noninvasive treatment during the first few years after initial diagnosis. A retrospective review of consecutive patients with newly diagnosed definite Meniere's disease between 2013 and 2016 and a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Patients received a written plan for low sodium, water therapy, and treatment with a diuretic and/or betahistine. Subjects were screened and treated for vestibular migraine as needed. Vertigo control and hearing status at most recent follow-up were assessed. Forty-four subjects had an average follow up of 24.3 months. Thirty-four percent had Meniere's disease and vestibular migraine, and 84% had unilateral Meniere's disease. Seventy-five percent had vertigo well controlled at most recent follow-up, with only noninvasive treatments. Age, gender, body mass index, presence of vestibular migraine, bilateral disease, and duration of follow-up did not predict noninvasive treatment failure. Worse hearing threshold at 250 Hz and lower pure tone average (PTA) at the time of diagnosis did predict failure. Fifty-two percent of ears had improved PTA at most recent visit, 20% had no change, and 28% were worse Conclusions: Encountering excellent vertigo control and stable hearing after a new diagnosis of Meniere's disease is possible with noninvasive treatments. Worse hearing status at diagnosis predicted treatment failure.

  5. Molecular identification of GAPDHs in cassava highlights the antagonism of MeGAPCs and MeATG8s in plant disease resistance against cassava bacterial blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongqiu; Xie, Yanwei; Liu, Guoyin; Lin, Daozhe; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2018-06-01

    MeGAPCs were identified as negative regulators of plant disease resistance, and the interaction of MeGAPCs and MeATG8s was highlighted in plant defense response. As an important enzyme of glycolysis metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays important roles in plant development, abiotic stress and immune responses. Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is most important tropical crop and one of the major food crops, however, no information is available about GAPDH gene family in cassava. In this study, 14 MeGAPDHs including 6 cytosol GAPDHs (MeGAPCs) were identified from cassava, and the transcripts of 14 MeGAPDHs in response to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) indicated their possible involvement in immune responses. Further investigation showed that MeGAPCs are negative regulators of disease resistance against Xam. Through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that overexpression of MeGAPCs led to decreased disease resistance against Xam. On the contrary, MeGAPCs-silenced cassava plants through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) conferred improved disease resistance. Notably, MeGAPCs physically interacted with autophagy-related protein 8b (MeATG8b) and MeATG8e and inhibited autophagic activity. Moreover, MeATG8b and MeATG8e negatively regulated the activities of NAD-dependent MeGAPDHs, and are involved in MeGAPCs-mediated disease resistance. Taken together, this study highlights the involvement of MeGAPCs in plant disease resistance, through interacting with MeATG8b and MeATG8e.

  6. Diallel analysis of leaf disease resistance in inbred Brazilian popcorn cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R A; Scapim, C A; Moterle, L M; Tessmann, D J; Conrado, T V; Amaral Júnior, A T

    2009-12-01

    We estimated general and specific combining abilities and examined resistance to northern leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum) and to gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) in a set of nine inbred popcorn lines. These inbreds were crossed in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, which produced 36 F(1) hybrids. Two experiments with a square lattice design and three replications were conducted during the 2008/2009 crop season, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The severity of northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot was assessed under natural infestation conditions. Data were examined by individual and joint analysis of variance. Individual and joint Griffing's diallel analyses were carried out for adjusted means. General combining ability and specific combining ability were significant (P < 0.10) by the F-test for northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot infestation levels. This denotes that additive and non-additive gene effects both contributed to resistance to these diseases, but that the additive gene effects were more important. Among the inbred lines, P(8) and P(9) gave the highest resistance to northern leaf blight, and P(3) and P(4.3) gave the highest resistance to gray leaf spot. The hybrids P(7.4) x P(8) and P(4.3) x P(9) could be exploited by reciprocal recurrent selection to provide genotypes with both northern leaf blight and gray leaf spot resistance. Significant interaction between general combining ability and crop season (P < 0.10) denotes the importance of environment, even though the disease levels in the hybrids were quite consistent.

  7. Insulin resistance and protein energy metabolism in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Edward D; Ikizler, Talat Alp

    2010-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), the reciprocal of insulin sensitivity is a known complication of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with a number of metabolic derangements. The complex metabolic abnormalities observed in CKD such as vitamin D deficiency, obesity, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, and accumulation of "uremic toxins" are believed to contribute to the etiology of IR and acquired defects in the insulin-receptor signaling pathway in this patient population. Only a few investigations have explored the validity of commonly used assessment methods in comparison to gold standard hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic clamp technique in CKD patients. An important consequence of insulin resistance is its role in the pathogenesis of protein energy wasting, a state of metabolic derangement characterized by loss of somatic and visceral protein stores not entirely accounted for by inadequate nutrient intake. In the general population, insulin resistance has been associated with accelerated protein catabolism. Among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, enhanced muscle protein breakdown has been observed in patients with Type II diabetes compared to ESRD patients without diabetes. In the absence of diabetes mellitus (DM) or severe obesity, insulin resistance is detectable in dialysis patients and strongly associated with increased muscle protein breakdown, primarily mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Recent epidemiological data indicate a survival advantage and better nutritional status in insulin-free Type II DM patients treated with insulin sensitizer thiazolidinediones. Given the high prevalence of protein energy wasting in ESRD and its unequivocal association with adverse clinical outcomes, insulin resistance may represent an important modifiable target for intervention in the ESRD population.

  8. Tyrosine levels are associated with insulin resistance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Miwa; Nishino, Ken; Oka, Takahito; Urata, Noriyo; Nakamura, Jun; Suehiro, Mitsuhiko; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Yamada, Gotaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Amino acid imbalance is often found in patients with cirrhosis, and this imbalance is associated with insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the relationship between amino acid imbalance and insulin resistance remains unclear. We evaluated serum amino acid concentrations in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to determine if any of the levels of amino acids were associated with the biochemical markers and fibrosis stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods In 137 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who underwent liver biopsy, plasma levels of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), tyrosine (Tyr), and the BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were determined using mass spectroscopy. These values were then assessed for associations with fibrosis stage, anthropometric markers (age, sex, and body mass index), biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, albumin, platelet count, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glycosylated hemoglobin), and relevant disease-specific biomarkers (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], serum iron, ferritin, leptin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid). Results Serum albumin levels, plasma BCAA levels, and BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were negatively associated with the fibrosis stage. In contrast, Tyr levels increased with increasing fibrotic staging. Tyr levels were also correlated with HOMA-IR results. Conclusion Plasma BCAA levels in patients with NASH decreased with increasing liver fibrosis, while Tyr levels increased with increasing fibrotic stage. These results suggest that amino acid imbalance and insulin resistance are intimately involved in a complex pathogenic mechanism for NASH. PMID:26082668

  9. Tyrosine levels are associated with insulin resistance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawanaka M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Miwa Kawanaka,1 Ken Nishino,1 Takahito Oka,1 Noriyo Urata,1 Jun Nakamura,1 Mitsuhiko Suehiro,1 Hirofumi Kawamoto,1 Yasutaka Chiba,2 Gotaro Yamada1 1Department of General Internal Medicine 2, Kawasaki Hospital, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, Japan; 2Clinical Research Center, Kinki University Hospital, Sayama, Japan Objective: Amino acid imbalance is often found in patients with cirrhosis, and this imbalance is associated with insulin resistance. However, the mechanism underlying the relationship between amino acid imbalance and insulin resistance remains unclear. We evaluated serum amino acid concentrations in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to determine if any of the levels of amino acids were associated with the biochemical markers and fibrosis stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods: In 137 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who underwent liver biopsy, plasma levels of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA, tyrosine (Tyr, and the BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were determined using mass spectroscopy. These values were then assessed for associations with fibrosis stage, anthropometric markers (age, sex, and body mass index, biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, albumin, platelet count, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glycosylated hemoglobin, and relevant disease-specific biomarkers (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], serum iron, ferritin, leptin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hyaluronic acid. Results: Serum albumin levels, plasma BCAA levels, and BCAA-to-Tyr ratio values were negatively associated with the fibrosis stage. In contrast, Tyr levels increased with increasing fibrotic staging. Tyr levels were also correlated with HOMA-IR results. Conclusion: Plasma BCAA levels in patients with NASH decreased with increasing liver fibrosis, while Tyr levels

  10. Multi-resistance strategy for viral diseases and short hairpin RNA verification method in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-nam Oh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Foot and mouth disease (FMD and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS are major diseases that interrupt porcine production. Because they are viral diseases, vaccinations are of only limited effectiveness in preventing outbreaks. To establish an alternative multi-resistant strategy against FMD virus (FMDV and PRRS virus (PRRSV, the present study introduced two genetic modification techniques to porcine cells. Methods First, cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163, the PRRSV viral receptor, was edited with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 technique. The CD163 gene sequences of edited cells and control cells differed. Second, short hairpin RNA (shRNAs were integrated into the cells. The shRNAs, targeting the 3D gene of FMDV and the open reading frame 7 (ORF7 gene of PRRSV, were transferred into fibroblasts. We also developed an in vitro shRNA verification method with a target gene expression vector. Results shRNA activity was confirmed in vitro with vectors that expressed the 3D and ORF7 genes in the cells. Cells containing shRNAs showed lower transcript levels than cells with only the expression vectors. The shRNAs were integrated into CD163-edited cells to combine the two techniques, and the viral genes were suppressed in these cells. Conclusion We established a multi-resistant strategy against viral diseases and an in vitro shRNA verification method.

  11. MANAGING NEWLY ESTABLISHED PESTS: Cooperative efforts contained spread of Pierce's disease and found genetic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bruening

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Pierce's disease of grapevine in the Temecula Valley in the late 1990s was one in a decades-long series of sporadic appearances of this infection in California. However, the new outbreak was qualitatively different because of the rapidity with which it spread in the vineyard and its appearance almost simultaneously at distant locations. The causative agent of Pierce's disease is the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, and the distinct characteristics of the Temecula Valley outbreak were traced to the establishment of a new insect vector in California, the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Intensive and collaborative efforts among government agencies, industry and research institutions over 15 years have successfully contained the disease, and given scientists time to discover promising long-term potential solutions through genetic resistance.

  12. Varied autopsy findings in five treated patients with Gaucher disease and parkinsonism include the absence of Gaucher cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monestime, Gianina; Borger, Daniel K; Kim, Jenny; Lopez, Grisel; Allgaeuer, Michael; Jain, Dhanpat; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Wang, Hao-Wei; Sidransky, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy is standard of care for patients with Gaucher disease, as it significantly improves skeletal, visceral, and hematological symptoms. Few pathological studies have documented the extent of pathological findings in treated patients. Autopsy findings in five treated patients, who ultimately developed parkinsonism, ranged from the complete absence of Gaucher pathology to extensive involvement of multiple tissues, without correlation to age, genotype, spleen status, or dose/duration of therapy. Additional autopsies may elucidate modifiers and biomarkers contributing to disease burden and response to therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. XA23 is an executor R protein and confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Fan, Yinglun; Gao, Ying; Zhu, Qinlong; Zheng, Chongke; Qin, Tengfei; Li, Yanqiang; Che, Jinying; Zhang, Mingwei; Yang, Bing; Liu, Yaoguang; Zhao, Kaijun

    2014-11-09

    The majority of plant disease resistance (R) genes encode proteins that share common structural features. However, the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) associated executor type R genes show no considerable sequence homology to any known R genes. We adopted a map-based cloning approach and TALE-based technology to isolate and characterize Xa23, a new executor R gene derived from the wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) that confers an extremely broad spectrum of resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Xa23 encodes a 113-amino acid protein that shares 50% identity to the known executor R protein XA10. The predicted transmembrane helices in XA23 also overlap with those of XA10. Unlike Xa10, however, Xa23 transcription is specifically activated by AvrXa23, a TALE present in all examined Xoo field isolates. Moreover, the susceptible xa23 allele has an identical open reading frame of Xa23, but differs in promoter region by lacking the TALE binding-element (EBE) for AvrXa23. XA23 can trigger strong hypersensitive response in rice, tobacco and tomato. Our results provide the first evidence that plant genomes have an executor R gene family in which members execute their function and spectrum of disease resistance by recognizing the cognate TALEs in pathogen. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  14. Relationship among Periodontal Disease, Insulin Resistance, Salivary Cortisol, and Stress Levels during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraphim, Ana Paula Castilho Garcia; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Pereira, Renato Felipe; Mattera, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sumida, Doris Hissako

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a period involving important metabolic changes that enable the maintenance of the mother's health and development of the fetus. This study aimed to assess the relationship among periodontal disease, insulin resistance, salivary cortisol concentration and level of perceived stress in pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 pregnant women between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy registered at the Basic Health Units of the Unified Health System (SUS). The periodontal condition was assessed after obtainment free and informed consent from the participants. Participants were divided into three groups: control subjects with a healthy periodontal condition (CN; n=46), patients with gingivitis (GI; n=26), and patients with periodontitis (PI; n=24). Saliva and blood samples were collected for evaluation of salivary cortisol concentration, glycemia, insulinemia and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance index. A validated survey for the assessment of perceived stress levels was also performed. PI group showed significantly higher (pperiodontal disease during pregnancy. This study emphasizes the importance of preventing periodontitis in order to avoid insulin resistance and stress during pregnancy since these can cause systemic complications for the mother and the fetus.

  15. Genetic resources in Musa bananas and improvement of their disease resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Fuentes, O.L.

    1977-01-01

    The cultivated bananas belong to the genus Musa and it is the wild species Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana which contributed to the origin of the sorts used as food. Most of these are triploids and possess a high degree of sterility. The sources of variation that are of importance for genetic improvement of the bananas are (1) hereditary differences between the cultivated clones; (2) difference between species and sub-species; (3) differences between the primitive cultivars derived from Musa acuminata, and (4) mutations that can be artiificially induced. The bananas are attacked by many diseases. Their vulnerability to certain diseases is highly significant in view of the extreme genetic uniformity of the commercial crops and the absence of resistant genes. In the past the wild species and the diploids used as food served as sources of resistance. However, efforts to induce resistance in the cultivated triploid bananas have not been successful. The use of mutagenic agents is proposed as a possible way of improving genetic variability in banana cultivation. (author)

  16. Women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovarian disease: predictors of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelghar, Wessam M; Bayoumy, Hassan A; Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Khalil, Marian S

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the role of different clinical, biochemical and sonographic factors as predictors of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovarian disease (CCR-PCOD). This prospective study recruited 251 infertile women with CCR-PCOD. Several clinical, biochemical and sonographic criteria were tested as possible predictors of spontaneous ovulation after LOD using multivariate analysis. Women with higher preoperative levels of LH, FSH and/or androstenedione had significantly higher rates of spontaneous ovulation within the first eight weeks after LOD, but only FSH and androstenedione were found to be independent predictors. Other factors including age, BMI, type of infertility, duration of infertility, menstrual pattern, testosterone level, ovarian volume and SHBG were insignificant predictors. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves derived from FSH, LH, androstenedione, and a logistic regression model showed that the best cut-off values were 4.1IU/l, 7.8IU/l, 1.2ng/ml, and 0.4897, respectively, with sensitivity of 91.18%, 100%, 73.53%, and 88.24% and specificity of 69.57%, 69.57%, 65.22%, and 73.91% for FSH, LH, androstenedione, and logistic regression model respectively. An extended follow up (9 months after LOD) was conducted for the anovulatory and the non-pregnant ovulatory women, who were treated individually according to their clinical situation. Of these women, 53.5% (69/129) got pregnant, resulting in a cumulative pregnancy rate of 48% (82/171). Of these pregnancies, 16/82 (19.5%) were spontaneous while 35.4% (29/82) and 45.1% (37/82) occurred after ovulation induction by CC and gonadotropins, respectively. This study supports the use of androstenedione, LH and FSH as a simple reliable tool in triaging patients with CCR-PCOD to select the ideal candidates for LOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus predict resistance to vitamin D replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayeb, Hala M; Wall, Barry M; Showkat, Arif; Mangold, Therese; Quarles, L Darryl

    2013-04-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is a marker of nutritional status; however, chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in alterations in vitamin D metabolism, including the loss of vitamin D-binding proteins and alterations in CYP27B1 and CYP24 enzymes that metabolize 25(OH)D. This study was designed to determine the predictors of responsiveness to correction of vitamin D deficiency with oral vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) in adults. A retrospective study of 183 veterans with 25(OH)D level vitamin D2, was performed. Logistic regression models were developed to determine the factors predicting the response to treatment, defined as either the change in serum 25(OH)D level/1000 IU of vitamin D2 or the number of vitamin D2 doses (50,000 IU per dose) administered. The mean age of the patients was 63 ± 12 years. About 87% were men and 51% diabetic, and 29% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of vitamin D2 doses was 10.91 ± 5.95; the average increase in 25(OH)D level was 18 ± 10.80 ng/mL. 25(OH)D levels remained vitamin D2 treatment in logistic regression models. Patients with CKD required greater amounts of vitamin D2 to achieve similar increases in 25(OH)D levels, versus non-CKD patients. The presence of CKD and diabetes mellitus is associated with resistance to correction of 25(OH)D deficiency with vitamin D2 therapy. The underlying mechanism needs to be evaluated in prospective studies.

  18. Identification of DNA Fragments that Showed Linkage to the Radiation-induced Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease Resistance Mutation in Okra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Phadvibulya, Valailak; Adthalungrong, Amnuai; Srithongchai, Wanphen; Puripunyavanich, Vichai

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The yellow vein mosaic disease resistant mutant of okra was crossed to Pichit 03, a susceptible variety. Their progeny showed prolonged resistance when compared with Pichit 03. DNA fingerprints of F2 and BC1F1 individuals from the cross indicated that most DNA bands did not segregate with either the resistance or the susceptible characteristics. Nonetheless, polymorphic DNA bands could be identified between the mutant and Okura, the parental variety

  19. AORTIC POST-RESISTANCE EXERCISE HYPOTENSION IN PATIENTS WITH PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia de Almeida Correia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A single session of resistance training decreases brachial blood pressure (BP in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD. However, it is not known whether similar responses occur in aortic BP, which is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effects of a single session of resistance training on aortic BP in PAD patients. Methods: This randomized, crossover, controlled trial involved 16 patients. All of them performed a session of resistance training (R - 3 x 10 reps in eight exercises, 5-7 on the OMNI Scale and a control session (C - resting for 50 min. Before and after each session, aortic BP was assessed by applanation tonometry technique. Results: There was an increase in systolic (P<0.002 and mean (P<0.001 aortic BP in both sessions; however, higher increases were observed in C session (P<0.001. Additionally, diastolic aortic BP only increased after C session (P=0.004. The hypotensive effect of the exercise on systolic, diastolic, and mean aortic BP were -12±2, -6±2, and -7±2 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion: A single session of resistance training promoted a hypotensive effect on aortic BP of patients with PAD, indicating an acute reduction in cardiovascular risk in this population. Level of Evidence I; Therapeutic studies - Investigating the results of treatment.

  20. Utilization of Mutagenic Treatments for Improving Barley Disease Resistance to Powdery Mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.; Fahim, M.M.; Moustafa, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    This program aims to improve barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordi) using mutation induction technique via physical and chemical mutagens. Grains of two local cultivars were treated with gamma rays (150, 250 GY) at a dose rate of 9.02 Rad/ Sec alone or with the concentrations of chemical mutagens, i.e.,EMS (4 and 8 mM), MH (10 and 20 mM) for two hours. After mass selection for the resistance in M2, the two cultivars were varied in their responses to the fifteen treatments. In M3 generation, the frequencies of plant resistance were increased at 20 mM of MH, 8 mM of EMS or 250 GY with either of them for the cultivar G124. However, the same trend was also found at 10 mM of MH, 250GY alone and with 4 or 8 mM EMS for cultivar G125. Moreover, eight mutants were selected from the progenies of M4 plants and evaluated in M5 generation. These mutants are characterized by highly disease resistance and high yield components, one of them has been characterized by non crytics and awnless .The desirable mutants should go to further evaluation for grain yield and grain quality in subsequent generations. (author)

  1. Genome editing of the disease susceptibility gene CsLOB1 in citrus confers resistance to citrus canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongge; Zhang, Yunzeng; Orbović, Vladimir; Xu, Jin; White, Frank F; Jones, Jeffrey B; Wang, Nian

    2017-07-01

    Citrus is a highly valued tree crop worldwide, while, at the same time, citrus production faces many biotic challenges, including bacterial canker and Huanglongbing (HLB). Breeding for disease-resistant varieties is the most efficient and sustainable approach to control plant diseases. Traditional breeding of citrus varieties is challenging due to multiple limitations, including polyploidy, polyembryony, extended juvenility and long crossing cycles. Targeted genome editing technology has the potential to shorten varietal development for some traits, including disease resistance. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA technology to modify the canker susceptibility gene CsLOB1 in Duncan grapefruit. Six independent lines, D LOB 2, D LOB 3, D LOB 9, D LOB 10, D LOB 11 and D LOB 12, were generated. Targeted next-generation sequencing of the six lines showed the mutation rate was 31.58%, 23.80%, 89.36%, 88.79%, 46.91% and 51.12% for D LOB 2, D LOB 3, D LOB 9, D LOB 10, D LOB 11 and D LOB 12, respectively, of the cells in each line. D LOB 2 and D LOB 3 showed canker symptoms similar to wild-type grapefruit, when inoculated with the pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). No canker symptoms were observed on D LOB 9, D LOB 10, D LOB 11 and D LOB 12 at 4 days postinoculation (DPI) with Xcc. Pustules caused by Xcc were observed on D LOB 9, D LOB 10, D LOB 11 and D LOB 12 in later stages, which were much reduced compared to that on wild-type grapefruit. The pustules on D LOB 9 and D LOB 10 did not develop into typical canker symptoms. No side effects and off-target mutations were detected in the mutated plants. This study indicates that genome editing using CRISPR technology will provide a promising pathway to generate disease-resistant citrus varieties. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Overweight, insulin resistance and type II diabetes in type I Gaucher disease patients in relation to enzyme replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, M.; de Fost, M.; Aerts, J. M. F. G.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Hollak, C. E. M.

    2008-01-01

    Type I Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder is associated with metabolic abnormalities such as high resting energy expenditure, low circulating adiponectin and peripheral insulin resistance. Treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (enzyme therapy) leads to a decrease in resting energy

  3. A highly acid-resistant novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 has antibacterial activity, including that against Helicobacter pylori, and inhibits gastrin-mediated acid production in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yuji; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Koga, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was isolated from the gastric juice of a healthy Japanese male volunteer, and characterized for its effectiveness in the stomach environment. Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was found to have the strongest acid resistance among several lactobacilli examined (>10% of cells survived at pH 1.0 after 2 h), and such a high acid resistance property was a specific characteristic of this strain of L. johnsonii. When cultured with various virulent bacteria, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori,Escherichia coli O-157, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile, in which case its effectiveness was more potent than that of a type strain of L. johnsonii,JCM2012. In addition to its effect in vitro, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of H. pylori in human intestinal microbiota-associated mice in both its live and lyophilized forms. Moreover, L. johnsonii No. 1088 suppressed gastric acid secretion in mice via decreasing the number of gastrin-positive cells in the stomach. These results taken together suggest that L. johnsonii No. 1088 is a unique lactobacillus having properties beneficial for supporting H. pylori eradication by triple therapy including the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and also for prophylaxis of gastroesophageal reflux disease possibly caused after H. pylori eradication as a side effect of PPI. PMID:25771812

  4. Signaling requirements for Erwinia amylovora-induced disease resistance, callose deposition, and cell growth in the nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight disease in some plants of the Rosaceae family. The nonhost plant Arabidopsis serves as a powerful system to dissect mechanisms of resistance to E. amylovora. Although not yet known to mount gene-for-gene resistance to E. amylovora, we found ...

  5. Proportional odds model applied to mapping of disease resistance genes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Spyrides-Cunha

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers have been used extensively to map quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling disease resistance in plants. Mapping is usually done by establishing a statistical association between molecular marker genotypes and quantitative variations in disease resistance. However, most statistical approaches require a continuous distribution of the response variable, a requirement not always met since evaluation of disease resistance is often done using visual ratings based on an ordinal scale of disease severity. This paper discusses the application of the proportional odds model to the mapping of disease resistance genes in plants amenable to expression as ordinal data. The model was used to map two resistance QTL of maize to Puccinia sorghi. The microsatellite markers bngl166 and bngl669, located on chromosomes 2 and 8, respectively, were used to genotype F2 individuals from a segregating population. Genotypes at each marker locus were then compared by assessing disease severity in F3 plants derived from the selfing of each genotyped F2 plant based on an ordinal scale severity. The residual deviance and the chi-square score statistic indicated a good fit of the model to the data and the odds had a constant proportionality at each threshold. Single-marker analyses detected significant differences among marker genotypes at both marker loci, indicating that these markers were linked to disease resistance QTL. The inclusion of the interaction term after single-marker analysis provided strong evidence of an epistatic interaction between the two QTL. These results indicate that the proportional odds model can be used as an alternative to traditional methods in cases where the response variable consists of an ordinal scale, thus eliminating the problems of heterocedasticity, non-linearity, and the non-normality of residuals often associated with this type of data.Marcadores moleculares têm sido extensivamente usados para o mapeamento de loci de

  6. Impairment of Cellulose Synthases Required for Arabidopsis Secondary Cell Wall Formation Enhances Disease Resistance[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Blanco, Camilo; Feng, Dong Xin; Hu, Jian; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Deslandes, Laurent; Llorente, Francisco; Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Keller, Harald; Barlet, Xavier; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Anderson, Lisa K.; Somerville, Shauna; Marco, Yves; Molina, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthases (CESAs) contained in plasma membrane–localized complexes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, three types of CESA subunits (CESA4/IRREGULAR XYLEM5 [IRX5], CESA7/IRX3, and CESA8/IRX1) are required for secondary cell wall formation. We report that mutations in these proteins conferred enhanced resistance to the soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina. By contrast, susceptibility to these pathogens was not altered in cell wall mutants of primary wall CESA subunits (CESA1, CESA3/ISOXABEN RESISTANT1 [IXR1], and CESA6/IXR2) or POWDERY MILDEW–RESISTANT5 (PMR5) and PMR6 genes. Double mutants indicated that irx-mediated resistance was independent of salicylic acid, ethylene, and jasmonate signaling. Comparative transcriptomic analyses identified a set of common irx upregulated genes, including a number of abscisic acid (ABA)–responsive, defense-related genes encoding antibiotic peptides and enzymes involved in the synthesis and activation of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. These data as well as the increased susceptibility of ABA mutants (abi1-1, abi2-1, and aba1-6) to R. solanacearum support a direct role of ABA in resistance to this pathogen. Our results also indicate that alteration of secondary cell wall integrity by inhibiting cellulose synthesis leads to specific activation of novel defense pathways that contribute to the generation of an antimicrobial-enriched environment hostile to pathogens. PMID:17351116

  7. Induced mutations and in vitro culture techniques for improving crop plant resistance to diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This co-ordinated research program was undertaken in search of in vitro techniques to increase the resistance of plants to disease. The studies performed under the program ranged from the preparation of materials for mass screening to screening of mutagen-treated cells, tissues, organs or plantlets for resistance to viruses, fungi and other pathogens. The characteristics of the resulting mutants were evaluated to determine the relevance of these techniques for plant breeding. The present document contains the papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the program, as well as a summary of the conclusions and recommendations drawn from the work. The nine individual papers have been input separately to the database. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Pokeweed Antiviral Protein: Its Cytotoxicity Mechanism and Applications in Plant Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Di

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP is a 29 kDa type I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP found in pokeweed plants. Pokeweed produces different forms of PAP. This review focuses on the spring form of PAP isolated from Phytolacca americana leaves. PAP exerts its cytotoxicity by removing a specific adenine from the α-sarcin/ricin loop of the large ribosomal RNA. Besides depurination of the rRNA, PAP has additional activities that contribute to its cytotoxicity. The mechanism of PAP cytotoxicity is summarized based on evidence from the analysis of transgenic plants and the yeast model system. PAP was initially found to be anti-viral when it was co-inoculated with plant viruses onto plants. Transgenic plants expressing PAP and non-toxic PAP mutants have displayed broad-spectrum resistance to both viral and fungal infection. The mechanism of PAP-induced disease resistance in transgenic plants is summarized.

  9. Both epistatic and additive effects of QTLs are involved in polygenic induced resistance to disease: a case study, the interaction pepper - Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, V; Palloix, A

    1996-09-01

    To study the resistance of pepper to Phytophthora capsici, we analyzed 94 doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from the intraspecific F1 hybrid obtained from a cross between Perennial, an Indian pungent resistant line, and Yolo Wonder, an American bell-pepper susceptible line, with 119 DNA markers. Four different criteria were used to evaluate the resistance, corresponding to different steps or mechanisms of the host-pathogen interaction: root-rot index, receptivity, inducibility and stability. Three distinct ANOVA models between DNA marker genotypes and the four disease criteria identified 13 genomic regions, distributed across several linkage groups or unlinked markers, affecting the resistance of pepper to P. capsici. Some QTLs were criterion specific, whereas others affect several criteria, so that the four resistance criteria were controlled by different combinations of QTLs. The QTLs were very different in their quantitative effect (R(2) values), including major QTLs which explained 41-55% of the phenotypic variance, intermediate QTLs with additive or/and epistatic action (17-28% of the variance explained) and minor QTLs. Favourable alleles of some minor QTLs were carried in the susceptible parent. The total phenotypic variation accounted for by QTLs reached up to 90% for receptivity, with an important part due to epistasis effects between QTLs (with or without additive effects). The relative impact of resistance QTLs in disease response is discussed.

  10. Association mapping of seed and disease resistance traits in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motilal, Lambert A; Zhang, Dapeng; Mischke, Sue; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Lanaud, Claire; Umaharan, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism markers that could be used in marker assisted breeding of cacao were identified for number of filled seeds, black pod resistance and witches' broom disease resistance. An association mapping approach was employed to identify markers for seed number and resistance to black pod and witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed on 483 unique trees in the International Cocoa Genebank Trinidad (ICGT). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association mapping studies were conducted to identify markers to tag the phenotypic traits. Decay of LD occurred over an average 9.3 cM for chromosomes 1-9 and 2.5 cM for chromosome 10. Marker/trait associations were generally identified based on general linear models (GLMs) that incorporated principal components from molecular information on relatedness factor. Seven markers (mTcCIR 8, 66, 126, 212; TcSNP368, 697, 1370) on chromosomes 1 and 9 were identified for number of filled seeds (NSEED). A single marker was found for black pod resistance (mTcCIR280) on chromosome 3, whereas six markers on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 were detected for WBD (mTcCIR91, 183; TcSNP375, 720, 1230 and 1374). It is expected that this association mapping study in cacao would contribute to the knowledge of the genetic determinism of cocoa traits and that the markers identified herein would prove useful in marker assisted breeding of cacao.

  11. Virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from dogs with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Tavares, Marta; Gomes, Diana; Touret, Tiago; São Braz, Berta; Tavares, Luís; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease - PD - is one of the most widespread diseases in dogs, but the role of this odontogenic infection in the dissemination of pathogenic bacteria present in the oral mucosa to other animals or pet owners is understudied. Trying to unveil the putative pathogenicity of enterococci present in the gums of dogs diagnosed with PD, thirty-two animals were investigated during routine visits to a private veterinary clinic. Seventy-one enterococci were recovered and characterized regarding species, genomic variability, virulence traits, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm-forming ability. Isolates were mainly identified as Enterococcus faecalis, with the large majority (95%) being able to produce biofilm. Regarding antibiotic resistance, all dog-enterococci were susceptible to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, gentamicin-120, imipenem and vancomycin; while distinct levels of resistance were observed for chloramphenicol (10%), erythromycin (20%), streptomycin-300 (35%) and tetracycline (95%). For virulence traits incidence levels of 35% were observed for β-hemolysis and 25% for cylA, 25% for gelatinase and 35% for gelE; 85% harbor efaAfs and ebpABC; while ace, agg and esp are present respectively in 50, 30 and 10% of the dog-enterococci; efaAfm and acm were detected in all the Enterococcus faecium. Overall, the widespread prevalence of PD in dogs, associated with the close contact between companion animals, other animals and humans, may act as source for the dissemination of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Hence, aforementioned data on virulence and resistance features, emphasizes the need for active surveillance measures, such as the diagnose of PD in companion animals during routine visits to the veterinary clinic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. fungal disease resistance in vicia faba in relation to water stress and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Induced systemic resistance (Isr), as a recent strategy, achieving biological control of plant disease through initiation to form natural antibiotic compounds, phytoalexin, that considered to be involved in the defense mechanism of plant to potential pathogen. Also, phytoalexin formed by leguminosae in response to infection play an extremely role in disease resistance. Indeed, wyerone acid (C 14 H 12 O 4 ) has been clearfield as a phytoalexin formed by Vicia faba in response to infection stress. Therefore, the present study was outlined to clearify the feasibility to biocontrol of checolate spot disease caused by Botrytis fabae in faba bean, Vicia faba, plants under field condition. Pre. Sowing seed irradiated with low gamma ray were planted in: 1- Three pot experiments (salinity-Ni-Si) in complete randomized block design in three replicates. 2- Two field experiments in loam soil irrigated with river nile water (inducers-Isr)) in splite-plot design in three replicates. 3- Two field experiments in sandy soil irrigated with two saline water from 2 shallow-wells (inducers-Isr) in split-split plot design in three replicates

  13. Diuretics Combined With Compression in Resistant Limb Edema of Advanced Disease-A Case Series Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradalski, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    The extremity edema of advanced disease is a common, multifactorial feature, which impairs patients' activities and quality of life. The most frequently chosen management is based on combined decongestive physiotherapy or pharmacotherapy (with diuretics or steroids). Subcutaneous lymphatic drainage in refractory edema may decrease the swelling, prevent spontaneous lymphorrhea, but also increase the risk of infection. Safe and effective conservative management in diuretics-resistant edemas is lacking. The objective of this prospective, observational study was to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of combined physiotherapeutic and diuretic therapy in edemas refractory to parenteral diuretics. A group of 19 patients with advanced disease and severe bilateral leg edema resistant to parenteral diuretic therapy were treated for three days with a combination of multilayer short-stretch compression bandaging and furosemide in hypersaline intravenous infusion. A clinically meaningful decrease in mean limb volume (of 1.52 L; 20.6%; P performance status in any patient. Stable levels of blood pressure, laboratory kidney profile (potassium, sodium, creatinine clearance), and serum albumin were observed. Maintenance of the achieved results with a good compliance was seen during an informal follow-up at the hospice. The combination of compression therapy with hypersaline diuretics could be considered as a valuable option for refractory cases of limb edema in advanced disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Randomized comparison of renal denervation versus intensified pharmacotherapy including spironolactone in true-resistant hypertension: six-month results from the Prague-15 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ján; Widimský, Petr; Toušek, Petr; Petrák, Ondřej; Čurila, Karol; Waldauf, Petr; Bednář, František; Zelinka, Tomáš; Holaj, Robert; Štrauch, Branislav; Šomlóová, Zuzana; Táborský, Miloš; Václavík, Jan; Kociánová, Eva; Branny, Marian; Nykl, Igor; Jiravský, Otakar; Widimský, Jiří

    2015-02-01

    This prospective, randomized, open-label multicenter trial evaluated the efficacy of catheter-based renal denervation (Symplicity, Medtronic) versus intensified pharmacological treatment including spironolactone (if tolerated) in patients with true-resistant hypertension. This was confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring after excluding secondary hypertension and confirmation of adherence to therapy by measurement of plasma antihypertensive drug levels before enrollment. One-hundred six patients were randomized to renal denervation (n=52), or intensified pharmacological treatment (n=54) with baseline systolic blood pressure of 159±17 and 155±17 mm Hg and average number of drugs 5.1 and 5.4, respectively. A significant reduction in 24-hour average systolic blood pressure after 6 months (-8.6 [95% cofidence interval: -11.8, -5.3] mm Hg; Pblood pressure (-12.4 [95% cofidence interval: -17.0, -7.8] mm Hg; Pblood pressure comparable with intensified pharmacotherapy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Induced mutations for disease resistance and other agronomic characteristics in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.; Alberini, J.; Peixoto, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The present research project aims to induce mutations with resistance to Xanthomonas phaseoli (common blight) and golden mosaic virus (GMV) in bean and resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (rust) and Brazilian bud blight in soybean. At the same time, other mutant types of interest were selected. Gamma rays and ethyl methane-sulphonate (EMS) were generally utilized as mutagenic agents and seeds of several cultivars from both crops were treated. The selection was made at the M 2 or M 3 generation, utilizing progeny or mixtures of seeds from bulk. Screening was carried out in the field, greenhouse or insectary (according to the disease). Priority was given to GMV in bean and about 235,850 plants were observed in the field and 67,500 in the insectary. Only one plant showing mild GMV symptoms was obtained. However, owing to negative pleiotropic effects, this mutant could not be used. Concerning the other diseases, there are some selected plants that still require better observation before reporting that progress has been made. With regard to other mutant types, earliness was obtained in soybean and a bush variety and an earlier mutant was selected in bean. This mutant has already been utilized by breeders in cross-breeding and is being multiplied to be experimentally utilized by farmers under special conditions of cultivation. In soybean, preliminary yield trials are under way, and include some of the early mutants obtained. (author). 26 refs, 20 tabs

  16. Characterization of a disease susceptibility locus for exploring an efficient way to improve rice resistance against bacterial blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Cheng; Weihua Mao; Wenya Xie; Qinsong Liu; Jianbo Cao; Meng Yuan; Qinglu Zhang; Xianghua Li; Shiping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae (Xoo) is the most harmful bacterial disease of rice worldwide.Previously,we characterized major disease resistance (MR) gene xa25,which confers race-specific resistance to Xoo strain PXO339.The xa25 is a recessive allele of the SWEET13 locus,but SWEET13's interaction with PXO339 and how efficiently using this locus for rice breeding still need to be defined.Here we show that the SWEET13 allele from rice Zhenshan 97 is a susceptibility gene to PXO339.Using this allele's promoter to regulate xa25 resulted in disease,suggesting that the promoter is a key determinant in SWEET13 caused disease in Zhanshan 97 after PXO339 infection.PXO339 transcriptionally induces SWEET13 to cause disease.Partial suppressing SWEET13 expression leads to a high level of resistance to PXO339.Thus,the transcriptionally suppressed SWEET13 functions as xa25 in resistance to PXO339.Hybrid rice is widely grown in many countries.However,recessive MR genes have not been efficiently used for disease resistance breeding in hybrid rice production for both parents of the hybrid have to carry the same recessive gene.However,the suppressed SWEET13 functions dominantly,which will have advantage to improve the resistance of hybrid rice to xa25-incomptible Xoo.

  17. Irradiated T. cruzi and resistant consomic animals can be useful in Chagas disease studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Salgado, Andreia Ruis [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Multidisciplinar para a Investigacao Biologica (CEMIB/UNICAMP)], e-mail: viviliotti@cemib.unicamp.br; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Human Chagas disease is considered the most significant parasitic disease in Latin America. It is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by T. cruzi. As a consequence, approximately 50,000 deaths occur every year. The acute infection usually goes unrecognized and enters into a chronic stage that persists throughout the host's life span. However, roughly 30% of infected individuals eventually will develop disease with an array of possible manifestations affecting the heart, the digestive tract, and/or the peripheral nervous system. This disease is commonly modeled in inbred mice even though mouse strains used to simulate experimental infection vary considerably. In this way, Wrightsman and Trischmann showed that chromosome 17 was directly involved in a T. cruzi resistance, showing the influence of host's genetic constitution on disease severity. Additionally, in 2003, Passos and Graefe, working separately, quantified parasite burdens in resistant and susceptible strains and applied a backcross strategy to map the genomic loci linked to susceptibility and resistance in inbred mice. The genomes of the animals were scanned with microsatellite markers and the results found by these authors showed that the resistance mechanism is polygenic and is under the control of a complex network. In the particular case of Y strain, in vivo assays indicated that survival was related to the chromosomes 7,11,14,17 and 19. In order to evaluate the influence of each isolated chromosome as well as their interactions, we employed susceptible isogenic mice to construct consomic lineages for each one of those chromosomes. The consomic strains were injected with irradiated and native forms of Y strain T. cruzi, and the infectivity parameters were evaluated by quantitative methods. Radiation caused inability of trypanosomes to infect and kill mice, when these parasites were irradiated with 1 kGy of gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source. In this experiment we used 10{sup 1

  18. Irradiated T. cruzi and resistant consomic animals can be useful in Chagas disease studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Viviane Liotti; Passos, Luiz Augusto Correa; Salgado, Andreia Ruis; Spencer, Patrick Jack; Nascimento, Nanci do

    2009-01-01

    Human Chagas disease is considered the most significant parasitic disease in Latin America. It is estimated that 16-18 million people are infected by T. cruzi. As a consequence, approximately 50,000 deaths occur every year. The acute infection usually goes unrecognized and enters into a chronic stage that persists throughout the host's life span. However, roughly 30% of infected individuals eventually will develop disease with an array of possible manifestations affecting the heart, the digestive tract, and/or the peripheral nervous system. This disease is commonly modeled in inbred mice even though mouse strains used to simulate experimental infection vary considerably. In this way, Wrightsman and Trischmann showed that chromosome 17 was directly involved in a T. cruzi resistance, showing the influence of host's genetic constitution on disease severity. Additionally, in 2003, Passos and Graefe, working separately, quantified parasite burdens in resistant and susceptible strains and applied a backcross strategy to map the genomic loci linked to susceptibility and resistance in inbred mice. The genomes of the animals were scanned with microsatellite markers and the results found by these authors showed that the resistance mechanism is polygenic and is under the control of a complex network. In the particular case of Y strain, in vivo assays indicated that survival was related to the chromosomes 7,11,14,17 and 19. In order to evaluate the influence of each isolated chromosome as well as their interactions, we employed susceptible isogenic mice to construct consomic lineages for each one of those chromosomes. The consomic strains were injected with irradiated and native forms of Y strain T. cruzi, and the infectivity parameters were evaluated by quantitative methods. Radiation caused inability of trypanosomes to infect and kill mice, when these parasites were irradiated with 1 kGy of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. In this experiment we used 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 3 , 10 4

  19. Systematic Analysis and Comparison of Nucleotide-Binding Site Disease Resistance Genes in a Diploid Cotton Gossypium raimondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hengling; Li, Wei; Sun, Xiwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Plant disease resistance genes are a key component of defending plants from a range of pathogens. The majority of these resistance genes belong to the super-family that harbors a Nucleotide-binding site (NBS). A number of studies have focused on NBS-encoding genes in disease resistant breeding programs for diverse plants. However, little information has been reported with an emphasis on systematic analysis and comparison of NBS-encoding genes in cotton. To fill this gap of knowledge, in this study, we identified and investigated the NBS-encoding resistance genes in cotton using the whole genome sequence information of Gossypium raimondii. Totally, 355 NBS-encoding resistance genes were identified. Analyses of the conserved motifs and structural diversity showed that the most two distinct features for these genes are the high proportion of non-regular NBS genes and the high diversity of N-termini domains. Analyses of the physical locations and duplications of NBS-encoding genes showed that gene duplication of disease resistance genes could play an important role in cotton by leading to an increase in the functional diversity of the cotton NBS-encoding genes. Analyses of phylogenetic comparisons indicated that, in cotton, the NBS-encoding genes with TIR domain not only have their own evolution pattern different from those of genes without TIR domain, but also have their own species-specific pattern that differs from those of TIR genes in other plants. Analyses of the correlation between disease resistance QTL and NBS-encoding resistance genes showed that there could be more than half of the disease resistance QTL associated to the NBS-encoding genes in cotton, which agrees with previous studies establishing that more than half of plant resistance genes are NBS-encoding genes. PMID:23936305

  20. Expressional and Biochemical Characterization of Rice Disease Resistance Gene Xa3/Xa26 Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songjie Xu; Yinglong Cao; Xianghua Li; Shiping Wang

    2007-01-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) Xa3/Xa26 gene, conferring race-specific resistance to bacterial blight disease and encoding a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase-like protein, belongs to a multigene family consisting of tandem clustered homologous genes, colocalizing with several uncharacterized genes for resistance to bacterial blight or fungal blast. To provide more information on the expressional and biochemical characteristics of the Xa3/Xa26 family, we analyzed the family members. Four Xa3/Xa26 family members in the indica rice variety Teqing, which carries a bacterial blight resistance gene with a chromosomal location tightly linked to Xa3/Xa26, and five Xa3/Xa26 family members in the japonica rice variety Nipponbare, which carries at least one uncharacterized blast resistance gene, were constitutively expressed in leaf tissue. The result suggests that some of the family members may be candidates of these uncharacterized resistance genes. At least five putative N-glycosylation sites in the LRR domain of XA3/XA26 protein are not glycosylated. The XA3/XA26 and its family members MRKa and MRKc all possess the consensus sequences of paired cysteines, which putatively function in dimerization of the receptor proteins for signal transduction, immediately before the first LRR and immediately after the last LRR. However, no homo-dimer between the XA3/XA26 molecules or hetero-dimer between XA3/XA26 and MRKa or MRKc were formed, indicating that XA3/XA26 protein might function either as a monomer or a hetero-dimer formed with other protein outside of the XA3/XA26 family. These results provide valuable information for further extensive investigation into this multiple protein family.

  1. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleski, Nicole; Almeida, Lucas Malta; Almeida, Fernanda Coutinho de; Pratesi, Claudia Beatriz; Nóbrega, Yanna Karla de Medeiros; Gandolfi, Lenora

    2018-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100) and non-celiac children (n=110). All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5), DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2). Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78%) were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 %) were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6%) were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9%) samples, in 2 (1.8 %) was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6%) was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  2. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole SELLESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. METHODS: HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100 and non-celiac children (n=110. All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5, DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8 and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2. Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78% were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 % were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6% were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9% samples, in 2 (1.8 % was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6% was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. CONCLUSION: The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  3. Studying the Genetics of Resistance to CyHV-3 Disease Using Introgression from Feral to Cultured Common Carp Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor-Levi, Roni; Asoulin, Efrat; Hulata, Gideon; David, Lior

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability and further development of aquaculture production are constantly challenged by outbreaks of fish diseases, which are difficult to prevent or control. Developing fish strains that are genetically resistant to a disease is a cost-effective and a sustainable solution to address this challenge. To do so, heritable genetic variation in disease resistance should be identified and combined together with other desirable production traits. Aquaculture of common carp has suffered substantial losses from the infectious disease caused by the cyprinid herpes virus type 3 (CyHV-3) virus and the global spread of outbreaks indicates that many cultured strains are susceptible. In this research, CyHV-3 resistance from the feral strain “Amur Sassan” was successfully introgressed into two susceptible cultured strains up to the first backcross (BC1) generation. Variation in resistance of families from F1 and BC1 generations was significantly greater compared to that among families of any of the susceptible parental lines, a good starting point for a family selection program. Considerable additive genetic variation was found for CyHV-3 resistance. This phenotype was transferable between generations with contributions to resistance from both the resistant feral and the susceptible cultured strains. Reduced scale coverage (mirror phenotype) is desirable and common in cultured strains, but so far, cultured mirror carp strains were found to be susceptible. Here, using BC1 families ranging from susceptible to resistant, no differences in resistance levels between fully scaled and mirror full-sib groups were found, indicating that CyHV-3 resistance was successfully combined with the desirable mirror phenotype. In addition, the CyHV-3 viral load in tissues throughout the infection of susceptible and resistant fish was followed. Although resistant fish get infected, viral loads in tissues of these fish are significantly lesser than in those of susceptible fish, allowing them

  4. The probability of resistant hypertension during dental treatment of chronic kidney disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.

    2017-01-01

    Oral rehabilitation in medically compromised patients like chronic kidney disease (CKD) needs special dental care. Many papers have been published on dental considerations for such individuals. However, literature citing oral care for patients with risk factors of CKD are scarce. Resistant hypertension, one such risk factor, is closely related to CKD. Furthermore, the associated increased prevalence and adverse renal/cardiac outcomes motivated the author to report its unexplored association/impact during dental care. The importance of assessing glomerular filtration rate is highlighted to better understand patients' medical conditions. (author)

  5. Dissection and Manipulation of LRR Domains in Plant Disease Resistance Gene Products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Andrew [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-28

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein domains offer a readily diversifiable platform - literally, an extended protein surface - for specific binding of very diverse ligands. The project addressed the following overlapping research questions: How do leucine-rich repeat proteins recognize their cognate ligands? What are the intra- and inter-molecular transitions that occur that cause transmembrane LRR proteins to switch between off and on states? How do plants use LRR receptor proteins to activate disease resistance? Can we synthetically evolve new LRR proteins that have acquired new ligand specificities?

  6. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  7. Current and investigational non-dopaminergic agents for management of motor symptoms (including motor complications) in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a heterogeneous combination of motor and non motor symptoms. The nigrostriatal dopamine deficit is one of its essential pathophysiologic features. Areas covered: This invited narrative review provides an overlook over current available and future promising non dopaminergic therapeutics to modulate altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in Parkinson's disease. Current research strategies aim to proof clinical efficacy by amelioration of motor symptoms and preponderant levodopa related movement fluctuations. These so-called motor complications are characterized by involuntary movements as a result of an overstimulation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system or by temporary recurrence of motor symptoms, when beneficial effects of dopamine substituting drugs vane. Expert opinion: Non dopaminergic modulation of dopamine replacement is currently mostly investigated in well defined and selected patients with motor complications to get approval. However, the world of daily maintenance of patients with its individually adapted, so-called personalised, therapy will determine the real value of these therapeutics. Here the clinical experience of the treating neurologists and the courage to use unconventional drug combinations are essential preconditions for successful treatments of motor and associated non motor complications in cooperation with the patients and their care giving surroundings.

  8. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  9. ANTIPLATELET DRUGS RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND OBLITERATIVE ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LOWER LIMB ARTERIES ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gorjacheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a rate of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and clopidogrel and clinical outcomes in patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Material and methods. 154 patients were involved in the study and split into two groups. 100 patients (47 men, 53 women; aged 66,4±7,8 y.o. with ischemic heart disease (IHD (which was presented by angina pectoris, class I-III, or myocardial infarction history were included into the first group (G1. Other 54 patients (38 men, 16 women; aged 64,1±10,2 y.o. with IHD associated with obliterative atherosclerosis of lower limb were included into the 2nd group (G2. Platelet aggregation was evaluated by Born's method (inducers of platelet aggregation were arachidonic acid and ADP. Reduction of platelet aggregation ≥20% after arachidonic acid induction was considered as criterion of resistance to ASA. Patients were considered as resistant, partly resistant and sensitive to clopidogrel if platelet aggregation reduced on <10%, 10-29%, and ≥30% respectively.Results. Rate of ASA and clopidogrel resistance in patients with DM2 was significantly higher than these in patients without DM2 (48% vs 16% respectively, р=0,003 in G1; 42% vs 7% respectively, р=0,007 in G2.Conclusion. Resistance to antiplatelet drugs is observed more often in patients with DM2 and can result in increased risk of cardiovascular complications.

  10. ANTIPLATELET DRUGS RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND OBLITERATIVE ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LOWER LIMB ARTERIES ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gorjacheva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a rate of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and clopidogrel and clinical outcomes in patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Material and methods. 154 patients were involved in the study and split into two groups. 100 patients (47 men, 53 women; aged 66,4±7,8 y.o. with ischemic heart disease (IHD (which was presented by angina pectoris, class I-III, or myocardial infarction history were included into the first group (G1. Other 54 patients (38 men, 16 women; aged 64,1±10,2 y.o. with IHD associated with obliterative atherosclerosis of lower limb were included into the 2nd group (G2. Platelet aggregation was evaluated by Born's method (inducers of platelet aggregation were arachidonic acid and ADP. Reduction of platelet aggregation ≥20% after arachidonic acid induction was considered as criterion of resistance to ASA. Patients were considered as resistant, partly resistant and sensitive to clopidogrel if platelet aggregation reduced on <10%, 10-29%, and ≥30% respectively.Results. Rate of ASA and clopidogrel resistance in patients with DM2 was significantly higher than these in patients without DM2 (48% vs 16% respectively, р=0,003 in G1; 42% vs 7% respectively, р=0,007 in G2.Conclusion. Resistance to antiplatelet drugs is observed more often in patients with DM2 and can result in increased risk of cardiovascular complications.

  11. The value of intrarenal resistive index in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rae; Lee, Kyu Beck; Park, Hae Won

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of the intrarenal resistive index(RI), measured by Doppler sonography, in order to assess intrarenal vascular resistance in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. In 26 patients with ADPKD, RI was measured by Doppler sonography and correlated with the presence of hypertension, renal function (creatinine clearance) and anatomical renal severity index (RSI), thus indicating renal morphologic abnormalities during Bmode sonography. RI was significantly higher in 18 hypertensive ADPKD patients (0.64±0.65) (Mean±1SD;range:0.52-0.74) than in eight normotensive patients (0.59± 0.50) (0.48-0.64) (p<0.05). Statistically significant inverse correlation was found between RI values and creatinine clearance (r=3D-0.45, p<0.05), and statistically significant correlation was found between RI values and RSI, indicating the degree of renal parenchymal involvement. RI correlates with the development of hypertension, renal function and renal morphologic abnormality scoring by RSI during B-mode Doppler sonography, and measured in this way may thus be used to assess renal vascular resistance in ADPKD patients.=20

  12. Evidence for insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jialal, I; Naiker, P; Reddi, K; Moodley, J; Joubert, S M

    1987-05-01

    In this study seven normal weight Indian patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) with no evidence of acanthosis nigricans and 7 age- and weight-matched normal Indian women were studied to determine whether PCOD patients were insulin-resistant. While all 14 women had normal glucose tolerance, the PCOD women had significantly higher mean plasma glucose levels at 30 and 60 min and higher mean incremental glucose areas [incremental areas: PCOD, 9.0 +/- 2.2 (+/- SEM); normal women, 4.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/L; P less than 0.05]. Insulin responses were significantly higher in the PCOD compared to normal women (incremental areas: PCOD, 623.8 +/- 78.3; normal women, 226.2 +/- 30.3 microU/mL; P less than 0.001). Both serum testosterone and androstenedione levels correlated with the insulin areas (r = 0.82; P less than 0.001 and r = 0.86; P less than 0.001, respectively). [125I] Insulin binding to erythrocytes revealed decreased maximum specific binding in the PCOD women (6.9 +/- 0.6%) compared to that in normal women (9.2 +/- 0.7%; P less than 0.02). While Scatchard analysis revealed similar receptor numbers, ID50 values demonstrated decreased receptor affinity in the women with PCOD. In conclusion, in the absence of acanthosis nigricans, nonobese patients with PCOD are insulin resistant, and this insulin resistance correlates with the hyperandrogenism.

  13. [Effect of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in improving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, G Y; Han, T; Gao, L; Wang, L; Wang, S C; Yang, L; Zhang, J; Guan, Y Y; Yan, N N; Yu, H Y; Xiao, H J; Di, F S

    2018-01-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dietary control combined with different exercise modes on plasma vaspin, irisin, and metabolic parameters in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through a randomized open parallel-controlled study. Methods: The patients aged 30-65 years who visited Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 and were diagnosed with NAFLD by liver ultrasound and fat content determination were screening, and 474 patients were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and divided into aerobic exercise group, resistance exercise group, and control group. All patients received dietary intervention. The three groups were compared in terms of biochemical parameters, fat content, NFS score, energy metabolic parameters, body composition index, and levels of vaspin and irisin at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis. The t -test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the chi-square test, and an analysis of variance were used for comparison between groups. The multiple imputation method was used for missing data, and the results were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in age, sex, anthropometrical parameters, and biochemical parameters between the three groups at baseline. Compared with dietary control alone, aerobic exercise and resistance exercise helped to achieve significant reductions in waist circumference, diastolic pressure, percentage of body fat, volatile fatty acid, fasting blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, free fatty acid, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, and liver fat content after 6 months of intervention ( P aerobic exercise group had a significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and significant reductions in body mass index and aspartate aminotransferase after intervention, as well as a significant

  14. Disease Progression/Clinical Outcome Model for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer in Patients Treated with Eribulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, J. G C; Gupta, A.; Hussein, Z.; Beijnen, J. H.; Schellens, J. H M; Huitema, A. D R

    2015-01-01

    Frameworks that associate cancer dynamic disease progression models with parametric survival models for clinical outcome have recently been proposed to support decision making in early clinical development. Here we developed such a disease progression clinical outcome model for castration-resistant

  15. Genetic analysis of rice blast disease resistance genes using USDA rice mini-core and a mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice, resulting in significant yield loss each year all over the world. Developing and utilizing blast resistant rice varieties is the most economical and effective m...

  16. Scaling up from greenhouse resistance to fitness in the field for a host of an emerging forest disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Hayden; Matteo Garbelotto; Richard Dodd; Jessica W. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Forest systems are increasingly threatened by emergent, exotic diseases, yet management strategies for forest trees may be hindered by long generation times and scant background knowledge. We tested whether nursery disease resistance and growth traits have predictive value for the conservation of Notholithocarpus densiflorus, the host most...

  17. Insulin-Resistant Brain State: the culprit in sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sónia C.; Santos, Renato X.; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Moreira, Paula I.; Smith, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Severe abnormalities in brain glucose/energy metabolism and insulin signaling have been documented to take a pivotal role in early sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (sAD) pathology. Indeed, the “insulin-resistant brain state” has been hypothesized to form the core of the neurodegenerative events that occur in sAD. In this vein, intracerebroventricular administration of subdiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats can induce an insulin-resistant brain state, which is proposed as a suitable experimental model of sAD. This review highlights the involvement of disturbed brain insulin metabolism in sAD etiopathogenesis. Furthermore, current knowledge demonstrates that central STZ administration produces brain pathology and behavioral changes that resemble changes found in sAD patients. The STZ-intracerebroventricularly treated rat represents a promising experimental tool in this field by providing new insights concerning early brain alterations in sAD, which can be translated in novel etiopathogenic and therapeutic approaches in this disease. PMID:21262392

  18. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  19. EVALUATION OF RESISTANCE TO PESTS AND DISEASES OF SOME OLD APPLE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Militaru Madalina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Old apple varieties (ˈBotaneˈ, ˈCălugăreştiˈ, ˈDomneştiˈ, ˈCreţesc auriuˈ, ˈGustav durabilˈ, ˈPătulˈ, ˈRoşii de Geoagiuˈ, ˈŞovari, ˈVerzişoareˈ, ˈTare de ghindăˈ, ˈVerzi de Rădăşeniˈ, ˈPoinicˈ were studied in order to assess pests and disease resistance during two growing season. During the experiment, the following disease and pest evaluations were made periodically: apple powdery mildew, apple scab, green apple aphid, apple codling moth, in a plot with low pesticide regime. High scab and powdery mildew resistance was observed at ˈGustav durabilˈ and ˈBotaneˈ cvs. Hight susceptibility for apple codling moth was observed on ˈGustav durabilˈ cv. and for green apple aphid at ˈVerzişoareˈ and ˈTare de ghindăˈ cvs. In conclusion, some old apple cultivars could be a significant source of genes for apple breeding rograms

  20. Identification of Adenyl Cyclase Activity in a Disease Resistance Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Hussein, Rana

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide, cAMP, is an important signaling molecule in animals and plants. However, in plants the enzymes that synthesize this second messenger, adenyl cyclases (ACs), remain elusive. Given the physiological importance of cAMP in signaling, particularly in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, it is thus important to identify and characterize ACs in higher plants. Using computational approaches, a disease resistance protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, At3g04220 was found to have an AC catalytic center motif. In an attempt to prove that this candidate has adenyl cyclases activity in vitro, the coding sequence of the putative AC catalytic domain of this protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. The nucleotide cyclase activity of the recombinant protein was examined using cyclic nucleotide enzyme immunoassays. In parallel, the expression of At3g04220 was measured in leaves under three different stress conditions in order to determine under which conditions the disease resistance protein could function. Results show that the purified recombinant protein has Mn2+ dependent AC activity in vitro, and the expression analysis supports a role for At3g04220 and cAMP in plant defense.

  1. A genetic map of mouse chromosome 1 near the Lsh-Ity-Bcg disease resistance locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, B; Krall, M; Blackwell, J; O'Brien, A; Schurr, E; Gros, P; Skamene, E; Potter, M

    1990-05-01

    Isozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of backcross progeny, recombinant inbred strains, and congenic strains of mice positioned eight genetic markers with respect to the Lsh-Ity-Bcg disease resistance locus. Allelic isoforms of Idh-1 and Pep-3 and RFLPs detected by Southern hybridization for Myl-1, Cryg, Vil, Achrg, bcl-2, and Ren-1,2, between BALB/cAnPt and DBA/2NPt mice, were utilized to examine the cosegregation of these markers with the Lsh-Ity-Bcg resistance phenotype in 103 backcross progeny. An additional 47 backcross progeny from a cross between C57BL/10ScSn and B10.L-Lshr/s mice were examined for the cosegregation of Myl-1 and Vil RFLPs with Lsh phenotypic differences. Similarly, BXD recombinant inbred strains were typed for RFLPs upon hybridization with Vil and Achrg. Recombination frequencies generated in the different test systems were statistically similar, and villin (Vil) was identified as the molecular marker closest (1.7 +/- 0.8 cM) to the Lsh-Ity-Bcg locus. Two other DNA sequences, nebulin (Neb) and an anonymous DNA fragment (D2S3), which map to a region of human chromosome 2q that is homologous to proximal mouse chromosome 1, were not closely linked to the Lsh-Ity-Bcg locus. This multipoint linkage analysis of chromosome 1 surrounding the Lsh-Ity-Bcg locus provides a basis for the eventual isolation of the disease gene.

  2. Pulmonary granulomatous diseases and pulmonary manifestations of systemic granulomatous disease. Including tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteriosis; Pulmonale granulomatoese Erkrankungen und pulmonale Manifestationen systemischer Granulomatosen. Inklusive Tuberkulose und nichttuberkuloese Mykobakteriosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piel, S. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentrum fuer interstitielle und seltene Lungenerkrankungen, Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Kreuter, M.; Herth, F. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentrum fuer interstitielle und seltene Lungenerkrankungen, Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, C.P. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Granulomas as signs of specific inflammation of the lungs are found in various diseases with pulmonary manifestations and represent an important imaging finding. The standard imaging modality for the work-up of granulomatous diseases of the lungs is most often thin-slice computed tomography (CT). There are a few instances, e. g. tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and silicosis, where a chest radiograph still plays an important role. Further radiological modalities are usually not needed in the routine work-up of granulomatous diseases of the chest. In special cases magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT scans play an important role, e. g. detecting cardiac sarcoidosis by cardiac MRI or choline C-11 PET-CT in diagnosing lung carcinoma in scar tissue after tuberculosis. The accuracy of thin-slice CT is very high for granulomatous diseases. In cases of chronic disease and fibrotic interstitial lung disease it is important to perform thin-slice CT in order to diagnose a specific disease pattern. Thin-slice CT is also highly sensitive in detecting disease complications and comorbidities, such as malignancies. Given these indications thin-slice CT is generally accepted in the routine daily practice. A thin-slice CT and an interdisciplinary discussion are recommended in many cases with a suspected diagnosis of pulmonary granulomatous disease due to clinical or radiographic findings. (orig.) [German] Granulome als Zeichen der spezifischen Entzuendung im Lungengewebe treten bei zahlreichen Erkrankungen mit pulmonaler Manifestation auf und stellen einen wichtigen Befund in der Bildgebung dar. Das radiologische Standardverfahren bei pulmonalen Granulomatosen ist meistens die Duennschichtcomputertomographie, in wenigen Faellen, wie z. B. bei Tuberkulose, Sarkoidose und Silikose, spielt die Roentgenthoraxuebersicht immer noch eine wichtige Rolle. Bei der Standardabklaerung der meisten Granulomatosen ist die Hinzunahme weiterer Verfahren nicht

  3. Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers

    Full Text Available Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties.

  4. In vitro activity of the siderophore monosulfactam BAL30072 against contemporary Gram-negative pathogens from New York City, including multidrug-resistant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, David; Singh, Manisha; El-Imad, Badiaa; Miller, Ezra; Win, Thida; Quale, John

    2014-06-01

    The in vitro activity of BAL30072 was assessed against clinical isolates from NYC hospitals, including isolates from a citywide surveillance study and a collection of isolates with well-characterised resistance mechanisms. BAL30072 was the most active β-lactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 0.25/1 μg/mL), Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL) and KPC-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC50/90, 4/>64 μg/mL). Combining BAL30072 with meropenem resulted in a ≥ 4-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC90 both for A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. For isolates with a BAL30072 MIC>4 μg/mL, addition of a sub-MIC concentration of colistin resulted in a four-fold decrease in the BAL30072 MIC in 44% of P. aeruginosa, 82% of A. baumannii and 23% of K. pneumoniae. Using sub-MIC concentrations, BAL30072 plus colistin was bactericidal against 4 of 11 isolates in time-kill studies. BAL30072 MICs were frequently lower for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae when tested using Mueller-Hinton agar versus Iso-Sensitest agar or Mueller-Hinton broth. Against the well-characterised isolates, reduced susceptibility to BAL30072 correlated with mexA and mexX expression (P. aeruginosa), adeB expression (A. baumannii) and presence of SHV-type ESBLs (A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae). BAL30072 shows promising activity against contemporary Gram-negatives, including MDR P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae. Enhanced activity was often present when BAL30072 was combined with meropenem or colistin. BAL30072 MICs were influenced by the testing method, particularly for P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the potential clinical utility of BAL30072 alone and combined with other agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  6. Induction of Xa10-like Genes in Rice Cultivar Nipponbare Confers Disease Resistance to Rice Bacterial Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tian, Dongsheng; Gu, Keyu; Yang, Xiaobei; Wang, Lanlan; Zeng, Xuan; Yin, Zhongchao

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases throughout the major rice-growing regions in the world. The rice disease resistance (R) gene Xa10 confers race-specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the corresponding transcription activator-like (TAL) effector AvrXa10. Upon bacterial infection, AvrXa10 binds specifically to the effector binding element in the promoter of the R gene and activates its expression. Xa10 encodes an executor R protein that triggers hypersensitive response and activates disease resistance. 'Nipponbare' rice carries two Xa10-like genes in its genome, of which one is the susceptible allele of the Xa23 gene, a Xa10-like TAL effector-dependent executor R gene isolated recently from 'CBB23' rice. However, the function of the two Xa10-like genes in disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains has not been investigated. Here, we designated the two Xa10-like genes as Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni and characterized their function for disease resistance to rice bacterial blight. Both Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni provided disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the matching artificially designed TAL effectors (dTALE). Transgenic rice plants containing Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni under the Xa10 promoter provided specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver AvrXa10. Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni knock-out mutants abolished dTALE-dependent disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Heterologous expression of Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni in Nicotiana benthamiana triggered cell death. The 19-amino-acid residues at the N-terminal regions of XA10 or XA10-Ni are dispensable for their function in inducing cell death in N. benthamiana and the C-terminal regions of XA10, XA10-Ni, and XA23-Ni are interchangeable among each other without affecting their function. Like XA10, both XA10-Ni and XA23-Ni locate to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane

  7. Severe Legionnaires’ Disease Complicated by Rhabdomyolysis and Clinically Resistant to Moxifloxacin in a Splenectomised Patient: Too Much of a Coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Koufakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We here report a case of Legionnaires’ disease in a splenectomised patient, complicated by rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure and characterized by a poor clinical response to moxifloxacin. Splenectomy is not included among the factors, typically associated with higher risk or mortality in patients with Legionellosis. However, our report is consistent with previous case reports describing severe Legionella infections in asplenic subjects. The possibility that functional or anatomic asplenia may be a factor predisposing to severe clinical course or poor response to therapy in patients with Legionella infection cannot be excluded, deserving further investigation in the future. More studies are required in order to clarify the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that connect asplenia, immunological response to Legionella, and pathogen’s resistance to antibiotics.

  8. Current Status and Challenges in Identifying Disease Resistance Genes in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neik, Ting Xiang; Barbetti, Martin J.; Batley, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Brassica napus is an economically important crop across different continents including temperate and subtropical regions in Europe, Canada, South Asia, China and Australia. Its widespread cultivation also brings setbacks as it plays host to fungal, oomycete and chytrid pathogens that can lead to serious yield loss. For sustainable crop production, identification of resistance (R) genes in B. napus has become of critical importance. In this review, we discuss four key pathogens affecting Brassica crops: Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae), Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa), Sclerotinia Stem Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), and Downy Mildew (Hyaloperonospora parasitica). We first review current studies covering prevalence of these pathogens on Brassica crops and highlight the R genes and QTL that have been identified from Brassica species against these pathogens. Insights into the relationships between the pathogen and its Brassica host, the unique host resistance mechanisms and how these affect resistance outcomes is also presented. We discuss challenges in identification and deployment of R genes in B. napus in relation to highly specific genetic interactions between host subpopulations and pathogen pathotypes and emphasize the need for common or shared techniques and research materials or tighter collaboration between researchers to reconcile the inconsistencies in the research outcomes. Using current genomics tools, we provide examples of how characterization and cloning of R genes in B. napus can be carried out more effectively. Lastly, we put forward strategies to breed resistant cultivars through introgressions supported by genomic approaches and suggest prospects that can be implemented in the future for a better, pathogen-resistant B. napus. PMID:29163558

  9. Current Status and Challenges in Identifying Disease Resistance Genes in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xiang Neik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus is an economically important crop across different continents including temperate and subtropical regions in Europe, Canada, South Asia, China and Australia. Its widespread cultivation also brings setbacks as it plays host to fungal, oomycete and chytrid pathogens that can lead to serious yield loss. For sustainable crop production, identification of resistance (R genes in B. napus has become of critical importance. In this review, we discuss four key pathogens affecting Brassica crops: Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae, Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa, Sclerotinia Stem Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Downy Mildew (Hyaloperonospora parasitica. We first review current studies covering prevalence of these pathogens on Brassica crops and highlight the R genes and QTL that have been identified from Brassica species against these pathogens. Insights into the relationships between the pathogen and its Brassica host, the unique host resistance mechanisms and how these affect resistance outcomes is also presented. We discuss challenges in identification and deployment of R genes in B. napus in relation to highly specific genetic interactions between host subpopulations and pathogen pathotypes and emphasize the need for common or shared techniques and research materials or tighter collaboration between researchers to reconcile the inconsistencies in the research outcomes. Using current genomics tools, we provide examples of how characterization and cloning of R genes in B. napus can be carried out more effectively. Lastly, we put forward strategies to breed resistant cultivars through introgressions supported by genomic approaches and suggest prospects that can be implemented in the future for a better, pathogen-resistant B. napus.

  10. Effects of postharvest salicylic acid dipping on Alternaria rot and disease resistance of jujube fruit during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiankang; Yan, Jiaqi; Zhao, Yumei; Jiang, Weibo

    2013-10-01

    Considerable postharvest losses caused by Alternaria alternata often occur in Chinese jujube fruit, and synthetic fungicides have been widely used to protect the fruit from Alternaria rot. However, the potential harmfulness of fungicide residues to human health and the environment cannot be ignored. This study was conducted to develop an alternative approach for controlling postharvest disease by inducing fruit resistance with salicylic acid (SA) dipping. Disease incidence and lesion area in the jujube fruit inoculated with A. alternata were significantly inhibited by 2 and 2.5 mmol L(-1) SA dipping. Naturally infected decay rate and index in jujubes were also significantly reduced by SA dipping during long-term storage at 0°C. SA enhanced activities of the main defense-related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase in the fruit during storage. SA strongly decreased catalase activity but increased superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbic acid content in jujubes. The beneficial effects of SA on fruit protection may be due to its ability to activate several highly coordinated defence-related systems in jujubes, instead of its fungicidal activity. The findings indicated that application of SA would offer an alternative approach that helps to control postharvest disease and maintain storage quality in fruits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Genetic diversity/impurity estimation in sources of natural resistance against cotton leaf curl disease in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cotton accounts for more than 60% of Pakistan's export earnings through the export of both raw cotton and cotton products. An epidemic of cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Pakistan during the 1990s led to the withdrawal of high yielding cotton cultivars. Due of their susceptibility to the disease. The identification of natural resistance in some genotypes provided a means to manage reduce losses due to the disease. But it has been an adversity that almost all these resistant varieties have ultimately 'lost' their resistance. There are also reports that the original sources of resistance, as well as the varieties developed from them, are now susceptible to the disease when grafted with infected scion. For the present studies. Seed of two resistant varieties (LRA-5166 and (CP-152) was obtained from six different research organizations. Plants raised from these seed were grafted with symptomatic scion and used for morphological comparisons. Our results indicated that the genetic pool of these cultivars is not well maintained and that an unacceptable diversity impurity is present within and among the genetic stock of both these lines. There is thus a requirement for screening of these elite lines at the molecular level to ensure the purity of these varieties for future development. The virus causing CLCuD showed change by recombination making the search for new sources of resistance, as well as the maintenance of established sources, indispensable for the sustainable cotton production in Pakistan. (author)

  12. Isolation and Manipulation of Quantitative Tra it Loci for DIsease Resistance in Rice Using a Candid ate Gene Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Ming Hu; De-Yun Qiu; Xiang-Ling Shen; Xiang-Hua Li; Shi-Ping Wang

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae and fungal blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea result in heavy production losses in rice,a main staple food for approximately 50%of the world's population.Application of host resistance to these pathogens iS the most economical and environment-friendly approach to solve this problem.Quantitative trait loci(QTLs)controlling quantitative resistance are valuable sources for broad.spectrum and durable disease resistance.Although large numbers of QTLs for bacteriaI blight and blast resistance have been identified.these sources have not been used effectively in rice improvement because of the complex genetic controI of quantitative resistance and because the genes underlying resistance QTLs are unknown.To isolate disease resistance QTLs,we established a candidate gene strategy that integrates linkage map,expression profile,and functionaI complementation analyses.This strategy has proven to be applicable for identifying the genes underlying minor resistance QTLs in rice-Xoo and rice-M grisea systems and it may also help to shed light on disease resistance QTLs of other cereals.Our results also suggest that a single minor QTL can be used in rice improvement by modulating the expression of the gene underlying the QTL.Pyramiding two or three minor QTL genes,whose expression can be managed and that function in different defense signaI transduction pathways,may allow the breeding of rice cultivars that are highly resistant to bacteriaI blight and blast.

  13. Addison's disease concomitant with corticotropin deficiency and pituitary CRH resistance - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Malicka, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Katarzyna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman was found to have a low morning ACTH concentration despite a history of Addison's disease. Past medical history: At the age of 23 years the subject developed Graves's disease, which was treated with radioiodine. At about the same time, she claimed to have two episodes of pancreatitis treated with cholecystectomy. About seven months later she was euthyroid on L-thyroxine (TSH 1.51 mIU/mL) but was admitted with hypotension, hyponatraemia (sodium 109 mmol/L), and low morning cortisol (119 nmol/L). Further investigations confirmed primary adrenal failure with ACTH concentration of 779 pg/mL (ref. range 0-60) prior to the dose of hydrocortisone. About nine years later she complained about tiredness. Clinically she was normotensive and not pigmented. BMI 22.3 kg/m². Periods were regular. ACTH concentration was surprisingly low (ACTH 8.53 pg/mL, ref. range 0-46), despite very low cortisol (3.37 nmol/L). She was admitted for further assessment. Pituitary MRI scan was unremarkable. An insulin tolerance test was performed and showed a clear increase of ACTH (from 15.2 to 165 pg/mL). There was, however, hardly any increase of ACTH after CRH stimulation (from 6.05 pg/mL to 10.2 pg/mL), thus demonstrating central CRH resistance. In summary, this patient developed secondary adrenal failure in the setting of previous Addison's disease. Interestingly, hypoglycaemia (but not CRH) provided a stimulus for ACTH release, thus demonstrating CRH resistance. The case confirms that besides CRH, other factors are responsible for stimulation of the ACTH-cortisol axis during insulin tolerance test.

  14. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. METHODS: Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice...... weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. RESULTS: The patients' testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n = 20) (19.5 (8......-9370) ng/mL versus 3244 (3020-3983), P muscle fibre size (n = 12) remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolates from motile Aeromonas septicemia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, R.; Rozi; Dinda, N. D.; Nurjanah, I.

    2018-04-01

    Fish suffer, from bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites or by physical ailments. Gurami (Osphronemus gouramy), nila (Oreochromis niloticus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), catfish (Clarias sp.) were the most reported infections caused by Aeromonas are bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia or Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS). Antibiotics are drugs of natural or synthetic origin that have the capacity to kill or to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms included MAS. However, the use of antibiotics in the long term can cause negative impacts, among others, feared the occurrence of bacterial resistance in certain antibiotics. The results showed five of isolates were sensitive to antibiotics of chloramphenicol, gentamycin, oxytetracycline, cefradoxil and nalidixic acid but resistant to vancomycin colistin sulphate, rifampisin, cephalosporin and novobiocin.

  16. Potential Biomarkers of Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Intan Qhadijah Syed Ikmal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease have become a major public health concern. The occurrence of insulin resistance accompanied with endothelial dysfunction worsens the state of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The combination of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction leads to coronary artery disease and ischemic heart disease complications. A recognized biological marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, has been used widely to assess the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation. Along with coronary arterial damage and inflammatory processes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein is considered as an essential atherosclerosis marker in patients with cardiovascular disease, but not as an insulin resistance marker in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A new biological marker that can act as a reliable indicator of both the exact state of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis is required to facilitate optimal health management of diabetic patients. Malfunctioning of insulin mechanism and endothelial dysfunction leads to innate immune activation and released several biological markers into circulation. This review examines potential biological markers, YKL-40, alpha-hydroxybutyrate, soluble CD36, leptin, resistin, interleukin-18, retinol binding protein-4, and chemerin, as they may play significant roles in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease.

  17. Major haplotype divergence including multiple germin-like protein genes, at the wheat Sr2 adult plant stem rust resistance locus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mago, R.; Tabe, L.; Vautrin, S.; Šimková, Hana; Kubaláková, Marie; Upadhyaya, N.; Berges, H.; Kong, X.Y.; Breen, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Appels, R.; Ellis, J.G.; Spielmeyer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 379 (2014) ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Adult plant resistance (APR) * Map-based cloning * Sr2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2014

  18. Activity of levofloxacin alone and in combination with a DnaK inhibitor against gram-negative rods, including levofloxacin-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Koeth, Laura; Sturgess, Michael A; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2009-02-01

    Synergy time-kill testing of levofloxacin alone and in combination with CHP-105, a representative DnaK inhibitor, against 50 gram-negative rods demonstrated that 34 of the 50 strains tested showed significant synergy between levofloxacin and CHP-105 after 12 h and 24 h. Fourteen of these 34 organisms were quinolone resistant (levofloxacin MICs of > or =4 microg/ml).

  19. Signum, a new fungicide with interesting properties in resistance management of fungal diseases in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, K; Creemers, P; Brugmans, W; Van Laer, S

    2004-01-01

    Signum, a new fungicide developed by BASF, was applied during 6 successive years against fungal diseases in strawberries. The product is formulated as a water dispersible granule, containing 6.7 % pyraclostrobin and 26.7 % boscalid. Pyraclostrobin is similar in chemistry to other strobilurin fungicides like kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin, registered for fruit disease control. Boscalid belongs to the class of carboxyanilides. Both components in the premix formulation combine two different biochemical modes of action in the fungal cell respiration. Therefore, this co-formulation gives a broad-spectrum activity and also a reduced resistance risk for different target pathogens. Botrytis cinerea is the most important disease on strawberry-fruits and thus the control of fruit rot is mainly focused on this fungus. In average over 6 years, Signum has not only given a very good control against Botrytis fruit rot, but it has also shown a high performance in the control of Colletotrichum. Besides, Signum provides good control of powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) and limits the shift to other fruit rots like leather rot (Phytophthora cactorum and leak (Rhizopus, Mucor). The availability of several categories of fungicide families with a different mode of action gives opportunities in alternating different fungicides and is the best guarantee for a sustainable control of fruit rot in all kinds of strawberry production methods. Signum should be integrated in an overall disease management program. Trials, in which the applications of Signum were timed on disease forecasting, based on environmental factors favorable for Botrytis development, were very promising. This tool can also help in establishing the IPM-concept in the production of strawberries.

  20. The Effect of Resistance Exercise on Inflammatory and Myogenic Markers in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Watson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muscle wasting is a common complication of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD and is clinically important given its strong association with morbidity and mortality in many other chronic conditions. Exercise provides physiological benefits for CKD patients, however the molecular response to exercise remains to be fully determined. We investigated the inflammatory and molecular response to resistance exercise before and after training in these patients.Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that investigated the effect of 8 week progressive resistance training on muscle mass and strength compared to non-exercising controls. A sub-set of the cohort consented to vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies (n = 10 exercise, n = 7 control in which the inflammatory response (IL-6, IL-15, MCP-1 TNF-α, myogenic (MyoD, myogenin, myostatin, anabolic (P-Akt, P-eEf2 and catabolic events (MuRF-1, MAFbx, 14 kDa, ubiquitin conjugates and overall levels of oxidative stress have been studied.Results: A large inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise was seen with IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α all significantly elevated from baseline by 53-fold (P < 0.001, 25-fold (P < 0.001, and 4-fold (P < 0.001, respectively. This response was reduced following training with IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α elevated non-significantly by 2-fold (P = 0.46, 2.4-fold (P = 0.19, and 2.5-fold (P = 0.06, respectively. In the untrained condition, an acute bout of resistance exercise did not result in increased phosphorylation of Akt (P = 0.84, but this was restored following training (P = 0.01. Neither unaccustomed nor accustomed exercise resulted in a change in myogenin or MyoD mRNA expression (P = 0.88, P = 0.90, respectively. There was no evidence that resistance exercise training created a prolonged oxidative stress response within the muscle, or increased catabolism.Conclusions: Unaccustomed exercise creates a large inflammatory response within the muscle, which is

  1. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the aluminum age, it is clearly unpalatable for aluminum, the globe's most successful metal, to be implicated in human disease. It is unpalatable because for approximately 100 years human beings have reaped the rewards of the most abundant metal of the Earth's crust without seriously considering the potential consequences for human health. The aluminum industry is a pillar of the developed and developing world and irrespective of the tyranny of human exposure to aluminum it cannot be challenged without significant consequences for businesses, economies, and governments. However, no matter how deep the dependency or unthinkable the withdrawal, science continues to document, if not too slowly, a burgeoning body burden of aluminum in human beings. Herein, I will make the case that it is inevitable both today and in the future that an individual's exposure to aluminum is impacting upon their health and is already contributing to, if not causing, chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This is the logical, if uncomfortable, consequence of living in the aluminum age.

  2. Association Between the P2RY12 Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Aspirin Resistance in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Karazhanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Platelet activation and aggregation are key elements in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that the two polymorphisms of platelet ADP receptor P2RY12 (haplotypes H2 and 34T are associated with increased platelet aggregation and atherothrombotic risk. It was shown that these polymorphisms promote reduced body response to antiplatelet therapy.Aim. We investigated the association of P2RY12 gene polymorphisms with aspirin resistance in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD.Methods. This case-control study included 100 cases with CAD (mean age 57.6 ± 2.8 years treated in the cardiology department of the city hospital Semey, Kazakhstan, 90 of whom suffered from myocardial infarction. The control group (n = 100 were healthy people without a history of CAD, matched on sex and age. Genotyping of polymorphisms H1/H2 in P2RY12 gene was performed by PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.19.0.Results. The distribution of H1/H2 genotypes P2RY12 was 42%, 34%, and 24%, respectively, in cases and 42%, 58%, and 0%, respectively, in controls. All allele frequencies were consistent with the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (p = 0.0036 and p = 0.0001 in cases and controls, respectively. Genotype H2 was associated with risk of CAD with aspirin resistance (co-dominant model: OR = 3.75, 95% CI 0.14 - 99.88, p = 0.05 and dominant model: OR = 2.78, 95% CI 0.11 - 70.93, p = 0.05. We found significant differences in the distribution of the mutant genotype H2 between CAD patients with aspirin resistance and healthy controls (χ2 = 30.3, p < 0.05.Conclusion. We found an association of H2 haplotype in P2RY12 gene with aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. However, in order to obtain definitive conclusions about the role of genetic variants with the development of aspirin resistance in patients with CAD, there is a need for further research with a larger sample size as well as the use of selective thromboxane

  3. Variation in physiological and chemical characteristics at developmental stage in different disease-resistant varieties of camellia oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z.; Dong, C.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Camellia oleifera Abel. is an important edible oil tree species from Southern China. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.), is responsible for more than 50% of C. oleifera production loss, and C. oleifera varieties differ in their resistance to anthracnose. The aim of this study was to assess resistance mechanisms by monitoring physiological and biochemical parameters of differentially resistant cultivars during the development of C. oleifera. C. oleifera fruit coats were analyzed between May and September for tannins, anthocyanins, soluble sugar content, pH, buffer capacity, activity of three enzyme (Phenylalanine ammonia lyase; polyphenol oxidase; peroxidase) and free radical scavenging capacity. Anthocyanins, soluble contents and free radical scavenging capacity were related to anthracnose resistance, with anthocyanins and soluble sugar contents of the resistant varieties nearly twofold higher than those of susceptible varieties. The results of free radical scavenging capacity showed that extracts from highly resistant varieties of C. oleifera fruit coats performed more efficiently in the scavenging of free radicals than those from susceptible varieties. The three enzyme activities of highly resistant varieties rose rapidly and continuously, while those of medium resistant and highly susceptible varieties increased initially and then decreased. Tannins, pH and buffer capacity showed no significant differences between different cultivars. This study broadens the understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in C. oleifera. (author)

  4. Transgenic wheat expressing Thinopyrum intermedium MYB transcription factor TiMYB2R-1 shows enhanced resistance to the take-all disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Zhou, Xianyao; Zhou, Miaoping; Lu, Yan; Ma, Lingjian; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-05-01

    The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.

  5. Dietary supplementation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) improves growth, stress tolerance, and disease resistance in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abass, David Attim; Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Campion, Benjamin Betey

    2018-01-01

    resistance in juvenile (body mass ~ 21 g) Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were randomly distributed in groups of 20 into 12 1-m³ hapas and fed isoenergetic (~ 17 kJ g⁻¹ gross energy) and isonitrogenous (~ 300 g kg⁻¹ crude protein) diets at 3% of their bulk weight daily. Specific growth rates were...... as an additive in Nile tilapia diets has beneficial impacts on growth, stress tolerance, and disease resistance...

  6. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  7. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in resistance arteries from patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanid Luksha

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in the uremic milieu. Subcutaneous resistance arteries from 35 end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients and 28 matched controls were studied ex-vivo. Basal and receptor-dependent effects of endothelium-derived factors, expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, prerequisites for myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJ, and associations between endothelium-dependent responses and plasma levels of endothelial dysfunction markers were assessed. The contribution of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF to endothelium-dependent relaxation was impaired in uremic arteries after stimulation with bradykinin, but not acetylcholine, reflecting the agonist-specific differences. Diminished vasodilator influences of the endothelium on basal tone and enhanced plasma levels of asymmetrical dimethyl L-arginine (ADMA suggest impairment in NO-mediated regulation of uremic arteries. eNOS expression and contribution of MEGJs to EDHF type responses were unaltered. Plasma levels of ADMA were negatively associated with endothelium-dependent responses in uremic arteries. Preserved responses of smooth muscle to pinacidil and NO-donor indicate alterations within the endothelium and tolerance of vasodilator mechanisms to the uremic retention products at the level of smooth muscle. We conclude that both EDHF and NO pathways that control resistance artery tone are impaired in the uremic milieu. For the first time, we validate the alterations in EDHF type responses linked to kinin receptors in ESRD patients. The association between plasma ADMA concentrations and endothelial function in uremic resistance vasculature may have diagnostic and future therapeutic implications.

  8. Molecular mapping of qBK1 WD , a major QTL for bakanae disease resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sais-Beul; Hur, Yeon-Jae; Cho, Jun-Hyeon; Lee, Jong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Heon; Cho, Soo-Min; Song, You-Chun; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan; Kim, Tae-Sung; Park, Yong-Jin; Oh, Myung-Kyu; Park, Dong-Soo

    2018-01-10

    Bakanae or foot rot disease is a prominent disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. This disease may infect rice plants from the pre-emergence stage to the mature stage. In recent years, raising rice seedlings in seed boxes for mechanical transplanting has increased the incidence of many seedling diseases; only a few rice varieties have been reported to exhibit resistance to bakanae disease. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring bakanae disease resistance from the highly resistant japonica variety Wonseadaesoo. A primary QTL study using the genotypes/phenotypes of the recombinant inbred lines (RILs) indicated that the locus qBK1 WD conferring resistance to bakanae disease from Wonseadaesoo was located in a 1.59 Mb interval delimited on the physical map between chr01_13542347 (13.54 Mb) and chr01_15132528 (15.13 Mb). The log of odds (LOD) score of qBK1 WD was 8.29, accounting for 20.2% of the total phenotypic variation. We further identified a gene pyramiding effect of two QTLs, qBK WD and previously developed qBK1. The mean proportion of healthy plant for 31 F 4 RILs that had no resistance genes was 35.3%, which was similar to that of the susceptible check variety Ilpum. The proportion of healthy plants for the lines with only qBK WD or qBK1 was 66.1% and 55.5%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of the lines without resistance genes and that of Ilpum. The mean proportion of the healthy plant for 15 F 4 RILs harboring both qBK WD and qBK1 was 80.2%, which was significantly higher than that of the lines with only qBK WD or qBK1. Introducing qBK WD or pyramiding the QTLs qBK WD and qBK1 could provide effective tools for breeding rice with bakanae disease resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a gene pyramiding effect that provides higher resistance against bakanae disease.

  9. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  10. Roles of the Chemokine System in Development of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Longbiao; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Chen, Yitong; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The escalating epidemic of obesity has increased the incidence of obesity-induced complications to historically high levels. Adipose tissue is a dynamic energy depot, which stores energy and mobilizes it during nutrient deficiency. Excess nutrient intake resulting in adipose tissue expansion triggers lipid release and aberrant adipokine, cytokine and chemokine production, and signaling that ultimately lead to adipose tissue inflammation, a hallmark of obesity. This low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to link obesity to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increase risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on and discuss members of the chemokine system for which there is clear evidence of participation in the development of obesity and obesity-induced pathologies. PMID:24741577

  11. Roles of the Chemokine System in Development of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbiao Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating epidemic of obesity has increased the incidence of obesity-induced complications to historically high levels. Adipose tissue is a dynamic energy depot, which stores energy and mobilizes it during nutrient deficiency. Excess nutrient intake resulting in adipose tissue expansion triggers lipid release and aberrant adipokine, cytokine and chemokine production, and signaling that ultimately lead to adipose tissue inflammation, a hallmark of obesity. This low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to link obesity to insulin resistance and the associated comorbidities of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increase risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on and discuss members of the chemokine system for which there is clear evidence of participation in the development of obesity and obesity-induced pathologies.

  12. [A method for genetic transformation of maize for resistance to viral diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Marta; Madriz, Kenneth; Ramírez, Pilar

    2004-09-01

    A system for the genetic transformation of maize was developed for two Costa Rican varieties: CR-7 and Diamantes 8843, that can allow the subsequent transfer of viral-derived genes in order to confer resistance to the disease caused by maize rayado fino virus (MRFV). The method is based on particle bombardment of organogenic calli derived from shoot tips. On the other hand, the molecular construction pRFcp-bar, containing the coat protein gene of MRFV and the marker gene bar, was elaborated. For the visual selection of the transformed material was used also the plasmid pDM803 that contains the reporter gene uidA (GUS). The results indicate that devices evaluated: the PIG ("Particle Inflow Gun") and the Bio-Rad are both enough efficient to transfer foreign genes to the genome of the maize.

  13. C-reactive protein, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine Willum; Olsen, Michael H

    2008-01-01

    were recorded at baseline. CRP was determined by a high-sensitivity assay, and IR was determined by the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) method. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, the incidence of the prespecified CV event, defined as the composite event of CV death, nonfatal...... and HOMA-IR, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of a CV event was 1.33 (1.14-1.55; PHOMA-IR level. CONCLUSION......BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR), a metabolic disorder, are closely related. CRP and IR have both been identified as significant risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors...

  14. Evaluation of chronic kidney disease in chronic heart failure: From biomarkers to arterial renal resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoviello, Massimo; Leone, Marta; Antoncecchi, Valeria; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease and its worsening are recurring conditions in chronic heart failure (CHF) which are independently associated with poor patient outcome. The heart and kidney share many pathophysiological mechanisms which can determine dysfunction in each organ. Cardiorenal syndrome is the condition in which these two organs negatively affect each other, therefore an accurate evaluation of renal function in the clinical setting of CHF is essential. This review aims to revise the parameters currently used to evaluate renal dysfunction in CHF with particular reference to the usefulness and the limitations of biomarkers in evaluating glomerular dysfunction and tubular damage. Moreover, it is reported the possible utility of renal arterial resistance index (a parameter associated with abnormalities in renal vascular bed) for a better assesment of kidney disfunction. PMID:25610846

  15. Genetic diversity and apple leaf spot disease resistance characterization assessed by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H.F. Klabunde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the cultivation problems of apple production in Brazil, Apple Leaf Spot (ALS disease represents one of the main breeding challenges. This study aims at analyzing the genetic diversity among 152 apple scion accessions available at the Apple Gene Bank of EPAGRI, located in Caçador, Santa Catarina/ Brazil. Eleven genomic SSR loci were analyzed to assess genetic diversity of ALS resistant and susceptible accessions. Results revealed high genetic diversity of the studied accessions, being 120 exclusive alleles (67 unique from scion accessions resistant to ALS, and a mean PIC of 0.823. The locus Probability of Identity (I ranged from 0.017 to 0.089. The combined I was 4.11 x 10-16, and the Power of Exclusion was 99.99999259%. In addition, the DNA fingerprint patterns will contribute as additional descriptors to select parental for crosses and early identification of apple accessions for breeding purposes, and also for cultivar protection.

  16. Prevalence of resistant occipital lobe epilepsy associated with celiac disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Alper I; Akcali, Aylin; Varan, Celal; Demiryürek, Abdullah T

    2014-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder caused by intolerance to ingested gluten. Increased frequency of CD has been reported in occipital lobe epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to investigate the frequency of CD among children followed up due to epilepsy and diagnosed with epileptic activity in the occipital lobe in at least one electroencephalography (EEG) test. For this research, 90 pediatric epilepsy patients with epileptic activity in the occipital lobe were enrolled in the study group, while the control group comprised of 100 healthy children. In addition to the EEG examination, tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibody was determined on duodenal biopsy. None of the healthy children in the control group was positive in terms of the tTG antibody test used to scan CD. In the group with epileptic activity in the occipital lobe, two patients out of 90 were tTG antibody positive. The seroprevalence was 1/45 (2.22 %) in this group. These two patients were diagnosed with CD based on the endoscopic duodenal biopsy. In these patients, the seizures were uncontrollable through monotherapy. Our results showed that the prevalence of CD is observed to be higher than the normal population among the patients with occipital lobe epilepsy. This type of seizure disorder seems to be more resistant to monotherapy, compared with other types of occipital epilepsy. Therefore, screening for CD is recommended in children with resistant epileptic activity in the occipital lobe.

  17. Arabidopsis EF-Tu receptor enhances bacterial disease resistance in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Wang, Hsi-Hua; Stefanato, Francesca L; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Wallington, Emma; Zipfel, Cyril; Ridout, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    Perception of pathogen (or microbe)-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. The Arabidopsis PRR EF-Tu receptor (EFR) recognizes the bacterial PAMP elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and its derived peptide elf18. Previous work revealed that transgenic expression of AtEFR in Solanaceae confers elf18 responsiveness and broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance. In this study, we developed a set of bioassays to study the activation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in wheat. We generated transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants expressing AtEFR driven by the constitutive rice actin promoter and tested their response to elf18. We show that transgenic expression of AtEFR in wheat confers recognition of elf18, as measured by the induction of immune marker genes and callose deposition. When challenged with the cereal bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. oryzae, transgenic EFR wheat lines had reduced lesion size and bacterial multiplication. These results demonstrate that AtEFR can be transferred successfully from dicot to monocot species, further revealing that immune signalling pathways are conserved across these distant phyla. As novel PRRs are identified, their transfer between plant families represents a useful strategy for enhancing resistance to pathogens in crops. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Activity of Levofloxacin Alone and in Combination with a DnaK Inhibitor against Gram-Negative Rods, Including Levofloxacin-Resistant Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Koeth, Laura; Sturgess, Michael A.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Synergy time-kill testing of levofloxacin alone and in combination with CHP-105, a representative DnaK inhibitor, against 50 gram-negative rods demonstrated that 34 of the 50 strains tested showed significant synergy between levofloxacin and CHP-105 after 12 h and 24 h. Fourteen of these 34 organisms were quinolone resistant (levofloxacin MICs of ≥4 μg/ml). PMID:19015359

  19. The effector SPRYSEC-19 of Globodera rostochiensis suppresses CC-NB-LRR-mediated disease resistance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Wiebe J; Slootweg, Erik J; Rehman, Sajid; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Tytgat, Tom O G; van Gelderen, Kasper; Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Roosien, Jan; Pomp, Rikus; van Schaik, Casper; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2012-10-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis invades roots of host plants where it transforms cells near the vascular cylinder into a permanent feeding site. The host cell modifications are most likely induced by a complex mixture of proteins in the stylet secretions of the nematodes. Resistance to nematodes conferred by nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins usually results in a programmed cell death in and around the feeding site, and is most likely triggered by the recognition of effectors in stylet secretions. However, the actual role of these secretions in the activation and suppression of effector-triggered immunity is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the effector SPRYSEC-19 of G. rostochiensis physically associates in planta with the LRR domain of a member of the SW5 resistance gene cluster in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Unexpectedly, this interaction did not trigger defense-related programmed cell death and resistance to G. rostochiensis. By contrast, agroinfiltration assays showed that the coexpression of SPRYSEC-19 in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana suppresses programmed cell death mediated by several coiled-coil (CC)-NB-LRR immune receptors. Furthermore, SPRYSEC-19 abrogated resistance to Potato virus X mediated by the CC-NB-LRR resistance protein Rx1, and resistance to Verticillium dahliae mediated by an unidentified resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum). The suppression of cell death and disease resistance did not require a physical association of SPRYSEC-19 and the LRR domains of the CC-NB-LRR resistance proteins. Altogether, our data demonstrated that potato cyst nematodes secrete effectors that enable the suppression of programmed cell death and disease resistance mediated by several CC-NB-LRR proteins in plants.

  20. Emerging nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from patients having acute diarrhoeal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panhotra, B.R.; Saxena, A.K.; Al-Arabi, Ali M.

    2004-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella are one of the key etiological agents of diarrhoeal disease. The appearence of multiple drung resistance along with resistance to quinolones in this bacterium poses a serious therapeutic problem. We determined the prevalence of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance in non-typhodial Salmonella isolated from faecal samples of patients with acute diarroheal disease attending the outpatient and inpatient department of a hospital in Saudi Arabia during the years 1999 to 2002. Non-typhodial Salmonella were isolated from faecal samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disc diffusion test. MICs to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacinwere determined by the agar dilution method. During the study period , 524 strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella were isolated. Strains belonging to serogroup C1were the commonest (41.4%) followed by serogroups B and D (15.6% and 14.5%, respectively). Resistance to ampicillin was observed in 22.9% and to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole in 18.5%of the strains. Nalidixic acid resistance was encounterd in 9.9% and ciprofloxacin esistance in 2.3% of the strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid significantly increased from 0.1% in 1999 to 5.51% in 2002 ( p=0.0007)and ciprofloxacin resistance increased significantly from 0.1% in 1999 to 0.9% in 2002( p=0.0001). MICs to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were determined among 29 nalidixic acid-resistant strains of non-typhoidal salmonella isolated during 2002. The MIC was >256 ug /ml to nalidixic acid and 8 to 16 ug/ml to ciprofloxacin. The increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance encountered among non-tyophoidal Salmonella necessiate the judicious use of these drugs in humans. Moreover, these findings support the concern that the use of quinolones in animal feed may lead to an increasein resistance and should should be restricted. (author)

  1. Improvement of garlic resistance to white rot disease and its productivity and storability using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Mir Ali, N.; Arabi, M.I.D.

    1999-01-01

    A mutation program was conducted to improve garlic (Allium sativum) resistance to white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and to improve its storability under natural conditions. Cloves of two local garlic cultivars (Kisswany and Yabroudy) were irradiated with gamma ray doses 4, 5, 6 and 7 gray. The cloves were then planted in the the field and plants were advanced for 4 generations in order to isolate mutations in stable form. The results indicated that the cultivar Yabroudy was more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Kisswany. Rate of morphological mutants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Selection pressure against white rot disease was applied starting in the second generation by adding infected garlic leaves to the soil. In the third and fourth generations, however, full selection pressure was applied by inoculating the cloves with the fungus sclerotic and planting them in a soil previously planted with infected garlic plants. Healthy garlic bulbs were harvested and stored under natural conditions and then planted to obtain the next generation. By the end of the fourth generation, we have been able to improve garlic resistance to white rot disease and its storability. Twenty four mutant lines from each garlic cultivar have been selected. Out of the selected lines, twelve lines from cultivar Kisswany had only 3% infection percentage as compared to 29% in the control, and twelve lines from cultivar Yabroudy had less than 5% infection percentage as compared to 20% in the control. Also, we have been able to improve storability under natural conditions. Weight loss during storage decreased from 8.25% in the control to only 4% in some Kisswany lines and from 10% to 3% in some Yabroudy lines. However, we have not been able to increase the bulb weight over the control but the weights of the selected lines were comparable to those of the control. (authors)

  2. Improvement of garlic resistance to white rot disease and its productivity and storability using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, B.; Mir Ali, N.; Arabi, M. I. D.

    1998-12-01

    A mutation program was conducted to improve garlic (Allium sativum) resistance to white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) and to improve its storability under natural conditions. Cloves of two local garlic cultivars (Kisswany and Yabroudy) were irradiated with gamma ray doses 4, 5, 6, and 7 gray. The cloves were then planted in the field and plants were advanced for 4 generations in order to isolate mutations in stable form. The results indicated that the cultivar Yabroudy was more sensitive to gamma irradiation than Kisswany. Rate of morphological mutants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. Selection pressure against white rot disease was applied starting in the second generation by adding infected garlic leaves to the soil. In the third and fourth generations, however, full selection pressure was applied by inoculating the cloves with the fungus sclerotia and planting them in a soil previously planted with infected garlic plants. healthy garlic bulbs were harvested and stored under natural conditions and then planted to obtain the next generation. By the end of the fourth generation, we have been able to improve garlic resistance to white rot disease and its storability. Twenty four mutant lines from each garlic cultivar have been selected. Out of the selected lines, twelve lines from cultivar Kisswany had only 3% infection percentage as compared to 29% in the control, and twelve lines from cultivar Yabroudy had less than 5% infection percentage as compared to 20% in the control. Also, we have been able to improve storability under natural conditions. Weight loss during storage decreased from 8.25% in the control to only 4% in some Kisswany lines and from 10% to 3% in some Yabroudy lines. However, we have not been able to increase the bulb weight over the control but the weights of the selected lines were comparable to those of the control. (author)

  3. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Heterotrimeric G proteins-mediated resistance to necrotrophic pathogens includes mechanisms independent of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid/ethylene- and abscisic acid-mediated defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, Yuri; Sewelam, Nasser; Rookes, James Edward; Kunkel, Matt; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer Martin; Botella, José Ramón

    2009-04-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are involved in the defense response against necrotrophic fungi in Arabidopsis. In order to elucidate the resistance mechanisms involving heterotrimeric G proteins, we analyzed the effects of the Gβ (subunit deficiency in the mutant agb1-2 on pathogenesis-related gene expression, as well as the genetic interaction between agb1-2 and a number of mutants of established defense pathways. Gβ-mediated signaling suppresses the induction of salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, ethylene (ET)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent genes during the initial phase of the infection with Fusarium oxysporum (up to 48 h after inoculation). However, at a later phase it enhances JA/ET-dependent genes such as PDF1.2 and PR4. Quantification of the Fusarium wilt symptoms revealed that Gβ- and SA-deficient mutants were more susceptible than wild-type plants, whereas JA- and ET-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants demonstrated various levels of resistance. Analysis of the double mutants showed that the Gβ-mediated resistance to F. oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola was mostly independent of all of the previously mentioned pathways. However, the progressive decay of agb1-2 mutants was compensated by coi1-21 and jin1-9 mutations, suggesting that at this stage of F. oxysporum infection Gβ acts upstream of COI1 and ATMYC2 in JA signaling. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Sources of resistance in chickpea (cicer arietinum l.) land races against ascochyta rabiei causal agent of ascochyta blight disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duzdemir, O.; Selvi, B.; Yanar, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Ascochyta blight disease, caused by the fungus Ascochyta rabiei, is a major yield limiting factor of chickpea in Turkey and around the world. This study was conducted to identify sources of genetic resistance against chickpea blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei. For this purpose, 68 chickpea land races of different origins were evaluated in both field and growth chamber conditions during 2008-2009 growing seassons. Two standard cultivars were used as a reference, Inci (resistant) and Canitez (susceptible). Disease severity scoring was conducted on a 1-9 rating scale 21 days after inoculation in growth chamber test and at flowering and pot filling stages in field tests. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed a significant difference among the chickpea landraces in ascochyta blight resistance at p<0.05. None of the chickpea land races was highly resistant to the pathogen in growth chamber and field conditions. Only two landraces (10A and 28B) were moderately resistant to the disease. Some of the landraces resulted in a particular plant to exhibit no disease symptoms, indicating that the variation within chickpea land races was high. Therefore, seeds of this plant were harvested separately and preserved for further evaluations. (author)

  6. A Comparison of Spatio-Temporal Disease Mapping Approaches Including an Application to Ischaemic Heart Disease in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of spatio-temporal modelling has witnessed a recent surge as a result of developments in computational power and increased data collection. These developments allow analysts to model the evolution of health outcomes in both space and time simultaneously. This paper models the trends in ischaemic heart disease (IHD in New South Wales, Australia over an eight-year period between 2006 and 2013. A number of spatio-temporal models are considered, and we propose a novel method for determining the goodness-of-fit for these models by outlining a spatio-temporal extension of the Moran’s I statistic. We identify an overall decrease in the rates of IHD, but note that the extent of this health improvement varies across the state. In particular, we identified a number of remote areas in the north and west of the state where the risk stayed constant or even increased slightly.

  7. WE-H-BRA-03: Development of a Model to Include the Evolution of Resistant Tumor Subpopulations Into the Treatment Optimization Process for Schedules Involving Targeted Agents in Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo

  8. WE-H-BRA-03: Development of a Model to Include the Evolution of Resistant Tumor Subpopulations Into the Treatment Optimization Process for Schedules Involving Targeted Agents in Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo

  9. The effects of elastic tubing-based resistance training compared with conventional resistance training in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Fosco, Luciana Cristina; Bonfim, Rafaela; Bertolini, Giovana Navarro; Guarnier, Flavia Alessandra; Cecchini, Rubens; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo; Langer, Daniel; Gosselink, Rik; Ramos, Dionei

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of elastic tubing training compared with conventional resistance training on the improvement of functional exercise capacity, muscle strength, fat-free mass, and systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A prospective, randomized, eight-week clinical trial. The study was conducted in a university-based, outpatient, physical therapy clinic. A total of 49 patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Participants were randomly assigned to perform elastic tubing training or conventional resistance training three times per week for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was functional exercise capacity. The secondary outcome measures were peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life assessed by the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ), fat-free mass, and cytokine profile. After eight weeks, the mean distance covered during six minutes increased by 73 meters (±69) in the elastic tubing group and by 42 meters (±59) in the conventional group (p tubing training had a greater effect on functional exercise capacity than conventional resistance training. Both interventions were equally effective in improving muscle strength and quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.

    2008-01-01

    For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential and ...... growth habit. Higher grain yield was thus predicted for taller plants under weed pressure. The results are discussed in relation to the model framework, impact of the considered traits and use of information from conventional variety testing in organic cropping systems....

  11. Café Icatu como fonte de resistência a colletotrichum coffeanum Icatu coffee cultivar as source of resistance to the agent of coffe berry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Linhagens e progênies do cultivar icatu, selecionadas em Campinas, foram testadas na Coffee Research Station, Ruiru, Quênia, a fim de avaliar o grau de resistência ao ataque de Colletotrichum coffeanum, agente responsável pela moléstia mais conhecida por CBD. Os dados de infecção obtidos para 11 linhagens e sete progênies foram comparados com os dos cultivares testemunhas Rume Sudan, resistente, e SL 28, suscetível. Considerando apenas a freqüência de resistentes, com grau 1 de infecção, destacaram-se a progênie H 4782-10 M e a linhagem LCH 3851-4 T. As populações com graus de 1 a 4 de resistência ocorreram em menor escala do que no Rume Sudan, porém salientou-se a progênie H 4782-10 M, com elevada resistência. As maiores porcentagens de plantas suscetíveis foram verificadas nas linhagens LCH 3849-7 M e LCH 4782-13 T, as quais se aproximam da linhagem suscetível SL 28. Os dados preliminares indicam que o germoplasma icatu, como o híbrido de timor, oferece perspectivas de constituir razoável fonte de resistência genética ao agente da CBD.Several samples of the coffee cultivar Icatu were evaluated for resistance to the agent of the CBD (Colletotrichum coffeanum. All tests were performed at the Ruiru Coffee Experiment Station, Kenya. Resistant cultivars Rume Sudan and the susceptible SL 28 were used for comparison. Tests were performed using young seedlings innoculation. It was found that seedlings with grade 1 of the resistance scale occurred in several Icatu progenies. Seedlings of the grades 1 to 4, were noticed more frequently in the progenies H 4782-10 M and LCH 3851-4 M. Susceptible plants, in the class with 10-12 grades, occurred in higher proportion in the progenies LCH 3849-7 M and LCH 4782-10 T. All resistant seedlings were transplanted to the field for further tests of resistance. These preliminary data indicated that the Icatu coffee can be considered as a good source of genetic resistance to the agent of the

  12. Resistant to amyloid-β or just waiting for disease to happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth

    2012-05-30

    The post-mortem finding of abundant intracerebral accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the cerebral cortex of some people who develop minimal neurofibrillary pathology and remain cognitively intact until death (so-called pathological aging, or PA) challenges the orthodox view of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This issue of Alzheimer's Research and Therapy reports a study by Moore and colleagues, of the McKnight Brain Institute (Gainesville, FL, USA) and the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine (Jacksonville, FL, USA), who have performed the most detailed analysis to date of the levels and types of Aβ that accumulate in such cases. Although the levels of the different forms of Aβ in prefrontal cortex from patients with AD tended to be higher than those from patients with PA, the authors found extensive overlap between the two groups and suggest that PA is likely to represent a prodromal stage of AD. It is also possible that the quantity of Aβ is less important than the extent to which it accumulates intraneuronally or that some people are resistant to its effects - perhaps because of genetically determined differences in the inflammatory and astrocytic reactions to Aβ. The study emphasizes the continuing importance of careful human clinical and post-mortem studies in elucidating the pathogenesis of this disease.

  13. Resistant Thyrotoxicosis in a Patient with Graves Disease: A Case Report

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    Taimur Saleem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conventional management of thyrotoxicosis includes antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, and surgery while adjunctive treatment includes beta-blockers, corticosteroids, inorganic iodide and iopanoic acid. Very rarely, patients may be resistant to these modalities and require additional management. Case Presentation. A 50-year-old lady presented with weight loss and palpitations diagnosed as atrial fibrillation. Her past history was significant for right thyroid lobectomy for thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid functions tests at this presentation showed free T4 of 6.63 ng/dl (normal range: 0.93–1.7 and TSH of <0.005 μIU/mL (normal range: 0.4–4.0. She was given aspirin, propranolol, heparin and carbimazole; however free T4 failed to normalize. Switching to propylthiouracil (PTU did not prove successful. She was then given high doses of prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day and lithium (400 mg twice daily which prepared the patient for radioactive iodine treatment by reducing free T4 levels (2.82 ng/dl. Two doses of radioactive iodine were then administered 6 months apart. Subsequently she became hypothyroid and was started on thyroid replacement therapy. Conclusion. This case highlights management options in patients with resistant thyrotoxicosis. Radioactive iodine and surgery are definitive modes of treatment in such complex cases while steroids and lithium play an important role in preparing patients for more definitive treatment.

  14. Diallel crosses among maize lines with emphasis on resistance to foliar diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten elite maize (Zea mays L. lines were crossed in a complete diallel scheme and the single-cross hybrids obtained were assessed at four experimental stations of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas, in São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiments were set up in a randomized complete block design with three replications, including four commercial checks. The experimental plots consisted of two 5-m rows spaced at 0.9 m, with a total of 50 plants. The traits assessed included: days to mid-tassel pollen shed (DPS, plant height (PH, ear height (EH, grain yield, corrected for a 50-plant stand and 14% moisture (GY corr., and resistance to Phaeosphaeria maydis and Puccinia polysora. General and specific combining ability effects (GCA and SCA were determined. There was extensive genetic variability among hybrids with the best hybrids (HS 04 x 10 and HS 10 x 11 not differing from the commercial checks. The lines with the greatest potential for hybrid synthesis included: L 10, L 11 and L 13, because they had higher GCA for yield, moderate resistance to P. maydis and reduced EH. The greatest contribution to reduction of the Phaeosphaeria stain was obtained with L 5. The magnitude of the GCA relative to the total variation indicated that additive effects predominated for resistance to P. maydis and P. polysora. Significant SCA (P Cruzaram-se dez linhagens-elite de milho em esquema dialélico completo e os híbridos simples obtidos foram avaliados em quatro Núcleos Experimentais do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, SP, Brasil. Os ensaios foram instalados sob delineamento de blocos casualizados com três repetições, incluindo quatro testemunhas comerciais. As parcelas consistiram em duas linhas de 5 m espaçadas por 0,90 m, contendo 50 plantas. Avaliaram-se os caracteres: dias para o florescimento masculino (DPS, altura da planta (PH e da espiga (EH, produtividade de grãos corrigida para estande ideal de 50 plantas e 14% de umidade (GY corr. e resistência a

  15. Coeliac disease as the cause of resistant sideropenic anaemia in children with Down's syndrome: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Coeliac disease (CD is a permanent intolerance of gluten, i.e. of gliadin and related proteins found in the endosperm of wheat, rye and barley. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, autoimmune nature, predominantly asymptomatic or atypical clinical course, as well as by high prevalence in patients with Down's syndrome (DS and some other diseases. Outline of Cases. We are presenting a girl and two boys, aged 6-7 (X=6.33 years with DS and CD recognized under the feature of sideropenic anaemia resistant to oral therapy with iron. Beside mental retardation, low stature and the morphological features characteristic of DS, two patients had a congenital heart disease; one ventricular septal defect and the other atrioventricular canal. In two patients, trisomy on the 21st chromosome pair (trisomy 21 was disclosed in all cells, while one had a mosaic karyotype. All three patients had classical laboratory parameters of sideropenic anaemia: blood Hb 77-89 g/l (X=81.67, HCT 0.26-0.29% (X=0.28, MCV 69-80 fl (X=73, MCH 24.3-30 pg (X=26.77 and serum iron 2-5 μmol/L (X=4.0. Beside anaemia and in one patient a mild isolated hypertransaminasemia (AST 67 U/l, ALT 62 U/l, other indicators of CD were not registered in any of the children. In addition, in all three patients, we also detected an increased level of antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (atTG of IgA class (45-88 U/l so that we performed endoscopic enterobiopsy in order to reliably confirm the diagnosis of CD. In all three patients, the pathohistological finding of the duodenal mucosa specimen showed mild to moderate destructive enteropathy associated with high intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration, cryptic hyperplasia and lympho-plasmocytic infiltration of the stroma. In all three patients, the treatment with a strict gluten-free diet and iron therapy applied orally for 3-4 months resulted in blood count normalization and the correction of sideropenia. Serum level of the at

  16. Effects of aging and Parkinson's disease on motor unit remodeling: influence of resistance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Neil A; Hammond, Kelley G; Bickel, C Scott; Windham, Samuel T; Tuggle, S Craig; Bamman, Marcas M

    2018-04-01

    Aging muscle atrophy is in part a neurodegenerative process revealed by denervation/reinnervation events leading to motor unit remodeling (i.e., myofiber type grouping). However, this process and its physiological relevance are poorly understood, as is the wide-ranging heterogeneity among aging humans. Here, we attempted to address 1) the relation between myofiber type grouping and molecular regulators of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability; 2) the impact of motor unit remodeling on recruitment during submaximal contractions; 3) the prevalence and impact of motor unit remodeling in Parkinson's disease (PD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease; and 4) the influence of resistance exercise training (RT) on regulators of motor unit remodeling. We compared type I myofiber grouping, molecular regulators of NMJ stability, and the relative motor unit activation (MUA) requirement during a submaximal sit-to-stand task among untrained but otherwise healthy young (YA; 26 yr, n = 27) and older (OA; 66 yr, n = 91) adults and OA with PD (PD; 67 yr, n = 19). We tested the effects of RT on these outcomes in OA and PD. PD displayed more motor unit remodeling, alterations in NMJ stability regulation, and a higher relative MUA requirement than OA, suggesting PD-specific effects. The molecular and physiological outcomes tracked with the severity of type I myofiber grouping. Together these findings suggest that age-related motor unit remodeling, manifested by type I myofiber grouping, 1) reduces MUA efficiency to meet submaximal contraction demand, 2) is associated with disruptions in NMJ stability, 3) is further impacted by PD, and 4) may be improved by RT in severe cases. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Because the physiological consequences of varying amounts of myofiber type grouping are unknown, the current study aims to characterize the molecular and physiological correlates of motor unit remodeling. Furthermore, because exercise training has demonstrated neuromuscular benefits in aged

  17. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome as a cause of encephalopathy that includes cognitive disability, treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy and a complex movement disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John M

    2012-05-01

    Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the SLC2A1 gene, resulting in impaired glucose transport into the brain. It is characterized by a low glucose concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (hypoglycorrhachia) in the absence of hypoglycemia, in combination with low to normal lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It often results in treatment-resistant infantile epilepsy with progressive developmental disabilities and a complex movement disorder. Recognizing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is important, since initiation of a ketogenic diet can reduce the frequency of seizures and the severity of the movement disorder. There can be a considerable delay in diagnosing GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, and this point is illustrated by the natural history of this disorder in a 21-year-old woman with severe, progressive neurological disabilities. Her encephalopathy consisted of treatment-resistant seizures, a complex movement disorder, progressive intellectual disability, and deceleration of her head growth after late infancy. Focused evaluation at age 21 revealed GLUT1 deficiency caused by a novel heterozygous missence mutation in exon 7 (c.938C > A; p.Ser313Try) in SLC2A1 as the cause for her disabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Cryptosporidium hominis reveal protein–ligand interactions including a structural basis for observed antifolate resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Amy C., E-mail: aca@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth College, Department of Chemistry, Burke Laboratories, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of DHFR-TS from C. hominis reveals a possible structural basis for observed antifolate resistance in C. hominis DHFR. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals residue substitutions that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors. Cryptosporidium hominis is a protozoan parasite that causes acute gastrointestinal illness. There are no effective therapies for cryptosporidiosis, highlighting the need for new drug-lead discovery. An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from C. hominis, determined at 2.8 and 2.87 Å resolution, reveals that the interactions of residues Ile29, Thr58 and Cys113 in the active site of C. hominis DHFR provide a possible structural basis for the observed antifolate resistance. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals active-site differences that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors.

  19. Innovative dairy cow management to improve resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Vanacker, N; Ollier, S; Ster, C

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases varies greatly during the lactation cycle. Most new cases of clinical mastitis appear at the beginning of lactation, and the incidence increases with the level of milk production. In addition to mastitis, many other infectious diseases become clinically apparent during the first 2weeks of lactation. During this time, cows are in a negative energy balance and must mobilize body reserves to balance the deficit between food energy intake and energy required for milk production. The relationships between energy deficit and metabolic diseases, such as ketosis and hepatic lipidosis, are well known. Furthermore, cows in energy deficit have a weakened immune system and are therefore more susceptible to infections. There is now good evidence that the increase in circulating non-esterified fatty acids impairs immune cell functions. Therefore, management approaches that reduce the negative energy balance and the increase in non-esterified fatty acids at the beginning of lactation are likely to improve resistance to infection. Improving the nutrient supply through periparturient nutritional management has been the subject of considerable research. However, another way to reduce the imbalance between nutrient supply and demand is to temporarily decrease the latter. In this review, we examine how management strategies such as conjugated linoleic acid feeding, prepartum milking, or limiting postpartum milk production could be used to reduce metabolic perturbations and immunosuppression during the transition period. At this stage, it appears that reducing the amount of milk harvested postpartum by means of partial milking in the first days after calving is the most promising approach to reduce metabolic stress and immunosuppression without compromising the productivity of high-yielding dairy cows. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Epl1 and Sm1 proteins from Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens differentially modulate systemic disease resistance against different life style pathogens in Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel eSalas-Marina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Trichoderma, commonly found in soil or colonizing plant roots, exert beneficial effects on plants, including the promotion of growth and the induction of resistance to disease. T. virens and T. atroviride secrete the proteins Sm1 and Epl1, respectively, which elicit local and systemic disease resistance in plants. In this work, we show that these fungi promote growth in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum plants. T. virens was more effective than T. atroviride in promoting biomass gain, and both fungi were capable of inducing systemic protection in tomato against Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000. Deletion (KO of epl1 in T. atroviride resulted in diminished systemic protection against A. solani and B. cinerea, whereas the T. virens sm1 KO strain was less effective in protecting tomato against Pst DC3000 and B. cinerea. Importantly, over-expression (OE of epl1 and sm1 led to an increase in disease resistance against all tested pathogens. Although the Trichoderma WT strains induced both systemic acquired resistance (SAR- and induced systemic resistance (ISR-related genes in tomato, inoculation of plants with OE and KO strains revealed that Epl1 and Sm1 play a minor role in the induction of these genes. However, we found that Epl1 and Sm1 induce the expression of a peroxidase and an α-dioxygenase encoding genes, respectively, which could be important for tomato protection by Trichoderma spp. Altogether, these observations indicate that colonization by beneficial and/or infection by pathogenic microorganisms dictates many of the outcomes in plants, which are more complex than previously thought.

  1. Breeding wheat mutant Longfu 03D51 with resisting stem rust and genetic analyzation of resisting disease and RAPD maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Yin Jing; Wang Guangjin; Zhang Hongji; Huang Jinghua; Guo Qiang; Diao Yanling; Liu Dongjun

    2007-01-01

    Longfu 03D51 was bred using Long 6239 immature embryo as explants through radiation mutagenesis breeding coupled with tissue culture technique. By artificial inoculation and field breeding identified Longfu 03D51 was identified with high resistance to dominant strain 21C 3 CPH, good quality and high yield. Genetic analysis suggested that stem rust was controlled by a single gene. The DNA polymorphism on Longfu 03D51 and its parents were studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), 3 primers out of 60 RAPD primers were found polymorphism between the Longfu 03D51 and its parent Long 6239, and 3 stable polyphymorphic bands amplified in Longfu 03D51 with the size of 380bp, 700bp, 600 bp by random primer E07, E11, E17, respectively. Genetic and RAPD analysis indicated that 3 RAPD primers E07, E11, E17 might be linked to the gene of stem rust resistance. (authors)

  2. Sustained pediatric antimicrobial stewardship program with consultation to infectious diseases reduced carbapenem resistance and infection-related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Yuho; Suwa, Junichi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Furuichi, Mihoko; Aizawa, Yuta; Fukuoka, Kahoru; Okazaki, Kaoru; Ito, Kenta; Shoji, Takayo

    2017-11-01

    The impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) remains largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the AMR for carbapenem of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem use with infectious diseases consultation after the implementation of an ASP. This quasi-experimental study was conducted at Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Japan. The pre- and post-intervention periods were April 2010 to September 2011 and October 2011 to March 2017, respectively. The pre-intervention phase consisted of consultations with the infectious diseases service alone. The ASP was implemented during the post-intervention phase. The carbapenem resistance rates of GNB were calculated. The correlation between carbapenem resistance rates and carbapenem day of therapy (DOT) was examined. The outcome metrics were compared by average length of hospitalization, all-cause mortality, and infection-related mortality. A positive correlation was observed between the carbapenem resistance rate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and DOT (0.76, p=0.04). The carbapenem resistance rate in P. aeruginosa (pcarbapenem use and resistance in P. aeruginosa, leading to favorable outcomes in terms of length of hospitalization and infection-related mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Riboflavin-Induced Disease Resistance Requires the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shengjun; Xu, Huilian

    2016-01-01

    As a resistance elicitor, riboflavin (vitamin B2) protects plants against a wide range of pathogens. At molecular biological levels, it is important to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying the disease resistance induced by riboflavin. Here, riboflavin was tested to induce resistance against virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis. Results showed that riboflavin induced disease resistance based on MAPK-dependent priming for the expression of PR1 gene. Riboflavin induced transient expression of PR1 gene. However, following Pst DC3000 inoculation, riboflavin potentiated stronger PR1 gene transcription. Further was suggested that the transcript levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, were primed under riboflavin. Upon infection by Pst DC3000, these two enzymes were more strongly activated. The elevated activation of both MPK3 and MPK6 was responsible for enhanced defense gene expression and resistance after riboflavin treatment. Moreover, riboflavin significantly reduced the transcript levels of MPK3 and MPK6 by application of AsA and BAPTA, an H2O2 scavenger and a calcium (Ca2+) scavenger, respectively. In conclusion, MPK3 and MPK6 were responsible for riboflavin-induced resistance, and played an important role in H2O2- and Ca2+-related signaling pathways, and this study could provide a new insight into the mechanistic study of riboflavin-induced defense responses.

  4. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae including metallo-β-lactamase producers are predominant pathogens of healthcare-associated infections in an Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Sarma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A study was carried out in an Indian teaching hospital in 2009 to detect the rate of surgical site infections (SSI and peripheral vascular access site infections. Materials and Methods: The study was a point-prevalence study involving over 300 patients. The presence of infection was determined according to the CDC criteria. Swabs were taken from the infected sites and identification and sensitivity were carried out using VITEK® 2 automated system. Characterisation of β-lactamase was carried out at ARRML, Colindale, London. Results: The rate of SSI was 15% for the clean and clean-contaminated categories while that for the dirty contaminated category was 85% (NNIS risk index 0. Cultures yielded definite or probable pathogens from 64% (9/14 of the patients with SSI. In 1/3 rd of the cultures, Staphylococcus aureus was grown and the rest had Enterobacteriaceae, either extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producers or Amp-C hyperproducers and, alarmingly, three isolates were positive for newly recognised New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1. In medicine, 87% (n = 99 of the patients had a peripheral IV access device, 55% developed associated phlebitis/infection and, in seven, probable pathogens were isolated (Candida species and Escherichia coli producing ESBL and NDM-1, respectively, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium. All ESBL and metallo-β-lactamase producers were resistant to multiple classes of antimicrobials, the latter being sensitive only to colistin and tigecycline. The study also found that all post-operative patients were on antibiotics, 92% on IV [213 defined daily doses (DDD/100 post-op patients] limited mainly to the third-generation cephalosporins (26% and aminoglycosides (24% and imidazole derivatives (30%. In medicine, 83% (n = 82 were on IV antibiotics (123 DDD/100 bed-days, limited mainly to the third-generation cephalosporins (74%. Conclusion: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics is a major problem

  5. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Katagiri

    Full Text Available Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported.We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081.50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27 and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62 in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies.Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required.

  6. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Paschen, Steffen; Kruse, Annika; Raethjen, Jan; Weisser, Burkhard; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear. To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease. 40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5-3.0) were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks). Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time. 32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs) were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen's d) = -0.59). Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen's d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen's d = -0.08). Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types. The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease was small and not significant with this sample size. There was weak evidence that freely

  7. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schlenstedt

    Full Text Available Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear.To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease.40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5-3.0 were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time.32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen's d = -0.59. Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen's d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen's d = -0.08. Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types.The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease was small and not significant with this sample size. There was weak evidence that

  8. Resistance Training and Testosterone Levels in Male Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Molsted

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 levels’ associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. Methods. Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres’ size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. Results. The patients’ testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n=20 (19.5 (8.2–52.1 nmol/L versus 17.6 (16.1–18.0, resp. whereas LH levels were higher (13.0 (5.5–82.8 U/L versus 4.3 (3.3–4.6, P<0.001, resp.. IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 levels were higher in the patients compared with reference values (203 (59–590 ng/mL versus 151 (128–276, P=0.014, and 5045 (3370–9370 ng/mL versus 3244 (3020–3983, P<0.001, resp.. All hormone levels and muscle fibre size (n=12 remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P<0.05. Conclusion. Patients’ total testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased LH values, which suggest a compensated primary insufficiency of the testosterone producing Leydig cell. Even though testosterone values were normal, resistance training was not associated with muscle hypertrophy. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72099857.

  9. Targeting GPR120 and other fatty acid sensing GPCRs ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Saswata; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Osborn, Olivia

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen great progress in the understanding of the molecular pharmacology, physiological function and therapeutic potential of the G protein-coupled receptors. Free Fatty acids (FFAs) have been demonstrated to act as ligands of several GPCRs including GPR40, GPR43, GPR84, GPR119 and GPR120. We have recently shown that GPR120 acts as a physiological receptor of ω3 fatty acids in macrophages and adipocytes, which mediate potent anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing effects. The important role GPR120 plays in the control of inflammation raises the possibility that targeting this receptor could have therapeutic potential in many inflammatory diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss lipid-sensing GPCRs and highlight potential outcomes of targeting such receptors in ameliorating disease. PMID:21663979

  10. Targeting GPR120 and other fatty acid-sensing GPCRs ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Saswata; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Osborn, Olivia

    2011-09-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the understanding of the molecular pharmacology, physiological function and therapeutic potential of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Free fatty acids (FFAs) have been demonstrated to act as ligands of several GPCRs including GPR40, GPR43, GPR84, GPR119 and GPR120. We have recently shown that GPR120 acts as a physiological receptor of ω3 fatty acids in macrophages and adipocytes, which mediate potent anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing effects. The important role GPR120 plays in the control of inflammation raises the possibility that targeting this receptor could have therapeutic potential in many inflammatory diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review paper, we discuss lipid-sensing GPCRs and highlight potential outcomes of targeting such receptors in ameliorating disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioinformatics analysis to assess potential risks of allergenicity and toxicity of HRAP and PFLP proteins in genetically modified bananas resistant to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuan; Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O; Lu, Mei; Tripathi, Leena

    2017-11-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease threatens banana production and food security throughout East Africa. Natural resistance is lacking among common cultivars. Genetically modified (GM) bananas resistant to BXW disease were developed by inserting the hypersensitive response-assisting protein (Hrap) or/and the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene(s) from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). Several of these GM banana events showed 100% resistance to BXW disease under field conditions in Uganda. The current study evaluated the potential allergenicity and toxicity of the expressed proteins HRAP and PFLP based on evaluation of published information on the history of safe use of the natural source of the proteins as well as established bioinformatics sequence comparison methods to known allergens (www.AllergenOnline.org and NCBI Protein) and toxins (NCBI Protein). The results did not identify potential risks of allergy and toxicity to either HRAP or PFLP proteins expressed in the GM bananas that might suggest potential health risks to humans. We recognize that additional tests including stability of these proteins in pepsin assay, nutrient analysis and possibly an acute rodent toxicity assay may be required by national regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Genomics of Non-TNL Disease Resistance Genes from Six Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Madhav P; Andersen, Ethan J; Neupane, Surendra; Benson, Benjamin V

    2017-09-30

    Disease resistance genes (R genes), as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six plant genomes. Using reference sequences from Arabidopsis , we investigated nTNL orthologs in the genomes of common bean, Medicago , soybean, poplar, and rice. We used Hidden Markov Models for sequence identification, performed model-based phylogenetic analyses, visualized chromosomal positioning, inferred gene clustering, and assessed gene expression profiles. We analyzed 908 nTNL R genes in the genomes of the six plant species, and classified them into 12 subgroups based on the presence of coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding site (NBS), leucine rich repeat (LRR), resistance to Powdery mildew 8 (RPW8), and BED type zinc finger domains. Traditionally classified CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) genes were nested into four clades (CNL A-D) often with abundant, well-supported homogeneous subclades of Type-II R genes. CNL-D members were absent in rice, indicating a unique R gene retention pattern in the rice genome. Genomes from Arabidopsis , common bean, poplar and soybean had one chromosome without any CNL R genes. Medicago and Arabidopsis had the highest and lowest number of gene clusters, respectively. Gene expression analyses suggested unique patterns of expression for each of the CNL clades. Differential gene expression patterns of the nTNL genes were often found to correlate with number of introns and GC content, suggesting structural and functional divergence.

  13. [Geographical differences in clinical characteristics and management of stable outpatients with coronary artery disease: comparison between the Italian and international population included in the Worldwide CLARIFY registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Massimo; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding specific differences among countries in demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. CLARIFY is an international, prospective and longitudinal registry including more than 33 000 patients with stable coronary artery disease enrolled in 45 countries worldwide. Data were used to compare the characteristics of patients enrolled in Italy with those enrolled in Europe and in the rest of the world. Baseline data were available for 33 283 patients, 2112 of whom from Italy and 12 614 from the remaining western European countries. Italian patients were found to be older, more frequently smoker, hypertensive and with sedentary habits. In addition, they presented more frequently a history of myocardial infarction, carotid arterial disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, when compared with patients of both European and international cohorts, more Italian patients had undergone coronary angiography and angioplasty. As far as treatment was concerned, a greater number of Italian patients were taking ivabradine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, nitrates, thienopyridines, while those taking beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and other antianginal medications were fewer. Among ambulatory patients with stable coronary artery disease, there are important geographic differences in terms of risk factors, clinical characteristics, surgical and pharmacological treatment.

  14. Mutation in Rice Abscisic Acid2 Results in Cell Death, Enhanced Disease-Resistance, Altered Seed Dormancy and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous cell death, and thus are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. Although a lot of such mutants have been characterized in rice, the relationship between lesion formation and abscisic acid (ABA synthesis pathway is not reported. In the present study, we identified a rice mutant, lesion mimic mutant 9150 (lmm9150, exhibiting spontaneous cell death, pre-harvest sprouting, enhanced growth, and resistance to rice bacterial and blast diseases. Cell death in the mutant was accompanied with excessive accumulation of H2O2. Enhanced disease resistance was associated with cell death and upregulation of defense-related genes. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation resulting in a D-to-N substitution at the amino acid position 110 of OsABA2 (LOC_Os03g59610 in lmm9150. Knock-out of OsABA2 through CRISPR/Cas9 led to phenotypes similar to those of lmm9150. Consistent with the function of OsABA2 in ABA biosynthesis, ABA level in the lmm9150 mutant was significantly reduced. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA could rescue all the mutant phenotypes of lmm9150. Taken together, our data linked ABA deficiency to cell death and provided insight into the role of ABA in rice disease resistance.

  15. Mutation in Rice Abscisic Acid2 Results in Cell Death, Enhanced Disease-Resistance, Altered Seed Dormancy and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yongxiang; Bai, Que; Xu, Peizhou; Wu, Tingkai; Guo, Daiming; Peng, Yongbin; Zhang, Hongyu; Deng, Xiaoshu; Chen, Xiaoqiong; Luo, Ming; Ali, Asif; Wang, Wenming; Wu, Xianjun

    2018-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous cell death, and thus are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. Although a lot of such mutants have been characterized in rice, the relationship between lesion formation and abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis pathway is not reported. In the present study, we identified a rice mutant, lesion mimic mutant 9150 ( lmm9150 ), exhibiting spontaneous cell death, pre-harvest sprouting, enhanced growth, and resistance to rice bacterial and blast diseases. Cell death in the mutant was accompanied with excessive accumulation of H 2 O 2 . Enhanced disease resistance was associated with cell death and upregulation of defense-related genes. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation resulting in a D-to-N substitution at the amino acid position 110 of OsABA2 (LOC_Os03g59610) in lmm9150 . Knock-out of OsABA2 through CRISPR/Cas9 led to phenotypes similar to those of lmm9150 . Consistent with the function of OsABA2 in ABA biosynthesis, ABA level in the lmm9150 mutant was significantly reduced. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA could rescue all the mutant phenotypes of lmm9150 . Taken together, our data linked ABA deficiency to cell death and provided insight into the role of ABA in rice disease resistance.

  16. Correlation of oxidative stress in patients with HBV-induced liver disease with HBV genotypes and drug resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyu, Jianbo; Feng, Jiafu; Yang, Yuwei; Tang, Jie; Xie, Gang; Fan, Lingying

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to explore the correlation of oxidative stress (OxS) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and the disease severity with HBV genotypes and drug resistance mutations. A total of 296 patients with CHB were enrolled into the study. PCR-reverse dot-blot hybridization was used to detect the HBV genotypes (B, C, and D) and the drug resistance-causing HBV mutant genes. In addition, the total oxidative stress (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated and compared. Serum levels of TOS and OSI, the B/C ratio, and drug resistance mutation rate were increased along with the elevated disease severity degree (CHBHBV mutation had higher serum TOS and OSI levels, while lower serum TAS levels (P HBV-induced liver disease, and the damage degree is correlated with the HBV genotype and drug resistance mutation. Oxidative stress might be a useful indicator of the progression of HBV-induced liver disease in patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. GmPGIP3 enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiyun; Wei, Xuening; Rong, Wei; Dang, Liang; Du, Li-Pu; Qi, Lin; Xu, Hui-Jun; Shao, Yanjun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-05-01

    Take-all (caused by the fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Ggt) and common root rot (caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana) are devastating root diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Development of resistant wheat cultivars has been a challenge since no resistant wheat accession is available. GmPGIP3, one member of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family in soybean (Glycine max), exhibited inhibition activity against fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) in vitro. In this study, the GmPGIP3 transgenic wheat plants were generated and used to assess the effectiveness of GmPGIP3 in protecting wheat from the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. Four independent transgenic lines were identified by genomic PCR, Southern blot, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The introduced GmPGIP3 was integrated into the genomes of these transgenic lines and could be expressed. The expressing GmPGIP3 protein in these transgenic wheat lines could inhibit the PGs produced by Ggt and B. sorokiniana. The disease response assessments postinoculation showed that the GmPGIP3-expressing transgenic wheat lines displayed significantly enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases caused by the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. These data suggested that GmPGIP3 is an attractive gene resource in improving resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in wheat.

  18. Genetic and physical analysis of a YAC contig spanning the fungal disease resistance locus Asc of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, L.A.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Takken, F.L.W.; Laurent, P.; Hille, J.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). The fungus produces AAL toxins that kill the plant tissue. Resistance to the fungus segregates as a single locus, called Asc, and has been genetically mapped on

  19. Genetic and physical analysis of a YAC contig spannig the fungal disease resistance locus Asc of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, L.A.; Kneppers, T.J.A.; Takken, F.L.W.; Laurent, P.J.F.; Hille, J.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Alternaria in stem canker disease of tomato is caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). The fungus produces AAL toxins that kill the plant tissue. Resistance to the fungus segregates as a single locus, called Asc, and has been genetically mapped

  20. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. Researchers have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen so...

  1. Genetically influenced resistance to stress and disease in salmonids in relation to present-day breeding practice - a short review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Jánová, K.; Palíková, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2018), s. 35-45 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1510077 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brook trout * disease resistance * genomic selection * marker assisted selection * molecular breeding * quantitative trait loci * rainbow trout Subject RIV: GL - Fish ing OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2016

  2. The PREVAIL Study: Primary Outcomes by Site and Extent of Baseline Disease for Enzalutamide-treated Men with Chemotherapy-naïve Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christopher P; Higano, Celestia S; Keane, Thomas; Andriole, Gerald; Saad, Fred; Iversen, Peter; Miller, Kurt; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kimura, Go; Armstrong, Andrew J; Sternberg, Cora N; Loriot, Yohann; de Bono, Johann; Noonberg, Sarah B; Mansbach, Hank; Bhattacharya, Suman; Perabo, Frank; Beer, Tomasz M; Tombal, Bertrand

    2016-10-01

    Enzalutamide, an oral androgen receptor inhibitor, significantly improved overall survival (OS) and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) versus placebo in the PREVAIL trial of men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. To assess the effects of enzalutamide versus placebo in patients from PREVAIL based on site and extent of baseline disease. One thousand seven hundred and seventeen asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients were randomized to enzalutamide (n=872) or placebo (n=845). Subgroup analyses included nonvisceral (only bone and/or nodal; n=1513), visceral (lung and/or liver; n=204), low-volume bone disease (1 in patients with visceral disease (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.55-1.23). Enzalutamide was well tolerated in patients with or without visceral disease. Enzalutamide provided clinically significant benefits in men with chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, with or without visceral disease, low- or high-volume bone disease, or lymph node only disease. Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer-including those with or without visceral disease or widespread bone disease-benefitted from enzalutamide, an active well-tolerated therapy. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Definition of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculosis drugs in patients with multidrugresistant tuberculosis and TB with extremely drug resistant depending on the case of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryzhanovsky D.G.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the profile of drug resistance to the main (I line and reserve (II line antituberculosis drugs in patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis, depending of the case of the disease. According to the randomized retrospective research 200 patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis, who received treatment in the clinic of hospital Municipal institution «Dnipropetrovsk rigional clinical association «Phthisiology» Dnipropetrovsk regional Council» during the period 2010 – 2012 were involved. Data about patients contained the data on a case of the disease and the results of the test of drug sensitivity to MBT. XDR – TB was revealed in 7.5% of patients with MDR tuberculosis. In patients with MDR tuberculosis as compared with patients with XDR tuberculosis «new cases» were diagnosed in 19.5% against 18.5% (p <0.05. In patients with MDR tuberculosis and with XDR tuberculosis resistance to the antituberculosis drug more commonly developed to S - 88.5%, E - 55% and Z - 24%. The presence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB prevails in patients, who underwent previous courses of treatment with anti-TB drugs in case history as compared with patients with «new cases» of treatment. The development of resistance to anti-TB drugs depends on the availability of these drugs in the previous treatment regimens.

  4. Prediction of Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. Diseases via Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Michel S; Navarro, Alberto J R; Mustiga, Guiliana; Stack, Conrad; Gezan, Salvador; Peña, Geover; Sarabia, Widem; Saquicela, Diego; Sotomayor, Ignacio; Douglas, Gavin M; Migicovsky, Zoë; Amores, Freddy; Tarqui, Omar; Myles, Sean; Motamayor, Juan C

    2018-01-01

    Cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) is a globally important crop, and its yield is severely restricted by disease. Two of the most damaging diseases, witches' broom disease (WBD) and frosty pod rot disease (FPRD), are caused by a pair of related fungi: Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri , respectively. Resistant cultivars are the most effective long-term strategy to address Moniliophthora diseases, but efficiently generating resistant and productive new cultivars will require robust methods for screening germplasm before field testing. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) provide two potential avenues for predicting the performance of new genotypes, potentially increasing the selection gain per unit time. To test the effectiveness of these two approaches, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and GS on three related populations of cacao in Ecuador genotyped with a 15K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray for three measures of WBD infection (vegetative broom, cushion broom, and chirimoya pod), one of FPRD (monilia pod) and two productivity traits (total fresh weight of pods and % healthy pods produced). GWAS yielded several SNPs associated with disease resistance in each population, but none were significantly correlated with the same trait in other populations. Genomic selection, using one population as a training set to estimate the phenotypes of the remaining two (composed of different families), varied among traits, from a mean prediction accuracy of 0.46 (vegetative broom) to 0.15 (monilia pod), and varied between training populations. Simulations demonstrated that selecting seedlings using GWAS markers alone generates no improvement over selecting at random, but that GS improves the selection process significantly. Our results suggest that the GWAS markers discovered here are not sufficiently predictive across diverse germplasm to be useful for MAS, but that using all markers in a GS framework holds

  5. Prediction of Cacao (Theobroma cacao Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. Diseases via Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel S. McElroy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao is a globally important crop, and its yield is severely restricted by disease. Two of the most damaging diseases, witches’ broom disease (WBD and frosty pod rot disease (FPRD, are caused by a pair of related fungi: Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri, respectively. Resistant cultivars are the most effective long-term strategy to address Moniliophthora diseases, but efficiently generating resistant and productive new cultivars will require robust methods for screening germplasm before field testing. Marker-assisted selection (MAS and genomic selection (GS provide two potential avenues for predicting the performance of new genotypes, potentially increasing the selection gain per unit time. To test the effectiveness of these two approaches, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS and GS on three related populations of cacao in Ecuador genotyped with a 15K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarray for three measures of WBD infection (vegetative broom, cushion broom, and chirimoya pod, one of FPRD (monilia pod and two productivity traits (total fresh weight of pods and % healthy pods produced. GWAS yielded several SNPs associated with disease resistance in each population, but none were significantly correlated with the same trait in other populations. Genomic selection, using one population as a training set to estimate the phenotypes of the remaining two (composed of different families, varied among traits, from a mean prediction accuracy of 0.46 (vegetative broom to 0.15 (monilia pod, and varied between training populations. Simulations demonstrated that selecting seedlings using GWAS markers alone generates no improvement over selecting at random, but that GS improves the selection process significantly. Our results suggest that the GWAS markers discovered here are not sufficiently predictive across diverse germplasm to be useful for MAS, but that using all markers in a GS framework holds

  6. Function and modulation of premotor brainstem parasympathetic cardiac neurons that control heart rate by hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related diseases including obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Weigand, Letitia A; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Mares, Jacquelyn; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brainstem dominate the control of heart rate. Previous work has determined that these neurons are inherently silent, and their activity is largely determined by synaptic inputs to CVNs that include four major types of synapses that release glutamate, GABA, glycine, or serotonin. Whereas prior reviews have focused on glutamatergic, GABAergic and glycinergic pathways, and the receptors in CVNs activated by these neurotransmitters, this review focuses on the alterations in CVN activity with hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related cardiovascular diseases including obstructive sleep apnea. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Induced mutation for disease resistance in rice with special reference to blast, bacterial blight and tungro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Rice varieties Ratna, Pusa 2-21, Vijaya and Pankaj have been treated with gamma rays, EMS or sodium azide to improve their resistance against blast, bacterial leaf blight or tungro virus. For blast and tungro, mutants with improved resistance were selected. Variation in reaction to bacterial leaf blight has been used in crossbreeding to accumulate genes for resistance. (author)

  8. Fatty liver is associated with insulin resistance, risk of coronary heart disease, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Kozakova, Michaela; Højlund, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Patients with fatty liver (FL) disease have a high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim was to evaluate the association between FL, insulin resistance (IR), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population (RISC Study). In 1...... cholesterol (r = 0.33), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.48), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.25), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.39) and IMT (r = 0.30), and reduced insulin sensitivity (r = -0.43), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.50), adiponectin (r = -0.42), and physical activity (r = -0...

  9. Clinical application of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (resistive type) on cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Katsuya; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki; Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging in diagnosing cardiovascular disease, 27 subjects were examined using a 0.1-Tesla resistive type (ASAHI MARK-J). In 10 normal subjects, four cardiac chambers, interventricular septum, aorta, pulmonary vessels and vena cava were clearly identified in NMR imaging. In two patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction, anteroseptal wall thinning and left ventricular aneurysm with mural thrombi were demonstrated. In two cases of antrolateral and posterolateral myocardial infarction, however, infarcted areas were not identified in NMR imaging. In one patient with congestive cardiomyopathy, enlarged left ventricle without hypertrophy was recognized. In two patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, NMR imaging disclosed thickened left ventricular wall associated with its narrowed cavity. A mural thrombus in the right ventricle was distinctly visualized in one patient with cardio-vascular Behcet's disease. In two patients with mitral valve stenosis, enlarged left atrium with a mural thrombus was clearly demonstrated in both cross and longitudinal sections. In three patients with thoratic aortic aneurysm, local dilatation of aorta and mural thrombi were recognized. In four patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm, double channels with an intimal flap in the aorta were visualized in NMR imaging. Mean T 1 values and standard deviations of left ventricle, left ventricular wall, and thrombi were 593+-89, 341+-20, 316+-84 msec, respectively. Mean T 1 values of thrombi were ordinally shorter than those of left ventricule. But some thrombi which might be expected fresh had longer T 1 values. (J.P.N.)

  10. Resistance to Alzheimer Disease Neuropathologic Changes and Apparent Cognitive Resilience in the Nun and Honolulu-Asia Aging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Caitlin S; Keene, C Dirk; Flanagan, Margaret E; Hemmy, Laura S; Lim, Kelvin O; White, Lon R; Montine, Kathleen S; Montine, Thomas J

    2017-06-01

    Two population-based studies key to advancing knowledge of brain aging are the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) and the Nun Study. Harmonization of their neuropathologic data allows cross comparison, with findings common to both studies likely generalizable, while distinct observations may point to aging brain changes that are dependent on sex, ethnicity, environment, or lifestyle factors. Here, we expanded the neuropathologic evaluation of these 2 studies using revised NIA-Alzheimer's Association guidelines and compared directly the neuropathologic features of resistance and apparent cognitive resilience. There were significant differences in prevalence of Alzheimer disease neuropathologic change, small vessel vascular brain injury, and Lewy body disease between these 2 studies, suggesting that sex, ethnicity, and lifestyle factors may significantly influence resistance to developing brain injury with age. In contrast, hippocampal sclerosis prevalence was very similar, but skewed to poorer cognitive performance, suggesting that hippocampal sclerosis could act sequentially with other diseases to impair cognitive function. Strikingly, despite these observed differences, the proportion of individuals resistant to all 4 diseases of brain or displaying apparent cognitive resilience was virtually identical between HAAS and Nun Study participants. Future in vivo validation of these results awaits comprehensive biomarkers of these 4 brain diseases. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum cystatin C is an independent biomarker associated with the renal resistive index in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa-Akiyama, Ayu; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Masashi; Tanaka, Keiko; Onishi, Akifumi; Yamanari, Toshio; Morinaga, Hiroshi; Uchida, Haruhito Adam; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Wada, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Cystatin C is a cysteine protease inhibitor that is produced by nearly all human cells. The serum level of cystatin C is a stronger predictor of the renal outcome and the risk of cardiovascular events than the creatinine level. The resistive index (RI) on renal Doppler ultrasonography is a good indicator of vascular resistance as well as the renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is unclear whether serum cystatin C is associated with signs of vascular dysfunction, such as the renal RI. We measured the serum cystatin C levels in 101 CKD patients and investigated the relationships between cystatin C and markers of vascular dysfunction, including the renal RI, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity (baPWV), intima-media thickness (IMT), and cardiac function. The renal RI was significantly correlated with the serum cystatin C level (p < 0.0001, r = 0.6920). The serum cystatin C level was found to be a significant determinant of the renal RI (p < 0.0001), but not the baPWV, in a multivariate regression analysis. The multivariate odds ratio of the serum cystatin C level for a renal RI of more than 0.66 was statistically significant (2.92, p = 0.0106). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve comparing the sensitivity and specificity of cystatin C for predicting an RI of more than 0.66 was 0.882 (cutoff value: 2.04 mg/L). In conclusion, the serum cystatin C level is an independent biomarker associated with the renal RI in patients with CKD.

  12. Improvement of pigeonpea for drought, disease and insect tolerance/resistance through induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngugi, E C.K.; Omanga, P A [National Dryland Farming Research Centre, Katumani, Machakos (Kenya)

    1997-12-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) is the second most important grain legume after cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in the semi-arid areas of Kenya. At the farm level, the grain yield of pigeonpea is lower than that of other grain legumes and cereals. The low grain yields are mainly attributed to the late-maturity of the local land-races which are prone to drought, insect attack and disease damage. Recently, a mutation breeding program was initiated to augment the conventional breeding approaches to alleviate some of these constraints. Three varieties, namely, Kat 60/8, Kat E31/4 and Kat 777, representing early, medium and late maturing groups were irradiated with three doses of gamma rays, namely 80-100 Gy, 110-125 Gy, and 140-150 Gy. Single plant progenies from the M{sub 2} and M{sub 3} generations of were screened and selected for tolerance to drought, tolerance/resistance to Fusarium wilt and insect tolerance in the field. Selections were advanced to M{sub 4} generation. In this paper, preliminary results of these studies reported. (author). 5 refs, 7 tabs.

  13. [Effects of a resistance training program in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarroa, Igor; Barriga, Rodrigo; Michéas, Camila; Zapata-Lamana, Rafael; Soto, Claudio; Manukian, Tomas

    2016-07-01

    Exercise may be a therapeutic tool for improving the functional capacity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are on hemodialysis (HD). To determine the effects on muscle strength (MS), functional capacity (FC) and quality of life related to health (QOLRH) of a resistance training program in patients with CKD on HD. Thirteen CKD patients aged 38.8 ± 3 years, (7 men) on HD for more than one year participated in an exercise program twice a week during 8 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the program, MS using a knee extension isometric strength test, FC using the six minutes walking test (6MWT) and QOLRH using the KDQOL CV-36 questionnaire were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and modified Borg scale were measured as control variables. After training, there were significant improvements in MS in both legs; in the distance travelled during 6MWT and in the physical component summary score of the KDQOL-36. Furthermore, a significant decline in diastolic blood pressure was observed. All other control variables did not change significantly. Exercise training during eight weeks in CKD patients in HD resulted in significant improvements in muscle strength, walking capacity and in the physical component of a quality of life score for patients with CKD.

  14. Improvement of pigeonpea for drought, disease and insect tolerance/resistance through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngugi, E.C.K.; Omanga, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) is the second most important grain legume after cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in the semi-arid areas of Kenya. At the farm level, the grain yield of pigeonpea is lower than that of other grain legumes and cereals. The low grain yields are mainly attributed to the late-maturity of the local land-races which are prone to drought, insect attack and disease damage. Recently, a mutation breeding program was initiated to augment the conventional breeding approaches to alleviate some of these constraints. Three varieties, namely, Kat 60/8, Kat E31/4 and Kat 777, representing early, medium and late maturing groups were irradiated with three doses of gamma rays, namely 80-100 Gy, 110-125 Gy, and 140-150 Gy. Single plant progenies from the M 2 and M 3 generations of were screened and selected for tolerance to drought, tolerance/resistance to Fusarium wilt and insect tolerance in the field. Selections were advanced to M 4 generation. In this paper, preliminary results of these studies reported. (author). 5 refs, 7 tabs

  15. Tumor cell anaplasia and multinucleation are predictors of disease recurrence in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, including among just the human papillomavirus-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James S; Scantlebury, Juliette B; Luo, Jingqin; Thorstad, Wade L

    2012-07-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is frequently related to high risk human papillomavirus. This tumor expresses p16, frequently has a nonkeratinizing morphology, and has improved outcomes. Despite having a good prognosis, tumors can have focal or diffuse nuclear anaplasia or multinucleation, the significance of which is unknown. From a database of 270 oropharyngeal SCCs with known histologic typing (using our established system) and p16 immunohistochemistry, all surgically resected cases (149) were reviewed. Anaplasia was defined as any × 40 field with ≥ 3 tumor nuclei with diameters ≥ 5 lymphocyte nuclei (~25 μm), and multinucleation was defined as any × 40 field with ≥ 3 tumor cells with multiple nuclei. p16 was positive in 128 cases (85.9%), 64 cases (43.0%) showed anaplasia, and 71 (47.7%) showed multinucleation. Anaplasia and multinucleation were highly related (Panaplasia or multinucleation had worse overall,