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Sample records for resistance diabetes mellitus

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a disorder of galanin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Penghua; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with its high morbidity and mortality becomes an important health problem. The multifactorial etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus is relative to many gene and molecule alterations, and increased insulin resistance. Besides these, however, there are still other predisposing and risk factors accounting for type 2 diabetes mellitus not to be identified and recognized. Emerging evidence indicated that defects in galanin function played a crucial role in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Galanin homeostasis is tightly relative to insulin resistance and is regulated by blood glucose. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinism, enhanced plasma galanin levels and decreased galanin receptor activities are some of the characters of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The discrepancy between high insulin level and low glucose handling is named as insulin resistance. Similarly, the discrepancy between high galanin level and low glucose handling may be denominated as galanin resistance too. In this review, the characteristic milestones of type 2 diabetes mellitus were condensed as two analogical conceptual models, obesity-hyper-insulin-insulin resistance-type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity-hyper-galanin-galanin resistance-type 2 diabetes mellitus. Both galanin resistance and insulin resistance are correlative with each other. Conceptualizing the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus as a disorder of galanin resistance may inspire a new concept to deepen our knowledge about pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, eventually leading to novel preventive and therapeutic interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alloxan-induced and Insulin-resistant Diabetes Mellitus affect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance on semen parameters, histology of reproductive organs and serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 - 200g were made diabetic by intravenous injection of ...

  3. Insulin resistance in three dogs with hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, S L; Nelson, R W; Feldman, E C; Niwa, D

    1993-05-01

    Insulin resistance resolved in 3 dogs with hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus after treatment with sodium levothyroxine. A thorough diagnostic evaluation failed to identify any other cause of insulin resistance in these dogs. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed in each dog on the basis of clinical signs, physical findings, hyperlipidemia, and results of thyrotropin or thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test. Hypoglycemia was documented in each dog within 2 weeks of starting sodium levothyroxine administration. The insulin dosage was decreased by 60 to 62% during the ensuing months and good glycemic control was obtained at these lower insulin dosages in all dogs. These findings would suggest hypothyroidism-induced insulin resistance in these dogs.

  4. Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Sarit; Ellis, Samuel L

    2015-08-01

    To summarize recent studies about obesity, insulin resistance, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Overweight and obesity continue to be prevalent among individuals with T1DM. Obesity rates appear to have reached a plateau among children with T1DM in some parts of the world. The risk for development of T1DM is increased by obesity and may occur at an earlier age among obese individuals with a predisposition. Obesity increases the risk for comorbidities among individuals with T1DM, especially metabolic syndrome, and microvascular and macrovascular diseases. Metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist therapy, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor therapy, and bariatric surgery may be beneficial therapies for glucose control, comorbidity management, and obesity among adults with T1DM. Insulin resistance may be improved among obese individuals with T1DM by biguanides (metformin) and glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists (exenatide). We review the last 18 months of literature on obesity, insulin resistance, and T1DM to highlight new epidemiologic results and treatments.

  5. Diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahdi, M.; Gerdes, V. E.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Meesters, E. W.

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are over 740,000 patients with diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands, and this number will increase further in the coming years. Approximately 90% of patients has type 2 diabetes, a metabolic disorder that is often associated with obesity, hypertension and increased cholesterol

  6. Metabolomics: Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) develops over many years, providing an opportunity to consider early prognostic tools that guide interventions to thwart disease. Advancements in analytical chemistry enable quantitation of hundreds of metabolites in biofluids and tissues (metabolomics), providing in...

  7. Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Skiadopoulos, Dionysios

    2013-01-01

    This theses on Diabetes Mellitus aims at giving an insight at various aspects of this chronic disease and the risk factors that lead to it; the varius ways it develops in the human body; the old and new approaches to treatment, both from a pharmacological and a non- pharmacologiacal point of view; ways to prevent and to manage the diabetes complications; how to improve the live of the diabetic patients who are faced with not only physical but also psychological problems; statistical data from...

  8. Diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Junichiro; Ito, Chikako

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that the pancreas is low sensitive to radiation. In this chapter, the effect of radiation on the pancreas is discussed in the light of the radiosensitivity of the pancreas in animal experiments and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in A-bomb survivors. In an experiment on the whole-body irradiation with 800 rad using rats, a decrease in insulin secretion itself has not been noted, although a decrease in blood insulin and an increase in glucagon were associated with transiently increased blood glucose. In other studies, there was neither histologically nor endocrinologically abnormal findings due to several hundreds rad of radiation in the acute stage. For A-bomb survivors, blood levels of insulin tended to be slightly increased in the 40-59 age group of A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤1.5 km than those exposed at ≥3.0 km; and in the other age groups, there was no tendency for decreased blood levels of insulin. The ABCC-RERF Adult Health Study data (1958-1960) has revealed that there is no statistically significant correlation between the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and A-bomb radiation; nor has this been noted in any other study. Neither the prevalence of diabetes mellitus nor its complications is found to be independent upon distance from the hypocenter. (N.K.)

  9. Low dose spironolactone reduces blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Henriksen, J. E.; Tarnow, L.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with arterial hypertension is particularly pronounced in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood pressure control is, therefore, decisively important but often not sufficiently achieved.Objective:The primary...... diabetes mellitus....... objective of this study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of low dose spironolactone added to triple therapy for resistant hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes measured by ambulatory monitoring. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects on glycaemic control and urinary albumin...

  10. Determination of renal vascular resistance in dogs with diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellas, R; de Gopegui, R Ruiz; Espada, Y

    2008-11-15

    In dogs, diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism are causes of hypertension associated with increases in vascular peripheral resistance. In human patients, the renal resistive index (ri) and pulsatility index (pi) are related to hypertension and diabetes and are used as indicators of disease severity. In this study the renal vascular resistance was measured in 12 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, three with diabetes mellitus and four with both conditions, and the possible relationships between the two indices, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were investigated. Hypertension, defined as a systolic blood pressure more than 150 mmHg, was recorded in two of the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and three of the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes. The overall mean values for ri, pi and systolic blood pressure were higher in the diseased group of dogs than in 27 healthy dogs, and both indices were correlated with blood glucose concentration.

  11. Insulin resistance and neurodegeneration: Roles of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Longato, Lisa; Tong, Ming; Wands, Jack R

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have linked obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to insulin resistance in the brain, cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Insulin resistance compromises cell survival, metabolism and neuronal plasticity, and increases oxidative stress, cytokine activation and apoptosis. T2DM/NASH has been demonstrated to be associated with increased ceramide generation, suggesting a mechanistic link between peripheral insulin resistance and neu...

  12. Topicality of the problem of combined course of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Raznatovska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, today in the world among the infectious chronic diseases one of the leading places and causes of death is multi-drug resistant tuberculosis of the lungs, and chronic non-communicable diseases – diabetes mellitus. The situation is complicated by the fact that the number of patients with combined course of these two heavy separate illnesses that complicate each other increases. It is established that with increasing severity of diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis process in the lungs becomes more complicate and deteriorates, and vice versa, the specific process complicates the course of diabetes mellitus, contributing to the development of diabetic complications. Against this background, the effectiveness of treatment of patients suffering from multi-drug resistant tuberculosis of the lungs in our country remains very low, mainly due to the toxic adverse reactions to antimycobacterial drugs of the reserve line, and in the case of adding diabetes mellitus, it deteriorates even more. The aim of this study was to review the scientific literature to determine the relevance of the study of combined course of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis of the lungs with diabetes mellitus and perspectives of innovative methods of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Early diagnosis of pre-diabetes, and autoimmune diseases will allow the use of timely correction techniques that prevents the development of diabetes mellitus, depending on its type, and in the future the development of serious irreversible processes, allow timely applying appropriate methods of correction of the revealed violations. Results. Very little amount of work is dedicated to the problem of combined course of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis of the lungs with diabetes mellitus, regardless of its type, the theme is relevant for today, in Ukraine there are no data regarding its study. This combined course of very difficult in the treatment diseases requires

  13. Diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Idiculla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jyothi Idiculla1, G D Ravindra’n1, Jason D’Souza1, Girija Singh1, Sultana Furruqh21Department of Medicine, 2Department of Biochemistry, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore, IndiaAbstract: Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection are increasingly being reported in the global medical literature. This cross-sectional study was done to describe the occurrence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance in HIV-positive patients in a tertiary referral center in South India. A total of 60 patients who had HIV infection for 12 months or more were enrolled in the study. Of these, 30 patients were antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve, and 30 were treated with ART. Biochemical estimations (fasting blood glucose, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile, and fasting insulin and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference were performed for each patient. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using National Cholesterol Education Program–Adult Treatment Plan III criteria, and insulin resistance was calculated applying the homeostasis model assessment method. Diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycemia, and impaired glucose tolerance were diagnosed based on American Diabetes Association criteria. A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed in patients with HIV (16/60, and was more prevalent in the ART-treated group (13/30; P = 0.028. Similarly, insulin resistance was also noted to be high (24/60, and of these patients, 15 were on ART. Seventy-five percent of patients with metabolic syndrome had insulin resistance. Diabetes was diagnosed in one patient who was ART-naïve and in six patients who were on ART. Our observations suggest an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus in ART-treated patients. These warrant attention and substantiation with larger studies. While ART

  14. Association of TNF-α with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Swaroop, Jatla Jyothi; Rajarajeswari, Duggirala; Naidu, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: TNF-α is an adipocytokine that has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Dysregulation of TNF-α production has been implicated in a variety of human diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to find out the association of TNF-α levels with insulin resistance, body mass index and waist hip ratio; and to elicit its role with respect to duration of the disease, if any. Methods: 50 type-2 diabetic patients attending Narayana Medical Hospita...

  15. Role of sialic acid in insulin action and the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhanick, A.I.; Amatruda, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Adipocytes treated with neuraminidase show markedly reduced responsiveness to insulin without any alteration in insulin binding. In addition, several studies have separately demonstrated both insulin resistance and decreases in membrane sialic acid content and associated biosynthetic enzymes in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the authors investigated the role that sialic acid residues may play in insulin action and in the hepatic insulin resistance associated with nonketotic diabetes. Primary cultures of hepatocytes from normal rats treated with neuraminidase demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. At a concentration of neuraminidase that decreases insulin action by 50%, 23% of total cellular sialic acid content was released. Neuraminidase-releasable sialic acid was significantly decreased in hepatocytes from diabetic rats and this was associated with significant insulin resistance. Treatment of hepatocytes from diabetic rats with cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA) enhanced insulin responsiveness 39%. The enhanced insulin responsiveness induced by CMP-NANA was blocked by cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) suggesting that the CMP-NANA effect was catalyzed by a cell surface sialyl-transferase. CMP reduced neuraminidase-releasable [ 14 C]sialic acid incorporation into hepatocytes by 43%. The data demonstrate a role for cell surface sialic acid residues in hepatic insulin action and support a role for decreased cell surface sialic acid residues in the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus

  16. Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nessim Dayan, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    ¿Qué es la diabetes?/¿Cuantos tipos o formas de diabetes existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la diabetes?/¿cuál es la causa de la diabetes?/¿Quién tiene mayor riesgo de desarrollar diabetes?/¿Cómo se diagnostica la diabetes?/¿Cuál es el tratamiento de la diabetes?/¿Cuándo y cómo se controlan los niveles de glicemia?/¿Cuáles son las complicaciones de la diabetes?/Recomendaciones actuales y futuro de la diabetes.

  17. The relationship between insulin resistance and the change of cytosol free calcium concentration in gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pu; Zheng Lei; Cen Rongguang; Song Yangxiu

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the insulin resistance (IR) and abnormalities of cellular calcium metabolism in gestational diabetes mellitus, the changes in the [Ca 2+ ]i and the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in circulating erythrocytes of 32 cases gestational diabetes were compared with those of 47 normal pregnant and 43 non pregnant women. The level of [Ca 2+ ]i in circulating erythrocyte in gestational diabetes mellitus women was significantly higher than that in the pregnant and non pregnant women (P 2+ ]i in circulating erythrocytes in gestational diabetes mellitus was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin, negatively with the insulin receptor tyrosine kisase activity (P 2+ ]i level during the gastational period might be one of the possible factor in the insulin resistance of gestaional diabetes mellitus. (authors)

  18. Effects of compound K on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuang; Ren, Dayong; Li, Jianrui; Yuan, Guangxin; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Guangyu; Han, Xiao; Du, Peige; An, Liping

    2014-06-01

    Compound K (CK) is a final metabolite of panaxadiol ginsenosides from Panax ginseng. Although anti-diabetic activity of CK has been reported in recent years, the molecular mechanism of CK in the treatment of diabetes mellitus remains unclear. In the present investigation, we established a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with insulin resistance using high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ), and attempted to verify more details and exact mechanisms in the treatment of T2DM. CK was administered orally at three doses [300, 100 and 30 mg/kg bodyweight (b.w.)] to the diabetic rats. Bodyweight, food-intake, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), insulin sensitivity (ISI), total glycerin (TG), total cholesterol (TC), as well as oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. According to our results, CK could improve bodyweight and food-intake of diabetic rats. CK exhibited dose-dependent reduction of FBG, TG and TC of diabetic rats. CK treatment also enhanced FINS and ISI. Meanwhile, the glucose tolerance observed in the present study was improved significantly by CK. It is concluded from the results that CK may have improving effects on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance of diabetic rats. Furthermore, research showed that CK could promote the expression of InsR, IRS1, PI3Kp85, pAkt and Glut4 in skeletal muscle tissue of diabetic rats. These results indicate that the hypoglycemic activity of CK is mediated by improvement of insulin sensitivity, which is closely related to PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of Oxidative Stress and Obesity with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P; Biswas, S; Mukherjee, S; Bandyopadhyay, S K

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress occurs due to delicate imbalance between pro-oxidant and anti oxidant forces in our system. It has been found to be associated with many morbidities but its association with obesity and insulin resistance is still controversial. Here in our study we examined 167 patients of recent onset type 2 diabetes mellitus and 60 age sex matched non-diabetic control. Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal circumference, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and plasma Malondealdehyde (MDA, marker for oxidative stress) were measured in them. On the basis of BMI, subjects were divided into obese (BMI≥25) and non obese (BMIdiabetes than their non diabetic controls. The said parameters also showed significant difference in obese and non-obese sub groups. Insulin resistance score showed positive correlation with BMI, abdominal circumference, and plasma MDA, strength of association being highest with abdominal circumference. Plasma MDA was found to have positive correlation with physical parameters. Study concludes that, obesity mainly central type may predispose to insulin resistance and oxidative stress may be a crucial factor in its pathogenesis. Thus, oxidative stress may be the connecting link between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, two on going global epidemics.

  20. Will acarbose improve the metabolic abnormalities of insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R; Lintott, C J; Zimmet, P; Campbell, L; Bowen, K; Welborn, T

    1999-03-01

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 105; age 36-71 years) on diet therapy alone, and with quite good glycaemic control (mean HbA1c approximately 7.0%) were randomized to receive acarbose (100 mg three times daily) or placebo for 16 weeks, and changes in clinical and metabolic parameters indicative of Syndrome X were monitored. Fasting levels of glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), true insulin, proinsulin, fibrinogen and lipids were measured four times weekly, and glucose, insulin, proinsulin and triglyceride responses to a standardized 1.6 MJ breakfast were determined at 0, 1 and 2 h post meal. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Fasting levels of glucose (P fasting glucose and triglyceride levels, lowers HbA1c and limits the glycaemic and insulin response to food in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus with Syndrome X. Pharmacological agents that improve the metabolic environment and reduce insulin resistance have the potential to limit the progression of atherogenesis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Diabetes mellitus in itself is not a risk factor for antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with bacteriuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, R.; Geerlings, S. E.; de Neeling, A. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from patients with bacteriuria. METHODS: Data were obtained from a multicentre study. A clean-voided midstream urine culture was collected from 636 women with diabetes, who were between 18 and

  2. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  3. Potential Biomarkers of Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Intan Qhadijah Syed Ikmal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease have become a major public health concern. The occurrence of insulin resistance accompanied with endothelial dysfunction worsens the state of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The combination of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction leads to coronary artery disease and ischemic heart disease complications. A recognized biological marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, has been used widely to assess the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation. Along with coronary arterial damage and inflammatory processes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein is considered as an essential atherosclerosis marker in patients with cardiovascular disease, but not as an insulin resistance marker in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A new biological marker that can act as a reliable indicator of both the exact state of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis is required to facilitate optimal health management of diabetic patients. Malfunctioning of insulin mechanism and endothelial dysfunction leads to innate immune activation and released several biological markers into circulation. This review examines potential biological markers, YKL-40, alpha-hydroxybutyrate, soluble CD36, leptin, resistin, interleukin-18, retinol binding protein-4, and chemerin, as they may play significant roles in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease.

  4. Potential biomarkers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Ikmal, Sharifah Intan Qhadijah; Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Wan Ahmad, Wan Azman

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease have become a major public health concern. The occurrence of insulin resistance accompanied with endothelial dysfunction worsens the state of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The combination of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction leads to coronary artery disease and ischemic heart disease complications. A recognized biological marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, has been used widely to assess the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation. Along with coronary arterial damage and inflammatory processes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein is considered as an essential atherosclerosis marker in patients with cardiovascular disease, but not as an insulin resistance marker in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A new biological marker that can act as a reliable indicator of both the exact state of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis is required to facilitate optimal health management of diabetic patients. Malfunctioning of insulin mechanism and endothelial dysfunction leads to innate immune activation and released several biological markers into circulation. This review examines potential biological markers, YKL-40, alpha-hydroxybutyrate, soluble CD36, leptin, resistin, interleukin-18, retinol binding protein-4, and chemerin, as they may play significant roles in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease.

  5. Diabetes Mellitus amp Its Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KusumaNeela Bolla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes Mellitus has been known for centuries as a disease related to sweetness. even though several million people all over the world are effected with diabetes not all are well informed about the nature of the disease. in diabetes there is excessive glucose in blood and urine due to inadequate production of insulin or insulin resistance. diabetics can lead a normal life provided they take prescribed durgs and make certain changes in their lifestyle particularly in their diet and physical activity. uncontrolled diabetes leads to some of the complication so some of the home remedies also play a major role to prevent the diabetes.

  6. Uveitis and diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Meenken, C.; Michels, R. P.; Kijlstra, A.

    1988-01-01

    Of 340 patients with anterior uveitis, 20 (6%) had diabetes mellitus. This is significantly higher than the prevalence of 1.4% in the normal Dutch population (P less than .001). Of 128 patients with idiopathic anterior uveitis, 16 (12.5%) had diabetes mellitus compared to only four (1.9%) of 212

  7. Pharmacogenomics in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Dawed, Adem Y.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the multifactorial aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as the multiple subtypes of monogenic diabetes mellitus. In this Review, we discuss the existing pharmacogenetic evidence in both monogenic diabetes mellitus and T2DM...... future pharmacogenomic findings could provide insights into treatment response in diabetes mellitus that, in addition to other areas of human genetics, facilitates drug discovery and drug development for T2DM.......Genomic studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the multifactorial aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as the multiple subtypes of monogenic diabetes mellitus. In this Review, we discuss the existing pharmacogenetic evidence in both monogenic diabetes mellitus and T2DM....... We highlight mechanistic insights from the study of adverse effects and the efficacy of antidiabetic drugs. The identification of extreme sulfonylurea sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus owing to heterozygous mutations in HNF1A represents a clear example of how pharmacogenetics can direct...

  8. [Eating disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, S; Petrak, F; Kruse, J; Kulzer, B; Lange, K; Albus, C

    2006-08-01

    Adolescent and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus demonstrate a more than random coincidence with bulimia nervosa. However, the prevalence of eating disorders that do not fulfil the criteria of bulimia nervosa is also raised in women of this age group yet without diabetes mellitus. The comorbidity of type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder poses a risk factor in the development of diabetic follow-up diseases. Patients with an eating disorder and type 1 diabetes are characterized by an insufficient metabolic control and the early development of diabetic complications such as a retinopathy. The binge eating disorder, according to research aspects initially a new eating disorder entity, may especially be observed in overweight and obesity. Even if a binge eating disorder in persons with a type 2 diabetes does not occur more frequently than in those metabolically healthy persons, it does depict a risk factor for an accelerated weight gain which as rule involves an increase of insulin resistance.

  9. Association between diabetes mellitus and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis : a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Burgerhof, Johannes G M

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control and remains a major public health concern in many countries. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity that can both accelerate TB disease and complicate its

  10. INFLUENCE OF HERBAL EXTRACTS ON METABOLIC DISTURBANCES IN DIABETES MELLITUS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Yakimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the influence on metabolic processes of herbal extracts, used in diets with different fat content, in diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance model.Material and methods. The experiments were performing on 90 noninbred male albino rats. Diabetes mellitus was modeling with twice-repeated intraperitoneal streptozotocine (30 mg/kg injections. For the insulin resistance formation animals were fad meal with 30% fat content. Against the background rats were administering into the stomach nettle leafs (Urtica dioica L., 100 mg/kg, burdock roots (Arctium lappa L., 25 mg/kg extracts or intraperitoneal insulin preparation Actrapide HM Penfill (3 mg/kg daily during 10 days. During period of agents introduction one-half of animals continued to receive food with high fat content, the other half received diet with 8% fat content. The third rats group received only food with low fat content without extracts or insulin administration. In blood was measured the glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, creatinine, urea, uric acid content, in liver homogenates – glycogen, protein content, aminotransferases and glucose-6phosphatase activity, in muscle homogenates – glycogen and protein content.Results. After streptozotocine injections and diet with 30% fat content the blood glucose level became by 4.0–5.3 fold more than level of intact animals, increased the hemoglobin glycosylation, also creatinine, urea, uric acid blood content, in liver and muscle homogenates raised glycogen content, decreased protein quantity, in liver homogenates increased aminotranferases and glucose-6-phosphatase activity. In animals only feeding with 8% fat diminished hyperglycemia, creatinine blood retention, the liver glycogen content and recovered its protein resources. The nettle or burdock extracts administrating to animals that continued to receive high fat meal decreased the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and creatinine content, the liver

  11. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğrul, Armağan

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major worldwide health problem. Its prevalence is 1.5-2 times higher in diabetic population than that in non-diabetic individuals. Its pathogenesis depends on diabetic nephropathy in type 1, whereas may be multifactorial in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are most widely preferred in the treatment of hypertension because of their numerous desirable effects. In this article, the most recent data are presented on the relationshi...

  12. Association of serum sparc with insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, K.; Ahmed, U.; Arif, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of serum SPARC with insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Physiology department and CREAM lab, Army medical college, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Feb 2016 to Oct 2016. Material and Methods: Sixty individuals were recruited in this descriptive study. Thirty diagnosed cases of type- 2 DM were included, while thirty age and gender matched healthy individuals were included as controls through non-probability purposive sampling. Controls were labelled as group A, while cases were labelled as group B. Patients with type-1 DM, type-2 DM on insulin therapy, hyperglycemic states other than DM and inflammatory disorders were excluded from the study. Data were collected after informed and written consent. Blood samples were withdrawn under strict aseptic measures and serum was stored at -20 degree C. Serum insulin levels and serum SPARC levels were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Insulin resistance was determined using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and its value >1.5 was considered significant. Results: Fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in group B as compared with group A, supporting the diagnosis of type-2 DM. HOMA-IR values were greater than 1.5 in group B, thus establishing significant insulin resistance. Serum SPARC levels were significantly higher in group B than group A (17.7 ± 1.14 vs 8.7 ± 1.08 ng/ml) with p-value<0.001. Serum SPARC levels showed positive correlation with fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR values. Conclusion: Our study showed a positive correlation between serum SPARC levels and insulin resistance, which indicates that SPARC plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type-2 diabetes mellitus. (author)

  13. The role of insulin resistance in diabetic neuropathy in Koreans with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yu Na; Lee, Kee Ook; Jeong, Julie; Park, Hyung Jun; Kim, Seung-Min; Shin, Ha Young; Hong, Ji-Man; Ahn, Chul Woo; Choi, Young-Chul

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported that insulin resistance, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and glycaemic exposure Index are independently associated with peripheral neuropathy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We followed the patients who participated in that study in 2006 for another 6 years to determine the relationship between insulin resistance and neuropathy. This study involved 48 of the original 86 Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were referred to the Neurology clinic for the assessment of diabetic neuropathy from January 2006 to December 2006. These 48 patients received management for glycaemic control and prevention of diabetic complications in the outpatient clinic up to 2012. We reviewed blood test results and the nerve conduction study findings of these patients, taken over a 6-year period. Low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides significantly influenced the development of diabetic neuropathy. Kitt value (1/insulin resistance) in the previous study affected the occurrence of neuropathy, despite adequate glycaemic control with HbA1c resistance affected the development of diabetic neuropathy after 6 years: insulin resistance in 2006 showed a positive correlation with a change in sural sensory nerve action potential in 2012. Diabetic neuropathy can be affected by previous insulin resistance despite regular glycaemic control. Dyslipidaemia should be controlled in patients who show high insulin resistance because HDL cholesterol and triglycerides are strongly correlated with later development of diabetic neuropathy.

  14. Diabetes mellitus in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM frequency is a growing problem worldwide, because of long life expectancy and life style modifications. In old age (≥60–65 years old, DM is becoming an alarming public health problem in developed and even in developing countries as for some authors one from two old persons are diabetic or prediabetic and for others 8 from 10 old persons have some dysglycemia. DM complications and co-morbidities are more frequent in old diabetics compared to their young counterparts. The most frequent are cardiovascular diseases due to old age and to precocious atherosclerosis specific to DM and the most bothersome are visual and cognitive impairments, especially Alzheimer disease and other kind of dementia. Alzheimer disease seems to share the same risk factors as DM, which means insulin resistance due to lack of physical activity and eating disorders. Visual and physical handicaps, depression, and memory troubles are a barrier to care for DM treatment. For this, old diabetics are now classified into two main categories as fit and independent old people able to take any available medication, exactly as their young or middle age counterparts, and fragile or frail persons for whom physical activity, healthy diet, and medical treatment should be individualized according to the presence or lack of cognitive impairment and other co-morbidities. In the last category, the fundamental rule is "go slowly and individualize" to avoid interaction with poly medicated elder persons and fatal iatrogenic hypoglycemias in those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin.

  15. Is resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus? A register review in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Fengling; Jiang, Guanglu; Du, Jian; Li, Liang; Yue, Wentao; Harries, Anthony D; Gudmund Hinderaker, Sven; Lin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    China has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The objectives of this study were to determine the following in patients with culture-confirmed TB: 1) demographic characteristics and disease patterns in relation to the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and 2) presence or absence of drug resistance to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) or both in relation to duration of diabetes and control of diabetes. This is a cross-sectional and retrospective study involving record reviews. There were 621 patients with culture-positive TB, of whom 187 (30%) had previously known or new type 2 diabetes. In those with diabetes, there was a significantly higher proportion of males, persons aged ≥35 years and patients registered with new TB (pdiabetes. In patients with diabetes, there was no association of drug resistance with diabetes duration or disease control [assessed by fasting blood glucose (FBG) at 1 week]. A high proportion of patients with TB in a tertiary health facility, Beijing, China, had diabetes, but there was no association between type 2 diabetes and drug-resistant TB. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and its influence in the development of multidrug resistance tuberculosis in patients from southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Fuentes-Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with the presence of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the effect in the development of drug and multi-drug resistance, in a population with tuberculosis from the southeast of Mexico. This is a case-control study including 409 individuals, 146 with the binomial tuberculosis-type 2 diabetes mellitus and 263 individuals with tuberculosis. Demographic, epidemiological and outcome variables were collected. Risks were calculated. The factors associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus were age ≥35years, (OR=9.7; CI: 5.2-17.8), previous contact with a person infected with tuberculosis (OR=1.7; CI: 1.1-3.1). Body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) (OR=2.2; CI: 1.1-4.3), and inherited family history of diabetes (OR=5.4; CI: 3.2-9.2). It was also found that patients with tuberculosis-type 2 diabetes mellitus presented a 4.7-fold (CI: 1.4-11.3) and 3.5-fold (CI: 1.1-11.1) higher risk of developing drug- and multidrug resistance tuberculosis, respectively. By last, individuals with tuberculosis-type 2 diabetes had a 2.3-fold (CI: 1.5-4.1) greater chance of persisting as tuberculosis-positive by the second month of treatment, delaying the resolution of the tuberculosis infection. Type 2 diabetes exerts a strong influence on the presentation and evolution of tuberculosis within the analyzed population and displays remarkable particularities, necessitating the development of dedicated tuberculosis-diabetes surveillance systems that consider the particular epidemiological characteristics of the population affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance with NAFLD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengjun; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Hongmei

    2018-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a form of clinical syndrome characterized by the fatty degeneration in liver histology and should be further investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of blood glucose, serum chemerin and insulin resistance on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment thereof. In total, 300 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated and admitted into the Endocrinology Department of our hospital from June 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled and divided into the simple type 2 diabetes mellitus (group A) and concurrent NAFLD (group B) groups. The sex, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were compared between the two groups. The patients in group B were further divided into the mild fatty liver (group B1), moderate fatty liver (group B2) and severe fatty liver (group B3) groups. The sex, age, BMI blood pressure, blood biochemical indexes and chemerin level were also compared among the three groups. Finally, the risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD were analyzed via logistic regression. The BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-prandial plasma glucose (2hPG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-β indexes and serum chemerin level in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (Ptype 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by NAFLD is closely associated with severe glucose-lipid metabolism disorder and insulin resistance, and BMI, FPG, TC, LDL-c, FINS, HOMA-IR and chemerin constitute risk factors of concurrent NAFLD.

  18. Increased retinol-free RBP4 contributes to insulin resistance in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanmin; Lv, Ping; Du, Mengkai; Liang, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Menglin; Chen, Danqing

    2017-07-01

    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a circulating retinol transporter that is strongly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RBP4 and retinol level in rat model of gestational diabetes mellitus and the relationship between retinol-free RBP4 (apo-RBP4), retinol-bound RBP4 (holo-RBP4) and insulin resistance. Pregnant rats were administered streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The RBP4 and retinol levels were evaluated in GDM and normal pregnant rats. After then, normal pregnant rats were divided into two groups to receive either apo-RBP4 or vehicle injection. The metabolic parameters and insulin signaling in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver were determined in apo-RBP4 and control groups. Primary human adipocytes were cultured in vitro with different proportions of apo-RBP4 and holo-RBP4 for 24 h. The interaction between RBP4 and STRA6 was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, and the expression of JAK-STAT pathway and insulin signaling were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. We found increases in serum RBP4 levels and the RBP4:retinol ratio but not in the retinol levels in GDM rats. Exogenous apo-RBP4 injection attenuated insulin sensitivity in pregnant rats. In vitro, a prolonged interaction between RBP4 and STRA6 was observed when apo-RBP4 was present. In response to increased apo-RBP4 levels, cells showed elevated activation of the JAK2/STAT5 cascade and SOCS3 expression, decreased phosphorylation of IR and IRS1, and attenuated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake upon insulin stimulation. Apo-RBP4 is a ligand that activates the STRA6 signaling cascade, inducing insulin resistance in GDM.

  19. Association of Plasma Ghrelin Levels with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Saudi Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qarni, Ali Ahmed; Joatar, Faris Elbahi; Das, Nagalla; Awad, Mohamed; Eltayeb, Mona; Al-Zubair, Ahmed Gasim; Ali, Muhalab E.; Al Masaud, Abdulaziz; Shire, Abdirashid M.; Gumaa, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the exact mechanism of insulin resistance (IR) has not yet been established, IR is the hallmark characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and IR in Saudi subjects with T2DM. Methods Patients with T2DM (n=107, cases) and non-diabetic apparently healthy subjects (n=101, controls) from Saudi Arabia were included in this study. The biochemical profiles and plasma insulin levels of all subjects were analyzed, and IR was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Active ghrelin levels in plasma were measured using the radioimmunoassay technique. Results Only 46.7% (50 of 107) of the T2DM subjects had IR, including 26% (28 of 107) with severe IR (HOMA-IR ≥5), while 5.9% (six of 101) of the controls had moderate IR (3 ≤HOMA-IR HOMA-IR values were not associated with age, disease duration, or gender. Importantly, T2DM itself and the co-occurrence of IR with T2DM were significantly associated with low plasma ghrelin levels. However, ghrelin levels were inversely correlated with the HOMA-IR index, body weight, and fasting plasma insulin levels, mainly in the control subjects, which was indicative of the breakdown of metabolic homeostasis in T2DM. Conclusion The prevalence of IR was relatively low, and IR may be inversely associated with plasma ghrelin levels among Saudi patients with T2DM. PMID:28555463

  20. Intestinal microbiota and faecal transplantation as treatment modality for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udayappan, S. D.; Hartstra, A. V.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 is increasing rapidly around the globe. Recent insights have generated an entirely new perspective that the intestinal microbiota may play a significant role in the development of these metabolic disorders. Alterations in the intestinal

  1. Severe insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in patients with congenital muscle fiber type disproportion myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Klein, H H; Hansen, T

    1995-01-01

    . Insulin receptor function and glycogen synthase (GS) activity and expression were examined in biopsies of vastus lateralis muscle. Despite a 45-90-fold increase in both fasting and postprandial serum insulin levels, both CFTDM patients had diabetes mellitus. Clamp studies revealed that the oldest boy had...

  2. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes.

  3. Diabetes mellitus is associated with cavities, smear grade, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, M J; Kempker, R R; Kipiani, M; Gandhi, N R; Darchia, L; Tukvadze, N; Howards, P P; Narayan, K M V; Blumberg, H M

    2015-06-01

    National tuberculosis (TB) treatment facility in the country of Georgia. To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and pre-DM among patients with TB using glycosylated-hemoglobin (HbA1c), and to estimate the association between DM and clinical characteristics and response to anti-tuberculosis treatment. A cohort study was conducted from 2011 to 2014 at the National Centre for TB and Lung Disease in Tbilisi. Patients aged ⩾ 35 years with pulmonary TB were included. HbA1c was used to define DM (⩾ 6.5%), pre-DM (⩾ 5.7-6.4%), and no DM (tuberculosis treatment outcomes. A total of 318 newly diagnosed patients with TB were enrolled. The prevalence of DM and pre-DM was 11.6% and 16.4%, respectively. In multivariable analyses, patients with TB-DM had more cavitation (adjusted OR [aOR] 2.26), higher smear grade (aOR 2.37), and more multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) (aOR 2.27) than patients without DM. The risk of poor anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes was similar among patients with and those without DM (28.1% vs. 23.6%). DM and pre-DM were common among adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB in Tbilisi, Georgia, and DM was associated with more clinical symptoms, and MDR-TB, at presentation.

  4. Hypothyroidism associated with acromegaly and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in a Samoyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, T; Terzo, E; Mooney, C T

    2014-11-01

    The aetiology of insulin resistance (IR) in naturally occurring canine hypothyroidism is poorly understood and likely multifactorial. Excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) by transdifferentiated pituitary cells may contribute to IR in some hypothyroid dogs, but although this has been demonstrated in experimental studies, it has not yet been documented in clinical cases. A 4-year-old male entire Samoyed presented with an 8-month history of pedal hyperkeratosis and shifting lameness, which had been unresponsive to zinc supplementation, antibiotics and glucocorticoid therapy. The dog also exhibited exercise intolerance and polydipsia of 12 and 2 months duration, respectively. On physical examination, obesity, poor coat condition, widened interdental spaces and mild respiratory stridor were noted. Initial laboratory test results revealed concurrent hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus (DM). Further investigations showed IR, GH excess and a paradoxical increase of GH following stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case that suggests that GH alterations may have clinical significance in naturally occurring hypothyroidism. Among other factors, hypothyroidism-induced GH excess should be considered as a possible cause of IR in patients suffering from hypothyroidism and concurrent DM. In such cases, DM may reverse with treatment of hypothyroidism, as was documented in this case. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Postreceptor defects causing insulin resistance in normoinsulinemic non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinder, J.; Ostman, J.; Arner, P.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of the diminished hypoglycemic response to insulin in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) with normal levels of circulating plasma insulin were investigated. Specific binding of mono- 125 I (Tyr A14)-insulin to isolated adipocytes and effects of insulin (5--10,000 microunits/ml) on glucose oxidation and lipolysis were determined simultaneously in subcutaneous adipose tissue of seven healthy subjects of normal weight and seven untreated NIDDM patients with normal plasma insulin levels. The two groups were matched for age, sex, and body weight. Insulin binding, measured in terms of receptor number and affinity, was normal in NIDDM, the total number of receptors averaging 350,000 per cell. Neither sensitivity nor the maximum antilipolytic effect of insulin was altered in NIDDM patients as compared with control subjects; the insulin concentration producing half the maximum effect (ED50) was 10 microunits/ml. As regards the effect of insulin on glucose oxidation, for the control subjects ED50 was 30 microunits/ml, whereas in NIDDM patients, insulin exerted no stimulatory effect. The results obtained suggest that the effect of insulin on glucose utilization in normoinsulinemic NIDDM may be diminished in spite of normal insulin binding to receptors. The resistance may be due solely to postreceptor defects, and does not involve antilipolysis

  6. Diabetes mellitus and Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Polychronis, Sotirios; Wilson, Heather; Giordano, Beniamino; Ferrara, Nicola; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2018-04-06

    To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is associated with Parkinson-like pathology in people without Parkinson disease and to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on markers of Parkinson pathology and clinical progression in drug-naive patients with early-stage Parkinson disease. We compared 25 patients with Parkinson disease and diabetes mellitus to 25 without diabetes mellitus, and 14 patients with diabetes mellitus and no Parkinson disease to 14 healthy controls (people with no diabetes mellitus or Parkinson disease). The clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was confirmed by 2 consecutive fasting measurements of serum glucose levels >126 mL/dL. Over a 36-month follow-up period, we then investigated in the population with Parkinson disease whether the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression or cognitive decline. The presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with higher motor scores ( p Parkinson disease. In patients with diabetes but without Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with lower striatal dopamine transporter binding ( p Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression (hazard ratio = 4.521, 95% confidence interval = 1.468-13.926; p Parkinson-like pathology, and when present in patients with Parkinson disease, can induce a more aggressive phenotype. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus predict resistance to vitamin D replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayeb, Hala M; Wall, Barry M; Showkat, Arif; Mangold, Therese; Quarles, L Darryl

    2013-04-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is a marker of nutritional status; however, chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in alterations in vitamin D metabolism, including the loss of vitamin D-binding proteins and alterations in CYP27B1 and CYP24 enzymes that metabolize 25(OH)D. This study was designed to determine the predictors of responsiveness to correction of vitamin D deficiency with oral vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) in adults. A retrospective study of 183 veterans with 25(OH)D level vitamin D2, was performed. Logistic regression models were developed to determine the factors predicting the response to treatment, defined as either the change in serum 25(OH)D level/1000 IU of vitamin D2 or the number of vitamin D2 doses (50,000 IU per dose) administered. The mean age of the patients was 63 ± 12 years. About 87% were men and 51% diabetic, and 29% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of vitamin D2 doses was 10.91 ± 5.95; the average increase in 25(OH)D level was 18 ± 10.80 ng/mL. 25(OH)D levels remained vitamin D2 treatment in logistic regression models. Patients with CKD required greater amounts of vitamin D2 to achieve similar increases in 25(OH)D levels, versus non-CKD patients. The presence of CKD and diabetes mellitus is associated with resistance to correction of 25(OH)D deficiency with vitamin D2 therapy. The underlying mechanism needs to be evaluated in prospective studies.

  8. Diabetes Mellitus and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lisson, Rosa; Pacheco, José

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease with absolute or relative blood insulin deficit that results in hyperglicemia and glycosuria, increase in protein and fat catabolism and tendency to ketoacidosis. During pregnancy carbohydrate metabolism is affecter by the fetus (who cosumes maternal glucose and aminoacids), placental hormones (IICS, estrogens, progesterone) and cortisol, all having antiinsulinic effects. Gestational diabetes occurs in 3 to 6 per cent of pregnancies and is asso...

  9. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi AR Hadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadi AR Hadi, Jassim Al SuwaidiDepartment of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital – Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of Qatar; Department of Cardioscience, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, UAEAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in the presence of intensive glycemic control. Substantial clinical and experimental evidence suggest that both diabetes and insulin resistance cause a combination of endothelial dysfunctions, which may diminish the anti-atherogenic role of the vascular endothelium. Both insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction appear to precede the development of overt hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, in patients with diabetes or insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction may be a critical early target for preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Microalbuminuria is now considered to be an atherosclerotic risk factor and predicts future cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients, in elderly patients, as well as in the general population. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature cardiovascular mortality for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as for patients with essential hypertension. A complete biochemical understanding of the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia causes vascular functional and structural changes associated with the diabetic milieu still eludes us. In recent years, the numerous biochemical and metabolic pathways postulated to have a causal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease have been distilled into several unifying hypotheses. The role of chronic hyperglycemia in the development of diabetic microvascular complications and in neuropathy has been clearly established. However, the biochemical or cellular links between elevated blood glucose levels, and the vascular lesions remain

  10. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiwani, Aliya; Marseille, Elliot; Lohse, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), perinatal complications and long-term morbidity is gaining increased attention. However, the global burden of GDM and the existing responses are not fully understood. We aimed to assess country prevalence and to summarize...

  11. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, H David; Jensen, Dorte M; Jensen, Richard C

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes related to elevated fasting venous plasma glucose (FVPG) in a Danish pregnancy cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational cohort study including 1,516 women without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by Danish criteria...

  12. duration diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duration diabetes mellitus. 5 Afr Med J2001; 91: 987-992. found in 45.5% and nephropathy in 29.8% of cases.1O. In a recent reportlJ of an audit of primary health care servi es in Cape Town, a high prevalence of complications was fount; however ...

  13. The effect size of type 2 diabetes mellitus on tuberculosis drug resistance and adverse treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Navarro, Lucia Monserrat; Restrepo, Blanca I; Fuentes-Dominguez, Francisco Javier; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Morales-Romero, Jaime; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Comas, Iñaki; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect size of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes and multi drug resistance (MDR). A cohort with 507 individuals with diagnosed TB included 183 with coexistence of T2DM and TB (TB-T2DM). Participants were identified at the time of TB diagnosis and followed during the course of TB treatment. Then we computed relative risks and adjustments by Cox proportional hazards for outcome variables (drug resistance, death, relapse, treatment failure), and the size of their effect as Cohen's-d. Patients with TB-T2DM were more likely to remain positive for acid-fast bacilli after two months of anti-TB treatment RR = [2.01 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.1)], to have drug resistant (DR) [OR 3.5 (95% CI: 1.8, 6.7)] and multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB [OR 3.5 (95% CI: 1.8, 7.1)]. The Cohen's-d for DR or MDR in T2DM was 0.69 when compared with non-DM subjects. The T2DM patients had higher odds of resistance to isoniazid (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 2.01, 7.9), rifampicin (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6, 7.2) and pyrazinamide (OR 9.4, 95% CI: 2.8, 25.6), and their effect sizes were ≥0.67. Patients with TB-T2DM (versus no DM) were more likely to present with MDR TB (HR 3.1; 95% CI: 1.7, 5.8; p < 0.001), treatment failure (HR 2.04; 95% CI: 1.07, 3.8; p = 0.02) and relapse (HR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.1; p = 0.02), with effect size ≥0.34. T2DM showed a substantial contribution to the presence of DR or MDR-TB and to adverse clinical outcomes during and after TB treatment. Our findings support the importance for routine screening of T2DM among newly-diagnosed TB patients in order to stratify them for immediate DR assessment, and highlight the need for clinical trials to evaluate variations to the standard TB treatment in TB-T2DM to prevent adverse treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Insulineresistentie en diabetes mellitus type 2 bij kinderen met overgewicht [Insulin resistance and diabetes type 2 in overweight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renders, C.M.; Delemarre-van De Waal, H.A.; Dekker, J.M.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    De prevalentie van overgewicht en obesitas bij kinderen neemt snel toe. Deze toename zal gepaard gaan met meer vóórkomen van diabetes mellitus type 2 bij jeugdigen. De belangrijkste beïnvloedbare risicofactor voor het ontstaan van insulineresistentie bij jongeren is overgewicht. De diagnostische

  15. Ejercicio de resistencia muscular en adultos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Exercício de resistência muscular em adultos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Endurance training in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Asunción Muñoz Canché

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Probar la efectividad del ejercicio de resistencia muscular en las cifras de hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1c, en la fuerza muscular y en la fortaleza muscular percibida; explorar la influencia de la dieta, otros ejercicios, hipoglucemiantes y manifestaciones asociadas a episodios de hipoglucemia o hiperglucemia sobre el control glucémico de adultos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 provenientes de los consultorios de endocrinología de dos hospitales públicos de la Ciudad de Monterrey, México. Procedimientos básicos. Se usó un diseño de 12 semanas de grupo control no equivalente con dos grupos, experimental (n1 = 14 y control (n2 = 11. Los participantes contaron con la recomendación de su médico para participar. Las sesiones de ejercicio fueron de una hora, dos veces por semana. Resultados. El grupo experimental mostró decremento significativo en el porcentaje de HbA1c, e incremento en la fuerza muscular y fortaleza muscular percibida (p Objetivos: Provar a efetividade do exercício de resistência muscular nas taxas de hemoglobina A glicosilada (HbA1c, na força muscular e no fortalecimento muscular percebido, explorar a influência da dieta, outros exercícios, hipoglicemiantes e manifestações associadas a episódios de hipoglicemia ou hiperglicemia sobre o controle glicêmico de adultos com diabetes mellitus tipo 2, provenientes dos consultórios de endocrinologia de dois hospitales públicos da Cidade de Monterrey, México. Procedimentos básicos: Foi utilizado um desenho de 12 semanas de grupo controle não equivalente com dois grupos, experimental (n1=14 e controle (n2=11. Os participantes tiveram recomendação de seu médico para participar. As sessões de exercício foram de uma hora, duas vezes por semana. Resultados: O grupo experimental apresentou decréscimo significativo nas taxas de HbA1c, incremento na força muscular e fortalecimento muscular percebido (pObjectives. Test the effects of an endurance training

  16. Cardiovascular consequences of diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Baan (Caroline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDiabetes mellitus comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that have one common feature: abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. The most common form is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NlDDM); about 80-90% of all diabetic patients has

  17. Sympathetic reflex control of resistance in collateral arteries in the lower extremities in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, K; Tønnesen, K H

    1982-01-01

    The vascular response in the lower extremities to 40 degrees head-up tilt was studied in 5 patients with occlusion of the superficial femoral artery and maturity onset diabetes mellitus with symptoms suggesting autonomic neuropathy. The pressure measurements were performed via catheters placed...... in the brachial artery, femoral artery and vein and popliteal artery and vein. Relative blood flow was calculated as the relative change in arterio-venous oxygen saturation. Absolute blood flow in the common femoral artery was measured by an indicator dilution technique. Resistance of the collateral arteries...

  18. Frequency of Cutaneous Fungal Infections and Azole Resistance of the Isolates in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Raiesi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic patients are more susceptible to cutaneous fungal infections. The higher blood sugar levels cause increasing the cutaneous fungal infections in these patients. The main objective of this study was to find the frequency of fungal infections among cutaneous lesions of diabetic patients and to investigate azole antifungal agent susceptibility of the isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study, type 1diabetes (n = 78 and type 2 diabetes (n = 44 comprised 47 cases (38.5% with diabetic foot ulcers and 75 cases (61.5% with skin and nail lesions were studied. Fungal infection was confirmed by direct examination and culture methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing by broth microdilution method was performed according to the CLSI M27-A and M38-A references. Results: Out of 122 diabetic patients, thirty (24.5% were affected with fungal infections. Frequency of fungal infection was 19.1% in patients with diabetic foot ulcer and 28% of patients with skin and nail lesions. Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus were the most common species isolated from thirty patients with fungal infection, respectively. Susceptibility testing carried out on 18 representative isolates (13 C. albicans, five C. glabrata revealed that 12 isolates (10 C. albicans and two C. glabrata isolates (66.6% were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥64 mg/ml to fluconazole (FCZ. Likewise, eight isolates (80% of Aspergillus spp. were resistant (MIC ≥4 mg/ml, to itraconazole. Conclusion: Our finding expands current knowledge about the frequency of fungal infections in diabetic patients. We noted the high prevalence of FCZ-resistant Candida spp., particularly in diabetic foot ulcers. More attention is important in diabetic centers about this neglected issue.

  19. Neuromuscular complications of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Vera

    2014-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become a modern global epidemic, with steadily increasing prevalence rates related to lifestyle such that 27% of individuals aged 65 years or older have diabetes mellitus, 95% of whom have type 2. This article reviews the effects of diabetes mellitus on the neuromuscular system. Diabetes mellitus leads to diverse forms of peripheral neuropathy as the major neuromuscular complication. Both focal and diffuse types of neuropathy can develop, with the most common form being diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Small fibers are damaged early in the development of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy and are not assessed by nerve conduction studies. Small fiber damage occurs even in the prediabetes stage. No disease-modifying therapy for diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy is available at this time, but this complication can be limited in patients who have type 1 diabetes mellitus with strict glycemic control; the same outcome is not clearly observed in patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, the evidence base for symptomatic treatments of painful diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy underwent systematic review. Effective evidence-based treatments include some anticonvulsants (eg, pregabalin, gabapentin), antidepressants (eg, amitriptyline, duloxetine), opioids (eg, morphine sulfate, oxycodone), capsaicin cream, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. This article reviews the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy and discusses recent consensus opinion on the objective confirmation needed for the diagnosis in the clinical research setting. The evidence from clinical trials shows that intensive glycemic control reduces prevalence of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, but variable outcomes are observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Finally, despite the lack of disease-modifying treatment, effective evidence-based therapy can

  20. Diabetes mellitus is associated with cavities, smear grade, and multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Matthew J; Kempker, Russell R; Kipiani, Maia; Gandhi, Neel R; Darchia, Lasha; Tukvadze, Nestan; Howards, Penelope P; Venkat Narayan, KM; Blumberg, Henry M

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting National tuberculosis (TB) treatment facility, country of Georgia. Objective To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and pre-DM among patients with TB using glycosylated-hemoglobin (HbA1c), and to estimate the association between DM and clinical characteristics and response to TB therapy. Design A cohort study was conducted (2011–2014) at the National Center for TB and Lung Disease in Tbilisi. Patients ≥35 years with pulmonary TB were included. HbA1c was used to define DM (≥6.5%), pre-DM (≥5.7%–6.4%), and no DM (Diabetes and pre-DM were common among adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB in Tbilisi, Georgia and DM was associated with more clinical symptoms at presentation including MDR-TB. PMID:25946360

  1. Melatonin supplementation plus exercise behavior ameliorate insulin resistance, hypertension and fatigue in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kwon, Han-Sol; Kim, Myung-Jin; Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Oak, Min-Ho; Kim, Do-Hyung

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the effects of melatonin and exercise on insulin resistance (IR), hypertension and fatigue syndrome in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Rats were divided into 5 groups namely normal control (NC), T2DM control group (DC), diabetes plus exercise (DE), diabetes plus oral melatonin supplement (DM) and diabetes plus melatonin and exercise (DME) groups. Melatonin was administered orally 5mg/kg twice daily and 40min swimming/day 5days/week were regimented after diabetes induction. Blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, IR, serum leptin, lipid profiles, inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation increased significantly (Pmelatonin ameliorated markedly hypertension, IR, biochemical alteration induced by diabetes and significantly increased exercise performance (PMelatonin supplementation in combination with exercise behavior may ameliorate IR, hypertension and exercise performance or fatigue possibly by improving antioxidative activities, hyperlipidemia, inflammatory cytokines via up-regulation of GLUT4, PGC-1 α and mitochondrial biogenesis in T2DM rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation retinopathy in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, S.P.; Joshi, A.V.; Banerjee, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    A case of radiation retinopathy in a diabetic individual who received a total dose of 45 Gy for lymphoblastic lymphoma of the orbit is reported. The relationship between radiation retinopathy and diabetes mellitus is discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Changes of serum leptin and their relationships with insulin resistance in patients with simple obesity and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Changzhou Wujin People's Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Changzhou; Shi Linlin; Lu Dan; Zhang Lei; Wang Qing; Yao Wenhua

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum leptin in patients with simple obesity and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with obesity in order to explore the relationship of leptin and insulin resistance and the role of leptin in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 60 cases of simple obesity, 60 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 30 cases of normal control were included according to the diagnostic criteria of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. the levels of fasting serum leptin, fasting serum insulin, fasting glucose, fasting blood lipid were measured in all cases. The body mass index (BMI) and insulin action index were calculated. Results: The level of BMI, serum leptin, serum insulin, blood lipid were significantly higher in patients with simple obesity and with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with obesity than in normal control cases, while (IAI) was significantly lower. The levels of free serum leptin, serum insulin, free glucose, and blood lipid were significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with obesity than in patients with simple obesity, while IAI was significantly lower. The level of serum leptin was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.48, P<0.55) and fasting serum leptin (r=0.55, P<0.05) and negatively correlated with IAI (r=-0.47, P<0.05) in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with obesity. Conclusion: The overexpression of serum leptin may play an important role in the occurrence of the insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obesity patients. (authors)

  4. Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Montagnani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporotic fractures are major causes of mortality and morbidity in older subjects. Recent reports have revealed close association between fracture risk and DM types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively. Aim of this review is to highlight the importance of these diseases in the elderly and examine certain etiopathogenetic aspects of DM associated osteoporosis, which could be useful in management of diabetic patients. Materials and methods: We searched the Embase and PubMed databases using diabetes, osteoporosis, and bone mineral density (BMD as search terms and 1989-2009 as publication dates. Discussion: The risk of fractures seems to be increased in both types of DM although DM2 seems to be associated with normal-high BMDs compared with the normal population. This apparent paradox could reflect greater bone frailty in diabetic patients that are unrelated to adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia, deposition of advanced glycosylation end products in collagen, reduced serum IGF-1 levels, hypercalciuria, renal failure, microangiopathy, and/or inflammation. Diabetic patients’ propensity to fall and multiple comorbidities might also explain their higher fracture rates. The effects of drugs that inhibit bone resorption in diabetic patients are probably similar to those obtained in nondiabetics although there is little information on this issue. In general, effective treatment of diabetes has positive effects on bone metabolism. Metformin acts directly on bone tissue, reducing AGE accumulation, and insulin has direct effects on osteoclast activity. In contrast, the thiazolidinediones seem to have negative effects since they orient mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation toward adipose rather than bone tissue. Incretin therapy is a newer approach that appears to modify interactions between nutrition and bone turnover (e.g., postprandial suppression of bone resorption. Conclusions: Better understanding of how

  5. Interleukin-18 resistance in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilverschoon, G.R.; Tack, C.J.J.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Netea, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has been recently demonstrated to improve experimental hyperphagia and insulin resistance. Paradoxically, concentrations of circulating IL-18 in obese subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes are increased. The objective of this study is to provide an

  6. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...... that multiple antidiabetic agents, used in combination, will be required to maintain normoglycaemia. The treatment must not only be effective and safe but also improve the quality of life. Several novel medications are in development, but the greatest need is for agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, halt...

  7. Relationship of Soluble RAGE with Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function during Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Kumar Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE alter in prediabetes and correlate with insulin resistance (IR and beta cell function in prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Subjects without previous history of diabetes were recruited and grouped as control, prediabetes, and newly diagnosed T2DM. The control subjects (n=40 and people with prediabetes (n=52 and diabetes (n=66 were similar in terms of age, sex, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP, and fasting insulin level. HOMA-IR was found significantly higher in people with diabetes than control subjects (p<0.001 and people with prediabetes (p=0.005; and HOMA-%B was found significantly deteriorated in people with diabetes (p<0.001 compared to control subjects and people with prediabetes. However, serum sRAGE levels did not show any significant alteration in people with prediabetes compared to control subjects. Moreover, univariate and multivariate analyses did not identify any significant correlation and statistical association of sRAGE with HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B in people with prediabetes and newly diagnosed T2DM. Our data suggest that serum sRAGE levels do not alter in people with prediabetes compared to control subjects and do not correlate or associate with IR and beta cell function during development of T2DM.

  8. Diabetes Mellitus and Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Durmuş

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of bone fragility resulting from micro-architectural deterioration and decreased bone mass. Studies on the presence of a generalized osteoporosis related to diabetes mellitus (DM are few and controversial. Factors associated with osteoporosis diabetes in which may account for the patogenesis of diabetic bone loss have been studied. This article will review the relevant litarature relating to diabetes and osteoporosis including cellular and animal models. These studies include vascular and neuropathic mechanism, poor glisemic control, abnormalities of calcium and vitamin D metabolism and hypercalciuria with secondary increase in parathyroid hormone secretion, the role of insülin and insülin like growth factor I. It appears that there is a great deal of variability in the bone mineral density and fracture rates in both type I and type II DM. This may reflect multiple factors such as the population, age, duration of diabetes and insülin use. There is need for further longitudinal studies, including the incidence and risk factors for osteoporosis in DM.

  9. Plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jin; Yoo, Kwang-Ha; Park, Hyung-Suk; Chung, Sang-Man; Jin, Choon-Jo; Lee, Yoen; Shin, Young-Goo; Chung, Choon-Hee

    2005-02-28

    Insulin resistance, which implies impairment of insulin signaling in the target tissues, is a common cause of type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue plays an important role in insulin resistance through the dysregulated production and secretion of adipose-derived proteins, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, resistin, angiotensinogen, and adiponectin. Adiponectin was estimated to be a protective adipocytokine against atherosclerosis, and also to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the relationship between fasting plasma adiponectin concentration and adiposity, body composition, insulin sensitivity (ITT, HOMAIR, QUICK), lipid profile, fasting insulin concentration were examined in Korean type 2 diabetes. The difference in the adiponectin concentrations was also examined in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, with adjustment for gender, age and body mass index. 102 type 2 diabetics and 50 controls were examined. After a 12-h overnight fast, all subjects underwent a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. Baseline blood samples were drawn for the determinations of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. The body composition was estimated using a bioelectric impedance analyzer (Inbody 2.0). The insulin sensitivity was estimated using the insulin tolerance test (ITT), HOMAIR and QUICK methods. In the diabetic group, the fasting adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in men than in women. They were negatively correlated with BMI (r=-0.453), hip circumference (r=-0.341), fasting glucose concentrations (r=-0.277) and HOMAIR (r= -0.233). In addition, they were positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r=0.321) and HDL-cholesterol (r= 0.291). The systolic blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol were found to be independent variables, from a multiple logistic regression analysis, which influenced the adiponectin concentration

  10. Combination of a structured aerobic and resistance exercise improves glycaemic control in pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklempe Kokic, Iva; Ivanisevic, Marina; Biolo, Gianni; Simunic, Bostjan; Kokic, Tomislav; Pisot, Rado

    2017-10-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus, defined as any carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed during pregnancy, is associated with a variety of adverse outcomes, both for the mother and her child. To investigate the impact of a structured exercise programme which consisted of aerobic and resistance exercises on the parameters of glycaemic control and other health-related outcomes in pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Thirty-eight pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus were randomised to two groups. Experimental group was treated with standard antenatal care for gestational diabetes mellitus, and regular supervised exercise programme plus daily brisk walks of at least 30min. Control group received only standard antenatal care for gestational diabetes mellitus. The exercise programme was started from the time of diagnosis of diabetes until birth. It was performed two times per week and sessions lasted 50-55min. The experimental group had lower postprandial glucose levels at the end of pregnancy (Pexercise programme had a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose levels at the end of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Obesity and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron'ko, N D; Zak, K P

    2013-12-01

    New literature data and the results of own researches concerning the role of excessive body weight and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans are presented in the analytical review. Inaccordance with current insights, obesity and type 2 diabetes are considered diseases of inflammatory nature, characterized by systemic chronic low-grade inflammation, where different kinds of cytokines are cardinally involved. Unfavourable life style, i.e. excessive, high-energy, and irrational nutrition--an excessive consumption of animal fats and foods containing the high amount of glucose and starch with an insufficient use of high fiber vegetables, fish and vitamin D, and also sedentary, inactive life style leads to adipocyte hypertrophy and migration of M1 macrophages into the adipose tissue (AT). As a result, there is a low-grade inflammation accompanied by an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, etc.), adipokines (leptin, resistin, visfatin etc.) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL26 and CX3C). Under the influence of these cytokines, on the one hand, IR "is emerged", and on the other--there is apoptosis of the β-cells, that should be followed by the occurrence of clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes. However, there is also the opposite system in humans, protecting the organism from the development of type 2 diabetes, and including an increase in the formation of M2 macrophages and the increased formation of secretion of antidiabetic cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, etc.) and adiponectin.

  12. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  13. Relationship of Soluble RAGE with Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function during Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subrata Kumar; Mohtarin, Sabreena; Mudi, Sonchita Rani; Anwar, Taznuva; Banu, Laila Anjuman; Alam, Sheikh Md Khorshed; Fariduddin, Md; Arslan, M Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether circulating levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) alter in prediabetes and correlate with insulin resistance (IR) and beta cell function in prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subjects without previous history of diabetes were recruited and grouped as control, prediabetes, and newly diagnosed T2DM. The control subjects (n = 40) and people with prediabetes (n = 52) and diabetes (n = 66) were similar in terms of age, sex, BMI, systolic and diastolic BP, and fasting insulin level. HOMA-IR was found significantly higher in people with diabetes than control subjects (p alteration in people with prediabetes compared to control subjects. Moreover, univariate and multivariate analyses did not identify any significant correlation and statistical association of sRAGE with HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B in people with prediabetes and newly diagnosed T2DM. Our data suggest that serum sRAGE levels do not alter in people with prediabetes compared to control subjects and do not correlate or associate with IR and beta cell function during development of T2DM.

  14. The Effects of Diabetes Mellitus on the Relationship Between Myocardial Adenosine Production and Coronary Vascular Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-13

    However, in the cat , Segal and McKenzie (1986) were able to b l ock sympathetically - mediated coronary vasospasm with the alpha1 blocker... cat with int r acoronary prazosin adminis t ration, but there was a regional change in coronary vascular resistance. It can be concluded from the...acids into the circulation by increasing glycogenolysis , lipolysis, and protein catabolism in liver, skeletal muscle, and fat. In diabetes, the

  15. Complement Factor 3 is associated with insulin resistance and with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus over a 7-year follow-up period: the CODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wlazlo, N.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Ferreira, I.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Bravenboer, B.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Immune dysregulation can affect insulin resistance (IR) and b-cell function and hence contribute to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The complement system, as a regulator of immune and inflammatory homeostasis, may be a relevant contributor therein. However, longitudinal

  16. Insulin resistance in multiple tissues in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether insulin resistance is present in lean patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus on long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), compared with matched healthy controls. We studied eight patients (four men and four women) with

  17. [Mental disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group.

  18. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of complications for mother and child. Along with the growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of gestational diabetes is expected to rise. With adequate and timely treatment, the risk of complications is reduced.

  19. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from...... for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed....

  20. Urineweginfecties bij vrouwen met diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, S. E.; Meiland, R.; Hoepelman, I. M.

    2001-01-01

    Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) more frequently than women without DM. For type 1 diabetes mellitus, risk factors for asymptomatic bacteriuria include a longer duration of diabetes, peripheral neuropathy and macroalbuminuria.

  1. Health status of older adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus after aerobic or resistance training: A randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Su-Yen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prior study showed positive effects of resistance training on health status in individuals with diabetes compared to aerobic or no exercise, the exercise regimens were either different in volume, duration or rate of progression. We aimed to compare the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT or aerobic training (AT of similar volume over an 8-week period on health status (measured using the Short-form 36 Questionnaire in middle aged adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Findings Sixty subjects aged 58 (7 years were randomised to PRT (n = 30 or AT (n = 30. General health and vitality were significantly improved in both groups (mean (SD change scores for PRT were 12.2(11.5 and 10.5(18.2, and for AT, 13.3(19.6 and 10.0(13.1, respectively and exceeded the minimally important difference of 5 points. The PRT group also had improved physical function and mental health status (mean (SD change scores: 9.0(22.6, p Conclusions Both exercise regimens have positive impact on health status that correlated well with clinical improvement in patients with T2DM. PRT may have some additional benefits as there were significant changes in more domains of the SF-36 than that observed for the AT group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01000519

  2. A transcriptional signature of "exercise resistance" in skeletal muscle of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Natalie A; Xie, Hui; Johannsen, Neil M; Church, Timothy S; Smith, Steven R; Sparks, Lauren M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise benefits most, but not all, individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to determine whether a proportion of individuals with T2DM would fail to demonstrate exercise-induced metabolic improvements. We hypothesized that this lack of response would be related to their skeletal muscle transcriptional profile. 42 participants with T2DM from the previously reported HART-D study underwent a 9-month supervised exercise intervention. We performed a principal components analysis to distinguish Responders from Non-Responders (n=9 each) based on: decreases in (1) HbA1c, (2) %fat (3) BMI and (4) increase in skeletal muscle mtDNA. mRNA expression patterns in muscle tissue at baseline were assessed by microarray and qRT-PCR analysis in both groups. Of 186 genes identified by microarray analysis, 70% were up-regulated in Responders and down-regulated in Non-Responders. Several genes involved in substrate metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis were significantly different (fold-change>1.5, pexercise response in metabolic outcomes, thus allowing exercise interventions to be targeted to these individuals and aid in the identification of novel approaches to treat Non-Responders in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnosis dan Kelasifikasi Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad H. Asdie, Ahmad H. Asdie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presented the main recommendations for the definition and classification.of diabetes mellitus and of impaired glucose intolerance in non-pregnant adults.Diabetes mellitus is not a disease in the classical sense but is more probably a syndrome best characterized as a state of chronic hyperglycemia of various etiology. It may present with acute symptoms that include polyuria, polydipsia and unexplained weight loss and these can progress to life threatening ketoacidosis or hyperosmola...

  4. Diabetic retinopathy - ocular complications of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwich, Martin M; Ulbig, Michael W

    2015-04-15

    In industrialized nations diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and the most common cause of blindness in the working-age population. In the next 15 years, the number of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus is expected to increase significantly. By the year 2030, about 440 million people in the age-group 20-79 years are estimated to be suffering from diabetes mellitus worldwide (prevalence 7.7%), while in 2010 there were 285 million people with diabetes mellitus (prevalence 6.4%). This accounts for an increase in patients with diabetes in industrialized nations by 20% and in developing countries by 69% until the year 2030. Due to the expected rise in diabetic patients, the need for ophthalmic care of patients (i.e., exams and treatments) will also increase and represents a challenge for eye-care providers. Development of optimized screening programs, which respect available resources of the ophthalmic infrastructure, will become even more important. Main reasons for loss of vision in patients with diabetes mellitus are diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Incidence or progression of these potentially blinding complications can be greatly reduced by adequate control of blood glucose and blood pressure levels. Additionally, regular ophthalmic exams are mandatory for detecting ocular complications and initiating treatments such as laser photocoagulation in case of clinical significant diabetic macular edema or early proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In this way, the risk of blindness can considerably be reduced. In advanced stages of diabetic retinopathy, pars-plana vitrectomy is performed to treat vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. In recent years, the advent of intravitreal medication has improved therapeutic options for patients with advanced diabetic macular edema.

  5. Diabetes Mellitus and Epigenetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Engin Eser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is an important disease caused by insulin deficiency or insulin receptor resistance and characterized by hyperglycemia. The prevalence rate of DM is increasing rapidly worldwide and its associated complications affect the quality of life of patients adverse­ly. In addition, high medical costs for its treatment bring significant economic load on countries. Epigenetics is the reversible modifications on the genome, which lead to changes in gene expression without any alteration in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications can easily be affected by environmental factors and abnormalities in these modifications have been linked to many diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we will summarize the relationship of DM and its complications with DNA and RNA methylation, which are among the most important modifications.

  6. Immediate effect of passive static stretching versus resistance exercises on postprandial blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudut, Peeyoosha; Rajan, Abey P

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. In India, more than 61.3 million people have been presently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is possible to control the circulating blood glucose levels by reducing life style risk factors through physical activities comprising of muscle stretches, aerobic training, resistance exercises (REs), yoga, etc. The aim of this study is to identify and compare the immediate effect of passive static stretching (PSS) versus RE on blood glucose level in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study included 51 participants between the age of 40-65 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus, to study the immediate effect of 60-min PSS (n=25) and 60-min RE (n=26). The outcome measure was blood glucose level which was checked by glucometer (free-style neo). Blood sugar was assessed at 3 points of time that included fasting blood sugar level, 2 hr after the meal and immediately after the exercise regimen. Results of this study showed significant reduction in blood glucose level in subjects according to glucometer with PSS ( P =0.000) and RE ( P =0.00). However, both groups demonstrated equal effect in terms of lowering blood sugar level immediately after the exercise. The conclusion is both PSS and RE are effective in reducing postprandial blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mellitus and must be prescribed for the patients who demonstrate difficulty in controlling post prandial spike.

  7. Extracellular vesicles in obesity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Fabián; Villalobos-Labra, Roberto; Sobrevia, Bastián; Toledo, Fernando; Sobrevia, Luis

    2018-04-01

    Cell-to-cell communication happens via diverse mechanisms including the synthesis, release and transfer to target cells of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs include nanovesicles (i.e., exosomes) and microvesicles, including apoptotic bodies. The amount and cargo of released EVs, which consist of microRNAs (miRNAs), mRNA, proteins, DNA, among other molecules, are altered in obesity and diabetes mellitus. EVs from these diseases show with altered cargo including several miRNAs and the enrichment with molecules involved in inflammation, immune efficiency, and cell activation. The role of EVs in obesity regards with adipocytes-released vesicles that may end in a systemic insulin resistance. In diabetes mellitus, the exosomes cargo may signal to transform a normal phenotype into a diabetic phenotype in endothelial cells. The evidence of EVs as modulators of cell function is increasing; however, it is still unclear whether exosomes or microvesicles are a trustable and useful marker for the diagnose or early detection of obesity or diabetes mellitus. In this review, we summarise the reported information regarding EVs involvement in obesity, T1 and T2 diabetes mellitus, and gestational diabetes mellitus. We emphasise the fact that studies addressing a potential effect of obesity or diabetes mellitus on cell function and the severity of the diseases are done in patients suffering simultaneously with both of these diseases, i.e., diabesity. Unfortunately, the lack of information regarding the biological effects and the potential involved mechanisms makes difficult to understand the role of the EVs as a marker of these and perhaps other diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiac Outcomes After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: Effects of Pioglitazone in Patients With Insulin Resistance Without Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lawrence H; Viscoli, Catherine M; Curtis, Jeptha P; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Schwartz, Gregory G; Lovejoy, Anne M; Furie, Karen L; Gorman, Mark J; Conwit, Robin; Abbott, J Dawn; Jacoby, Daniel L; Kolansky, Daniel M; Pfau, Steven E; Ling, Frederick S; Kernan, Walter N

    2017-05-16

    Insulin resistance is highly prevalent among patients with atherosclerosis and is associated with an increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. The IRIS trial (Insulin Resistance Intervention after Stroke) demonstrated that pioglitazone decreased the composite risk for fatal or nonfatal stroke and MI in patients with insulin resistance without diabetes mellitus, after a recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The type and severity of cardiac events in this population and the impact of pioglitazone on these events have not been described. We performed a secondary analysis of the effects of pioglitazone, in comparison with placebo, on acute coronary syndromes (MI and unstable angina) among IRIS participants. All potential acute coronary syndrome episodes were adjudicated in a blinded fashion by an independent clinical events committee. The study cohort was composed of 3876 IRIS participants, mean age 63 years, 65% male, 89% white race, and 12% with a history of coronary artery disease. Over a median follow-up of 4.8 years, there were 225 acute coronary syndrome events, including 141 MIs and 84 episodes of unstable angina. The MIs included 28 (19%) with ST-segment elevation. The majority of MIs were type 1 (94, 65%), followed by type 2 (45, 32%). Serum troponin was 10× to 100× upper limit of normal in 49 (35%) and >100× upper limit of normal in 39 (28%). Pioglitazone reduced the risk of acute coronary syndrome (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.94; P =0.02). Pioglitazone also reduced the risk of type 1 MI (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.96; log-rank P =0.03), but not type 2 MI (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.91; P =0.87). Similarly, pioglitazone reduced the risk of large MIs with serum troponin >100× upper limit of normal (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.87; P =0.02), but not smaller MIs. Among patients with insulin resistance without diabetes mellitus

  9. Tanshinone I alleviates insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats through IRS-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying; Gao, Jiaqi; Qin, Lingling; Xu, Yunling; Wang, Dongchao; Shi, Haoxia; Xu, Tunhai; Liu, Tonghua

    2017-09-01

    Tanshinone I from tanshen has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. Given the link between inflammation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we suspect that tanshinone I may have a beneficial effect on T2DM. This study was to investigate the potential effects of tanshinone I on T2DM and its underlying mechanism. T2DM was thus induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat diet. It was observed that T2DM rats had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), total triglyceride (TG) and total low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared with normal, healthy SD rats. Treatment with tanshinone I decreased these levels and lowered blood glucose level in T2DM rats. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that T2DM rats had elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that T2DM rats had enhanced nuclear translocation of NF-κB as well as elevated phosphorylation of Ser307 in IRS-1(insulin receptor substrate 1). Treatment by tanshinone I lowered the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB as well as phosphorylation of Ser307 in IRS-1. These results demonstrated that tanshinone I could alleviate T2DM syndrome in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychosocial determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Amin, M.K.; Ahmad, I.; Amer, H.; Shoaib, H.; Ibrahim, H.; Tayyab, M.; Hassan, M.; Javaid, M.A.; Rehman, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 , formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency1. The development of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is associated with multiple risk factors, co-morbid medical conditions as well as psychosocial determinants. These psychosocial factors, which differ from population to population, can be identified and controlled to reduce the incidence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Objective: To identify various psychosocial factors associated with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration: Diabetic clinic and Medical Units Mayo Hospital Lahore . July to December, 2012. Subjects and Methods: A population based case-control study with 1:1 case to control ratio was conducted. A total of 100 subjects (50 cases and 50 controls) having age above 35 years were recruited in the study. Selection was made on laid down criteria from patients coming to Mayo Hospital Lahore after taking consent. Interviews were conducted through a pretested questionnaire. Data was collected, compiled and analyzed through IBM SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 100 study subjects 67% were males and 33% were females. Among cases of Diabetes mellitus type 2, 64% were males, 70% in the age group 35-50 years, 96% were married, 36% were illiterates. Mean age was found 49.24, standard deviation 10.915. In bivariate analysis, Diabetes Mellitus type II was found significantly associated with Anxiety(OR: 5.348, 95% CI: 2.151-13.298) Depression(OR: 5.063, 95% CI: 1.703-15.050), High fat diet, (OR: 2.471, 95% CI: 1.100-5.547) Sedentary Lifestyle(OR: 4.529, 95% CI: 1.952-10.508) and Psychological Stress(OR:4.529, 95% CI: 1.952-10.508). However, in multivariate analysis while controlling all other risk factors, Anxiety(OR: 6.066, 95% CI: 1.918-19.191), High fat diet(OR: 3.648, 95% CI: 1

  11. [Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliz, Monika; Olszewska-Czyz, Iwona; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies confirm correlation between periodontitis and systemic diseases such as: arteriosclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, diseases of the respiratory system, kidney diseases, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, premature birth and low birth weight. The interaction between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus is described, based on the literature.

  12. Diabetes mellitus, maar welk type?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, J. B.; de Koning, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    In three patients with an unusual presentation of diabetes mellitus, the classification of their diabetes was troublesome. An adolescent male with slightly elevated blood-glucose levels turned out to have excellent glycaemic control on sulphonylurea derivatives only. When he was 40 years of age, his

  13. The effect of 8 weeks of Circuit Resistance Training on metabolic syndrome risk factors and body composition in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Amene Azarmehr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM increased significantly in the last three decades, and effective strategies to manage and prevent this disease are urgently needed. Physical activity and exercise training is an effective way for metabolic syndrome risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. However, the effects of Circuit Resistance Training (CRT program on patients T2DM are unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigation the effect of 8 weeks of Circuit resistance training (CRT on metabolic syndrome and body composition in women over age 50 with T2DM. Methods: Twenty women over 50 years old with diabetes Referred to diabetes Center of 17 Shahrivar hospital in Amol and they were divided randomly into two groups; Circuit resistance (n=10 and Control (n=10. Resistance training consisted of 10 stations for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week (Intensity 60-80% 1RM. Levels of Lipid profile and body composition before and after eight weeks training in both groups were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out by SPSS (v. 22. Results Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS levels (P=0.021, Triglycerides (0.010, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.042, significant decreased in CRT. Also after 8 weeks circuit resistance training, BMI (P= 0.003, WHR (P=0.004 and body fat present (0.019 significant decreased in CRT. Conclusion: According to our results, CRT was an effective approach to improve the Anthropometrics, FBS, lipid profile in women over age 50 with diabetes mellitus type 2. Moreover, CRT did have influence on LDL level.  Keywords: Circuit resistance training, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, body composition

  14. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma and diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance or frank diabetes mellitus is known to occur more frequently in patients with pancreatic cancer than in the general population. At the time of the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, more than 70% of patients taking the glucose tolerance test show diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (1). Relationship among diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer is vague but sure, although neither the nature nor the sequence of the possible cause – effect relationship has been established. The reason for the high frequency of glucose intolerance in patients with pancreatic cancer remains controversial. (author)

  15. Visfatin in overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis and systemic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Chang, Dao-Ming; Lin, Kun-Cheng; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Lee, Yau-Jiunn

    2011-09-01

    There are controversies regarding the association of visfatin with overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in published articles. A meta-analysis was performed to identify the significance of visfatin in these diseases. We searched for relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus and SCIE. A total of 1035 articles were surveyed and 46 articles were identified, with 14 reports reporting more than one of our investigated diseases. A total of 13 (n = 644), 19 (n = 2405), 20 (n = 2249), 5 (n = 527) and 5 (n = 851) articles/(participants) were included in each meta-analysis regarding the association of visfatin and overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Plasma visfatin concentrations were increased in participants diagnosed with overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, with pooled log odds ratios of 1.164 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.348 to 1.981, p = 0.005], 1.981 (95% CI: 1.377 to 2.584, p diabetes status, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Diabetes Mellitus and the Musculoskeletal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monu, Johnny V.J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease with systemic manifestations. Occurrence is increasing worldwide from 153m to 347m from 1980 to 2011. Traditionally there are two main types: Insulin dependent or juvenile diabetes and non-insulin dependent or Maturity onset or insulin resistant diabetes. Gestational diabetes the second type of diabetes is increasingly seen in young patients and it evolves into insulin dependence. Obesity is causally related to type II diabetes. Diabetes Mellitus affects appendicular and peripheral structures more commonly – ankle and feet. Diabetes in the MSK System effects manifested as congenital problems, Peripheral neuropathy, Peripheral vasculopathy Infections and Connective tissue changes. The disease target Structures like Cardio-vascular system, Central nervous system (brain, eyes) and peripheral nerves, Reticulo-endothelial system, Kidneys and Musculoskeletal system. Osteomyelitis fractures including fragmentation of bones and disorganization of joints – neuropathic changes. Diabetic Myopathy occurs predominantly in long-standing, poorly controlled type 1 diabetics often have other vascular or end organ complications. Etiology related to microvascular disease leads to muscle ischemia and infarction eventual muscle atrophy

  17. Podocyte injury in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nikolaevna Bobkova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of podocyte injury and their correlation with metabolic and haemodynamic disorders in diabetes mellitus are considered in detail; the results of the last experimental and clinical studies on this problem are presented in this review. Authors shined the biomarkers, reflecting expressiveness of podocytopathy and structural and functional glomerular changes at diabetic nephropathy. Modern possibilities of treatment for their correction to prevent diabetic nephropathy progression are discussed.

  18. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    T Radhika; Ranganathan Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of dia...

  19. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health.

  20. Glucose counterregulation in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galan, B.E. de; Hoekstra, J.B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Glucose counterregulatory failure and hypoglycaemia unawareness frequently complicate treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus, especially when aiming for intensive metabolic control. Since tight metabolic control reduces microvascular long-term complications in Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the integrity

  1. DIABETES MELLITUS IN NEUROENDOCRINE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Trigolosova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many endocrine diseases accompanied by development of secondary diabetes mellitus (sDM. The features of the development and course of sDM in acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, and growth hormone (GH deficiency are of particular interest as the prevalence of sDM associated with these pathologies is higher than that in the population. The main risk factors for sDM in acromegaly are age, female gender, arterial hypertension, family history of type 2 DM (T2DM, acromegaly activity, and duration and certain treatment methods of acromegaly. The differences of the sDM pathogenesis from pathogenesis of T2DM in the population are due to the opposite effect of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 on glucose metabolism as well as to effect of acromegaly treatment on the mechanisms of diabetes development. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with GH deficiency, especially against the background of GH replacement therapy, is slightly higher than that in population. However, some studies have shown that GH replacement therapy may lead to normalization of the impaired glucose metabolism. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome (43% and visceral obesity in the GH deficiency are the causes of the development of lipotoxicity (free fatty acids excess and insulin resistance.In Cushing’s syndrome, the prevalence of early carbohydrate metabolism disturbances may reach 70%. In Cushing’s disease, chronic glucocorticoid excess determines insulin resistance and reduces insulin secretion, which results in hyperglycaemia. Currently, the recommendations for the treatment of sDM in acromegaly, hypercortisolism, and GH deficiency are the same as for the treatment of T2DM. However, as the pathogenesis is different in sDM and T2DM, the new algorithms for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment need to be developed. Prevention and timely treatment based on pathological principals will slow down the development of micro- and macrovascular complications leading to

  2. Effect of environmental air pollution on type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Memon, A N; Sheikh, S A; Rouq, F A; Usmani, A Mahmood; Hassan, A; Arian, S A

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a novel risk factor for insulin resistance and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the evidence is limited and diverse. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of environmental air pollution on incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we identified 102 published studies through a systematic data base search including ISI-Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed. We searched the related literature by using the key terms including diabetes mellitus, air pollution, occupational and environmental pollution, gaseous, NO2, particulate matter pollutants PM2.5, and PM10. Studies in which diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, air pollution, occupational and environmental pollution was discussed were included in the study. No confines on publication status, study design or language of publication were considered. Descriptive and quantitative information were extracted from the selected literature. Finally we included 21 publications and remaining studies were excluded. Air pollution is a leading cause of insulin resistance and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The association between air pollution and diabetes is stronger for traffic associated pollutants, gaseous, nitrogen dioxide, tobacco smoke and particulate matter. Exposure to air pollutants is significantly associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that, environmental protection officials must take high priority steps to minimize the air pollution, hence to decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Phospholipid transfer protein activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The plasma activity of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which has multifaceted functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in inflammatory responses, is elevated in insulin resistant conditions. We determined the association of plasma PLTP activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

  4. Cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is associated with elevated blood glucose level, abnormal abdominal fat deposition, insulin resistance and a number of complications including embryopathy, cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy, microangiopathy and retinopathy. Complications extending to the central nervous ...

  5. Mechanism linking diabetes mellitus and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Goblan AS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah S Al-Goblan,1 Mohammed A Al-Alfi,1 Muhammad Z Khan2 1Diabetes Center, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Buraidah, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Sulaiman AlRajhi Colleges, Al Bukairiyah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Body mass index has a strong relationship to diabetes and insulin resistance. In obese individuals, the amount of nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory markers, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance, is increased. The pathogenesis in the development of diabetes is based on the fact that the β-islet cells of the pancreas are impaired, causing a lack of control of blood glucose. The development of diabetes becomes more inevitable if the failure of β-islet cells of the pancreas is accompanied by insulin resistance. Weight gain and body mass are central to the formation and rising incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This literature review will demonstrate the facts that link obesity with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, obesity, insulin resistance

  6. Alteration of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Gang; Li Cuiyin; Shao Hao; Lu Zeyuan; Lai Liping; Liu Lan; Hu Xiaorong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dynamic of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)and its correlation with insulin resistance (IR)during different stages of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: Thirty-two subjects with GDM and 31 cases of normal pregnant women nonnal glucose tolerance, NGT were enrolled in the study, serum TNF-α and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay. The plasma glucose was measured by using glucose oxidase. Tests repeated for each group according different stages of prenatal 25-28 weeks, 29-32 weeks, 37-38 weeks and postpartum 6-8 weeks. IR was assessed by the homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: (1)Serum TNF-α levels in CDM and NGT group rose with gestational age, and both significantly decreased at postpartum. (2) Serum TNF-α levels in GDM of above-mentioned four stages respectively were (7.05±0.67) ng/L, (7.11± 0.75) ng/L, (7.36±0.79) ng/L, (5.46±0.37) ng/L respectively. All significantly increased than those in the same stage group (t=7.81, 7.05, 7.15, P<0.01). (3) Maternal serum TNF-α levels were in positive correlation with HOMA-IR in GDM (r=0.571, P<0.05). Conclusions: Serum TNF-α levels in GDM rose with gestational age, but significantly decreased at postpartum. The dynamic changes of serum TNF-α contribute to occurrence of insulin resistance. (authors)

  7. An insulin resistance associated neural correlate of impulsivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrand, Kristen L.; Mummareddy, Nishit; Kang, Hakmook; Cowan, Ronald; Zhou, Minchun; Zald, David; Silver, Heidi J.; Niswender, Kevin D.; Avison, Malcolm J.

    2017-01-01

    Central insulin resistance (IR) influences striatal dopamine (DA) tone, an important determinant of behavioral self-regulation. We hypothesized that an association exists between the degree of peripheral IR and impulse control, mediated by the impact of IR on brain circuits controlling the speed of executing “go” and/or “stop” responses. We measured brain activation and associated performance on a stop signal task (SST) in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age, 48.1 ± 6.9 yrs (mean ± SD); BMI, 36.5 ± 4.0 kg/m2; HOMA-IR, 7.2 ± 4.1; 12 male, 18 female). Increasing IR, but not BMI, was a predictor of shorter critical stop signal delay (cSSD), a measure of the time window during which a go response can be successfully countermanded (R2 = 0.12). This decline was explained by an IR-associated increase in go speed (R2 = 0.13) with little impact of IR or BMI on stop speed. Greater striatal fMRI activation contrast in stop error (SE) compared with stop success (SS) trials (CONSE>SS) was a significant predictor of faster go speeds (R2 = 0.33, p = 0.002), and was itself predicted by greater IR (CONSE>SS vs HOMA-IR: R2 = 0.10, p = 0.04). Furthermore, this impact of IR on striatal activation was a significant mediator of the faster go speeds and greater impulsivity observed with greater IR. These findings suggest a neural mechanism by which IR may increase impulsivity and degrade behavioral self-regulation. PMID:29228027

  8. Prevalence of insulin resistance and prediction of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbikova, Jana; Dvorakova, Katerina; Grimmichova, Tereza; Hill, Martin; Stanicka, Sona; Cibula, David; Bendlova, Bela; Starka, Luboslav; Vondra, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) affects 10% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of clinical and fasting biochemical parameters in screening for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and DM2. Women with PCOS [n=244, age 27.4+/-7.5 years, body mass index (BMI) 27.5+/-6.9 kg/m(2)] and healthy women (n=57, age 26.8+/-5.8 years, BMI 21.3+/-2.1 kg/m(2)) underwent basal blood sampling and an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). Insulin resistance was identified in 40.2% of PCOS women. Impaired fasting glucose (5.6-6.9 mmol/L) was found in 30 subjects (12.3%), but the oGTT revealed IGT in only six of these cases and DM2 in one subject. IGT was found in 23 (9.4%) and DM2 in four (1.6%) of the women with PCOS. The conventional upper limits for total cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose revealed low sensitivity for the identification of impaired glucose metabolism. No single parameter nor any combination of them showed an accuracy sufficient for screening of IGT or DM2 in PCOS patients. All PCOS patients should be screened using an oGTT to identify disturbances in glucose metabolism.

  9. The Potential Protective Action of Vitamin D in Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Pancreatic Islet Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Po Sing

    2016-03-05

    Vitamin D deficiency (i.e., hypovitaminosis D) is associated with increased insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and poorly controlled glucose homeostasis, and thus is correlated with the risk of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The liver plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism, and its dysregulation leads to abnormalities in hepatic glucose output and triglyceride accumulation. Meanwhile, the pancreatic islets are constituted in large part by insulin-secreting β cells. Consequently, islet dysfunction, such as occurs in T2DM, produces hyperglycemia. In this review, we provide a critical appraisal of the modulatory actions of vitamin D in hepatic insulin sensitivity and islet insulin secretion, and we discuss the potential roles of a local vitamin D signaling in regulating hepatic and pancreatic islet functions. This information provides a scientific basis for establishing the benefits of the maintenance, or dietary manipulation, of adequate vitamin D status in the prevention and management of obesity-induced T2DM and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  10. Association between diabetes mellitus and multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Burgerhof, Johannes G M

    2017-01-14

    Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a challenge to global tuberculosis (TB) control and remains a major public health concern in many countries. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasingly recognized comorbidity that can both accelerate TB disease and complicate its treatment. The aim of this study is to summarize available evidence on the association of DM and MDR-TB among TB patients and to provide a pooled estimate of risks. All studies published in English before October 2016 will be searched using comprehensive search strings through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and WHO Global Health Library databases which have reported the association of DM and MDR-TB in adults with TB (age > =15). Two authors will independently collect detailed information using structured data abstraction form. The quality of studies will be checked using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort and case-control studies and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality tool for cross-sectional studies. Heterogeneity between included studies will be assessed using the I 2 statistic. We will check potential publication bias by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger's regression test statistic. We will use the random effects model to compute a pooled estimate. Increases in the burden of non-communicable diseases and aging populations are changing the importance of different risk factors for TB, and the profile of comorbidities and clinical challenges for people with TB. Although classic risk factors and comorbidities such as overcrowding, under-nutrition, silicosis, and HIV infection are crucial to address, chronic conditions like diabetes are important factors that impair host defenses against TB. Thus, undertaking integrated multifaceted approach is remarkably necessary for reducing the burden of DM and successful TB treatment outcome. PROSPERO CRD42016045692 .

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is emerging as a new clinical problem within pediatric practice. Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents around the world in all ethnicities, even if the prevalence of obesity is not increasing any more. The majority of young people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in specific ethnic subgroups such as African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islanders and American Indians. Clinicians should be aware of the frequent mild or asymptomatic manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in childhood. Therefore, a screening seems meaningful especially in high risk groups such as children and adolescents with obesity, relatives with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and clinical features of insulin resistance (hypertension, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, or acanthosis nigricans). Treatment of choice is lifestyle intervention followed by pharmacological treatment (e.g., metformin). New drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors or glucagon like peptide 1 mimetics are in the pipeline for treatment of youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, recent reports indicate a high dropout of the medical care system of adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus suggesting that management of children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus requires some remodeling of current healthcare practices. PMID:24379917

  12. Bone disease and diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarph-Morawski, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Osteoporosis (OP) frequently co-exist with advanced age and imply large health challenges worldwide. The last decades there has been a growing interest regarding fracture risk in DM. Currently used screening methods (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and FRAX) underestimate fracture risk in diabetes patients. New methods for risk assessment are needed. In my thesis, we have studied the significance of neuropathy, the IGF-system and metabolic cont...

  13. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  15. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance and Primary Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hydrie, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of the study was to identify the extent of metabolic syndrome on the basis of ATP III and IDF definition in subjects aged 25 years and above from an urban population of Karachi. Also to see the association of risk factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome in this population. And finally to prove the hypothesis of intervention effect on the onset of type 2 diabetes in a high risk urban population and evaluate the rate of conversion of IGT to diabetes by these interve...

  16. Glukagonomsyndrom uden diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard; Vestergaard, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    without diabetes. Glucagonoma syndrome is characterized by glucagon overproduction, diabetes, depression, deep venous thrombosis and necrolytic migrating erythema. Glucagonoma is frequently diagnosed late which increases the risk of metastases. It is important not to rule out glucagonoma in patients...... with a relevant clinical picture but without diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-17...

  17. Dehydroepiandrosterone in the type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duskova, M; Hruskovicova, H; Hill, M; Starka, L

    2012-04-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is believed to exert, besides others, positive effects on the insulin resistance or its secretion and glucose metabolism. There are several reports dealing with the DHEA levels and its effects in the type 2 diabetes mellitus, but less information is available on the type 1 diabetic subjects. Recently, a report dealing with the lack of the age-dependent decline of the DHEA levels in the type 2 diabetic subjects was published. The aim of the present study was to answer the question whether a comparable change in the aging pattern of the DHEA and its sulphate could be detected in the type 1 diabetes mellitus. The data regarding the DHEA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) concentrations in the serum obtained from 116 patients with the type 1 diabetes mellitus and 259 controls were gathered from the database of the Institute of Endocrinology (Prague, Czech Republic). No significant differences in the level of the DHEA-S were found between the type 1 diabetics and controls either in men or women. However, lower DHEA levels were found in the type 1 diabetic women, but not in men. The age-dependent declines of both the DHEA and DHEA-S were similar to those in controls. In contrast to the type 2 diabetes, the levels of DHEA-S in the type 1 diabetic patients were practically identical with those in controls. In contrast to men, in women, the DHEA basal levels were lower than those seen in controls. The age dependence of both hormones followed the pattern of the decline in controls.

  18. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus cases are at higher risk for diabetic related complications. In low-income African countries, patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus account for 75% of diabetes cases. Psychiatric disorders have a greater impact on the global burden of diseases and disability associated with ...

  19. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis: a case-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ataş

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP is a chronic pustular inflammatory skin disease; however, its pathogenesis is not well understood. Several factors, such as genetics, tobacco use and autoimmune issues, may contribute to this disease. Aim : This research was conducted to investigate the relationships between insulin resistance, thyroid disease and PPP. Material and methods : Thirty-three patients with PPP and 27 age- and gender-matched controls were analysed for their smoking histories, thyroid function tests, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO levels, fasting glucose, fasting insulin levels and the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA index for insulin resistance. Results : We found significant differences between the PPP and control groups according to their tobacco use and anti-TPO levels (p = 0.009 and p = 0.009, respectively. The proportion of tobacco use was 90% in the PPP patients and 63% in the controls. Gender and tobacco use were predictive risk factors for PPP in the multivariate analysis (OR = 141.7, p 35 U/ml and the presence of a thyroid abnormality were independent risk factors in the univariate, but not the multivariate analysis (OR = 4.2, p = 0.025 and OR = 5.4, p = 0.004, respectively. A moderate correlation between the gender and anti-TPO level was found (r = 0.361, p = 0.039; however, the fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA index were not significant between the PPP and control groups. Conclusions : Female gender and smoking were the most important risk factors for PPP; however, the increase in the anti-TPO level may be related to the predominance of females afflicted with this disease. Additional studies are necessary to clarify the relationships between PPP, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus.

  20. Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrke, Michael; Marx, Nikolaus

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical data from the last 2 decades have shown that the prevalence of heart failure in diabetes is very high, and the prognosis for patients with heart failure is worse in those with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Experimental data suggest that various mechanisms contribute to the impairment in systolic and diastolic function in patients with diabetes, and there is an increased recognition that these patients develop heart failure independent of the presence of coronary artery disease or its associated risk factors. In addition, current clinical data demonstrated that treatment with the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. This review article summarizes recent data on the prevalence, prognosis, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies to treat patients with diabetes and heart failure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin does not correlate with insulin resistance as assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Katsuhito

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested a critical role of osteocalcin (OC, especially the undercarboxylated form (ucOC, in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum ucOC levels and insulin resistance in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Findings We measured serum ucOC levels in 129 patients with type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance was assessed using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. The insulin resistance indices used were the M value, which is the total body glucose disposal rate, and the M/I value, which is the M value adjusted for the steady state plasma insulin level. ucOC levels were not correlated with the M value (ρ = −0.013, p = 0.886 or the M/I value (ρ = 0.001, p = 0.995. Conclusions We found no association between ucOC levels and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Diabetes Mellitus in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Jaime E

    2015-01-01

    Peru is an upper medium-income developing country with an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, including diabetes. To review and describe the epidemiology, drivers, and diabetes care plan in Peru. The medical literature was reviewed based on systematic searching of PubMed, Scielo, and various gray literature from the International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organization, and local Peruvian agencies. In Peru, diabetes affects 7% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 96.8% of outpatients visits with this condition. Type 1 diabetes has an incidence of 0.4/100,000 per year, and gestational diabetes affects 16% of pregnancies. The prevalence of glucose intolerance is 8.11% and that of impaired fasting glucose 22.4%. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in adults is 34.7%, 17.5%, and 25%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is greater in women and the elderly and at urban and low-altitude locations. Diabetes is the eighth cause of death, the sixth cause of blindness, and the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease and nontraumatic lower limb amputation. In Peru, diabetes accounts for 31.5% of acute myocardial infarctions and 25% of strokes. Infections, diabetic emergencies, and cardiovascular disorders are the main causes for admissions, with a mortality rate Peru that exposes difficult challenges and shortcomings. The national strategy for tackling diabetes includes promotion of healthy lifestyles; training primary care physicians and providing them with evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, safe and effective medications, and tools for monitoring treatment; and, finally, construction of a comprehensive health care network for early referral in order to prevent, detect, and treat diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. : Diabetes mellitus 1. type and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Prouza, Michal

    2014-01-01

    1 Abstrakt Name of thesis Diabetes mellitus I. type and physical activity Aim of thesis The bachelor's thesis deals with diabetes mellitus I. type, the opportunity of compensation by adequate physical aktivity and diet and consecutive complications of diabetes. Methodology Collecting of the data from available literature and internet's resources. There is no personal interviews in this work. Results General description of the diabetes mellitus I. type, question of the physical aktivity with t...

  4. Effectiveness of resistance exercise compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Cybelle; Moraes, Silvia Regina Arruda De; Novaes, Karyne Albino; Bezerra, Márcio Almeida; Silveira, Patrícia Verçoza De Castro; Lemos, Andrea

    Physical exercise has been used to mitigate the metabolic effects of diabetes mellitus. To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise when compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy on metabolic and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Papers were searched on the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and SCIELO, without language or date of publication limits. Clinical trials that compared resistance exercise to aerobic exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not use insulin therapy were included. The quality of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the GRADE system and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, respectively. Meta-analysis was also used, whenever possible. Two reviewers extracted the data independently. Eight eligible articles were included in this study, with a total of 336 individuals, with a mean age of 48-58 years. The protocols of aerobic and resistance exercise varied in duration from eight to 22 weeks, 30-60min/day, three to five times/week. Overall the available evidence came from a very low quality of evidence and there was an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption (mean difference: -2.86; 95% CI: -3.90 to -1.81; random effect) for the resistance exercise and no difference was found in Glycated hemoglobin, Body mass index, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Resistance exercise appears to be more effective in promoting an increase in Maximal oxygen consumption in protocols longer than 12 weeks and there is no difference in the control of glycemic and lipid levels between the two types of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Canine diabetes mellitus: from phenotype to genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, B; Kennedy, L J; Davison, L J; Ollier, W E R

    2008-01-01

    Breed differences in susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs suggest an underlying genetic component to the pathogenesis of the disease. There is little evidence for an equivalent of human type 2 diabetes in dogs, and it has been proposed that canine diabetes is more comparable to the type 1 form of the disease. Certain immune response genes, particularly those encoding major histocompatibility complex molecules involved in antigen presentation, are important in determining susceptibility to human type 1 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that canine major histocompatibility complex genes (known as the dog leucocyte antigen) are associated with diabetes in dogs. A total of 530 diabetic dogs and more than 1000 controls were typed for dog leucocyte antigen, and associations were found with three specific haplotypes. The DLA-DRB1*009/DQA1*001/DQB1*008 haplotype shows the strongest association with diabetes in the UK dog population. This haplotype is common in diabetes-prone breeds (Samoyed, cairn terrier and Tibetan terrier) but rare in diabetes-resistant breeds (boxer, German shepherd dog and golden retriever), which could explain differences in the prevalence of diabetes in these different breeds. There is evidence that the DLA-DQA1*001 allele is also associated with hypothyroidism, suggesting that this could represent a common susceptibility allele for canine immune-mediated endocrinopathies.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Radhika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of diabetes with an emphasis on periodontal disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disorders and pre-term birth. Dental considerations for management of these patients and recent advances in the dental field with respect to diabetes are also highlighted.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent development of overt diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P

    1998-01-01

    to subsequent development of diabetes and also to identify predictive factors for the development of overt diabets in these women. A follow-up study of diet treated GDM women diagnosed during 1978 to 1985 at the Rigshospital, Copenhagen was performed. Glucose tolerance was evaluated in 241 women (81% of the GDM...... of women with GDM. However, previous studies, in populations quite different from a Danish population, have shown that women with previous GDM have a high risk of developing overt diabetes mellitus later in life. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognosis of women with previous GDM with respect...... population) 2-11 years after pregnancy. Abnormal glucose tolerance was found in 34.4% of the women (3.7% IDDM, 13.7% NIDDM, 17% IGT) in contrast to a control group where none had diabetes and 5.3% had IGT. Logistic regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors for later development...

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent development of overt diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P

    1998-01-01

    of women with GDM. However, previous studies, in populations quite different from a Danish population, have shown that women with previous GDM have a high risk of developing overt diabetes mellitus later in life. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognosis of women with previous GDM with respect...... to subsequent development of diabetes and also to identify predictive factors for the development of overt diabets in these women. A follow-up study of diet treated GDM women diagnosed during 1978 to 1985 at the Rigshospital, Copenhagen was performed. Glucose tolerance was evaluated in 241 women (81% of the GDM...... population) 2-11 years after pregnancy. Abnormal glucose tolerance was found in 34.4% of the women (3.7% IDDM, 13.7% NIDDM, 17% IGT) in contrast to a control group where none had diabetes and 5.3% had IGT. Logistic regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors for later development...

  9. Statins and risk of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2015-12-01

    blood glucose of 3 mg/dL as a result of statin use.(3 Here is a verbatim quote from Shah and Goldfine: “For any prescription drug, the potential benefits to health must be balanced against potential risks. Understanding these potential risks can help physicians and patients make informed decisions on whether to use a medication.” Since the risk of statin-induced diabetes mellitus is important and unknown in the population of persons at lower risk of heart disease, it is considered prudent not to prescribe statins, except when diet and exercise cannot achieve LDL goals.(3 The mechanism by which statins induce diabetes in older persons has been recently uncovered. A Canadian research team has shown that statins increase macrophage IL-1 secretion, ndicating activation of the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome (caspase-1 inflammasome, which promotes insulin resistance, a precursor of type 2 diabetes. These investigators are of the opinion that the risk of statin-induced insulin Univ Med - Vol. 33 No.2 73 resistance may be reduced by inhibiting the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome, particularly in obese, hyperlipidemic patients who are often at risk for developing diabetes, but have to use statins.(4 In conclusion, although the risk of new diabetes mellitus with statin therapy may be considered to be minimal, the use of statins should only be prescribed by physicians for patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. However, when these patients are also at risk for diabetes mellitus, their blood glucose level should be monitored.(3 On the other hand, since statins may trigger new onset diabetes, presumably in predisposed persons, and since diabetes carries a risk of cardiovascular disease, even statins with the least side effects should not be used routinely for primary prevention, least of all as over-the-counter drugs. Primum non nocere.

  10. Fetal programming and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Lara J; Norman, Jane E; Rice, Gregory E; Illanes, Sebastián E

    2016-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined by new-onset glucose intolerance during pregnancy. About 2-5% of all pregnant women develop gestational diabetes during their pregnancies and the prevalence has increased considerably during the last decade. This metabolic condition is manifested when pancreatic β-cells lose their ability to compensate for increased insulin resistance during pregnancy, however, the pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown. Gestational diabetes is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome as well as with long-term adverse effects on the offspring which likely occurs due to epigenetic modifications of the fetal genome. In the current review we address gestational diabetes and the short and long term complications for both mothers and offspring focusing on the importance of fetal programming in conferring risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insulin resistance correlates with maculopathy and severity of retinopathy in young adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, C W; Haider, A S; Viswanathan, D; Jones, M; Attia, J; Wynne, K; Acharya, S

    2017-09-01

    To assess the relationship between insulin resistance (IR), retinopathy and maculopathy in young adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study at a regional Australian tertiary hospital. Retinal pathology, assessed by colour fundus photography, was correlated with two surrogate measures of IR: estimated Glucose Disposal Rate (eGDR) and Insulin Sensitivity Score (ISS), where lower scores reflect greater IR. 107 patients were recruited, with mean age 24.7years, 53% male, and mean duration of disease 10.8years. Mean eGDR scores (5.6vs 8.0 pdiabetic retinopathy (NPDR; relative to nil/mild-NPDR). Similarly, mean eGDR (4.2vs 6.2, p=0.001) and ISS (3.8vs 6.1, p=0.003) were lower in patients with maculopathy. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was used to control for confounding. For retinopathy severity, a unit increase in eGDR or ISS (representing lower IR) was associated with a 50% decrease in odds of moderate-NPDR or worse (eGDR OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.32-0.77, p=0.002; ISS OR 0.49, 95%CI 0.29-0.84, p=0.01). A unit increase in eGDR or ISS was associated with a 46-56% decrease in odds of maculopathy (eGDR OR 0.54, 95%CI 0.37-0.81, p=0.003; ISS OR 0.44, 95%CI 0.22-0.88, p=0.02). IR correlates with more severe retinopathy in young adults with Type 1DM. This is the first description of a correlation between IR and maculopathy in Type 1DM, warranting further evaluation. Prospective studies examining whether reducing IR can improve microvascular complications are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The History of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been recognised since antiquity. The first description that resembles the features of the disease is found in Ebers papyrus (1550 BC. The term ";diabetes"; was first coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. Galen described it as a disease specific to the kidneys because of a weakness in their retentive faculties. Word mellitus was added by Thomas Willis in 1675 after rediscovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients (first noticed by the ancient Indians, Chinese and Japanese. He later noticed that some urine samples were sweet (diabetes mellitus whereas others were tasteless (diabetes insipidus. Later Cullen and John Rollo confirmed these two types. It was only in 1776 that Dobson firstly confirmed the presence of excess sugar in urine and blood as a cause of their sweetness. Claude Bernard discovered in 1857 that liver releases a substance i.e. glycogen which affects blood sugar level. The role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes was discovered by Mering and Minkowski in 1889. In 1909, Jean De Meyer named glucose lowering hormone as insulin whose existence was hypothetical at that time. Banting and Macleod got Noble prize for isolating insulin in 1923. Discovery of insulin for the treatment of diabetes represents one of the major humanitarian and scientific milestones of the 20th century. Oral hypoglycemic drugs were introduced later. Today researchers are working on insulin patch, implantable pump, insulin-sensitizers, pancreatic or islet cell transplantation and oral insulin solution.

  13. Relationship between the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and parameters of adiposity and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomoyuki; Nakajima, Atsushi; Yoneda, Masato; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2006-01-01

    Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations have been reported to be associated with body fat, especially visceral fat accumulation, but most studies up to now have been conducted on non-diabetic subjects. In this study, we investigated the association between the serum CRP concentrations and parameters of adiposity and insulin resistance in both Japanese type 2 diabetes patients and non-diabetic subjects. A total of 248 Japanese subjects (140 type 2 diabetes patients and 108 non-diabetic subjects) were enrolled for the study. The degree of insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R) method. Fat accumulation was evaluated by measuring visceral and subcutaneous fat areas at the level of the umbilicus in abdominal CT scans. To assess hepatic fat content, the ratio of CT attenuation value of the liver to that of the spleen (L/S ratio) was calculated. Serum CRP was found to be significantly correlated with various indices of adiposity, including L/S ratio, visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and HOMA-R, in both the diabetic patients and the non-diabetic subjects. After adjustment for five variables (age, gender, serum CRP, HbAlc, and smoking), serum CRP was still significantly correlated with L/S ratio, VFA, SFA, and HOMA-R in the diabetic patients. We also found that changes in serum CRP concentrations were correlated with changes in the VFA and SFA at 1 year after the baseline in 24 diabetic patients. We conclude that serum CRP may be closely related to the degree of liver steatosis and visceral fat accumulation in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. (author)

  14. Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: Coprediction and Time Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimihodimos, Vasilis; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio; Meigs, James B; Ferrannini, Ele

    2018-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension overlap in the population. In many subjects, development of diabetes mellitus is characterized by a relatively rapid increase in plasma glucose values. Whether a similar phenomenon occurs during the development of hypertension is not known. We analyzed the pattern of blood pressure (BP) changes during the development of hypertension in patients with or without diabetes mellitus using data from the MCDS (Mexico City Diabetes Study; a population-based study of diabetes mellitus in Hispanic whites) and in the FOS (Framingham Offspring Study, a community-based study in non-Hispanic whites) during a 7-year follow-up. Diabetes mellitus at baseline was a significant predictor of incident hypertension (in FOS, odds ratio, 3.14; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-4.54) independently of sex, age, body mass index, and familial diabetes mellitus. Conversely, hypertension at baseline was an independent predictor of incident diabetes mellitus (in FOS, odds ratio, 3.33; 95% CI, 2.50-4.44). In >60% of the converters, progression from normotension to hypertension was characterized by a steep increase in BP values, averaging 20 mm Hg for systolic BP within 3.5 years (in MCDS). In comparison with the nonconverters group, hypertension and diabetes mellitus converters shared a metabolic syndrome phenotype (hyperinsulinemia, higher body mass index, waist girth, BP, heart rate and pulse pressure, and dyslipidemia). Overall, results were similar in the 2 ethnic groups. We conclude that (1) development of hypertension and diabetes mellitus track each other over time, (2) transition from normotension to hypertension is characterized by a sharp increase in BP values, and (3) insulin resistance is one common feature of both prediabetes and prehypertension and an antecedent of progression to 2 respective disease states. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Dose- and time-dependent association of smoking and its cessation with glycemic control and insulin resistance in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohkuma

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of smoking and its cessation on glycemic control in diabetic patients has not been fully examined yet. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of smoking status with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 2,490 Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ≥20 years were divided according to smoking status, amount of cigarettes smoked and years since quitting. The associations with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion were examined cross-sectionally.HbA1c levels increased progressively with increases in both number of cigarettes per day and pack-years of cigarette smoking compared with never smokers (P for trend = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively, whereas fasting plasma glucose did not. On the other hand, HbA1c, but not fasting plasma glucose, decreased linearly with increase in years after smoking cessation (P for trend <0.001. These graded relationships persisted significantly after controlling for the confounders, including total energy intake, current drinking, regular exercise, depressive symptoms, and BMI. In addition, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein also showed similar trends.Smoking and its cessation showed dose- and time-dependent relationship with glycemic control and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings may highlight the importance of smoking cessation in the clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Severe insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus in patients with congenital muscle fiber type disproportion myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Klein, H H; Hansen, T

    1995-01-01

    severe insulin resistance of both liver and peripheral tissues. The impaired insulin-stimulated glucose disposal to peripheral tissues was primarily due to reduced nonoxidative glucose metabolism. These changes were paralleled by reduced basal values of muscle GS total activity, allosterical activation...

  17. Liver alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in normotriglyceridaemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindhelm, RK; Diamant, M; Bakker, SJL; van Dijk, RAJM; Scheffer, PG; Teerlink, T; Kostense, PJ; Heine, RJ

    Background Plasma levels of liver transaminases, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), are elevated in most cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Elevated ALT levels are associated with insulin resistance, and subjects with NAFLD have features of the metabolic syndrome that confer

  18. [Association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan-xin

    2007-02-18

    insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, it is still unclear whether periodontitis is a risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus or not. In a current study, the effect of periodontitis on serum levels of lipid and glucose of aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients was implied, as the average serum levels of triglycerides and glucose of a large number of AgP patients were both significantly higher than healthy control group, and serum level of total cholesterol in AgP group was positively associated with the percentage of severe attachment loss sites. It seems that periodontitis may alter serum lipid and glucose levels. Furthermore, the effect of periodontitis on diabetes in an animal study has also demonstrated that experimental moderate periodontitis as well as castration could induce insulin resistance and beta cell impairment in rats, and that combination of the two factors would aggravate the degree of insulin resistance (IR). In conclusion, interrelationship between periodontitis and diabetes has been further approved recently.

  19. Comparative Healthcare: Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Mohammed Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the third in this series of ‘comparative healthcare’ medical practitioners explore the approach to diabetes inBangaldesh and Australia respectively. The social and medical consequences of this chronic conditionare highlighted through the approach to patients at various stages of the disease from two nationalperspectives. An astonishing 7% of the 153 million people are reported to have diabetes in Bangladesh. Manyremain undiagnosed. Delays in diagnosis or management of diabetes have life limiting consequences for thosewho can ill afford private health care in the poorer nation. Screening and early intervention appear to bedenied to many in the developing country. The context is very different with Australians very fortunate to havea coordinated primary health care sector. The outlook for Bangladeshis with uncontrolled diabetes or withtreatable sequela would be unacceptable in Australia. At every stage in the disease trajectory the doctorsemphasise the importance of life style modification, a particular challenge in affluent Australia with its growingincidence of life style related pre morbid conditions in an increasingly sedentary population. A corner stone ofthe support of people with diabetes is the role of nurses and allied health professionals. With a fundedcommitment to multidisciplinary care in the community people with diabetes in Australia have access tosupport closer to home whereas those in Bangladesh remain heavily dependent on specialist, hospital basedservices. One can only speculate how Bangladesh will cope as its population ages and there are an everincreasing proportion of people who require urgent and expensive medical interventions. At the very leastthere is a strong case for greater investment in primary care especially to limit the economic consequences ofdiabetes and other chronic conditions. Finally as in other articles in this series we would like to emphasise that,the views expressed are those of the authors and do

  20. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per; Hansen, Klavs; Gæde, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin aldoster......The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...

  1. 76 FR 34130 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...-0144] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  2. 77 FR 74271 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ...-0349] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  3. 76 FR 25769 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...-0103] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 76 FR 71112 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...-0300] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 76 FR 9862 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...-0025] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. 78 FR 79062 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...-0193] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  7. 78 FR 22599 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...-0016] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  8. 78 FR 16032 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...-0014] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  9. 78 FR 78479 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-0192] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in...

  10. 77 FR 5870 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...-0381] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  11. 77 FR 46149 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-0164] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  12. 78 FR 38439 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...-0020] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  13. 77 FR 64181 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...-0283] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 76 FR 66120 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...-0278] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  15. 78 FR 38435 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...-0181] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  16. 77 FR 36333 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...-0162] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  17. 78 FR 20381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...-0015] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  18. 77 FR 533 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-0367] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  19. 78 FR 26419 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...-0018] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  20. 76 FR 64165 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...-0277] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  1. 78 FR 7852 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...-0011] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  2. 76 FR 9854 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...-0011] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  3. 78 FR 1923 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...-0350] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 77 FR 56258 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ...-0219] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 77 FR 40941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-0163] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. 77 FR 52384 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...-0218] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...

  7. 78 FR 1927 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...-0351] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  8. 77 FR 10612 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-0382] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  9. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler; Gaede, Peter Haulund

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin aldoster...

  10. RENOPROTECTION IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Nephrology and the International Diabetes Federation) have put in place programmes that emphasise the importance of early detection of DN. This article focuses on key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of. DN and concentrate on the traditional and novel therapies that prevent overt renal disease in DM. Pathophysiology ...

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Jane E B; Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2013-03-01

    Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study.

  12. Pancreatic scintiphotography in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Norimasa; Sowa, Etsuji; Fujii, Satoru; Seki, Junichi; Wada, Masahisa

    1975-01-01

    Pancreatic scintiphotography was performed in 108 cases of patients with diabetes mellitus. Scintiphotos were taken at 30 min. after intravenous injection of approximately 200μCi of 75 Se-selenomethionine using a Toshiba gamma camera. The relationship between the degree of pancreatic uptake of 75 Se-selenomethionine and the types and duration of diabetes, vascular complications and the average range of fasting blood sugar levels were studied. In some cases, pancreatic scintiphotos were taken at 10, 30 and 50 min. after injection of 75 Se-selenomethionine, and the degrees of the pancreatic uptake were compared on each time course. Only two out of 24 cases of insulin-dependent diabetics showed normal pancreatic scintiphotos. On the other hand, two out of 47 cases of mild diabetics treated with diet alone showed no uptake in pancreatic scintiphotos. There was a tendency toward abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos in chronic diabetics. Especially, of the 15 cases who had diabetes for more than eleven years, only one case showed a normal pancreatic scintiphoto. Abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos were found more frequently in the group of poorly controlled diabetics than in the group of well controlled diabetics. In cases showing normal pancreatic scintiphotos, diabetic retinopathy was less frequently found. Out of 36 cases which had sequential pancreatic scintiphotos, hypertension and/or arteriosclerosis were found more frequently in the 20 cases which showed a delay in reaching a plateau of the activity. However, the uptake in sequential pancreatic scintiphotos showed no definite correlation between diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic conditions. (auth.)

  13. Rifampin resistance and diabetes mellitus in a cross-sectional study of adult patients in rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh; Yu, Elaine Ann; Ahamed, Syed Fazil; Bonam, Wesley; Kenneth, John

    2015-10-26

    Despite increasing reports of the linkage between diabetes and tuberculosis (TB), there is limited information regarding diabetes and TB drug resistance. In this cross-sectional study, sputum and blood samples were collected from 304 adult patients in rural Andhra Pradesh. Rifampin resistance was assessed by Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), and diabetes status was based on self-report. Additionally, samples were assayed by acid-fast bacilli sputum smear microscopy (AFB) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-G), in order to compare relative diagnostic performances. Among patients with confirmed TB (n = 194), diabetes was associated with 3.0-fold higher risk of rifampin resistance (95 % CI 1.3-6.7). Considering Xpert MTB/RIF the gold standard, AFB had lower sensitivity (72.2 vs. 82.5 %) and higher specificity (96.4 vs. 37.0 %) compared to QFT-G for diagnosing TB. The increased risk of rifampin resistance in patients with diabetes highlights the need for integrated diabetes surveillance in TB programs, particularly in settings undergoing the epidemiological transition.

  14. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler; Gaede, Peter Haulund

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...... aldosterone system. Reduction in albuminuria during antihypertensive treatment is indicative of renal and cardiovascular protection. Thus, if the level of albuminuria remains high, the treatment should be intensified, even in the light of achieved BP goals. Options for intensification are dual blockade...

  15. Genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Pedersen, Oluf

    2005-01-01

    and classified into MODY1-6 according to the mutated genes that by being expressed in the pancreatic beta-cells confirm at the molecular level the clinical presentation of MODY as a predominantly insulin secretory deficient form of diabetes mellitus. Genomewide linkage studies of presumed polygenic type 2...... type 2 diabetes conferring insulin resistance of liver, muscle and fat (Pro12Ala) and a relative insulin secretory deficiency (Glu23Lys). It is likely that, in the near future, the recent more detailed knowledge of the human genome and insights into its haploblocks together with the developments...... of high-throughput and cheap genotyping will facilitate the discovery of many more type 2 diabetes gene variants in study materials, which are statistically powered and phenotypically well characterized. The results of these efforts are likely to be the platform for major progress in the development...

  16. 77 FR 10607 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-2011-0367] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The...). [[Page 10608

  17. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male attendees of primary health care centres in Eastern Saudi Arabia. ... incidence of morbidity and mortality. ... characteristics, misconceptions of PHCC attendees about DM regarding the aetiology, general concepts, diabetic diet, treatment and herbal treatment.

  18. Periodontitis and risk of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Abhijit; Jadhav, Varsha

    2011-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with varying degrees of systemic and oral complications. The periodontium is also a target for diabetic damage. Diabetes is a pandemic in both developed and developing countries. In recent years, a link between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus has been postulated. The oral cavity serves as a continuous source of infectious agents that could further worsen the diabetic status of the patient and serve as an important risk factor deterioration of diabetes mellitus. The present review highlights the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. The potential mechanisms involved in the deterioration of diabetic status and periodontal disease are also discussed. © 2011 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Rheumatological manifestations of diabetes mellitus - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... strongly associated with diabetes mellitus including limited joint mobility, specific arthropathies of the hand (carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupytrens contracture, flexor tenosynovitis and diabetic sclerodactyly), shoulder (adhesive capsulitis-frozen shoulder, and calcific periarthritis) and spontaneous infarction of skeletal muscle.

  20. Insufficient renal 1-alpha hydroxylase and bone homeostasis in aged rats with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Quan, Huang; Bi-Rong, Dong; Ping, He; Zhen-Chan, Lu

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between insufficient renal 1-alpha hydroxylase (IRH) and bone homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or insulin resistance (IR) and to investigate whether IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both IRH and bone loss in T2DM. The experimental animal models of T2DM, IR, IR treated with vitamin D (VD), IR treated with 1-alpha hydroxyvitamin D (1alpha(OH) D, the product of renal 1-alpha hydroxylase), T2DM treated with VD, and T2DM treated with 1alpha(OH) D were established on 18-month-old male Wistar rats. For rats in each animal model and normal control rats, IR was detected by euglycemic insulin clamp technique (EICT) and glucose infusion rate (GIR, an index of IR) was calculated. Levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA), and 1,25(OH)(2)D/25(OH)D ratio (1,25-25-R, an index of renal 1-alpha hydroxylase activity in vivo) was calculated; and bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral bone and lumbar vertebrae was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). No significant difference was observed among the levels of 25(OH)D in all the rats. In IR rats, 1,25(OH)(2)D level, 1,25-25-R, and BMD level were significantly higher than those in T2DM rats and were lower than those in normal control rats. In the aged rats with T2DM or IR, administration of VD had no effect on 25(OH)D level, 1,25(OH)(2)D level, 1,25-25-R, and BMD level. Administration of 1alpha(OH) D had also no effect on 25(OH)D level but increased 1,25(OH)(2)D level, 1,25-25-R, and BMD level. For the aged rats with T2DM or IR, GIR positively correlated with both levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D and BMD, and 1,25-25-R positively and significantly correlated with levels of BMD. In T2DM or IR, IRH is a precipitating factor for bone loss. IR seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of both IRH and bone loss in T2DM.

  1. Decubitus Ulcers of Soft Tissues in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Strategies, Insulin Resistance Indicators, Comprehensive Treatment Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Vergun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The causes of decubitus ulcers include ischaemia and neurotrophic tissue changes induced by their chronic compression, continuous pathologic moisture and shift of tissues that determine local ishaemia. The aim of the article: to study clinical options and suppurative complications of decubitus ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in terms of insulin resistance (IR in the context of combined treatment optimization. Materials and methods. Total sample of retro- and prospective analyses involved results of comprehensive treatment of 112 patients. Type 2 DM was diagnosed in 37 patients, I comparison group included 27 patients with decubitus ulcers without complications (I–III stages and DM, with decubitus ulcers stage IV — II comparison group; and the control group included other 75 individuals. Results. The patients with type 2 DM (I comparison group had considerable decrease in HOMA index of β-cell function and increased HOMA index of IR (8.31 ± 0.02, р < 0.01. Patients with type 2 DM with complicated decubitus ulcers (II comparison group had more significant increase of circulating insulin indexes (p2 < 0.01, HOMA index of IR (p2 < 0.05, and considerable decrease on HOMA index of β-cell function (p2 < 0.05. The correlation analysis of HOMA-IR indicators and element concentration in the blood revealed the correlation only in patients with type 2 DM (I and II comparison groups: potent negative correlation (r = –0.72; p < 0.001 was revealed between the HOMA-IR and Mg2+ content in erythrocytes; intermediate negative correlation (r = –0.66; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Zn2+ concentration in the blood serum; and a negative one (r = –0.69; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Cr3+ level in the blood serum. Conclusions. The advantage of the proposed classification of decubitus ulcers of soft tissue and a sequence of comprehensive treatment is considering the features of

  2. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler; Gaede, Peter Haulund

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...... aldosterone system. Reduction in albuminuria during antihypertensive treatment is indicative of renal and cardiovascular protection. Thus, if the level of albuminuria remains high, the treatment should be intensified, even in the light of achieved BP goals. Options for intensification are dual blockade......, supramaximal doses of ACE-I or ARB, or addition of aldosterone or renin-blocking agents. Long-term data are awaited regarding the optimal strategy for combination therapy. Patients on intensive antihypertensive treatment should be monitored regularly....

  4. Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, still changing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The management of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus places a significant burden on healthcare systems. Sig- nificant global changes have been proposed with regard to the diagnosis and management of women with diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. The study aims were to document the contemporary ...

  5. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Monogenic Diabetes (Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus & MODY) The most common forms of diabetes, ... from each parent. What are monogenic forms of diabetes? Some rare forms of diabetes result from mutations ...

  6. Vitamin D and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Turhan İyidir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Experimental evidence also supported the idea that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of DM. Additionally, it has been reported that vitamin D supplementation may decrease the risk of developing DM in long term period. The protective effects of vitamin D are mediated through the immune system and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D may also have a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 89-94

  7. Diabetes mellitus und endotheliale Dysfunktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripolt N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 betrifft heute bereits ca. 300 Millionen Menschen weltweit und die Prognosen für die nächsten Jahre sagen noch einen deutlichen Anstieg voraus. Das Risiko für kardiovaskuläre Ereignisse ist bei Typ-2-Diabetikern deutlich gesteigert und stellt somit die Haupttodesursache in diesem Patientenkollektiv dar. Die endotheliale Dysfunktion ist eine frühe Stufe auf dem Weg zum atherothrombotischen Ereignis und ein potenziell reversibler Zustand. Dieser Artikel soll einen Überblick über die Pathogenese, die Möglichkeiten der Messung sowie die therapeutischen Optionen zur Verbesserung der Endothelfunktion bei Diabetikern geben.

  8. Effect of atorvastatin on pancreatic Beta-cell function and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Aman; Singh, Surender; Tandon, Nikhil; Gupta, Nandita; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Statins are commonly used for the management of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could modulate the beta-cell function by altering the levels of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic lipoproteins and could also have an effect on insulin resistance. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of atorvastatin 10 mg on pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance in patients with hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes by using the homeostasis model assessment-2 (HOMA2) index. Fifty-one type 2 diabetes patients receiving oral antidiabetes drugs, not taking statins, with baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between 2.6 mmol/L and 4.1 mmol/L were included. Forty-three patients (21 in placebo group and 22 in atorvastatin group) completed the study and were taken up for final analysis. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 12 weeks to determine levels of blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C). Atorvastatin nonsignificantly increased fasting serum insulin (+14.29%, p=0.18), accompanied by marginal nonsignificant increases in fasting plasma glucose and A1C. There was a decrease in HOMA2 percent beta-cell function (-2.9%, p=0.72) and increase in HOMA2 insulin resistance (+14%, p=0.16) in the atorvastatin group as compared with baseline, but the difference was not statistically significant. Atorvastatin in the dose used failed to produce significant change in pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients as assessed by the HOMA2 index. The possible explanations include absence of lipotoxicity at prevailing levels of dyslipidemia at baseline or inadequacy of statin dose used in the study. (Clinical Trials Registry-India: CTRI/2008/091/000099). Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Momordica charantia extracts ameliorate insulin resistance by regulating the expression of SOCS-3 and JNK in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyu; Yu, Hongyu; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Huijiao

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) has long been widely used as a traditional remedy for diabetes mellitus in some countries. However, detailed antidiabetic mechanisms are largely unknown. This study clarified the ameliorating effects of M. charantia ethanol extracts (MCE) on the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. T2DM rat model was established by high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Diabetic rats were randomized into five groups: the model control group (n = 8) (common diet), the high-fat diet metformin (50 mg/kg/d), and the three-dose MCE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/d) groups (n = 8 each). After 8  weeks, the fasting serum glucose, insulin, TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured, and the relevant factors of glucose and insulin were monitored by glycogen dyeing, RT-PCR, and western blot, respectively. The 8-week treatment of 400 mg/kg MCE significantly lowered body weight (330.1 versus 365.9 g), serum glucose (7.41 versus 16.63 mmol/L), insulin (12.06 versus 15.89 mIU/L), TNF-α (52.72 versus 81.83 ng/L), and IL-6 (104.81 versus 135.74 ng/L) in comparison with those of the diabetic control group (p < 0.05). It was the same for skeletal muscle glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) protein, and glycogen level, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and Akt expression at both protein and mRNA levels in liver (p < 0.05). MCE can ameliorate insulin resistance in T2DM rats. This effect may be related to the regulation of mRNA and protein levels of SOCS-3 and JNK.

  10. Pattern of cutaneous manifestations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus affects individuals of all ages and socioeconomic status. Skin is affected by the acute metabolic derangements as well as by chronic degenerative complications of diabetes. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus. To analyze the prevalence and pattern of skin disorders among diabetic patients from this region of Western Himalayas. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and having skin lesions, either attending the diabetic clinic or admitted in medical wards were included in this study. Results: The common skin disorders were: x0 erosis (44%, diabetic dermopathy (36%, skin tags (32%, cutaneous infections (31%, and seborrheic keratosis (30%. Conclusion: Skin is involved in diabetes quite often and the manifestations are numerous. High prevalence of xerosis in our diabetic population is perhaps due to cold and dry climatic conditions in the region for most of the time in the year.

  11. Genetics of canine diabetes mellitus: are the diabetes susceptibility genes identified in humans involved in breed susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Brian; Adams, Jamie P; Holder, Angela L; Short, Andrea D; Ollier, William E R; Kennedy, Lorna J

    2013-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in companion animals, characterised by hyperglycaemia, glycosuria and weight loss, resulting from an absolute or relative deficiency in the pancreatic hormone insulin. There are breed differences in susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in dogs, with the Samoyed breed being overrepresented, while Boxers are relatively absent in the UK population of diabetic dogs, suggesting that genetic factors play an important role in determining susceptibility to the disease. A number of genes, linked with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in humans, are associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus in dogs, some of which appear to be relatively breed-specific. Diabetes mellitus in dogs has been associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes (dog leucocyte antigen; DLA), with similar haplotypes and genotypes being identified in the most susceptible breeds. A region containing a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and several polymorphisms have been identified in the canine insulin gene, with some alleles associated with susceptibility or resistance to diabetes mellitus in a breed-specific manner. Polymorphisms in the canine CTLA4 promoter and in other immune response genes are associated with susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in a number of pedigree breeds. Genome wide association studies are currently underway that should shed further light on the genetic factors responsible for the breed profile seen in the diabetic dog population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus screening and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktün, Hale Lebriz; Uyan, Derya; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    To verify the usefulness of the World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women and its effectiveness in the prevention of maternal and neonatal adverse results in women younger than 35 years without apparent risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. This is a retrospective study based on population involving 1360 pregnant women who delivered and who were followed-up in a university hospital in Istanbul. All women underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test screening, usually in between the 24(th)-28(th) weeks of pregnancy. In all cases, the identification of gestational diabetes mellitus was determined in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria. Approximately 28% of the pregnant women aged younger than 35 years with no risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus were diagnosed with the oral glucose tolerance test in this study. In the gestational diabetes mellitus group, the primary cesarean section rate was importantly higher than that in the non-gestational diabetes mellitus group. Preterm delivery was also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with admittance to the neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal respiratory problems didn't showed any significant deviation between the groups. There was a moderate association between gestational diabetes mellitus and metabolic complications. Pregnant women with no obvious risk factors were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus using the World Health Organization criteria. The treatment of these women potentially reduced their risk of adverse maternal and neonatal hyperglycemia-related events, such as cesarean section, polyhydramnios, preterm delivery, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, large for gestational age, and higher neonatal weight.

  13. Vitamin D and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.S. Biliaieva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data concerning the problem of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 1. A correlation between vitamin D deficiency and compensation of the disease is shown. The examination of adolescent patients suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus found a connection between levels of vitamin D, duration and the degree of type 1 diabetes compensation. Further studies are focused on studying the impact and the correction of vitamin D status in children with diabetes mellitus type 1, on improving the glycemic control and quality of life of a patient.

  14. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda; Jovanovič, Lois; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in English and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes-related complications.

  15. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVIČ, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  16. Plasma YKL-40 during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders R; Rathcke, Camilla N; Bonde, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterised by hyperglycaemia during pregnancy. The clinical circumstances involved in the development of GDM leaves the patient at a high risk of the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Plasma levels of the inflammation marker YKL-40 are elevated...... in type 2 diabetes and correlate with fasting plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. With the present study we aimed to determine if pregnancy (and associated insulin resistance) with or without GDM affects plasma YKL-40 levels. Plasma from women diagnosed with GDM...

  17. SKIN MANIFESTATIONS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Adepu Sumitra Devi; Banoth Mohan Lal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin changes of diabetes mellitus (DM) appear subsequent to the progression of the disease, they can be the sign that appear first in some cases and in others they may present years after the primary disease. AIMS To study the skin manifestations in diabetic patients and to know the incidence of skin manifestations of diabetes mellitus. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was undertaken at our hospital, MGM Hospital, Warangal, Telangana for a period of one year from ...

  18. The Effectiveness of Green Tea or Green Tea Extract on Insulin Resistance and Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyue Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea or green tea extract (GT/GTE has been demonstrated to reduce insulin resistance and improve glycemic control. However, evidence for this health beneficial effect is inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of GT/GTE on insulin resistance and glycemic control in people with pre-diabetes/type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to April 2017 for randomised controlled trials of participants with pre-diabetes or T2DM, where the intervention was GT/GTE. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the standardised mean difference (SMD in biomarkers of insulin resistance and glycemic control between GT/GTE and placebo groups. Six studies (n=382 were pooled into random-effects meta-analysis. Overall, no differences were found between GT/GTE and the placebo for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c: SMD, −0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.86 to 0.23, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: SMD, 0.10; 95% CI, −0.17 to 0.38, fasting insulin (SMD, −0.25; 95% CI, −0.64 to 0.15, and fasting glucose (SMD, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.50 to 0.30. No evidence support the consumption of GT/GTE could reduce the levels of HbA1c, HOMA-IR, fasting insulin, or fasting glucose in people with pre-diabetes/T2DM. However, the studies included were small and of varying quality.

  19. Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kalpana; Mohan, Roshni; Ramaratnam, Sridharan; Panneerselvam, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes frequently use complimentary and alternative medications including Ayurvedic medications and hence it is important to determine their efficacy and safety. Objectives To assess the effects of Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 10, 2011), MEDLINE (until 31 August 2011), EMBASE (until 31 August 2011), AMED (until 14 October 2011), the database of randomised trials from South Asia (until 14 October 2011), the database of the grey literature (OpenSigle, until 14 October 2011) and databases of ongoing trials (until 14 October 2011). In addition we performed hand searches of several journals and reference lists of potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomized trials of at least two months duration of Ayurvedic interventions for diabetes mellitus. Participants of both genders, all ages and any type of diabetes were included irrespective of duration of diabetes, antidiabetic treatment, comorbidity or diabetes related complications. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of trials was evaluated as indicated in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Main results Results of only a limited number of studies could be combined, in view of different types of interventions and variable quality of data. We found six trials of proprietary herbal mixtures and one of whole system Ayurvedic treatment. These studies enrolled 354 participants ( 172 on treatment, 158 on controls, 24 allocation unknown). The treatment duration ranged from 3 to 6 months. All these studies included adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. With regard to our primary outcomes, significant reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS) or both were observed with Diabecon, Inolter and Cogent DB compared to placebo or no additional treatment, while no significant hypoglycaemic response was found

  20. Bidirectional association between diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal disease. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, Peter; Izakovicova Holla, Lydie

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. The abnormal glucose metabolism results from defects in insulin production or insulin action, or both. For decades, it was suspected that diabetes contributed to poorer oral health and the increased frequency of periodontitis. More recently it was found that periodontitis could adversely affect glycemic control in diabetics. This review focuses on the bidirectional relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. A review of the literature on periodontal disease in diabetes using the following key words: periodontitis/periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia/glycemic control. There is strong evidence for an association between diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal disease. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk for and severity of periodontitis, and periodontal diseases can aggravate insulin resistance and affect glycemic control. Periodontal treatment improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetics; control of periodontal infection is not only important for oral health, it may also improve overall health.

  1. Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Cheema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Maori and Pacific Islands peoples of New Zealand suffer a greater burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and associated comorbidities than their European counterparts. Empirical evidence supports the clinical application of aerobic and resistance training for effective diabetes management and potential remission, but few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these interventions in specific ethnic cohorts. We recently conducted the first trial to investigate the effect of prescribed exercise training in Polynesian people with T2DM. This article presents the cultural considerations undertaken to successfully implement the study. The research procedures were accepted and approved by cultural liaisons and potential participants. The approved methodology involved a trial evaluating and comparing the effects of two, 16-week exercise regimens (i.e. aerobic training and resistance training on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, related diabetes markers (i.e. insulin resistance, blood lipids, relevant cytokines and anthropometric and hemodynamic indices and health-related quality of life. Future exercise-related research or implementation strategies in this cohort should focus on cultural awareness and techniques to enhance participation and compliance. Our approach to cultural consultation could be considered by researchers undertaking trials in this and other ethnic populations suffering an extreme burden of T2DM, including indigenous Australians and Americans.

  2. Short- and long-term metabolic effects of recombinant human IGF-I treatment in patients with severe insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Rossen, M; Urhammer, S A

    1997-01-01

    In patients suffering from the genetic syndromes of severe insulin resistance it appears that diabetes develops when the adaptive hypersecretion of insulin fails and often these forms of diabetes will be insensitive to insulin treatment. The objective of the present study was to examine......-resistant diabetes mellitus and (b) during a long-term (10 weeks) period with rhIGF-I given once a day in a low dose (40 micrograms/kg body weight) in three of the four patients. Two siblings had known mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor and a deletion of exon 17 in part of their insulin......-50%), proinsulin (40-50%) and C-peptide (10-65%) and an improvement in glycaemic control as evaluated by decreased glycosylated haemoglobin and serum fructosamine. During the long-term study period blood glucose-lowering effects of rhIGF-I were seen after 2 weeks of treatment and fasting plasma glucose and serum...

  3. ANTIPLATELET DRUGS RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND OBLITERATIVE ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LOWER LIMB ARTERIES ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gorjacheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a rate of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and clopidogrel and clinical outcomes in patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Material and methods. 154 patients were involved in the study and split into two groups. 100 patients (47 men, 53 women; aged 66,4±7,8 y.o. with ischemic heart disease (IHD (which was presented by angina pectoris, class I-III, or myocardial infarction history were included into the first group (G1. Other 54 patients (38 men, 16 women; aged 64,1±10,2 y.o. with IHD associated with obliterative atherosclerosis of lower limb were included into the 2nd group (G2. Platelet aggregation was evaluated by Born's method (inducers of platelet aggregation were arachidonic acid and ADP. Reduction of platelet aggregation ≥20% after arachidonic acid induction was considered as criterion of resistance to ASA. Patients were considered as resistant, partly resistant and sensitive to clopidogrel if platelet aggregation reduced on <10%, 10-29%, and ≥30% respectively.Results. Rate of ASA and clopidogrel resistance in patients with DM2 was significantly higher than these in patients without DM2 (48% vs 16% respectively, р=0,003 in G1; 42% vs 7% respectively, р=0,007 in G2.Conclusion. Resistance to antiplatelet drugs is observed more often in patients with DM2 and can result in increased risk of cardiovascular complications.

  4. ANTIPLATELET DRUGS RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND OBLITERATIVE ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LOWER LIMB ARTERIES ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gorjacheva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a rate of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and clopidogrel and clinical outcomes in patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Material and methods. 154 patients were involved in the study and split into two groups. 100 patients (47 men, 53 women; aged 66,4±7,8 y.o. with ischemic heart disease (IHD (which was presented by angina pectoris, class I-III, or myocardial infarction history were included into the first group (G1. Other 54 patients (38 men, 16 women; aged 64,1±10,2 y.o. with IHD associated with obliterative atherosclerosis of lower limb were included into the 2nd group (G2. Platelet aggregation was evaluated by Born's method (inducers of platelet aggregation were arachidonic acid and ADP. Reduction of platelet aggregation ≥20% after arachidonic acid induction was considered as criterion of resistance to ASA. Patients were considered as resistant, partly resistant and sensitive to clopidogrel if platelet aggregation reduced on <10%, 10-29%, and ≥30% respectively.Results. Rate of ASA and clopidogrel resistance in patients with DM2 was significantly higher than these in patients without DM2 (48% vs 16% respectively, р=0,003 in G1; 42% vs 7% respectively, р=0,007 in G2.Conclusion. Resistance to antiplatelet drugs is observed more often in patients with DM2 and can result in increased risk of cardiovascular complications.

  5. Alterations in high-density lipoprotein metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus : role of lipolytic enzymes, lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, SE; de Vries, R; Dullaart, RPF

    2003-01-01

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are generally accompanied by low HDL cholesterol and high plasma triglycerides, which are major cardiovascular risk factors. This review describes abnormalities in HDL metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport, i.e. the transport of cholesterol from

  6. Prevention of cardiovascular complications of diabetes mellitus by aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles-James, Candi; James, Erskine A; Sowers, James R

    2004-01-01

    Eighteen million Americans have type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) while another 40 million have impaired glucose tolerance. Atherosclerotic heart disease is the leading cause of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. In addition to the increased risk for CardioVascular Disease (CVD), patients with diabetes have a worse prognosis than nondiabetics when they suffer an ischemic event. Insulin resistance is increasingly recognized as a chronic, low-level, inflammatory state. Hyperinsulinemia has been proposed as the forerunner of hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and altered glucose tolerance, linking all these abnormalities to the development of coronary vascular disease. Atherosclerosis and insulin resistance share similar pathophysiological mechanisms, due to the actions of proinflammatory cytokines. The dynamic inflammatory milieu found in diabetes explains the susceptibility of diabetics to CVD and the potential mechanism by which aspirin may prevent CVD in diabetics. Aspirin decreases the risk for CVD in diabetic patients by a variety of established and novel mechanisms. Therapeutic strategies that lesson the CVD risk in diabetic patients, including the use of aspirin for primary and secondary prevention, are potentially very important. This review article addresses the antiatherosclerotic effects of aspirin, the potential anti-diabetic effects of aspirin, and the clinical trial evidence for CVD prevention by aspirin in diabetics. We also present recommendations for the use of aspirin in the diabetic population and the current guidelines put forth by the American Heart Association and by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. [Testosterone deficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of pre-diabetes and unreported diabetes mellitus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unreported diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance have substantial clinical importance. Glucose intolerance precedes diabetes mellitus and it is associated with cardiovascular complications. Subjects with prediabetes have near normal glycated haemoglobin and may only be detected when oral glucose ...

  9. Stress and adjustment in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, S; Singh, S B

    1999-01-01

    Stress and adjustment in diabetics is studied in order to know the influence of maladjustment and stress in the causation of the disease. The sample of study consists of 100 diabetics patients, 100 nonpsychosomatic and 100 normal person. Results obtained are discussed in detail. It is concluded that maladjustment and stress are important contributing factors in' diabetes mellitus.

  10. Antioxidant plants and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing rapidly and it is expected to increase by 2030. Other than currently available therapeutic options, there are a lot of herbal medicines, which have been recommended for its treatment. Herbal medicines have long been used for the treatment of DM because of the advantage usually having no or less side-effects. Most of these plants have antioxidant activities and hence, prevent or treat hard curable diseases, other than having the property of combating the toxicity of toxic or other drugs. In this review other than presenting new findings of DM, the plants, which are used and have been evaluated scientifically for the treatment of DM are introduced.

  11. The antidiabetic action of camel milk in experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus: an overview on the changes in incretin hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korish, A A

    2014-06-01

    Folk medicine stories accredited the aptitude of camel milk (CMK) as a hypoglycemic agent and recent studies have confirmed this in the diabetic patients and experimental animals. However, the mechanism(s) by which CMK influences glucose homeostasis is yet unclear. The current study investigated the changes in the glucose homeostatic parameters, the incretin hormones, and the inflammatory cytokines in the CMK-treated diabetic animals. A model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 40 mg/kg/day for 4 repeated doses. Camel milk treatment was administered for 8 weeks. The changes in glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose tolerance, fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin resistance (IR), TNF-α, TGF-β1, lipid profile, atherogenic index (AI), and body weight were investigated. The untreated diabetic animals showed hyperglycemia, increased HOMA-IR, hyperlipidemia, elevated AI, high serum incretins [GLP-1 and GIP], TNF-α, and TGF-β1 levels and weight loss as compared with the control group. Camel milk treatment to the diabetic animals resulted in significant lowered fasting glucose level, hypolipidemia, decreased HOMA-IR, recovery of insulin secretion, weight gain, and no mortality during the study. Additionally, CMK inhibits the diabetes-induced elevation in incretin hormones, TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels. The increase in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, decreased HOMA-IR, modulation of the secretion and/or the action of incretins, and the anti-inflammatory effect are anticipated mechanisms to the antidiabetic effect of CMK and suggest it as a valuable adjuvant antidiabetic therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Insulin resistance predicts early cardiovascular morbidity in men without diabetes mellitus, with effect modification by physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Margareta I; Daka, Bledar; Jansson, Per-Anders; Lindblad, Ulf; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2015-07-01

    to assess how well insulin resistance predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) in non-diabetic men and women and to explore the influence of physical activity. in this prospective study 2563 men and women without diabetes were examined with an oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometric measurements and blood pressure assessment. Questionnaires about lifestyle and physical activity were completed. Insulin resistance was estimated by fasting concentrations of plasma insulin and by HOMA index for insulin resistance. Participants were followed up for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality during an 8-year period, using information from the National Swedish Inpatient and Mortality registers. at follow-up, HOMAir predicted CVD morbidity in males (50 events) and females (28 events) combined (HRage/sex-adj 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7); however, when stratified by gender HOMAir was predictive solely in men (HRage-adj 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4), whereas no association was found in women (HRage-adj 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.5). When stratifying the data for high and low physical activity, the predictive value of insulin resistance became stronger in sedentary men (HRage-adj 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.4) but was abolished in men performing moderate to vigorous physical activity (HRage-adj 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.6). The results remained when step-wise adjusted also for BMI, ApoB/ApoA1 and hypertension, as well as for smoking, alcohol consumption and education. Outcome for fasting plasma insulin was similar to HOMAir. insulin resistance predicts CVD in the general population; however, men may be more vulnerable to increased insulin resistance than women, and physically inactive men seem to be at high risk. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  14. 77 FR 65931 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...-0347] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of applications from 12 individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes...

  15. 78 FR 14406 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...-0013] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  16. 76 FR 61140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...-0194] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  17. Zinc and type 2 diabetes mellitus with periodontitis – a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparani, D S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been increasing rapidly worldwide, making it a huge health pressure on society in both the developed and developing countries. During the last thirty years, diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia is proving itself to be fatal. Periodontitis was considered as one of the main, oral health problems encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. There exists a direct relation between the risk of complications of diabetes and periodontitis over time. The present review gives an outline of the features that govern the interrelationship between zinc and diabetes mellitus with periodontal disease, including the physiologic mechanisms and clinical studies, and presents scientific evidences. The disturbance in the zinc micronutrient and increased oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes may bring about insulin resistance and the creation of diabetic complications. The progression of diabetes mellitus may bring about perturbation in micronutrient metabolism and status.

  18. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Beta cell dysfunction progresses to beta cell failure. Many patients with T2DM are managed with oral agents until complications develop. 'Clinical inertia' in T2DM, defined as lack of initiation or ...

  20. Phospholipid transfer protein activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma activity of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which has multifaceted functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in inflammatory responses, is elevated in insulin resistant conditions. We determined the association of plasma PLTP activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

  1. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Beta cell dysfunction progresses to beta cell failure. Many patients with T2DM are managed with oral agents until complications develop. 'Clinical inertia' in T2DM, defined as lack of initiation or ...

  2. Effects of D-Pinitol on Insulin Resistance through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Mengna; Wu, Tianchen; Xu, Mengying; Cai, Haonan; Zhang, Zesheng

    2015-07-08

    D-pinitol, a compound isolated from Pinaceae and Leguminosae plants, has been reported to possess insulin-like properties. Although the hypoglycemic activity of D-pinitol was recognized in recent years, the molecular mechanism of D-pinitol in the treatment of diabetes mellitus remains unclear. In this investigation, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with insulin resistance was established by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) and injecting streptozocin (STZ) to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, targeting the exploration of more details of the mechanism in the therapy of T2DM. D-pinitol was administrated to the diabetic rats as two doses [30, 60 mg/(kg·body weight·day)]. The level of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was decreased 12.63% in the high-dosage group, and the ability of oral glucose tolerance was improved in D-pinitol-treated groups. The biochemical indices revealed that D-pinitol had a positive effect on hypoglycemic activity. Western boltting suggested that D-pinitol could promote the expression of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) p85, PI3Kp110, as well as the downstream target protein kinase B/Akt (at Ser473). Besides, D-pinitol inhibited the expression of glycogen synthesis kinase-3β (GSK-3β) protein and regulated the expression of glycogen synthesis (GS) protein and then accelerated the glycogen synthesis. Above all, D-pinitol played a positive role in regulating insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the liver through translocation and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in T2DM rats.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Individuals with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus ... Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is ...

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea and diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Vale; Paula Manuel; Eurico Oliveira; Ana Rita Oliveira; Eloisa Silva; Vitor Melo; Marta Sousa; João Carlos Alexandre; Isabel Gil; Amparo Sanchez; Edite Nascimento; António Simões Torres

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is convincing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Objectives: Analyze the prevalence of OSA in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Evaluate the influence of OSA on glycemic control. Methods: The adult patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) followed in the department of internal medicine were referred to our Sleep Unit. A home respiratory polygraphy was then performed on all patients with body mass in...

  5. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakshi Singh; T K Ray; Ranjan Das; Abha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus,...

  6. Diabetes insipidus: main aspects and comparative analysis with diabetes mellitus Diabetes insipidus: principais aspectos e análise comparativa com diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Lúcia Abreu Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by the excess of sugar in the blood and urine. The two most common types of diabetes are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, both presenting glycemic regulation-damage caused by insulin. Nevertheless, there is another type of diabetes that is less known but not less important, the diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by a problem with the synthesis, secretion or action of the ADH (anti-diuretic hormone that can result in polyuric syndromes with increased excretion of hypotonic urine. Physiologically, variations in the osmotic pressure activate osmoceptors that stimulate the ADH secretion, increasing water reabsorption in the kidney collection tubes. This article intends to revise a wide-ranging study on diabetes insipidus, aiming at a comparative analysis of the incidence, diagnosis, causes, types, treatment and consequences between diabetes insidipus and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus and insipidus are two different pathologies with a single similarity that is the diabetes itself, that is, the polyuria established. The knowledge of the significant differences between the pathologies studied is important once diabetes insipidus is less known, but can lead to serious complications if not properly treated. O diabetes mellitus é uma doença caracterizada pelo excesso de açúcar no sangue e na urina. Os dois tipos mais comuns de diabetes são diabetes mellitus insulino-dependente e diabetes mellitus insulino – resistente, e que ambos apresentam comprometimento da regulação da glicemia por ação da insulina. No entanto, existe outra forma de diabetes menos conhecida, mas não menos importante, o diabetes insipidus, que é caracterizado por um distúrbio na síntese, secreção ou ação do ADH (hormônio antidiurético, que pode resultar em síndromes poliúricas com excreção aumentada de urina hipotônica. Fisiologicamente, variações na press

  7. Endothelial dysfunction in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Xiang, Lin; Zhang, Bilin; Cheng, Yangyang

    2017-03-01

    To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation. When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p type 2 diabetes mellitus (β = -0.677, p type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

  8. Direct association of a promoter polymorphism in the CD36/FAT fatty acid transporter gene with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corpeleijn, E.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Kruijshoop, M.; Magagnin, M.G.P.; Bruin, de T.W.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The membrane-bound fatty acid transporter CD36/FAT may play a role in disturbed fatty acid handling as observed in the metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Genetic variation in the CD36 gene may contribute to the aetiology of diabetes. METHODS: A population-based cohort in

  9. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Prevalent in Women With Prior Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Independently Associated With Insulin Resistance and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Andreasen, Camilla; Vedtofte, Louise

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is a potentially reversible condition but is also associated with progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis. Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) have a higher risk for NAFLD. RESEARCH DESIGN...

  10. [Diabetes mellitus in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes increase in the elderly. Ageing is one of the most important factors contributing to development of glucose intolerance (insuline resistance). NHANES II data showed that in the poppulation over 65 years 18.7% has got overt diabetes and 22.8% glucose intolerance. Similar data were obtained among ageing inhabitants of the city of Bialystok (downtown). The criteria of diagnosis of diabetes in the elderly are the same like in the younger population. However, in the elderly the clinical symptoms are not characteristic and scanty (limited). The period without symptoms is long. Very often, the diabetes is diagnosed for the first time in patient with the heart infarct, brain stroke, diabetic foot or even hyperosmolar coma. There may occur two critical situations in the elderly diabetic persons, namely non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma and hypoglycameia. The non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma is a result of a considerable elevation in the blood concentration of glucose, sodium and urea. This, in turn, is a consequence of osmotic diuresis which is non balanced by elevation in the volume of water intake. Factors facilitating development of the coma include: nontreated diabetes, infirmity, inadequate care, diuretics, stroke, hyperthermia. Hypoglycaemia in the elderly is a very serious problem. It can cause arrhythmia, a rise in the blood pressure, unconsciousness, falls and injuries. The most often reason of hypoglycaemia in the elderly are: long-acting derivatives of sulphonylurea, treatment with insulin and irregular meals. The major aims of treatment of diabetes in the elderly are: reduction of hyperglycaemia, reduction in the development of complications and minimizing of the risk of hypoglycaemia. An elderly patient with diabetes should have each year a check-up which would include examination of the eyes, kidneys, feet. The elderly patient with diabetes is often crippled, indolent and lives often alone. Therefore, such a patient should be taken care of

  11. Resistance Training in Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Impact on Areas of Metabolic Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle and Potential Impact on Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Type II Diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing rapidly and will continue to be a major healthcare expenditure burden. As such, identification of effective lifestyle treatments is paramount. Skeletal muscle and bone display metabolic and functional disruption in T2DM. Skeletal muscle in T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glycogen synthesis, impairments in mitochondria, and lipid accumulation. Bone quality in T2DM is decreased, potentially due to the effects of advanced glycation endproducts on collagen, impaired osteoblast activity, and lipid accumulation. Although exercise is widely recognized as an important component of treatment for T2DM, the focus has largely been on aerobic exercise. Emerging research suggests that resistance training (strength training may impose potent and unique benefits in T2DM. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of resistance training in treating the dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the potential role for resistance training in treating the associated dysfunction in bone.

  12. Vitamin D3-Supplemented Yogurt Drink Improves Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profiles in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double Blinded Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Xing, Baoheng

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to examine the effects of daily consumption of vitamin D3-supplemented yogurt (VDY) drink on insulin resistance and lipid profiles in pregnant gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients. Participants aged 24-32 years in their second trimester were randomly assigned to consume either plain yogurt or VDY daily for 16 weeks. Metabolic and lipid profiles including levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were assessed at baseline (week 0) and end of trial (week 16). After 16 weeks of intervention, insulin-related variables including FPG and serum insulin levels were markedly lower in VDY group participants. Insulin resistance parameters, such as homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance and β cell function, were also significantly reduced in VDY group participants. Moreover, levels of TAG, TC and LDL, as well as the TC to high-density lipoprotein ratio, had also significantly decreased in the VDY group. Daily consumption of VDY drink improves insulin resistance and lipid profiles in women with GDM. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Mutual Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yan Lin; Wang, Li Xia; Chen, Ming Ting

    2017-05-01

    China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Diabetes Mellitus/HIV Interphase: A Series of 10 Cases | Otieno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence shows that the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) in HIV/AIDS patients leads to the development of diabetes mellitus. Some degree of insulin resistance has also been noted in HIV infected patients not on protease inhibitor therapy and this may cause glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus.

  15. Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis: a tale of two common interrelated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, Evanthia; Papapanou, Panos N

    2011-06-28

    Diabetes mellitus (a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia) and periodontitis (a microbially induced inflammatory disorder that affects the supporting structures of teeth) are both common, chronic conditions. Multiple studies have demonstrated that diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) is an established risk factor for periodontitis. Findings from mechanistic studies indicate that diabetes mellitus leads to a hyperinflammatory response to the periodontal microbiota and also impairs resolution of inflammation and repair, which leads to accelerated periodontal destruction. The cell surface receptor for advanced glycation end products and its ligands are expressed in the periodontium of individuals with diabetes mellitus and seem to mediate these processes. The association between the two diseases is bidirectional, as periodontitis has been reported to adversely affect glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus and to contribute to the development of diabetic complications. In addition, meta-analyses conclude that periodontal therapy in individuals with diabetes mellitus can result in a modest improvement of glycemic control. The effect of periodontal infections on diabetes mellitus is potentially explained by the resulting increase in levels of systemic proinflammatory mediators, which exacerbates insulin resistance. As our understanding of the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis deepens, increased patient awareness of the link between diabetes mellitus and oral health and collaboration among medical and dental professionals for the management of affected individuals become increasingly important.

  16. The Effect of Green Tea versus Sour Tea on Insulin Resistance, Lipids Profiles and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By decreasing oxidative stress and whereby decreasing insulin resistance, it may be possible to decrease complications of Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Green tea and sour tea contain phytochemicals which have anti-oxidative function. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of sour and green tea consumption on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in DM. Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial in which 100 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into sour tea group (ST and green tea group (GT. The patients were instructed to drink 150ml sour tea and green tea infusion, respectively, three times a day for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, fructosamine, lipid profiles, fasting blood insulin (FBI, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; beta cell function (b%, insulin sensitivity (S% and malondialdehyde (MDA were monitored. Results: HDL-c significantly increased in both groups. The median of FBI in GT showed significant decrease (8.5 to 6.6 μIU/mL unlike the ST which showed significant increase (8.2 to 16.3 μIU/mL. The median of HOMA-IR after the intervention in GT showed lower levels than the ST (1.1 vs. 1.6, P=0.004. The median of b% only in ST showed significant increase from 38.2% at the baseline to 47.7% after the intervention. The mean of S% only in ST showed significant decrease after the intervention. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of 150 ml infusion of green tea or sour tea, three times a day for four weeks, has positive effect on insulin resistance and certain lipoproteins in type 2 DM. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201107317161N1

  17. Diabetes mellitus: The epidemic of the century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram T; Darwish, Hisham M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic nature of diabetes mellitus in different regions is reviewed. The Middle East and North Africa region has the highest prevalence of diabetes in adults (10.9%) whereas, the Western Pacific region has the highest number of adults diagnosed with diabetes and has countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (37.5%). Different classes of diabetes mellitus, type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus are compared in terms of diagnostic criteria, etiology and genetics. The molecular genetics of diabetes received extensive attention in recent years by many prominent investigators and research groups in the biomedical field. A large array of mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that play a role in the various steps and pathways involved in glucose metabolism and the development, control and function of pancreatic cells at various levels are reviewed. The major advances in the molecular understanding of diabetes in relation to the different types of diabetes in comparison to the previous understanding in this field are briefly reviewed here. Despite the accumulation of extensive data at the molecular and cellular levels, the mechanism of diabetes development and complications are still not fully understood. Definitely, more extensive research is needed in this field that will eventually reflect on the ultimate objective to improve diagnoses, therapy and minimize the chance of chronic complications development. PMID:26131326

  18. [Incidence and clinical risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vigo, P; Álvarez-Silvares, E; Alves-Pérez M T; Domínguez-Sánchez, J; González-González, A

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes is considered a variant of diabetes mellitus as they share a common pathophysiological basis: insulin resistance in target and insufficient secretion of it by pancreatic p-cell bodies. Pregnancy is a unique physiological situation provides an opportunity to identify future risk of diabetes mellitus. To determine the long-term incidence of diabetes mellitus in women who have previously been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and identifying clinical risk factors for developing the same. nested case-control cohort study. 671 patients between 1996 and 2009 were diagnosed with gestational diabetes were selected. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was estimated and 2 subgroups were formed: Group A or cases: women who develop diabetes mellitus after diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Group B or control: random sample of 71 women with a history of gestational diabetes in the follow-up period remained normoglycemic. Both groups were studied up to 18 years postpartum. By studying Kaplan Meier survival of the influence of different gestational variables it was obtained in the later development of diabetes mellitus with time parameter and COX models for categorical variables were applied. Significant variables were studied by multivariate Cox analysis. In all analyzes the Hazard ratio was calculated with confidence intervals at 95%. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was 10.3% in patients with a history of gestational diabetes. They were identified as risk factors in the index pregnancy to later development of diabetes mellitus: greater than 35 and younger than 27 years maternal age, BMI greater than 30 kg/m2, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, insulin therapy, poor metabolic control and more than a complicated pregnancy with gestational diabetes. Clinical factors have been identified in the pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes that determine a higher probability of progression to diabetes mellitus in the medium and long term.

  19. Retinoid Metabolism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoid acid is a metabolite of vitamin A and functions as an important factor in cell survival, differentiation and death. Most previous studies on retinoid metabolism have focused on its association with cancer, hematologic and dermatologic disorders. Given the special concern over the recent increase in the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, the role of retinoid metabolism on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in the human body is of marked importance. Therefore, in this issue, we review the literature on the association of retinoid metabolism with glucose tolerance, with regard to insulin secretion, pancreatic autoimmunity, insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. Further, we tried to assess the possibility of using retinoids as a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetes.

  20. A Phytosterol-Enriched Spread Improves Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Xing, Baoheng

    2016-08-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has become a serious health risk among pregnant women throughout the world. Phytosterol-enriched margarines are capable of lowering total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but little is known about its effects on GDM. We aimed to examine the effects of daily consumption of a phytosterol-enriched spread on insulin resistance and lipid profile in pregnant GDM women. Pregnant women suffering from GDM in their second trimester were recruited and randomly assigned to consume a margarine spread either with or without phytosterols daily for 16 weeks. Serum lipid profile and glucose and insulin metabolisms were assessed at week 0 (baseline) and week 16 (end of trial). After 16 weeks, levels of triacylglycerol, TC, and LDL were significantly decreased, while high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased, compared with the baseline in the phytosterol group. In addition, in the same treatment group, glucose metabolic parameters, including fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, the quantitative insulin check index, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance, and β-cell function, were also significantly improved. Daily consumption of a phytosterol-enriched spread improved insulin resistance and lipid profile in women with GDM.

  1. Study on the relationship between changes of serum, adiponectin some inflammatory cytokines levels and insulin resistance in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Kun; Wng Dan; Duan Binhong; Yang Yuzhi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between changes of serum adiponectin,interleukin-6 (IL-6)tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels and insulin resistance (IR), obesity parameters in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) patients. Methods: Serum adiponectin (with RIA), IL-6, TNF-α (with ELISA) levels as well as fBG, 2hPG, fasting insulin, 2h insulin, lipid profile were measured in 42 obese newly diagnosed DM2 patients (BMI>25), 50 non-obese DM2 patients (BMI<25) and 40 controls. Results: The levels of adiponectin obese group were significantly those in the other groups (P<0.05 and P<0.01), while levels in non-obese group were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01). The levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in obese group were significantly higher than those in the other groups (P<0.05 and P<0.01), while the levels in non-obese group were significantly higher than the levels in controls (P<0.01). The adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with insulin resistance(HOMA-IR) and BMI, while the cytokines levels were posisitively correlated with HOMA-IR and BMI. Conclusion: Adiponectin, IL-6 and TNF-α are closely related with insulin resistance, and take parts in development of the abnormal glucose metabolism. (authors)

  2. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine whether gastrointestinal symptoms are more frequent in persons with diabetes mellitus compared with age and sex-matched controls, and to assess the association of these symptoms with blood sugar control. Methods: Hospital-based case control study. Study was carried out in the diabetic clinic of ...

  3. Investigating the association between diabetes mellitus, depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase the risk of depression as a result of a sense of threat of debilitating complications or because of associated lifestyle changes. Depression may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes as a result of poor health behaviours. Objective. To determine the association between ...

  4. Oral Manifestations and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maskari, Awatif Y.; Al-Maskari, Masoud Y.; Al-Sudairy, Salem

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting all age groups. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many chronic macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes have been reported in the literature with few reports about oral complications. This article aims to review and increase the awareness of oral manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus and to stimulate research on the subject. It treats in depth some of the complications such as periodontal disease, fungal infection and salivary dysfunction while other complications are mentioned briefly. PMID:21969888

  5. Changing trends in diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify any changing trends in the incidence and caesarean section (CS) rate of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over a 10- year period, between 1999 and 2008. Although the incidence of pre-gestational DM has not significantly changed over the course of the last 10 years, there is an obvious rising trend in the incidence of GDM. Despite an increase in the overall CS rate during this time period, a parallel increase in the CS rate has not been observed among women whose pregnancies are complicated either by gestational or by pre-gestational diabetes (PGD).

  6. Knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, F.; Afridi, A.K.; Rahim, F.; Ashfaq, M.; Khan, S.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially over the last three decades, with resultant increase in morbidity and mortality mainly due to its complications. Limited data is available regarding the awareness and knowledge about these complications in our population. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical B Unit of Department of Medicine Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All admitted diabetic patients above 15 years of age with duration of diabetes mellitus more than one year were included. Results: Out of the 96 patients questioned, 58 were females and 38 were males. Mean age was 53.29 ± 10.821 years while the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9.75 ± 7.729 years. Of the total 76 (79.1%) of the patients were illiterate; 36 (37.50%) had good, 24 (25%) had average and 36 (37.50%) had poor knowledge about diabetic complications. Males and university graduate patients had slightly better knowledge. Between 50-60% patients were aware of different cardiac complications of diabetes mellitus. Awareness regarding other complications was foot ulcer/gangrene 70 (72.91%), poor wound healing 68 (70.83%), stroke 54 (56.25%), renal diseases 64 (66.66%), eye diseases 53 (55.20%), gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal problems 45 (46.87%), diabetic ketoacidosis 55 (57.29%), hypoglycaemia 50 (52.08%), lipid abnormalities 26 (27.08%) and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy ranging from 47-65%. Conclusions: Majority of diabetic patients are unaware of diabetic complications. Therefore, hospital and community based awareness programs should be launched to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus. (author)

  7. High-Salt Intake Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance in WBN/Kob-Leprfa/fa Rats: A New Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiichi Takagi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-salt intake is a major risk factor for developing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its effects on glucose homeostasis are controversial. We previously found that high-salt intake induces severe hypertension in WBN/Kob diabetic fatty (WBKDF rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of a high-salt intake on glucose homeostasis in WBKDF rats. Male WBKDF rats and age-matched Wistar rats at 6 weeks of age were each divided into two groups and fed either a normal-sodium (NS, 0.26% diet or high-sodium (HS, 8% diet for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and urine volume were increased in WBKDF-HS and Wistar-HS. Body weight gain and food consumption were comparable between NS and HS in both strains. Plasma and urine glucose levels were significantly increased in WBKDF-NS but not in WBKDF-HS. HOMA-IR in WBKDF-HS was significantly lower compared with that in WBKDF-NS. The high plasma adiponectin level in WBKDF-NS compared with that in Wistar-NS was further enhanced in WBKDF-HS. Glycogen deposits and fat droplets in the livers of WBKDF-HS were reduced compared with those of WBKDF-NS. The present study demonstrated that HS intake ameliorated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in WBKDF rats, which may be due to increased plasma levels of adiponectin.

  8. Detection of vitamin D in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and its effects on insulin resistance, adipokines and TNF-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jia Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect vitamin D levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and the influence and clinical effect of Vitamin D supplement on insulin resistance, fatty factors and TNF-α. Methods: A total of 100 patients with GDM from September 2014 to May 2015 in our hospital were selected as object of observation (GDM Group. 52 cases patients with Vitamin D deficiency were randomly divided into two groups. At the same time, 50 cases of healthy pregnant women were selected as normal group. Biochemical indexes of observation group and normal group were detected. Biosynthetic Human Insulin Injection were given to the patients in the control group. The patients in the observation group were supplemented with vitamin D drops on the basis of the treatment of control group. The level of insulin resistance, adipokines and TNF-α were detected in the 2 groups. Results: FBG, PBG, FINS, TG, Visfatin, TNF-α and HOMA-IR in GDM group were higher compared with that in normal group. 25(OHD3 and APN in GDM group decreased significantly compared with that in normal group. The comparison of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C in the two groups were not statistically significant. PBG, FINS, HOMA-IR, Visfatin and TNF-毩 in both groups after treatment significantly decreased compared with that before treatment. PBG, Visfatin and TNF-毩 in treatment group after treatment decreased more significantly than that in control group. FINS, HOMA-IR in treatment group after treatment increased more significantly than that in control group. The decrease of FBG was not obvious and there was no significant difference between the two groups after treatment. APN and 25(OHD3 in both groups after treatment significantly increased compared with that before treatment. And they in treatment group after treatment increased more significantly than that in control group. In the correlation analysis, 25(OH D3 in serum was positively correlated to the the level of APN. Also, it was negatively

  9. Blink reflex in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkholy, Saly H; Hosny, Hanan M; Shalaby, Nevein M; El-Hadidy, Reem A; Abd El-Rahim, Noha T; Mohamed, Manal M

    2014-12-01

    An evaluation of the extent of damage of the central nervous system in diabetes mellitus is of high value in current research. Electrophysiological abnormalities are frequently present in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic cranial neuropathy is one of the complications of the disease. Blink reflex is used to diagnose subclinical cranial neuropathy. The objective is to test the utility of blink reflex in detecting subclinical cranial nerve involvement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Forty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged from 30 to 60 years examined clinically and neurologically. Blink reflex and nerve conduction studies for the upper and lower limbs were performed and compared with 20 matched normal controls. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy showed significant prolonged distal latency and reduced amplitudes of the R2C response compared with the control, patients without peripheral neuropathy showed insignificant changes. Alteration of R2 correlated with the type of treatment and the duration of the disease. In patients without peripheral neuropathy, ulnar sensory distal latencies showed significant positive correlation with R2I latency, whereas its Conduction Velocity (CV) showed significant positive correlation with R2C amplitudes and negative correlation with R2C latency. R2C is the most sensitive parameter in the blink reflex, which can help in the diagnosis of subclinical diabetic cranial neuropathy.

  10. Surprisingly low infertility rate in married type 2 diabetic women: A rather curious paradox to the current opinion of insulin resistance as the joint pathogenesis of poly cystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolian Arjmand, Abbas; Nouri, Mahnaz; Tavakolian Arjmand, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Sharing the same pathophysiologic principle which is insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are usually considered closely related and easily interchangeable medical entities. Numerous attempts have been made to document this illusory perspective. Based on a delicate pathophysiologic notion, we believe that fully developed T2DM is infrequently observed with fully featured PCOS. In an observational descriptive study 257 married T2DM women were consecutively included and meticulously investigated for fertility history and, albeit, clinical and biochemical features of PCOS. Of 257 married diabetic women only six (2.3%) had no children. In one case a male problem (azoospermia) and in the second case, late marriage (aged 45 at wedding ceremony) was the cause of infertility. Thus, only four (1.6%) might have been labeled as true female factor infertility. Astounding to report was the average pregnancies for each participant which was 5.1±2.5, ranging from zero to fifteen. we would suggest that, despite the well-established fact of insulin resistance as the common pathophysiologic process for T2DM and PCOS, they are definitely separate medical entities. As a matter of fact T2DM and PCOS are the two opposite aspect of the insulin resistance coin. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Muhammad, Z.; Qayum, I.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycaemia due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus of this area. This descriptive study was conducted in medical out patient door of District Headquarter Hospital Battgram from January 2008 to July 2008. A total of 350 diabetic (types 1 and 2) patients over 15 years of age attending the medical OPD of DHQ Hospital were examined in detail for skin manifestations of the disease. Three hundred and fifty diabetic (type-1 and type-2) patients (193 females and 157 males) enrolled in this study. Mean age of the patients was 54+-8.53 years. Duration of diabetes was between 1-12 years; 320 patients had type-2 and 30 patients had type-1 diabetes mellitus. Patients with uncontrolled disease were 327 and 23 patients showed adequate glycaemic control. Seventy-six percent of patients had cutaneous manifestations. The skin manifestations observed were: skin infections 30.9%, foot gangrene and ulcers 12.9%, pruritus 7.1%, vitiligo 5.7%, yellow skin 4.2%, diabetic dermopathy 4.2%, skin tags 3.7%, acanthosis nigricans 2.9%, eruptive xanthomas 2.6%, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum 1.4%, diabetic bullae 0.6%, and pigmented purpuras in 0.3% patients. Cutaneous manifestations were quite Common in the diabetics of this area. (author)

  12. 76 FR 1495 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...-2010-0355] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). [[Page 1496

  13. Electroacupuncture and Rosiglitazone Combined Therapy as a Means of Treating Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Tsung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of rosiglitazone (TZD and electroacupuncture (EA combined therapy as a treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients by randomized single-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 31 newly diagnostic T2DM patients, who fulfilled the study's eligibility criteria, were recruited. The individuals were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group (TZD, N=15 and the experimental group (TZD + EA, N=16. Changes in their plasma free fatty acid (FFA, glucose, and insulin levels, together with their homeostasis model assessment (HOMA indices, were statistically compared before and after treatment. Hypoglycemic activity (% was also compared between these two groups. Results. There was no significant difference in hypoglycemic activity between the TZD and TZD + EA group. The effectiveness of the combined therapy seems to derive from an improvement in insulin resistance and a significant lowering of the secreted insulin rather than the effect of TZD alone on T2DM. The combined treatment had no significant adverse effects. A lower plasma FFA concentration is likely to be the mechanism that causes this effect. Conclusion. This combined therapy seems to suppress endogenous insulin secretion by improving insulin resistance via a mechanism involving a reduction in plasma FFA. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01577095.

  14. The relationship between chronic kidney function and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and beta cell function in Korean adults with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Seok; Kim, Sung Gil; Kim, Han Soo; Hwang, Eun Young; Lee, Jun Ho; Yoon, Hyun

    2017-12-28

    The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-B) in Korean adults with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study included 5,188 adults aged 20 or older using the 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, which represents national data in Korea. A covariance test adjusted for covariates was performed for HOMA-IR and HOMA-B in relation to CKD. The present study has several key findings. First, in T2DM, HOMA-IR (p = 0.035) was higher in the CKD group than in the non-CKD group after adjusting for the related variables but HOMA-B (p = 0.141) was not significant. Second, in non-T2DM, HOMA-IR (p = 0.163) and HOMA-B (p = 0.658) were not associated with CKD after adjusting for the related variables (except age). However, when further adjusted for age, HOMA-IR (p = 0.020) and HOMA-B (p = 0.006) were higher in the CKD group than in the non-CKD group. In conclusion, insulin resistance was positively associated CKD with in Korean adults with or without T2DM. Beta cell function was positively associated CKD with in Korean adults without T2DM but not in Korean adults with T2DM.

  15. Lamotrigine in binge-eating disorder associated with bipolar II depression and treatment-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Hirai, Aizan; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2013-01-01

    Lamotrigine (LMG) is an anticonvulsant currently registered for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BP) depression. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman with comorbid binge-eating disorder (BED), BP depression, and treatment-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in which LMG showed significant efficacy against BED and BP depression and resulted in a drastic decrease in plasma glucose levels. The patient had had untreated BP depression, BED, and T2DM for more than 30 years. We prescribed LMG at 25 mg/d for BP depression and titrated it up to 50 mg/d over 4 weeks, then maintained this dose for the next 16 weeks. At follow-up after the first 4-week period, she reported a significant decrease in compulsive eating impulses and depressive mood, and her positive reports were consistent in the following months. Hemoglobin A1c levels at National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program decreased drastically from 9.6% to 7.1% over the 20 weeks after initiating treatment. This case suggests that LMG might be beneficial for BED with concomitant BP depression, and potentially for treatment-resistant T2DM, if this refractoriness is identified to result from comorbidity of BED and BP.

  16. Diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis: differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspriello, S D; Zizzi, A; Tirabassi, G; Buldreghini, E; Biscotti, T; Faloia, E; Stramazzotti, D; Boscaro, M; Piemontese, M

    2011-04-01

    Although many studies have appeared about diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis, few have compared periodontitis inflammatory markers between type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and information regarding this issue is scarce and contradictory. We evaluated the levels of plasma C-reactive protein and of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid in two groups of subjects affected by T1DM and T2DM, in order to identify possible differences between the two classes in the inflammatory mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis. Plasma C-reactive protein and gingival crevicular fluid IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in periodontitis patients affected by type 1 (P-T1DM, n = 24) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-T2DM, n = 24). Gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in P-T1DM subjects were significantly higher than in P-T2DM subjects. In P-T1DM subjects, we found significant negative correlations between the duration of diabetes mellitus and IL-1β and between the duration of diabetes mellitus and TNF-α. This study shows that IL-1β and TNF-α levels in periodontitis patients with T1DM are affected by the duration of diabetes mellitus. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Latest data on metabolic diseases: Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Mitrou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With such a high cost in money and human lives, diabetes mellitus (DM is a major challenge for health care systems and an obstacle to sustainable economic growth. The pathophysiological disorders of diabetes include, besides the defect in pancreatic insulin secretion and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues (liver, muscle and adipose tissue, increased lipolysis, increased glucagon secretion, impaired secretion and action of incretin hormones, increased glucose resorption by the kidney and defects in the central nervous system. The therapeutic intervention must be timely and personalized. Lifestyle interventions (diet, exercise, smoking cessation are the cornerstone of treatment. Treatment should begin with metformin unless there is a contraindication (eg renal failure or intolerance (eg, gastrointestinal disorders. If HbA1c remains off target a second or a third treatment may be added, orally (glitazone, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors, sulfonylurea or by injection (GLP-1 agonist or basal insulin. On failure to achieve glycemic target combinations of injectable treatments (combination of agonist GLP-1 with basal insulin, intensified insulin therapy or in some cases insulin mixtures are recommended. New treatments (weekly administered GLP-1 analogs, combination of a basal insulin / GLP-1 in one injection, SGLT-2 inhibitors, long acting basal insulins in combination with the old tried treatments (e.g. metformin, pioglitazone, inhibitors DPP-4 can contribute to human-centered and individualized management of patients with diabetes. The cardiovascular safety of antidiabetic treatment should be considered. There is a need for early diagnosis and treatment of glucose metabolism disorders during pregnancy (before 24 to 28 weeks of gestation in women at high risk for developing gestational diabetes.

  18. Pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus: actual problems of pathogenesis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Rebrov А.P.; Kunitsyna М.А.; Kashkina E.I.; Arkhangelskaya Е.Е.

    2012-01-01

    We have presented the review of literature devoted to the problem of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus. We have found up that prevalence of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus needs to be adjusted. In analyzed literature the influence of localization of structural changes of pancreatic tissue on risk of diabetes mellitus development is studied insufficiently. In the result of our literature analysis we have detected that treatment of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus up to date is not unified and ...

  19. MANIFESTASI RONTGENOGRAFI DIABETES MELLITUS DI RONGGA MULUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trelia Boel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common disease, described as a systemic disease of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a realtive or absolute deficiency of insulum. This condition is characterized by hyperglyecemia, glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, pruritis, and weight loss. Diabetes mellitus in itself does not cause periodontal disease, however diabetes or patients with an increased blood glucose concentration (>200mg/dl tend to gave increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Patient with diabetics above 50 years old (3 cases radiographically can be seen as alveolar bone loss in maxilla and mandible. Alveolar bone loss is seen larger in the posterior maxilla region. The vascular alteration in diabetics may enhance the susceptibility of periodontium to become periodontitis and serve as an etiology factor in pathologic bone resorption.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy | Abourawi | Libyan Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article will briefly review the changes in the carbohydrate metabolism that characterise normal pregnancy and will focus on a practical approach to the care of patients with pre-existing diabetes as well as GDM. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, ...

  1. Diabetes mellitus and metformin in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Koji; Iwama, Hisakazu; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Tani, Joji; Oura, Kyoko; Tadokoro, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Teppei; Nomura, Takako; Morishita, Asahiro; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-07-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Diabetes mellitus, a risk factor for cancer, is also globally endemic. The clinical link between these two diseases has been the subject of investigation for a century, and diabetes mellitus has been established as a risk factor for HCC. Accordingly, metformin, a first-line oral anti-diabetic, was first proposed as a candidate anti-cancer agent in 2005 in a cohort study in Scotland. Several subsequent large cohort studies and randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated significant efficacy for metformin in suppressing HCC incidence and mortality in diabetic patients; however, two recent randomized controlled trials have reported positive data for the tumor-preventive potential of metformin in non-diabetic subjects. The search for biological links between cancer and diabetes has revealed intracellular pathways that are shared by cancer and diabetes. The signal transduction mechanisms by which metformin suppresses carcinogenesis in cell lines or xenograft tissues and improves chemoresistance in cancer stem cells have also been elucidated. This review addresses the clinical and biological links between HCC and diabetes mellitus and the anti-cancer activity of metformin in clinical studies and basic experiments.

  2. 78 FR 12821 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...-2012-0350] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  3. 78 FR 12819 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...-2012-0351] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  4. 78 FR 65754 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-2013-0183] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor...-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement...

  5. 77 FR 20874 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  6. 75 FR 70077 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  7. 75 FR 64394 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  8. 75 FR 65056 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current standard for... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  9. 75 FR 50797 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  10. 75 FR 27616 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in... by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... vehicle if that person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus...

  11. 76 FR 71111 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...-2011-0194] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and...

  12. 77 FR 43417 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ...-2012-0109] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  13. 76 FR 32015 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...-2011-0080] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  14. 77 FR 43901 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ...-2012-0108] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  15. 77 FR 7232 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ...-2011-0327] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  16. 76 FR 69795 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...-2011-0193] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  17. 76 FR 47288 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ...-2011-0125] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. [[Page... by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving...

  18. 76 FR 47290 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ...-2011-0144] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants...

  19. 76 FR 26792 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...-2011-0058] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The...

  20. 76 FR 17475 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ...-0058] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the...

  1. 76 FR 22940 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...-2011-0025] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  2. 76 FR 27376 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...-2011-0040] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  3. 77 FR 536 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-2011-0301] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  4. 76 FR 22941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...-2011-0011] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and...

  5. 78 FR 35088 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ...-2013-0015] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  6. 77 FR 65929 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...-2012-0219] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  7. 78 FR 64267 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...-0184] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  8. 77 FR 17116 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...-2011-0381] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants...

  9. 78 FR 76397 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-2013-0187] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  10. 77 FR 532 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-2011-0300] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... included in this notice. Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established...

  11. 78 FR 1926 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...-2012-0347] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  12. 76 FR 61139 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...-2011-0192] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  13. 76 FR 79759 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...-2011-0278] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  14. 78 FR 77784 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...-2013-0184] [4910-EX-P] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY...-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement...

  15. 78 FR 5559 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...-2012-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  16. 78 FR 50482 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-0183] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  17. 77 FR 33264 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...-2012-0044] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  18. 76 FR 44650 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-2011-0143] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  19. 78 FR 37272 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...-2013-0017] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  20. 77 FR 25227 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...-2011-0383] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants...

  1. 76 FR 72031 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...-0301] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be...

  2. 78 FR 37273 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...-2013-0016] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  3. 77 FR 75493 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...-2012-0282] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  4. 77 FR 59447 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...-0281] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  5. 77 FR 38383 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...-2012-0107] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  6. 78 FR 7855 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...-2012-0349] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  7. 77 FR 3549 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...-0368] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be...

  8. 78 FR 60014 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...-2013-0020] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  9. 78 FR 26422 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...-2013-0012] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  10. 78 FR 65034 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...-0190] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  11. 77 FR 51845 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...-2012-0163] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  12. 77 FR 5873 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...-2011-0326] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  13. 76 FR 9867 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...-2010-0427] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  14. 77 FR 70529 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-2012-0281] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  15. 76 FR 79756 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...-0326] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be...

  16. 77 FR 17111 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...-0042] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  17. 77 FR 75492 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...-2012-0283] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  18. 77 FR 18302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ...-0043] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria...

  19. 76 FR 53707 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ...-2011-0145] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  20. 77 FR 64585 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-2012-0218] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  1. 78 FR 50486 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-0182] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  2. 78 FR 16758 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...-0012] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in...

  3. 77 FR 29446 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...-2012-0043] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... vehicle if that person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus...

  4. 78 FR 39825 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-2013-0018] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' [49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)]. FMCSA... Congress on the Feasibility of a Program to Qualify Individuals with Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus to...

  5. 77 FR 48587 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...-0217] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  6. 77 FR 59450 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...-2012-0164] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  7. 78 FR 50140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ...-2013-0019] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  8. 78 FR 76400 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-2013-0189] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor...-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement...

  9. 78 FR 76398 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...-2013-0188] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  10. 78 FR 65031 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...-2013-0182] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  11. 77 FR 46791 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...-2012-0162] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  12. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well.

  13. Exercise and its role in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM refers to diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. GDM is a common medical complication in pregnancy that has been rapidly increasing worldwide. GDM is associated with both short- and long-term health issues for both mothers and offspring. Consistent with type 2 diabetes, peripheral insulin resistance contributes to the hyperglycemia associated with GDM. Accordingly, it is important to identify strategies to reduce the insulin resistance associated with GDM. To date, observational studies have shown that exercise can be a non-invasive therapeutic option for preventing and managing GDM that can be readily applied to the antenatal population. However, the relevant mechanisms for these outcomes are yet to be fully elucidated. The present review aimed to explain the potential mechanisms of exercise from the perspective of reducing the insulin resistance, which is the root cause of GDM. Exercise recommendations and opinions of exercise during pregnancy are briefly summarized. Keywords: Exercise, Gestational diabetes mellitus, Insulin resistance, Pregnancy

  14. Glycogenic Hepatopathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Atmaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycogenic hepatopathy is a rare cause of high transaminase levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This condition, characterized by elevated liver enzymes and hepatomegaly, is caused by irreversible and excessive accumulation of glycogen in hepatocytes. This is a case report on a 19-year-old male case, diagnosed with glycogenic hepatopathy. After the diagnosis was documented by liver biopsy, the case was put on glycemic control which led to significant decline in hepatomegaly and liver enzymes. It was emphasized that, in type 1 diabetes mellitus cases, hepatopathy should also be considered in the differential diagnoses of elevated liver enzyme and hepatomegaly.

  15. Diabetes Mellitus en el adulto mayor

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Godínez, Juan; Barragán-Vigil, Ana; Navarro-Macias, Carmen; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis; Uribe-González, Paul; Sánchez-Cruz, Martha

    2017-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus, una enfermedad crónica que afecta a todo el mundo siendo nuestro país México, el primer lugar con esta enfermedad, su incidencia aumenta junto con la edad hasta un 20% en personas mayores de 60 años todos ellos susceptibles a síndromes geriátricos, con posibles repercusiones ya sea por falta de control de niveles de glicemia o por un exceso en el control. El objetivo de esta revisión no sistemática es concientizar a la población general de la diabetes mellitus y el conte...

  16. Manejo preoperatorio de pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar J,Claudio; Herrera F,Christian; González A,Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus es una condición crónica de hiperglicemia que afecta al 9,4% de la población chilena. Estudios han encontrado que los pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus tienen mayor probabilidad de requerir cirugía en comparación a la población general. La hiperglicemia que presentan los pacientes se ha relacionado al desarrollo de complicaciones infecciosas y cardiovasculares en el período postoperatorio. Se ha demostrado que el adecuado control glicémico preoperatorio contribuye a disminu...

  17. Catarata e diabetes mellitus tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzol,Melissa Manfroi Dal; Esteves,Jorge Freita; Sccoco,Caio Augusto; Roggia,Murilo Felix; Rosa,Carolina Maurente da; Lambert,José Humberto Franco; Canani,Luís Henrique

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de catarata e seus fatores de risco em uma população portadora de diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1). MÉTODOS: Estudo de casos e controles de um banco de dados de 181 pacientes (362 olhos) com diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Os pacientes foram classificados como casos quando apresentavam diagnóstico de catarata. As variáveis estudadas foram a presença ou não de retinopatia diabética, tratamento com panfotocoagulação, presença de hipertensão arterial sistêm...

  18. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...

  19. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...

  20. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    2000-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....

  1. Den kliniske betydning af gestationel diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D M; Beck-Nielsen, H; Westergaard, J G

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) develops in about 2% of all pregnant women. The discussion of GDM is complicated by lack of consensus regarding screening methods, diagnosis and treatment. Observational studies indicate that untreated GDM is associated with an increased risk...... of maternal and perinatal morbidity, and that the offspring of GDM mothers tend to be at increased risk of developing diabetes and adiposity as a result of an abnormal intrauterine environment. Several follow-up studies have shown that women with previous GDM run a considerable risk of developing diabetes...... (especially type 2 diabetes) later in life. Intervention strategies for this high risk group are suggested....

  2. Genetic Counseling for Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Stephanie A.; Maloney, Kristin L.; Pollin, Toni I.

    2014-01-01

    Most diabetes is polygenic in etiology, with (type 1 diabetes, T1DM) or without (type 2 diabetes, T2DM) an autoimmune basis. Genetic counseling for diabetes generally focuses on providing empiric risk information based on family history and/or the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on pregnancy outcome. An estimated one to five percent of diabetes is monogenic in nature, e.g., maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), with molecular testing and etiology-based treatment available. However, recent studies show that most monogenic diabetes is misdiagnosed as T1DM or T2DM. While efforts are underway to increase the rate of diagnosis in the diabetes clinic, genetic counselors and clinical geneticists are in a prime position to identify monogenic cases through targeted questions during a family history combined with working in conjunction with diabetes professionals to diagnose and assure proper treatment and familial risk assessment for individuals with monogenic diabetes. PMID:25045596

  3. Diabetes mellitus: Trends in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is becoming a global health issue with more than 80% diabetics living in developing countries. India accounts for 62.4 million diabetics (2011. Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (ICMR-INDIAB study showed highest weighted prevalence rate in the north India among all studied regions. Diabetes in north India has many peculiarities in all aspects from risk factors to control programmers. North Indians are becoming more prone for diabetes and dyslipidemia because rapid westernization of living style and diet due rapid migration to metropolitan cities for employment. North Indian diabetes is plagued with gender bias against females, poor quality of health services, myths, and lack of disease awareness compounded with small number of prevention and awareness programmers that too are immature to counteract the growing pandemic.

  4. A link between diabetes mellitus and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, A.; Petrovski, B.E; Petrovski, G.

    2016-01-01

    and the Danish National Patient Register. Results A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period 1996–2012 were included. The overall incidence rates of new-onset glaucoma were 0.07 and 0.36 per 1,000 person-years for the reference population and for diabetes mellitus, respectively. Patients treated with anti-diabetic...... of glaucoma overall, while treatment with β-blocker and RAS, in combination, are associated with a significantly lower risk (HR = 0.87). Conclusions Use of anti-diabetic drugs is strongly associated with use of anti-glaucomatous drugs. Diabetic complication as well as concomitant antihypertensive medications......Purpose To determine the effect of anti-diabetic medication on glaucoma. Furthermore, to investigate if diabetic comorbidities and concomitant medications are associated with glaucoma in patients treated with anti-diabetic medication. Methods Retrospective nationwide cohort study, spanning a 16...

  5. Endogenous Fusarium Endophthalmitis in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balamurugan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis accounts for 2% to 8% of cases of endophthalmitis. Immunocompromised state and intravenous drug use are the 2 most common causes of endogenous endophthalmitis due to molds fungi. Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium are the common organisms in mold endophthalmitis. We report a case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes. While diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for endogenous endophthalmitis, we did not find any reported case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a case of diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with granulomatous uveitis masquerading as noninfectious uveitis with a very good response to steroids. The characteristic clinical features were established late in the clinical course associated with poor outcome. This case highlights the significance of uncontrolled diabetes as a risk factor for Fusarium endophthalmitis and also the presentation of endophthalmitis as a masquerade syndrome. The clinician should have high index of suspicion as these cases have poor outcomes.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis facts and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are both important health issues. A bidirectional association between them has been demonstrated by many researchers. The link of DM and TB is more prominent in developing countries where TB is endemic and the burden of diabetes mellitus is increasing. The association between diabetes and tuberculosis may be the next challenge for global tuberculosis control worldwide. Proper planning and collaboration are necessary to reduce the dual burden of diabetes and TB. One model similar to the TB-HIV program for prevention, screening and treatment of both diseases can be the best approach. In this paper, we review existing data and discuss the matters of controversy that would be helpful for determining research priorities in different countries. PMID:24360398

  7. Adiponectin and pro-inflammatory cytokines are modulated in Vietnamese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hoang Van; Luu, Nguyen Kim; Son, Ho Anh; Hoan, Nguyen Van; Hung, Trinh Thanh; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Toan, Nguyen Linh

    2017-05-01

    Adipose tissue-derived hormones are associated with metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the levels of adiponectin and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-10 in Vietnamese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their correlations with clinical parameters of overweight and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Based on body mass index, 73 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were categorized either as overweight or non-overweight. As healthy controls, 57 overweight and non-overweight individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. The adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels were measured in the sera samples in all study participants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were correlated with clinical parameters. The adiponectin levels were lower in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (2.5 ± 1.5 μg/mL) compared with controls (16 ± 18.6 μg/mL; P type 2 diabetes mellitus and in overweight controls compared with non-overweight controls (P type 2 diabetes mellitus. The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance indexes were correlated with the relative ratios of adiponectin/TNF-α, adiponectin/IL-1β, adiponectin/IL-10, TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL-10. Adiponectin and pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and might serve as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic intervention for overweight-related type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Manifestações musculoesqueléticas em diabetes mellitus Musculoskeletal disorders in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Barreto Gameiro Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes mellitus está associado a uma grande variedade de manifestações musculoesqueléticas. Muitas delas são subclínicas e correlacionadas com tempo de evolução e controle inadequado da doença, e devem ser reconhecidas e adequadamente tratadas, pois sua abordagem melhora a qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Nesta revisão são discutidas as principais manifestações musculoesqueléticas encontradas em diabetes mellitus.Diabetes mellitus is associated with a great variety of musculoskeletal manifestations, many of which are subclinical and correlated with disease duration and its inadequate control. They should be recognized and treated properly, because their management improves the patients' quality of life. This review discusses the major musculoskeletal manifestations found in diabetes mellitus.

  9. Cutaneous Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Luiza; Illing, Tanja; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a widespread endocrine disease with severe impact on health systems worldwide. Increased serum glucose causes damage to a wide range of cell types, including endothelial cells, neurons, and renal cells, but also keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Skin disorders can be found in about one third of all people with diabetes and frequently occur before the diagnosis, thus playing an important role in the initial recognition of underlying disease. Noninfectious as well as infectious diseases have been described as dermatologic manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, diabetic neuropathy and angiopathy may also affect the skin. Pruritus, necrobiosis lipoidica, scleredema adultorum of Buschke, and granuloma annulare are examples of frequent noninfectious skin diseases. Bacterial and fungal skin infections are more frequent in people with diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy and angiopathy are responsible for diabetic foot syndrome and diabetic dermopathy. Furthermore, antidiabetic therapies may provoke dermatologic adverse events. Treatment with insulin may evoke local reactions like lipohypertrophy, lipoatrophy and both instant and delayed type allergy. Erythema multiforme, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, drug eruptions, and photosensitivity have been described as adverse reactions to oral antidiabetics. The identification of lesions may be crucial for the first diagnosis and for proper therapy of diabetes.

  10. Animal models of obesity and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Hofmann, Susanna M

    2018-01-01

    More than one-third of the worldwide population is overweight or obese and therefore at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. In order to mitigate this pandemic, safer and more potent therapeutics are urgently required. This necessitates the continued use of animal models to discover...... available animal models of obesity and diabetes and highlight the advantages, limitations and important caveats of each of these models....

  11. Sea Buckthorn Fruit Oil Extract Alleviates Insulin Resistance through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Cells and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Guo, Qing; Qin, Chengguang; Shang, Rui; Zhang, Zesheng

    2017-02-22

    Sea buckthorn fruit oil is rich in palmitoleic acid (POA), which has been reported to play roles in many metabolic processes. In this study, a sea buckthorn fruit oil (SBFO) extract was evaluated through in vitro experiments (the doses were 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM) and in vivo experiments (the doses were 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg·day) to explore its mechanism of action in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The results revealed that the SBFO extract effectively increased the glucose uptake from 12.23 ± 1.09 to 14.90 ± 1.48 mmol/L in insulin resistance (IR) HepG2 cells, lowered blood glucose (the reductions rates of blood glucose in groups treated with SBFO extract at 200 and 300 mg/kg·day were 10.47% and 13.79%, respectively) and improved insulin indices from -6.11 ± 0.10 to -5.45 ± 0.31 after 4 weeks treatment with SBFO extract at 300 mg/kg·day in T2DM SD rats. RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested that the SBFO extract could promote the expression of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and glycogen synthesis (GS) while inhibiting the expression of glycogen synthesis kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Thus, the SBFO extract played a positive role in alleviating T2DM through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cells, and diabetic rats and could be used for the future development of functional food and dietary supplements.

  12. Can Fetuin-A Be a Marker for Insulin Resistance and Poor Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şiraz, Ülkü Gül; Doğan, Murat; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Muhtaroğlu, Sabahattin; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-12-15

    Metabolic impairment in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with poor glycemic control causes insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), atherosclerosis, and increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Fetuin-A has a protective effect in cardiovascular disorders and is increased in hepatosteatosis. We aimed to investigate the reliability of fetuin-A levels in early detection of diabetic complications in children with T1DM and to identify a cut-off value that may show poor metabolic control. The study included 80 patients who had T1DM for at least 5 years and who had no chronic complications or an auto-immune disorder. Blood samples were drawn to measure hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), biochemical parameters, and fetuin-A levels. Anthropometric parameters were also measured. Percent body fat was calculated. Hepatosteatosis and CIMT were assessed by sonography. Mean age of the patients was 13.5 years. Grade 1 hepatosteatosis was detected in 10%. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on presence of NAFLD. Fetuin-A level was increased in patients with NAFLD. We identified a fetuin-A cut-off value (514.28 ng/mL; sensitivity: 47.34; specificity: 96.72) that may predict NAFLD. HbA1c and total cholesterol levels were found to be higher in patients with fetuin-A levels above higher the cut-off value. Fetuin-A is a reliable parameter in the prediction of complications and poor glycemic control in patients with T1DM.

  13. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Prevalence and prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Maung-U, Khin; Jagadeesh, Gowraganahalli

    2016-11-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become important causes of mortality on a global scale. According to the report of World Health Organization (WHO), NCDs killed 38 million people (out of 56 million deaths that occurred worldwide) during 2012. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most NCD deaths (17.5 million NCD deaths), followed by cancers (8.2 million NCD deaths), respiratory diseases (4.0 million NCD deaths) and diabetes mellitus (1.5 million NCD deaths). Globally, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular diseases; their prevalence is incessantly progressing in both developed and developing nations. Diabetic patients with insulin resistance are even at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Obesity, high cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure are mainly considered as major risk factors for diabetic patients afflicted with cardiovascular disease. The present review sheds light on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, measures to be taken to reduce the global encumbrance of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are highlighted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Diabetes mellitus, pulmonary tuberculosis and chronic calcific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) was determined in 25 successive patients with both diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty patients (80%) were alcoholics and all were black. Of these, 9 (45%) had CCP. In only 3 of these 9 patients was the history compatible with the ...

  16. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for

  17. Prevalence of Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Among Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is a common condition which can lead to medical complications and can have an adverse effect on oral health and health-care. It has been reported that individuals with poor sugar control loose more teeth, have increased incidence of dental anomalies and diseases including periodontitis, dental caries ...

  18. Glucose-homeostase bij diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, Hessel Rienk

    1988-01-01

    In dit proefschrift worden enige aspecten van de glucosehomeostase bij type I (insuline afhankelijke) diabetes mellitus behandeld. Deze aspecten betreffen onder meer: het effect van verschillende glucosespiegels op de glucosebehoefte bij lage (±10 mE/m²/min) en verhoogde (30 mE/m²/min)

  19. Linkage Between Periodontal Disease and Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    and the presence of bacteria in the periodontal pockets, which, as the result of daily procedures, may spread after penetration of the vasculature, are possible mediators of systemic consequences. This chapter deals with the possible association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus which is believed...

  20. Sexual dysfunction in women with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasing health concern throughout the world. DM is categorized as either type 1 (DM-1) or type 2 (DM-2), where DM-1 represents a lack of insulin production, and DM-2 is characterized by a relative lack of insulin (i.e., decreased sensitivity to the effect of insulin...

  1. Kost, diabetes mellitus og parodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Holmstrup, Palle

    2017-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende viden om kostens betydning for diabetes mellitus (DM) og parodontal inflammation. Der er i vekslende grad dokumentation for sammenhænge mellem kost, DM og marginal parodontitis (MP). Med baggrund i forøget viden om kostens betydning...

  2. Kost, diabetes mellitus og parodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende viden om kostens betydning for diabetes mellitus (DM) og parodontal inflammation. Der er i vekslende grad dokumentation for sammenhænge mellem kost, DM og marginal parodontitis (MP). Med baggrund i forøget viden om kostens betydning...

  3. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  4. an alternative therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effects of glibenclamide in fetuses of normoglycemic rats: an alternative therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus. ... However, GLIB animals presented a light brownish precipitate into the center-lobular veins and in the liver parenchyma among the hepatocytes. These results indicated a possible passage of the drug ...

  5. DIABETES MELLITUS IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS: NEW TREATMENT OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Morgunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In economically developed countries, cirrhosis is one of the six leading causes of death at the age of 35–60 years and ranges from 14 to 30 cases per 100000 population. In the world 40 million people die of cirrhosis each year. At 6% of the population of the Russian Federation there is a diabetes mellitus. The combination of diabetes mellitus in patients with cirrhosis of the liver is a common comorbid pathology. Diabetes mellitusis a risk factor for the development of liver cirrhosis, and the incidence of combination of both diseases is quite high, although the frequency of occurrence varies. About 80% of patients with LC may have impaired glucose metabolism, and 30% have diabetes mellitus. Prospective studies have shown that diabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing hepatic complications and death in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of complications of liver cirrhosis of any etiology (varicose veins of the esophagus, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatic-cell insufficiency and subsequent survival. The incidence, frequency of hospitalizations and mortality from this combined pathology are very high. There are common mechanisms that provoke metabolic and autoimmune disorders in the development of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, leading to steatosis, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and the development of diabetes mellitus. There are certain features of the evaluation of the compensation of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, anemia and impaired protein metabolism. Effective control of glycemia can have a beneficial effect on the treatment of these patients. However, few studies have evaluated the efficacy and safety of antidiabetic drugs and the effect of diabetes treatment on morbidity and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Previously it was believed that in the presence of cirrhosis the only treatment remains insulin. At present, in

  6. Alteration of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level in gestational diabetes mellitus and correlation with in insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Gang; Li Cuiyin; Shao Hao; Lu Zeyuan; Lai Liping; Liu Lan; Hu Xiaorong; Ma Jiangtao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dynamic of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and its correlation with insulin resistance (IR) during different stages of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods: Thirty-two subjects with GDM and thirty-one cases of normal glucose tolerance (NGT) pregnant women were enrolled in the study, fasting insulin (FINS) were determined by radioimmunoassay, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured by using glucose oxidase, immunoturbidimetry performed to evaluate serum hs-CRP levels. Tests repeated for each group according different stages of prenatal 25-28 weeks, 29- 32 weeks, 37-38 weeks and postpartum 6-8 weeks. IR was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Results: (1)Serum hs-CRP levels in NGT and GDM had few change with gestational age, but both significantly decreased at postpartum. (2)Serum hs-CRP levels in GDM significantly increased than NGT in the same stage (t was 7.31, 7.78, 6.33, respectively, P<0.01 ). (3) HOMA-IR in GDM significantly increased than NGT in the same gestational stage (t was 31.18, 31.10, 28.39, respectively, P<0.01). (4)Pearson correlation analysis showed that FBG, FINS and hs-CRP had significant association with HOMA-IR (regression coefficient of 0.478, 0.902, 0.293, respectively, P<0.01). Multiple regression analysis identified FINS, FBG and hs-CRP as the factors significantly affecting HOMA-IR (regression coefficient of 0.441, 0.876, 0.261, respectively, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum hs-CRP levels in GDM had few change with gestational age, but all significantly increased than NGT in the same stage, and which were the most significant factors affecting HOMA-IR. (authors)

  7. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, Salim; Brito, Veronica; Surani, Asif; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-06-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent condition affecting about 347 million people worldwide. In addition to its numerous clinical implications, DM also exerts a negative effect on patient's sleep quality. Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemic control regarded as corner stone in DM management and also lead to many deleterious effects causing a profound impact on health related quality of life. This article outlines various factors leading to impaired sleep quality among diabetics and delineates how individual factor influences sleep. The article also discusses potential interventions and lifestyle changes to promote healthy sleep among diabetics.

  8. Bartter's Syndrome with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting See

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of Bartter's syndrome in a 35-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with leg weakness, fatigue, polyuria and polydipsia. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and high renin and aldosterone concentrations were present, but the patient was normotensive. Gitelman's syndrome was excluded because of the presence of hypercalciuria, secondary hyperparathyroidism and bilateral nephrocalcinosis. The patient's condition improved upon administration of a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor (acemetacin, oral potassium chloride and potassium-sparing diuretics. Five months later, the patient discontinued acemetacin because of epigastric discomfort; at the same time, severe hypokalemia and hyperglycemia developed. Glucagon stimulation and water deprivation tests were performed. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was diagnosed. To avoid further gastrointestinal complications, the patient was treated with celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor. This case serves as a reminder that Bartter's syndrome is associated with various metabolic derangements including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, nephrocalcinosis and diabetes mellitus. When treating Bartter's syndrome, it is also prudent to remember that the long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and potassium-sparing diuretics may result in serious adverse reactions.

  9. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  10. Relation between diabetes mellitus and male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to verify if there is any relation between diabetes mellitus and male infertility. Methods: the spermograms of 43 non-diabetic subjects and 12 diabetic patients (type 1 and 2 aged 20-60 years were compared. Spermiological findings in diabetic patients were compared with those of normal individuals of the same age. Serum testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulant hormone, luteinizing hormone, glucose and glycosilated hemoglobin were assayed in diabetic patients. Rresults: Six diabetic patients (four type 1 and two type 2 presented chronic complications attributed to neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. No difference was observed in the semen characteristics (odor, color, viscosity and pH between the control group and the diabetic patients. There were no differences between seminal concentrations and percentage of motile spermatozoa during the first hour of observation in the two groups (p < 0.05. Impotence was reported by four diabetic patients (33.3%. Erectile failure was associated with diabetic microangiopathy and neuropathy. There were no controls with impotence. No significant hormonal changes were found in the diabetic patients. Cconclusions: The present results suggest that neuropathy and vascular insufficiency  may be  implicated in sexual dysfunction in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, without significantly affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  11. Musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merashli, M; Chowdhury, T A; Jawad, A S M

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are increasing significantly worldwide. Whilst vascular complications of diabetes are well recognized, and account for principle mortality and morbidity from the condition, musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes are common and whilst not life threatening, are an important cause of morbidity, pain and disability. Joints affected by diabetes include peripheral joints and the axial skeleton. Charcot neuroarthropathy is an important cause of deformity and amputation associated with peripheral neuropathy. A number of fibrosing conditions of the hands and shoulder are recognized, including carpal tunnel syndrome, adhesive capsulitis, tenosynovitis and limited joint mobility. People with diabetes are more prone to gout and osteoporosis. Management of these conditions requires early recognition and close liaison between diabetes and rheumatology specialists. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Exercise guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, Cliantha; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. This disease has many detrimental consequences for the woman, the unborn foetus and child. The management of GDM aims to mediate the effects of hyperglycaemia by controlling blood glucose levels. Along with pharmacology and dietary interventions, exercise has a powerful potential to assist with blood glucose control. Due to the uncertainty of risks and benefits of exercise during pregnancy, women tend to avoid exercise. However, under adequate supervision exercise is both safe and beneficial in the treatment of GDM. Therefore it is vital that exercise is incorporated into the continuum of care for women with GDM. Medical doctors should be able to refer to competently informed exercise professionals to aid in GDM treatment. It is important that exercise treatment is informed by research. Hence, the development of evidence-based guidelines is important to inform practice. Currently there are no guidelines for exercise in GDM. This review aims to assess the efficacy of exercise for the management of GDM in order to establish an exercise prescription guideline specific to the condition. It is recommended that women with GDM should do both aerobic and resistance exercise at a moderate intensity, a minimum of three times a week for 30-60 min each time. PMID:26240700

  13. Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Verrotti, Alberto; Prezioso, Giovanni; Scattoni, Raffaella; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent ...

  14. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Cardiovascular Risk: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Burlina, S.; Dalfr?, M. G.; Chilelli, N. C.; Lapolla, A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing in parallel with the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. Current evidence strongly suggests that women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Given the growing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, it is important to identify appropriate reliable markers of cardiovascular disease and specific treatment strategies capable of contai...

  15. Resistin: a potential biomarker for periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanoorkar, Archana; Kathariya, Rahul; Guttiganur, Nagappa; Gopalakrishnan, D; Bagchi, Paulami

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are highly specific and sensitive indicators of disease activity. Resistin is a recently discovered adipocytokine, having a potent biomarker quality. Initially resistin was thought to be produced by adipocytes alone; however, emerging evidence suggests that it is also produced in abundance by various cells of the immunoinflammatory system, indicating its role in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Data suggests that resistin plays a role in obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and periodontitis. Resistin derived its name from the original observation that it induced insulin resistance (resist-in: resist insulin) in mice and is downregulated in mature murine adipocytes cultured in the presence of insulin sensitizing drugs like thiazolidinediones. It is well recognized that obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A three-way relationship has been established between diabetes, obesity and periodontitis. Recent evidence also suggests an association between obesity and increased risk for periodontitis. Our previous research showed incremental elevation of resistin with periodontal disease activity and a reduced level of resistin, after periodontal therapy. Thus resistin would be one of the molecular links connecting obesity, periodontitis, and diabetes and may serve as a marker that links periodontal disease with other systemic diseases. A Medline/PubMed search was carried out for keywords "Diabetes Mellitus," "Periodontitis," and "Resistin," and all relevant research papers from 1990 in English were shortlisted and finalized based on their importance. This review provides an insight into the biological action of resistin and its possible role in periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ewald, Nils; Hardt, Philip D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes secondary to pancreatic diseases is commonly referred to as pancreatogenic diabetes or type 3c diabetes mellitus. It is a clinically relevant condition with a prevalence of 5%-10% among all diabetic subjects in Western populations. In nearly 80% of all type 3c diabetes mellitus cases, chronic pancreatitis seems to be the underlying disease. The prevalence and clinical importance of diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis has certainly been underestimated and underappreciated so fa...

  17. Pancreatic scintigraphy in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shio, Hiroshi; Ueki, Jyuichi; Nomura, Kozi; Nakamura, Yoshifumi

    1983-01-01

    Pancreatic scintigraphy was performed on 67 diabetic patients (42 males and 25 females) in order to study exocrine pancreatic functions in primary diabetes. Relationships between visualization and the onset age, sex, morbid period, presence or absence of retinitis, good or poor control of blood glucose control and the therapeutic modality of diabetes were examined. Abnormality was detected in 34 cases (50.7%), being frequent among male patients in their 50s. The more serious the diabetes, i.e., with a longer morbid period, poorer blood glucose control and worse retinitis, the higher was the frequency of abnormality in pancreatic visualization. The frequency of abnormality was high in association with insulin treatment, oral tablets and single dietary treatment in that order. The more severe the hypoinsulinism, the higher was the frequency of abnormality. This technique can be used as a screening means for exocrine pancreatic function tests on diabetics. (Chiba, N.)

  18. Visual complications in diabetes mellitus: beyond retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Petropoulos, I N; Ponirakis, G; Malik, R A

    2017-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss in people with diabetes mellitus; however, other causes of visual impairment/loss include other retinal and non-retinal visual problems, including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and cataracts. Additionally, when a person with diabetes complains of visual disturbance despite a visual acuity of 6/6, abnormalities in refraction, contrast sensitivity, straylight and amplitude of accommodation should be considered. We review and highlight these visual problems for physicians who manage people with diabetes to ensure timely referral and treatment to limit visual disability, which can have a significant impact on daily living, especially for those participating in sports and driving. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  19. Risikostratificering af patienter med diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Peter; Glintborg, Dorte; Andries, Alin

    2008-01-01

    with diabetes mellitus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included patients with diabetes from the catchment areas of four diabetes out-patient clinics in southern Denmark. Patients were risk-stratified to 3 follow-up levels (level 1 - follow-up only by their GP, level 2 - intensified follow-up by GP and/or shared care...... schemes, level 3 - follow-up only in out-patient clinics). The results were subsequently compared with the patients' actual follow-up status. RESULTS: A total of 647 patients (563 type 2 diabetes and 84 type 1 diabetes) were included from 15 GPs. Among these, 139 were stratified to level 1, 409 to level 2...

  20. Diabetes mellitus in the BB/W rat. Insulitis in pancreatic islet grafts after transplantation in diabetic recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Weringer, E. J.; Like, A. A.

    1986-01-01

    Spontaneous diabetes mellitus in the BioBreeding/Worcester (BB/W) rat is preceded by lymphocytic insulitis which destroys pancreatic beta cells. Cultured major histocompatibility complex identical pancreatic islets and adrenal cortex derived from diabetes-resistant BB/W donors were transplanted into diabetic recipients with hyperglycemia of variable duration. Islet grafts were the targets of BB/W immune attack and revealed lymphocytic insulitis after transplantation into diabetic recipients e...

  1. Optimizing postpartum care for the patient with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Noelle G; Niznik, Charlotte M; Yee, Lynn M

    2017-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus poses well-established risks to both the mother and infant. As >50% of women with gestational diabetes mellitus will develop type 2 diabetes mellitus in their lifetime, performing postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing is paramount to initiation of appropriate lifestyle interventions and pharmacologic therapy. Nonetheless, test completion among women with gestational diabetes mellitus is estimated to be diabetes mellitus. Based on existing evidence, we propose best practices for the postpartum care of women with gestational diabetes mellitus: (1) enhanced patient support for identifying long-term health care providers, (2) patient-centered medical home utilization when possible, (3) patient and provider test reminders, and (4) formalized obstetrician-primary care provider hand offs using the Situation Background Assessment Recommendation (SBAR) mnemonic. These strategies deserve future investigation to solidify a multilevel approach for identifying and preventing the continuum of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased admissions for diabetes mellitus after burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Janine M; Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Boyd, James H; O'Halloran, Emily; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M

    2016-12-01

    Currently, limited long-term data on hyperglycaemia and insulin sensitivity in burn patients are available and the data that do exist are primarily related to paediatric severe burns. The aim of this study was to assess if burn is associated with increased post-burn admissions for diabetes mellitus. A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia was undertaken of all persons hospitalized for a first burn (n=30,997) in 1980-2012 and a frequency matched non-injury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations and electoral roll (n=123,399). Crude admission rates and summed length of stay for diabetes mellitus were calculated. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to generate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and hazard ratios (HR), respectively. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors and pre-existing health status, the burn cohort had 2.21 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.36-1.56) as many admissions and almost three times the number of days in hospital with a diabetes mellitus diagnosis (IRR, 95% CI: 2.94, 2.12-4.09) than the uninjured cohort. Admission rates were significantly elevated for those burned during childhood (burn cohort during the first 5 years post-burn when compared with the uninjured (HR, 95% CI: 1.96, 1.46-2.64); no significant difference was found beyond 5 years post-burn (HR, 95% CI: 1.08, 0.82-1.41). Findings of increased hospital admission rates and prolonged length of hospital stay for diabetes mellitus in the burn cohort provide evidence that burns have longer term effects on blood glucose and insulin regulation after wound healing. The first five years after burn discharge appears to be a critical period with significantly elevated incident admissions for diabetes mellitus during this time. Results would suggest prolonged clinical management after discharge and or wound healing to minimise post

  3. Vitamins and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Ana Laura, Guadarrama-López; Elina, Martínez-Carrillo Beatriz; Donají, Benítez-Arciniega Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The present review evaluates the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and individual or combined vitamins. Antioxidant vitamins A, C and E are found decreased in diabetic subjects, possibly due to an increased need to control the excessive oxidative stress produced by abnormalities in glucose metabolism. On the other hand, retinol binding protein exerts a modulating effect, as it has adipokine functions. With respect to the B group vitamins, thiamin, pyridoxine and biotin have been found decreased but the mechanisms are not clear, however supplementation has shown some improvement of the metabolic control in diabetic patients. The absorption of folic acid and vitamin B12 is importantly decreased by the prolongued use of metformin, which is the first choice drug in uncomplicated diabetes, thus these two nutrients have been found deficient in the disease and most probably need to be supplemented regularly. On the other hand, vitamin D is considered a risk factor for the development of diabetes as well as its complications, particularly cardiovascular ones. Although some studies have found an association of vitamin K intake with glucose metabolism further research is needed. Studies on the use of multivitamin supplements have shown unconclusive results. After reviewing the evidence, no real recommendation on the use of vitamin supplements in type 2 diabetes mellitus can be issued, however patients using metformin during prolongued periods may need folic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25388747

  4. Gait parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena Prado Teles Fregonesi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that results in sensorimotor alterations. These changes affect balance and walking and predispose affected patients to falls. The aim of this review was to identify studies in the recent literature that assess gait parameters and aspects involved in walking. The MEDLINE, SciELO, LILACS and PEDro databases were searched using the following combination of keywords: diabetic neuropathies x gait; diabetes mellitus x gait, and diabetic foot x gait. After the application of selection criteria, 15 articles were retrieved, summarized, discussed, and are included in this review. Diabetic neuropathy was found to lead to deficits in step amplitude, gait velocity and gait cadence on flat surfaces, without sudden changes in direction or stops, and to balance and coordination deficits on inclined and uneven terrain. Diabetic neuropathies also increase plantar pressure rates and lead to difficulties in the terminal stance phase and pre-swing phase due to changes in triceps surae activation. Thus, the next initial contact occurs in an inadequate manner, with the forefoot and without absorption of shocks.

  5. Cellular Signaling Pathways in Insulin Resistance-Systems Biology Analyses of Microarray Dataset Reveals New Drug Target Gene Signatures of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Syed Aun; Raza, Waseem; Nguyen, Thanh; Bai, Baogang; Wu, Xiaogang; Chen, Jake

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and metabolic disorder affecting large set of population of the world. To widen the scope of understanding of genetic causes of this disease, we performed interactive and toxicogenomic based systems biology study to find potential T2DM related genes after cDNA differential analysis. Methods: From the list of 50-differential expressed genes ( p T2DM related genes using extensive data mapping. In our constructed gene-network, T2DM-related differentially expressed seeder genes (9-genes) are found to interact with functionally related gene signatures (31-genes). The genetic interaction network of both T2DM-associated seeder as well as signature genes generally relates well with the disease condition based on toxicogenomic and data curation. Results: These networks showed significant enrichment of insulin signaling, insulin secretion and other T2DM-related pathways including JAK-STAT, MAPK, TGF, Toll-like receptor, p53 and mTOR, adipocytokine, FOXO, PPAR, P13-AKT, and triglyceride metabolic pathways. We found some enriched pathways that are common in different conditions. We recognized 11-signaling pathways as a connecting link between gene signatures in insulin resistance and T2DM. Notably, in the drug-gene network, the interacting genes showed significant overlap with 13-FDA approved and few non-approved drugs. This study demonstrates the value of systems genetics for identifying 18 potential genes associated with T2DM that are probable drug targets. Conclusions: This integrative and network based approaches for finding variants in genomic data expect to accelerate identification of new drug target molecules for different diseases and can speed up drug discovery outcomes.

  6. Serum Ferritin, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical and Laboratory Associations in 769 Non-Hispanic Whites Without Diabetes Mellitus in the HEIRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. Clayborn; Barton, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: In some reports, serum ferritin (SF) has been associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Methods: We studied non-Hispanic whites without diabetes mellitus in a postscreening examination. Participants included cases [HFE C282Y homozygosity; and transferrin saturation (TS) >50% and SF >300 μg/L (males) and TS >45% and SF >200 μg/dL (females), regardless of HFE genotype] and controls [HFE wild-type (wt/wt) and TS/SF 25th–75th percentiles]. We excluded participants with overnight fasts HOMA-IR) 4th quartile (≥2.70). Results: A total of 407 women and 362 men (mean age 54 years) included 188 C282Y homozygotes and 371 wt/wt. Significant trends across HOMA-IR quartiles included age, male sex, BMI, SBP, DBP, lymphocytes, ALT, CRP >0.5 mg/dL (positive), and TS (negative). Multiple regression on HOMA-IR revealed significant associations with male sex, BMI, SBP, lymphocytes, ALT, CRP>0.5 mg/dL (positive), and DBP and SF (negative). Logistic regression on HOMA-IR 4th quartile revealed significant positive associations with age, male sex, BMI, and lymphocytes. Metabolic syndrome occurred in 53 participants (6.9%). Logistic regression on metabolic syndrome revealed these odds ratios: HOMA-IR 4th quartile [9.1 (4.8, 17.3)] and CRP >0.5 mg/dL [2.9 (1.6, 5.4)]. Conclusions: Age, male sex, BMI, and lymphocytes were positively associated with HOMA-IR after correction for other factors. HOMA-IR 4th quartile and CRP >0.5 mg/dL predicted metabolic syndrome. PMID:25423072

  7. Sex Differences in the Association Between Insulin Resistance and Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Among Blacks Without Diabetes Mellitus: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effoe, Valery S; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Echouffo Tcheugui, Justin B; Chen, Haiying; Joseph, Joshua J; Kalyani, Rita R; Bell, Ronny A; Wu, Wen-Chih H; Casanova, Ramon; Bertoni, Alain G

    2017-02-02

    Studies exploring the association between insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease in blacks have not been conclusive, especially for coronary heart disease (CHD). The McAuley index and homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) perform differently in predicting cardiovascular disease. We investigated this association in the Jackson Heart Study, a large longitudinal cohort of blacks. IR was estimated for 3565 participants without diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease at baseline using the McAuley index and HOMA-IR, and their associations with incident CHD and stroke (composite outcome) were compared. A lower McAuley index and higher HOMA-IR are indicative of IR. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for incident CHD and/or stroke. There were 158 events (89 CHD-only, 58 stroke-only, and 11 CHD/stroke) over a median follow-up of 8.4 years. After adjustment for demographic factors, the risk of the composite outcome decreased with each SD increase in the McAuley index (hazard ratio 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67-0.96), with no attenuation after further accounting for CHD and stroke risk factors. When considered individually, McAuley index and HOMA-IR were associated with CHD (hazard ratio 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92 and hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI: 1.03-1.72, respectively), but not stroke risk. The logHOMA-IR and CHD association was present in men, but not in women (P interaction =0.01). Both HOMA-IR and the McAuley index demonstrate strong associations with CHD but not stroke risk in blacks. The logHOMA-IR and CHD association was present in men, but not in women. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non......-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes did not develop in any of the controls. Predictive factors for diabetes development were fasting glucose level at diagnosis (high glucose, high risk), preterm delivery, and an oral glucose tolerance test result that showed diabetes 2 months post partum. In a subgroup...

  9. Mechanism linking diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Goblan, Abdullah S; Al-Alfi, Mohammed A; Khan, Muhammad Z

    2014-01-01

    Body mass index has a strong relationship to diabetes and insulin resistance. In obese individuals, the amount of nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory markers, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance, is increased. The pathogenesis in the development of diabetes is based on the fact that the β-islet cells of the pancreas are impaired, causing a lack of control of blood glucose. The development of diabetes becomes more inevitable if the failure of β-islet cells of the pancreas is accompanied by insulin resistance. Weight gain and body mass are central to the formation and rising incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This literature review will demonstrate the facts that link obesity with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts.

  10. Retinol Binding Protein-4 Is Associated with TNF-α and Not Insulin Resistance in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Al-Daghri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association between RBP4 and various markers related to insulin resistance and diabetic complications as well as inflammatory markers in Saudi population suffering from type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into 3 groups according to the type of treatment and involvement of coronary artery disease. Serum RBP4, TNF-α, insulin, CRP, resistin, leptin and adiponectin were analysed in all samples. RBP4 levels increased significantly in the group of diabetic subjects treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (30.2 ± 11.8; 33.4 ± 13.6 respectively, while there was no significant change in the other group for diabetic subjects on low-carbohydrate diet (25.1 ± 10.9 compared to control group (22.6 ± 9.5. RPB4 levels were positively correlated with TNF-α in the group of diabetic subjects on oral hypoglycemic agents and diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (r = 0.52, P < 0.05; r = 0.58, P < 0.05 respectively. No correlations were found between RBP4 levels and insulin resistance in all studied groups. Our findings suggest that serum RBP4 levels is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and is not associated with insulin resistance among patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.

  11. Rosiglitazone treatment of patients with extreme insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus due to insulin receptor mutations has no effects on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Lund, S; Pedersen, O

    2001-01-01

    Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione (TZD), increases insulin sensitivity by reducing levels of plasma NEFA, triglycerides (TG), glucose and serum insulin. Rosiglitazone treatment decreases insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, but no data exist concerning rosiglitazone treatment of patie......Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione (TZD), increases insulin sensitivity by reducing levels of plasma NEFA, triglycerides (TG), glucose and serum insulin. Rosiglitazone treatment decreases insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients, but no data exist concerning rosiglitazone treatment...

  12. [Association between central diabetes insipidus and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Claudia; Nicolaci, Nora; La Manna, Andrés A; Branek, Natalia; Pissano, María N

    2018-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is a rare disease of the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis. It is very unusually found in the adult with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is manifested by a polydipsic polyuric syndrome, which must be distinguished from the poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given the similarity of both entities and the unusual nature of their coexistence, their suspicion is difficult. The case of a 72-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus with poor insulin control (fasting hyperglycemia greater than 180 mg/dl) who had a long-standing polyuric syndrome is here presented. Hypernatremia and plasma osmolality elevated together with a low urinary osmolality led to the suspicion of diabetes insipidus, which was subsequently confirmed by the dehydration test and the administration of desmopressin sc. With 61% increase in the calculated urinary osmolarity one hour post desmopressin s.c., diabetes insipidus of central type was diagnosed. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance showed a bright spot with normal neurohypophysis, contributing to the diagnosis of the idiopathic form.

  13. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Beta cell apoptosis has been associated with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) onset in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. There is an emerging evidence that T cell-induced apoptosis is a dominant effector mechanism in diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1). Pancreatic β-cells derived from newly ...

  14. 77 FR 27841 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring... diabetes mellitus, received education related to diabetes management, and is on a stable insulin regimen.... Karver (MN), Benjamin Kimbrough, Jr. (KS), Kevin T. Kruchan (OH), Jeffrey J. Lawrie (OH), Raymond Pittman...

  15. 78 FR 56988 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ...-0186] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs... individuals listed in this notice have recently requested such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in...

  16. Screening for diabetes mellitus in learners residing in the Belhar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Historically, children and adolescents have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and it was thought that type 2 diabetes mellitus occurred only in adults. There are increasing reports of type 2 diabetes in children globally, with some as young as eight years old being affected. The average age of ...

  17. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: phylogenetic motifs for predicting protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-06-28

    Jun 28, 2007 ... Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a medical condition associated with abnormally high levels of glucose (or sugar) in the blood. Keeping this view, we demonstrate the phylogenetic motifs (PMs) identification in type 2 diabetes mellitus very likely corresponding to protein functional sites.

  18. Childhood Diabetes Mellitus in Kano, North West, Nigeria | Adeleke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... admission was 28.5 7.9mmo/L (16.9 39.2mmo/L) Four patient presented with diabetic Keloacidosis. Two patients (18.2%) were discharged against medical advice while 1(9.1%) patient died. Childhood Diabetes Mellitus, remains relatively uncommon in Nigeria. Keywords: Childhood, Diabetes Mellitus, Northwest Nigeria.

  19. Molecular mechanisms involved in the bidirectional relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Luthra, Shailly

    2013-05-01

    Both diabetes and periodontitis are chronic diseases. Diabetes has many adverse effects on the periodontium, and conversely periodontitis may have deleterious effects further aggravating the condition in diabetics. The potential common pathophysiologic pathways include those associated with inflammation, altered host responses, altered tissue homeostasis, and insulin resistance. This review examines the relationship that exists between periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus with a focus on potential common pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  20. Molecular mechanisms involved in the bidirectional relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Luthra, Shailly

    2013-01-01

    Both diabetes and periodontitis are chronic diseases. Diabetes has many adverse effects on the periodontium, and conversely periodontitis may have deleterious effects further aggravating the condition in diabetics. The potential common pathophysiologic pathways include those associated with inflammation, altered host responses, altered tissue homeostasis, and insulin resistance. This review examines the relationship that exists between periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus with a focus on potential common pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:24049328

  1. Structured exercise interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Strength of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Ejas Hussain; MY Shereef; Unaise Abdul Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Exercise, along with medical nutrition therapy and pharmacological interventions, is an important component in the clinical management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Current clinical guidelines on type 2 diabetes provide no detailed information on the modalities of effective exercise intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Both endurance and resistance types of exercise seem to be equally effective in improving metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Determining the ...

  2. Molecular mechanisms involved in the bidirectional relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Both diabetes and periodontitis are chronic diseases. Diabetes has many adverse effects on the periodontium, and conversely periodontitis may have deleterious effects further aggravating the condition in diabetics. The potential common pathophysiologic pathways include those associated with inflammation, altered host responses, altered tissue homeostasis, and insulin resistance. This review examines the relationship that exists between periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus with a focus on potential common pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Marcelino de Nazareth

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Both Alzheimer's disease (AD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM are two common forms of disease worldwide and many studies indicate that people with diabetes, especially DM, are at higher risk of developing AD. AD is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ forming senile plaques. DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin. Both diseases also share common characteristics such as loss of cognitive function and inflammation. Inflammation resulting from Aβ further induces production of Aβ1-42 peptides. Inflammation due to overnutrition induces insulin resistance and consequently DM. Memory deficit and a decrease in GLUT4 and hippocampal insulin signaling have been observed in animal models of insulin resistance. The objective of this review was to show the shared characteristics of AD and DM.

  4. Genetics of monegenic forms of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is universally recognized that autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is not the only form of this disease in children. Increasingly more children and adolescents present with DM2, MODY, and rarer syndromal forms of DM. The actual prevalence of DM other than DM1 in children and adolescents is unknown but may be estimated at 10%. Despite rare occurrence of genetic syndromes, they collectively account for almost 5% of DM cases among children. The rapid upgrowth of molecular biology opens up a wide range of possibilities for designating various symptom complexes as nosologically selfconsistent forms. New genetic syndromes associated with DM are annually described. It is important both to adequately identify and treat manifestations and complications of these syndromes in children and to provide relevant medico-genetic counseling and recommendations to the parents. Key words: non-immune diabetes mellitus, MODY, Wolfram syndrome, neonatal, syndromal forms

  5. Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Dasgupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypomagnesemia is reported in type 2 diabetes; magnesium deficiency may play a role in the development of endothelial dysfunction and altered insulin function. Objective: To assess the incidence of hypomagnesemia among noncritically ill patients of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the relation of hypomagnesemia to glycemic control and various long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty, noncritically ill (APACHE score < 10 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, who were admitted in the Departments of Medicine and Endocrinology, GMCH for uncontrolled hyperglycemia and/or various diabetic complications were studied. Serum magnesium was assessed at admission and rechecked in those found to be deficient. Results: Hypomagnesemia (Se magnesium < 1.6 mg/dl was documented in 17 (11.33% patients with a female:male ratio of 9:8. Mean HbA1c was 11.9% in the hypomagnesemic patients compared with 9.8% in controls (P =0.0016. Retinopathy, microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, foot ulceration, and neuropathy was present in 64%, 47%, 17.64%, 58.8%, and 82.35%, respectively, of the patients with hypomagnesemia as compared with 45.8% (P =0.118, 38.34% (P =0.704,15.03% (P =0.566, 22.55% (P =0.011 and 82.7% (P =0.976 without hypomagnesemia. Coronary artery disease was less common in the hypomagnesemia group (17.6% vs 39%, but comparable in the subgroup < 50 years (27% vs 25% (P =0.796. Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia in diabetes was associated with poorer glycemic control, retinopathy, nephropathy, and foot ulcers.

  6. The Prelude on Novel Receptor and Ligand Targets Involved in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Gopal Jonnalagadda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders are a group of disorders, due to the disruption of the normal metabolic process at a cellular level. Diabetes Mellitus and Tyrosinaemia are the majorly reported metabolic disorders. Among them, Diabetes Mellitus is a one of the leading metabolic syndrome, affecting 5 to 7 % of the population worldwide and mainly characterised by elevated levels of glucose and is associated with two types of physiological event disturbances such as impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Up to now, various treatment strategies are like insulin, alphaglucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, incretins were being followed. Concurrently, various novel therapeutic strategies are required to advance the therapy of Diabetes mellitus. For the last few decades, there has been an extensive research in understanding the metabolic pathways involved in Diabetes Mellitus at the cellular level and having the profound knowledge on cell-growth, cell-cycle, and apoptosis at a molecular level provides new targets for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. Receptor signalling has been involved in these mechanisms, to translate the information coming from outside. To understand the various receptors involved in these pathways, we must have a sound knowledge on receptors and ligands involved in it. This review mainly summarises the receptors and ligands which are involved the Diabetes Mellitus. Finally, researchers have to develop the alternative chemical moieties that retain their affinity to receptors and efficacy. Diabetes Mellitus being a metabolic disorder due to the glucose surfeit, demands the need for regular exercise along with dietary changes.

  7. Triple verses glimepiride plus metformin therapy on cardiovascular risk biomarkers and diabetic cardiomyopathy in insulin resistance type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Srinivasan, B P

    2009-12-08

    IRtype2DM patients are often treated with a combination of antidiabetic agents. Drugs with different complementary mechanisms of action frequently used in daily clinical practice but glycemic control with monotherapeutic attempts fail in the long run. To date, biomarkers for cardiovascular risk and insulin sensitivity with combination of triple oral hypoglycemic therapies are not fully revelled in view of additional cardiovascular risk reduction. In the present study, IRtype2DM induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in neonatal rat model. IRtype2DM rats were selected by determining FPI [>60 pmol/l]; HOMA-IR & Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique at 6 weeks and then treated for 8 weeks with (i) Metformin (120 mg/kg, o.d.)+Glimepiride (1mg/kg, o.d.), (ii) Metformin (265 mg/kg, o.d.)+Rosiglitazone (1mg/kg, o.d.)+Glimepiride (0.7 mg/kg, o.d.). At the end cardiovascular risk parameters evaluated by ELISA kits and insulin sensitivity were determined by HOMA-IR. In conclusion, triple oral hypoglycemic therapy improves glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, retards diabetic cardiomyopathy and does not increased body weight; decrease more detrimental inflammatory markers, increase interleukin-10 and adiponectin in neonatal streptozotocin-induced IRtype2DM Wistar Albino Rats. Triple therapy showed a synergistic effect and was promising in insulin resistance, better in additional cardiovascular risk reduction and those nonresponders to metformin add on glimepiride therapy.

  8. Effect of individualized diabetes education for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To evaluate the effect of individualized education for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A total of 280 ..... tabase Syst Rev 2008; 16:CD006424. 9.Hans Jürgen Eysenck , Sybil B. G. Eysenck. Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1975. 10.

  9. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Slingerland, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for plasma glucose measurements. The glucose disposal rate measured during HGC was lower in normal glucose-tolerant cats than in normal glucose-tolerant humans, apparently related to the cat’s lower insu...

  10. Diabetes Mellitus: A Public Health Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ydalsys Naranjo Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia, due to an absolute or relative impairment of insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. It is a complex process of the carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, which occurs as a result of such relative or complete impairment of insulin secretion from the β-cells of the pancreas or a defect in the insulin receptors.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis: programmatic management issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Harries, AD; Kumar, AM; Satyanarayana, S; Lin, Y; Zachariah, R; Lönnroth, K; Kapur, A

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In August 2011, the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease launched the Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) to guide policy makers and implementers in combatting the epidemics of both diseases. Progress has been made, and includes identifying how best to undertake bidirectional screening for both diseases, how to provide optimal treatment and care for patients with dual diseas...

  12. Radioimmunoassay of glicagon secretion in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanova, St.; Koparanova, O.; Milkov, V.; Visheva, N.; Kurtev, I.; Maleeva, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioimunoassay of glucagon, lh, fsh, aldosterone, cortisol, acth, sth and lth was performed using preparations from the firms SORIN, AMERSHAM and HOECHST. The basal glucagon secretion was estimated in 403 diabetic patients and 84 normal subjects. It was transitorily suppressed by glucose. The alpha-cellular reactivity in diabetic patients was stimulated by insulin-induced hypoglycemia and with arginine and vasopressin. The tested group of diabetic patients had absolute hyperglucagonemia, despite the hyperglycemia, which is an evidence of abnormal alpha-cellular function. The insulin-dependent nature of hyperglucagonemia in diabetes mellitus and the hyperreactivity of glucagon secretion after protein stimulation was demonstrated. The correlation of these results leads to essential diagnostic inferences

  13. Spices in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Lim, Joseph; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-02-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health care problem worldwide both in developing and developed countries. Many factors, including age, obesity, sex, and diet, are involved in the etiology of DM. Nowadays, drug and dietetic therapies are the two major approaches used for prevention and control of DM. Compared to drug therapy, a resurgence of interest in using diet to manage and treat DM has emerged in recent years. Conventional dietary methods to treat DM include the use of culinary herbs and/or spices. Spices have long been known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. This review explores the anti-diabetic properties of commonly used spices, such as cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, and cumin, and the use of these spices for prevention and management of diabetes and associated complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sympathetic reflex control of resistance in collateral arteries in the lower extremities in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, K; Tønnesen, K H

    1982-01-01

    in the brachial artery, femoral artery and vein and popliteal artery and vein. Relative blood flow was calculated as the relative change in arterio-venous oxygen saturation. Absolute blood flow in the common femoral artery was measured by an indicator dilution technique. Resistance of the collateral arteries...

  15. Insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : effects of a very low calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jazet, Ingrid Maria

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is of major pathogenic importance in obese DM2 and this can be improved by weight loss. Very low calorie diets (VLCDs) are often used for this purpose. This thesis focused on the safety and tolerability of a VLCD and on the short-term and long-term effects of a VLCD on glucose and

  16. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackard, W.G.; Omori, Yoshiaki; Freedman, L.R.

    1964-03-12

    The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the following conclusions: The rarity of ketoacidosis in Japan is due to the mild carbohydrate defect present in most diabetics. The mild carbohydrate intolerance in diabetics is probably in part due to a high carbohydrate intake. Diabetic retinopathy is more common in women than in men in Japan; there are limited and conflicting data from the West on this point, but retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy occur about as frequently in Japan as in the West. Because of marked dietary differences between Japan and Western countries, these findings suggest that dietary fat has no significance in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Peripheral gangrene is distinctly unusual in Japanese diabetics. This suggests that either: the responsible vascular lesions are different from those responsible for nephropathy and retinopathy; or that small vessel lesions are the same but the lack of large vessel atherosclerosis in the population accounts for the decreased incidence of gangrene. Men have diabetes 2 or 3 times as commonly as women in Japan. If sex-limited inheritance is discarded as a possible reason, it is likely that adult-onset diabetes is more common in men than women except in those countries (the West) where women gain relatively large amounts of weight. The rarity of juvenile diabetes in Japan is best explained by the infrequency of responsible genetic factors. As a consequence, it is likely that juvenile diabetes is caused by different or additional genetic factors which are not significant in adult-onset diabetes. Diabetes prevalance varies sufficiently between different localities in the same country to render the concept of national prevalance of doubtful usefulness. 55 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  17. [Diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, Zh Z; Samoĭlov, A N

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an up-to-date review of scientific data. Diabetes mellitus (DM), due to its epidemic prevalence and high occurrence of associated disability, is now one of the priority medical and social problems. Incapacitating manifestations of diabetes include visual impairment. Thus, diabetic retinopathy (DR), a late nonspecific vascular complication of DM, is the leading cause of blindness in the working-age population. The basic principle of DR treatment is optimal compensation of diabetes and concomitant conditions, such as arterial hypertension, nephropathy, and hyperlipidemia. Tight glycemic control is the main method for preventing and slowing the progression of preproliferative DR to later stages. Currently, the optimal and the most promising method of insulin injection to diabetes patients is insulin pump, as it enables accurate imitation of physiological secretion of insulin, provides the possibility of tight glycemic control, considerably decreases the risk for acute and late complications of diabetes, etc.

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is emerging as a new clinical problem within pediatric practice. Recent reports indicate an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents around the world in all ethnicities, even if the prevalence of obesity is not increasing any more. The majority of young people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus was found in specific ethnic subgroups such as African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islanders and American Indians. Clinicians sh...

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: time to change the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Levit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of diseases that, although unified by a number of characteristics, require a differential thera- peutic approach. Current review discusses key pathogenic features of type 2 diabetes mellitus that determine therapy goals and options in management. We further enunciate and pathogenetically substantiate a new "gravicentric" concept for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus that differs in many ways from the common contemporary approach.

  20. Heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Gardim, Camila Balsamo; Oliveira, Bruno Affonso P. de; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda B.; Gomes, Rayana Loch; Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Lorençoni, Roselene Modolo R.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To gather current information about the effects of type 1 diabetes mellitus on children's cardiac autonomic behavior.DATA SOURCES: The search of articles was conducted on PubMed, Ibecs, Medline, Cochrane, Lilacs, SciELO and PEDro databases using the MeSH terms: "autonomic nervous system", "diabetes mellitus", "child", "type 1 diabetes mellitus", "sympathetic nervous system" and "parasympathetic nervous system", and their respective versions in Portuguese (DeCS). Articles published f...

  1. Tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus: convergence of two epidemics

    OpenAIRE

    Dooley, Kelly E; Chaisson, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    The link between diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis has been recognised for centuries. In recent decades, tuberculosis incidence has declined in high-income countries, but incidence remains high in countries that have high rates of infection with HIV, high prevalence of malnutrition and crowded living conditions, or poor tuberculosis control infrastructure. At the same time, diabetes mellitus prevalence is soaring globally, fuelled by obesity. There is growing evidence that diabetes mellitus ...

  2. [Relationship diabetes mellitus-periodontal disease: etiology and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foia, Liliana; Toma, Vasilica; Ungureanu, Didona; Aanei, Carmen; Costuleanu, M

    2007-01-01

    The interrelation between diabetes mellitus and inflammatory periodontal disease has been intensively studied for more than 50 years, a real bidirectional influence existing between patient's glycemic level disorder and periodontal territories alteration. Several studies developed in this direction emerged to the evidences that reveal a general increase of prevalence, extent and severity of gingivitis and periodontitis. Inflammation plays an important role in this interrelation, orchestrating both the periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus pathogeny and complications. Conversely, periodontal disease--infectious disease characterized by a significant inflammatory component--can seriously impair metabolic control of some diabetic patient. Moreover, treatment of periodontal disease and reduction of oral signs of inflammation may have a beneficial result on the diabetic condition (1). Less clear are the mechanisms governing this interrelation (even the literature is abundant in this direction), and, very probably, periodontal diseases serve as initiators of insulin resistance (in a way similar to obesity), thereby aggravating glycemic control. Further research is so imposed in order to clarify this aspect of the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease.

  3. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood...

  4. Oxidative stress and TB outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Wing Wai; Leung, Chi Chiu; Zhang, Ying

    2017-06-01

    In patients with diabetes mellitus, TB treatment outcomes are poorer. Most parameters, when measured, reflect the slower bacteriological conversion from positivity to negativity and higher risks of disease relapse and mortality, as well as a greater propensity to develop drug-resistant TB. Aside from the well-known immunological dysfunction inherent to patients with diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress is likely a major underlying mechanism adversely impacting their TB treatment outcomes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis persisters, formed as a result of the core dormancy response to stress, possibly play a central role in this hypothesis. This hypothetical model also underscores the paramount importance of programmatic management of TB and diabetes mellitus, in collaboration, to improve the outcomes of patients with both diseases. The validity of these ideas could be further ascertained by laboratory and clinical research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Influence of Bisphenol A on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Paola Provvisiero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an organic synthetic compound employed to produce plastics and epoxy resins. It is used as a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles and as coating for metal surface in food containers and packaging. The adverse effects of BPA on human health are widely disputed. BPA has been recently associated with a wide variety of medical disorders and, in particular, it was identified as potential endocrine-disrupting compound with diabetogenic action. Most of the clinical observational studies in humans reveal a positive link between BPA exposure, evaluated by the measurement of urinary BPA levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies on humans and preclinical studies on in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models indicate that BPA, mostly at low doses, may have a role in increasing type 2 diabetes mellitus developmental risk, directly acting on pancreatic cells, in which BPA induces the impairment of insulin and glucagon secretion, triggers inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis, and acts on muscle, hepatic, and adipose cell function, triggering an insulin-resistant state. The current review summarizes the available evidences regarding the association between BPA and type 2 diabetes mellitus, focusing on both clinical and preclinical studies.

  6. Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes mellitus in a non-diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is assuming epidemic proportions worldwide, but probably more so in the developing world. Identification of risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is a necessary step in planning prevention programmes for diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to ...

  7. Masked Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Boggia, José; Liu, Yanping; Asayama, Kei; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. Prevalence of masked hypertension in untreated normotensive participants was higher (Phypertensives tended to be higher than in normotensives (hazard rate [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97–3.97; P=0.059), similar to untreated stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 1.07; CI, 0.58–1.98; P=0.82), but less than stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.53; CI, 0.29–0.99; P=0.048). In contrast, cardiovascular risk was not significantly different in antihypertensive-treated diabetic-masked hypertensives, as compared with the normotensive comparator group (HR, 1.13; CI, 0.54–2.35; P=0.75), stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 0.91; CI, 0.49–1.69; P=0.76), and stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.65; CI, 0.35–1.20; P=0.17). In the untreated diabetic-masked hypertensive population, mean conventional systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 129.2±8.0/76.0±7.3 mm Hg, and mean daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure 141.5±9.1/83.7±6.5 mm Hg. In conclusion, masked hypertension occurred in 29% of untreated diabetics, had comparable cardiovascular risk as stage 1 hypertension, and would require considerable reduction in conventional blood pressure to reach daytime ambulatory treatment goal. Importantly, many hypertensive diabetics when receiving antihypertensive therapy can present with normalized conventional and elevated ambulatory blood pressure that mimics masked hypertension. PMID:23478096

  8. Diabetes mellitus, smoking status, and rate of sputum culture conversion in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a cohort study from the country of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Matthew J; Kempker, Russell R; Kipiani, Maia; Tukvadze, Nestani; Howards, Penelope P; Narayan, K M Venkat; Blumberg, Henry M

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for active tuberculosis (TB) but little is known about the effect of DM on culture conversion among patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. The primary aim was to estimate the association between DM and rate of TB sputum culture conversion. A secondary objective was to estimate the association between DM and the risk of poor treatment outcomes among patients with MDR-TB. A cohort of all adult patients starting MDR-TB treatment in the country of Georgia between 2009-2011 was followed during second-line TB therapy. Cox proportional models were used to estimate the adjusted hazard rate of sputum culture conversion. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate the cumulative risk of poor TB treatment outcome. Among 1,366 patients with sputum culture conversion information, 966 (70.7%) had culture conversion and the median time to conversion was 68 days (interquartile range 50-120). The rate of conversion was similar among patients with MDR-TB and DM (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.95, 95%CI 0.71-1.28) compared to patients with MDR-TB only. The rate of culture conversion was significantly less in patients that currently smoked (aHR 0.82, 95%CI 0.71-0.95), had low body mass index (aHR 0.71, 95%CI 0.59-0.84), second-line resistance (aHR 0.56, 95%CI 0.43-0.73), lung cavities (aHR 0.70, 95%CI 0.59-0.83) and with disseminated TB (aHR 0.75, 95%CI 0.62-0.90). The cumulative risk of poor treatment outcome was also similar among TB patients with and without DM (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.03, 95%CI 0.93-1.14). In adjusted analyses, DM did not impact culture conversion rates in a clinically meaningful way but smoking did.

  9. Prevalence of oral Candida colonization in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, K; Kavoosi, F; Pishdad, G R; Mehriar, P; Ebrahimi, H; Bandegani, A; Pakshir, K

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of oral Candida colonization in patients with diabetes and its relationship with factors such as Candida species, serum glucose level, and the susceptibility rate of isolated yeasts to antifungals. Random samples were obtained from 113 patients with type 2 diabetes, 24 patients with type 1 diabetes, and 105 healthy controls. The samples were taken by swabbing the oral mucosa of patients with diabetes mellitus and healthy individuals. Afterwards the samples were inoculated onto CHROMagar-Candida. The growing colonies were counted, and the isolated yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP and RapID methods. Various isolated species of Candida were also subjected to susceptibility testing of antibiotic drugs. Blood samples were taken to evaluate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Although the Candida carriage rate and density were statistically higher in diabetics than healthy individuals, no direct association was found between having high Candida-burden and glycosylated hemoglobin. The most commonly isolated species in both diabetics and controls was Candida albicans. Of the tested antifungal drugs, the highest rate of resistance was found against itraconazole, followed in frequency by ketoconazole and fluconazole. This study identified a significant association between the poor glycemic control and the higher prevalence rates of Candida carriage and density in diabetic patients. In addition, a high prevalence of C. dubliniensis in diabetic patients was found, which might be misdiagnosed with its morphologically related species, C. albicans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The Classification of Diabetes Mellitus Using Kernel k-means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsyah, M.; Nafisah, Z.; Prayitno, E.; Afida, A. M.; Imah, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by chronicle hypertensive glucose. Automatics detection of diabetes mellitus is still challenging. This study detected diabetes mellitus by using kernel k-Means algorithm. Kernel k-means is an algorithm which was developed from k-means algorithm. Kernel k-means used kernel learning that is able to handle non linear separable data; where it differs with a common k-means. The performance of kernel k-means in detecting diabetes mellitus is also compared with SOM algorithms. The experiment result shows that kernel k-means has good performance and a way much better than SOM.

  11. [Abdominal ultrasonography in patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1: Liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, C; Pietsch, C; Gottschalk, U; Barreiros, A P; Teufel, A; Cui, X W; Dietrich, C F

    2015-04-01

    In patients with diabetes mellitus, abdominal ultrasonography is the appropriate diagnostic technique to detect and to follow-up secondary and accompanying diseases of the liver, the kidneys, the pancreas, the gastrointestinal tract and of abdominal vessels. Moreover, pancreatic and hepatic diseases may be realized which are of etiological importance for diabetes mellitus. Based on a systematic survey of the published literature, this review in 3 parts will describe the value of abdominal ultrasonography in patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1 deals with the diagnostic relevance and particular findings of ultrasonographic methods in hepatic manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Diabetes knowledge among Greek Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Bougioukli, Vasiliki; Iosifidou, Parthena; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Gerama, Maria-Assimina; Mitsos, Dimitrios; Chrysanthakopoulou, Ioanna; Tsigga, Maria; Kazakos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes knowledge has been shown to improve glycemic control and associate with several demographic parameters. In Greece, a country with high obesity rates, disease knowledge has never been evaluated in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study aimed to assess diabetes knowledge and its associations between social and demographic parameters, among Greek type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred fifty nine patients with T2DM were recruited from an urban and a rural clinic in Greece. Diabetes knowledge was assessed with the Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT). Basic anthropometry was performed. Data regarding glycemic control and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the patients' medical files. Greek T2DM patients demonstrated poor disease knowledge (mean DKT score 8.3±2.2/14.0 and mean DKT as a percent of correct answers 59.6±15.8%). No differences were observed between sex, place of residence, or glycemic control, among subjects. Patients with higher education demonstrated greater diabetes knowledge. Simple obesity with concurrent central obesity or suboptimal glycemic control decreased diabetes knowledge among participants. Additionally, waist circumference was inversely correlated to diabetes knowledge. Based on the DKT, Greek patients exhibit poor diabetes knowledge. This study provides evidence for the need for better diabetes education in order to ameliorate disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspects of dyslipidaemia in diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    response to insulin resistance and loss of insulin action, and does not lead directly to the increased VLDL .... changes in HDL3J The gender differences in cardiovascular disease mortality usually seen in non-diabetics are .... There is no role for high-fat diets in diabetes, and a low-fat diet comprising less than 30% of calorie ...

  14. Diabetes mellitus en levercirrose: prognostisch ongunstige combinatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wlazlo, N.; Sauerwein, H.P.; Schoon, E.J.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Bravenboer, B.

    2011-01-01

    - We conducted a literature search to determine the prognostic effect of diabetes in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. We also searched for evidence on diagnosis and treatment of diabetes in these patients.- Insulin resistance occurs in obese patients with cirrhosis due to non-alcoholic

  15. Diabetes Mellitus como causa de perda auditiva Diabetes mellitus as etiological factor of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clícia Adriana S. Maia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os pacientes com diabetes mellitus freqüentemente apresentam sintomas como tontura, zumbidos e hipoacusia. Via de regra, a perda auditiva é do tipo sensorioneural, confundindo-se, por vezes, com presbiacusia, principalmente por ocorrer em pacientes acima dos 40 anos de idade. A angiopatia e a neuropatia causadas pelo diabetes mellitus têm sido considerados importantes fatores responsáveis pelas manifestações vestibulococleares nesses pacientes. Porém, existe controvérsia no que se refere à etiopatogênese da perda auditiva, sendo que parte dos autores advoga que ela ocorre devido à neuropatia, outra parte à angiopatia, e outra, ainda, à associação das duas. Porém há também os que entendem que o diabetes mellitus e a perda auditiva poderiam ser partes integrantes de uma síndrome genética e não dependentes entre si. Realizamos uma extensa revisão bibliográfica procurando analisar se há relação "causa e efeito" entre o diabetes mellitus e a perda auditiva. Pudemos observar que, apesar do grande número de estudos realizados, a controvérsia ainda é grande, sendo que novas perspectivas, como no campo da genética, estão sendo estudadas, mostrando que novos rumos podem ser tomados para se chegar à conclusão do tema.Patients with diabetes mellitus often show symptoms such as dizziness, tinnitus, and hearing impairment. In general, hearing loss is sensorineural, which is sometimes confused with presbycusis, mainly because it develops in patients older than 40 years of age. Angiopathy and neuropathy caused by diabetes mellitus have been considered important factors for the vestibular-cochlear disorders found in these patients. However, there is controversy regarding the etiopathogenesis of hearing loss, as some researchers support that it develops due to neuropathy, others say it is due to angiopathy, or even a combination of both. Yet, some researchers believe diabetes mellitus and hearing loss are part of a genetic

  16. The effect of diabetes mellitus on outcomes of patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: data from a prospective double-blind clinical trial comparing treatment with linezolid versus vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equils, Ozlem; da Costa, Christopher; Wible, Michele; Lipsky, Benjamin A

    2016-09-06

    The presence of diabetes mellitus increases the risk of several severe infections, but data on its effect on treatment outcomes in patients with nosocomial pneumonia (NP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are limited. We retrospectively analyzed data from a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, international clinical trial of culture-confirmed MRSA NP that compared treatment with linezolid to vancomycin. Specifically, we evaluated the clinical and microbiologic outcomes of patients with and without diabetes in the modified intent to treat population at end-of-treatment (EOT) and end-of-study (EOS, 7-30 days post-EOT). Among 448 enrolled patients 183 (40.8 %) had diabetes mellitus, 87 (47.5 %) of whom received linezolid and 96 (52.5 %) vancomycin. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar for the two treatment groups. Clinical success rates at EOS were 57.6 % with linezolid and 39.3 % with vancomycin, while microbiological success rates were 58.9 % with linezolid and 41.1 % with vancomycin. Among diabetic patients, rates of mortality and study drug-related adverse effects were similar between the treatment groups. Overall day 28 mortality rates were higher among diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients (23.5 vs 14.7 %, respectively: RD = 8.8 %, 95 % CI [1.4, 16.3]). Among diabetic patients with MRSA NP, treatment with linezolid, compared to vancomycin, was associated with higher clinical and microbiologic success rates, and comparable adverse event rates. NCT00084266 .

  17. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eVerrotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN is a serious and common complication of diabetes, often overlooked and misdiagnosed. It is a systemic-wide disorder that may be asymptomatic in the early stages. The most studied and clinically important form of DAN is cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN defined as the impairment of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in patients with diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on inconsistent definition, different diagnostic method, different patient cohorts studied. The pathogenesis is still unclear and probably multifactorial. Once DAN becomes clinically evident, no form of therapy has been identified which can effectively stop or reverse it. Prevention strategies are based on strict glycemic control with intensive insulin treatment, multifactorial intervention and lifestyle modification including control of hypertension, dyslipidemia, stop smoking, weight loss and adequate physical exercise. The present review summarizes the latest knowledge regarding clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of DAN, with some mention to childhood and adolescent population.

  18. The prevalence and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in treated HIV-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Il Joon; Kotler, Donald P

    2011-06-01

    HIV-associated morbidity and mortality have declined significantly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). These developments have allowed an increased focus on associated adverse metabolic effects, such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other adverse outcomes. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the metabolic changes are complicated and not yet fully elucidated due to the difficulty of separating the effects of HIV infection from those of HAART, co-morbidities, or individual patient vulnerabilities. This article reviews studies concerning the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus and HIV, HIV-specific effects on diabetes mellitus complications, and HIV-specific diabetes mellitus treatment considerations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diabetes mellitus in patients with cirrhosis: clinical implications and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkrief, Laure; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Sarin, Shiv; Valla, Dominique; Paradis, Valérie; Moreau, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of glucose metabolism, namely glucose intolerance and diabetes, are frequent in patients with chronic liver diseases. In patients with cirrhosis, diabetes can be either a classical type 2 diabetes mellitus or the so-called hepatogenous diabetes, i.e. a consequence of liver insufficiency and portal hypertension. This review article provides an overview of the possible pathophysiological mechanisms explaining diabetes in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is associated with portosystemic shunts as well as reduced hepatic mass, which can both impair insulin clearance by the liver, contributing to peripheral insulin resistance through insulin receptors down-regulation. Moreover, cirrhosis is associated with increased levels of advanced-glycation-end products and hypoxia-inducible-factors, which may play a role in the development of diabetes. This review also focuses on the clinical implications of diabetes in patients with cirrhosis. First, diabetes is an independent factor for poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. Specifically, diabetes is associated with the occurrence of major complications of cirrhosis, including ascites and renal dysfunction, hepatic encephalopathy and bacterial infections. Diabetes is also associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver diseases. Last, the management of patients with concurrent diabetes and liver disease is also addressed. Recent findings suggest a beneficial impact of metformin in patients with chronic liver diseases. Insulin is often required in patients with advanced cirrhosis. However, the favourable impact of controlling diabetes in patients with cirrhosis has not been demonstrated yet. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Diabetes Mellitus in the Transplanted Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil ePeev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. New onset diabetes mellitus after transplant (NODAT has been described in approximately 30 percent of non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients many years post transplantation. DM in patients with kidney transplantation constitutes a major comorbidity, and has significant impact on the patients and allografts’ outcome. In addition to the major comorbidity and mortality that result from cardiovascular and other DM complications, long standing DM after kidney transplant has significant pathological injury to the allograft, which results in lowering the allografts and the patients’ survivals. In spite of the cumulative body of data on diabetic nephropathy (DN in the native kidney, there has been very limited data on the DN in the transplanted kidney. In this review, we will shed the light on the risk factors that lead to the development of NODAT. We will also describe the impact of DM on the transplanted kidney, and the outcome of kidney transplant recipients with NODAT. Additionally, we will present the most acceptable data on management of NODAT.

  1. Diabetes mellitus and phytotherapy in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parildar, Hulya; Serter, Rustu; Yesilada, Erdem

    2011-11-01

    This study reports a literature review aimed to analyse various studies related to the use of phytotherapy in diabetes mellitus in Turkey in order to provide additional information for healthcare professionals. The incidence of Diabetes Mellitus is rising and many of the diabetics frequently use herbal treatments along with modern medical treatment for glycaemic control and/or improve their well-being. Several electronic databases (such as Medline and Pubmed) were searched for 1990-2010 period (till May, 2010) and 33 related articles were analysed. Many studies--mostly animal trials- have been conducted in this field. Among the herbs most-commonly used along with modern medical therapies and also in folkloric medicine, we searched for bitter melon, cinnamon, fenugreek, olive leaf, black seed and white mulberry. Studies conducted in this field have produced conflicting results and, the necessity to conduct randomized, placebo-controlled clinical human studies to develop new drugs from herbs, as in the case of metformin, still remains important. Besides, further studies are required to address the issues of standardization and quality control of existing preparations. More importantly, healthcare professionals caring for diabetic patients need to be aware of phytotherapy to incorporate phytomedicine into their practices and should undertake more responsibility in relation to these kind of therapies that are commonly-used throughout the world.

  2. Glycogen synthase and phosphofructokinase protein and mRNA levels in skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Lund, S; Larsen, F S

    1993-01-01

    % lower (P mass remained normal. In conclusion, qualitative but not quantitative posttranslational abnormalities of the GS protein in muscle determine......In patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and matched control subjects we examined the interrelationships between in vivo nonoxidative glucose metabolism and glucose oxidation and the muscle activities, as well as the immunoreactive protein and mRNA levels of the rate......-limiting enzymes in glycogen synthesis and glycolysis, glycogen synthase (GS) and phosphofructokinase (PFK), respectively. Analysis of biopsies of quadriceps muscle from 19 NIDDM patients and 19 control subjects showed in the basal state a 30% decrease (P

  3. Risk Related to Pre–Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Mellitus in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Søren L.; Preiss, David; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Squire, Iain; Cardoso, José Silva; Merkely, Bela; Martinez, Felipe; Starling, Randall C.; Desai, Akshay S.; Lefkowitz, Martin P.; Rizkala, Adel R.; Rouleau, Jean L.; Shi, Victor C.; Solomon, Scott D.; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R.; Packer, Milton

    2016-01-01

    Background— The prevalence of pre–diabetes mellitus and its consequences in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction are not known. We investigated these in the Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial. Methods and Results— We examined clinical outcomes in 8399 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction according to history of diabetes mellitus and glycemic status (baseline hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]: diabetes mellitus], and ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol; diabetes mellitus]), in Cox regression models adjusted for known predictors of poor outcome. Patients with a history of diabetes mellitus (n=2907 [35%]) had a higher risk of the primary composite outcome of heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality compared with those without a history of diabetes mellitus: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.52; Pdiabetes mellitus and 2103 (25%) had pre–diabetes mellitus. The hazard ratio for patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (HbA1c, >6.5%) and known diabetes mellitus compared with those with HbA1cdiabetes mellitus were also at higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.27 [1.10–1.47]; Pdiabetes mellitus is associated with a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes (compared with patients with no diabetes mellitus and HbA1c <6.0%). LCZ696 was beneficial compared with enalapril, irrespective of glycemic status. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01035255. PMID:26754626

  4. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzger, Boyd E; Gabbe, Steven G; Persson, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    . In this review, we provide details regarding some points that were considered by the IADPSG Consensus Panel but not published and address the following issues: 1) what should be the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); 2) were appropriate outcomes and odds ratios used to define diagnostic thresholds......The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study showed significant perinatal risks at levels of maternal hyperglycemia below values that are diagnostic for diabetes. A Consensus Panel of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) reviewed HAPO Study...... for GDM; 3) to improve perinatal outcome, should the focus be on GDM, obesity, or both; 4) should results of randomized controlled trials of treatment of mild GDM influence recommendations for diagnostic thresholds; and, 5) other issues related to diagnosis of GDM. Other groups are independently...

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Nils; Hardt, Philip D

    2013-11-14

    Diabetes secondary to pancreatic diseases is commonly referred to as pancreatogenic diabetes or type 3c diabetes mellitus. It is a clinically relevant condition with a prevalence of 5%-10% among all diabetic subjects in Western populations. In nearly 80% of all type 3c diabetes mellitus cases, chronic pancreatitis seems to be the underlying disease. The prevalence and clinical importance of diabetes secondary to chronic pancreatitis has certainly been underestimated and underappreciated so far. In contrast to the management of type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, the endocrinopathy in type 3c is very complex. The course of the disease is complicated by additional present comorbidities such as maldigestion and concomitant qualitative malnutrition. General awareness that patients with known and/or clinically overt chronic pancreatitis will develop type 3c diabetes mellitus (up to 90% of all cases) is rather good. However, in a patient first presenting with diabetes mellitus, chronic pancreatitis as a potential causative condition is seldom considered. Thus many patients are misdiagnosed. The failure to correctly diagnose type 3 diabetes mellitus leads to a failure to implement an appropriate medical therapy. In patients with type 3c diabetes mellitus treating exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, preventing or treating a lack of fat-soluble vitamins (especially vitamin D) and restoring impaired fat hydrolysis and incretin secretion are key-features of medical therapy.

  6. COMPLICATIONS AND OUTCOMES OF PREGNANCY IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bondar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the complications and examine the outcomes of pregnancy in women with compensated gestational diabetes mellitus.We studied outcomes and complications of pregnancy in 50 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus, the effects of gestational diabetes on the fetus.The average age of pregnant women was (33.7 ± 5.7 years. The incidence of gestoses and placental insufficiency in compensated gestational diabetes mellitus was 84%, polyhydramnios – 36%, the fetus fetopathy – 48% of cases. Births in period occurred in 96% of cases, the frequency of fetal malformations consistent with population-based indicators.Gestational diabetes mellitus affects the development of gestosis and fetoplacental insufficiency, even when the compensation of carbohydrate metabolism after the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  7. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Cardiovascular Risk: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Burlina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing in parallel with the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. Current evidence strongly suggests that women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Given the growing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, it is important to identify appropriate reliable markers of cardiovascular disease and specific treatment strategies capable of containing obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in the women affected.

  8. Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis--cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, L J

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis are two distinct diseases encountered commonly in small animal practice. Whilst the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are usually unmistakeable, a firm diagnosis of pancreatitis can prove more elusive, as clinical signs are often variable. Over the past 10 to 15 years, despite the fact that the clinical signs of diabetes mellitus are remarkably consistent, it has become more apparent that the underlying pathology of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats is heterogeneous, with exocrine pancreatic inflammation accompanying diabetes mellitus in a number of cases. However, the question remains as to whether the diabetes mellitus causes the pancreatitis or whether, conversely, the pancreatitis leads to diabetes mellitus--as there is evidence to support both scenarios. The concurrence of diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis has clinical implications for case management as such cases may follow a more difficult clinical course, with their glycaemic control being "brittle" as a result of variation in the degree of pancreatic inflammation. Problems may also arise if abdominal pain or vomiting lead to anorexia. In addition, diabetic cases with pancreatitis are at risk of developing exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the following months to years, which can complicate their management further. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Skin and diabetes mellitus: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quondamatteo, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Although major complications of this condition involve kidney, retina and peripheral nerves, the skin of diabetic patients is also frequently injured. Hence, interest is mounting in the definition of the structural and molecular profile of non-complicated diabetic skin, i.e., before injuries occur. Most of the available knowledge in this area has been obtained relatively recently and, in part, derives from various diabetic animal models. These include both insulin-dependent and insulin-resistant models. Structural work in human diabetic skin has also been carried out by means of tissue samples or of non-invasive methods. Indications have indeed been found for molecular/structural changes in diabetic skin. However, the overall picture that emerges is heterogeneous, incomplete and often contradictory and many questions remain unanswered. This review aims to detail, as much as possible, the various pieces of current knowledge in a systematic and synoptic manner. This should aid the identification of areas in which key questions are still open and more research is needed. A comprehensive understanding of this field could help in determining molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of skin injuries in DM and markers for the monitoring of cutaneous and systemic aspects of the disease. Additionally, with the increasing development of non-invasive optics-based deep-tissue-imaging diagnostic technologies, precise knowledge of cutaneous texture and molecular structure becomes an important pre-requisite for the use of such methods in diabetic patients.

  10. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ, the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS, and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI. Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0. One year later (T1, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006<0.05 and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137. Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp=-0.223, P value = 0.010. Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp=-0.247, P=0.023. There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp=-0.220, P=0.043. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  11. Mechanisms of Mycobacterium avium-induced resistance against insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice: role of Fas and Th1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, T C; Aguas, A P

    1999-02-01

    NOD mice spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes. One of the manipulations that prevent diabetes in NOD mice is infection with mycobacteria or immunization of mice with mycobacteria-containing adjuvant. Infection of NOD mice with Mycobacterium avium, done before the mice show overt diabetes, results in permanent protection of the animals from diabetes and this protective effect is associated with increased numbers of CD4+ T cells and B220+ B cells. Here, we investigate whether the M. avium-induced protection of NOD mice from diabetes was associated with changes in the expression of Fas (CD95) and FasL by immune cells, as well as alterations in cytotoxic activity, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-4 production and activation of T cells of infected animals. Our data indicate that protection of NOD mice from diabetes is a Th1-type response that is mediated by up-regulation of the Fas-FasL pathway and involves an increase in the cytotoxicity of T cells. These changes are consistent with induction by the infection of regulatory T cells with the ability of triggering deletion or anergy of peripheral self-reactive lymphocytes that cause the autoimmune disease of NOD mice.

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Functional Hypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Atmaca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the effect of blood sugar regulation and vitamin D levels on calcium metabolism and parathormone levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Method: We included 132 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented to our outpatient clinic for regular check up between August 2013 and October 2013. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, albumin, creatinine, parathormone, 25-Hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD], spot urinary calcium and creatinine levels were studied for each patient. Results: Vitamin D levels were below 30 ng/mL in 96.9% (n=128 and below 20 ng/mL in 78.7% (n=102 of the patients included in the study. Patients with impaired blood sugar regulation (HbA1c >10% had lower levels of PTH, albumin and 25(OHD levels and higher phosphorus levels compared to patients with HbA1c levels below 10% (p=0.018, p=0.043, p=0.002, p=0.01, respectively. The rates of functional hypoparathyroidism (parathormone <65 ng/mL in patients with vitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL and 20 ng/mL were 63.2% and 59.6%, respectively. Among the diabetic patients with vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL, magnesium levels were significantly lower in those with functional hypoparathyroidism (parathormone <65 ng/mL compared to those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (p=0.015. Comparative statistical analysis of patients with HbA1c levels above and below 10% demonstrated higher proportion of patients with functional hypoparathyroidism in the group with impaired blood sugar regulation (p=0.035 for patients with vitamin levels below 30 ng/mL, and p=0.031 for patients with vitamin levels below 20 ng/mL. Discussion: Impaired blood sugar regulation leads to functional hypoparathyroidism with secondary hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus, as was previously described for subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Loke, Seng Cheong

    2013-09-03

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is among the most nutritious subtropical and tropical vegetables. It is also used in traditional medicine practices for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research in animal and human models suggests a possible role of sweet potato in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We searched several electronic databases, including The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2013), combined with handsearches. No language restrictions were used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared sweet potato with a placebo or a comparator intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently selected the trials and extracted the data. We evaluated risk of bias by assessing randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria: these investigated a total of 140 participants and ranged from six weeks to five months in duration. All three studies were performed by the same trialist. Overall, the risk of bias of these trials was unclear or high. All RCTs compared the effect of sweet potato preparations with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant improvement in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) at three to five months with 4 g/day sweet potato preparation compared to placebo (mean difference -0.3% (95% confidence interval -0.6 to -0.04); P = 0.02; 122 participants; 2 trials). No serious adverse effects were reported. Diabetic complications and morbidity, death from any cause, health-related quality of life, well-being, functional outcomes and costs were not investigated. There is insufficient evidence about the use of sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to improvement in trial methodology

  14. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  15. [Obesity disease with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2015-12-01

    Obesity has been increasing not only in Japan but also in both developed and developing countries. Mean body mass index of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes has been increasing, and it reached 25.0 in 2013. If body weight decreases more than 3% of initial body weight in patients with metabolic syndrome, not only glucose metabolism but also dyslipidemia and hypertension improve. To reduce the excess body weight, behavior therapy, calorie restriction, and exercise are necessary. The next strategies are drugs including mazindol, glucose-like peptide-1 receptor agonist and sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, and bariatric surgery. Because it is often difficult to reduce body weight using only present non-invasive therapies, clarification of appetite mechanisms and development of novel anti-obesity drugs with few side effects are needed.

  16. Diabetes Mellitus Associates with Increased Right Ventricular Afterload and Remodeling in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Morgan E; Nair, Vineet; Sinari, Shripad; Dherange, Parinita; Natarajan, Balaji; Trutter, Lindsey; Brittain, Evan L; Hemnes, Anna R; Austin, Eric; Patel, Kumar; Black, Stephen M; Garcia, Joe G N; Yuan, Jason X; Vanderpool, Rebecca; Rischard, Franz; Makino, Ayako; Bedrick, Edward J; Desai, Ankit A

    2018-02-05

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction. Parallel studies have also reported associations between diabetes mellitus and right ventricle dysfunction and reduced survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the impact of diabetes mellitus on the pulmonary vasculature has not been well-characterized. We hypothesized that diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia could specifically influence right ventricular afterload and remodeling in patients with Group I pulmonary arterial hypertension, providing a link to their known susceptibility to right ventricular dysfunction. Using an adjusted model for age, gender, pulmonary vascular resistance, and medication use, associations of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and the presence of diabetes mellitus were evaluated with markers of disease severity in 162 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. A surrogate measure of increased pulmonary artery stiffness, elevated pulmonary arterial elastance (P=0.012), along with reduced log(pulmonary artery capacitance) (P=0.006) were significantly associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in a fully adjusted model. Similar associations between pulmonary arterial elastance and capacitance were noted with both fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, right ventricular wall thickness on echocardiography was greater in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients with diabetes, supporting the link between right ventricular remodeling and diabetes. Cumulatively, these data demonstrate that an increase in right ventricular afterload, beyond pulmonary vascular resistance alone, may influence right ventricular remodeling and provide a mechanistic link between the susceptibility to right ventricular dysfunction in patients with both diabetes mellitus and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus: an overview

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    Igor Aleksandrovich Sklyanik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an analysis of clinical and experimental studies related to post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM – a specific complication after solid organ transplantation.A search of the databases eLibrary, PubMed and Scopus using the keywords «posttransplantation diabetes mellitus», «new onset diabetes after transplantation», «transplantation» and «immunosuppression» yielded in 523 results, including four from Russian literature (one original research manuscript. The analysis included original research, reviews, meta-analyses and monographs published not before 2005 in Russian and English. A total of 60 relevant original researches and reviews were included in this review.Diagnostic criteria, disease risk factors and potential pathogenic mechanisms were all considered. The mechanisms of the diabetogenic effect of modern immunosuppressive drugs were analysed. The principles of pre- and post-transplantation screening for PTDM and optimal management strategies for patients with PTDM are presented. The current controversial issues concerning the various aspects of PTDM are discussed.

  18. Effects of exercise training using resistance bands on glycaemic control and strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Samantha K; Armstrong, Marni J; Boulé, Normand G; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-04-01

    Resistance exercise using free weights or weight machines improves glycaemic control and strength in people with type 2 diabetes. Resistance band training is potentially less expensive and more accessible, but the effects of resistance band training on glycaemic control and strength in this population are not well understood. This paper aims to systematically review and meta-analyse the effect of resistance band training on haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and strength in adults with type 2 diabetes. Database searches were performed in August 2013 (MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and CINAHL). Reference lists of eligible articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Randomised trials evaluating the effects of resistance band training in adults with type 2 diabetes on HbA1c or objectively measured strength were selected. Baseline and post-intervention HbA1c and strength were extracted for the intervention and control groups. Details of the exercise interventions and methodological quality were collected. Seven trials met inclusion criteria. Post-intervention-weighted mean HbA1c was nonsignificantly lower in exercise groups compared to control groups [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.18 percentage points (-1.91 mmol/mol); P = 0.27]. Post-intervention strength was significantly higher in the exercise groups compared to the control groups in the lower extremities (WMD = 21.90 kg; P diabetes.

  19. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Traditional Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Kenya- Key Informant Interviews. ... Herbalists in Kenya are widely consulted for the management of many diseases including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). ... In addition, presenting signs and symptoms were key in diagnosing T2DM.

  20. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives

    Abstract

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or

  1. Diabetes mellitus complicating β-thalassemia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of beta-thalassemia major complicated by diabetes mellitus in a Fiji national is presented. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this complication are highlighted. Keywords: β-thalassemia, diabetes mellitus, iron overload. Annals of African Medicine Vol.2(1) 2003: 36-38 ...

  2. Prevalence of Cutaneous Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a non- communicable disease with an increasing prevalence in developing countries. Skin manifestations in this condition are due to metabolic derangements or chronic degenerative complications. Skin manifestations are commonly observed after developing clinical diabetes mellitus, but ...

  3. Healthy adolescents' knowledge of diabetes mellitus in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus has become an important public health challenge affecting both the young and adults. This study was carried out in order to determine the knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus among adolescents in Oghara, South-South Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study ...

  4. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults in rural north central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is one of the noncommunicable diseases and a public health problem facing the world. This chronic disease is expected to rise due to rapid population growth, urbanization, aging, obesity and physical inactivity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus ...

  5. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-08-30

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  6. Cholelithiasis and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Nigerians | Olokoba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gallstone disease is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases seen in clinical practice. Individuals with Diabetes mellitus are reported to have a 2 to 3-fold increase in the incidence of cholesterol Gallstone. Studies have shown a higher prevalence of Gallstone disease in patients with Diabetes mellitus ...

  7. New-onset diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker; Hansen, Jesper Melchior

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in a prospective study of 97 nondiabetic uremic patients.......This study aimed to investigate the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in a prospective study of 97 nondiabetic uremic patients....

  8. Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, still changing | Hall | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The management of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus places a significant burden on healthcare systems. Significant global changes have been proposed with regard to the diagnosis and management of women with diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. The study aims were to document the contemporary ...

  9. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2014-06-10

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  10. Depression among patients with diabetes mellitus in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Depression is associated with diabetes mellitus and affects treatment goals negatively. We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression and identify its socio-demographic or clinical correlates among patients with diabetes mellitus attending an out-patient clinic in Nigeria. Methods. Two hundred ...

  11. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    INTRODUCTION. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) is the effect of T cell dependant autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets. T cells are activated in response to islet dominant autoantigens, the result being the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus.1. Apoptosis (a combination of the ...

  12. Stem cell transplantation for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltarelli Júlio C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of stem cells to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus has been proposed for many years, both to downregulate the immune system and to provide β cell regeneration. Conclusion High dose immunosuppression followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is able to induce complete remission (insulin independence in most patients with early onset type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Tuberculous pyomyositis in a patient with diabetes Mellitus | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pyomyositis is a pyogenic infection of the skeletal muscle which can cause significant morbidity and mortality if not properly treated. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well recognized risk factor for development of pyomyositis. The usual causative pathogen of pyomyositis in diabetes mellitus is Staphylococcus aureus. Tuberculous ...

  14. Problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...

  15. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in. Sudan is ... glucosuria, followed by proteinuria, family history of DM, BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2 and age ≥ 30 ..... Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 2005;352:2477-86. 5. The Guideline Development Group.

  16. De grondslagen van de behandeling van diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, Jakob

    1948-01-01

    The object of this study was to trace which results were reached with the treatment of 394 diabetes mellitus patients and which factors were important for the results. As material for our research were used the data of the diabetes mellitus patients treated between 1930 and 1944 in the clinic for

  17. Prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence is increasing rapidly around the world. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mwanza city, Tanzania. A multistage random sampling technique was used to obtain representative subjects. Information ...

  18. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania : public health perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus in Tanzania – public health perspectives Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycaemia of variable severity with onset or first

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is convincing evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is highly associated with impaired glucose metabolism. Objectives: Analyze the prevalence of OSA in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Evaluate the influence of OSA on glycemic control. Methods: The adult patients with diabetes mellitus (DM followed in the department of internal medicine were referred to our Sleep Unit. A home respiratory polygraphy was then performed on all patients with body mass index (BMI  30/h. The mean CT90 was 5.3 ± 12.5 and the mean AHI was 13.6 ± 18.3. The mean AHI was similar between type 1 and type 2 DM (15.7 ± 24.5 Vs 11.6 ± 8.9; p = 0.46. The AHI was not correlated with the BMI. Type 2 DM patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 7.5% had a significantly higher mean AHI (14.3 ± 9.0 vs 6.4 ± 6.2; p = 0.038. This difference did not remain significant after adjustment for BMI (p = 0.151. Conclusions: The prevalence of OSA in type 1 DM is similar to that found in type 2 DM. We note the high prevalence of OSA in younger patients with type 1 DM. Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, Diabetes mellitus, Glycemic control

  20. Disfunción endotelial y diabetes mellitus Endothelial dysfunction and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeddú Cruz Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la disfunción endotelial se presenta con frecuencia en los individuos con diabetes mellitus, debido a que las alteraciones vasculares que aparecen en esta enfermedad y que son provocadas por la hiperglucemia crónica, facilitan su aparición, a lo cual puede contribuir también la hipertensión arterial y la dislipidemia que se presentan en los diabéticos. Objetivo: describir algunos eventos implicados en la aparición de la disfunción endotelial en la diabetes mellitus, y aspectos relacionados con su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Desarrollo: entre los marcadores más importantes de disfunción endotelial en la diabetes mellitus se encuentran, la elevación de las moléculas de adhesión celular y de marcadores de inflamación, la microalbuminuria, la hiperhomocisteinemia, y el incremento de la hemoglobina glucosilada, de la endotelina-1 y del estrés oxidativo. Para el diagnóstico de disfunción endotelial se utilizan la medición de sustancias reguladoras de biofunciones sintetizadas por el endotelio y de otras reconocidas como marcadores de disfunción endotelial, y pruebas indirectas, algunas de las cuales son invasivas; y para su tratamiento, disímiles medidas terapéuticas medicamentosas o no. Conclusiones: es importante identificar la disfunción endotelial tempranamente en los diabéticos y tratarla, en caso de estar presente.Introduction: endothelial dysfunction frequently appears in individuals with diabetes mellitus, because vascular alterations derived from chronic hyperglycemia facilitate the occurrence of the disease, to which blood hypertension and dislipidemia of diabetics also contribute. Objective: to describe some events involved in the onset of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus and several aspects related to diagnosis and treatment. Development: among the most important markers of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus are the rises of cell adhesion molecules and inflammation markers

  1. Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cheow Peng; Yassin, Zaitun; Hamid, Tengku-Aizan

    2012-08-15

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is not only a nutritious vegetable but it is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control. To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several electronic databases were searched, among these were The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2012), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared momordica charantia with placebo or a control intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of the trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in the interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice). Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause

  2. Diabetes mellitus neonatal en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Ruiz-Salazar; Erick Richmond-Padilla; Roberto Bogarín-Solano; Fred Cavallo-Aita; Orlando Jaramillo-Lines

    2014-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus neonatal es un raro desorden metabólico usualmente desarrollado en las primeras 6 semanas de vida, secundario a un grupo de mutaciones y defectos del desarrollo pancreático que puede desembocar en una catástrofe clínica si no se identifica tempranamente; se divide en una variante transitoria y una permanente, siendo la primera la más frecuente, con cerca de un 60% de los casos. El manejo inicial de ambas variantes es la insulinoterapia intensiva, que en la variante transi...

  3. NUEVOS FÁRMACOS EN DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Aylwin H., Carmen Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Por más de 60 años se dispuso solo de tres grupos farmacológicos para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus (DM): la insulina, la metformina y las sulfonilureas. Sin embargo, en los últimos años y como consecuencia de los avances en el conocimiento de la patogenia de la DM2 se han desarrollado nuevos fármacos con novedosos mecanismos de acción y con diferentes perfiles de seguridad, entre ellos los compuestos con efecto incretina y los glucosúricos que actúan en los trastornos a nivel intest...

  4. Nutritional strategies in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nichola; Forbes, Bernice; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2009-06-01

    Weight loss is a key goal in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are conflicting weight-loss strategies, including low-carbohydrate diets, low glycemic-index diets, low-fat vegan diets, conventional low-fat diets, and high-protein and high-monounsaturated fat diets. There is no evidence to suggest that 1 nutritional strategy is clearly the best. The most successful strategy is one that the patient can adopt and follow in the long term. (c) 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  5. Complicaciones cronicas de la diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Isla Pera, Ma. Pilar (María Pilar)

    2012-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una de las enfermedades con mayor impacto sociosanitario, no sólo por su elevada prevalencia, sino, sobre todo, por las consecuencias de las complicaciones crónicas que genera. La hiperglucemia ocasiona daño tanto en el ámbito de la microcirculación como en los grandes vasos provocando lesiones macroangiopáticas y microangiopáticas. Las complicaciones macroangiopáticas se originan a partir de alteraciones o lesiones en los grandes vasos arteriales siendo las más i...

  6. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seferović, Petar M; Petrie, Mark C; Filippatos, Gerasimos S

    2018-01-01

    The coexistence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF), either with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is frequent (30-40% of patients) and associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The most important....... There are no specific limitations to HF treatment in T2DM. Subanalyses of trials addressing HF treatment in the general population have shown that all HF therapies are similarly effective regardless of T2DM. Concerning T2DM treatment in HF patients, most guidelines currently recommend metformin as the first-line choice...

  7. Technology in the management of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Unnikrishnan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosive increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in resource-strapped regions of the world demands innovative solutions in healthcare. Advances in information technology, diagnostics and food technology have the potential to make diagnosis and treatment of diabetes simpler, cost-effective and patient-friendly. Newer methods of glucose testing such as the ambulatory glucose profile promise to make clinical decision-making easier and more robust. More advanced modes of insulin delivery are likely to help larger proportions of patients achieve their glycaemic goals with minimal risk of hypoglycaemia. Use of telemedicine and electronic medical records represents a significant advance in improving delivery of diabetes care and monitoring its outcomes. Efforts are also on to harness the wide penetrance of mobile phones in spreading awareness about diabetes and its prevention as well as in screening for retinopathy. Advances in technology also promise to favourably alter the food habits of the population, with the advent of the novel high-fibre white rice being a case in point. This narrative review aims to discuss some of the ways in which emerging technologies are making diabetes monitoring and treatment easier, more effective and pleasant for the patient.

  8. Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Egelund, Gertrud Baunbæk

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia, whereas the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia is largely unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed...... diabetes mellitus, and risk factors associated with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in a large European community-acquired pneumonia cohort. Methods: This was a multicenter prospective cohort study of hospitals and private practices in Germany and Austria encompassing 1961 adults with community......-acquired pneumonia included in the German Community-Acquired Pneumonia Competence Network (CAPNETZ) study between 2007 and 2014. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes was estimated based on hemoglobin A1c measurements. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for undiagnosed...

  9. The role of hormonal treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam SK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khalid ImamLiaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan; Al-Mouwasat Hospital, Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a disorder of abnormal glucose metabolism resulting primarily from insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency and characterized by hyperglycemia causing significant short- and long-term complications. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM contributes to more than 90% of cases of diabetes. Obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and consumption of very high-caloric meals are thought to be the primary triggering factors causing T2DM in genetically predisposed individuals. Although treatment of hyperglycemia plays a key role in the management, therapies directed at other comorbid conditions, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypercoagulability, obesity, and insulin resistance, have also been a major focus of research and therapy. DM is rising to an epidemic proportion globally, and it is, indeed, one of the most challenging public health problems in the 21st century. According to 2011 statistics, there were approximately 366 million diabetes cases worldwide, and this figure would probably increase to 552 million by 2030. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular events, peripheral arterial diseases leading to amputation, retinopathy, nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis and transplantation, and neuropathy. The acute complication of T2DM includes drug-induced hypoglycemia, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, and although uncommon, ketoacidosis. Diabetes care requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to delay the progression to acute as well as chronic and debilitating long-term complications. This approach requires the thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia and impact of various risk factors and comorbidities, careful selection of antihyperglycemic

  10. Periodontitis as a possible early sign of diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, Wijnand J.; Kosho, Madeline X. F.; Poland, Dennis C. W.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Loos, Bruno G.

    2017-01-01

    The early diagnosis of (pre)diabetes mellitus is essential for the prevention of diabetes complications. It has been suggested that gum disease (periodontitis) might be an early complication of diabetes and may be a useful risk indicator for diabetes screening. Therefore, a dental office could be a

  11. [Gender-difference in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ai; Ishigaki, Yasushi

    2015-04-01

    Gender-difference is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of glucose metabolism. Imbalances in sex hormones, such as increasing levels of progesterone or testosterone, are associated with systemic insulin resistance. After menopause, women are at an increased risk to develop visceral obesity due to the loss of endogenous ovarian hormone production. On the other hand, insulin resistance caused excess secretion of androgen, leading to menstrual disorder in obese young female. For the better management of glucose intolerance in pregnancy, the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes was revised in Japan. Although glucose intolerance in pregnancy is usually recovered after delivery, the subjects who diagnosed gestational diabetes need to be followed for an early detection of type 2 diabetes development. In addition, gender-differences in living practice and attitude are related to their lifestyle, including diet and exercise, therefore, gender-specific medicine increasingly plays key roles in the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Plasma Glucose and Serum Ceruloplasmin in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Jeppu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 2 and metabolic syndrome are conditions associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2. Plasma glucose (fasting/postprandial and serum ceruloplasmin levels and their relationship were studied. Study population consisted of 150 individuals—50 individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2, 50 individuals with metabolic syndrome, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Plasma levels of fasting and postprandial glucose were measured along with serum ceruloplasmin. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson correlation. The fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels in metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2 were increased when compared to control. Serum ceruloplasmin level was 327.8 ± 68.9 in control, 227.3 ± 46.8 in metabolic syndrome, and 194.0 ± 49.6 in diabetes mellitus type 2 individuals. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the fasting, postprandial plasma glucose, and serum ceruloplasmin in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus by viral eradication in chronic hepatitis C: Myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Ester; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Saracco, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is a systemic disease inducing metabolic alterations leading to extrahepatic consequences. In particular, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection seems to increase the risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in predisposed individuals, independently of liver disease stage. The mechanisms through which hepatitis C induces T2DM involve direct viral effects, insulin resistance, pro-inflammatory cytokines and other immune-mediated processes. Many studies have reported the clinical consequences of type 2 diabetes mellitus on hepatitis C outcome, but very few studies have addressed the issue of microangiopathic complications among patients with hepatitis C only, who develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, clinical trials in HCV-positive patients have reported improvement in glucose metabolism after antiviral treatment; recent studies have suggested that this metabolic amelioration might have a clinical impact on type 2 diabetes mellitus-related complications. These observations raise the question as to whether the HCV eradication may also have an impact on the future morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. The scope of this review is to summarise the current evidence linking successful antiviral treatment and the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications in hepatitis C-infected patients. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain injury with diabetes mellitus: evidence, mechanisms and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a risk for brain injury. Brain injury is associated with acute and chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycaemic events in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a cause of cognitive deterioration, low intelligent quotient, neurodegeneration, brain aging, brain atrophy and dementia. Areas covered: The current review highlights the experimental, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological evidence of brain injury induced by diabetes and its associated metabolic derangements. It also highlights the mechanisms of diabetes-induced brain injury. It seems that the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-induced brain injury is complex and includes combination of vascular disease, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, reduction of neurotrophic factors, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activation, neurotransmitters' changes, impairment of brain repair processes, impairment of brain glymphatic system, accumulation of amyloid β and tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration. The potentials for prevention and treatment are also discussed. Expert commentary: We summarize the risks and the possible mechanisms of DM-induced brain injury and recommend strategies for neuroprotection and neurorestoration. Recently, a number of drugs and substances [in addition to insulin and its mimics] have shown promising potentials against diabetes-induced brain injury. These include: antioxidants, neuroinflammation inhibitors, anti-apoptotics, neurotrophic factors, AChE inhibitors, mitochondrial function modifiers and cell based therapies.

  15. Differential control of muscle mass in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, David; Zorzano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus--whether driven by insulin deficiency or insulin resistance--causes major alterations in muscle metabolism. These alterations have an impact on nutrient handling, including the metabolism of glucose, lipids, and amino acids, and also on muscle mass and strength. However, the ways in which the distinct forms of diabetes affect muscle mass differ greatly. The most common forms of diabetes mellitus are type 1 and type 2. Thus, whereas type 1 diabetic subjects without insulin treatment display a dramatic loss of muscle, most type 2 diabetic subjects show no changes or even an increase in muscle mass. However, the most commonly used rodent models of type 2 diabetes are characterized by muscle atrophy and do not mimic the features of the disease in humans in terms of muscle mass. In this review, we analyze the processes that are differentially regulated under these forms of diabetes and propose regulatory mechanisms to explain them.

  16. Mechanism linking diabetes mellitus and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Goblan AS; Al-Alfi MA; Khan MZ

    2014-01-01

    Abdullah S Al-Goblan,1 Mohammed A Al-Alfi,1 Muhammad Z Khan2 1Diabetes Center, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Buraidah, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Sulaiman AlRajhi Colleges, Al Bukairiyah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Body mass index has a strong relationship to diabetes and insulin resistance. In obese individuals, the amount of nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory markers, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin...

  17. Síndrome metabólica, resistência à ação da insulina e doença cardiovascular no diabete melito tipo 1 Síndrome metabólico, resistencia a la acción de la insulina y enfermedad cardiovascular en la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in type-1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticiana C. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome metabólica (SM é um transtorno complexo representado por um conjunto de fatores de risco cardiovasculares relacionados à deposição central de gordura e à resistência à ação da insulina (RI, e está associada à mortalidade precoce em indivíduos não-diabéticos e em pacientes com Diabete melito (DM tipo 2. A presença da SM e dos seus componentes tem sido descrita também em pacientes com DM tipo 1 e pode contribuir para o elevado risco de doença cardiovascular observado nessa população de pacientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi revisar as evidências disponíveis sobre o papel da SM e da RI no desenvolvimento da doença cardiovascular nos pacientes com DM tipo 1.El síndrome metabólico (SM es un trastorno complejo representado por un conjunto de factores de riesgo cardiovasculares relacionados al depósito central de grasa y a la resistencia a la acción de la insulina (RI, y se asocia a mortalidad precoz en individuos no diabéticos y en pacientes con diabetes mellitus (DM tipo 2. La presencia del SM y sus componentes viene siendo descripta también en pacientes con DM tipo 1 y puede contribuir al elevado riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular observado en esta población de pacientes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar las evidencias disponibles sobre el papel del SM y de la RI en el desarrollo de la enfermedad cardiovascular en los pacientes con DM tipo 1.Metabolic syndrome (MS is a complex disorder represented by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors related to central fat distribution and insulin resistance (IR, and is associated with early mortality in non-diabetic individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM. The presence of MS and its components has also been described in patients with type-1 DM and may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease seen in this patient population. The objective of this study was to review the available evidences of the role of MS and IR in

  18. Resistin: A Potential Biomarker for Periodontitis Influenced Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Induced Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Devanoorkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are highly specific and sensitive indicators of disease activity. Resistin is a recently discovered adipocytokine, having a potent biomarker quality. Initially resistin was thought to be produced by adipocytes alone; however, emerging evidence suggests that it is also produced in abundance by various cells of the immunoinflammatory system, indicating its role in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Data suggests that resistin plays a role in obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and periodontitis. Resistin derived its name from the original observation that it induced insulin resistance (resist-in: resist insulin in mice and is downregulated in mature murine adipocytes cultured in the presence of insulin sensitizing drugs like thiazolidinediones. It is well recognized that obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A three-way relationship has been established between diabetes, obesity and periodontitis. Recent evidence also suggests an association between obesity and increased risk for periodontitis. Our previous research showed incremental elevation of resistin with periodontal disease activity and a reduced level of resistin, after periodontal therapy. Thus resistin would be one of the molecular links connecting obesity, periodontitis, and diabetes and may serve as a marker that links periodontal disease with other systemic diseases. A Medline/PubMed search was carried out for keywords “Diabetes Mellitus,” “Periodontitis,” and “Resistin,” and all relevant research papers from 1990 in English were shortlisted and finalized based on their importance. This review provides an insight into the biological action of resistin and its possible role in periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis.

  19. Gestational diabetes mellitus in 13 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, T; Johansson Kreuger, S; Juberget, A; Bergström, A; Hedhammar, A

    2008-01-01

    There are few reports on the clinical appearance, prognosis, and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in dogs. To describe the clinical characteristics of GDM in dogs. Thirteen dogs with GDM. Retrospective study. Medical records were reviewed and owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for follow-up information. Nordic Spitz breeds (11/13 dogs) were overrepresented in the case material. Diagnosis was established at a median of 50 days after mating (range, 32-64). Median glucose concentration at diagnosis was 340 mg/dL (18.9 mmol/L) (range, 203-587). One dog was euthanized at diagnosis, 5 bitches were treated with insulin until whelping, and in 7 dogs, pregnancy was terminated within 4 days of diagnosis. One dog died after surgery. Tight glycemic control was not achieved in any of the insulin-treated dogs during pregnancy. Diabetes mellitus (DM) resolved in 7 dogs at a median of 9 days after the end of their pregnancies and DM was permanent in 4 dogs. Puppy mortality was increased compared with offspring of healthy dams. This report suggests that GDM affects mainly middle-aged bitches in the 2nd half of pregnancy with a breed predisposition toward Nordic Spitz breeds. GDM may resolve within days to weeks after pregnancy has ended. Further research is needed to investigate optimal treatment regimens for dogs with GDM and risk factors for unsuccessful outcome.

  20. Diabetes mellitus in a domesticated Spanish mustang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Scotty, Nicole C; Wiedmeyer, Charles; Messer, Nat T; Kreeger, John M

    2005-02-15

    An 18-year-old Spanish Mustang mare was referred for evaluation of progressive weight loss and persistent hyperglycemia. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included marked hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Serum cortisol concentration was appropriately decreased following administration of dexamethasone, indicating that the horse did not have pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Serum insulin and plasma C-peptide concentrations were low, suggesting that hyperglycemia was a result of decreased secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta cells. In addition, glucose concentration did not return to the baseline concentration until 5 hours after i.v. administration of a glucose bolus, suggesting that insulin secretion, insulin effect, or both were reduced. However, i.v. administration of insulin caused only a slight decrease in the plasma glucose concentration, giving the impression that the action of insulin was impaired. Within 5 hours after administration of a combination of glyburide and metformin, which is used to treat diabetes mellitus in humans, the glucose concentration was within reference limits. The horse was euthanized, and a postmortem examination was done. Immunohistochemical staining of sections of the pancreas revealed attenuation of the pancreatic islet beta-cell population, with beta cells that remained generally limited to the periphery of the islets. These findings indicate that, albeit rare, pancreatic beta-cell failure may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus in horses.