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Sample records for resistance determinant widely

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of Ampicillin Resistance Determinants in Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinglin; Paganelli, Fernanda L.; Bierschenk, Damien; Kuipers, Annemarie; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has become a nosocomial pathogen of major importance, causing infections that are difficult to treat owing to its multi-drug resistance. In particular, resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic ampicillin has become ubiquitous among clinical isolates. Mutations in the low-affinity penicillin binding protein PBP5 have previously been shown to be important for ampicillin resistance in E. faecium, but the existence of additional resistance determinants has been suggested. Here, we constructed a high-density transposon mutant library in E. faecium and developed a transposon mutant tracking approach termed Microarray-based Transposon Mapping (M-TraM), leading to the identification of a compendium of E. faecium genes that contribute to ampicillin resistance. These genes are part of the core genome of E. faecium, indicating a high potential for E. faecium to evolve towards β-lactam resistance. To validate the M-TraM results, we adapted a Cre-lox recombination system to construct targeted, markerless mutants in E. faecium. We confirmed the role of four genes in ampicillin resistance by the generation of targeted mutants and further characterized these mutants regarding their resistance to lysozyme. The results revealed that ddcP, a gene predicted to encode a low-molecular-weight penicillin binding protein with D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase activity, was essential for high-level ampicillin resistance. Furthermore, deletion of ddcP sensitized E. faecium to lysozyme and abolished membrane-associated D,D-carboxypeptidase activity. This study has led to the development of a broadly applicable platform for functional genomic-based studies in E. faecium, and it provides a new perspective on the genetic basis of ampicillin resistance in this organism. PMID:22761597

  2. Nickel-resistance determinants in Acidiphilium sp. PM identified by genome-wide functional screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patxi San Martin-Uriz

    Full Text Available Acidiphilium spp. are conspicuous dwellers of acidic, metal-rich environments. Indeed, they are among the most metal-resistant organisms; yet little is known about the mechanisms behind the metal tolerance in this genus. Acidiphilium sp. PM is an environmental isolate from Rio Tinto, an acidic, metal-laden river located in southwestern Spain. The characterization of its metal resistance revealed a remarkable ability to tolerate high Ni concentrations. Here we report the screening of a genomic library of Acidiphilium sp. PM to identify genes involved in Ni resistance. This approach revealed seven different genes conferring Ni resistance to E. coli, two of which form an operon encoding the ATP-dependent protease HslVU (ClpQY. This protease was found to enhance resistance to both Ni and Co in E. coli, a function not previously reported. Other Ni-resistance determinants include genes involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the synthesis of branched amino acids. The diversity of molecular functions of the genes recovered in the screening suggests that Ni resistance in Acidiphilium sp. PM probably relies on different molecular mechanisms.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We...... confirmed by E-test to display at least twofold increased susceptibility to one or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the identified genes have not previously been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in S. aureus. For example, inactivation of genes encoding for subunits of the ATP synthase...... with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets...

  4. Genome-wide identification of antimicrobial intrinsic resistance determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vestergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S. aureus strain JE2, for increased susceptibility to the anti-staphylococcal antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, fosfomycin, daptomycin, mupirocin, vancomycin and gentamicin. 68 mutants were confirmed by E-test to display at least two-fold increased susceptibility to one or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the identified genes have not previously been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in S. aureus. For example, inactivation of genes encoding for subunits of the ATP synthase, atpA, atpB, atpG and atpH, reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets for compounds that may potentiate the efficacy of existing antimicrobial agents against this important pathogen.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants inStaphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob; Bojer, Martin S; Vegge, Christina S; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus . We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S. aureus strain JE2, for increased susceptibility to the anti-staphylococcal antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, fosfomycin, daptomycin, mupirocin, vancomycin, and gentamicin). Sixty-eight mutants were confirmed by E -test to display at least twofold increased susceptibility to one or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the identified genes have not previously been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in S. aureus . For example, inactivation of genes encoding for subunits of the ATP synthase, atpA , atpB , atpG and atpH , reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus . Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets for compounds that may potentiate the efficacy of existing antimicrobial agents against this important pathogen.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of bacterial determinants of plant growth promotion and induced systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu; Etalo, Desalegn W; van de Mortel, Judith E; Dekkers, Ester; Nguyen, Linh; Medema, Marnix H; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2017-11-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 (Pf.SS101) promotes growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, enhances greening and lateral root formation, and induces systemic resistance (ISR) against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Here, targeted and untargeted approaches were adopted to identify bacterial determinants and underlying mechanisms involved in plant growth promotion and ISR by Pf.SS101. Based on targeted analyses, no evidence was found for volatiles, lipopeptides and siderophores in plant growth promotion by Pf.SS101. Untargeted, genome-wide analyses of 7488 random transposon mutants of Pf.SS101 led to the identification of 21 mutants defective in both plant growth promotion and ISR. Many of these mutants, however, were auxotrophic and impaired in root colonization. Genetic analysis of three mutants followed by site-directed mutagenesis, genetic complementation and plant bioassays revealed the involvement of the phosphogluconate dehydratase gene edd, the response regulator gene colR and the adenylsulfate reductase gene cysH in both plant growth promotion and ISR. Subsequent comparative plant transcriptomics analyses strongly suggest that modulation of sulfur assimilation, auxin biosynthesis and transport, steroid biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in Arabidopsis are key mechanisms linked to growth promotion and ISR by Pf.SS101. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of bacterial determinants of plant growth promotion and induced systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xu; Etalo, Desalegn W.; van de Mortel, Judith E.; Dekkers, Ester; Nguyen, Linh; Medema, Marnix H; Raaijmakers, Jos M.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 (Pf.SS101) promotes growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, enhances greening and lateral root formation, and induces systemic resistance (ISR) against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Here, targeted and untargeted approaches were adopted to

  8. Copper resistance determinants in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Rouch, D A; Lee, B T

    1992-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element that is utilized in a number of oxygenases and electron transport proteins, but it is also a highly toxic heavy metal, against which all organisms must protect themselves. Known bacterial determinants of copper resistance are plasmid-encoded. The mechanisms which confer resistance must be integrated with the normal metabolism of copper. Different bacteria have adopted diverse strategies for copper resistance, and this review outlines what is known about bacterial copper resistance mechanisms and their genetic regulation.

  9. The wide gap resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotty, I.; Lamas Valverde, J.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.

    1995-01-01

    The resistive plate chamber (RPC) has good time and position resolution; these factors (coupled to its simple construction) make it an attractive candidate for muon trigger systems at future colliders. However, operated in spark mode, the RPC has severe rate problems that make it unusable above 10 Hz/cm 2 . We have previously published our results concerning the operation of the RPC in spark and in avalanche mode; we have shown that the rate limit can be increased to 150 Hz/cm 2 if the RPC is operated in avalanche mode. Here, we discuss the performance of chambers with 6 and 8 mm gas gaps (compared to the more usual 2 mm gap). We outline the reasons for this choice, and also discuss anode versus cathode strip readout. We have measured the efficiency versus flux, and also show that an enhanced rate limit can be obtained if only a small region of the chamber is exposed to the beam (spot illumination). Finally we have tested the performance of chambers constructed with other materials for the resistiv e plate and compare it to chambers constructed with our preferred plastic, melamine laminate. (orig.)

  10. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Beatriz Espinosa; Altagracia Martínez, Marina; Sánchez Rodríguez, Martha A; Wertheimer, Albert I

    2009-01-01

    The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community. To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem. We conducted a MedLine search using the key words "determinants", "antibiotic", and "antibiotic resistance" to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded. The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance. Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.

  11. Determining the specific electric resistance of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad' ko, V.Ia.

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on perfecting the method of laboratory determination of the specific electric resistance of a rock formation. The average error in determining the specific electric resistance of the core at various locations is no more than two percent with low resistance values (2-5 ohms).

  12. Radiation resistance of wide-bandgap semiconductor power transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazdra, Pavel; Popelka, Stanislav [Department of Microelectronics, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-15

    Radiation resistance of state-of-the-art commercial wide-bandgap power transistors, 1700 V 4H-SiC power MOSFETs and 200 V GaN HEMTs, to the total ionization dose was investigated. Transistors were irradiated with 4.5 MeV electrons with doses up to 2000 kGy. Electrical characteristics and introduced defects were characterized by current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. Results show that already low doses of 4.5 MeV electrons (>1 kGy) cause a significant decrease in threshold voltage of SiC MOSFETs due to embedding of the positive charge into the gate oxide. On the other hand, other parameters like the ON-state resistance are nearly unchanged up to the dose of 20 kGy. At 200 kGy, the threshold voltage returns back close to its original value, however, the ON-state resistance increases and transconductance is lowered. This effect is caused by radiation defects introduced into the low-doped drift region which decrease electron concentration and mobility. GaN HEMTs exhibit significantly higher radiation resistance. They keep within the datasheet specification up to doses of 2000 kGy. Absence of dielectric layer beneath the gate and high concentration of carriers in the two dimensional electron gas channel are the reasons of higher radiation resistance of GaN HEMTs. Their degradation then occurs at much higher doses due to electron mobility degradation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Radiation resistance of wide-bandgap semiconductor power transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazdra, Pavel; Popelka, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Radiation resistance of state-of-the-art commercial wide-bandgap power transistors, 1700 V 4H-SiC power MOSFETs and 200 V GaN HEMTs, to the total ionization dose was investigated. Transistors were irradiated with 4.5 MeV electrons with doses up to 2000 kGy. Electrical characteristics and introduced defects were characterized by current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. Results show that already low doses of 4.5 MeV electrons (>1 kGy) cause a significant decrease in threshold voltage of SiC MOSFETs due to embedding of the positive charge into the gate oxide. On the other hand, other parameters like the ON-state resistance are nearly unchanged up to the dose of 20 kGy. At 200 kGy, the threshold voltage returns back close to its original value, however, the ON-state resistance increases and transconductance is lowered. This effect is caused by radiation defects introduced into the low-doped drift region which decrease electron concentration and mobility. GaN HEMTs exhibit significantly higher radiation resistance. They keep within the datasheet specification up to doses of 2000 kGy. Absence of dielectric layer beneath the gate and high concentration of carriers in the two dimensional electron gas channel are the reasons of higher radiation resistance of GaN HEMTs. Their degradation then occurs at much higher doses due to electron mobility degradation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Novel Cadmium Resistance Determinant in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Cameron; Lee, Sangmi; Jayeola, Victor; Kathariou, Sophia

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1 to cadA3 ) were previously characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene ( cadA4 ) was recently identified through whole-genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking. In this study, we characterized cadA4 in L. monocytogenes strain F8027, a cadmium-resistant strain of serotype 4b. By screening a mariner-based transposon library of this strain, we identified a mutant with reduced tolerance to cadmium and that harbored a single transposon insertion in cadA4 The tolerance to cadmium was restored by genetic complementation with the cadmium resistance cassette ( cadA4C ), and enhanced cadmium tolerance was conferred to two unrelated cadmium-sensitive strains via heterologous complementation with cadA4C Cadmium exposure induced cadA4 expression, even at noninhibitory levels. Virulence assessments in the Galleria mellonella model suggested that a functional cadA4 suppressed virulence, potentially promoting commensal colonization of the insect larvae. Biofilm assays suggested that cadA4 inactivation reduced biofilm formation. These data not only confirm cadA4 as a novel cadmium resistance determinant in L. monocytogenes but also provide evidence for roles in virulence and biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular foodborne pathogen causing the disease listeriosis, which is responsible for numerous hospitalizations and deaths every year. Among the adaptations that enable the survival of Listeria in the environment are the abilities to persist in biofilms, grow in the cold, and

  15. Genome-wide deficiency screen for the genomic regions responsible for heat resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teramura Kouhei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature adaptation is one of the most important determinants of distribution and population size of organisms in nature. Recently, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping and gene expression profiling approaches have been used for detecting candidate genes for heat resistance. However, the resolution of QTL mapping is not high enough to examine the individual effects of various genes in each QTL. Heat stress-responsive genes, characterized by gene expression profiling studies, are not necessarily responsible for heat resistance. Some of these genes may be regulated in association with the heat stress response of other genes. Results To evaluate which heat-responsive genes are potential candidates for heat resistance with higher resolution than previous QTL mapping studies, we performed genome-wide deficiency screen for QTL for heat resistance. We screened 439 isogenic deficiency strains from the DrosDel project, covering 65.6% of the Drosophila melanogaster genome in order to map QTL for thermal resistance. As a result, we found 19 QTL for heat resistance, including 3 novel QTL outside the QTL found in previous studies. Conclusion The QTL found in this study encompassed 19 heat-responsive genes found in the previous gene expression profiling studies, suggesting that they were strong candidates for heat resistance. This result provides new insights into the genetic architecture of heat resistance. It also emphasizes the advantages of genome-wide deficiency screen using isogenic deficiency libraries.

  16. Distribution of triclosan-resistant genes in major pathogenic microorganisms revealed by metagenome and genome-wide analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees Khan

    Full Text Available The substantial use of triclosan (TCS has been aimed to kill pathogenic bacteria, but TCS resistance seems to be prevalent in microbial species and limited knowledge exists about TCS resistance determinants in a majority of pathogenic bacteria. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of TCS resistance determinants in major pathogenic bacteria (N = 231 and to assess the enrichment of potentially pathogenic genera in TCS contaminated environments. A TCS-resistant gene (TRG database was constructed and experimentally validated to predict TCS resistance in major pathogenic bacteria. Genome-wide in silico analysis was performed to define the distribution of TCS-resistant determinants in major pathogens. Microbiome analysis of TCS contaminated soil samples was also performed to investigate the abundance of TCS-resistant pathogens. We experimentally confirmed that TCS resistance could be accurately predicted using genome-wide in silico analysis against TRG database. Predicted TCS resistant phenotypes were observed in all of the tested bacterial strains (N = 17, and heterologous expression of selected TCS resistant genes from those strains conferred expected levels of TCS resistance in an alternative host Escherichia coli. Moreover, genome-wide analysis revealed that potential TCS resistance determinants were abundant among the majority of human-associated pathogens (79% and soil-borne plant pathogenic bacteria (98%. These included a variety of enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENRs homologues, AcrB efflux pumps, and ENR substitutions. FabI ENR, which is the only known effective target for TCS, was either co-localized with other TCS resistance determinants or had TCS resistance-associated substitutions. Furthermore, microbiome analysis revealed that pathogenic genera with intrinsic TCS-resistant determinants exist in TCS contaminated environments. We conclude that TCS may not be as effective against the majority of bacterial pathogens as previously

  17. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Espinosa Franco1, Marina Altagracia Martínez2, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez1, Albert I Wertheimer31Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM, Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USABackground: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a serious worldwide problem which is increasing and has implications for morbidity, mortality, and health care both in hospitals and in the community.Objectives: To analyze current research on the determinants of antibiotic resistance and comprehensively review the main factors in the process of resistance in order to aid our understanding and assessment of this problem.Methods: We conducted a MedLine search using the key words “determinants”, “antibiotic”, and “antibiotic resistance” to identify publications between 1995 and 2007 on the determinants of antibiotic resistance. Publications that did not address the determinants of antibiotic resistance were excluded.Results: The process and determinants of antibiotic resistance are described, beginning with the development of antibiotics, resistance and the mechanisms of resistance, sociocultural determinants of resistance, the consequences of antibiotic resistance, and alternative measures proposed to combat antibiotic resistance.Conclusions: Analysis of the published literature identified the main determinants of antibiotic resistance as irrational use of antibiotics in humans and animal species, insufficient patient education when antibiotics are prescribed, lack of guidelines for treatment and control of infections, lack of scientific information for physicians on the rational use of antibiotics, and lack of official government policy on the rational use of antibiotics in public and private hospitals.Keywords: antibiotic drug resistance

  18. Genome-wide analysis of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2018-01-16

    To characterize the genetic determinants of resistance to antituberculosis drugs, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6,465 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from more than 30 countries. A GWAS approach within a mixed-regression framework was followed by a phylogenetics-based test for independent mutations. In addition to mutations in established and recently described resistance-associated genes, novel mutations were discovered for resistance to cycloserine, ethionamide and para-aminosalicylic acid. The capacity to detect mutations associated with resistance to ethionamide, pyrazinamide, capreomycin, cycloserine and para-aminosalicylic acid was enhanced by inclusion of insertions and deletions. Odds ratios for mutations within candidate genes were found to reflect levels of resistance. New epistatic relationships between candidate drug-resistance-associated genes were identified. Findings also suggest the involvement of efflux pumps (drrA and Rv2688c) in the emergence of resistance. This study will inform the design of new diagnostic tests and expedite the investigation of resistance and compensatory epistatic mechanisms.

  19. Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants amongst the Enterobacteriaceae isolates of the Mhlathuze River, KwaZulu-Natal (RSA) ... The possibility of transmission of resistant genes between bacteria (especially pathogenic) which invade human and animal populations within this river poses a health risk ...

  20. Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil competence and soil corrosivity at and engineering site location in Akungba-Akoko, southwestern Nigeria. A I Idornigie, M O Olorunfemi, A A Omitogun ...

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study of Anthracnose Resistance in Andean Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady H Zuiderveen

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans comprised of multiple seed types and market classes from the Americas, Africa, and Europe, and explore the genetic basis of this resistance using genome-wide association mapping analysis (GWAS. Twenty-eight of the 230 lines tested were resistant to six out of the eight races screened, but only one cultivar Uyole98 was resistant to all eight races (7, 39, 55, 65, 73, 109, 2047, and 3481 included in the study. Outputs from the GWAS indicated major quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance on chromosomes, Pv01, Pv02, and Pv04 and two minor QTL on Pv10 and Pv11. Candidate genes associated with the significant SNPs were detected on all five chromosomes. An independent QTL study was conducted to confirm the physical location of the Co-1 locus identified on Pv01 in an F4:6 recombinant inbred line (RIL population. Resistance was determined to be conditioned by the single dominant gene Co-1 that mapped between 50.16 and 50.30 Mb on Pv01, and an InDel marker (NDSU_IND_1_50.2219 tightly linked to the gene was developed. The information reported will provide breeders with new and diverse sources of resistance and genomic regions to target in the development of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans.

  2. Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical resistivity determination of subsurface layers, subsoil competence and soil corrosivity at and engineering site location in Akungba-Akoko, ... The study concluded that the characteristics of the earth materials in the site would be favourable to normal engineering structures/materials that may be located on it.

  3. Mobile antibiotic resistance – the spread of genes determining the resistance of bacteria through food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Godziszewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more antibiotics have become ineffective in the treatment of bacterial nfections. The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is associated with circulation of genes in the environment. Determinants of antibiotic resistance may be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. It has been shown that conjugation is one of the key mechanisms responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance genes, which is highly efficient and allows the barrier to restrictions and modifications to be avoided. Some conjugative modules enable the transfer of plasmids even between phylogenetically distant bacterial species. Many scientific reports indicate that food is one of the main reservoirs of these genes. Antibiotic resistance genes have been identified in meat products, milk, fruits and vegetables. The reason for such a wide spread of antibiotic resistance genes is the overuse of antibiotics by breeders of plants and animals, as well as by horizontal gene transfer. It was shown, that resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements, which are isolated from food products, can easily be transferred to another niche. The antibiotic resistance genes have been in the environment for 30 000 years. Their removal from food products is not possible, but the risks associated with the emergence of multiresistant pathogenic strains are very large. The only option is to control the emergence, selection and spread of these genes. Therefore measures are sought to prevent horizontal transfer of genes. Promising concepts involve the combination of developmental biology, evolution and ecology in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance.

  4. Mobile antibiotic resistance - the spread of genes determining the resistance of bacteria through food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godziszewska, Jolanta; Guzek, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-07-07

    In recent years, more and more antibiotics have become ineffective in the treatment of bacterial nfections. The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is associated with circulation of genes in the environment. Determinants of antibiotic resistance may be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. It has been shown that conjugation is one of the key mechanisms responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance genes, which is highly efficient and allows the barrier to restrictions and modifications to be avoided. Some conjugative modules enable the transfer of plasmids even between phylogenetically distant bacterial species. Many scientific reports indicate that food is one of the main reservoirs of these genes. Antibiotic resistance genes have been identified in meat products, milk, fruits and vegetables. The reason for such a wide spread of antibiotic resistance genes is the overuse of antibiotics by breeders of plants and animals, as well as by horizontal gene transfer. It was shown, that resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements, which are isolated from food products, can easily be transferred to another niche. The antibiotic resistance genes have been in the environment for 30 000 years. Their removal from food products is not possible, but the risks associated with the emergence of multiresistant pathogenic strains are very large. The only option is to control the emergence, selection and spread of these genes. Therefore measures are sought to prevent horizontal transfer of genes. Promising concepts involve the combination of developmental biology, evolution and ecology in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance.

  5. Quantifying the Determinants of Evolutionary Dynamics Leading to Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Chevereau

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a serious public health problem. It is a long-standing goal to predict rates of resistance evolution and design optimal treatment strategies accordingly. To this end, it is crucial to reveal the underlying causes of drug-specific differences in the evolutionary dynamics leading to resistance. However, it remains largely unknown why the rates of resistance evolution via spontaneous mutations and the diversity of mutational paths vary substantially between drugs. Here we comprehensively quantify the distribution of fitness effects (DFE of mutations, a key determinant of evolutionary dynamics, in the presence of eight antibiotics representing the main modes of action. Using precise high-throughput fitness measurements for genome-wide Escherichia coli gene deletion strains, we find that the width of the DFE varies dramatically between antibiotics and, contrary to conventional wisdom, for some drugs the DFE width is lower than in the absence of stress. We show that this previously underappreciated divergence in DFE width among antibiotics is largely caused by their distinct drug-specific dose-response characteristics. Unlike the DFE, the magnitude of the changes in tolerated drug concentration resulting from genome-wide mutations is similar for most drugs but exceptionally small for the antibiotic nitrofurantoin, i.e., mutations generally have considerably smaller resistance effects for nitrofurantoin than for other drugs. A population genetics model predicts that resistance evolution for drugs with this property is severely limited and confined to reproducible mutational paths. We tested this prediction in laboratory evolution experiments using the "morbidostat", a device for evolving bacteria in well-controlled drug environments. Nitrofurantoin resistance indeed evolved extremely slowly via reproducible mutations-an almost paradoxical behavior since this drug causes DNA damage and increases the mutation

  6. The determinants of the antibiotic resistance process

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco; Marina Altagracia Martínez; Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez; Albert I Wertheimer

    2009-01-01

    Beatriz Espinosa Franco1, Marina Altagracia Martínez2, Martha A Sánchez Rodríguez1, Albert I Wertheimer31Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM), Mexico; 2Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Xochimilco, Mexico; 3Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USABackground: The use of antibiotic drugs triggers a complex interaction involving many biological, sociological, and psychological determinants. Resistance to antibiotics is a se...

  7. Molecular determinants of resistance to Verticillium dahliae in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    A constant evolutionary arms race between host resistance genes and pathogen effectors determine adaptive fitness. Therefore, identification of both host resistance genes and pathogen effectors is important in devising effective strategies to control disease. In tomato, resistance to Verticillium da...

  8. Genome-wide Association Analysis Tracks Bacterial Leaf Blight Resistance Loci In Rice Diverse Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilla-Ermita, Christine Jade; Tandayu, Erwin; Juanillas, Venice Margarette; Detras, Jeffrey; Lozada, Dennis Nicuh; Dwiyanti, Maria Stefanie; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Mbanjo, Edwige Gaby Nkouaya; Ardales, Edna; Diaz, Maria Genaleen; Mendioro, Merlyn; Thomson, Michael J; Kretzschmar, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    A range of resistance loci against different races of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the pathogen causing bacterial blight (BB) disease of rice, have been discovered and characterized. Several have been deployed in modern varieties, however, due to rapid evolution of Xoo, a number have already become ineffective. The continuous "arms race" between Xoo and rice makes it imperative to discover new resistance loci to enable durable deployment of multiple resistance genes in modern breeding lines. Rice diversity panels can be exploited as reservoirs of useful genetic variation for bacterial blight (BB) resistance. This study was conducted to identify loci associated to BB resistance, new genetic donors and useful molecular markers for marker-assisted breeding. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BB resistance using a diverse panel of 285 rice accessions was performed to identify loci that are associated with resistance to nine Xoo strains from the Philippines, representative of eight global races. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with differential resistance were identified in the diverse panel and a subset of 198 indica accessions. Strong associations were found for novel SNPs linked with known bacterial blight resistance Xa genes, from which high utility markers for tracking and selection of resistance genes in breeding programs were designed. Furthermore, significant associations of SNPs in chromosomes 6, 9, 11, and 12 did not overlap with known resistance loci and hence might prove to be novel sources of resistance. Detailed analysis revealed haplotypes that correlated with resistance and analysis of putative resistance alleles identified resistant genotypes as potential donors of new resistance genes. The results of the GWAS validated known genes underlying resistance and identified novel loci that provide useful targets for further investigation. SNP markers and genetic donors identified in this study will help plant breeders in

  9. Wide distribution of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in burns patients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshadzadeh, Zahra; Hashemi, Farhad B; Rahimi, Sara; Pourakbari, Babak; Esmaeili, Davoud; Haghighi, Mohammad A; Majidpour, Ali; Shojaa, Saeed; Rahmani, Maryam; Gharesi, Samira; Aziemzadeh, Masoud; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in carbapenem non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii (CNSAb) is a major public health concern globally. This study determined the antibiotic resistance and molecular epidemiology of CNSAb isolates from a referral burn center in Tehran, Iran. Sixty-nine CNSAb isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the E test methodology. Multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiplex PCR were performed. PCR assays tested for ambler classes A, B, and D β-lactamases. Detection of ISAba1, characterization of integrons, and biofilm formation were investigated. Fifty-three (77%) isolates revealed XDR phenotypes. High prevalence of bla OXA-23-like (88%) and bla PER-1 (54%) were detected. ISAba1 was detected upstream of bla ADC, bla OXA-23-like and bla OXA51-like genes in, 97, 42, and 26% of isolates, respectively. Thirty-one (45%) isolates were assigned to international clone (IC) variants. MLVA identified 56 distinct types with six clusters and 53 singleton genotypes. Forty previously known MLST sequence types forming 5 clonal complexes were identified. The Class 1 integron (class 1 integrons) gene was identified in 84% of the isolates. The most prevalent (33%) cassette combination was aacA4-catB8-aadA1. The IC variants were predominant in the A. baumannii lineage with the ability to form strong biofilms. The XDR-CNSAb from burned patients in Iran is resistant to various antimicrobials, including tigecycline. This study shows wide genetic diversity in CNSAb. Integrating the new Iranian A. baumannii IC variants into the epidemiologic clonal and susceptibility profile databases can help effective global control measures against the XDR-CNSAb pandemic.

  10. Mapping quantitative trait loci conferring resistance to a widely virulent isolate of Cochliobolus sativus in wild barley accession PI 466423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Matthew; Menke, Jon; Chao, Shiaoman; Steffenson, Brian J

    2016-10-01

    This research characterized the genetics of resistance of wild barley accession PI 466423 to a widely virulent pathotype of Cochliobolus sativus . Breeding lines were identified that combine the Midwest Six-rowed Durable Resistance Haplotype and resistance to the virulent isolate ND4008. Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is a historically important foliar disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the Upper Midwest region of the USA. However, for the last 50 years this disease has been of little consequence due to the deployment of resistant six-rowed malting cultivars. These durably resistant cultivars carry the Midwest Six-rowed Durable Resistant Haplotype (MSDRH) comprised of three Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) on chromosomes 1H, 3H and 7H, originally contributed by breeding line NDB112. Recent reports of C. sativus isolates (e.g. ND4008) with virulence on NDB112 indicate that widely grown cultivars of the region are vulnerable to spot blotch epidemics. Wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum), the progenitor of cultivated barley, is a rich source of novel alleles, especially for disease resistance. Wild barley accession PI 466423 is highly resistant to C. sativus isolate ND4008. To determine the genetic architecture of resistance to isolate ND4008 in PI 466423, we phenotyped and genotyped an advanced backcross population (N = 244) derived from the wild accession and the recurrent parent 'Rasmusson', a Minnesota cultivar with the MSDRH. Disease phenotyping was done on BC2F4 seedlings in the greenhouse using isolate ND4008. The Rasmusson/PI 466423 population was genotyped with 7842 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. QTL analysis using composite interval mapping revealed four resistance loci on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H and 5H explaining 10.3, 7.4, 6.4 and 8.4 % of the variance, respectively. Resistance alleles on chromosomes 1H, 4H and 5H were contributed by PI 466423, whereas the one on chromosome 2H was contributed by Rasmusson. All four

  11. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies New Loci for Resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in Canola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Coombes, Neil; Song, Jie; Diffey, Simon; Kilian, Andrzej; Lindbeck, Kurt; Barbulescu, Denise M.; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Salisbury, Phil A.; Marcroft, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Key message “We identified both quantitative and quantitative resistance loci to Leptosphaeria maculans, a fungal pathogen, causing blackleg disease in canola. Several genome-wide significant associations were detected at known and new loci for blackleg resistance. We further validated statistically significant associations in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to L. maculans. One of the novel loci identified for the first time, Rlm12, conveys adult plant resistance in canola.” Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a significant disease which affects the sustainable production of canola (Brassica napus). This study reports a genome-wide association study based on 18,804 polymorphic SNPs to identify loci associated with qualitative and quantitative resistance to L. maculans. Genomic regions delimited with 694 significant SNP markers, that are associated with resistance evaluated using 12 single spore isolates and pathotypes from four canola stubble were identified. Several significant associations were detected at known disease resistance loci including in the vicinity of recently cloned Rlm2/LepR3 genes, and at new loci on chromosomes A01/C01, A02/C02, A03/C03, A05/C05, A06, A08, and A09. In addition, we validated statistically significant associations on A01, A07, and A10 in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to L. maculans. One of the novel loci identified for the first time, Rlm12, conveys adult plant resistance and mapped within 13.2 kb from Arabidopsis R gene of TIR-NBS class. We showed that resistance loci are located in the vicinity of R genes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus on the sequenced genome of B. napus cv. Darmor-bzh. Significantly associated SNP markers provide a valuable tool to enrich germplasm for favorable alleles in order to improve the level of resistance to L. maculans in

  12. genome-wide association and metabolic pathway analysis of corn earworm resistance in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilyn L. Warburton; Erika D. Womack; Juliet D. Tang; Adam Thrash; J. Spencer Smith; Wenwei Xu; Seth C. Murray; W. Paul Williams

    2018-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays mays L.) is a staple crop of economic, industrial, and food security importance. Damage to the growing ears by corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] is a major economic burden and increases secondary fungal infections and mycotoxin levels. To identify biochemical pathways associated with native resistance mechanisms, a genome-wide...

  13. Etching of wide-bandgap chemically resistant semiconductors : An electrochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    The wide-bandgap semiconductors, SiC and GaN, are important for a whole range of (opto)electronic and other applications. Etching of these chemically very resistant materials poses problems in device technology. This thesis describes an electrochemical approach to etching. In addition, the use of

  14. Genome-wide delineation of natural variation for pod shatter resistance in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Raman

    Full Text Available Resistance to pod shattering (shatter resistance is a target trait for global rapeseed (canola, Brassica napus L., improvement programs to minimise grain loss in the mature standing crop, and during windrowing and mechanical harvest. We describe the genetic basis of natural variation for shatter resistance in B. napus and show that several quantitative trait loci (QTL control this trait. To identify loci underlying shatter resistance, we used a novel genotyping-by-sequencing approach DArT-Seq. QTL analysis detected a total of 12 significant QTL on chromosomes A03, A07, A09, C03, C04, C06, and C08; which jointly account for approximately 57% of the genotypic variation in shatter resistance. Through Genome-Wide Association Studies, we show that a large number of loci, including those that are involved in shattering in Arabidopsis, account for variation in shatter resistance in diverse B. napus germplasm. Our results indicate that genetic diversity for shatter resistance genes in B. napus is limited; many of the genes that might control this trait were not included during the natural creation of this species, or were not retained during the domestication and selection process. We speculate that valuable diversity for this trait was lost during the natural creation of B. napus. To improve shatter resistance, breeders will need to target the introduction of useful alleles especially from genotypes of other related species of Brassica, such as those that we have identified.

  15. Genome-wide association mapping of quantitative resistance to sudden death syndrome in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zixiang; Tan, Ruijuan; Yuan, Jiazheng; Bales, Carmille; Du, Wenyan; Zhang, Shichen; Chilvers, Martin I; Schmidt, Cathy; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B; Wang, Dechun

    2014-09-23

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is a serious threat to soybean production that can be managed with host plant resistance. To dissect the genetic architecture of quantitative resistance to the disease in soybean, two independent association panels of elite soybean cultivars, consisting of 392 and 300 unique accessions, respectively, were evaluated for SDS resistance in multiple environments and years. The two association panels were genotyped with 52,041 and 5,361 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. Genome-wide association mapping was carried out using a mixed linear model that accounted for population structure and cryptic relatedness. A total of 20 loci underlying SDS resistance were identified in the two independent studies, including 7 loci localized in previously mapped QTL intervals and 13 novel loci. One strong peak of association on chromosome 18, associated with all disease assessment criteria across the two panels, spanned a physical region of 1.2 Mb around a previously cloned SDS resistance gene (GmRLK18-1) in locus Rfs2. An additional variant independently associated with SDS resistance was also found in this genomic region. Other peaks were within, or close to, sequences annotated as homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in plant disease resistance. The identified loci explained an average of 54.5% of the phenotypic variance measured by different disease assessment criteria. This study identified multiple novel loci and refined the map locations of known loci related to SDS resistance. These insights into the genetic basis of SDS resistance can now be used to further enhance durable resistance to SDS in soybean. Additionally, the associations identified here provide a basis for further efforts to pinpoint causal variants and to clarify how the implicated genes affect SDS resistance in soybean.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Sallam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99 pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt and one isolate (92-MN-90 of the rye stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. secalis, Pgs. Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmad H; Tyagi, Priyanka; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Hulse, Alex; Steffenson, Brian J

    2017-10-05

    Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1 , losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB) and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99) pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum ) for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC) of the wheat stem rust pathogen ( Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici , Pgt ) and one isolate (92-MN-90) of the rye stem rust pathogen ( P. graminis f. sp. secalis , Pgs ). Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley. Copyright © 2017 Sallam et al.

  18. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies New Loci for Resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in Canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Raman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a significant disease which affects the sustainable production of canola. This study reports a genome-wide association study based on 18,804 polymorphic SNPs to identify loci associated with qualitative and quantitative resistance to L. maculans. Genomic regions delimited with 503 significant SNP markers, that are associated with resistance evaluated using 12 single spore isolates and pathotypes from four canola stubble were identified. Several significant associations were detected at known disease resistance loci including in the vicinity of recently cloned Rlm2/LepR3 genes, and at new loci on chromosomes A01/C01, A02/C02, A03/C03, A05/C05, A06, A08, and A09. In addition, we validated statistically significant associations on A01, A07 and A10 in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to L. maculans. One of the novel loci identified for the first time, Rlm12, conveys adult plant resistance and mapped within 13.2 kb from Arabidopsis R gene of TIR-NBS class. We showed that resistance loci are located in the vicinity of R genes of A. thaliana and B. napus on the sequenced genome of B. napus cv. Darmor-bzh. Significantly associated SNP markers provide a valuable tool to enrich germplasm for favorable alleles in order to improve the level of resistance to L. maculans in canola.

  19. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  20. Genome-wide association analysis of oxidative stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison L Weber

    Full Text Available Aerobic organisms are susceptible to damage by reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress resistance is a quantitative trait with population variation attributable to the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal system to study the genetics of variation for resistance to oxidative stress.We used 167 wild-derived inbred lines of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel for a genome-wide association study of acute oxidative stress resistance to two oxidizing agents, paraquat and menadione sodium bisulfite. We found significant genetic variation for both stressors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with variation in oxidative stress resistance were often sex-specific and agent-dependent, with a small subset common for both sexes or treatments. Associated SNPs had moderately large effects, with an inverse relationship between effect size and allele frequency. Linear models with up to 12 SNPs explained 67-79% and 56-66% of the phenotypic variance for resistance to paraquat and menadione sodium bisulfite, respectively. Many genes implicated were novel with no known role in oxidative stress resistance. Bioinformatics analyses revealed a cellular network comprising DNA metabolism and neuronal development, consistent with targets of oxidative stress-inducing agents. We confirmed associations of seven candidate genes associated with natural variation in oxidative stress resistance through mutational analysis.We identified novel candidate genes associated with variation in resistance to oxidative stress that have context-dependent effects. These results form the basis for future translational studies to identify oxidative stress susceptibility/resistance genes that are evolutionary conserved and might play a role in human disease.

  1. Wide distribution of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in burns patients in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farshadzadeh, Zahra; Hashemi, Farhad B.; Rahimi, Sara; Pourakbari, Babak; Esmaeili, Davoud; Haghighi, Mohammad A.; Majidpour, Ali; Shojaa, Saeed; Rahmani, Maryam; Gharesi, Samira; Aziemzadeh, Masoud; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in carbapenem non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii (CNSAb) is a major public health concern globally. This study determined the antibiotic resistance and molecular epidemiology of CNSAb isolates from a referral burn center in Tehran, Iran. Sixty-nine CNSAb isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the E test methodology. Multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiplex PCR were...

  2. Identification of a globally distributed clinical streptomycin-resistance plasmid and other resistance determinants in a coastal bay of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Dang, H

    2011-01-01

    To study streptomycin-resistant bacteria isolated from Jiaozhou Bay and their molecular determinants of resistance. Twenty-seven tetracycline-resistant and 49 chloramphenicol-resistant bacterial isolates from surface seawater of Jiaozhou Bay were selected for investigation. More than 88% of these isolates were resistant to streptomycin. Half of the streptomycin-resistant bacteria harboured the strA-strB gene pair, and six isolates carried Tn5393-like transposons by PCR detection. The p9123-related plasmids containing the sul2-strA-strB gene cluster were characterized in two environmental Escherichia coli isolates. Transposon Tn5393 was first identified on a Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmid, which also carried Tn1721, estP and umu genes responsible for antimicrobial and insecticide resistance. Coresistance to streptomycin and tetracycline or chloramphenicol was found with high frequency. p9123-related plasmid and Tn5393 transposon may contribute to the wide distribution and spread of the strA-strB gene pair in Jiaozhou Bay. The detection of streptomycin-resistance plasmid pQ1-1 from Jiaozhou Bay seawater bacteria and human bacterial pathogens from USA indicates its global dissemination and transmission, across different components of the microbiota on earth. Streptomycin resistance can be recognized as an important bioindicator of environmental quality, owing to its association with anthropogenic pollution and the multidrug-resistant microbiota. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Genome-wide association analysis of ear rot resistance caused by Fusarium verticillioides in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Guilherme; Pamplona, Andrezza Kellen Alves; Von Pinho, Renzo Garcia; Balestre, Marcio

    2017-12-06

    The identification of causal regions associated with resistance to Fusarium verticillioides can be useful to understand resistance mechanisms and further be used in breeding programs. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to identify candidate markers associated with resistance to the ear rot caused by the fungus F. verticillioides. A total of 242 maize inbred lines were genotyped with 23,153 DArT-seq markers. A total of 12 DArTs were associated with ear rot resistance. Some DArTs were localized close to genes with functions directly related to ear rot resistance, such as a gene responsible for the innate immune response that belongs to the class of NBS-LRR receptors. Some markers were also found to be closely associated with genes that synthesize transcription factors (nactf11 and nactf61), genes responsible for the oxidation-reduction process and peroxidase activity. These results are encouraging since some candidate markers can present functional relationship with ear rot resistance in maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. α-amanitin resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: A genome-wide association approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea L Mitchell

    Full Text Available We investigated the mechanisms of mushroom toxin resistance in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP fly lines, using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. While Drosophila melanogaster avoids mushrooms in nature, some lines are surprisingly resistant to α-amanitin-a toxin found solely in mushrooms. This resistance may represent a pre-adaptation, which might enable this species to invade the mushroom niche in the future. Although our previous microarray study had strongly suggested that pesticide-metabolizing detoxification genes confer α-amanitin resistance in a Taiwanese D. melanogaster line Ama-KTT, none of the traditional detoxification genes were among the top candidate genes resulting from the GWAS in the current study. Instead, we identified Megalin, Tequila, and widerborst as candidate genes underlying the α-amanitin resistance phenotype in the North American DGRP lines, all three of which are connected to the Target of Rapamycin (TOR pathway. Both widerborst and Tequila are upstream regulators of TOR, and TOR is a key regulator of autophagy and Megalin-mediated endocytosis. We suggest that endocytosis and autophagy of α-amanitin, followed by lysosomal degradation of the toxin, is one of the mechanisms that confer α-amanitin resistance in the DGRP lines.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Crown Rust Resistance in Oat Elite Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Kathy Esvelt; Yimer, Belayneh A; Babiker, Ebrahiem M; Beattie, Aaron D; Bonman, J Michael; Carson, Martin L; Chong, James; Harrison, Stephen A; Ibrahim, Amir M H; Kolb, Frederic L; McCartney, Curt A; McMullen, Michael; Fetch, Jennifer Mitchell; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Murphy, J Paul; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2017-07-01

    Oat crown rust, caused by f. sp. , is a major constraint to oat ( L.) production in many parts of the world. In this first comprehensive multienvironment genome-wide association map of oat crown rust, we used 2972 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 631 oat lines for association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Seedling reaction to crown rust in these lines was assessed as infection type (IT) with each of 10 crown rust isolates. Adult plant reaction was assessed in the field in a total of 10 location-years as percentage severity (SV) and as infection reaction (IR) in a 0-to-1 scale. Overall, 29 SNPs on 12 linkage groups were predictive of crown rust reaction in at least one experiment at a genome-wide level of statistical significance. The QTL identified here include those in regions previously shown to be linked with seedling resistance genes , , , , , and and also with adult-plant resistance and adaptation-related QTL. In addition, QTL on linkage groups Mrg03, Mrg08, and Mrg23 were identified in regions not previously associated with crown rust resistance. Evaluation of marker genotypes in a set of crown rust differential lines supported as the identity of . The SNPs with rare alleles associated with lower disease scores may be suitable for use in marker-assisted selection of oat lines for crown rust resistance. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of resistant hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    90 mmHg or use of anti- hypertensive drugs. The term “resistance hypertension” refers to uncontrolled BP in spite use of three antihypertensive drugs (inclusive of at least one diuretic) or patients whose blood pressure is controlled with more ...

  7. Environmental Sciences Electrical resistivity soundings to determine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite this contrast, models generated from electrical resistivity soundings are reasonably accurate in their depictions of internal structure of the dump site. The hydrochemical analysis of the surface and groundwater samples collected within the vicinity of the dump site were analysed for physico-chemical parameters.

  8. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Paula; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Reales-Calderon, Jose Antonio; Corona, Fernando; Lira, Felipe; Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Bernardini, Alejandra; Sanchez, Maria Blanca; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given bacterial species present the same chromosomally-encoded efflux pumps. Altogether this indicates that multidrug efflux pumps are ancient elements encoded in bacterial genomes long before the recent use of antibiotics for human and animal therapy. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that efflux pumps can extrude a wide range of substrates that include, besides antibiotics, heavy metals, organic pollutants, plant-produced compounds, quorum sensing signals or bacterial metabolites, among others. In the current review, we present information on the different functions that multidrug efflux pumps may have for the bacterial behaviour in different habitats as well as on their regulation by specific signals. Since, in addition to their function in non-clinical ecosystems, multidrug efflux pumps contribute to intrinsic, acquired, and phenotypic resistance of bacterial pathogens, the review also presents information on the search for inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, which are currently under development, in the aim of increasing the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics. PMID:27681908

  9. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Paula; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Reales-Calderon, Jose Antonio; Corona, Fernando; Lira, Felipe; Alcalde-Rico, Manuel; Bernardini, Alejandra; Sanchez, Maria Blanca; Martinez, Jose Luis

    2016-02-16

    Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are antibiotic resistance determinants present in all microorganisms. With few exceptions, they are chromosomally encoded and present a conserved organization both at the genetic and at the protein levels. In addition, most, if not all, strains of a given bacterial species present the same chromosomally-encoded efflux pumps. Altogether this indicates that multidrug efflux pumps are ancient elements encoded in bacterial genomes long before the recent use of antibiotics for human and animal therapy. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that efflux pumps can extrude a wide range of substrates that include, besides antibiotics, heavy metals, organic pollutants, plant-produced compounds, quorum sensing signals or bacterial metabolites, among others. In the current review, we present information on the different functions that multidrug efflux pumps may have for the bacterial behaviour in different habitats as well as on their regulation by specific signals. Since, in addition to their function in non-clinical ecosystems, multidrug efflux pumps contribute to intrinsic, acquired, and phenotypic resistance of bacterial pathogens, the review also presents information on the search for inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps, which are currently under development, in the aim of increasing the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics.

  10. Genome-wide association study on stem rust resistance in Kazakh spring barley lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuspekov, Yerlan; Ormanbekova, Danara; Rsaliev, Aralbek; Abugalieva, Saule

    2016-01-27

    Stem rust (SR) is one of the most economically devastating barley diseases in Kazakhstan, and in some years it causes up to 50 % of yield losses. Routine conventional breeding for resistance to stem rust is almost always in progress in all Kazakhstan breeding stations. However, molecular marker based approach towards new SR resistance genes identification and relevant marker-assisted selection had never been employed in Kazakhstan yet. In this study, as a preliminary step the GWAS (genome-wide association study) mapping was applied in attempt to identify reliable SNP markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to SR. Barley collection of 92 commercial cultivars and promising lines was genotyped using a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (9,000 SNP) Illumina iSelect array. 6,970 SNPs out of 9,000 total were polymorphic and scorable. 5,050 SNPs out of 6,970 passed filtering threshold and were used for association mapping (AM). All 92 accessions were phenotyped for resistance to SR by observing adult plants in artificially infected plots at the Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems in Dzhambul region of Kazakhstan. GLM analysis allowed the identification of 15 SNPs associated with the resistance at the heading time (HA) phase, and 2 SNPs at the seed's milky-waxy maturity (SM) phase. However, after application of 5 % Bonferroni multiple test correction, only 2 SNPs at the HA stage on the same position of chromosome 6H can be claimed as reliable markers for SR resistance. The MLM analysis after the Bonferroni correction did not reveal any associations in this study, although distribution lines in the quantile-quantile (QQ) plot indicates that overcorrection in the test due to both Q and K matrices usage. Obtained data suggest that genome wide genotyping of 92 spring barley accessions from Kazakhstan with 9 K Illumina SNP array was highly efficient. Linkage disequilibrium based mapping approach allowed the

  11. Genome-wide Association Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in U.S. Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major fungal disease of wheat worldwide. It can cause considerable yield losses when epidemics occur. Use of genetic resistance is the most effective approach to control the disease. To determine the genomic regions responsi...

  12. Wide dissemination of SCCfusC in fusidic acid resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and implication for its spreading to methicillin-resistant S. aureus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Tzu; Hung, Wei-Chun; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Leong, Kin Hong; Chen, Hsiao-Jan; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2018-01-30

    We examined the fusidic acid resistance determinants fusB, fusC, fusD, and fusF in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) clinical isolates. Among 208 resistant isolates, the fusB gene was the most common determinant in each species except in S. hominis subsp. hominis or in species carrying fusD or fusF. In S. hominis subsp. hominis, the fusC gene was the major determinant responsible for fusidic acid resistance. To understand the genetic context of fusC in S. hominis subsp. hominis, 31 fusC-positive S. hominis subsp. hominis isolates were examined. Among those isolates, 14 carried SCCfusC, 3 carried an SCC 476 -like element, and 8 carried a new SCC structure, SCC 3390 . As shown by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analyses, the S. hominis subsp. hominis clinical isolates showed limited clonality. Taken together, SCCfusC has been found in S. hominis subsp. hominis, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. capitis subsp. ureolyticus and S. aureus, suggesting its wide distribution and spreading among different species of staphylococci. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Genome-wide association study of stem rust resistance in a world collection of cultivated barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Austin J; Bhavani, Sridhar; Macharia, Godwin; Steffenson, Brian J

    2018-01-01

    QTL conferring a 14-40% reduction in adult plant stem rust severity to multiple races of Pgt were found on chromosome 5H and will be useful in barley breeding. Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) is an important disease of barley. The resistance gene Rpg1 has protected the crop against stem rust losses for over 70 years in North America, but is not effective against the African Pgt race TTKSK (and its variants) nor the domestic race QCCJB. To identify resistance to these Rpg1-virulent races, the Barley iCore Collection, held by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service National Small Grains Collection was evaluated for adult plant resistance (APR) and seedling resistance to race TTKSK and APR to race QCCJB and the Pgt TTKSK composite of races TTKSK, TTKST, TTKTK, and TTKTT. Using a genome-wide association study approach based on 6224 single nucleotide polymorphic markers, seven significant loci for stem rust resistance were identified on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, and 5H. The most significant markers detected were 11_11355 and SCRI_RS_177017 at 71-75 cM on chromosome 5H, conferring APR to QCCJB and TTKSK composite. Significant markers were also detected for TTKSK seedling resistance on chromosome 5H. All markers detected on 5H were independent of the rpg4/Rpg5 complex at 152-168 cM. This study verified the importance of the 11_11355 locus in conferring APR to races QCCJB and TTKSK and suggests that it may be effective against other races in the Ug99 lineage.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Loci for SC7 Resistance in a Soybean Mutant Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Che, Zhijun; Liu, Hailun; Yi, Fanglei; Cheng, Hao; Yang, Yuming; Wang, Li; Du, Jingyi; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Jiao; Yu, Deyue

    2017-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of Potyvirus genus that causes severe yield loss and destroys seed quality in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. It is important to explore new resistance sources and discover new resistance loci to SMV, which will provide insights to improve breeding strategies for SMV resistance. Here, a genome-wide association study was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of resistance to SMV in soybean. A population of 165 soybean mutants de...

  15. Metagenomic and network analysis reveal wide distribution and co-occurrence of environmental antibiotic resistance genes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bing; Yang, Ying; Ma, Liping; Ju, Feng; Guo, Feng; Tiedje, James M; Zhang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    A metagenomic approach and network analysis was used to investigate the wide-spectrum profiles of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their co-occurrence patterns in 50 samples from 10 typical environments. In total, 260 ARG subtypes belonging to 18 ARG types were detected with an abundance range of 5.4 × 10−6–2.2 × 10−1 copy of ARG per copy of 16S-rRNA gene. The trend of the total ARG abundances in environments matched well with the levels of anthropogenic impacts on these environments. F...

  16. Etching of wide-bandgap chemically resistant semiconductors : An electrochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    van Dorp, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    The wide-bandgap semiconductors, SiC and GaN, are important for a whole range of (opto)electronic and other applications. Etching of these chemically very resistant materials poses problems in device technology. This thesis describes an electrochemical approach to etching. In addition, the use of p-type SiC as a photocathode for water splitting is described. For the (photo)electrochemical dissolution of SiC two etching systems are considered: acidic fluoride and alkaline solutions. The anodic...

  17. Determination of anthelmintic resistance in goats and sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nematode parasites are known to pose a challenge to small ruminant production in Tanzania due to their fast development of resistance to the commonly used anthelmintics. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of anthelmintics in small ruminants. A total of 30 sheep and 30 goats aged between 6 and ...

  18. Detection of mutations in quinolone-resistant determining regions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic in clinical practice was introduced about two decades ago, quinolone-resistant E. coli strains are being isolated with increasing frequency. This study devotes to determine the resistance rate of fluoroquinolones for 112 Escherichia coli isolates from Prince Salman Hospital, Riyadh ...

  19. ESBL determination and antibacterial drug resistance pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESBL determination and antibacterial drug resistance pattern of Klebsiella Pneumoniae amongst patients at PIMS Islamabad. Jafar Khan, Noor Naz, Naser M AbdEl-Salam, Nayab Nayab, Anum Tabassum, H Hussain, Riaz Ullah ...

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance gene determinants in clinical Escherichia coli from different animal species in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Roland; Kuhnert, Peter; Boerlin, Patrick

    2003-01-02

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a total of 581 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea and edema disease in pigs, from acute mastitis in dairy cattle, from urinary tract infections in dogs and cats, and from septicemia in laying hens collected in Switzerland between 1999 and 2001. Among the 16 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance was most frequent for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin. Isolates from swine presented significantly more resistance than those from the other animal species. The distribution of the resistance determinants for sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin was assessed by hybridization and PCR in resistant isolates. Significant differences in the distribution of resistance determinants for tetracycline (tetA, tetB) and sulfonamides (sulII) were observed between the isolates from swine and those from the other species. Resistance to sulfonamides could not be explained by known resistance mechanisms in more than a quarter of the sulfonamide-resistant and sulfonamide-intermediate isolates from swine, dogs and cats. This finding suggests that one or several new resistance mechanisms for sulfonamides may be widespread among E. coli isolates from these animal species. The integrase gene (intI) from class I integrons was detected in a large proportion of resistant isolates in association with the sulI and aadA genes, thus demonstrating the importance of integrons in the epidemiology of resistance in clinical E. coli isolates from animals.

  1. Metagenomic and network analysis reveal wide distribution and co-occurrence of environmental antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Yang, Ying; Ma, Liping; Ju, Feng; Guo, Feng; Tiedje, James M; Zhang, Tong

    2015-11-01

    A metagenomic approach and network analysis was used to investigate the wide-spectrum profiles of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their co-occurrence patterns in 50 samples from 10 typical environments. In total, 260 ARG subtypes belonging to 18 ARG types were detected with an abundance range of 5.4 × 10(-6)-2.2 × 10(-1) copy of ARG per copy of 16S-rRNA gene. The trend of the total ARG abundances in environments matched well with the levels of anthropogenic impacts on these environments. From the less impacted environments to the seriously impacted environments, the total ARG abundances increased up to three orders of magnitude, that is, from 3.2 × 10(-3) to 3.1 × 10(0) copy of ARG per copy of 16S-rRNA gene. The abundant ARGs were associated with aminoglycoside, bacitracin, β-lactam, chloramphenicol, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, quinolone, sulphonamide and tetracycline, in agreement with the antibiotics extensively used in human medicine or veterinary medicine/promoters. The widespread occurrences and abundance variation trend of vancomycin resistance genes in different environments might imply the spread of vancomycin resistance genes because of the selective pressure resulting from vancomycin use. The simultaneous enrichment of 12 ARG types in adult chicken faeces suggests the coselection of multiple ARGs in this production system. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that samples belonging to the same environment generally possessed similar ARG compositions. Based on the co-occurrence pattern revealed by network analysis, tetM and aminoglycoside resistance protein, the hubs of the ARG network, are proposed to be indicators to quantitatively estimate the abundance of 23 other co-occurring ARG subtypes by power functions.

  2. Plasmid-determined heavy metal resistances in Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, A.; Schottel, J.; Silver, S.

    1976-01-01

    Plasmid PI258 of S. aureus has separate genes determining resistance to cadmium and to mercury and the organomercurial phenylmercury acetate. Mercury(ial) resistance is due to the inducible synthesis of a mercury volatilization system. Hg/sup 2 +/ and mercury in phenylmercury acetate is enzymatically reduced to Hg/sup 0/, which is insoluble in water and highly volatile. PI258 differs from most enteric or pseudomonad plasmids which have been studied which determine resistance only to inorganic Hg/sup 2 +/. Cadmium resistance has been found only with staph plasmids. Cadmium resistance is constitutive and is associated with a lower accumulation of cadmium by the plasmid-bearing resistant cells. Cadmium accumulation by sensitive cells is energy-dependent and has those characteristics usually associated with a transmembrane active transport system. There is a specific interrelationship between cadmium accumulation and manganese accumulation and retention. Cd/sup 2 +/ competitively inhibits the uptake of Mn/sup 2 +/ and accelerates the loss of intracellular Mn/sup 2 +/ by the sensitive but has no effect on the resistant S. aureus. Under similar conditions there is no differential effect of Cd/sup 2 +/ on Mg/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/ or Rb/sup +/ accumulation or exchange between the sensitive and the resistant strains.

  3. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ryan G; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G; McMullen, Lynn M

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli.

  4. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eMercer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR. This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli.

  5. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Ryan G.; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli. PMID:26441869

  6. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manning, Alisa K; Hivert, Marie-France; Scott, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and β-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathw...

  7. Determination of the Resistance of Cone-Shaped Solid Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Koch, Søren

    2017-01-01

    during processing can be avoided. Newman's formula for current constriction in the electrolyte is then used to deduce the active contact area based on the ohmic resistance of the cell, and from this the surface specific electro-catalytic activity. However, for electrode materials with low electrical...... conductivity (like Ce1-xPrxO2-δ), the resistance of the cell is significantly influenced by the ohmic resistance of the cone electrode, wherefore it must be included. In this work the ohmic resistance of a cone is modelled analytically based on simplified geometries. The two analytical models only differ...... by a model specific pre-factor, which is consequently determined by a finite element model. The model was applied to measurements on cones of Ce1-xPrxO2-δ  characterized on an YSZ electrolyte. Conclusively, the finite element model was used to obtain a formula for the resistance for different cone angles...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance determinants among anaerobic bacteria isolated from footrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, María; García, Nuria; Ayala, Juan Alfonso; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Quesada, Alberto

    2012-05-25

    Antibiotic resistance has been evaluated among 36 Gram negative and anaerobic bacilli (10 Bacteroides, 11 Prevotella, 7 Porphyromonas and 8 Fusobacterium strains) isolated from clinical cases of caprine and ovine footrot (necrotic pododermatitis). The initial analysis on this bacterial consortium evaluates the relationships existing among antimicrobial resistance determinants, phenotype expression and mobilization potential. The Bacteroides strains were generally resistant to penicillins, first-generation cephalosporins, tetracycline and erythromycin, and expressed low level of β-lactamase activity. The main determinants found among the Bacteroides strains were cepA and tetQ genes, conferring resistance to β-lactams and tetracycline, respectively. A general susceptibility to β-lactams was shown for most Prevotella, Porphyromonas and Fusobacterium strains, where none of the β-lactamase genes described in Bacteroides was detected. Resistance to tetracycline and/or erythromycin was found among the three bacterial groups. Although tetQ genes were detected for several Prevotella and Porphyromonas strains, a unique ermF positive was revealed among Prevotella strains. The expression of resistance markers was not related with the polymorphism of their coding sequences. However, the finding of sequence signatures for conjugative transposons in the vicinities of tetQ and ermF suggests a mobilization potential that might have contributed to the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A low-noise wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with low and high temperatures resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Koichi; Adachi, Satoru; Tejada, Jose; Oshikubo, Hiromichi; Akahane, Nana; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2008-02-01

    A temperature-resistant 1/3 inch SVGA (800×600 pixels) 5.6 μm pixel pitch wide-dynamic-range (WDR) CMOS image sensor has been developed using a lateral-over-flow-integration-capacitor (LOFIC) in a pixel. The sensor chips are fabricated through 0.18 μm 2P3M process with totally optimized front-end-of-line (FEOL) & back-end-of-line (BEOL) for a lower dark current. By implementing a low electrical field potential design for photodiodes, reducing damages, recovering crystal defects and terminating interface states in the FEOL+BEOL, the dark current is improved to 12 e - /pixel-sec at 60 deg.C with 50% reduction from the previous very-low-dark-current (VLDC) FEOL and its contribution to the temporal noise is improved. Furthermore, design optimizations of the readout circuits, especially a signal-and noise-hold circuit and a programmable-gain-amplifier (PGA) are also implemented. The measured temporal noise is 2.4 e -rms at 60 fps (:36 MHz operation). The dynamic-range (DR) is extended to 100 dB with 237 ke - full well capacity. In order to secure the temperature-resistance, the sensor chip also receives both an inorganic cap onto micro lens and a metal hermetic seal package assembly. Image samples at low & high temperatures show significant improvement in image qualities.

  10. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Rincon Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High quinolone resistance rates were observed among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria. In the present study, we searched for the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR genes within the 55 oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria collected in a previous survey. The main PMQR determinants were aac(6'-Ib-cr and qnrB, which had prevalence rates of 42.4% and 33.3%, respectively. The aac(6'-Ib-cr gene was more frequently found in CTX-M-15-producing isolates, while qnrB was homogeneously distributed among all CTX-M producers.

  11. Genome-Wide Exome Analysis of Cmv5-Disparate Mouse Strains that Differ in Host Resistance to Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Gillespie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Host resistance to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV varies in different strains of laboratory mice due to differences in expression of determinants that control and clear viral infection. The major histocompatibility complex class I Dk molecule is one such determinant that controls MCMV through the action of natural killer (NK cells. However, the extent of NK cell–mediated Dk-dependent resistance to infection varies in different mouse strains. The molecular genetic basis of this variation remains unclear. Previous work to examine the Dk effect on MCMV resistance in MA/My × C57L offspring discovered multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL that may serve to modify NK cells or their capacity to respond during MCMV infection. One QTL in particular, Cmv5, was found to regulate the frequency of NK cells and secondary lymphoid organ structure in spleen during MCMV infection. Cmv5 alleles, however, have not been identified. We therefore sequenced and analyzed genome-wide exome (GWE variants, including those aligned to the critical genetic interval, in Cmv5-disparate mouse strains. Their GWE variant profiles were compared to assess strain-specific sequence data integrity and to analyze mouse strain relatedness across the genome. GWE content was further compared against data from the Mouse Genomes Project. This approach was developed as a platform for using GWE variants to define genomic regions of divergence and similarity in different mouse strains while also validating the overall quality of GWE sequence data. Moreover, the analysis provides a framework for the selection of novel QTL candidate sequences, including at the Cmv5 critical region.

  12. An ultrathin wide-band planar metamaterial absorber based on a fractal frequency selective surface and resistive film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yue-Nong; Cheng Yong-Zhi; Nie Yan; Wang Xian; Gong Rong-Zhou

    2013-01-01

    We propose an ultrathin wide-band metamaterial absorber (MA) based on a Minkowski (MIK) fractal frequency selective surface and resistive film. This absorber consists of a periodic arrangement of dielectric substrates sandwiched with an MIK fractal loop structure electric resonator and a resistive film. The finite element method is used to simulate and analyze the absorption of the MA. Compared with the MA-backed copper film, the designed MA-backed resistive film exhibits an absorption of 90% at a frequency region of 2 GHz–20 GHz. The power loss density distribution of the MA is further illustrated to explain the mechanism of the proposed MA. Simulated absorptions at different incidence cases indicate that this absorber is polarization-insensitive and wide-angled. Finally, further simulated results indicate that the surface resistance of the resistive film and the dielectric constant of the substrate can affect the absorbing property of the MA. This absorber may be used in many military fields

  13. Distribution and Relationships of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants among Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant or Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Rivers and Sewage Treatment Plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Masato; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Yamashita, Akifumi; Kuroda, Makoto; Fujii, Yuki; Murata, Misato; Lee, Ken-Ichi; Joshua, Derrick Ian; Balakrishna, Keshava; Bairy, Indira; Subramanian, Kaushik; Krishnan, Padma; Munuswamy, Natesan; Sinha, Ravindra K; Iwata, Taketoshi; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Guruge, Keerthi S

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution and relationship of antimicrobial resistance determinants among extended-spectrum-cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant or carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from the aquatic environment in India, water samples were collected from rivers or sewage treatment plants in five Indian states. A total of 446 E. coli isolates were randomly obtained. Resistance to ESC and/or carbapenem was observed in 169 (37.9%) E. coli isolates, which were further analyzed. These isolates showed resistance to numerous antimicrobials; more than half of the isolates exhibited resistance to eight or more antimicrobials. The blaNDM gene was detected in 14/21 carbapenem-resistant E. coli isolates: blaNDM-1 in 2 isolates, blaNDM-5 in 7 isolates, and blaNDM-7 in 5 isolates. The blaCTX-M gene was detected in 112 isolates (66.3%): blaCTX-M-15 in 108 isolates and blaCTX-M-55 in 4 isolates. We extracted 49 plasmids from selected isolates, and their whole-genome sequences were determined. Fifty resistance genes were detected, and 11 different combinations of replicon types were observed among the 49 plasmids. The network analysis results suggested that the plasmids sharing replicon types tended to form a community, which is based on the predicted gene similarity among the plasmids. Four communities each containing from 4 to 17 plasmids were observed. Three of the four communities contained plasmids detected in different Indian states, suggesting that the interstate dissemination of ancestor plasmids has already occurred. Comparison of the DNA sequences of the blaNDM-positive plasmids detected in this study with known sequences of related plasmids suggested that various mutation events facilitated the evolution of the plasmids and that plasmids with similar genetic backgrounds have widely disseminated in India. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Differential epigenetic compatibility of qnr antibiotic resistance determinants with the chromosome of Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B Sánchez

    Full Text Available Environmental bacteria harbor a plethora of genes that, upon their horizontal transfer to new hosts, may confer resistance to antibiotics, although the number of such determinants actually acquired by pathogenic bacteria is very low. The founder effect, fitness costs and ecological connectivity all influence the chances of resistance transfer being successful. We examined the importance of these bottlenecks using the family of quinolone resistance determinants Qnr. The results indicate the epigenetic compatibility of a determinant with the host genome to be of great importance in the acquisition and spread of resistance. A plasmid carrying the widely distributed QnrA determinant was stable in Escherichia coli, whereas the SmQnr determinant was unstable despite both proteins having very similar tertiary structures. This indicates that the fitness costs associated with the acquisition of antibiotic resistance may not derive from a non-specific metabolic burden, but from the acquired gene causing specific changes in bacterial metabolic and regulatory networks. The observed stabilization of the plasmid encoding SmQnr by chromosomal mutations, including a mutant lacking the global regulator H-NS, reinforces this idea. Since quinolones are synthetic antibiotics, and since the origin of QnrA is the environmental bacterium Shewanella algae, the role of QnrA in this organism is unlikely to be that of conferring resistance. Its evolution toward this may have occurred through mutations or because of an environmental change (exaptation. The present results indicate that the chromosomally encoded Qnr determinants of S. algae can confer quinolone resistance upon their transfer to E. coli without the need of any further mutation. These results suggest that exaptation is important in the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

  15. Linking system-wide impacts of RNA polymerase mutations to the fitness cost of rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qin; Preston, Gail M; MacLean, R Craig

    2014-12-09

    Fitness costs play a key role in the evolutionary dynamics of antibiotic resistance in bacteria by generating selection against resistance in the absence of antibiotics. Although the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance is well understood, the precise molecular mechanisms linking the genetic basis of resistance to its fitness cost remain poorly characterized. Here, we examine how the system-wide impacts of mutations in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) gene rpoB shape the fitness cost of rifampin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rifampin resistance mutations reduce transcriptional efficiency, and this explains 76% of the variation in fitness among rpoB mutants. The pleiotropic consequence of rpoB mutations is that mutants show altered relative transcript levels of essential genes. We find no evidence that global transcriptional responses have an impact on the fitness cost of rifampin resistance as revealed by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Global changes in the transcriptional profiles of rpoB mutants compared to the transcriptional profile of the rifampin-sensitive ancestral strain are subtle, demonstrating that the transcriptional regulatory network of P. aeruginosa is robust to the decreased transcriptional efficiency associated with rpoB mutations. On a smaller scale, we find that rifampin resistance mutations increase the expression of RNAP due to decreased termination at an attenuator upstream from rpoB, and we argue that this helps to minimize the cost of rifampin resistance by buffering against reduced RNAP activity. In summary, our study shows that it is possible to dissect the molecular mechanisms underpinning variation in the cost of rifampin resistance and highlights the importance of genome-wide buffering of relative transcript levels in providing robustness against resistance mutations. Antibiotic resistance mutations carry fitness costs. Relative to the characteristics of their antibiotic-sensitive ancestors, resistant mutants show reduced growth

  16. Shotgun metagenomics reveals a wide array of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements in a polluted lake in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan eBengtsson-Palme

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for an environmental origin of many antibiotic resistance genes. Consequently, it is important to identify environments of particular risk for selecting and maintaining such resistance factors. In this study, we described the diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in an Indian lake subjected to industrial pollution with fluoroquinolone antibiotics. We also assessed the genetic context of the identified resistance genes, to try to predict their genetic transferability. The lake harbored a wide range of resistance genes (81 identified gene types against essentially every major class of antibiotics, as well as genes responsible for mobilization of genetic material. Resistance genes were estimated to be 7000 times more abundant than in a Swedish lake included for comparison, where only eight resistance genes were found. The sul2 and qnrD genes were the most common resistance genes in the Indian lake. Twenty-six known and twenty-one putative novel plasmids were recovered in the Indian lake metagenome, which, together with the genes found, indicate a large potential for horizontal gene transfer through conjugation. Interestingly, the microbial community of the lake still included a wide range of taxa, suggesting that, across most phyla, bacteria has adapted relatively well to this highly polluted environment. Based on the wide range and high abundance of known resistance factors we have detected, it is plausible that yet unrecognized resistance genes are also present in the lake. Thus, we conclude that environments polluted with waste from antibiotic manufacturing could be important reservoirs for mobile antibiotic resistance genes.

  17. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  18. An Alternative Hypothesis to the Widely Held View That Renal Excretion of Sodium Accounts for Resistance to Salt-Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.; Pravenec, Michal; Schmidlin, Olga; Tanaka, Masae; Morris, R. Curtis

    2016-01-01

    It is widely held that in response to high salt diets, normal individuals are acutely and chronically resistant to salt-induced hypertension because they rapidly excrete salt and retain little of it so that their blood volume, and therefore blood pressure, does not increase. Conversely, it is also widely held that salt-sensitive individuals develop salt-induced hypertension because of an impaired renal capacity to excrete salt that causes greater salt retention and blood volume expansion than that which occurs in normal salt-resistant individuals. Here we review results of both acute and chronic salt-loading studies that have compared salt-induced changes in sodium retention and blood volume between normal subjects (salt-resistant normotensive controls) and salt-sensitive subjects. The results of properly controlled studies strongly support an alternative view: during acute or chronic increases in salt intake, normal salt-resistant subjects undergo substantial salt retention and do not excrete salt more rapidly, retain less sodium, or undergo lesser blood volume expansion than do salt-sensitive subjects. These observations: 1) directly conflict with the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension, and 2) have implications for contemporary understanding of how various genetic, immunologic, and other factors determine acute and chronic blood pressure responses to high salt diets. PMID:27546606

  19. An alternative hypothesis to the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Theodore W; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Pravenec, Michal; Schmidlin, Olga; Tanaka, Masae; Morris, R Curtis

    2016-11-01

    It is widely held that in response to high salt diets, normal individuals are acutely and chronically resistant to salt-induced hypertension because they rapidly excrete salt and retain little of it so that their blood volume, and therefore blood pressure, does not increase. Conversely, it is also widely held that salt-sensitive individuals develop salt-induced hypertension because of an impaired renal capacity to excrete salt that causes greater salt retention and blood volume expansion than that which occurs in normal salt-resistant individuals. Here we review results of both acute and chronic salt-loading studies that have compared salt-induced changes in sodium retention and blood volume between normal subjects (salt-resistant normotensive control subjects) and salt-sensitive subjects. The results of properly controlled studies strongly support an alternative view: during acute or chronic increases in salt intake, normal salt-resistant subjects undergo substantial salt retention and do not excrete salt more rapidly, retain less sodium, or undergo lesser blood volume expansion than do salt-sensitive subjects. These observations: (i) directly conflict with the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension, and (ii) have implications for contemporary understanding of how various genetic, immunologic, and other factors determine acute and chronic blood pressure responses to high salt diets. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation water resistivity (R w )determination: The SP method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uncontaminated by drilling mud) that saturates the porous formation. It is also referred to as connate water or interstitial water. Its resistivity can be determined by a number of methods, one of which is by the SP curve discussed in this work. Analysis of ...

  1. "Tissue oxygen tension, a determinant of resistance to infection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Tissue oxygen tension, a determinant of resistance to infection and healing" - An Inaugural Lecture. K Jönsson. Abstract. An Inaugural Lecture Given in the University of Zimbabwe on 21 June 2001. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Determination and expression of genes for resistance to blast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination and expression of genes for resistance to blast (Magnaporthe oryza) in Basmati and non-Basmati indica rices (Oryza sativa L.) Naveen Kumar, D Singh, S Gupta, A Sirohi, B Ramesh, Preeti Sirohi, Parul Sirohi, Atar Singh, N Kumar, A Kumar, Rajendra Kumar, R Kumar, J Singh, P. Kumar, P. Chauhan, ...

  3. Genome-wide association mapping of partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean plant introductions from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rhiannon; Rolling, William; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry; Dorrance, Anne E; McHale, Leah K

    2016-08-11

    Phytophthora root and stem rot is one of the most yield-limiting diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr], caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Partial resistance is controlled by several genes and, compared to single gene (Rps gene) resistance to P. sojae, places less selection pressure on P. sojae populations. Thus, partial resistance provides a more durable resistance against the pathogen. In previous work, plant introductions (PIs) originating from the Republic of Korea (S. Korea) have shown to be excellent sources for high levels of partial resistance against P. sojae. Resistance to two highly virulent P. sojae isolates was assessed in 1395 PIs from S. Korea via a greenhouse layer test. Lines exhibiting possible Rps gene immunity or rot due to other pathogens were removed and the remaining 800 lines were used to identify regions of quantitative resistance using genome-wide association mapping. Sixteen SNP markers on chromosomes 3, 13 and 19 were significantly associated with partial resistance to P. sojae and were grouped into seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) by linkage disequilibrium blocks. Two QTL on chromosome 3 and three QTL on chromosome 19 represent possible novel loci for partial resistance to P. sojae. While candidate genes at QTL varied in their predicted functions, the coincidence of QTLs 3-2 and 13-1 on chromosomes 3 and 13, respectively, with Rps genes and resistance gene analogs provided support for the hypothesized mechanism of partial resistance involving weak R-genes. QTL contributing to partial resistance towards P. sojae in soybean germplasm originating from S. Korea were identified. The QTL identified in this study coincide with previously reported QTL, Rps genes, as well as novel loci for partial resistance. Molecular markers associated with these QTL can be used in the marker-assisted introgression of these alleles into elite cultivars. Annotations of genes within QTL allow hypotheses on the possible mechanisms of partial

  4. Genotyping-by-sequencing-based genome-wide association studies on Verticillium wilt resistance in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Tiejun; Rodringuez, Jonas; Main, Dorrie

    2017-02-01

    Verticillium wilt (VW) is a fungal disease that causes severe yield losses in alfalfa. The most effective method to control the disease is through the development and use of resistant varieties. The identification of marker loci linked to VW resistance can facilitate breeding for disease-resistant alfalfa. In the present investigation, we applied an integrated framework of genome-wide association with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to identify VW resistance loci in a panel of elite alfalfa breeding lines. Phenotyping was performed by manual inoculation of the pathogen to healthy seedlings, and scoring for disease resistance was carried out according to the standard test of the North America Alfalfa Improvement Conference (NAAIC). Marker-trait association by linkage disequilibrium identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers significantly associated with VW resistance. Alignment of the SNP marker sequences to the M. truncatula genome revealed multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Three, two, one and five markers were located on chromosomes 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. Resistance loci found on chromosomes 7 and 8 in the present study co-localized with the QTLs reported previously. A pairwise alignment (blastn) using the flanking sequences of the resistance loci against the M. truncatula genome identified potential candidate genes with putative disease resistance function. With further investigation, these markers may be implemented into breeding programmes using marker-assisted selection, ultimately leading to improved VW resistance in alfalfa. PUBLISHED 2016. THIS ARTICLE IS A U.S. GOVERNMENT WORK AND IS IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN IN THE USA.

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Loci for SC7 Resistance in a Soybean Mutant Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Che

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean mosaic virus (SMV is a member of Potyvirus genus that causes severe yield loss and destroys seed quality in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. It is important to explore new resistance sources and discover new resistance loci to SMV, which will provide insights to improve breeding strategies for SMV resistance. Here, a genome-wide association study was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of resistance to SMV in soybean. A population of 165 soybean mutants derived from two soybean parents was used in this study. There were 104 SNPs identified significantly associated with resistance to SC7, some of which were located within previous reported quantitative trait loci. Three putative genes on chromosome 1, 9, and 12 were homologous to WRKY72, eEF1Bβ, and RLP9, which were involved in defense response to insect and disease in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the expression levels of these three genes changed in resistance and susceptible soybean accessions after SMV infection. These three putative genes may involve in the resistance to SC7 and be worthy to further research. Collectively, markers significantly associated with resistance to SC7 will be helpful in molecular marker-assisted selection for breeding resistant soybean accessions to SMV, and the candidate genes identified would advance the functional study of resistance to SMV in soybean.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Loci for SC7 Resistance in a Soybean Mutant Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhijun; Liu, Hailun; Yi, Fanglei; Cheng, Hao; Yang, Yuming; Wang, Li; Du, Jingyi; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Jiao; Yu, Deyue

    2017-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of Potyvirus genus that causes severe yield loss and destroys seed quality in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. It is important to explore new resistance sources and discover new resistance loci to SMV, which will provide insights to improve breeding strategies for SMV resistance. Here, a genome-wide association study was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of resistance to SMV in soybean. A population of 165 soybean mutants derived from two soybean parents was used in this study. There were 104 SNPs identified significantly associated with resistance to SC7, some of which were located within previous reported quantitative trait loci. Three putative genes on chromosome 1, 9, and 12 were homologous to WRKY72, eEF1Bβ, and RLP9, which were involved in defense response to insect and disease in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the expression levels of these three genes changed in resistance and susceptible soybean accessions after SMV infection. These three putative genes may involve in the resistance to SC7 and be worthy to further research. Collectively, markers significantly associated with resistance to SC7 will be helpful in molecular marker-assisted selection for breeding resistant soybean accessions to SMV, and the candidate genes identified would advance the functional study of resistance to SMV in soybean. PMID:29075282

  7. Genome Wide Analysis of Nucleotide-Binding Site Disease Resistance Genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglong Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding site (NBS disease resistance genes play an important role in defending plants from a variety of pathogens and insect pests. Many R-genes have been identified in various plant species. However, little is known about the NBS-encoding genes in Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, using computational analysis of the B. distachyon genome, we identified 126 regular NBS-encoding genes and characterized them on the bases of structural diversity, conserved protein motifs, chromosomal locations, gene duplications, promoter region, and phylogenetic relationships. EST hits and full-length cDNA sequences (from Brachypodium database of 126 R-like candidates supported their existence. Based on the occurrence of conserved protein motifs such as coiled-coil (CC, NBS, leucine-rich repeat (LRR, these regular NBS-LRR genes were classified into four subgroups: CC-NBS-LRR, NBS-LRR, CC-NBS, and X-NBS. Further expression analysis of the regular NBS-encoding genes in Brachypodium database revealed that these genes are expressed in a wide range of libraries, including those constructed from various developmental stages, tissue types, and drought challenged or nonchallenged tissue.

  8. Some aspects of radiation resistance of wide-gap metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushchik, Aleksandr; Feldbach, Eduard; Galajev, Semjon; Kaerner, Tiit; Liblik, Peeter; Lushchik, Cheslav; Maaroos, Aarne; Nagirnyi, Vitali; Vasil'chenko, Evgeni

    2007-01-01

    Wide-gap oxides drastically differ in radiation resistance against nonimpact mechanisms of defect creation depending on the ratio between the values of the energy gap E g and the formation energy of a pair of Frenkel defects (FD) E FD . Materials with E g >E FD are radiation-sensitive even at a low excitation density, while the efficiency of FD creation in the materials with E g FD is noticeable only under a high excitation density or in the presence of impurity centers serving as the promoters of radiation damage due to the nonimpact mechanisms. Novel experimental results on the FD creation in the bulk of MgO single crystals (E g FD ) irradiated by swift uranium ions at 300 K and 5 keV electrons at 6 K are presented. The prospects of luminescent protection against radiation damage as well as of the decrease of the luminescence efficiency due to the suppression of nonradiative recombination of electrons and holes (both relaxed and nonrelaxed) by doping the material with a sufficient amount of luminescent impurity ions are considered on the example of spectral transformers for plasma display panels

  9. MIRAGE WF infrared scene projector system, with 1536 x 768 wide format resistive array, performance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Kevin; Laveigne, Joe; Oleson, Jim; Franks, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Lannon, John; Woode, Brian; Greer, Derek; Bui, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    MIRAGE WF is the latest high definition version of the MIRAGE infrared scene projector product line from Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR). MIRAGE WF is being developed under the Wide Format Resistive Array (WFRA) program. The WFRA development is one of several efforts within the Infrared Sensor Simulator - Preplanned Product Improvement (IRSS P3I) umbrella funded by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) and led by the US Navy at Patuxent River, MD. Three MIRAGE WF infrared scene projection systems are being delivered as part of the WFRA program. The main differences between the MIRAGE XL (1024x1024) and MIRAGE WF are a 1536x768 emitter array and 100Hz true raster capability. The key emitter requirements that have been measured and will be discussed include: Operability, Maximum Apparent Temperature, Rise Time and Array Uniformity. Key System specifications are: 1536x768 pixels, maximum apparent temperature of 600K, maximum frame rate of 100Hz, raster and snap shot updating, radiance rise and fall time less than 5 ms and windowed mode (1024x768) operation at up to 200 Hz.

  10. Pacific-wide contrast highlights resistance of reef calcifiers to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, S; Carpenter, R C; Nojiri, Y; Putnam, H M; Sakai, K; Edmunds, P J

    2014-09-07

    Ocean acidification (OA) and its associated decline in calcium carbonate saturation states is one of the major threats that tropical coral reefs face this century. Previous studies of the effect of OA on coral reef calcifiers have described a wide variety of outcomes for studies using comparable partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) ranges, suggesting that key questions remain unresolved. One unresolved hypothesis posits that heterogeneity in the response of reef calcifiers to high pCO2 is a result of regional-scale variation in the responses to OA. To test this hypothesis, we incubated two coral taxa (Pocillopora damicornis and massive Porites) and two calcified algae (Porolithon onkodes and Halimeda macroloba) under 400, 700 and 1000 μatm pCO2 levels in experiments in Moorea (French Polynesia), Hawaii (USA) and Okinawa (Japan), where environmental conditions differ. Both corals and H. macroloba were insensitive to OA at all three locations, while the effects of OA on P. onkodes were location-specific. In Moorea and Hawaii, calcification of P. onkodes was depressed by high pCO2, but for specimens in Okinawa, there was no effect of OA. Using a study of large geographical scale, we show that resistance to OA of some reef species is a constitutive character expressed across the Pacific. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide association study of pre-harvest sprouting resistance in Chinese wheat founder parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS is a major abiotic factor affecting grain weight and quality, and is caused by an early break in seed dormancy. Association mapping (AM is used to detect correlations between phenotypes and genotypes based on linkage disequilibrium (LD in wheat breeding programs. We evaluated seed dormancy in 80 Chinese wheat founder parents in five environments and performed a genome-wide association study using 6,057 markers, including 93 simple sequence repeat (SSR, 1,472 diversity array technology (DArT, and 4,492 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. The general linear model (GLM and the mixed linear model (MLM were used in this study, and two significant markers (tPt-7980 and wPt-6457 were identified. Both markers were located on Chromosome 1B, with wPt-6457 having been identified in a previously reported chromosomal position. The significantly associated loci contain essential information for cloning genes related to resistance to PHS and can be used in wheat breeding programs.

  12. Genome wide single cell analysis of chemotherapy resistant metastatic cells in a case of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjortland, Geir Olav; Fodstad, Oystein; Smeland, Sigbjorn; Hovig, Eivind; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Beiske, Klaus; Ree, Anne H; Tveito, Siri; Hoifodt, Hanne; Bohler, Per J; Hole, Knut H; Myklebost, Ola

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic progression due to development or enrichment of therapy-resistant tumor cells is eventually lethal. Molecular characterization of such chemotherapy resistant tumor cell clones may identify markers responsible for malignant progression and potential targets for new treatment. Here, in a case of stage IV adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, we report the successful genome wide analysis using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of DNA from only fourteen tumor cells using a bead-based single cell selection method from a bone metastasis progressing during chemotherapy. In a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, the progression of bone metastasis was observed during a chemotherapy regimen of epirubicin, oxaliplatin and capecitabine, whereas lung-, liver and lymph node metastases as well as the primary tumor were regressing. A bone marrow aspirate sampled at the site of progressing metastasis in the right iliac bone was performed, and single cell molecular analysis using array-CGH of Epithelial Specific Antigen (ESA)-positive metastatic cells, and revealed two distinct regions of amplification, 12p12.1 and 17q12-q21.2 amplicons, containing the KRAS (12p) and ERBB2 (HER2/NEU) (17q) oncogenes. Further intrapatient tumor heterogeneity of these highlighted gene copy number changes was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in all available primary and metastatic tumor biopsies, and ErbB2 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. ERBB2 was heterogeneously amplified by FISH analysis in the primary tumor, as well as liver and bone metastasis, but homogenously amplified in biopsy specimens from a progressing bone metastasis after three initial cycles of chemotherapy, indicating a possible enrichment of erbB2 positive tumor cells in the progressing bone marrow metastasis during chemotherapy. A similar amplification profile was detected for wild-type KRAS, although more heterogeneously

  13. Method of separate determination of high-ohmic sample resistance and contact resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A. Golubiatnikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A method of separate determination of two-pole sample volume resistance and contact resistance is suggested. The method is applicable to high-ohmic semiconductor samples: semi-insulating gallium arsenide, detector cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT, etc. The method is based on near-contact region illumination by monochromatic radiation of variable intensity from light emitting diodes with quantum energies exceeding the band gap of the material. It is necessary to obtain sample photo-current dependence upon light emitting diode current and to find the linear portion of this dependence. Extrapolation of this linear portion to the Y-axis gives the cut-off current. As the bias voltage is known, it is easy to calculate sample volume resistance. Then, using dark current value, one can determine the total contact resistance. The method was tested for n-type semi-insulating GaAs. The contact resistance value was shown to be approximately equal to the sample volume resistance. Thus, the influence of contacts must be taken into account when electrophysical data are analyzed.

  14. Determination of hydraulic resistance of rough annular channels by resistance of rough pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    According to the current calculation recommendations for turbulent flow, coefficient of hydraulic resistance of a smooth annular channel with an equivalent hydraulic diameter dh is assumed to be equal to the coefficient of hydraulic resistance of a pipe with a diameter dh multiplied by a conversion factor. The value of this conversion factor, depending on the Reynolds number and the ratio of the inner diameter of the annular channel to the outer diameter, varies from 1 to 1.07. That is, a smooth annular channel and a smooth pipe with the same hydraulic diameters have practically the same hydraulic resistance coefficients. In this paper, experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of such an approach to channels with rough walls. According to measurements of water flow and pressure gradient, the coefficients of hydraulic resistance of a rough annular channel and a pipe with hydraulic diameters dh = 6 mm were calculated and compared. A trapezoidal artificial roughness was applied to the surfaces, which are flowing with a liquid. The experiments were carried out on a water circuit in the Reynolds number range from 103 to 105 in the regime of full roughness. The obtained experimental results were compared with calculations of coefficients of hydraulic resistance of pipes with artificial roughness according to the existing recommendations. Conclusions are drawn on the possibility of determining the hydraulic resistance of rough annular channels through the resistance of rough pipes.

  15. A Second Tylosin Resistance Determinant, Erm B, in Arcanobacterium pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, B. Helen; Trinh, Hien T.; Songer, J. Glenn; Billington, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes, a common inhabitant of the mucosal surfaces of livestock, is also a pathogen associated with a variety of infections. In livestock, A. pyogenes is exposed to antimicrobial agents used for prophylaxis and therapy, notably tylosin, a macrolide used extensively for the prevention of liver abscessation in feedlot cattle in the United States. Many, but not all, tylosin-resistant A. pyogenes isolates carry erm(X), suggesting the presence of other determinants of tylosin resistance. Oligonucleotide primers designed for conserved regions of erm(B), erm(C), and erm(T) were used to amplify a 404-bp fragment from a tylosin-resistant A. pyogenes isolate, OX-7. DNA sequencing revealed that the PCR product was 100% identical to erm(B) genes, and the erm(B) gene region was cloned in Escherichia coli. The A. pyogenes Erm B determinant had the most DNA identity with an Erm B determinant carried by the Clostridium perfringens plasmid pIP402. However, the A. pyogenes determinant lacked direct repeat DR1 and contained a deletion in DR2. Flanking the A. pyogenes erm(B) gene were partial and entire genes similar to those found on the Enterococcus faecalis multiresistance plasmid pRE25. This novel architecture suggests that the erm(B) element may have arisen by recombination of two distinct genetic elements. Ten of 32 tylosin-resistant isolates carried erm(B), as determined by DNA hybridization, and all 10 isolates carried a similar element. Insertion of the element was site specific, as PCR and Southern blotting analysis revealed that the erm(B) element was inserted into orfY, a gene of unknown function. However, in three strains, this insertion resulted in a partial duplication of orfY. PMID:14982756

  16. satG, Conferring Resistance to Streptogramin A, Is Widely Distributed in Enterococcus faecium Strains but Not in Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroche, Julien; Allignet, Jeanine; Aubert, Sylvie; Van Den Bogaard, Anthony E.; El Solh, Névine

    2000-01-01

    A gene almost identical to satG was isolated from an Enterococcus faecium strain. This gene was transferred to a Staphylococcus aureus recipient strain where it conferred resistance to streptogramin A. satG was found to be widely distributed among E. faecium strains but not detected among staphylococci. PMID:10602747

  17. Characterization of Disease Resistance Loci in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection Using Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao-Xun; Lipka, Alexander E; Domier, Leslie L; Hartman, Glen L

    2016-10-01

    Genetic resistance is a key strategy for disease management in soybean. Over the last 50 years, soybean germplasm has been phenotyped for resistance to many pathogens, resulting in the development of disease-resistant elite breeding lines and commercial cultivars. While biparental linkage mapping has been used to identify disease resistance loci, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using high-density and high-quality markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has become a powerful tool to associate molecular markers and phenotypes. The objective of our study was to provide a comprehensive understanding of disease resistance in the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Soybean Germplasm Collection by using phenotypic data in the public Germplasm Resources Information Network and public SNP data (SoySNP50K). We identified SNPs significantly associated with disease ratings from one bacterial disease, five fungal diseases, two diseases caused by nematodes, and three viral diseases. We show that leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinases and nucleotide-binding site-LRR candidate resistance genes were enriched within the linkage disequilibrium regions of the significant SNPs. We review and present a global view of soybean resistance loci against multiple diseases and discuss the power and the challenges of using GWAS to discover disease resistance in soybean.

  18. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction of resistance to maize lethal necrosis disease in tropical maize germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Manje; Das, Biswanath; Makumbi, Dan; Babu, Raman; Semagn, Kassa; Mahuku, George; Olsen, Michael S; Bright, Jumbo M; Beyene, Yoseph; Prasanna, Boddupalli M

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association analysis in tropical and subtropical maize germplasm revealed that MLND resistance is influenced by multiple genomic regions with small to medium effects. The maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) caused by synergistic interaction of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus, and has emerged as a serious threat to maize production in eastern Africa since 2011. Our objective was to gain insights into the genetic architecture underlying the resistance to MLND by genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic selection. We used two association mapping (AM) panels comprising a total of 615 diverse tropical/subtropical maize inbred lines. All the lines were evaluated against MLND under artificial inoculation. Both the panels were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing. Phenotypic variation for MLND resistance was significant and heritability was moderately high in both the panels. Few promising lines with high resistance to MLND were identified to be used as potential donors. GWAS revealed 24 SNPs that were significantly associated (P < 3 × 10(-5)) with MLND resistance. These SNPs are located within or adjacent to 20 putative candidate genes that are associated with plant disease resistance. Ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction with five-fold cross-validation revealed higher prediction accuracy for IMAS-AM panel (0.56) over DTMA-AM (0.36) panel. The prediction accuracy for both within and across panels is promising; inclusion of MLND resistance associated SNPs into the prediction model further improved the accuracy. Overall, the study revealed that resistance to MLND is controlled by multiple loci with small to medium effects and the SNPs identified by GWAS can be used as potential candidates in MLND resistance breeding program.

  19. Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Lebanese Patients: Phenotypes and Genotypes of Resistance, Clonality, and Determinants of Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Elias; Hajjar, Micheline; Suarez, Monica; Daoud, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that usually affects critically ill patients. High mortality rates have been associated with MDR A. baumannii infections. Carbapenem resistance among these isolates is increasing worldwide and is associated with certain International Clones (ICs) and oxacillinases (OXAs). Moreover, this organism possesses a wide range of virulence factors, whose expression is not yet fully understood. In this study, clinical A. baumannii isolates are characterized in terms of antibiotic resistance, mechanisms of carbapenem resistance, clonality, and virulence. Materials and Methods: A. baumannii clinical isolates ( n = 90) where obtained from a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. API 20NE strips in addition to the amplification of bla OXA-51-like were used for identification. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by disk diffusion was then performed in addition to PCRs for the detection of the most commonly disseminated carbapenemases. Clonality was determined by tri-locus PCR typing and doubling times were determined for isolates with varying susceptibility profiles. Biofilm formation, hemolysis, siderophore production, proteolytic activity, and surface motility was then determined for all the isolates. Statistical analysis was then performed for the determination of associations. Results and Discussion: 81 (90%) of the isolates were resistant to carbapenems. These high rates are similar to other multi-center studies in the country suggesting the need of intervention on a national level. 74 (91.3%) of the carbapenem resistant isolates harbored bla OXA-23-like including two that also harbored bla OXA-24-like . 88.9% of the A. baumannii isolates pertained to ICII and three other international clones were detected, showing the wide dissemination of clones into geographically distinct locations. Virulence profiles were highly diverse and no specific pattern was observed. Nevertheless, an association between motility

  20. DETERMINING THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF A VENTILATED HINGED FACADE SYSTEM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagarin Vladimir Gennad'evich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enveloping structures with hinged façade systems are nowadays widely used for moisture control of enveloping structures, prevention of overheating of the structures by insolation, saving the constructions from atmospheric moisture and also for correspondence with the raised requirements to thermal protection of the enveloping structures, aimed also at reducing energy consumption. In the winter conditions the influence of air layer on the thermal insulation parameters is usually neglected. In the article the thermal resistance of an air gap and is considered and its effect in the calculation of the heat resistance of a building envelope with hinged facade system is analyzed in the conditions of cold weather. The thermal resistance of the air layer determines how the heat losses decrease.

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae: Epidemiology, Hypervirulence-Associated Determinants, and Resistance Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ro Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most clinically relevant species in immunocompromised individuals responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, including pneumonias, urinary tract infections, bacteremias, and liver abscesses. Since the mid-1980s, hypervirulent K. pneumoniae, generally associated with the hypermucoviscosity phenotype, has emerged as a clinically significant pathogen responsible for serious disseminated infections, such as pyogenic liver abscesses, osteomyelitis, and endophthalmitis, in a generally younger and healthier population. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae infections were primarily found in East Asia and now are increasingly being reported worldwide. Although most hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates are antibiotic-susceptible, some isolates with combined virulence and resistance, such as the carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates, are increasingly being detected. The combination of multidrug resistance and enhanced virulence has the potential to cause the next clinical crisis. To better understand the basic biology of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae, this review will provide a summarization and discussion focused on epidemiology, hypervirulence-associated factors, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms of such hypervirulent strains. Epidemiological analysis of recent clinical isolates in China warns the global dissemination of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains with extensive antibiotic resistance in the near future. Therefore, an immediate response to recognize the global dissemination of this hypervirulent strain with resistance determinants is an urgent priority.

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae: Epidemiology, Hypervirulence-Associated Determinants, and Resistance Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Young Bae; Cha, Chang-Jun; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most clinically relevant species in immunocompromised individuals responsible for community-acquired and nosocomial infections, including pneumonias, urinary tract infections, bacteremias, and liver abscesses. Since the mid-1980s, hypervirulent K. pneumoniae, generally associated with the hypermucoviscosity phenotype, has emerged as a clinically significant pathogen responsible for serious disseminated infections, such as pyogenic liver abscesses, osteomyelitis, and endophthalmitis, in a generally younger and healthier population. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae infections were primarily found in East Asia and now are increasingly being reported worldwide. Although most hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates are antibiotic-susceptible, some isolates with combined virulence and resistance, such as the carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent K. pneumoniae isolates, are increasingly being detected. The combination of multidrug resistance and enhanced virulence has the potential to cause the next clinical crisis. To better understand the basic biology of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae, this review will provide a summarization and discussion focused on epidemiology, hypervirulence-associated factors, and antibiotic resistance mechanisms of such hypervirulent strains. Epidemiological analysis of recent clinical isolates in China warns the global dissemination of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains with extensive antibiotic resistance in the near future. Therefore, an immediate response to recognize the global dissemination of this hypervirulent strain with resistance determinants is an urgent priority. PMID:29209595

  3. Genome-wide association analysis identifies resistance loci for bacterial blight in a diverse collection of indica rice germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Fan; Dingkuhn, Michael; Xu, Jian-Long; Zhou, Yong-Li; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial blight, which is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. The development and use of disease-resistant cultivars have been the most effective strategy to control bacterial blight. Identifying the genes mediating bacterial blight resistance is a prerequisite for breeding cultivars with broad-spectrum and durable resistance. We herein describe a genome-wide association study involving 172 diverse Oryza sativa ssp. indica accessions to identify loci influencing the resistance to representative strains of six Xoo races. Twelve resistance loci containing 121 significantly associated signals were identified using 317,894 single nucleotide polymorphisms, which explained 13.3-59.9% of the variability in lesion length caused by Xoo races P1, P6, and P9a. Two hotspot regions (L11 and L12) were located within or nearby two cloned R genes (xa25 and Xa26) and one fine-mapped R gene (Xa4). Our results confirmed the relatively high resolution of genome-wide association studies. Moreover, we detected novel significant associations on chromosomes 2, 3, and 6-10. Haplotype analyses of xa25, the Xa26 paralog (MRKc; LOC_Os11g47290), and a Xa4 candidate gene (LOC_11g46870) revealed differences in bacterial blight resistance among indica subgroups. These differences were responsible for the observed variations in lesion lengths resulting from infections by Xoo races P1 and P9a. Our findings may be relevant for future studies involving bacterial blight resistance gene cloning, and provide insights into the genetic basis for bacterial blight resistance in indica rice, which may be useful for knowledge-based crop improvement.

  4. Genome-wide association analysis identifies resistance loci for bacterial blight in a diverse collection of indica rice germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Fan; Dingkuhn, Michael; Xu, Jian-Long; Zhou, Yong-Li; Li, Zhi-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial blight, which is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. The development and use of disease-resistant cultivars have been the most effective strategy to control bacterial blight. Identifying the genes mediating bacterial blight resistance is a prerequisite for breeding cultivars with broad-spectrum and durable resistance. We herein describe a genome-wide association study involving 172 diverse Oryza sativa ssp. indica accessions to identify loci influencing the resistance to representative strains of six Xoo races. Twelve resistance loci containing 121 significantly associated signals were identified using 317,894 single nucleotide polymorphisms, which explained 13.3–59.9% of the variability in lesion length caused by Xoo races P1, P6, and P9a. Two hotspot regions (L11 and L12) were located within or nearby two cloned R genes (xa25 and Xa26) and one fine-mapped R gene (Xa4). Our results confirmed the relatively high resolution of genome-wide association studies. Moreover, we detected novel significant associations on chromosomes 2, 3, and 6–10. Haplotype analyses of xa25, the Xa26 paralog (MRKc; LOC_Os11g47290), and a Xa4 candidate gene (LOC_11g46870) revealed differences in bacterial blight resistance among indica subgroups. These differences were responsible for the observed variations in lesion lengths resulting from infections by Xoo races P1 and P9a. Our findings may be relevant for future studies involving bacterial blight resistance gene cloning, and provide insights into the genetic basis for bacterial blight resistance in indica rice, which may be useful for knowledge-based crop improvement. PMID:28355306

  5. Experimental determination of satellite bolted joints thermal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Marcia Barbosa Henriques; Basto, Jose Edson

    1990-01-01

    The thermal resistance was experimentally determined of the bolted joints of the first Brazilian satellite (SCD 01). These joints, used to connect the satellite structural panels, are reproduced in an experimental apparatus, keeping, as much as possible, the actual dimensions and materials. A controlled amount of heat is forced to pass through the joint and the difference of temperature between the panels is measured. The tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen cooled walls, that simulates the space environment. Experimental procedures are used to avoid much heat losses, which are carefully calculated. Important observations about the behavior of the joint thermal resistance with the variation of the mean temperature are made.

  6. Genome-Wide Association and Genomic Selection for Resistance to Amoebic Gill Disease in Atlantic Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Diego; Matika, Oswald; Hamilton, Alastair; Houston, Ross D

    2018-03-28

    Amoebic gill disease (AGD) is one of the largest threats to salmon aquaculture, causing serious economic and animal welfare burden. Treatments can be expensive and environmentally damaging, hence the need for alternative strategies. Breeding for disease resistance can contribute to prevention and control of AGD, providing long-term cumulative benefits in selected stocks. The use of genomic selection can expedite selection for disease resistance due to improved accuracy compared to pedigree-based approaches. The aim of this work was to quantify and characterize genetic variation in AGD resistance in salmon, the genetic architecture of the trait, and the potential of genomic selection to contribute to disease control. An AGD challenge was performed in ∼1,500 Atlantic salmon, using gill damage and amoebic load as indicator traits for host resistance. Both traits are heritable (h 2 ∼0.25-0.30) and show high positive correlation, indicating they may be good measurements of host resistance to AGD. While the genetic architecture of resistance appeared to be largely polygenic in nature, two regions on chromosome 18 showed suggestive association with both AGD resistance traits. Using a cross-validation approach, genomic prediction accuracy was up to 18% higher than that obtained using pedigree, and a reduction in marker density to ∼2,000 SNPs was sufficient to obtain accuracies similar to those obtained using the whole dataset. This study indicates that resistance to AGD is a suitable trait for genomic selection, and the addition of this trait to Atlantic salmon breeding programs can lead to more resistant stocks. Copyright © 2018 Robledo et al.

  7. A Genome-Wide Knockout Screen to Identify Genes Involved in Acquired Carboplatin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    result in resistance is demonstrated by the fact that mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1 or MSH2 produce resistance due to failure of the...cancer. Genes Dev 2010;24(8):837-52. 18. Fink D, Nebel S, Aebi S, Zheng H, Cenni B, Nehme A, et al. The role of DNA mismatch repair in platinum drug...CBDCA and cDDP, but it remains uncertain whether increased DNA repair capacity is the basis for resistance (17). That the loss of a single gene can

  8. Determination of internal resistance and electrocatalyst utilization of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.A. [Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lab., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Toronto Univ., ON (Canada); Ward, C.A. [Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lab., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Toronto Univ., ON (Canada); Venter, R.D. [Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lab., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Toronto Univ., ON (Canada); Ho, S. [Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lab., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    Analytical methods have been proposed recently for determining both the internal resistance of fuel cell electrodes and the fraction of the electrocatalyst that is completely utilized. To apply these methods requires that the Tafel slope and the equilibrium exchange current for the electrolyte-electrocatalyst combination to be known when this combination is exposed to O{sub 2} and when it is exposed to H{sub 2}. The Tafel parameters have been previously reported for O{sub 2} and their measurement for H{sub 2} is reported herein. Also, to apply one of these analytical methods - maximum power method - requires that the current and potential to be measured when a fuel cell is operating at steady state and at maximum power. To apply the second method - approximate maximum power method - requires that the cell potential and slope of the potential versus current curve be measured at a current that is less than that corresponding to maximum power. To evaluate these methods, a series of porous carbon electrodes were constructed, and to give them different resistances nickel was electro-deposited on the one side of each. These electrodes were then assembled into fuel cells and tested. Their internal resistance was determined by the current-interrupt technique, and by using the analytical methods. These results agree to within the experimental error, 12%. Electro-depositing nickel on the gas side of the electrodes was found to decrease their internal resistance by an order of magnitude and increase the electrocatalyst utilization by a factor of three. (orig.)

  9. Determination of oil in seeds by a wide line NMR instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, Aurel

    1983-01-01

    The oil content of sunflower, rape and soybean seeds was determined by a wide line NMR instrument. Using various model systems the following conclusions were drawn: the sensitivity of the instrument is much higher for the oil content of the seeds than for their water content. This observation can be interpreted in terms of the longer relaxation time of the water protons. The quantitative determination of the oil content of the seeds can be done with a high accuracy provided that the calibration curve for the respective oil is available and the signal of the solid state components of the seeds is corrected. If the water content of the seeds is reduced below 5 per cent, the oil content values obtained by NMR and extraction techniques are in agreement within the experimental error. (author)

  10. Cyclic nucleotide gated channel gene family in tomato: genome-wide identification and functional analyses in disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali Saand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic nucleotide gated channel (CNGC is suggested to be one of the important calcium conducting channels. Nevertheless, genome-wide identification and systemic functional analysis of CNGC gene family in crop plant species have not yet been conducted. In this study, we performed genome-wide identification of CNGC gene family in the economically important crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and analyzed function of the group IVb SlCNGC genes in disease resistance. Eighteen CNGC genes were identified in tomato genome, and four CNGC loci that were misannotated at database were corrected by cloning and sequencing. Detailed bioinformatics analyses on gene structure, domain composition and phylogenetic relationship of the SlCNGC gene family were conducted and the group-specific feature was revealed. Comprehensive expression analyses demonstrated that SlCNGC genes were highly and widely responsive to diverse stimuli and the expression profile was gene-dependent. Pharmacological assays showed that the putative CNGC activators cGMP and cAMP enhanced resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Silencing of group IVb SlCNGC genes significantly enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens Pythium aphanidermatum and S. sclerotiorum, strongly reduced resistance to viral pathogen Tobacco rattle virus, while attenuated PAMP- and DAMP-triggered immunity as shown by obvious decrease of the flg22- and AtPep1-elicited hydrogen peroxide accumulation in SlCNGC-silenced plants. Additionally, silencing of these SlCNGC genes significantly altered expression of a set of Ca2+ signaling genes including SlCaMs, SlCDPKs and SlCAMTA3. Collectively, our results reveal that group IV SlCNGC genes regulate a wide range of resistance in tomato probably by affecting Ca2+ signaling.

  11. Comparative Genome-Wide-Association Mapping Identifies Common Loci Controlling Root System Architecture and Resistance toAphanomyces euteichesin Pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgroux, Aurore; Baudais, Valentin N; Aubert, Véronique; Le Roy, Gwenola; de Larambergue, Henri; Miteul, Henri; Aubert, Grégoire; Boutet, Gilles; Duc, Gérard; Baranger, Alain; Burstin, Judith; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Bourion, Virginie

    2017-01-01

    Combining plant genetic resistance with architectural traits that are unfavorable to disease development is a promising strategy for reducing epidemics. However, few studies have identified root system architecture (RSA) traits with the potential to limit root disease development. Pea is a major cultivated legume worldwide and has a wide level of natural genetic variability for plant architecture. The root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches is a major limiting factor of pea crop yield. This study aimed to increase the knowledge on the diversity of loci and candidate genes controlling RSA traits in pea and identify RSA genetic loci associated with resistance to A. euteiches which could be combined with resistance QTL in breeding. A comparative genome wide association (GWA) study of plant architecture and resistance to A. euteiches was conducted at the young plant stage in a collection of 266 pea lines contrasted for both traits. The collection was genotyped using 14,157 SNP markers from recent pea genomic resources. It was phenotyped for ten root, shoot and overall plant architecture traits, as well as three disease resistance traits in controlled conditions, using image analysis. We identified a total of 75 short-size genomic intervals significantly associated with plant architecture and overlapping with 46 previously detected QTL. The major consistent intervals included plant shoot architecture or flowering genes ( PsLE, PsTFL1 ) with putative pleiotropic effects on root architecture. A total of 11 genomic intervals were significantly associated with resistance to A. euteiches confirming several consistent previously identified major QTL. One significant SNP, mapped to the major QTL Ae-Ps7.6 , was associated with both resistance and RSA traits. At this marker, the resistance-enhancing allele was associated with an increased total root projected area, in accordance with the correlation observed between resistance and larger root systems in the collection. Seven

  12. Comparative Genome-Wide-Association Mapping Identifies Common Loci Controlling Root System Architecture and Resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Desgroux

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining plant genetic resistance with architectural traits that are unfavorable to disease development is a promising strategy for reducing epidemics. However, few studies have identified root system architecture (RSA traits with the potential to limit root disease development. Pea is a major cultivated legume worldwide and has a wide level of natural genetic variability for plant architecture. The root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches is a major limiting factor of pea crop yield. This study aimed to increase the knowledge on the diversity of loci and candidate genes controlling RSA traits in pea and identify RSA genetic loci associated with resistance to A. euteiches which could be combined with resistance QTL in breeding. A comparative genome wide association (GWA study of plant architecture and resistance to A. euteiches was conducted at the young plant stage in a collection of 266 pea lines contrasted for both traits. The collection was genotyped using 14,157 SNP markers from recent pea genomic resources. It was phenotyped for ten root, shoot and overall plant architecture traits, as well as three disease resistance traits in controlled conditions, using image analysis. We identified a total of 75 short-size genomic intervals significantly associated with plant architecture and overlapping with 46 previously detected QTL. The major consistent intervals included plant shoot architecture or flowering genes (PsLE, PsTFL1 with putative pleiotropic effects on root architecture. A total of 11 genomic intervals were significantly associated with resistance to A. euteiches confirming several consistent previously identified major QTL. One significant SNP, mapped to the major QTL Ae-Ps7.6, was associated with both resistance and RSA traits. At this marker, the resistance-enhancing allele was associated with an increased total root projected area, in accordance with the correlation observed between resistance and larger root systems in the collection

  13. Postulation of rust resistance genes in Nordic spring wheat genotypes and identification of widely effective sources of resistance against the Australian rust flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Mandeep; Bansal, Urmil; Lillemo, Morten; Miah, Hanif; Bariana, Harbans

    2016-11-01

    Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions have been demonstrated as the sources of genetic variation for resistance to rust diseases. This study involved assessment of diversity for resistance to three rust diseases among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage against several pathotypes of three rust pathogens in the greenhouse. All stage stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30, and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in different combinations among these cultivars. A high proportion of cultivars were identified to carry linked rust resistance genes Sr15 and Lr20. Although 51 cultivars showed variation against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) pathotypes used in this study, results were not clearly contrasting to enable postulation of stripe rust resistance genes in these genotypes. Stripe rust resistance gene Yr27 was postulated in four cultivars and Yr1 was present in cultivar Zebra. Cultivar Tjalve produced low stripe rust response against all Pst pathotypes indicating the presence either of a widely effective resistance gene or combination of genes with compensating pathogenic specificities. Several cultivars carried moderate to high level of APR to leaf rust and stripe rust. Seedling stem rust susceptible cultivar Aston exhibited moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response, whereas other cultivars belonging to this class were rated moderately susceptible or higher. Molecular markers linked with APR genes Yr48, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, Lr68 and Sr2 detected the presence of these genes in some genotypes.

  14. Genome-wide mutagenesis and multi-drug resistance in American trypanosomes induced by the front-line drug benznidazole

    KAUST Repository

    Campos, Mônica C.

    2017-10-25

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects 5–8 million people in Latin America. Although the nitroheterocyclic compound benznidazole has been the front-line drug for several decades, treatment failures are common. Benznidazole is a pro-drug and is bio-activated within the parasite by the mitochondrial nitroreductase TcNTR-1, leading to the generation of reactive metabolites that have trypanocidal activity. To better assess drug action and resistance, we sequenced the genomes of T. cruzi Y strain (35.5 Mb) and three benznidazole-resistant clones derived from a single drug-selected population. This revealed the genome-wide accumulation of mutations in the resistant parasites, in addition to variations in DNA copy-number. We observed mutations in DNA repair genes, linked with increased susceptibility to DNA alkylating and inter-strand cross-linking agents. Stop-codon-generating mutations in TcNTR-1 were associated with cross-resistance to other nitroheterocyclic drugs. Unexpectedly, the clones were also highly resistant to the ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor posaconazole, a drug proposed for use against T. cruzi infections, in combination with benznidazole. Our findings therefore identify the highly mutagenic activity of benznidazole metabolites in T. cruzi, demonstrate that this can result in multi-drug resistance, and indicate that vigilance will be required if benznidazole is used in combination therapy.

  15. Genome-Wide Association of Rice Blast Disease Resistance and Yield-Related Components of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Jia, Melissa H; Ghai, Pooja; Lee, Fleet N; Jia, Yulin

    2015-12-01

    Robust disease resistance may require an expenditure of energy that may limit crop yield potential. In the present study, a subset of a United States Department of Agriculture rice core collection consisting of 151 accessions was selected using a major blast resistance (R) gene, Pi-ta, marker and was genotyped with 156 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Disease reactions to Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease, were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions, and heading date, plant height, paddy and brown seed weight in two field environments were analyzed, using an association mapping approach. A total of 21 SSR markers distributed among rice chromosomes 2 to 12 were associated with blast resistance, and 16 SSR markers were associated with seed weight, heading date, and plant height. Most noticeably, shorter plants were significantly correlated with resistance to blast, rice genomes with Pi-ta were associated with lighter seed weights, and the susceptible alleles of RM171 and RM6544 were associated with heavier seed weight. These findings unraveled a complex relationship between disease resistance and yield-related components.

  16. Distribution of resistance genetic determinants among Vibrio cholerae isolates of 2012 and 2013 outbreaks in IR Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Niloofar; Bakhshi, Bita; Najar-Peerayeh, Shahin

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants in relation to antimicrobial susceptibility and genotyping profile in 20 clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae. All of the isolates were resistant to streptomycin. The second most prevalent resistance was observed to trimethoprim (75%), co-trimoxazole (60%), tetracycline (50%), and minocycline (45%). About 50% of the isolates fulfilled the criteria of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) phenotype. None of the isolates carried tet A, B, C, and, D determinants. This finding shows that tetracycline resistance determinants recognized so far, does not satisfactorily describe the 50% tetracycline resistance phenotype in this study, suggesting the possible contribution of other not yet characterized resistance mechanisms involved. Class 1 integron, widely distributed among enteric bacteria, was not detected among V. cholerae strains under study. Conversely, 100% of the isolates harbored SXT constin (int) , among which 70% were positive for dfrA1, strA, and strB genes. The sul1gene was present in 60% of the isolates while none of them contained floR gene. All the isolates uniformly appeared to be identical in fingerprinting profiles expected from outbreak strains. In conclusion, SXT element with its mosaic structure was the exclusive antimicrobial resistance determinant of clonal V. cholerae isolates taken from outbreaks of 2012 and 2013 in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A genome-wide association study of resistance to HIV infection in highly exposed uninfected individuals with hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jérôme; McLaren, Paul J.; Dorrell, Lucy; Shianna, Kevin V.; Stemke, Amanda; Pelak, Kimberly; Moore, Stephen; Oldenburg, Johannes; Alvarez-Roman, Maria Teresa; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Boehlen, Francoise; Bolton-Maggs, Paula H.B.; Brand, Brigit; Brown, Deborah; Chiang, Elaine; Cid-Haro, Ana Rosa; Clotet, Bonaventura; Collins, Peter; Colombo, Sara; Dalmau, Judith; Fogarty, Patrick; Giangrande, Paul; Gringeri, Alessandro; Iyer, Rathi; Katsarou, Olga; Kempton, Christine; Kuriakose, Philip; Lin, Judith; Makris, Mike; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn; Tsakiris, Dimitrios A.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Mauser-Bunschoten, Evelien; Neff, Anne; Oka, Shinichi; Oyesiku, Lara; Parra, Rafael; Peter-Salonen, Kristiina; Powell, Jerry; Recht, Michael; Shapiro, Amy; Stine, Kimo; Talks, Katherine; Telenti, Amalio; Wilde, Jonathan; Yee, Thynn Thynn; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Martinson, Jeremy; Hussain, Shehnaz K.; Bream, Jay H.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Carrington, Mary; Goedert, James J.; Haynes, Barton F.; McMichael, Andrew J.; Goldstein, David B.; Fellay, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic variation contributes to differences in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To search for novel host resistance factors, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in hemophilia patients highly exposed to potentially contaminated factor VIII infusions. Individuals with hemophilia A and a documented history of factor VIII infusions before the introduction of viral inactivation procedures (1979–1984) were recruited from 36 hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), and their genome-wide genetic variants were compared with those from matched HIV-infected individuals. Homozygous carriers of known CCR5 resistance mutations were excluded. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and inferred copy number variants (CNVs) were tested using logistic regression. In addition, we performed a pathway enrichment analysis, a heritability analysis, and a search for epistatic interactions with CCR5 Δ32 heterozygosity. A total of 560 HIV-uninfected cases were recruited: 36 (6.4%) were homozygous for CCR5 Δ32 or m303. After quality control and SNP imputation, we tested 1 081 435 SNPs and 3686 CNVs for association with HIV-1 serostatus in 431 cases and 765 HIV-infected controls. No SNP or CNV reached genome-wide significance. The additional analyses did not reveal any strong genetic effect. Highly exposed, yet uninfected hemophiliacs form an ideal study group to investigate host resistance factors. Using a genome-wide approach, we did not detect any significant associations between SNPs and HIV-1 susceptibility, indicating that common genetic variants of major effect are unlikely to explain the observed resistance phenotype in this population. PMID:23372042

  18. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Anthracnose and Angular Leaf Spot Resistance in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perseguini, Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso; Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Rosa, João Ricardo Bachega Feijó; Gomes, Kleber Alves; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Garcia, Antonio Augusto Franco; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2016-01-01

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume for human consumption. Anthracnose (ANT; Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and angular leaf spot (ALS; Pseudocercospora griseola) are complex diseases that cause major yield losses in common bean. Depending on the cultivar and environmental conditions, anthracnose and angular leaf spot infections can reduce crop yield drastically. This study aimed to estimate linkage disequilibrium levels and identify quantitative resistance loci (QRL) controlling resistance to both ANT and ALS diseases of 180 accessions of common bean using genome-wide association analysis. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was performed for the ANT and ALS experiments, with four plants per genotype in each replicate. Association mapping analyses were performed for ANT and ALS using a mixed linear model approach implemented in TASSEL. A total of 17 and 11 significant statistically associations involving SSRs were detected for ANT and ALS resistance loci, respectively. Using SNPs, 21 and 17 significant statistically associations were obtained for ANT and angular ALS, respectively, providing more associations with this marker. The SSR-IAC167 and PvM95 markers, both located on chromosome Pv03, and the SNP scaffold00021_89379, were associated with both diseases. The other markers were distributed across the entire common bean genome, with chromosomes Pv03 and Pv08 showing the greatest number of loci associated with ANT resistance. The chromosome Pv04 was the most saturated one, with six markers associated with ALS resistance. The telomeric region of this chromosome showed four markers located between approximately 2.5 Mb and 4.4 Mb. Our results demonstrate the great potential of genome-wide association studies to identify QRLs related to ANT and ALS in common bean. The results indicate a quantitative and complex inheritance pattern for both diseases in common bean. Our findings will contribute to more

  19. Identification of Ug99 stem rust resistance loci in winter wheat germplasm using genome-wide association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Morgounov, Alexey; Wanyera, Ruth; Keser, Mesut; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sorrells, Mark

    2012-08-01

    The evolution of a new race of stem rust, generally referred to as Ug99, threatens global wheat production because it can overcome widely deployed resistance genes that had been effective for many years. To identify loci conferring resistance to Ug99 in wheat, a genome-wide association study was conducted using 232 winter wheat breeding lines from the International Winter Wheat Improvement Program. Breeding lines were genotyped with diversity array technology, simple sequence repeat and sequence-tagged site markers, and phenotyped at the adult plant stage for resistance to stem rust in the stem rust resistance screening nursery at Njoro, Kenya during 2009-2011. A mixed linear model was used for detecting marker-trait associations. Twelve loci associated with Ug99 resistance were identified including markers linked to known genes Sr2 and Lr34. Other markers were located in the chromosome regions where no Sr genes have been previously reported, including one each on chromosomes 1A, 2B, 4A and 7B, two on chromosome 5B and four on chromosome 6B. The same data were used for investigating epistatic interactions between markers with or without main effects. The marker csSr2 linked to Sr2 interacted with wPt4930 on 6BS and wPt729773 in an unknown location. Another marker, csLV34 linked to Lr34, also interacted with wPt4930 on 6BS and wPt4916 on 2BS. The frequent involvement of wPt4916 on 2BS and wPt4930 on 6BS in interactions with other significant loci on the same or different chromosomes suggested complex genetic control for adult plant resistance to Ug99 in winter wheat germplasm.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilyn L. Warburton; Juliet D. Tang; Gary L. Windham; Leigh K. Hawkins; Seth C. Murray; Wenwei Xu; Debbie Boykin; Andy Perkins; W. Paul Williams

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with significantly...

  1. Strategies for transferring resistance into wheat: from wide crosses to GM cassettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brande B. H. Wulff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of wheat in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago led to a genetic bottleneck. Modern agriculture has further narrowed the genetic base by introducing extreme levels of uniformity on a vast spatial and temporal scale. This reduction in genetic complexity renders the crop vulnerable to new and emerging pests and pathogens. The wild relatives of wheat represent an important source of genetic variation for disease resistance. For nearly a century farmers, breeders, and cytogeneticists have sought to access this variation for crop improvement. Several barriers restricting interspecies hybridization and introgression have been overcome, providing the opportunity to tap an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. Resistance has been introgressed into wheat from at least 52 species from 13 genera, demonstrating the remarkable plasticity of the wheat genome and the importance of such natural variation in wheat breeding. Two main problems hinder the effective deployment of introgressed resistance genes for crop improvement: (1 the simultaneous introduction of genetically linked deleterious traits and (2 the rapid breakdown of resistance when deployed individually. In this review we discuss how recent advances in molecular genomics are providing new opportunities to overcome these problems.

  2. Characterisation of streptomycin resistance determinants in Danish isolates of Salmonella typhimurium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lissi; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2000-01-01

    Fifty six Danish streptomycin (Sm) resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from pigs (n=34), calves (n=3) and humans (n=19) were characterised with respect to co-resistances (14 drugs), transferability of Sm-resistance by conjugation, genetic determinants encoding Sm-resistance...... and diversity with respect to localisation of genes in the genome and DNA-sequences. Forty-six strains carried resistance(s) other than Sm-resistance. Nineteen different coresistance patterns were observed and tetracycline was the most commonly observed resistance in these patterns. In 22 of the strains, Sm-resistance...

  3. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Resistance to Leaf and Stripe Rust in Winter-Habit Hexaploid Wheat Landraces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Kertho

    Full Text Available Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt, and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance. Here we report a genome-wide association analysis of 567 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum landrace accessions using the Infinium iSelect 9K wheat SNP array to identify loci associated with seedling resistance to five races of Pt (MDCL, MFPS, THBL, TDBG, and TBDJ and one race of Pst (PSTv-37 frequently found in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Mixed linear models identified 65 and eight significant markers associated with leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively. Further, we identified 31 and three QTL associated with resistance to Pt and Pst, respectively. Eleven QTL, identified on chromosomes 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6D, are previously unknown for leaf rust resistance in T. aestivum.

  4. Genome-wide mapping of NBS-LRR genes and their association with disease resistance in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background R genes are a key component of genetic interactions between plants and biotrophic bacteria and are known to regulate resistance against bacterial invasion. The most common R proteins contain a nucleotide-binding site and a leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR domain. Some NBS-LRR genes in the soybean genome have also been reported to function in disease resistance. In this study, the number of NBS-LRR genes was found to correlate with the number of disease resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL that flank these genes in each chromosome. NBS-LRR genes co-localized with disease resistance QTL. The study also addressed the functional redundancy of disease resistance on recently duplicated regions that harbor NBS-LRR genes and NBS-LRR gene expression in the bacterial leaf pustule (BLP-induced soybean transcriptome. Results A total of 319 genes were determined to be putative NBS-LRR genes in the soybean genome. The number of NBS-LRR genes on each chromosome was highly correlated with the number of disease resistance QTL in the 2-Mb flanking regions of NBS-LRR genes. In addition, the recently duplicated regions contained duplicated NBS-LRR genes and duplicated disease resistance QTL, and possessed either an uneven or even number of NBS-LRR genes on each side. The significant difference in NBS-LRR gene expression between a resistant near-isogenic line (NIL and a susceptible NIL after inoculation of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines supports the conjecture that NBS-LRR genes have disease resistance functions in the soybean genome. Conclusions The number of NBS-LRR genes and disease resistance QTL in the 2-Mb flanking regions of each chromosome was significantly correlated, and several recently duplicated regions that contain NBS-LRR genes harbored disease resistance QTL for both sides. In addition, NBS-LRR gene expression was significantly different between the BLP-resistant NIL and the BLP-susceptible NIL in response to bacterial

  5. Genome-wide mapping of NBS-LRR genes and their association with disease resistance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Kil Hyun; Shim, Sangrea; Yoon, Min Young; Sun, Suli; Kim, Moon Young; Van, Kyujung; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2012-08-09

    R genes are a key component of genetic interactions between plants and biotrophic bacteria and are known to regulate resistance against bacterial invasion. The most common R proteins contain a nucleotide-binding site and a leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) domain. Some NBS-LRR genes in the soybean genome have also been reported to function in disease resistance. In this study, the number of NBS-LRR genes was found to correlate with the number of disease resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) that flank these genes in each chromosome. NBS-LRR genes co-localized with disease resistance QTL. The study also addressed the functional redundancy of disease resistance on recently duplicated regions that harbor NBS-LRR genes and NBS-LRR gene expression in the bacterial leaf pustule (BLP)-induced soybean transcriptome. A total of 319 genes were determined to be putative NBS-LRR genes in the soybean genome. The number of NBS-LRR genes on each chromosome was highly correlated with the number of disease resistance QTL in the 2-Mb flanking regions of NBS-LRR genes. In addition, the recently duplicated regions contained duplicated NBS-LRR genes and duplicated disease resistance QTL, and possessed either an uneven or even number of NBS-LRR genes on each side. The significant difference in NBS-LRR gene expression between a resistant near-isogenic line (NIL) and a susceptible NIL after inoculation of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines supports the conjecture that NBS-LRR genes have disease resistance functions in the soybean genome. The number of NBS-LRR genes and disease resistance QTL in the 2-Mb flanking regions of each chromosome was significantly correlated, and several recently duplicated regions that contain NBS-LRR genes harbored disease resistance QTL for both sides. In addition, NBS-LRR gene expression was significantly different between the BLP-resistant NIL and the BLP-susceptible NIL in response to bacterial infection. From these observations, NBS-LRR genes are suggested

  6. Genome-wide association and epistasis studies unravel the genetic architecture of sudden death syndrome resistance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaoping; Singh, Arti; Mueller, Daren S; Singh, Asheesh K

    2015-12-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an economically important crop that is grown worldwide. Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by Fusarium virguliforme, is one of the top yield-limiting diseases in soybean. However, the genetic basis of SDS resistance, especially with respect to epistatic interactions, is still unclear. To better understand the genetic architecture of soybean SDS resistance, genome-wide association and epistasis studies were performed using a population of 214 germplasm accessions and 31,914 SNPs from the SoySNP50K Illumina Infinium BeadChip. Twelve loci and 12 SNP-SNP interactions associated with SDS resistance were identified at various time points after inoculation. These additive and epistatic loci together explained 24-52% of the phenotypic variance. Disease-resistant, pathogenesis-related and chitin- and wound-responsive genes were identified in the proximity of peak SNPs, including stress-induced receptor-like kinase gene 1 (SIK1), which is pinpointed by a trait-associated SNP and encodes a leucine-rich repeat-containing protein. We report that the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by identified loci may be considerably improved by taking epistatic effects into account. This study shows the necessity of considering epistatic effects in soybean SDS resistance breeding using marker-assisted and genomic selection approaches. Based on our findings, we propose a model for soybean root defense against the SDS pathogen. Our results facilitate identification of the molecular mechanism underlying SDS resistance in soybean, and provide a genetic basis for improvement of soybean SDS resistance through breeding strategies based on additive and epistatic effects. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A comparison of the wide gap and narrow gap resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerron Zeballos, E.; Crotty, I.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Valverde, J.L.; Neupane, S.; Peskov, V.; Singh, S.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study the performance of a wide gap RPC and compare it with that of a narrow gap RPC, both operated in avalanche mode. We have studied the total charge produced in the avalanche. We have measured the dependence of the performance with rate. In addition we have considered the effect of the tolerance of gas gap and calculated the power dissipated in these two types of RPC. We find that the narrow gap RPC has better timing ability; however the wide gap has superior rate capability, lower power dissipation in the gas volume and can be constructed with less stringent mechanical tolerances. (orig.)

  8. Standard practice for determining rail-to-Earth resistance

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedures necessary to follow for measuring resistance-to-earth of the running rails which are used as the conductors for returning the train operating current to the substation in electric mass transit systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Allelic variation of bile salt hydrolase genes in Lactobacillus salivarius does not determine bile resistance levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fang, Fang

    2009-09-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host.

  10. Unraveling Fungal Radiation Resistance Regulatory Networks through the Genome-Wide Transcriptome and Genetic Analyses of Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwang-Woo; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The basidiomycetous fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has been known to be highly radiation resistant and has been found in fatal radioactive environments such as the damaged nuclear reactor at Chernobyl. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the radiation resistance phenotype of C. neoformans, we identified genes affected by gamma radiation through genome-wide transcriptome analysis and characterized their functions. We found that genes involved in DNA damage repair systems were upregulated in response to gamma radiation. Particularly, deletion of recombinase RAD51 and two DNA-dependent ATPase genes, RAD54 and RDH54, increased cellular susceptibility to both gamma radiation and DNA-damaging agents. A variety of oxidative stress response genes were also upregulated. Among them, sulfiredoxin contributed to gamma radiation resistance in a peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin-independent manner. Furthermore, we found that genes involved in molecular chaperone expression, ubiquitination systems, and autophagy were induced, whereas genes involved in the biosynthesis of proteins and fatty acids/sterols were downregulated. Most importantly, we discovered a number of novel C. neoformans genes, the expression of which was modulated by gamma radiation exposure, and their deletion rendered cells susceptible to gamma radiation exposure, as well as DNA damage insults. Among these genes, we found that a unique transcription factor containing the basic leucine zipper domain, named Bdr1, served as a regulator of the gamma radiation resistance of C. neoformans by controlling expression of DNA repair genes, and its expression was regulated by the evolutionarily conserved DNA damage response protein kinase Rad53. Taken together, the current transcriptome and functional analyses contribute to the understanding of the unique molecular mechanism of the radiation-resistant fungus C. neoformans. PMID:27899501

  11. Genome-wide identification of genetic determinants for the cytotoxicity of perifosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Perifosine belongs to the class of alkylphospholipid analogues, which act primarily at the cell membrane, thereby targeting signal transduction pathways. In phase I/II clinical trials, perifosine has induced tumour regression and caused disease stabilisation in a variety of tumour types. The genetic determinants responsible for its cytotoxicity have not been comprehensively studied, however. We performed a genome-wide analysis to identify genes whose expression levels or genotypic variation were correlated with the cytotoxicity of perifosine, using public databases on the US National Cancer Institute (NCI-60 human cancer cell lines. For demonstrating drug specificity, the NCI Standard Agent Database (including 171 drugs acting through a variety of mechanisms was used as a control. We identified agents with similar cytotoxicity profiles to that of perifosine in compounds used in the NCI drug screen. Furthermore, Gene Ontology and pathway analyses were carried out on genes more likely to be perifosine specific. The results suggested that genes correlated with perifosine cytotoxicity are connected by certain known pathways that lead to the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway and apoptosis. Biological processes such as 'response to stress', 'inflammatory response' and 'ubiquitin cycle' were enriched among these genes. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in CACNA2DI and EXOC4 were found to be correlated with perifosine cytotoxicity. Our results provided a manageable list of genes whose expression levels or genotypic variation were strongly correlated with the cytotoxcity of perifosine. These genes could be targets for further studies using candidate-gene approaches. The results also provided insights into the pharmacodynamics of perifosine.

  12. Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Globally, and particularly in developing countries, the menace of anti-microbial resistance is an accelerating problem. In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies have been reported. Objectives: This study screened for presence of ...

  13. Genetic determinants of antifungal resistance in Candida species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the previous decades, it has been an increase in cases of resistance to antifungal agents used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Candida species. The emergence of resistance to drug classes, it is usually explained by genome alterations ranging from point mutations to gain or loss of whole ...

  14. Detection of mutations in quinolone-resistant determining regions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... Since the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotic in clinical practice was introduced about two decades ago, quinolone-resistant E. coli strains .... containing dehydrated antibiotics (Merlin Diagnostika, Germany) in two–fold dilution. .... alterations in parC play fundamental role in developing high level of resistance ...

  15. Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Globally, and particularly in developing countries, the menace of anti-microbial resistance is an accelerating prob- lem. In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies have been reported. Objectives: This study screened for ...

  16. Determinants of insulin resistance in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oterdoom, Leendert H.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; van Son, Willem J.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Ploeg, Rutger J.; de Jong, Paul E.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Insulin resistance is considered to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease, which limits long-term renal transplant survival. Renal transplant recipients are more insulin -resistant compared with healthy controls. It is not known to date which factors relate

  17. Electrical capacity and resistance determination of emitting electric transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba Fernandez, J.; Ramis Soriano, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we calculate the electrical resistance and capacity of emitting electric transducer, which is mainly formed, in direct relationship with its properties, by a ceramic capacitor. Our aim is to motivate the students with an attractive element in order to carry out traditional measurements of the charge and discharge transients of a capacitor, implementing high resistance setups. (Author) 5 refs

  18. Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    otic susceptibility study using disc-diffusion method. Transferable resistance genes and MGEs were amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and amplicons sequenced. Results: Varied resistance was observed against all the antibiotics tested. About 56% of the isolates were MDR including those from ...

  19. Prediction of Cacao (Theobroma cacao Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. Diseases via Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel S. McElroy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao is a globally important crop, and its yield is severely restricted by disease. Two of the most damaging diseases, witches’ broom disease (WBD and frosty pod rot disease (FPRD, are caused by a pair of related fungi: Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri, respectively. Resistant cultivars are the most effective long-term strategy to address Moniliophthora diseases, but efficiently generating resistant and productive new cultivars will require robust methods for screening germplasm before field testing. Marker-assisted selection (MAS and genomic selection (GS provide two potential avenues for predicting the performance of new genotypes, potentially increasing the selection gain per unit time. To test the effectiveness of these two approaches, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS and GS on three related populations of cacao in Ecuador genotyped with a 15K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarray for three measures of WBD infection (vegetative broom, cushion broom, and chirimoya pod, one of FPRD (monilia pod and two productivity traits (total fresh weight of pods and % healthy pods produced. GWAS yielded several SNPs associated with disease resistance in each population, but none were significantly correlated with the same trait in other populations. Genomic selection, using one population as a training set to estimate the phenotypes of the remaining two (composed of different families, varied among traits, from a mean prediction accuracy of 0.46 (vegetative broom to 0.15 (monilia pod, and varied between training populations. Simulations demonstrated that selecting seedlings using GWAS markers alone generates no improvement over selecting at random, but that GS improves the selection process significantly. Our results suggest that the GWAS markers discovered here are not sufficiently predictive across diverse germplasm to be useful for MAS, but that using all markers in a GS framework holds

  20. Prediction of Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. Diseases via Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Michel S; Navarro, Alberto J R; Mustiga, Guiliana; Stack, Conrad; Gezan, Salvador; Peña, Geover; Sarabia, Widem; Saquicela, Diego; Sotomayor, Ignacio; Douglas, Gavin M; Migicovsky, Zoë; Amores, Freddy; Tarqui, Omar; Myles, Sean; Motamayor, Juan C

    2018-01-01

    Cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) is a globally important crop, and its yield is severely restricted by disease. Two of the most damaging diseases, witches' broom disease (WBD) and frosty pod rot disease (FPRD), are caused by a pair of related fungi: Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri , respectively. Resistant cultivars are the most effective long-term strategy to address Moniliophthora diseases, but efficiently generating resistant and productive new cultivars will require robust methods for screening germplasm before field testing. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) provide two potential avenues for predicting the performance of new genotypes, potentially increasing the selection gain per unit time. To test the effectiveness of these two approaches, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and GS on three related populations of cacao in Ecuador genotyped with a 15K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray for three measures of WBD infection (vegetative broom, cushion broom, and chirimoya pod), one of FPRD (monilia pod) and two productivity traits (total fresh weight of pods and % healthy pods produced). GWAS yielded several SNPs associated with disease resistance in each population, but none were significantly correlated with the same trait in other populations. Genomic selection, using one population as a training set to estimate the phenotypes of the remaining two (composed of different families), varied among traits, from a mean prediction accuracy of 0.46 (vegetative broom) to 0.15 (monilia pod), and varied between training populations. Simulations demonstrated that selecting seedlings using GWAS markers alone generates no improvement over selecting at random, but that GS improves the selection process significantly. Our results suggest that the GWAS markers discovered here are not sufficiently predictive across diverse germplasm to be useful for MAS, but that using all markers in a GS framework holds

  1. Formation factor determinations by in-situ resistivity logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, M.; Ohlsson, Y.; Neretnieks, I.

    2001-01-01

    Matrix diffusion in bedrock is traditionally studied by laboratory liquid diffusion experiments, which are time consuming and expensive. A new way of studying matrix diffusion is to measure the electrical resistivity of the rock. This could be done either in laboratories or in-situ. A fast method of obtaining a formation factor log, later used in matrix diffusion calculations, for an entire borehole is proposed. It is a standard procedure in geophysical well logging to measure rock resistivity and there are well-developed tools for this in the oil industry. The SKB, Sweden, uses boreholes with a small diameter (56 mm) and this reduces the options in choosing resistivity tools. Therefore they have so far relied on the Normal log that only gives quantitative measurements in special cases, after corrections are made. Modern tools, such as the slimhole Dual-Laterolog, are accurate with a high vertical resolution. The pore fluid resistivity is required when obtaining a formation factor log. In previous work the borehole fluid resistivity has been used. A new method measures the resistivity in groundwater from local fractures. These values seem more appropriate to use as new in-situ measurements show that there may be local groundwater resistivity differences. A preliminary study shows that the conductivity could be obtained in saline Swedish groundwater by measuring the chloride concentration only. Anomalies in the formation factor log have to be sorted out by using supporting core logging and non-electrical in-situ methods. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  2. Determination of rust resistance genes in pakistani bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Ahmad, S.D.; Rabbani, M.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely 03FJ26, NR 337, NR 339, NR 347, NR 350, Manthar, Margalla 99, Iqbal 2000, Saleem 2000, Wafaq 2001, Marwat 2001, Pirsabak 2004 and Fareed 2006 carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance. (author)

  3. Factors determining sensitivity or resistance of tumor cell lines towards artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Sieber, Sebastian; Sauer, Alexandra; Weiss, Johanna; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Clinical oncology is still challenged by the development of drug resistance of tumors that result in poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance and to develop novel therapy strategies. Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malarial drug, which also exerts profound cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. We first applied a gene-hunting approach using cluster and COMPARE analyses of microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiles. Among the genes identified by this approach were genes from diverse functional groups such as structural constituents of ribosomes (RPL6, RPL7, RPS12, RPS15A), kinases (CABC1, CCT2, RPL41), transcriptional and translational regulators (SFRS2, TUFM, ZBTB4), signal transducers (FLNA), control of cell growth and proliferation (RPS6), angiogenesis promoting factors (ITGB1), and others (SLC25A19, NCKAP1, BST1, DBH, FZD7, NACA, MTHFD2). Furthermore, we applied a candidate gene approach and tested the role of resistance mechanisms towards established anti-cancer drugs for ART resistance. By using transfected or knockout cell models we found that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) and the anti-oxidant protein, catalase, conferred resistance towards ART, while the oncogene HPV-E6 conferred sensitivity towards ART. The tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream protein, p21, as well as the anti-oxidant manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase did not affect cellular response to ART. In conclusion, our pharmacogenomic approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards ART is multi-factorial and is determined by gene expression associated with either ART sensitivity or resistance. At least some of the functional groups of genes (e.g. angiogenesis promoting factors, cell growth and proliferation-associated genes signal transducers and kinases) are also implicated in clinical responsiveness of tumors towards chemotherapy. It merits further investigation, whether ART is responsive in

  4. Determination of Thermal Contact Resistances for Small TENV Electrical Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Olfa MEKSI; Mohd Azri Hizami RASID; Alejandro OSPINA; Vincent LANFRANCHI

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a thermal study of Synchronous Reluctant motor is proposed. A specific experimental method is applied in order to identify the thermal parameters, this method focus on the study of contact resistances and total thermal capacity. Generally, in the classical thermal modeling, the thermal contact resistance (TCR) is estimated by empirical values and the thermal capacities are calculated by analytical solutions. The originality of the proposed model is based on the complementarity ...

  5. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Wheat using Genotyping-by-Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio P. Arruda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB is one of the most important wheat ( L. diseases worldwide, and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States to identify chromosomal regions associated with FHB resistance. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS was used to identify 19,992 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs covering all 21 wheat chromosomes. Marker–trait associations were performed with different statistical models, the most appropriate being a compressed mixed linear model (cMLM controlling for relatedness and population structure. Ten significant SNP–trait associations were detected on chromosomes 4A, 6A, 7A, 1D, 4D, and 7D, and multiple SNPs were associated with on chromosome 3B. Although combination of favorable alleles of these SNPs resulted in lower levels of severity (SEV, incidence (INC, and deoxynivalenol concentration (DON, lines carrying multiple beneficial alleles were in very low frequency for most traits. These SNPs can now be used for creating new breeding lines with different combinations of favorable alleles. This is one of the first GWAS using genomic resources from the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC.

  6. Crack resistance curve determination of zircaloy-4 cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, J.; Alam, A.; Zubler, R

    2009-03-15

    Fracture mechanics properties of fuel claddings are of relevance with respect to fuel rod integrity. The integrity of a fuel rod, in turn, is important for the fuel performance, for the safe handling of fuel rods, for the prevention of leakages and subsequent dissemination of fuel, for the avoidance of unnecessary dose rates, and for safe operation. Different factors can strongly deteriorate the mechanical fuel rod properties: irradiation damage, thermo-mechanical impact, corrosion or hydrogen uptake. To investigate the mechanical properties of fuel rod claddings which are used in Swiss nuclear power plants, PSI has initiated a program for mechanical testing. A major issue was the interaction between specific loading devices and the tested cladding tube, e.g. in the form of bending or friction. Particular for Zircaloy is the hexagonal closed packed structure of the zirconium crystallographic lattice. This structure implies plastic deformation mechanisms with specific, preferred orientations. Further, the manufacturing procedure of Zircaloy claddings induces a specific texture which plays a salient role with respect to the embrittlement by irradiation or integration of hydrogen in the form of hydrides. Both, the induced microstructure as well as the plastic deformation behaviour play a role for the mechanical properties. At PSI, in a first step inactive thin walled Zircaloy tubes and, for comparison reasons, plates were tested. The validity of the mechanical testing of the non standard tube and plate geometries had to be verified. The used Zircaloy-4 cladding tube sections and small plates of the same wall thickness have been notched, fatigue pre-cracked and tensile tested to evaluate the fracture toughness properties at room temperature, 300 {sup o}C and 350 {sup o}C. The crack propagation has been determined optically. The test results of the plates have been further used to validate FEM calculations. For each sample a complete crack resistance (J-R) curve could

  7. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  8. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jose Luis, E-mail: jlmtnez@cnb.csic.e [Departamento de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, and CIBERESP (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Antibiotics are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. However, since they can challenge microbial populations, they must be considered as important pollutants as well. Besides being used for human therapy, antibiotics are extensively used for animal farming and for agricultural purposes. Residues from human environments and from farms may contain antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes that can contaminate natural environments. The clearest consequence of antibiotic release in natural environments is the selection of resistant bacteria. The same resistance genes found at clinical settings are currently disseminated among pristine ecosystems without any record of antibiotic contamination. Nevertheless, the effect of antibiotics on the biosphere is wider than this and can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbiota. Along the article, we review the impact that pollution by antibiotics or by antibiotic resistance genes may have for both human health and for the evolution of environmental microbial populations. - The article reviews the current knowledge on the effects that pollution by antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes may have for the microbiosphere.

  9. Genome-Wide Distribution, Organisation and Functional Characterization of Disease Resistance and Defence Response Genes across Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Chand, Suresh; Singh, N. K.; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2015-01-01

    The resistance (R) genes and defense response (DR) genes have become very important resources for the development of disease resistant cultivars. In the present investigation, genome-wide identification, expression, phylogenetic and synteny analysis was done for R and DR-genes across three species of rice viz: Oryza sativa ssp indica cv 93-11, Oryza sativa ssp japonica and wild rice species, Oryza brachyantha. We used the in silico approach to identify and map 786 R -genes and 167 DR-genes, 672 R-genes and 142 DR-genes, 251 R-genes and 86 DR-genes in the japonica, indica and O. brachyanth a genomes, respectively. Our analysis showed that 60.5% and 55.6% of the R-genes are tandemly repeated within clusters and distributed over all the rice chromosomes in indica and japonica genomes, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis along with motif distribution shows high degree of conservation of R- and DR-genes in clusters. In silico expression analysis of R-genes and DR-genes showed more than 85% were expressed genes showing corresponding EST matches in the databases. This study gave special emphasis on mechanisms of gene evolution and duplication for R and DR genes across species. Analysis of paralogs across rice species indicated 17% and 4.38% R-genes, 29% and 11.63% DR-genes duplication in indica and Oryza brachyantha, as compared to 20% and 26% duplication of R-genes and DR-genes in japonica respectively. We found that during the course of duplication only 9.5% of R- and DR-genes changed their function and rest of the genes have maintained their identity. Syntenic relationship across three genomes inferred that more orthology is shared between indica and japonica genomes as compared to brachyantha genome. Genome wide identification of R-genes and DR-genes in the rice genome will help in allele mining and functional validation of these genes, and to understand molecular mechanism of disease resistance and their evolution in rice and related species. PMID:25902056

  10. Using TLM principles to determine MOSFET contact and parasitic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Geoffrey K.; Harrison, H. Barry

    1997-08-01

    Transmission Line Model (TLM) networks are commonly used to model planar metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts. Multiple layer contacts such as non-alloyed {n +}/{n}, heterojunction and metal-silicide-silicon contacts can also be analyzed using a Tri-Layer TLM (TLTLM) network. In this article, two and three layer contact structures are combined using the appropriate TLM models in order to electrically model the gate-drain/source extension and drain/source contact region of a MOSFET. Important device properties such as contact and parasitic resistance can thus be derived for various device structures in terms of the geometrical and material parameters used in the TLM model. The developed model is used to give an example calculation of the parasitic resistance in the gate-drain extension and the resistance of the ohmic contact.

  11. Methods to Determine Recommended Feeder-Wide Advanced Inverter Settings for Improving Distribution System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylander, Matthew; Reno, Matthew J.; Quiroz, Jimmy E.; Ding, Fei; Li, Huijuan; Broderick, Robert J.; Mather, Barry; Smith, Jeff

    2016-11-21

    This paper describes methods that a distribution engineer could use to determine advanced inverter settings to improve distribution system performance. These settings are for fixed power factor, volt-var, and volt-watt functionality. Depending on the level of detail that is desired, different methods are proposed to determine single settings applicable for all advanced inverters on a feeder or unique settings for each individual inverter. Seven distinctly different utility distribution feeders are analyzed to simulate the potential benefit in terms of hosting capacity, system losses, and reactive power attained with each method to determine the advanced inverter settings.

  12. Genetic determinants of cardiovascular events among women with migraine: a genome-wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schürks

    Full Text Available Migraine is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Both migraine and CVD are highly heritable. However, the genetic liability for CVD among migraineurs is unclear.We performed a genome-wide association study for incident CVD events during 12 years of follow-up among 5,122 migraineurs participating in the population-based Women's Genome Health Study. Migraine was self-reported and CVD events were confirmed after medical records review. We calculated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI and considered a genome-wide p-value <5×10(-8 as significant.Among the 5,122 women with migraine 164 incident CVD events occurred during follow-up. No SNP was associated with major CVD, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or CVD death at the genome-wide level; however, five SNPs showed association with p<5×10(-6. Among migraineurs with aura rs7698623 in MEPE (OR = 6.37; 95% CI 3.15-12.90; p = 2.7×10(-7 and rs4975709 in IRX4 (OR = 5.06; 95% CI 2.66-9.62; p = 7.7×10(-7 appeared to be associated with ischemic stroke, rs2143678 located close to MDF1 with major CVD (OR = 3.05; 95% CI 1.98-4.69; p = 4.3×10(-7, and the intergenic rs1406961 with CVD death (OR = 12.33; 95% CI 4.62-32.87; p = 5.2×10(-7. Further, rs1047964 in BACE1 appeared to be associated with CVD death among women with any migraine (OR = 4.67; 95% CI 2.53-8.62; p = 8.0×10(-7.Our results provide some suggestion for an association of five SNPs with CVD events among women with migraine; none of the results was genome-wide significant. Four associations appeared among migraineurs with aura, two of those with ischemic stroke. Although our population is among the largest with migraine and incident CVD information, these results must be treated with caution, given the limited number of CVD events among women with migraine and the low minor allele frequencies for three of the SNPs. Our results await independent replication

  13. Determination of the Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Student Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ann Blankinship

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sampling of common use items (e.g., student cell phones for bacterial presence, identification, and antibiotic resistance profiling helps students to recognize the need for routine cleaning of personal items and encourages thoughtful use of currently available medications. This multilab period project can be used to teach or reinforce several methods from general microbiology including aseptic technique, isolation streak, serial dilution, spread plating, Kirby Bauer testing, unknown identification, and media production. The data generated can be saved and added to each semester, thus providing a data set that reflects a local trend of antibiotic resistance.      

  14. Decreased prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance markers to amodiaquine despite its wide scale use as ACT partner drug in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Gabrielle; Jörnhagen, Louise; Morris, Ulrika; Shakely, Delér; Msellem, Mwinyi I; Gil, José P; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2012-09-11

    Zanzibar has recently undergone a rapid decline in Plasmodium falciparum transmission following combined malaria control interventions with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and integrated vector control. Artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) was implemented as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Zanzibar in 2003. Resistance to amodiaquine has been associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, 184Y and 1246Y. An accumulation of these SNP alleles in the parasite population over time might threaten ASAQ efficacy.The aim of this study was to assess whether prolonged use of ASAQ as first-line anti-malarial treatment selects for P. falciparum SNPs associated with resistance to the ACT partner drug amodiaquine. The individual as well as the combined SNP allele prevalence were compared in pre-treatment blood samples from patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria enrolled in clinical trials conducted just prior to the introduction of ASAQ in 2002-2003 (n = 208) and seven years after wide scale use of ASAQ in 2010 (n = 122). There was a statistically significant decrease of pfcrt 76T (96-63%), pfmdr1 86Y (75-52%), 184Y (83-72%), 1246Y (28-16%) and the most common haplotypes pfcrt/pfmdr1 TYYD (46-26%) and TYYY (17-8%), while an increase of pfcrt/pfmdr1 KNFD (0.4-14%) and KNYD (1-12%). This is the first observation of a decreased prevalence of pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, 184Y and 1246Y in an African setting after several years of extensive ASAQ use as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. This may support sustained efficacy of ASAQ on Zanzibar, although it was unexpected considering that all these SNPs have previously been associated with amodiaquine resistance. The underlying factors of these results are unclear. Genetic dilution by imported P. falciparum parasites from mainland Tanzania, a de-selection by artesunate per se and/or an associated fitness cost might represent contributing

  15. Decreased prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance markers to amodiaquine despite its wide scale use as ACT partner drug in Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröberg Gabrielle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zanzibar has recently undergone a rapid decline in Plasmodium falciparum transmission following combined malaria control interventions with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and integrated vector control. Artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ was implemented as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Zanzibar in 2003. Resistance to amodiaquine has been associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP alleles pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, 184Y and 1246Y. An accumulation of these SNP alleles in the parasite population over time might threaten ASAQ efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess whether prolonged use of ASAQ as first-line anti-malarial treatment selects for P. falciparum SNPs associated with resistance to the ACT partner drug amodiaquine. Methods The individual as well as the combined SNP allele prevalence were compared in pre-treatment blood samples from patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria enrolled in clinical trials conducted just prior to the introduction of ASAQ in 2002–2003 (n = 208 and seven years after wide scale use of ASAQ in 2010 (n = 122. Results There was a statistically significant decrease of pfcrt 76T (96–63%, pfmdr1 86Y (75–52%, 184Y (83–72%, 1246Y (28–16% and the most common haplotypes pfcrt/pfmdr1 TYYD (46–26% and TYYY (17–8%, while an increase of pfcrt/pfmdr1 KNFD (0.4–14% and KNYD (1–12%. Conclusions This is the first observation of a decreased prevalence of pfcrt 76T, pfmdr1 86Y, 184Y and 1246Y in an African setting after several years of extensive ASAQ use as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. This may support sustained efficacy of ASAQ on Zanzibar, although it was unexpected considering that all these SNPs have previously been associated with amodiaquine resistance. The underlying factors of these results are unclear. Genetic dilution by imported P. falciparum parasites from mainland Tanzania, a de-selection by

  16. Transport proteins determine drug sensitivity and resistance in a protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Claire Munday

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance in pathogenic protozoa is very often caused by changes to the ‘transportome’ of the parasites. In Trypanosoma brucei, several transporters have been implicated in uptake of the main classes of drugs, diamidines and melaminophenyl arsenicals. The resistance mechanism had been thought to be due to loss of a transporter known to carry both types of agents: the aminopurine transporter P2, encoded by the gene TbAT1. However, although loss of P2 activity is well-documented as the cause of resistance to the veterinary diamidine diminazene aceturate (Berenil®, cross-resistance between the human-use arsenical melarsoprol and the diamidine pentamidine (MPXR is the result of loss of a separate High Affinity Pentamidine Transporter (HAPT1. A genome-wide RNAi library screen for resistance to pentamidine, published in 2012, gave the key to the genetic identity of HAPT1 by linking the phenomenon to a locus that contains the closely related T. brucei aquaglyceroporin genes TbAQP2 and TbAQP3. Further analysis determined that knockdown of only one pore, TbAQP2, produced the MPXR phenotype. TbAQP2 is an unconventional aquaglyceroporin with unique residues in the selectivity region of the pore, and it was found that in several MPXR lab strains the WT gene was either absent or replaced by a chimeric protein, recombined with parts of TbAQP3. Importantly, wild-type AQP2 was also absent in field isolates of T. b. gambiense, correlating with the outcome of melarsoprol treatment. Expression of a wild-type copy of TbAQP2 in even the most resistant strain completely reversed MPXR and re-introduced HAPT1 function and transport kinetics. Expression of TbAQP2 in Leishmania mexicana introduced a pentamidine transport activity indistinguishable from HAPT1. Although TbAQP2 has been shown to function as a classical aquaglyceroporin it is now clear that it is also a high affinity drug transporter, HAPT1. We discuss here a possible structural rationale for this

  17. Saturation mapping of QTL region determining resistance specificity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Genetic improvement for biotic resistance in rice involves the quantitative nature of inheritance, which reflects the additive effects of several genetic loci throughout the genome. To in silico identify putative candidate genes involved in defense response, we performed in silico anchoring of the QTL genetic.

  18. Saturation mapping of QTL region determining resistance specificity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic improvement for biotic resistance in rice involves the quantitative nature of inheritance, which reflects the additive effects of several genetic loci throughout the genome. To in silico identify putative candidate genes involved in defense response, we performed in silico anchoring of the QTL genetic marker data to the ...

  19. 30 CFR 27.41 - Test to determine resistance to moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine resistance to moisture. 27.41... determine resistance to moisture. Components, subassemblies, or assemblies, the normal functioning of which might be affected by moisture, shall be tested in atmospheres of high relative humidity (80 percent or...

  20. 30 CFR 27.39 - Tests to determine resistance to vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests to determine resistance to vibration. 27... determine resistance to vibration. (a) Laboratory tests for reliability and durability. Components... two separate vibration tests, each of one-hour duration. The first test shall be conducted at a...

  1. Determination of resistance to deformation of steels in the region of forging temeratures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, L.N.; Okhrimenko, Ya.M.; Efimov, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    A new technique for determining resistance to deformation of steel, based on the use of experimental hardening-softening curves is suggested. It was established that relative hardening is constant for hot-worked austenite at assigned temperature, deformation degree and rate. The technique for determination of resistance to deformation of steels was suggested

  2. Two distinct classes of QTL determine rust resistance in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemin; Mace, Emma; Hunt, Colleen; Cruickshank, Alan; Henzell, Robert; Parkes, Heidi; Jordan, David

    2014-12-31

    Agriculture is facing enormous challenges to feed a growing population in the face of rapidly evolving pests and pathogens. The rusts, in particular, are a major pathogen of cereal crops with the potential to cause large reductions in yield. Improving stable disease resistance is an on-going major and challenging focus for many plant breeding programs, due to the rapidly evolving nature of the pathogen. Sorghum is a major summer cereal crop that is also a host for a rust pathogen Puccinia purpurea, which occurs in almost all sorghum growing areas of the world, causing direct and indirect yield losses in sorghum worldwide, however knowledge about its genetic control is still limited. In order to further investigate this issue, QTL and association mapping methods were implemented to study rust resistance in three bi-parental populations and an association mapping set of elite breeding lines in different environments. In total, 64 significant or highly significant QTL and 21 suggestive rust resistance QTL were identified representing 55 unique genomic regions. Comparisons across populations within the current study and with rust QTL identified previously in both sorghum and maize revealed a high degree of correspondence in QTL location. Negative phenotypic correlations were observed between rust, maturity and height, indicating a trend for both early maturing and shorter genotypes to be more susceptible to rust. The significant amount of QTL co-location across traits, in addition to the consistency in the direction of QTL allele effects, has provided evidence to support pleiotropic QTL action across rust, height, maturity and stay-green, supporting the role of carbon stress in susceptibility to rust. Classical rust resistance QTL regions that did not co-locate with height, maturity or stay-green QTL were found to be significantly enriched for the defence-related NBS-encoding gene family, in contrast to the lack of defence-related gene enrichment in multi-trait effect

  3. Identification of New Resistance Loci to African Stem Rust Race TTKSK in Tetraploid Wheats Based on Linkage and Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidò, Giovanni; Panio, Giosuè; Marone, Daniela; Russo, Maria A; Ficco, Donatella B M; Giovanniello, Valentina; Cattivelli, Luigi; Steffenson, Brian; de Vita, Pasquale; Mastrangelo, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn. (Pgt), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Races of the pathogen in the "Ug99 lineage" are of international concern due to their virulence for widely used stem rust resistance genes and their spread throughout Africa. Disease resistant cultivars provide one of the best means for controlling stem rust. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance to African stem rust race TTKSK at the seedling stage, we evaluated an association mapping (AM) panel consisting of 230 tetraploid wheat accessions under greenhouse conditions. A high level of phenotypic variation was observed in response to race TTKSK in the AM panel, allowing for genome-wide association mapping of resistance QTL in wild, landrace, and cultivated tetraploid wheats. Thirty-five resistance QTL were identified on all chromosomes, and seventeen are of particular interest as identified by multiple associations. Many of the identified resistance loci were coincident with previously identified rust resistance genes; however, nine on chromosomes 1AL, 2AL, 4AL, 5BL, and 7BS may be novel. To validate AM results, a biparental population of 146 recombinant inbred lines was also considered, which derived from a cross between the resistant cultivar "Cirillo" and susceptible "Neodur." The stem rust resistance of Cirillo was conferred by a single gene on the distal region of chromosome arm 6AL in an interval map coincident with the resistance gene Sr13, and confirmed one of the resistance loci identified by AM. A search for candidate resistance genes was carried out in the regions where QTL were identified, and many of them corresponded to NBS-LRR genes and protein kinases with LRR domains. The results obtained in the present study are of great interest as a high level of genetic variability for resistance to race TTKSK was described in a germplasm panel comprising most of the tetraploid wheat sub-species.

  4. System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jacqueline; Ivakov, Alexander; Somssich, Marc; Persson, Staffan; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an essential intracellular filamentous structure that underpins cellular transport and cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. However, the system-level properties of actin-based cellular trafficking remain tenuous, largely due to the inability to quantify key features of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we developed an automated image-based, network-driven framework to accurately segment and quantify actin cytoskeletal structures and Golgi transport. We show that the actin cytoskeleton in both growing and elongated hypocotyl cells has structural properties facilitating efficient transport. Our findings suggest that the erratic movement of Golgi is a stable cellular phenomenon that might optimize distribution efficiency of cell material. Moreover, we demonstrate that Golgi transport in hypocotyl cells can be accurately predicted from the actin network topology alone. Thus, our framework provides quantitative evidence for system-wide coordination of cellular transport in plant cells and can be readily applied to investigate cytoskeletal organization and transport in other organisms. PMID:28655850

  5. Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Vancomycin-resistantEnterococcus faeciumIsolated from Different Sources in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Maniya; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Motahar, Moloud Sadat; Soltani, Saber; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from different sources in southwest Iran from Mar to Sep 2015. Overall, 120 E. faecium isolates (80 VRE and 40 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci [VSE] isolates) were obtained from four hospitals. The resistance of the VRE isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect the virulence genes carried by the E. faecium isolates, namely, enterococcal surface protein ( esp ), hyaluronidase ( hyl ), and collagen-binding adhesin ( acm ). All the VRE isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with the rates of resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin reaching high levels. The isolates were least resistant to chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin, but all of them were susceptible to linezolid. 46.6%, 20.8%, and 86.6% of the E. faecium isolates carried the esp , hyl , and acm genes, respectively. There is a significant difference between the prevalence of esp and hyl genes in the VRE and VSE isolates. In the VRE isolates, the high prevalence of multidrug resistance were found and the difference in the prevalence of esp among various sources was significant. The findings reflected a relationship between the prevalence of esp and hyl and resistance to certain antibiotics.

  6. Determinants of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis: A Nation-wide Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternby, Hanna; Bolado, Federico; Canaval-Zuleta, Héctor J; Marra-López, Carlos; Hernando-Alonso, Ana I; Del-Val-Antoñana, Adolfo; García-Rayado, Guillermo; Rivera-Irigoin, Robin; Grau-García, Francisco J; Oms, Lluís; Millastre-Bocos, Judith; Pascual-Moreno, Isabel; Martínez-Ares, David; Rodríguez-Oballe, Juan A; López-Serrano, Antonio; Ruiz-Rebollo, María L; Viejo-Almanzor, Alejandro; González-de-la-Higuera, Belén; Orive-Calzada, Aitor; Gómez-Anta, Ignacio; Pamies-Guilabert, José; Fernández-Gutiérrez-Del-Álamo, Fátima; Iranzo-González-Cruz, Isabel; Pérez-Muñante, Mónica E; Esteba, María D; Pardillos-Tomé, Ana; Zapater, Pedro; de-Madaria, Enrique

    2018-04-18

    The aim of this study was to compare and validate the different classifications of severity in acute pancreatitis (AP) and to investigate which characteristics of the disease are associated with worse outcomes. AP is a heterogeneous disease, ranging from uneventful cases to patients with considerable morbidity and high mortality rates. Severity classifications based on legitimate determinants of severity are important to correctly describe the course of disease. A prospective multicenter cohort study involving patients with AP from 23 hospitals in Spain. The Atlanta Classification (AC), Revised Atlanta Classification (RAC), and Determinant-based Classification (DBC) were compared. Binary logistic multivariate analysis was performed to investigate independent determinants of severity. A total of 1655 patients were included; 70 patients (4.2%) died. RAC and DBC were equally superior to AC for describing the clinical course of AP. Although any kind of organ failure was associated with increased morbidity and mortality, persistent organ failure (POF) was the most significant determinant of severity. All local complications were associated with worse outcomes. Infected pancreatic necrosis correlated with high morbidity, but in the presence of POF, it was not associated to higher mortality when compared with sterile necrotizing pancreatitis. Exacerbation of previous comorbidity was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The RAC and DBC both signify an advance in the description and differentiation of AP patients. Herein, we describe the complications of the disease independently associated to morbidity and mortality. Our findings are valuable not only when designing future studies on AP but also for the improvement of current classifications.

  7. A community-wide intercomparison exercise for the determination of dissolved iron in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowie, A.R.; Achterberg, E.P.; Croot, P.l.; de Baar, H.J.W.; Laan, P.; Moffett, J.W; Ussher, S.; Worsfold, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The first large-scale international intercomparison of analytical methods for the determination of dissolved iron in seawater was carried out between October 2000 and December 2002. The exercise was conducted as a rigorously "blind" comparison of 7 analytical techniques by 24 international

  8. Genome-Wide Scan and Test of Candidate Genes in the Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Reveal New Locus Influencing Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A Tennessen

    Full Text Available New strategies to combat the global scourge of schistosomiasis may be revealed by increased understanding of the mechanisms by which the obligate snail host can resist the schistosome parasite. However, few molecular markers linked to resistance have been identified and characterized in snails.Here we test six independent genetic loci for their influence on resistance to Schistosoma mansoni strain PR1 in the 13-16-R1 strain of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. We first identify a genomic region, RADres, showing the highest differentiation between susceptible and resistant inbred lines among 1611 informative restriction-site associated DNA (RAD markers, and show that it significantly influences resistance in an independent set of 439 outbred snails. The additive effect of each RADres resistance allele is 2-fold, similar to that of the previously identified resistance gene sod1. The data fit a model in which both loci contribute independently and additively to resistance, such that the odds of infection in homozygotes for the resistance alleles at both loci (13% infected is 16-fold lower than the odds of infection in snails without any resistance alleles (70% infected. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium is high, with both sod1 and RADres residing on haplotype blocks >2 Mb, and with other markers in each block also showing significant effects on resistance; thus the causal genes within these blocks remain to be demonstrated. Other candidate loci had no effect on resistance, including the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex and three genes (aif, infPhox, and prx1 with immunological roles and expression patterns tied to resistance, which must therefore be trans-regulated.The loci RADres and sod1 both have strong effects on resistance to S. mansoni. Future approaches to control schistosomiasis may benefit from further efforts to characterize and harness this natural genetic variation.

  9. Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Determinants in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Fresh Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashina Allydice-Francis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased focus on healthy eating and consuming raw vegetables, this study assessed the extent of contamination of fresh vegetables by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Jamaica and examined the antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the presence of various virulence associated determinants of P. aeruginosa. Analyses indicated that vegetables from retail markets and supermarkets were widely contaminated by P. aeruginosa; produce from markets were more frequently contaminated, but the difference was not significant. Lettuce and carrots were the most frequently contaminated vegetables, while tomatoes were the least. Pigment production (Pyoverdine, pyocyanin, pyomelanin and pyorubin, fluorescein and alginate were common in these isolates. Imipenem, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the most inhibitory antimicrobial agents. However, isolates were resistant or showed reduced susceptibility to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and aztreonam, and up to 35% of the isolates were resistant to four antimicrobial agents. As many as 30% of the isolates were positive for the fpv1 gene, and 13% had multiple genes. Sixty-four percent of the isolates harboured an exoenzyme gene (exoS, exoT, exoU or exoY, and multiple exo genes were common. We conclude that P. aeruginosa is a major contaminant of fresh vegetables, which might be a source of infection for susceptible persons within the community.

  10. Determinants of Profitability and Recovery from System-Wide Shocks: The Case of the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Mantin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of profitability in the U.S. domestic airline industry, segmented into: operations strategy, productivity, and service measures, using quarterly data between 1995 and 2007. The analysis is performed separately on data prior and post 9/11 attack, revealing, among others, that after 9/11 the profitability of full-service carriers is improving faster than that of focused carriers, and that passengers are more forgivable to service glitches after 9/11 or possibly are associating lack of service with the intensified security measures imposed after 9/11. Focusing the analysis on determinants of consumers’ complaints we find further support for these arguments.

  11. Rapid determination of antibiotic resistance in E. coli using dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoettges, Kai F; Dale, Jeremy W; Hughes, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria such as methillicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli are on the rise, and with them the demand for rapid antibiotic testing is also rising. Conventional tests, such as disc diffusion testing, require a primary sample to be tested in the presence of a number of antibiotics to verify which antibiotics suppress growth, which take approximately 24 h to complete and potentially place the patient at severe risk. In this paper we describe the use of dielectrophoresis as a rapid marker of cell death, by detecting changes in the electrophysiology of the cell caused by the administration of an antibiotic. In contrast to other markers, the electrophysiology of the cell changes rapidly during cell death allowing live cells to be distinguished from dead (or dying) cells without the need for culturing. Using polymyxin B as an example antibiotic, our studies indicate that significant changes in cell characteristics can be observed as soon as 1 h passes after isolating a culture from nutrient broth

  12. Antimicrobial resistance, genetic resistance determinants for ceftriaxone and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Chun; Yin, Yue-Ping; Dai, Xiu-Qin; Unemo, Magnus; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major problem worldwide. This study investigated the AMR, genetic ceftriaxone resistance determinants and molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae in Nanjing, China. N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected in 2007 (n = 198) and 2012 (n = 80). The susceptibility to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was determined using an agar-dilution method. The ceftriaxone resistance determinants penA, mtrR and penB were examined using sequencing. N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed for molecular epidemiology. All isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 42.4% produced β-lactamase and 34.9% showed high-level resistance to tetracycline (MIC ≥16 mg/L). In total, 5.4% of isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone; however, all of these isolates were obtained in 2007 and the susceptibility to ceftriaxone appeared to have increased. All isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. No penA mosaic alleles were found. Non-mosaic penA alleles with A501T and G542S alterations, an H105Y alteration in mtrR and an A102D/N alteration in porB1b were statistically associated with decreased susceptibility or resistance to ceftriaxone. The most prevalent NG-MAST sequence types (STs) were ST568 (n = 13), ST270 (n = 9) and ST421 (n = 7). ST270 was the most common ST in isolates with decreased susceptibility or resistance to ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone, ideally 500 mg and together with azithromycin (1-2 g), should be recommended for treatment of gonorrhoea in Nanjing, China. However, N. gonorrhoeae strains with resistance to ceftriaxone have been found in Nanjing. NG-MAST and ceftriaxone resistance determinant analysis can be valuable to supplement the antimicrobial resistance surveillance in China, which needs to be further strengthened. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights

  13. Determination of internal series resistance of PV devices: repeatability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentadue, Germana; Pavanello, Diego; Salis, Elena; Field, Mike; Müllejans, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The calibration of photovoltaic devices requires the measurement of their current–voltage characteristics at standard test conditions (STC). As the latter can only be reached approximately, a curve translation is necessary, requiring among others the internal series resistance of the photovoltaic device as an input parameter. Therefore accurate and reliable determination of the series resistance is important in measurement and test laboratories. This work follows standard IEC 60891 ed 2 (2009) for the determination of the internal series resistance and investigates repeatability and uncertainty of the result in three aspects for a number of typical photovoltaic technologies. Firstly the effect of varying device temperature on the determined series resistance is determined experimentally and compared to a theoretical derivation showing agreement. It is found that the series resistance can be determined with an uncertainty of better than 5% if the device temperature is stable within  ±0.1 °C, whereas the temperature range of  ±2 °C allowed by the standard leads to much larger variations. Secondly the repeatability of the series resistance determination with respect to noise in current–voltage measurement is examined yielding typical values of  ±5%. Thirdly the determination of the series resistance using three different experimental set-ups (solar simulators) shows agreement on the level of  ±5% for crystalline Silicon photovoltaic devices and deviations up to 15% for thin-film devices. It is concluded that the internal series resistance of photovoltaic devices could be determined with an uncertainty of better than 10%. The influence of this uncertainty in series resistance on the electrical performance parameters of photovoltaic devices was estimated and showed a contribution of 0.05% for open-circuit voltage and 0.1% for maximum power. Furthermore it is concluded that the range of device temperatures allowed during determination of series

  14. Detection of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from China as determined by denaturing HPLC analysis and DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ruiru; Zhang, Jianyuan; Li, Chuanyou; Kazumi, Yuko; Sugawara, Isamu

    2007-01-01

    China is regarded by the World Health Organization as a major hot-spot region for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Streptomycin has been deployed in China for over 50 years and is still widely used for tuberculosis treatment. We have developed a denaturing HPLC (DHPLC) method for detecting various gene mutations conferring drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. The present study focused on rpsL and rrs mutation analysis. Two hundred and fifteen M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (115 proved to be streptomycin-resistant and 100 susceptible by a routine proportional method) from China were tested to determine the streptomycin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and subjected to DHPLC and concurrent DNA sequencing to determine rpsL and rrs mutations. The results showed that 85.2% (98/115) of streptomycin-resistant isolates harbored rpsL or rrs mutation, while rpsL mutation (76.5%, 88/115) dominated. MIC of 98 mutated isolates revealed no close correlation between mutation types and levels of streptomycin resistance. No mutation was found in any of the susceptible isolates. The DHPLC results were completely consistent with those of sequencing. The DHPLC method devised in this study can be regarded as a useful and powerful tool for detection of streptomycin resistance. This is the first report to describe DHPLC analysis of mutations in the rpsL and rrs genes of M. tuberculosis in a large number of clinical isolates.

  15. Identification of new resistance loci to African stem rust race TTKSK in tetraploid wheats based on linkage and genome-wide association mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eLaidò

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. Races of the pathogen in the Ug99 lineage are of international concern due to their virulence for widely used stem rust resistance genes and their spread throughout Africa. Disease resistant cultivars provide one of the best means for controlling stem rust. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring resistance to African stem rust race TTKSK at the seedling stage, we evaluated an association mapping (AM panel consisting of 230 tetraploid wheat accessions under greenhouse conditions. A high level of phenotypic variation was observed in response to race TTKSK in the AM panel, allowing for genome-wide association mapping of resistance QTL in wild, landrace, and cultivated tetraploid wheats. Thirty-five resistance QTL were identified on all chromosomes, and seventeen are of particular interest as identified by multiple associations. Many of the identified resistance loci were coincident with previously identified rust resistance genes; however, nine on chromosomes 1AL, 2AL, 4AL, 5BL and 7BS may be novel. To validate AM results, a biparental population of 146 recombinant inbred lines was also considered, which derived from a cross between the resistant

  16. A Very Low Dark Current Temperature-Resistant, Wide Dynamic Range, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Image Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Koichi; Adachi, Satoru; Tejada, Jose; Oshikubo, Hiromichi; Akahane, Nana; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2008-07-01

    A very low dark current (VLDC) temperature-resistant approach which best suits a wide dynamic range (WDR) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with a lateral over-flow integration capacitor (LOFIC) has been developed. By implementing a low electric field photodiode without a trade-off of full well-capacity, reduced plasma damage, re-crystallization, and termination of silicon-silicon dioxide interface states in the front end of line and back end of line (FEOL and BEOL) in a 0.18 µm, two polycrystalline silicon, three metal (2P3M) process, the dark current is reduced to 11 e-/s/pixel (0.35 e-/s/µm2: pixel area normalized) at 60 °C, which is the lowest value ever reported. For further robustness at low and high temperatures, 1/3-in., 5.6-µm pitch, 800×600 pixel sensor chips with low noise readout circuits designed for a signal and noise hold circuit and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) have also been deposited with an inorganic cap layer on a micro-lens and covered with a metal hermetically sealed package assembly. Image sensing performance results in 2.4 e-rms temporal noise and 100 dB dynamic range (DR) with 237 ke- full well-capacity. The operating temperature range is extended from -40 to 85 °C while retaining good image quality.

  17. Genome-wide scan of gastrointestinal nematode resistance in closed Angus population selected for minimized influence of MHC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui-Soo Kim

    Full Text Available Genetic markers associated with parasite indicator traits are ideal targets for study of marker assisted selection aimed at controlling infections that reduce herd use of anthelminthics. For this study, we collected gastrointestinal (GI nematode fecal egg count (FEC data from post-weaning animals of an Angus resource population challenged to a 26 week natural exposure on pasture. In all, data from 487 animals was collected over a 16 year period between 1992 and 2007, most of which were selected for a specific DRB1 allele to reduce the influence of potential allelic variant effects of the MHC locus. A genome-wide association study (GWAS based on BovineSNP50 genotypes revealed six genomic regions located on bovine Chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 15 and 27; which were significantly associated (-log10 p=4.3 with Box-Cox transformed mean FEC (BC-MFEC. DAVID analysis of the genes within the significant genomic regions suggested a correlation between our results and annotation for genes involved in inflammatory response to infection. Furthermore, ROH and selection signature analyses provided strong evidence that the genomic regions associated BC-MFEC have not been affected by local autozygosity or recent experimental selection. These findings provide useful information for parasite resistance prediction for young grazing cattle and suggest new candidate gene targets for development of disease-modifying therapies or future studies of host response to GI parasite infection.

  18. Determination of radiation resistant of electronic components in robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea); Kim, Do Sung [Taegu University, Taegu (Korea); Woo, Hong [Kyungsan University, Kyungsan (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    We investigated the characteristic change for the electronic components of the systems which were used in radiation area, when those were exposured by gamma rays. Bipolar transistor, FET, TTL, CMOS, operational amplifier, some capacitors, and several electronic components were selected for experiment. We applied irradiated gamma ray to the electronic components in the range of 10{sup 6} rad, by {sup 6}0Co(KAERI). We made up appropriate assessment circuit for each electronic component during the performance test, and assessed the reliability and radiation-resistance of them for the each radiation irradiation. (author). 59 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Glutathione Modified Gold Piezoelectric and Voltammetric Sensors for Determination of Mercury in a Wide Concentration Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria HEPEL

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione-modified Au electrodes (Au-SG deposited on a piezoelectric quartz crystal resonators were investigated for sensor applications for mercury(II. Owing to the stable background resulting from well ordered Au-SG self-assembled monolayer film, very small accumulations of mercury could be utilized in Hg(II determination. Typically, the accumulations ranging from qHg = 0.1 down to 0.0005 ML (equivalent Hg monolayers could be used. This contributs to the considerable reduction of the analysis time. The lower detection limit of Hg, LDO = 0.3 ppb has been achieved using slow scan stripping voltammetry and was further enhanced using differential pulse technique to 0.05 ppb. Moreover, the analysis can also be performed in acidic environment where other electrode modifiers become inactive.

  20. Characterization of molecular diversity and genome-wide mapping of loci associated with resistance to stripe rust and stem rust in Ethiopian bread wheat accessions

    OpenAIRE

    Muleta, Kebede T.; Rouse, Matthew N.; Rynearson, Sheri; Chen, Xianming; Buta, Bedada G.; Pumphrey, Michael O.

    2017-01-01

    Background The narrow genetic basis of resistance in modern wheat cultivars and the strong selection response of pathogen populations have been responsible for periodic and devastating epidemics of the wheat rust diseases. Characterizing new sources of resistance and incorporating multiple genes into elite cultivars is the most widely accepted current mechanism to achieve durable varietal performance against changes in pathogen virulence. Here, we report a high-density molecular characterizat...

  1. Combinations of macrolide resistance determinants in field isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desmolaize, Benoit; Rose, Simon; Wilhelm, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    of these species exhibit resistance to veterinary macrolides with phenotypes that fall into three distinct classes. The first class has type I macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B antibiotic resistance and, consistent with this, the 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058 is monomethylated by the enzyme product......(E)] that are arranged in tandem and presumably expressed from the same promoter. The third class exhibits the most marked drug phenotype, with high resistance to all of the macrolides tested, and possesses all three resistance determinants. The combinations of erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) are chromosomally encoded......(E) genes within an isogenic Escherichia coli background to assess their individually contributions to resistance. Our findings indicate what types of compounds might have driven the selection for these resistance determinants....

  2. Prevalence of genetic determinants and phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter jejuni from lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksomaitiene, Jurgita; Ramonaite, Sigita; Olsen, John E.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the number of reports on isolation of ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter jejuni has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and its genetic determinants among C. jejuni isolated from humans (n = 100), poultry products (n...... = 96) and wild birds (n = 96) in Lithuania. 91.4% of the C. jejuni isolates were phenotypically resistant to ciprofloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the gyrA gene from 292 isolates revealed that a change in amino acid sequence, Thr86Ile, was the main substition conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin...... forty-five C. jejuni isolates showed one or more silent mutations, and 32.4% of examined isolates possessed six silent mutations. In addition to the ciprofloxacin resistant isolates harboring only Thr86Ile point mutation (110 isolates), the current study identified resistant isolates (n = 101) harboring...

  3. Lipids that determine detergent resistance of MDCK cell membrane fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Marco M; Cano, Ainara; Alonso, Cristina; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-10-01

    A comparative lipidomic study has been performed of whole Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells and of the detergent-resistant membrane fraction (DRM) obtained after treating the cells with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100. The DRM were isolated following a standard procedure that is extensively used in cell biology studies. Significant differences were found in the lipid composition of the whole cells and of DRM. The latter were enriched in all the analyzed sphingolipid classes: sphingomyelins, ceramides and hexosylceramides. Diacylglycerols were also preferentially found in DRM. The detergent-resistant fraction was also enriched in saturated over unsaturated fatty acyl chains, and in sn-1 acyl chains containing 16 carbon atoms, over the longer and shorter ones. The glycerophospholipid species phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols, that were mainly unsaturated, did not show a preference for DRM. Phosphatidylcholines were an intermediate case: the saturated, but not the unsaturated species were found preferentially in DRM. The question remains on whether these DRM, recovered from detergent-membrane mixtures by floatation over a sucrose gradient, really correspond to membrane domains existing in the cell membrane prior to detergent treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How Should We Be Determining Background and Baseline Antibiotic Resistance Levels in Agroecosystem Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Keen, Patricia L; Cook, Kimberly L; Durso, Lisa M; Franklin, Alison M; Dungan, Robert S

    2016-03-01

    Although historically, antibiotic resistance has occurred naturally in environmental bacteria, many questions remain regarding the specifics of how humans and animals contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. Additional research is necessary to completely understand the potential risks to human, animal, and ecological health in systems altered by antibiotic-resistance-related contamination. At present, analyzing and interpreting the effects of human and animal inputs on antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems is difficult, since standard research terminology and protocols do not exist for studying background and baseline levels of resistance in the environment. To improve the state of science in antibiotic-resistance-related research in agroecosystems, researchers are encouraged to incorporate baseline data within the study system and background data from outside the study system to normalize the study data and determine the potential impact of antibiotic-resistance-related determinants on a specific agroecosystem. Therefore, the aims of this review were to (i) present standard definitions for commonly used terms in environmental antibiotic resistance research and (ii) illustrate the need for research standards (normalization) within and between studies of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. To foster synergy among antibiotic resistance researchers, a new surveillance and decision-making tool is proposed to assist researchers in determining the most relevant and important antibiotic-resistance-related targets to focus on in their given agroecosystems. Incorporation of these components within antibiotic-resistance-related studies should allow for a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the current and future states of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Considering the method of frost resistance determination for Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. І. Рябчун

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is the method represented in the article for frost resistance determination for Winter Wheat (soft and hard varieties by experts’ assessment of varieties submitted for Official Variety Studying. Prescribed temperature limits for artificial freezing of the plants, example varieties for frost-resistance groups, are indicated.

  6. On the difference between optically and electrically determined resistivity of ultra-thin titanium nitride films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the determination and comparison of the resistivity of ultra-thin atomic layer deposited titanium nitride films in the thickness range 0.65–20 nm using spectroscopic ellipsometry and electrical test structures. We found that for films thicker than 4 nm, the resistivity values

  7. Insulin Sensitivity Determines Effects of Insulin and Meal Ingestion on Systemic Vascular Resistance in Healthy Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Meijer, Rick I; Eringa, Etto C; Hoekstra, T.; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    OBJECTIVE: In addition to insulin's metabolic actions, insulin can dilate arterioles which increase blood flow to metabolically active tissues. This effect is blunted in insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin's effect on SVR, determined by resistance arterioles, has, however, rarely been examined

  8. Characterization of molecular diversity and genome-wide mapping of loci associated with resistance to stripe rust and stem rust in Ethiopian bread wheat accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleta, Kebede T; Rouse, Matthew N; Rynearson, Sheri; Chen, Xianming; Buta, Bedada G; Pumphrey, Michael O

    2017-08-04

    The narrow genetic basis of resistance in modern wheat cultivars and the strong selection response of pathogen populations have been responsible for periodic and devastating epidemics of the wheat rust diseases. Characterizing new sources of resistance and incorporating multiple genes into elite cultivars is the most widely accepted current mechanism to achieve durable varietal performance against changes in pathogen virulence. Here, we report a high-density molecular characterization and genome-wide association study (GWAS) of stripe rust and stem rust resistance in 190 Ethiopian bread wheat lines based on phenotypic data from multi-environment field trials and seedling resistance screening experiments. A total of 24,281 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers filtered from the wheat 90 K iSelect genotyping assay was used to survey Ethiopian germplasm for population structure, genetic diversity and marker-trait associations. Upon screening for field resistance to stripe rust in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Ethiopia over multiple growing seasons, and against multiple races of stripe rust and stem rust at seedling stage, eight accessions displayed resistance to all tested races of stem rust and field resistance to stripe rust in all environments. Our GWAS results show 15 loci were significantly associated with seedling and adult plant resistance to stripe rust at false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted probability (P) rust in the Ethiopian wheat accessions. Many of the identified resistance loci were mapped close to previously identified rust resistance genes; however, three loci on the short arms of chromosomes 5A and 7B for stripe rust resistance and two on chromosomes 3B and 7B for stem rust resistance may be novel. Our results demonstrate that considerable genetic variation resides within the landrace accessions that can be utilized to broaden the genetic base of rust resistance in wheat breeding germplasm. The molecular markers identified in

  9. Determination and Application of Comprehensive Specific Frictional Resistance in Heating Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the deficiencies of specific frictional resistance in heating engineering. Based on economic specific frictional resistance, we put forward the concept of comprehensive specific frictional resistance, which considers the multiple factors of technology, economy, regulation modes, pipe segment differences, and medium pressure. Then, we establish a mathematical model of a heating network across its lifespan in order to develop a method for determining the comprehensive specific frictional resistance. Relevant conclusions can be drawn from the results. As an application, we have planned the heating engineering for Yangyuan County in China, which demonstrates the feasibility and superiority of the method.

  10. 76 FR 60448 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Lepidopteran-Resistant Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ...] Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Lepidopteran-Resistant Cotton AGENCY... our determination that a cotton line developed by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., designated as event... submitted by Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., in its petition for a determination of nonregulated status, our...

  11. Identification of loci Associated with Resistance to Root-Rot Diseases in Autotetraploid Alfalfa using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the world-wide forage crop. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases. Identification of genes/loci controlling disease resistance will facilitate breeding for i...

  12. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarolis, Ioannis; Poulakou, Garyphallia; Analitis, Antonios; Matthaiopoulou, Irini; Roilides, Emmanuel; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Kafetzis, Dimitrios A; Daikos, Georgios L; Vorou, Regina; Koubaniou, Christina; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Samonis, Georgios; Syriopoulou, Vasiliki; Giamarellou, Helen; Kanellakopoulou, Kyriaki

    2009-07-29

    A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage of resistant strains in healthy preschool children attending daycare centers. A study group was organized with the responsibility to collect nasopharyngeal samples from children. Questionnaires provided demographic data, data on antibiotic consumption, family and household data, and medical history data. Pneumococcal isolates were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and resistant strains were serotyped. Between February and May 2004, from a total population of 2536 healthy children, a yield of 746 pneumococci was isolated (carriage rate 29.41%). Resistance rates differed among geographic regions. Recent antibiotic use in the last month was strongly associated with the isolation of resistant pneumococci to a single or multiple antibiotics. Serotypes 19F, 14, 9V, 23F and 6B formed 70.6% of the total number of resistant strains serotyped. Recent antibiotic use is a significant risk factor for the colonization of otherwise healthy children's nasopharynx by resistant strains of S pneumoniae. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide coverage for a significant proportion of resistant strains in the Greek community. A combined strategy of vaccination and prudent antibiotic use could provide a means for combating pneumococcal resistance.

  13. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage of resistant strains in healthy preschool children attending daycare centers. Methods A study group was organized with the responsibility to collect nasopharyngeal samples from children. Questionnaires provided demographic data, data on antibiotic consumption, family and household data, and medical history data. Pneumococcal isolates were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and resistant strains were serotyped. Results Between February and May 2004, from a total population of 2536 healthy children, a yield of 746 pneumococci was isolated (carriage rate 29.41%). Resistance rates differed among geographic regions. Recent antibiotic use in the last month was strongly associated with the isolation of resistant pneumococci to a single or multiple antibiotics. Serotypes 19F, 14, 9V, 23F and 6B formed 70.6% of the total number of resistant strains serotyped. Conclusion Recent antibiotic use is a significant risk factor for the colonization of otherwise healthy children's nasopharynx by resistant strains of S pneumoniae. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide coverage for a significant proportion of resistant strains in the Greek community. A combined strategy of vaccination and prudent antibiotic use could provide a means for combating pneumococcal resistance. PMID:19640285

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L.; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D.; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction. PMID:27582748

  15. Risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: data from a nation-wide surveillance study in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samonis Georgios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nation-wide surveillance study was conducted in Greece in order to provide a representative depiction of pneumococcal carriage in the pre-vaccination era and to evaluate potential risk factors for carriage of resistant strains in healthy preschool children attending daycare centers. Methods A study group was organized with the responsibility to collect nasopharyngeal samples from children. Questionnaires provided demographic data, data on antibiotic consumption, family and household data, and medical history data. Pneumococcal isolates were tested for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and resistant strains were serotyped. Results Between February and May 2004, from a total population of 2536 healthy children, a yield of 746 pneumococci was isolated (carriage rate 29.41%. Resistance rates differed among geographic regions. Recent antibiotic use in the last month was strongly associated with the isolation of resistant pneumococci to a single or multiple antibiotics. Serotypes 19F, 14, 9V, 23F and 6B formed 70.6% of the total number of resistant strains serotyped. Conclusion Recent antibiotic use is a significant risk factor for the colonization of otherwise healthy children's nasopharynx by resistant strains of S pneumoniae. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could provide coverage for a significant proportion of resistant strains in the Greek community. A combined strategy of vaccination and prudent antibiotic use could provide a means for combating pneumococcal resistance.

  16. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 ± 13 years, 78 ± 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC—end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Ω cm to 1583 Ω cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method

  17. Genome-Wide Transcription and Functional Analyses Reveal Heterogeneous Molecular Mechanisms Driving Pyrethroids Resistance in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Mulamba, Charles; Djouaka, Rousseau; Irving, Helen; Wondji, Murielle J; Ishak, Intan H; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-06-07

    Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vector, An. funestus is increasingly reported across Africa, threatening the sustainability of pyrethroid-based control interventions, including long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Managing this problem requires understanding of the molecular basis of the resistance from different regions of the continent, to establish whether it is being driven by a single or independent selective events. Here, using a genome-wide transcription profiling of pyrethroid resistant populations from southern (Malawi), East (Uganda), and West Africa (Benin), we investigated the molecular basis of resistance, revealing strong differences between the different African regions. The duplicated cytochrome P450 genes ( CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b ) which were highly overexpressed in southern Africa are not the most upregulated in other regions, where other genes are more overexpressed, including GSTe2 in West (Benin) and CYP9K1 in East (Uganda). The lack of directional selection on both CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b in Uganda in contrast to southern Africa further supports the limited role of these genes outside southern Africa. However, other genes such as the P450 CYP9J11 are commonly overexpressed in all countries across Africa. Here, CYP9J11 is functionally characterized and shown to confer resistance to pyrethroids and moderate cross-resistance to carbamates (bendiocarb). The consistent overexpression of GSTe2 in Benin is coupled with a role of allelic variation at this gene as GAL4-UAS transgenic expression in Drosophila flies showed that the resistant 119F allele is highly efficient in conferring both DDT and permethrin resistance than the L119. The heterogeneity in the molecular basis of resistance and cross-resistance to insecticides in An. funestus populations throughout sub-Saharan African should be taken into account in designing resistance management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Riveron et al.

  18. A genome-wide meta-analysis of rice blast resistance genes and quantitative trait loci provides new insights into partial and complete resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, Elsa; Morel, Jean-Benoît; Droc, Gaétan; Price, Adam; Courtois, Brigitte; Notteghem, Jean-Loup; Tharreau, Didier

    2008-07-01

    The completion of the genome sequences of both rice and Magnaporthe oryzae has strengthened the position of rice blast disease as a model to study plant-pathogen interactions in monocotyledons. Genetic studies of blast resistance in rice were established in Japan as early as 1917. Despite such long-term study, examples of cultivars with durable resistance are rare, partly due to our limited knowledge of resistance mechanisms. A rising number of blast resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been genetically described, and some have been characterized during the last 20 years. Using the rice genome sequence, can we now go a step further toward a better understanding of the genetics of blast resistance by combining all these results? Is such knowledge appropriate and sufficient to improve breeding for durable resistance? A review of bibliographic references identified 85 blast resistance genes and approximately 350 QTL, which we mapped on the rice genome. These data provide a useful update on blast resistance genes as well as new insights to help formulate hypotheses about the molecular function of blast QTL, with special emphasis on QTL for partial resistance. All these data are available from the OrygenesDB database.

  19. Determination of the attrition resistance of granular charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory procedure has been developed to evaluate the attrition of granular adsorbent charcoals on passing an air flow through the bed. Two factors observed in plant operations were selected as relevant: (1) the characteristic structural vibrations in plant scale equipment (motors, fans, etc.) that are transmitted to charcoal particles and cause the particles to move and rub each other, and (2) the rapid air flow that results in the movement of the attrited dust. In the test a container for charcoal [50 mm diameter and 50 mm high] was vibrated at a frequency of 60 Hz and at a constant energy input manually controlled using a vibration meter in the acceleration mode. Simultaneously, air was applied and exited through glass fiber filter paper. The quantity of dust trapped on the exit filter was then determined, either optically or gravimetrically. The dust formed per minute (attrition coefficient) was found to approach a constant value. The plateau-values from sequential determinations varied with the source of the charcoal; a 5-fold difference was found among a large variety of commercial products. The first testing of a sample released the excess dust accumulated in previous handling of the charcoal. The plateau values were then attained in the succeeding tests and these were characteristic of the material. The results were compared with those obtained for the same charcoals using older test methods such as the Ball and Pan Hardness Test described in RDTM16-1T

  20. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms in an Escherichia coli Isolate, HUE1, Without Quinolone Resistance-Determining Region Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyotaka eSato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolone resistance can cause major clinical problems. Here, we investigated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in a clinical Escherichia coli isolate, HUE1, which had no mutations quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. HUE1 demonstrated MICs that exceeded the breakpoints for ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and norfloxacin. HUE1 harbored oqxAB and qnrS1 on distinct plasmids. In addition, it exhibited lower intracellular ciprofloxacin concentrations and higher mRNA expression levels of efflux pumps and their global activators than did reference strains. The genes encoding AcrR (local AcrAB repressor and MarR (MarA repressor were disrupted by insertion of the transposon IS3-IS629 and a frameshift mutation, respectively. A series of mutants derived from HUE1 were obtained by plasmid curing and gene knockout using homologous recombination. Compared to the MICs of the parent strain HUE1, the fluoroquinolone MICs of these mutants indicated that qnrS1, oqxAB, acrAB, acrF, acrD, mdtK, mdfA, and tolC contributed to the reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone in HUE1. Therefore, fluoroquinolone resistance in HUE1 is caused by concomitant acquisition of QnrS1 and OqxAB and overexpression of AcrAB−TolC and other chromosome-encoded efflux pumps. Thus, we have demonstrated that QRDR mutations are not absolutely necessary for acquiring fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli.

  1. Mutations inside rifampicin-resistance determining region of rpoB gene associated with rifampicin-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Myo T; Emran, Nor A; Lin, Zaw

    2018-04-26

    Rifampicin (RIF) plays a pivotal role in the treatment of tuberculosis due to its bactericidal effects. Because the action of RIF is on rpoB gene encoding RNA polymerase β subunit, 95% of RIF resistant mutations are present in rpoB gene. The majority of the mutations in rpoB gene are found within an 81bp RIF-resistance determining region (RRDR). Literatures on RIF resistant mutations published between 2010 and 2016 were thoroughly reviewed. The most commonly mutated codons in RRDR of rpoB gene are 531, 526 and 516. The possibilities of absence of mutation in RRDR of rpoB gene in MDR-TB isolates in few studies was due to existence of other rare rpoB mutations outside RRDR or different mechanism of rifampicin resistance. Molecular methods which can identify extensive mutations associated with multiple anti-tuberculous drugs are in urgent need so that the research on drug resistant mutations should be extended. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-wide association mapping of partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean plant introductions from the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot is one of the most yield-limiting diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr], caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Partial resistance is controlled by several genes and, compared to single gene (Rps gene) resistance to P. sojae, places less selection pressure on...

  3. Width-Dependent Sheet Resistance of Nanometer-Wide Si Fins as Measured with Micro Four-Point Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanowicz, Janusz; Folkersma, Steven; Sergeant, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    This paper extends the applicability of the micro four-point probe technique from the sheet resistance measurements on large areas toward narrow (<20 nm) semiconducting nanostructures with an elongated fin geometry. Using this technology, it is shown that the sheet resistance of boron-implanted a...

  4. Characterization of insect resistance loci in the USDA soybean germplasm collection using genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of insects that cause economic damage to yields of soybean mainly rely on insecticide application. Sources of resistance in soybean plant introduction (PIs) to different insect pests have been reported, and some of these resistance sources, like for the soybean aphid (SBA) have been used ...

  5. The rarely reported tet(31) tetracycline resistance determinant is common in Gallibacterium anatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Anders M; Bager, Ragnhild J; Ifrah, Dan; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2011-05-05

    The present investigation was undertaken to identify and characterize the tetracycline resistance determinant in 22 Gallibacterium anatis strains for which no determinant was identified using primers specific for tet(A, B, C, D, E, G, H, K, L, M, O). A recent study found tet(B) to be the most prevalent tetracycline resistance determinant in a larger collection of G. anatis field strains from Mexico and Denmark. However, in 41% of the tetracycline resistant strains no determinant could be assigned. Here we demonstrate that tet(31) is a common determinant in G. anatis originating from chickens from very different production systems and localities. In addition, tet(31) was identified in strains isolated over a 30-year period. This is the first report on tet(31) since its original identification in Aeromonas salmonicida. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Genotypes That Determine Resistance of Staphylococci to Macrolides and Lincosamides in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Milena; Čukić, Jelena; Vidanović, Dejan; Šekler, Milanko; Matić, Sanja; Vukašinović, Mihailo; Baskić, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS) resistance genes are responsible for resistance to these antibiotics in Staphylococcus infections. The purpose of the study was to analyze the distribution of the MLS resistance genes in community- and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus isolates. The MLS resistance phenotypes [constitutive resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSb), inducible resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSb), resistance to macrolide/macrolide-streptogramin B (M/MSb), and resistance to lincosamide-streptogramin A/streptogramin B (LSa/b)] were determined by double-disc diffusion method. The presence of the MLS resistance genes ( erm A, erm B, erm C, msr A/B, lnu A, lnu B, and lsa A) were determined by end-point polymerase chain reaction in 179 isolates of staphylococci collected during 1-year period at the Center for Microbiology of Public Health Institute in Vranje. The most frequent MLS phenotype among staphylococcal isolates, both community-acquired and hospital-acquired, was iMLSb (33.4%). The second most frequent was M/MSb (17.6%) with statistically significantly higher number of hospital-acquired staphylococcal isolates ( p  staphylococci (MRCNS) (90.9%) isolates with cMLSB phenotype. The msr A/B gene and M/MSb phenotype were statistically significantly higher in hospital-acquired than community-acquired staphylococci strains ( p  staphylococci harboring the rest of MLS resistance genes acquired in community and hospital settings ( p  > 0.05). The prevalence of iMLSb phenotypes may change over time, so it is necessary to perform periodic survey of MLS resistance phenotypes, particularly where the D-test is not performed routinely.

  7. Nation-wide anthropometric survey data in Japan to determine dimensions of total-body phantom for Reference Japanese Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togo, Masami

    1990-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation dose in Japanese population accurately, a Reference Japanese Man, whose stature and body weight are 170cm and 60kg respectively, is indispensable. The MIRD 5 total-body phantom has only 8 dimensions, i.e. total head height, head length, head breadth, trunk length, trunk breadth, leg length, and breadth and depth of a leg model at its lower end. Based on Japanese anthropometric data, the dimensions were determined and its mathematical descriptions were given. In Japan, annual statistical data of stature, body weight, chest circumference and sitting height for all Japan by sex and age are published. But other nation-wide survey data necessary for determining dimensions of total-body phantom of Reference Japanese Man, are unavailable. Much more national anthropometric data of every kind necessary for defining phantoms must be compiled. (author)

  8. Genome-wide association mapping reveals a rich genetic architecture of stripe rust resistance loci in emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weizhen; Maccaferri, Marco; Chen, Xianming; Laghetti, Gaetano; Pignone, Domenico; Pumphrey, Michael; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    SNP-based genome scanning in worldwide domesticated emmer germplasm showed high genetic diversity, rapid linkage disequilibrium decay and 51 loci for stripe rust resistance, a large proportion of which were novel. Cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, is a potentially rich reservoir of variation for improvement of resistance/tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in wheat. Resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in emmer wheat has been under-investigated. Here, we employed genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping with a mixed linear model to dissect effective stripe rust resistance loci in a worldwide collection of 176 cultivated emmer wheat accessions. Adult plants were tested in six environments and seedlings were evaluated with five races from the United States and one from Italy under greenhouse conditions. Five accessions were resistant across all experiments. The panel was genotyped with the wheat 90,000 Illumina iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and 5106 polymorphic SNP markers with mapped positions were obtained. A high level of genetic diversity and fast linkage disequilibrium decay were observed. In total, we identified 14 loci associated with field resistance in multiple environments. Thirty-seven loci were significantly associated with all-stage (seedling) resistance and six of them were effective against multiple races. Of the 51 total loci, 29 were mapped distantly from previously reported stripe rust resistance genes or quantitative trait loci and represent newly discovered resistance loci. Our results suggest that GWAS is an effective method for characterizing genes in cultivated emmer wheat and confirm that emmer wheat is a rich source of stripe rust resistance loci that can be used for wheat improvement.

  9. Determinants of pregnancy and induced and spontaneous abortion in a jointly determined framework: evidence from a country-wide, district-level household survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salma; Ray, Ranjan

    2014-07-01

    This study provides evidence on the principal determinants of pregnancy and abortion in India using a large country-wide district-level data set (DLHS 2007). The paper provides an economic framework for the analysis of pregnancy and abortion. The study distinguishes between induced and spontaneous abortion and compares the effects of their determinants. The results show that there are wide differences between induced and spontaneous abortions in terms of the sign and magnitude of the estimated effects of several of their determinants, most notably wealth, the woman's age and her desire for children. The study makes a methodological contribution by proposing a trivariate probit estimation framework that recognizes the joint dependence of pregnancy and induced and spontaneous abortion, and provides evidence in support of this joint dependence. The study reports an inverted U-shaped effect of a woman's age on her pregnancy and both forms of abortion. The turning point in each case is quite robust to the estimation framework. A significant effect of contextual variables, at the village level, constructed from the individual responses, on a woman's pregnancy is found. The effects are weaker in the case of induced abortion, and insignificant in the case of spontaneous abortion. The results are shown to be fairly robust. This paper extends the literature on the relation between son preference and fertility by examining the link between mother's son preference and desire for more children with abortion rates.

  10. Unusual resistance of ALR/Lt mouse β cells to autoimmune destruction: Role for β cell-expressed resistance determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clayton E.; Graser, Robert T.; Savinov, Alexei; Serreze, David V.; Leiter, Edward H.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic analysis of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has focused on genes controlling immune functions, with little investigation of innate susceptibility determinants expressed at the level of target β cells. The Alloxan (AL) Resistant (R) Leiter (Lt) mouse strain, closely related to the IDDM-prone nonobese diabetic (NOD)/Lt strain, demonstrates the importance of such determinants. ALR mice are unusual in their high constitutive expression of molecules associated with dissipation of free-radical stress systemically and at the β-cell level. ALR islets were found to be remarkably resistant to two different combinations of β-cytotoxic cytokines (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and IFN-γ) that destroyed islets from the related NOD and alloxan-susceptible strains. The close MHC relatedness between the NOD and ALR strains (H2-Kd and H2-Ag7 identical) allowed us to examine whether ALR islet cells could survive autoimmune destruction by NOD-derived Kd-restricted diabetogenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones (AI4 and the insulin-reactive G9C8 clones). Both clones killed islet cells from all Kd-expressing strains except ALR. ALR resistance to diabetogenic immune systems was determined in vivo by means of adoptive transfer of the G9C8 clone or by chimerizing lethally irradiated ALR or reciprocal (ALR × NOD)F1 recipients with NOD bone marrow. In all in vivo systems, ALR and F1 female recipients of NOD marrow remained IDDM free; in contrast, all of the NOD recipients became diabetic. In conclusion, the ALR mouse presents a unique opportunity to identify dominant IDDM resistance determinants expressed at the β cell level. PMID:11136257

  11. Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant UropathogenicEscherichia coliClinical Strains: Phylogenetic Groups Widely Associated with Integrons Maintain High Genetic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Sara A; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Luna-Pineda, Victor M; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan P; Cázares-Domínguez, Vicenta; Escalona, Gerardo; Sepúlveda-González, Ma Eugenia; López-Montiel, Fernanda; Arellano-Galindo, José; López-Martínez, Briceida; Parra-Ortega, Israel; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; de la Rosa-Zamboni, Daniela; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, an increase of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains with Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and Extensively Drug-resistant (XDR) profiles that complicate therapy for urinary tract infections (UTIs) has been observed and has directly impacted costs and extended hospital stays. The aim of this study was to determine MDR- and XDR-UPEC clinical strains, their virulence genes, their phylogenetic groups and to ascertain their relationship with integrons and genetic diversity. From a collection of 500 UPEC strains, 103 were selected with MDR and XDR characteristics. MDR-UPEC strains were mainly associated with phylogenetic groups D (54.87%) and B2 (39.02%) with a high percentage (≥70%) of several fimbrial genes ( ecpA, fimH, csgA , and papG II), an iron uptake gene ( chuA ), and a toxin gene ( hlyA ). In addition, a moderate frequency (40-70%) of other genes ( iutD, tosA , and bcs A) was observed. XDR-UPEC strains were predominantly associated with phylogenetic groups B2 (47.61%) and D (42.85%), which grouped with ≥80 virulence genes, including ecpA, fimH, csgA, papG II, iutD , and chuA . A moderate frequency (40-70%) of the tosA and hlyA genes was observed. The class 1 and 2 integrons that were identified in the MDR- and XDR-UPEC strains were associated with phylogenetic groups D, B2, and A, while the XDR-UPEC strains that were associated with phylogenetic groups B2, D, and A showed an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype. The modifying enzymes ( aad A1, aad B, aac C, ant 1, dfr A1, dfr A17, and aad A4) that were identified in the variable region of class 1 and 2 integrons from the MDR strains showed resistance to gentamycin (56.25 and 66.66%, respectively) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (84.61 and 66.66%, respectively). The MDR- and XDR-UPEC strains were distributed into seven clusters and were closely related to phylogenic groups B2 and D. The diversity analysis by PFGE showed 42.68% of clones of MDR-UPEC and no clonal association

  12. Determinants of Intravascular Resistance in Indian Diabetic Nephropathy Patients: A Hospital-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Thukral

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. Metabolic dysregulation has failed to explain clinical variability of patients with diabetic nephropathy and hence a renewed interest emerged in haemodynamic factors as determinant of progression and development of diabetic nephropathy. We therefore studied for various factors which can correlate with raised renal vascular resistance in diabetic nephropathy. Material and Methods. Renal vascular resistance was measured in patients with established and incipient diabetic nephropathy and compared with controls using noninvasive color Doppler examinations of intrarenal vasculature. Results. Renal vascular resistance correlated with age, duration of disease, GFR, serum creatinine, and stage of retinopathy. Renal vascular resistance was significantly reduced in patients on treatment with RAAS inhibitors and insulin, than those on OHA and antihypertensives other than RAAS inhibitors. Conclusion. The study implies that renal vascular resistance may help identify diabetics at high risk of developing nephropathy, and these set of patients could be candidates for RAAS inhibition and early insulin therapy even in patients without albuminuria.

  13. Reproducible extracellular vesicle size and concentration determination with tunable resistive pulse sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Frank A. W.; van der Pol, Edwin; Böing, Anita N.; Hajji, Najat; Sturk, Guus; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    The size of extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be determined with a tunable resistive pulse sensor (TRPS). Because the sensing pore diameter varies from pore to pore, the minimum detectable diameter also varies. The aim of this study is to determine and improve the reproducibility of TRPS

  14. Continuous evidence of fast HIV disease progression related to class-wide resistance to antiretroviral drugs: a 6 year follow-up analysis of a large observational database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Zaccarelli; Federica, Forbici; Patrizia, Lorenzini; Francesca, Ceccherini-Silberstein; Valerio, Tozzi; Paola, Trotta Maria; Patrizia, Marconi; Pasquale, Narciso; Federico, Perno Carlo; Andrea, Antinori

    2007-08-20

    Class-wide resistance (CWR) was increasingly associated with a higher risk of HIV progression after 72 months of follow-up among 1392 patients genotypic-tested after failure (AIDS risk 13% for no CWR to 34% for three CWR; AIDS/death risk 21-54%). At multivariate analysis, the detection of two and three CWR was significantly associated with a two and threefold increased risk, respectively, of death and AIDS/death, suggesting that extended resistance is a marker of disease progression in long-term observation.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in a Pseudomonas putida Strain Isolated from a Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Molina-Santiago, Carlos; Roca, Amalia; Porcel, Mario; de la Torre, Jesús; Segura, Ana; Plesiat, Patrick; Jeannot, Katy; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2014-01-01

    Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267) kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts. PMID:24465371

  16. Genetically determined differences in the resistance to myocardial infarction in Wistar and August rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, L M; Saltykova, V A; Pshennikova, M G

    2001-06-01

    In intact August rats, the cardiac contractile function at rest was by 76% higher than in Wistar rats, while their hearts, both intact and after acute myocardial infarction, were more resistant to isometric load than the hearts of Wistar rats. Postinfarction mortality in August rats was 18% vs. 70% in Wistar rats. Adrenoreactivity of the myocardium in August rats was decreased compared to that in Wistar rats. These peculiarities can determine high resistance of August rats to myocardial infarction.

  17. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and aminoglycoside resistance determinants among carbapeneme non-susceptible Enterobacter cloacae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simultaneous resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in carbapeneme non-susceptible (CNS isolates will inevitably create problems. The present study was performed to characterize the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (QRDs and aminoglycoside resistance determinants (ARDs among the CNS Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae isolates in a Chinese teaching hospital, and to acquire their molecular epidemiological characteristics. METHODS: The β-lactamases genes (including class A carbapenemase genes bla(KPC and bla(SME, metallo-β-lactamase genes (MBLs bla(IMP, bla(VIM and bla(NDM, and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs,bla(CTX-M, bla(TEM and bla(SHV, QRDs (including qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and aac(6'-Ib-cr and ARDs (including aac(6'-Ib, armA and rmtB of these 35 isolates were determined by PCR and sequenced bidirectionally. The clonal relatedness was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. RESULTS: Of the 35 isolates, 9 (25.7% harbored a carbapenemase gene; 23 (65.7% carried ESBLs; 24 (68.6% were QRD positive; and 27 (77.1% were ARD positive. Among the 5 bla(IMP-8 positive strains, 4 (80% contained both ESBL and QRD genes, and all the 5 (100% harbored ARD genes. Of the 23 ESBLs positive isolates, 6 (26.1% were carbapenemase positive, 14 (60.9% were QRD positive, and 18 (78.3% were ARD positive. PFGE revealed genetic diversity among the 35 isolates, indicating that the high prevalence of CNS E. cloacae isolates was not caused by clonal dissemination. CONCLUSION: QRD and ARD genes were highly prevalent among the CNS E. cloacae isolates. Multiple resistant genes were co-expressed in the same isolates. The CNS E. cloacae isolate co-expressing bla(NDM-1, bla(IMP-26, qnrA1 and qnrS1 was first reported.

  18. Conjugation between quinolone-susceptible bacteria can generate mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region, inducing quinolone resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitondo-Silva, André; Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Silva, Carolina Fávero da; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2015-02-01

    Quinolones are an important group of antibacterial agents that can inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activity. DNA gyrase is responsible for maintaining bacteria in a negatively supercoiled state, being composed of subunits A and B. Topoisomerase IV is a homologue of DNA gyrase and consists of two subunits codified by the parC and parE genes. Mutations in gyrA and gyrB of DNA gyrase may confer resistance to quinolones, and the majority of resistant strains show mutations between positions 67 and 106 of gyrA, a region denoted the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). The most frequent substitutions occur at positions 83 and 87, but little is known about the mechanisms promoting appearance of mutations in the QRDR. The present study proposes that some mutations in the QRDR could be generated as a result of the natural mechanism of conjugation between bacteria in their natural habitat. This event was observed following conjugation in vitro of two different isolates of quinolone-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which transferred plasmids of different molecular weights to a recipient strain of Escherichia coli (HB101), also quinolone-susceptible, generating two different transconjugants that presented mutations in DNA gyrase and acquisition of resistance to all quinolones tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomewide Identification of Genetic Determinants of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Andreas; Becker, Tanja; Pommerenke, Claudia; Magnowska, Zofia; Jänsch, Lothar; Häussler, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance is of enormous public concern due to the increased risk of delayed treatment of infections, the increased length of hospital stays, the substantial increase in the cost of care, and the high risk of fatal outcomes. A prerequisite for the development of effective therapy alternatives is a detailed understanding of the diversity of bacterial mechanisms that underlie drug resistance, especially for problematic gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This pathogen has impressive chromosomally encoded mechanisms of intrinsic resistance, as well as the potential to mutate, gaining resistance to current antibiotics. In this study we have screened the comprehensive nonredundant Harvard PA14 library for P. aeruginosa mutants that exhibited either increased or decreased resistance against 19 antibiotics commonly used in the clinic. This approach identified several genes whose inactivation sensitized the bacteria to a broad spectrum of different antimicrobials and uncovered novel genetic determinants of resistance to various classes of antibiotics. Knowledge of the enhancement of bacterial susceptibility to existing antibiotics and of novel resistance markers or modifiers of resistance expression may lay the foundation for effective therapy alternatives and will be the basis for the development of new strategies in the control of problematic multiresistant gram-negative bacteria. PMID:19332674

  20. Rapid determination of bacterial aminoglycoside resistance in environmental samples using membrane electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liusheng; Ke, Ming; Yuan, Min; Pu, Ji; Li, Juan; Lu, Jinxing; Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, Mei; Xu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is becoming a global public health problem, such as aminoglycoside resistance encoded by the armA gene. Although many methods have been reported, rapid analysis of environmental samples is still challenging. A rapid analytical method was developed in this study to determine bacterial aminoglycoside resistance using membrane electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MESI-MS). Precursor/product-ion pairs of ArmA unique peptides were detected with minimal sample preparation. Standard peptides were synthesized and used for developing and validating the methodology, and then the method was verified by both ArmA positive and ArmA negative simulated environmental samples. A rapid method for determination of bacterial aminoglycoside resistance was developed using MESI-MS/MS. The bacterial cultural time was optimized to 2 hours, and the precision, accuracy and recovery of this method were investigated. The peptide IHSSTNER (IR-8) unique to ArmA in simulated environmental samples can be successfully identified within 3 hours. The novel assay offered a rapid method to determine bacterial aminoglycoside resistance with high sensitivity, accuracy and precision in simulated environmental samples. This method could also be applied to identify other drug-resistance proteins in clinical/environmental samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Impact of a United Kingdom-wide campaign to tackle antimicrobial resistance on self-reported knowledge and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaintarli, Katerina; Ingle, Suzanne M; Bhattacharya, Alex; Ashiru-Oredope, Diane; Oliver, Isabel; Gobin, Maya

    2016-05-12

    As part of the 2014 European Antibiotic Awareness Day plans, a new campaign called Antibiotic Guardian (AG) was launched in the United Kingdom, including an online pledge system to increase commitment from healthcare professionals and members of the public to reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The aim of this evaluation was to determine the impact of the campaign on self-reported knowledge and behaviour around AMR. An online survey was sent to 9016 Antibiotic Guardians (AGs) to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and behaviour (outcomes) following the campaign. Logistic regression models, adjusted for variables including age, sex and pledge group (pledging as member of public or as healthcare professional), were used to estimate associations between outcomes and AG characteristics. 2478 AGs responded to the survey (27.5 % response rate) of whom 1696 (68.4 %) pledged as healthcare professionals and 782 (31.6 %) as members of public (similar proportions to the total number of AGs). 96.3 % of all AGs who responded had prior knowledge of AMR. 73.5 % of participants were female and participants were most commonly between 45 and 54 years old. Two thirds (63.4 %) of participants reported always acting according to their pledge. Members of the public were more likely to act in line with their pledge than professionals (Odds Ratio (OR) =3.60, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI): 2.88-4.51). Approximately half of participants (44.5 %) (both healthcare professionals and members of public) reported that they acquired more knowledge about AMR post-campaign. People that were confused about AMR prior to the campaign acquired more knowledge after the campaign (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI: 1.36-7.09). More participants reported a sense of personal responsibility towards tackling AMR post-campaign, increasing from 58.3 % of participants pre-campaign to 70.5 % post-campaign. This study demonstrated that the campaign increased commitment to tackling AMR in both healthcare

  2. Impact of a United Kingdom-wide campaign to tackle antimicrobial resistance on self-reported knowledge and behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Chaintarli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of the 2014 European Antibiotic Awareness Day plans, a new campaign called Antibiotic Guardian (AG was launched in the United Kingdom, including an online pledge system to increase commitment from healthcare professionals and members of the public to reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR. The aim of this evaluation was to determine the impact of the campaign on self-reported knowledge and behaviour around AMR. Methods An online survey was sent to 9016 Antibiotic Guardians (AGs to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and behaviour (outcomes following the campaign. Logistic regression models, adjusted for variables including age, sex and pledge group (pledging as member of public or as healthcare professional, were used to estimate associations between outcomes and AG characteristics. Results 2478 AGs responded to the survey (27.5 % response rate of whom 1696 (68.4 % pledged as healthcare professionals and 782 (31.6 % as members of public (similar proportions to the total number of AGs. 96.3 % of all AGs who responded had prior knowledge of AMR. 73.5 % of participants were female and participants were most commonly between 45 and 54 years old. Two thirds (63.4 % of participants reported always acting according to their pledge. Members of the public were more likely to act in line with their pledge than professionals (Odds Ratio (OR =3.60, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI: 2.88-4.51. Approximately half of participants (44.5 % (both healthcare professionals and members of public reported that they acquired more knowledge about AMR post-campaign. People that were confused about AMR prior to the campaign acquired more knowledge after the campaign (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI: 1.36-7.09. More participants reported a sense of personal responsibility towards tackling AMR post-campaign, increasing from 58.3 % of participants pre-campaign to 70.5 % post-campaign. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the campaign

  3. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject comprises detecting the presence or absence of a genetic marker that is linked to a trait indicative of mastitis resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining mastitis resistance in bovine subjects, wherein mastitis resistance comprise resistance to both sub-clinical and clinical mastitis. In particular, the method of the invention involves identification of genetic markers and/or Quantitative Trait Locus...... (QTL) for the determination of mastitis resistance in a bovine subject. The determination of mastitis resistance involves resolution of the specific microsatellite status. Furthermore, the invention relates to a diagnostic kit for detection of genetic marker(s) associated with mastitis resistance....... The method and kit of the present invention can be applied for selection of bovine subjects for breeding purposes. Thus, the invention provides a method of genetically selecting bovine subjects with mastitis resistance, thereby yielding cows less prone to mastitis...

  4. Incidence, distribution, and spread of tetracycline resistance determinants and integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes among motile aeromonads from a fish farming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anja S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    isolates). In addition, 23 isolates had "empty" integrons without inserted gene cassettes. As far as OTC resistance was concerned, only 66 (30%) out of 216 resistant aeromonads could be assigned to resistance determinant class A (19 isolates), D (n = 6), or E (n = 39); three isolates contained two...... tetracycline resistance determinants (AD, AE, and DE). Forty OTC-resistant isolates containing large plasmids were selected as donors in a conjugation assay, 27 of which also contained a class I integron. Out of 17 successful R- plasmid transfers to Escherichia coli recipients, the respective integrons were...... cotransferred along with the tetracycline resistance determinants in 15 matings. Transconjugants were predominantly tetA positive (10 of 17) and contained class I integrons with two or more inserted antibiotic resistance genes. While there appeared to be a positive correlation between conjugative R...

  5. DETERMINATION OF THE SPECTRUM OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES HAVE PHENOTYPIC RESISTANT STRAINS OF PARIETAL INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN RATS BY RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukina Y.V.

    2016-06-01

    resistance to glycopeptides, particularly vancomycin. Thus, of the 46 strains studied E.faecalis, 10,87% of isolates possessed Van A genes and 8,7% - Van B. Out of 50 studied cultures E.faecium 12% were in their genotype Van A and 4% - Van B. However, the frequency of detection of genes Van A and Van B in E.faecalis strains circulating in Russia, 1,7% and 2,2%, while E.faecium - 9,3% and 11,5% respectively. Bacteria of the family Peptostreptococcaceae these genes were not identified. During the molecular genetic studies we have not detected phenotypically resistant strains that have combined carbapenemases activity. Conclusions. The findings of the research results indicate the presence of carbapenem resistance genes in strains of microorganisms families Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Pseudomonadaceae (P. aeruginosae, to cephalosporins - Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae, vancomycin - from family Enterococcaceae bacteria. Phenotypically resistant strains that have combined carbapenemases activity, not revealed. Despite the wide range of activity of appointment carbapenems, cephalosporins and vancomycin should take into account the results of determination of resistance genes causing resistance to these drugs. It is advisable to creating circulation monitoring program of antibiotic-resistant strains, including those with сarbapenemases activity in humans and in the environment.

  6. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Resistance of Some Important Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aytekin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (Abies nordmanniana, oak (Quercus robur L. black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. wood were determined and compared. The data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. The specimens were prepared according to TS 6094 standards. The dimensions of the specimens were 5x5x15cm and for all of the directions. Moreover, the specimens were conditioned at ambient room temperature and 65±2% relative humidity. The screws and nails were installed according to ASTM-D 1761 standards. Nail dimensions were 2.5mm diameter and 50 mm length, conventional screws were 4x50mm, serrated screws were 4x45mm and smart screws were 4x50mm. Results show that the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value was found in Stone pine for the serrated screw. There were no significant differences between Stone pine and oak regarding screw withdrawal resistance values. Conventional screw yielded the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value in oak, followed by Stone pine, black pine and fir. Oak wood showed the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value for the smart screw, followed by Stone pine, black pine, and fir. Oak wood showed higher nail withdrawal resistances than softwood species. It was also determined that oak shows the maximum nail withdrawal resistance in all types. The nail withdrawal resistances at the longitudinal direction are lower with respect to radial and tangential directions.

  7. Mini-Mu insertions in the tetracycline resistance determinant from Proteus mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães V.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The inducible tetracycline resistance determinant isolated from Proteus mirabilis cloned into the plasmid pACYC177 was mutagenized by insertion of a mini-Mu-lac phage in order to define the regions in the cloned sequences encoding the structural and regulatory proteins. Three different types of mutants were obtained: one lost the resistance phenotype and became Lac+; another expressed the resistance at lower levels and constitutively; the third was still dependent on induction but showed a lower minimal inhibitory concentration. The mutant phenotypes and the locations of the insertions indicate that the determinant is composed of a repressor gene and a structural gene which are not transcribed divergently as are other known tetracycline determinants isolated from Gram-negative bacteria

  8. Autosomal male determination in a spinosad-resistant housefly strain from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte H; Scott, Jeffrey G; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a global pest and has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. The insecticide spinosad plays an important role in housefly control. Females of the Danish housefly strain 791spin are threefold more resistant to spinosad than...... males in this strain. The factor responsible for spinosad resistance in the strain is unknown, but previous studies suggest a role of cytochrome P450s for detoxification of spinosad. Sex determination in the housefly is controlled by a male-determining factor (M), either located on the Y chromosome...... or on one of the five autosomes (I to V). RESULTS The authors performed a series of crosses and backcrosses, starting with cross of 791spin and the susceptible reference strain aabys (bearing morphological mutations on each autosome). These flies were evaluated for gender and bioassayed to determine levels...

  9. Molecular Phylogenetics of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 Individuals in Denmark, a Nation-Wide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    was analyzed for TDR, and molecular-epidemiological links and progression of the infection were described based on data from standardized questionnaires, the prospective Danish HIV Cohort Study, and by phylogenetic analysis. Eighty-five individuals were found to be infected with virus harboring mutations......Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009....... Phylogenetic analysis confirmed 12 transmission chains involving 37 TDR individuals. Of these 21 were also documented epidemiologically. The virus included in the transmission chain carried similar resistance mutations to the TDR index case, whereas controls chains from index cases without TDR were generally...

  10. Genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Gram positive bacteria from organic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ortega Morente, Elena; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-02-17

    Bacterial biocide resistance is becoming a matter of concern. In the present study, a collection of biocide-resistant, Gram-positive bacteria from organic foods (including 11 isolates from genus Bacillus, 25 from Enterococcus and 10 from Staphylococcus) were analyzed for genes associated to biocide resistance efflux pumps and antibiotic resistance. The only qac-genes detected were qacA/B (one Bacillus cereus isolate) and smr (one B. cereus and two Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates). Efflux pump genes efrA and efrB genes were detected in Staphylococcus (60% of isolates), Bacillus (54.54%) and Enterococcus (24%); sugE was detected in Enterococcus (20%) and in one Bacillus licheniformis; mepA was detected in Staphylococcus (60%) and in one Enterococcus isolate (which also carried mdeA), and norE gene was detected only in one Enterococcus faecium and one S. saprophyticus isolate. An amplicon for acrB efflux pump was detected in all but one isolate. When minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined, it was found that the addition of reserpine reduced the MICs by eight fold for most of the biocides and isolates, corroborating the role of efflux pumps in biocide resistance. Erythromycin resistance gene ermB was detected in 90% of Bacillus isolates, and in one Staphylococcus, while ereA was detected only in one Bacillus and one Staphyloccus, and ereB only in one Staphylococcus. The ATP-dependent msrA gene (which confers resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramins) was detected in 60% of Bacillus isolates and in all staphylococci, which in addition carried msrB. The lincosamide and streptogramin A resistance gene lsa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%), Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%) isolates. The aminoglycoside resistance determinant aph (3_)-IIIa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%) and Bacillus (one isolate), aph(2_)-1d in Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%), aph(2_)-Ib in Bacillus (one isolate), and the bifunctional aac

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5, a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30 were identified, with ten SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  13. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Song, Qijian; Shi, Ainong; Li, Song; Zhang, Mengchen; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs) IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2) in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  14. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qin

    Full Text Available Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2 in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  15. Molecular Phylogenetics of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 Individuals in Denmark, a Nation-Wide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    was analyzed for TDR, and molecular-epidemiological links and progression of the infection were described based on data from standardized questionnaires, the prospective Danish HIV Cohort Study, and by phylogenetic analysis. Eighty-five individuals were found to be infected with virus harboring mutations...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...

  16. Genome-wide association analysis reveals loci associated with resistance against Piscirickettsia salmonis in two Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Katharina; Lhorente, Jean P; López, María E; Bassini, Liane; Naswa, Sudhir; Deeb, Nader; Di Genova, Alex; Maass, Alejandro; Davidson, William S; Yáñez, José M

    2015-10-24

    Pisciricketssia salmonis is the causal agent of Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome (SRS), which affects salmon species and causes severe economic losses. Selective breeding for disease resistance represents one approach for controlling SRS in farmed Atlantic salmon. Knowledge concerning the architecture of the resistance trait is needed before deciding on the most appropriate approach to enhance artificial selection for P. salmonis resistance in Atlantic salmon. The purpose of the study was to dissect the genetic variation in the resistance to this pathogen in Atlantic salmon. 2,601 Atlantic salmon smolts were experimentally challenged against P. salmonis by means of intra-peritoneal injection. These smolts were the progeny of 40 sires and 118 dams from a Chilean breeding population. Mortalities were recorded daily and the experiment ended at day 40 post-inoculation. Fish were genotyped using a 50K Affymetrix® Axiom® myDesignTM Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping Array. A Genome Wide Association Analysis was performed on data from the challenged fish. Linear regression and logistic regression models were tested. Genome Wide Association Analysis indicated that resistance to P. salmonis is a moderately polygenic trait. There were five SNPs in chromosomes Ssa01 and Ssa17 significantly associated with the traits analysed. The proportion of the phenotypic variance explained by each marker is small, ranging from 0.007 to 0.045. Candidate genes including interleukin receptors and fucosyltransferase have been found to be physically linked with these genetic markers and may play an important role in the differential immune response against this pathogen. Due to the small amount of variance explained by each significant marker we conclude that genetic resistance to this pathogen can be more efficiently improved with the implementation of genetic evaluations incorporating genotype information from a dense SNP array.

  17. Comparison of Several Methods for Determining the Internal Resistance of Lithium Ion Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Schweiger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal resistance is the key parameter for determining power, energy efficiency and lost heat of a lithium ion cell. Precise knowledge of this value is vital for designing battery systems for automotive applications. Internal resistance of a cell was determined by current step methods, AC (alternating current methods, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and thermal loss methods. The outcomes of these measurements have been compared with each other. If charge or discharge of the cell is limited, current step methods provide the same results as energy loss methods.

  18. Wide range local resistance imaging on fragile materials by conducting probe atomic force microscopy in intermittent contact mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchiola, Aymeric; Chrétien, Pascal; Schneegans, Olivier; Mencaraglia, Denis; Houzé, Frédéric; Delprat, Sophie; Bouzehouane, Karim; Seneor, Pierre; Mattana, Richard; Tatay, Sergio; Geffroy, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    An imaging technique associating a slowly intermittent contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a home-made multi-purpose resistance sensing device is presented. It aims at extending the widespread resistance measurements classically operated in contact mode AFM to broaden their application fields to soft materials (molecular electronics, biology) and fragile or weakly anchored nano-objects, for which nanoscale electrical characterization is highly demanded and often proves to be a challenging task in contact mode. Compared with the state of the art concerning less aggressive solutions for AFM electrical imaging, our technique brings a significantly wider range of resistance measurement (over 10 decades) without any manual switching, which is a major advantage for the characterization of materials with large on-sample resistance variations. After describing the basics of the set-up, we report on preliminary investigations focused on academic samples of self-assembled monolayers with various thicknesses as a demonstrator of the imaging capabilities of our instrument, from qualitative and semi-quantitative viewpoints. Then two application examples are presented, regarding an organic photovoltaic thin film and an array of individual vertical carbon nanotubes. Both attest the relevance of the technique for the control and optimization of technological processes.

  19. Wide range local resistance imaging on fragile materials by conducting probe atomic force microscopy in intermittent contact mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchiola, Aymeric [Laboratoire de Génie électrique et électronique de Paris (GeePs), UMR 8507 CNRS-CentraleSupélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Concept Scientific Instruments, ZA de Courtaboeuf, 2 rue de la Terre de Feu, 91940 Les Ulis (France); Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Chrétien, Pascal; Schneegans, Olivier; Mencaraglia, Denis; Houzé, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.houze@geeps.centralesupelec.fr [Laboratoire de Génie électrique et électronique de Paris (GeePs), UMR 8507 CNRS-CentraleSupélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Delprat, Sophie [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); UPMC, Université Paris 06, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Bouzehouane, Karim; Seneor, Pierre; Mattana, Richard [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Tatay, Sergio [Molecular Science Institute, University of Valencia, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Geffroy, Bernard [Lab. Physique des Interfaces et Couches minces (PICM), UMR 7647 CNRS-École polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lab. d' Innovation en Chimie des Surfaces et Nanosciences (LICSEN), NIMBE UMR 3685 CNRS-CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2016-06-13

    An imaging technique associating a slowly intermittent contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a home-made multi-purpose resistance sensing device is presented. It aims at extending the widespread resistance measurements classically operated in contact mode AFM to broaden their application fields to soft materials (molecular electronics, biology) and fragile or weakly anchored nano-objects, for which nanoscale electrical characterization is highly demanded and often proves to be a challenging task in contact mode. Compared with the state of the art concerning less aggressive solutions for AFM electrical imaging, our technique brings a significantly wider range of resistance measurement (over 10 decades) without any manual switching, which is a major advantage for the characterization of materials with large on-sample resistance variations. After describing the basics of the set-up, we report on preliminary investigations focused on academic samples of self-assembled monolayers with various thicknesses as a demonstrator of the imaging capabilities of our instrument, from qualitative and semi-quantitative viewpoints. Then two application examples are presented, regarding an organic photovoltaic thin film and an array of individual vertical carbon nanotubes. Both attest the relevance of the technique for the control and optimization of technological processes.

  20. Genome-wide association studies identify 25 genetic loci associated with resistance to Bacterial Cold Water Disease in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant mortality and economic losses in salmonids aquaculture. In previous studies we have identified moderate-large effect QTL for BCWD resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the recent availability of a high density SNP array and...

  1. Prevalence of Genotypes That Determine Resistance of Staphylococci to Macrolides and Lincosamides in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mišić

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (MLS resistance genes are responsible for resistance to these antibiotics in Staphylococcus infections. The purpose of the study was to analyze the distribution of the MLS resistance genes in community- and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus isolates. The MLS resistance phenotypes [constitutive resistance to macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B (cMLSb, inducible resistance to macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B (iMLSb, resistance to macrolide/macrolide–streptogramin B (M/MSb, and resistance to lincosamide–streptogramin A/streptogramin B (LSa/b] were determined by double-disc diffusion method. The presence of the MLS resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA/B, lnuA, lnuB, and lsaA were determined by end-point polymerase chain reaction in 179 isolates of staphylococci collected during 1-year period at the Center for Microbiology of Public Health Institute in Vranje. The most frequent MLS phenotype among staphylococcal isolates, both community-acquired and hospital-acquired, was iMLSb (33.4%. The second most frequent was M/MSb (17.6% with statistically significantly higher number of hospital-acquired staphylococcal isolates (p < 0.05. MLS resistance was mostly determined by the presence of msrA/B (35.0% and ermC (20.8% genes. Examined phenotypes were mostly determined by the presence of one gene, especially by msrA/B (26.3% and ermC (14.5%, but 15.6% was determined by a combination of two or more genes. M/MSb phenotype was the most frequently encoded by msrA/B (95.6% gene, LSa/b phenotype by lnuA (56.3% gene, and iMLSb phenotype by ermC (29.4% and ermA (25.5% genes. Although cMLSb phenotype was mostly determined by the presence of ermC (28.9%, combinations of two or more genes have been present too. This pattern was particularly recorded in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA (58.3% and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS (90.9% isolates with c

  2. Standard test method for determination of resistance to stable crack extension under low-constraint conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This standard covers the determination of the resistance to stable crack extension in metallic materials in terms of the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOAc), ψc and/or the crack-opening displacement (COD), δ5 resistance curve (1). This method applies specifically to fatigue pre-cracked specimens that exhibit low constraint (crack-length-to-thickness and un-cracked ligament-to-thickness ratios greater than or equal to 4) and that are tested under slowly increasing remote applied displacement. The recommended specimens are the compact-tension, C(T), and middle-crack-tension, M(T), specimens. The fracture resistance determined in accordance with this standard is measured as ψc (critical CTOA value) and/or δ5 (critical COD resistance curve) as a function of crack extension. Both fracture resistance parameters are characterized using either a single-specimen or multiple-specimen procedures. These fracture quantities are determined under the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. Influences of environment a...

  3. Application of Genome Wide Association and Genomic Prediction for Improvement of Cacao Productivity and Resistance to Black and Frosty Pod Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alberto Romero Navarro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a highly valued and palatable confectionery product. Chocolate is primarily made from the processed seeds of the tree species Theobroma cacao. Cacao cultivation is highly relevant for small-holder farmers throughout the tropics, yet its productivity remains limited by low yields and widespread pathogens. A panel of 148 improved cacao clones was assembled based on productivity and disease resistance, and phenotypic single-tree replicated clonal evaluation was performed for 8 years. Using high-density markers, the diversity of clones was expressed relative to 10 known ancestral cacao populations, and significant effects of ancestry were observed in productivity and disease resistance. Genome-wide association (GWA was performed, and six markers were significantly associated with frosty pod disease resistance. In addition, genomic selection was performed, and consistent with the observed extensive linkage disequilibrium, high predictive ability was observed at low marker densities for all traits. Finally, quantitative trait locus mapping and differential expression analysis of two cultivars with contrasting disease phenotypes were performed to identify genes underlying frosty pod disease resistance, identifying a significant quantitative trait locus and 35 differentially expressed genes using two independent differential expression analyses. These results indicate that in breeding populations of heterozygous and recently admixed individuals, mapping approaches can be used for low complexity traits like pod color cacao, or in other species single gene disease resistance, however genomic selection for quantitative traits remains highly effective relative to mapping. Our results can help guide the breeding process for sustainable improved cacao productivity.

  4. The streptomycin-sulfadiazine-tetracycline antimicrobial resistance element of calf-adapted Escherichia coli is widely distributed among isolates from Washington state cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, Artashes R; Besser, Thomas E; Call, Douglas R

    2008-01-01

    Association of specific antimicrobial resistance patterns with unrelated selective traits has long been implicated in the maintenance of antimicrobial resistance in a population. Previously we demonstrated that Escherichia coli strains with a specific resistance pattern (resistant to streptomycin, sulfadiazine, and tetracycline [SSuT]) have a selective advantage in dairy calf intestinal environments and in the presence of a milk supplement commonly fed to the calves. In the present study we identified the sequence of the genetic element that confers the SSuT phenotype and show that this element is present in a genetically diverse group of E. coli isolates, as assessed by macrorestriction digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This element was also found in E. coli isolates from 18 different cattle farms in Washington State. Using in vitro competition experiments we further demonstrated that SSuT strains from 17 of 18 farms were able to outcompete pansusceptible strains. In a separate set of experiments, we were able to transfer the antimicrobial resistance phenotype by electroporation to a laboratory strain of E. coli (DH10B), making that new strain more competitive during in vitro competition with the parental DH10B strain. These data indicate that a relatively large genetic element conferring the SSuT phenotype is widely distributed in E. coli from cattle in Washington State. Furthermore, our results indicate that this element is responsible for maintenance of these traits owing to linkage to genetic traits that confer a selective advantage in the intestinal lumens of dairy calves.

  5. Socioeconomic Determinants of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella Infections in Bangladeshi Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randon J. Gruninger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigella species (spp. are a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children worldwide. The recent emergence of quinolone-resistant Shigella spp. gives cause for concern, and South Asia has been identified as a reservoir for global spread. The influence of socioeconomic status on antimicrobial resistance in developing countries, such as those in South Asia, remains unknown. Methods: We used data collected from 2009 to 2014 from a hospital specializing in the treatment of diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to determine the relationship between ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. isolates and measures of socioeconomic status in Bangladeshi children less than 5 years of age. Results: We found 2.7% (230/8, 672 of children who presented with diarrhea had Shigella spp. isolated from their stool, and 50% (115/230 had resistance to ciprofloxacin. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that children from families where the father’s income was in the highest quintile had significantly higher odds of having ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. compared to children in the lowest quintile (OR = 6.1, CI 1.9-19. Factors protective against the development of resistance included access to improved sanitation (OR = 0.27, CI 0.11-0.7, and improved water sources (OR = 0.48, CI 0.25-0.92. We did not find a relationship between ciprofloxacin resistance and other proxies for socioeconomic status, including the presence of animals in the home, nutritional status, paternal education level, and the number of family members in the home. Conclusions: Although the associations between wealth and antimicrobial resistance are not fully understood, possible explanations include increased access and use of antibiotics, greater access to healthcare facilities and thus resistant pathogens, or greater consumption of commercially produced foods prepared with antibiotics.

  6. Genome-wide identification and characterization of NB-ARC resistant genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and their expression during leaf rust infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saket; Kazmi, Andaleeb Z; Ahmed, Zainab; Roychowdhury, Gargi; Kumari, Veena; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-07-01

    NB-ARC domain-containing resistance genes from the wheat genome were identified, characterized and localized on chromosome arms that displayed differential yet positive response during incompatible and compatible leaf rust interactions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop; however, its production is affected severely by numerous diseases including rusts. An efficient, cost-effective and ecologically viable approach to control pathogens is through host resistance. In wheat, high numbers of resistance loci are present but only few have been identified and cloned. A comprehensive analysis of the NB-ARC-containing genes in complete wheat genome was accomplished in this study. Complete NB-ARC encoding genes were mined from the Ensembl Plants database to predict 604 NB-ARC containing sequences using the HMM approach. Genome-wide analysis of orthologous clusters in the NB-ARC-containing sequences of wheat and other members of the Poaceae family revealed maximum homology with Oryza sativa indica and Brachypodium distachyon. The identification of overlap between orthologous clusters enabled the elucidation of the function and evolution of resistance proteins. The distributions of the NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were found to be balanced among the three wheat sub-genomes. Wheat chromosome arms 4AL and 7BL had the most NB-ARC domain-containing contigs. The spatio-temporal expression profiling studies exemplified the positive role of these genes in resistant and susceptible wheat plants during incompatible and compatible interaction in response to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. Two NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were modelled in silico, cloned and sequenced to analyze their fine structures. The data obtained in this study will augment isolation, characterization and application NB-ARC resistance genes in marker-assisted selection based breeding programs for improving rust resistance in wheat.

  7. Fine mapping of a Phytophthora-resistance gene RpsWY in soybean (Glycine max L.) by high-throughput genome-wide sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Ren, Hailong; Xia, Qiuju; Song, Enliang; Tan, Zhiyuan; Li, Shuxian; Zhang, Gengyun; Nian, Hai

    2017-05-01

    Using a combination of phenotypic screening, genetic and statistical analyses, and high-throughput genome-wide sequencing, we have finely mapped a dominant Phytophthora resistance gene in soybean cultivar Wayao. Phytophthora root rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important soil-borne diseases in many soybean-production regions in the world. Identification of resistant gene(s) and incorporating them into elite varieties are an effective way for breeding to prevent soybean from being harmed by this disease. Two soybean populations of 191 F 2 individuals and 196 F 7:8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed to map Rps gene by crossing a susceptible cultivar Huachun 2 with the resistant cultivar Wayao. Genetic analysis of the F 2 population indicated that PRR resistance in Wayao was controlled by a single dominant gene, temporarily named RpsWY, which was mapped on chromosome 3. A high-density genetic linkage bin map was constructed using 3469 recombination bins of the RILs to explore the candidate genes by the high-throughput genome-wide sequencing. The results of genotypic analysis showed that the RpsWY gene was located in bin 401 between 4466230 and 4502773 bp on chromosome 3 through line 71 and 100 of the RILs. Four predicted genes (Glyma03g04350, Glyma03g04360, Glyma03g04370, and Glyma03g04380) were found at the narrowed region of 36.5 kb in bin 401. These results suggest that the high-throughput genome-wide resequencing is an effective method to fine map PRR candidate genes.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study with Sequence Variants Identifies Candidate Genes for Mastitis Resistance in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Bendixen, Christian

    component in a linear mixed model. A total of 90 bulls’ whole genomes were sequenced with a coverage > 10X. Sequence reads were aligned to the cattle reference genome and polymorphisms in candidate regions were identified when one or more samples differed from the reference sequence. The polymorphisms...... Factor Receptor Alpha (LIFR) emerged as a strong candidate gene for mastitis resistance. The LIFR gene is involved in acute phase response and is expressed in saliva and mammary gland....

  9. Effectiveness of Hospital-Wide Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection Control Policies Differs by Ward Specialty

    OpenAIRE

    Sadsad, Rosemarie; Sintchenko, Vitali; McDonnell, Geoff D.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical war...

  10. Novel chromosome-encoded erm(47) determinant responsible for constitutive MLSB resistance in Helcococcus kunzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, François; Isnard, Christophe; Bucquet, Fiona; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Burrus, Vincent; Cattoir, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the determinant responsible for erythromycin resistance in Helcococcus kunzii clinical isolate UCN99 and to characterize the genetic support and environment of this novel gene. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to EUCAST guidelines. The entire genome sequence of H. kunzii UCN99 was determined using a 454/Roche GS Junior sequencer. The fragment encompassing the new resistance gene and its own promoter was cloned into the pAT29 shuttle vector and the recombinant plasmid pAT29Ωerm(47) was expressed in both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The transcription start site (TSS) was experimentally determined by 5' RACE-PCR. UCN99 exhibited a constitutive macrolide/lincosamide/streptogramin B (MLS B ) resistance phenotype, suggesting the presence of an Erm protein. WGS allowed the identification of a novel gene, named erm(47), encoding a protein sharing 44%-48% amino acid identity with known Erm methylases. In both S. aureus and S. agalactiae, the introduction of pAT29Ωerm(47) conferred a significant increase (≥16-fold) in MICs of all macrolides and lincosamides tested, as well as a 4-fold increase in MICs of quinupristin (streptogramin B), confirming the MLS B resistance. The TSS identification revealed the presence of a short leader peptide, potentially implicated in a translational attenuation mechanism. It was also demonstrated that erm(47) was harboured by a 81 kb genomic island integrated into a chromosomal gene. This is the first description of a novel MLS B resistance determinant, named erm(47). The prevalence of this gene among Gram-positive cocci must be further investigated to determine its clinical significance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A Bioassay for Determining Resistance Levels in Tarnished Plant Bug Populations to Neonicotinoid Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory bioassay was developed and used to test field populations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), for resistance development to the neonicitinoid insecticides imidacloprid (Trimax®) and thiamethoxam (Centric®). The bioassay determined LC50 values by feeding...

  12. Determination of Soil Moisture Content using Laboratory Experimental and Field Electrical Resistivity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Fauziah, A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Rais, Y.; Dan, M. F. Md; Azhar, A. T. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of civil engineering structure require comprehensive geotechnical data obtained from site investigation. In the past, conventional site investigation was heavily related to drilling techniques thus suffer from several limitations such as time consuming, expensive and limited data collection. Consequently, this study presents determination of soil moisture content using laboratory experimental and field electrical resistivity values (ERV). Field and laboratory electrical resistivity (ER) test were performed using ABEM SAS4000 and Nilsson400 soil resistance meter. Soil sample used for resistivity test was tested for characterization test specifically on particle size distribution and moisture content test according to BS1377 (1990). Field ER data was processed using RES2DINV software while laboratory ER data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. Correlation of ERV and moisture content shows some medium relationship due to its r = 0.506. Moreover, coefficient of determination, R2 analyzed has demonstrate that the statistical correlation obtain was very good due to its R2 value of 0.9382. In order to determine soil moisture content based on statistical correlation (w = 110.68ρ-0.347), correction factor, C was established through laboratory and field ERV given as 19.27. Finally, this study has shown that soil basic geotechnical properties with particular reference to water content was applicably determined using integration of laboratory and field ERV data analysis thus able to compliment conventional approach due to its economic, fast and wider data coverage.

  13. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  14. Antibiotic Resistance Determinant-Focused Acinetobacter baumannii Vaccine Designed Using Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Ni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most influential and troublesome human pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii has emerged with many multidrug-resistant strains. After collecting 33 complete A. baumannii genomes and 84 representative antibiotic resistance determinants, we used the Vaxign reverse vaccinology approach to predict classical type vaccine candidates against A. baumannii infections and new type vaccine candidates against antibiotic resistance. Our genome analysis identified 35 outer membrane or extracellular adhesins that are conserved among all 33 genomes, have no human protein homology, and have less than 2 transmembrane helices. These 35 antigens include 11 TonB dependent receptors, 8 porins, 7 efflux pump proteins, and 2 fimbrial proteins (FilF and CAM87009.1. CAM86003.1 was predicted to be an adhesin outer membrane protein absent from 3 antibiotic-sensitive strains and conserved in 21 antibiotic-resistant strains. Feasible anti-resistance vaccine candidates also include one extracellular protein (QnrA, 3 RND type outer membrane efflux pump proteins, and 3 CTX-M type β-lactamases. Among 39 β-lactamases, A. baumannii CTX-M-2, -5, and -43 enzymes are predicted as adhesins and better vaccine candidates than other β-lactamases to induce preventive immunity and enhance antibiotic treatments. This report represents the first reverse vaccinology study to systematically predict vaccine antigen candidates against antibiotic resistance for a microbial pathogen.

  15. Antibiotic Resistance Determinant-Focused Acinetobacter baumannii Vaccine Designed Using Reverse Vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhaohui; Chen, Yan; Ong, Edison; He, Yongqun

    2017-02-21

    As one of the most influential and troublesome human pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii ( A. baumannii ) has emerged with many multidrug-resistant strains. After collecting 33 complete A. baumannii genomes and 84 representative antibiotic resistance determinants, we used the Vaxign reverse vaccinology approach to predict classical type vaccine candidates against A. baumannii infections and new type vaccine candidates against antibiotic resistance. Our genome analysis identified 35 outer membrane or extracellular adhesins that are conserved among all 33 genomes, have no human protein homology, and have less than 2 transmembrane helices. These 35 antigens include 11 TonB dependent receptors, 8 porins, 7 efflux pump proteins, and 2 fimbrial proteins (FilF and CAM87009.1). CAM86003.1 was predicted to be an adhesin outer membrane protein absent from 3 antibiotic-sensitive strains and conserved in 21 antibiotic-resistant strains. Feasible anti-resistance vaccine candidates also include one extracellular protein (QnrA), 3 RND type outer membrane efflux pump proteins, and 3 CTX-M type β-lactamases. Among 39 β-lactamases, A. baumannii CTX-M-2, -5, and -43 enzymes are predicted as adhesins and better vaccine candidates than other β-lactamases to induce preventive immunity and enhance antibiotic treatments. This report represents the first reverse vaccinology study to systematically predict vaccine antigen candidates against antibiotic resistance for a microbial pathogen.

  16. Significance of Coexisting Mutations on Determination of the Degree of Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Galbokka Hewage Roshanthi Eranga; Wijesundera, Sandhya Sulochana; Vidanagama, Dhammika; Adikaram, Chamila Priyangani; Perera, Jennifer

    2018-04-23

    The emergence and spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) pose a threat to TB control in Sri Lanka. Isoniazid (INH) is a key element of the first-line anti-TB treatment regimen. Resistance to INH is mainly associated with point mutations in katG, inhA, and ahpC genes. The objective of this study was to determine mutations of these three genes in INH-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) strains in Sri Lanka. Complete nucleotide sequence of the three genes was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to DNA sequencing. Point mutations in the katG gene were identified in 93% isolates, of which the majority (78.6%) were at codon 315. Mutations at codons 212 and 293 of the katG gene have not been reported previously. Novel mutations were recognized in the promoter region of the inhA gene (C deletion at -34), fabG1 gene (codon 27), and ahpC gene (codon 39). Single S315T mutation in the katG gene led to a high level of resistance, while a low level of resistance with high frequency (41%) was observed when katG codon 315 coexisted with the mutation at codon 463. Since most of the observed mutations of all three genes coexisted with the katG315 mutation, screening of katG315 mutations will be a useful marker for molecular detection of INH resistance of MTb in Sri Lanka.

  17. Determination of the way resistance coefficient using a trailer’s method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pérez Gálvez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The fuel consumption of the ground vehicle transportations constitutes an important part of the total fuel consumption of the world. There are many factors related to this fuel consumption and several ways to study it. The drive cycles based on the mathematical modeling are tools to understand, to estimate and to predict the vehicle fuel consumption. Objective: Usually the simulating is most exact when the mathematical models are solved with the real profiles of way resistance coefficient. For that reason, the experimental determination of the coefficient of resistance of the road is the objective of this research. Methodology: A trailer was designed and built and statically and, in order to know the features of the systems that are involved in the coefficient measuring process, a group of experiments of static and dynamic was conducted. Later, a road sector for validation was calibrated and then others road with variation in slope and road surface was studied. Results: This method is able to measure the way resistance coefficient that corresponding with road conditions of values of rolling resistance of 0,008 - 0,02 (made of asphalt or cement and slopes of 0-12o. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that this method is accurate and precise for the determination of the way resistance coefficient.

  18. Insulin Sensitivity Determines Effects of Insulin and Meal Ingestion on Systemic Vascular Resistance in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; Meijer, Rick I; Eringa, Etto C; Hoekstra, Trynke; Smulders, Yvo M; Serné, Erik H

    2016-01-01

    In addition to insulin's metabolic actions, insulin can dilate arterioles which increase blood flow to metabolically active tissues. This effect is blunted in insulin-resistant subjects. Insulin's effect on SVR, determined by resistance arterioles, has, however, rarely been examined directly. We determined the effects of both hyperinsulinemia and a mixed meal on SVR and its relationship with insulin sensitivity. Thirty-seven lean and obese women underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and 24 obese volunteers underwent a mixed-meal test. SVR was assessed using CPP before and during hyperinsulinemia as well as before and 60 and 120 minutes after a meal. SVR decreased significantly during hyperinsulinemia (-13%; p Insulin decreased SVR more strongly in insulin-sensitive individuals (standardized β: -0.44; p = 0.01). In addition, SVR at 60 minutes after meal ingestion was inversely related to the Matsuda index (β: -0.39; p = 0.04) and the change in postprandial SVR was directly related to postprandial glycemia (β: 0.53; p insulin resistance. This suggests that resistance to insulin-induced vasodilatation contributes to regulation of vascular resistance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of trace elements in tuna fish homogenate sample IAEA-350

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, L.D.; Oregioni, B.; Horvat, M.

    1992-12-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine biological samples is an important aspect of marine pollution studies, especially regarding studies of human exposure to toxic elements through sea food consumption. Past intercomparison studies conducted by the Marine Environment Laboratory of IAEA (formerly the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity) have focused upon various marine organisms including fish, bivalves and crustaceans. The present intercalibration exercise was designed in order to satisfy the increased demand for certified reference materials of various origins and the wide range of parameters that should be studied. Additionally, different instrumental techniques, both nuclear and non-nuclear, were compared, and evaluated. By statistically examining the data from this study, the material can be certified for future use as a reference material. The present report presents the entire experimental data set ana a statistical evaluation of the results for each parameter. It should enable individual participants to assess their performance and make appropriate modifications to their laboratory's analytical procedures where necessary. Additionally, a graphical evaluation is made of the data for parameters where a consensus value could not easily be achieved in order to examine the source of any systematic errors. The exercise was designed to satisfy the requirements of participants in IAEA's Analytical Quality Assurance Service as well as laboratories involved in UNEP's Regional Seas Programme and similar activities conducted within the auspices of GIPME (Global Investigations of Pollution in the Marine Environment)

  20. Thymidylate synthase expression determines pemetrexed targets and resistance development in tumour cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitziber Buqué

    Full Text Available Although treatment options for cancer patients are increasing every year, the drug resistance problem remains very present. It is very difficult to find a drug that acts equally on tumours of the same histology as the individual's genetic characteristics often determine the response to treatment. Furthermore, tumours that initially respond to anti-tumour therapy are able to adapt and develop resistance to the drug, while others do not. In addition, this usually implies resistance development to agents to which the cells have not been exposed, a phenomenon called cross-resistance or multidrug resistance. Given this situation, it has been suggested that the most appropriate treatment would be able to act in parallel on multiple pathways constitutively altered in tumour cells. Pemetrexed is a multitargeted antifolate that exerts its activity against folate-dependent enzymes involved in de novo pyrimidine and purine synthesis. It is currently in use in combination with cisplatin against malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer with favourable results. By real-time RT-PCR gene expression assays and restoration viability assays we demonstrated that Pemetrexed targets folate-dependent enzymes involved in de novo biosynthesis of purines differently depending on the intrinsic genetic characteristics of the tumour. These differences did not, however, interfere either with the initial response to the drug or with the activation of apoptotic pathways. In addition, these genetic fingerprints can differentiate two groups of tumours: those capable of developing resistance to antifolate, and not capable. These results may be useful to employ targets gene expression as resistance markers, a valuable tool for identifying patients likely to receive combination therapy to prevent the development of resistance.

  1. Phenotypic and Genome-Wide Analysis of an Antibiotic-Resistant Small Colony Variant (SCV) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing; Tarighi, Saeed; Dötsch, Andreas; Häussler, Susanne; Müsken, Mathias; Wright, Victoria J.; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Haenen, Steven; Boerjan, Bart; Bogaerts, Annelies; Vierstraete, Evy; Verleyen, Peter; Schoofs, Liliane; Willaert, Ronnie; De Groote, Valérie N.; Michiels, Jan; Vercammen, Ken; Crabbé, Aurélie; Cornelis, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Background Small colony variants (SCVs) are slow-growing bacteria, which often show increased resistance to antibiotics and cause latent or recurrent infections. It is therefore important to understand the mechanisms at the basis of this phenotypic switch. Methodology/Principal Findings One SCV (termed PAO-SCV) was isolated, showing high resistance to gentamicin and to the cephalosporine cefotaxime. PAO-SCV was prone to reversion as evidenced by emergence of large colonies with a frequency of 10−5 on media without antibiotics while it was stably maintained in presence of gentamicin. PAO-SCV showed a delayed growth, defective motility, and strongly reduced levels of the quorum sensing Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Whole genome expression analysis further suggested a multi-layered antibiotic resistance mechanism, including simultaneous over-expression of two drug efflux pumps (MexAB-OprM, MexXY-OprM), the LPS modification operon arnBCADTEF, and the PhoP-PhoQ two-component system. Conversely, the genes for the synthesis of PQS were strongly down-regulated in PAO-SCV. Finally, genomic analysis revealed the presence of mutations in phoP and phoQ genes as well as in the mexZ gene encoding a repressor of the mexXY and mexAB-oprM genes. Only one mutation occurred only in REV, at nucleotide 1020 of the tufA gene, a paralog of tufB, both encoding the elongation factor Tu, causing a change of the rarely used aspartic acid codon GAU to the more common GAC, possibly causing an increase of tufA mRNA translation. High expression of phoP and phoQ was confirmed for the SCV variant while the revertant showed expression levels reduced to wild-type levels. Conclusions By combining data coming from phenotypic, gene expression and proteome analysis, we could demonstrate that resistance to aminoglycosides in one SCV mutant is multifactorial including overexpression of efflux mechanisms, LPS modification and is accompanied by a drastic down-regulation of the Pseudomonas quinolone

  2. Phenotypic and genome-wide analysis of an antibiotic-resistant small colony variant (SCV of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wei

    Full Text Available Small colony variants (SCVs are slow-growing bacteria, which often show increased resistance to antibiotics and cause latent or recurrent infections. It is therefore important to understand the mechanisms at the basis of this phenotypic switch.One SCV (termed PAO-SCV was isolated, showing high resistance to gentamicin and to the cephalosporine cefotaxime. PAO-SCV was prone to reversion as evidenced by emergence of large colonies with a frequency of 10(-5 on media without antibiotics while it was stably maintained in presence of gentamicin. PAO-SCV showed a delayed growth, defective motility, and strongly reduced levels of the quorum sensing Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS. Whole genome expression analysis further suggested a multi-layered antibiotic resistance mechanism, including simultaneous over-expression of two drug efflux pumps (MexAB-OprM, MexXY-OprM, the LPS modification operon arnBCADTEF, and the PhoP-PhoQ two-component system. Conversely, the genes for the synthesis of PQS were strongly down-regulated in PAO-SCV. Finally, genomic analysis revealed the presence of mutations in phoP and phoQ genes as well as in the mexZ gene encoding a repressor of the mexXY and mexAB-oprM genes. Only one mutation occurred only in REV, at nucleotide 1020 of the tufA gene, a paralog of tufB, both encoding the elongation factor Tu, causing a change of the rarely used aspartic acid codon GAU to the more common GAC, possibly causing an increase of tufA mRNA translation. High expression of phoP and phoQ was confirmed for the SCV variant while the revertant showed expression levels reduced to wild-type levels.By combining data coming from phenotypic, gene expression and proteome analysis, we could demonstrate that resistance to aminoglycosides in one SCV mutant is multifactorial including overexpression of efflux mechanisms, LPS modification and is accompanied by a drastic down-regulation of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal quorum sensing system.

  3. Use of the azimuthal resistivity technique for determination of regional azimuth of transmissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Many bedrock units contain joint sets that commonly act as preferred paths for the movement of water, electrical charge, and possible contaminants associated with production or transit of crude oil or refined products. To facilitate the development of remediation programs, a need exists to reliably determine regional-scale properties of these joint sets: azimuth of transmissivity ellipse, dominant set, and trend(s). The surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method used for local in situ studies can be a noninvasive, reliable, efficient, and relatively cost-effective method for regional studies. The azimuthal resistivity survey method combines the use of standard resistivity equipment with a Wenner array rotated about a fixed center point, at selected degree intervals, which yields an apparent resistivity ellipse from which joint-set orientation can be determined. Regional application of the azimuthal survey method was tested at 17 sites in an approximately 500 km2 (193 mi2) area around Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with less than 15m (50 ft) overburden above the dolomite. Results of 26 azimuthal surveys were compared and determined to be consistent with the results of two other methods: direct observation of joint-set orientation and transmissivity ellipses from multiple-well-aquifer tests. The average of joint-set trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 2.5?? of the average of joint-set trend determined by direct observation of major joint sets at 24 sites. The average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined by azimuthal surveys is within 5.7?? of the average of maximum of transmissivity trend determined for 14 multiple-well-aquifer tests. Copyright ?? 2010 The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction for Intravenous Immunoglobulin Resistance by Using Weighted Genetic Risk Score Identified From Genome-Wide Association Study in Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ho-Chang; Wong, Henry Sung-Ching; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chen, Ben-Kuen; Wu, Mei-Shin; Yang, Kuender D; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Liu, Shih-Feng; Liu, Xiao; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2017-10-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the treatment of choice in Kawasaki disease (KD). IVIG is used to prevent cardiovascular complications related to KD. However, a proportion of KD patients have persistent fever after IVIG treatment and are defined as IVIG resistant. To develop a risk scoring system based on genetic markers to predict IVIG responsiveness in KD patients, a total of 150 KD patients (126 IVIG responders and 24 IVIG nonresponders) were recruited for this study. A genome-wide association analysis was performed to compare the 2 groups and identified risk alleles for IVIG resistance. A weighted genetic risk score was calculated by the natural log of the odds ratio multiplied by the number of risk alleles. Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by genome-wide association study. The KD patients were categorized into 3 groups based on their calculated weighted genetic risk score. Results indicated a significant association between weighted genetic risk score (groups 3 and 4 versus group 1) and the response to IVIG (Fisher's exact P value 4.518×10 - 03 and 8.224×10 - 10 , respectively). This is the first weighted genetic risk score study based on a genome-wide association study in KD. The predictive model integrated the additive effects of all 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to provide a prediction of the responsiveness to IVIG. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. State-wide surveillance of antibiotic resistance patterns and spa types of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from blood cultures in North Rhine-Westphalia, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, C; Layer, F; Werner, G; Harmsen, D; Daniels-Haardt, I; Jurke, A; Mellmann, A; Witte, W; Köck, R

    2015-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of bacteraemia. We aimed to obtain a complete picture of severe MRSA infections by characterizing all MRSA isolates from bloodstream infections in the largest German federal state (North Rhine-Westphalia, 18 million inhabitants) using S. aureus protein A (spa) sequence-typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates (n = 1952) were collected prospectively (2011-2013) and spa-typed. Among 181 different spa types, t003 (n = 746 isolates; 38.2%) and t032 (n = 594; 30.4%) were predominant. Analysis of the geographical occurrence of spa clonal complexes (spa-CCs) and spa types revealed divergent distribution between federal state districts for spa-CCs 003 (p resistant to fluoroquinolones, 78% to erythromycin, 70% to clindamycin, 4% to gentamicin, 2% to rifampicin, 0.4% to daptomycin, 0.1% to linezolid and 0% to vancomycin, respectively. Vancomycin MICs of 2 mg/L involved 0.5% of the isolates. In conclusion, the detection of regional molecular clusters added valuable information for epidemiological case tracing and allowed conclusions to be reached on the importance of newly emerging MRSA reservoirs, such as livestock (spa-CC011), for MRSA bacteraemia in some parts of the federal state. Susceptibility testing revealed broad resistance to substances used for oral treatment, but demonstrated that those antibiotics that are mostly applied for treatment of MRSA bacteraemia and important combination partners were highly susceptible. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A genome-wide association study of a global rice panel reveals resistance in Oryza sativa to root-knot nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Stanley O. N.; Lahari, Zobaida; Shrestha, Roshi; Douglas, Alex; Gheysen, Godelieve; Price, Adam H.

    2016-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola is one of the most serious nematode pests worldwide and represents a major constraint on rice production. While variation in the susceptibility of Asian rice (Oryza sativa) exists, so far no strong and reliable resistance has been reported. Quantitative trait loci for partial resistance have been reported but no underlying genes have been tagged or cloned. Here, 332 accessions of the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were assessed for gall formation, revealing large variation across all subpopulations of rice and higher susceptibility in temperate japonica accessions. Accessions Khao Pahk Maw and LD 24 appeared to be resistant, which was confirmed in large pot experiments where no galls were observed. Detailed observations on these two accessions revealed no nematodes inside the roots 2 days after inoculation and very few females after 17 days (5 in Khao Pahk Maw and 100 in the susceptible controls). These two cultivars appear ideal donors for breeding root-knot nematode resistance. A genome-wide association study revealed 11 quantitative trait loci, two of which are close to epistatic loci detected in the Bala x Azucena population. The discussion highlights a small number of candidate genes worth exploring further, in particular many genes with lectin domains and genes on chromosome 11 with homology to the Hordeum Mla locus. PMID:26552884

  7. Antibiotic resistance and polymorphism in the quinolone resistance-determining region of Campylobacter spp. isolated from 1-day-old ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Engy A; AbdelRahman, Mona A A; Shalaby, Azhar G; Morsy, Mai M; Nasef, Soad A

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-three isolates of Campylobacter coli and three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were recovered from 150 1-day-old ducklings. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and amikacin, but resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) by the disc diffusion method. Most isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin, but resistant to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Of the 33 C. coli isolates, nine were positive for the tetracycline resistance gene tet(O), although only two of these were resistant to tetracycline in the disc diffusion test. None of the isolates possessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene infrequently linked to FQ-resistance. The finding indicated that ducklings may be a source of antibiotic resistant Campylobacter spp. with potential poultry and public health hazard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aciclovir resistance among indian strains of Herpes simplex virus as determined using a dye uptake assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to aciclovir (ACV among Herpes simplex virus (HSV isolates is increasingly being reported in the literature particularly in immunocompromised patients. However, there is only limited data available from India despite widespread use of ACV in our hospital. A cross-sectional study was hence conducted to determine the aciclovir (ACV susceptibility of HSV 1 and 2 isolates using a dye uptake (DU assay. This study showed a 3.0% prevalence of ACV resistance among HSV-1 strains (2/66, median IC 50 0.098 µg/mL while in HSV-2 strains, it was 7.8% (5/64, median IC 50 0.195 µg/mL. The IC 50 for the HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains resistant to ACV was greater than or equal to 6.25 µg/mL.

  9. Determination of the EOS maragingsteel MS1 material resistance at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with determination of the EOS MaragingSteel MS1 material resistance at different low temperatures. Material resistance was evaluated in two types of standardized specimens. The impact energy at the specimens tested at 10 °C, values for the specimens with no notch were compared to the V - notch specimens, higher by approximately one - third. When the temperature dropped to 0 °C, the values of the impact energy slightly decreased as well. It therefore follows that lower temperatures result in decrease in the values of the impact strength. This experiment provided us with the opportunity to find out whether the decrease in temperature impacts the resistance of the tested material.

  10. Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 genome-wide mutant screen for resistance to the antimicrobial peptide alfalfa snakin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Nicolás D; Fox, Ana R; García, Araceli N; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Angeletti, Mauro; Pagano, Elba; Soto, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Snakin-1, a peptide produced by higher plants, has broad-spectrum antibiotic activity, inhibiting organisms ranging from Bacteria to Eukaryotes. However, the mode of action against target organisms is poorly understood. As a first step to elucidate the mechanism, we screened a mutation library of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 in LB and agar medium supplemented with alfalfa snakin-1 (MsSN1). We identified three biofilm formation-related Pseudomonas mutants that showed increased resistance to MsSN1. Genetic, physiological and bioinformatics analysis validated the results of the mutant screens, indicating that bacterial adhesion protein lapA is probably the target of MsSN1. Collectively, these findings suggest that snakin-1 acts on microbial adhesion properties. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Determination of a Wear Initiation Cycle by using a Contact Resistance Measurement in Nuclear Fuel Fretting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2008-01-01

    In nuclear fuel fretting, the improving of the contact condition with a modified spring shape is a useful method for increasing the wear resistance of the nuclear fuel rod. This is because the fretting wear resistance between the fuel rod and grid spring is mainly affected by the grid spring shape rather than the environment, the contact modes, etc. In addition, the wear resistance is affected by the wear debris behavior between contact surfaces. So, it is expected that the wear initiation of each spring shape should be determined in order to evaluate a wear resistance. However, it is almost impossible to measure the wear behavior in contact surfaces on a real time basis because the contact surfaces are always hidden. Besides, the results of the worn surface observation after the fretting wear tests are restricted to archive the information on the wear debris behavior and the formation mechanism of the wear scar. In order to evaluate the wear behavior during the fretting wear tests, it is proposed that the contact resistance measurement is a useful method for examining the wear initiation cycle and modes. Generally, fretting wear damages are rapidly progressed by a localized plastic deformation between the contact surfaces, crack initiation and fracture of the deformed surface with a strain hardening difference between a surface and a subsurface and finally a detachment of wear debris. After this, wear debris is easily oxidized by frictional heat, test environment, etc. At this time, a small amount of electric current applied between the contact surfaces will be influenced by the wear debris, which could be an obstacle to an electric current flow. So, it is possible to archive the information on the wear behavior by measuring the contact resistance. In order to determine the wear initiation cycle during the fretting wear tests, in this study, fretting wear tests have been performed by applying a constant electric current in room temperature air

  12. New copper resistance determinants in the extremophile acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans: a quantitative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almárcegui, Rodrigo J; Navarro, Claudio A; Paradela, Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; von Bernath, Diego; Jerez, Carlos A

    2014-02-07

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is an extremophilic bacterium used in biomining processes to recover metals. The presence in A. ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 of canonical copper resistance determinants does not entirely explain the extremely high copper concentrations this microorganism is able to stand, suggesting the existence of other efficient copper resistance mechanisms. New possible copper resistance determinants were searched by using 2D-PAGE, real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and quantitative proteomics with isotope-coded protein labeling (ICPL). A total of 594 proteins were identified of which 120 had altered levels in cells grown in the presence of copper. Of this group of proteins, 76 were up-regulated and 44 down-regulated. The up-regulation of RND-type Cus systems and different RND-type efflux pumps was observed in response to copper, suggesting that these proteins may be involved in copper resistance. An overexpression of most of the genes involved in histidine synthesis and several of those annotated as encoding for cysteine production was observed in the presence of copper, suggesting a possible direct role for these metal-binding amino acids in detoxification. Furthermore, the up-regulation of putative periplasmic disulfide isomerases was also seen in the presence of copper, suggesting that they restore copper-damaged disulfide bonds to allow cell survival. Finally, the down-regulation of the major outer membrane porin and some ionic transporters was seen in A. ferrooxidans grown in the presence of copper, indicating a general decrease in the influx of the metal and other cations into the cell. Thus, A. ferrooxidans most likely uses additional copper resistance strategies in which cell envelope proteins are key components. This knowledge will not only help to understand the mechanism of copper resistance in this extreme acidophile but may help also to select the best fit members of the biomining community to attain more efficient industrial metal leaching

  13. Antimicrobial resistance determinants in imipenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex isolated in Daejeon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Youn; Kwon, Kye Chul; Cho, Hye Hyun; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2011-10-01

    Members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex are important opportunistic bacterial pathogens and present significant therapeutic challenges in the treatment of nosocomial infections. In the present study, we investigated the integrons and various genes involved in resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones in 56 imipenem-nonsusceptible Acb complex isolates. This study included 44 imipenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii, 10 Acinetobacter genomic species 3, and 2 Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU strains isolated in Daejeon, Korea. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify the genes that potentially contribute to each resistance phenotype. All A. baumannii isolates harbored the bla(OXA-51)-like gene, and 21 isolates (47.7%) co-produced OXA-23. However, isolates of Acinetobacter genomic species 3 and 13TU only contained bla(IMP-1) or bla(VIM-2). Most Acb complex isolates (94.6%) harbored class 1 integrons, armA, and/or aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs). Of particular note was the fact that armA and aph(3')-Ia were only detected in A. baumannii isolates, which were highly resistant to amikacin (MIC(50)≥256) and gentamicin (MIC(50)≥1,024). In all 44 A. baumannii isolates, resistance to fluoroquinolones was conferred by sense mutations in the gyrA and parC. However, sense mutations in parC were not found in Acinetobacter genomic species 3 or 13TU isolates. Several differences in carbapenem, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone resistance gene content were detected among Acb complex isolates. However, most Acb complex isolates (87.5%) possessed integrons, carbapenemases, AMEs, and mutations in gyrA. The co-occurrence of several resistance determinants may present a significant threat.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Three Methods for Determination of Imipenem Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaz Zabihi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available "> Background: These days, the antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates toimipenem has significantly increased. Therefore the study of resistance to imipenem in thisorganism to imipenem in determining the appropriate treatment is crucial and necessary. The goalof this study is to compare three phenotypic methods of E-test, disk diffusion and micro brothdilution in the study of resistance to imipenem in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa.Methods: Within a 6-month interval, 120 clinical specimens were collected and evaluated. Allisolates were identified as P. aeruginosa by standard biochemical tests and amplification of 16SrRNA gene. Three phenotypic methods of E-test, disk diffusion, and micro broth dilution wereused to determine imipenem resistance in P. aeruginosa isolates.Results: Of the 96 P. aeruginosa isolates studied for their resistance to imipenem by the use ofE-test, disk diffusion and micro broth dilution methods, 38.5% of the strains in micro broth dilutionmethod and 33.3% in the two methods of E-test and disk diffusion were resistant to imipenem. Therate of sensitivity and specificity of disk diffusion and E-test methods were 100%, 90.1%, and theywere 100% and 83.1% for micro broth dilution, respectively.Conclusions: With regard to the results obtained from the comparison of the three methods100% agreement were observed among the antimicrobial susceptibility results obtained by the Etest and disk diffusion methods (P ≥ 0.05. Therefore, the use of disk diffusion method can bean appropriate replacement for E-test method with regard to its being easy and cost-effective.

  15. Challenge infection as a means of determining the rate of disease resistant Trichomonas gallinae-free birds in a population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R M; Knisley, J O

    1970-01-01

    Trichomonas gallinae-free pigeons and mourning doves were infected with the Jones' Barn strain of T. gallinae to determine the rate of disease resistant T. gallinae-free birds in each population. Although all birds became infected 88% of the pigeons were resistant to trichomoniasis while 82% of the mourning doves were resistant. It was concluded that these birds had been previously infected and spontaneously lost their trichomonad fauna while retaining their resistance to fatal infection.

  16. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms may determine Crohn's disease behavior in patients from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa P. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Conflicting data from studies on the potential role of multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease may result from the analysis of genetically and geographically distinct populations. Here, we investigated whether multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in patients from Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We analyzed 123 Crohn's disease patients and 83 ulcerative colitis patients to determine the presence of the multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms C1236T, G2677T and C3435T. In particular, the genotype frequencies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients were analyzed. Genotype-phenotype associations with major clinical characteristics were established, and estimated risks were calculated for the mutations. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the genotype frequencies of the multidrug resistance 1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In contrast, the C1236T polymorphism was significantly more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.047. A significant association was also found between the multidrug resistance 1 C3435T polymorphism and the stricturing form of Crohn's disease (OR: 4.13; p = 0.009, whereas no association was found with penetrating behavior (OR: 0.33; p = 0.094. In Crohn's disease, a positive association was also found between the C3435T polymorphism and corticosteroid resistance/refractoriness (OR: 4.14; p = 0.010. However, no significant association was found between multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and UC subphenotypic categories. CONCLUSION: The multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism C3435T is associated with the stricturing phenotype and an inappropriate response to therapy in Crohn's disease. This association with Crohn's disease may support additional pathogenic roles for the multidrug resistance 1 gene in regulating gut

  17. Genome-Wide Linkage Mapping of QTL for Adult-Plant Resistance to Stripe Rust in a Chinese Wheat Population Linmai 2 × Zhong 892.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindong Liu

    Full Text Available Stripe rust is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum worldwide. Adult-plant resistance (APR is an efficient approach to provide long-term protection of wheat from the disease. The Chinese winter wheat cultivar Zhong 892 has a moderate level of APR to stripe rust in the field. To determine the inheritance of the APR resistance in this cultivar, 273 F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs were developed from a cross between Linmai 2 and Zhong 892. The RILs were evaluated for maximum disease severity (MDS in two sites during the 2011-2012, 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 cropping seasons, providing data for five environments. Illumina 90k SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism chips were used to genotype the RILs and their parents. Composite interval mapping (CIM detected eight QTL, namely QYr.caas-2AL, QYr.caas-2BL.3, QYr.caas-3AS, QYr.caas-3BS, QYr.caas-5DL, QYr.caas-6AL, QYr.caas-7AL and QYr.caas-7DS.1, respectively. All except QYr.caas-2BL.3 resistance alleles were contributed by Zhong 892. QYr.caas-3AS and QYr.caas-3BS conferred stable resistance to stripe rust in all environments, explaining 6.2-17.4% and 5.0-11.5% of the phenotypic variances, respectively. The genome scan of SNP sequences tightly linked to QTL for APR against annotated proteins in wheat and related cereals genomes identified two candidate genes (autophagy-related gene and disease resistance gene RGA1, significantly associated with stripe rust resistance. These QTL and their closely linked SNP markers, in combination with kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP technology, are potentially useful for improving stripe rust resistances in wheat breeding.

  18. Identification and Determination of Drug Resistant of Candida species isolated from Hospital Acquired Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Diba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Currently, the use of antifungal azole group and yeasts resistant to these drugs is increasing. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the yeasts obtained from candidiasis patients and furthermore determining thier antifungal resistance. Methods: In the present descriptive study, infections samples were collected from 256 patients with suspected nosocomial candidiasis, then direct exam and culture were performed. Yeast colonies were identified using phenotypic methods, polymerase chain reaction method and enzyme digestion. Data were analyzed using Descriptive statistical tests. Results: Of sixty isolated yeast, thirty-seven cases of Candida albicans (61.6%, seven cases of C. krusei and C. glabrata (11.6% each, five cases of C. dubliniensis (8.3% and four cases of C. tropicalis (6.6% were indicated. The study showed that the sensitivity of C. albicans and C. cruise species to amphotericin B was negligible in disk diffusion and very sensitve in microdilution. Conclusion: Inspite of the results of antifungal susceptibility test of strains studied did not show high resistance, but screening for drug-resistant Candida isolates in Candida infection by disk diffusion and microdilution methods for new cases of drug resistance is reasonable.

  19. Phenotypic methods for determination of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. from health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Aquino Rabelo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus spp. is an important healthcare-associated pathogen and the identification of methicillin-resistant strains in samples of colonization may provide data to assist in the antimicrobial therapy success. OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. (MRS, through the detection of the mecA gene and to evaluate different phenotypic methods for the presumptive detection of methicillin resistance in samples of the anterior nasal cavity and hands of the health care personnel of a university hospital in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: We selected the 28 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., which showed an intermediate or resistant phenotypic profile for oxacillin, detected by the Kirby Bauer technique. The methods used were disk-diffusion tests for cefoxitin, minimal inhibitory concentration by E-test for oxacillin, screening for oxacillin resistance and mecA gene detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: About the phenotypic methods utilized, only the E-test of oxacillin did not show a statistically significant difference in relation to PCR for the mecA gene detection, considered the gold standard. CONCLUSION: The E-test of oxacillin was the best of the phenotypic methods utilized. It is necessary to correctly detect MRS in healthy individuals, because they can act as carriers and can therefore be a potential source of microorganisms involved in hospital infections.

  20. Effectiveness of hospital-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection control policies differs by ward specialty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Sadsad

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies.

  1. Effectiveness of hospital-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection control policies differs by ward specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadsad, Rosemarie; Sintchenko, Vitali; McDonnell, Geoff D; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies.

  2. Prevalence of Genetic Determinants and Phenotypic Resistance to Ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter jejuni from Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Aksomaitiene

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of reports on isolation of ciprofloxacin resistant Campylobacter jejuni has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and its genetic determinants among C. jejuni isolated from humans (n = 100, poultry products (n = 96 and wild birds (n = 96 in Lithuania. 91.4% of the C. jejuni isolates were phenotypically resistant to ciprofloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the gyrA gene from 292 isolates revealed that a change in amino acid sequence, Thr86Ile, was the main substition conferring resistance to ciprofloxacin. This change was significantly associated with isolates from poultry products (P < 0.05 and humans (P < 0.05. A total of 26.7% of C. jejuni isolates from human (n = 47, poultry products (n = 30 and wild bird (n = 1, had a mutation from Ser at position 22, and six had an additional mutation from Ala at position 39. Eight isolates from poultry and two isolates from human, corresponding to 67.0% of isolates with MICs ≥128 μg/ml, showed missense mutations Thr86Ile (ACA → ATA and Ser22Gly (AGT → GGT together, whereas isolates without these mutations showed lower MIC values (from 4 to 64 μg/ml. Two hundred forty-five C. jejuni isolates showed one or more silent mutations, and 32.4% of examined isolates possessed six silent mutations. In addition to the ciprofloxacin resistant isolates harboring only Thr86Ile point mutation (110 isolates, the current study identified resistant isolates (n = 101 harboring additional point mutations (Ser22Gly, Ala39Ser, Arg48Lys, Thr85Ala Ala122Ser, Glu136Asp, Vall49Ile, and strains (n = 57 having only Glu136Asp point mutation. The study highlight the potential public health problem with elevated ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacters from poultry meat, wild birds and humans, and the need for extensive surveillance enabling to follow changes of antimicrobial resistance development in this species.

  3. A rapid in situ procedure for determination of bacterial susceptibility or resistance to antibiotics that inhibit peptidoglycan biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bou Germán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics which inhibit bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis are the most widely used in current clinical practice. Nevertheless, resistant strains increase dramatically, with serious economic impact and effects on public health, and are responsible for thousands of deaths each year. Critical clinical situations should benefit from a rapid procedure to evaluate the sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics that act at the cell wall. We have adapted a kit for rapid determination of bacterial DNA fragmentation, to assess cell wall integrity. Results Cells incubated with the antibiotic were embedded in an agarose microgel on a slide, incubated in an adapted lysis buffer, stained with a DNA fluorochrome, SYBR Gold and observed under fluorescence microscopy. The lysis affects the cells differentially, depending on the integrity of the wall. If the bacterium is susceptible to the antibiotic, the weakened cell wall is affected by the lysing solution so the nucleoid of DNA contained inside the bacterium is released and spread. Alternatively, if the bacterium is resistant to the antibiotic, it is practically unaffected by the lysis solution and does not liberate the nucleoid, retaining its normal morphological appearance. In an initial approach, the procedure accurately discriminates susceptible, intermediate and resistant strains of Escherichia coli to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. When the bacteria came from an exponentially growing liquid culture, the effect on the cell wall of the β-lactam was evident much earlier that when they came from an agar plate. A dose-response experiment with an E. coli strain susceptible to ampicillin demonstrated a weak effect before the MIC dose. The cell wall damage was not homogenous among the different cells, but the level of damage increased as dose increased with a predominant degree of effect for each dose. A microgranular-fibrilar extracellular background was evident in gram

  4. Microcontroller based Stator Winding Resistance Determination of Induction Motor Drive on Temperature Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Siraj Ahmed T; Sukhdeo Sao; K.S.R Anjaneyulu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an experiment has been conducted to determine the online stator winding resistance of an induction motor, in industries as well as domestic purpose induction motors is largely utilized, as it has both applications of variable and constant torque operation nature. The major requirement of an electric drive system is its independent control of torque and speed; this is achieved in DC motor Drive but has more disadvantages. With the help of fast acting switching devices it is possi...

  5. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance to Oxidation of Moringa peregrina Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Chinou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined.

  6. Determination of viscous pressure losssand resistance upstream from the choke point from breathing gases of different physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, O.F.

    2007-01-01

      Determination of viscous pressure loss and resistance upstream from the choke point from breathing gases of different physical properties Ole F. Pedersen, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Denmark. AIM. To determine viscous pressure losses and resistances  upstream to CP...

  7. Genome-wide identification and role of MKK and MPK gene families in clubroot resistance of Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Yinglan; Jin, Kaining; He, Ying; Liu, Jiaxiu; Liu, Shuang; Li, Xiaonan

    2018-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MPK) cascades play key roles in responses to various biotic stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. However, the responses of MPK and MPK kinase (MKK) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) to Plasmodiophora brassicae, a causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, are still not clear. In the present study, a total of 11 B. rapa MKK (BraMKK) and 30 BraMPK genes were identified and unevenly distributed in 6 and 10 chromosomes, respectively. The synteny analysis indicated that these genes experienced whole-genome triplication and segmental and tandem duplication during or after the divergence of B. rapa, accompanied by the loss of three MKK and two MPK orthologs of Arabidopsis. The BraMKK and BraMPK genes were classified into four groups with similar intron/exon structures and conserved motifs in each group. A quantitative PCR analysis showed that the majority of BraMKK and BraMPK genes were natively expressed in roots, hypocotyls, and leaves, whereas 5 BraMKK and 16 BraMPK genes up-regulated in the roots upon P. brassicae infection. Additionally, these 5 BraMKK and 16 BraMPK genes exhibited a significantly different expression pattern between a pair of clubroot-resistant/susceptible near-isogenic lines (NILs). Furthermore, the possible modules of MKK-MPK involved in B. rapa-P. brassicae interaction are also discussed. The present study will provide functional clues for further characterization of the MAPK cascades in B. rapa. PMID:29444111

  8. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Karen I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN is a global collaboration to support the objective that anyone affected by malaria receives effective and safe drug treatment. The Pharmacology module aims to inform optimal anti-malarial drug selection. There is an urgent need to define the drug exposure - effect relationship for most anti-malarial drugs. Few anti-malarials have had their therapeutic blood concentration levels defined. One of the main challenges in assessing safety and efficacy data in relation to drug concentrations is the comparability of data generated from different laboratories. To explain differences in anti-malarial pharmacokinetics in studies with different measurement laboratories it is necessary to confirm the accuracy of the assay methods. This requires the establishment of an external quality assurance process to assure results that can be compared. This paper describes this process. Methods The pharmacology module of WWARN has established a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC programme consisting of two separate components: 1. A proficiency testing programme where blank human plasma spiked with certified reference material (CRM in different concentrations is sent out to participating bioanalytical laboratories. 2. A certified reference standard programme where accurately weighed amounts of certified anti-malarial reference standards, metabolites, and internal standards are sent to participating bioanalytical and in vitro laboratories. Conclusion The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor

  9. Determination of Germination Response to Temperature and Water Potential for a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species and Related Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Dürr, Carolyne; Demilly, Didier; Wagner, Marie-Hélène; Justes, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of species can be sown as cover crops during fallow periods to provide various ecosystem services. Plant establishment is a key stage, especially when sowing occurs in summer with high soil temperatures and low water availability. The aim of this study was to determine the response of germination to temperature and water potential for diverse cover crop species. Based on these characteristics, we developed contrasting functional groups that group species with the same germination ability, which may be useful to adapt species choice to climatic sowing conditions. Germination of 36 different species from six botanical families was measured in the laboratory at eight temperatures ranging from 4.5-43°C and at four water potentials. Final germination percentages, germination rate, cardinal temperatures, base temperature and base water potential were calculated for each species. Optimal temperatures varied from 21.3-37.2°C, maximum temperatures at which the species could germinate varied from 27.7-43.0°C and base water potentials varied from -0.1 to -2.6 MPa. Most cover crops were adapted to summer sowing with a relatively high mean optimal temperature for germination, but some Fabaceae species were more sensitive to high temperatures. Species mainly from Poaceae and Brassicaceae were the most resistant to water deficit and germinated under a low base water potential. Species were classified, independent of family, according to their ability to germinate under a range of temperatures and according to their base water potential in order to group species by functional germination groups. These groups may help in choosing the most adapted cover crop species to sow based on climatic conditions in order to favor plant establishment and the services provided by cover crops during fallow periods. Our data can also be useful as germination parameters in crop models to simulate the emergence of cover crops under different pedoclimatic conditions and crop

  10. Isolation and Determination of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Nontyphoid Salmonella spp isolated from chicken

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    Seyyedeh Hoorieh Fallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonellosis is one of the most common food borne diseases in industrial and developing countries. In recent years, an increase in antimicrobial drug resistance, among non-typhoid Salmonella spp has been observed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to isolate and determine antibiotic resistance pattern in non-typhoid Salmonella spp. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done on 100 samples of chickens collected from 196 retail markets and was examined for the presence of Salmonella using standard bacteriological procedures and stereotyping kit. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion methods according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (CLSI. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS software version 18. Result: Forty- four percent of samples were contaminated with Salmonella infection and 56% didn’t have any contamination. The stereotyping results showed that 34 of 44 isolates of Salmonella belonged to Salmonella infantis (79.5 %, one strain (2.3% of group C and 8 strain (18.2% of group D. However, all these strains were sensitive to Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin, and 100% were resistant to Nalidixic acid, Tetracyclin and Sterptomycin. The most common resistance pattern (34.1% was towards six antibiotics, and 6.8% of strains were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Conclusion: High levels of resistance to antibiotics that are used commonly for human and poultry can be a warning for our community health and this information must be used to form important strategies for improvement of infection control.

  11. Determination of Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Function in Healthy Obese and Non-obese Individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmi, A.; Sattar, A.; Tariq, K. M.; Najamussahar; Hashim, R.; Almani, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine insulin resistance and beta cell function in healthy obese and nonobese individuals of the local population. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: AFIP Rawalpindi in collaboration with department of medicine military hospital(MH) Rawalpindi, from Aug 2008 to Mar 2009. Methods: Eighty obese(n=40) and non-obese(n=40) subjects were selected by non-probability convenience sampling. Plasma insulin, glucose, and serum total cholestrol were estimated in fasting state. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR and beta cell function by HOMA- equation. Results: Significant differences were observed between obese and non-obese individuals regarding insulin resistance, beta cell function, and BMI and serum total cholesterol. Mean insulin resistance in obese group was found to be 11.1 +- 5.1(range 7.0-16.2) and in non-obese group it was 0.9+-0.4 (range 0.5-1.3). This difference was highly significant (p=0.001). There was a highly significant difference between the two groups in term of beta cell function with mean rank 60.1 for obese group and 20.9 non obese groups (Asym sig. 2 tailed 0.000). Also the correlation (r = 0.064) between insulin resistance and beta cell function in obese group is highly significant (p = 0.000). Mean serum leptin levels were lower (6.3 ng/ml) in non-obese, and high (57.2 ng/ml) in the obese group. Conclusions: Insulin resistance is found higher in obese individuals. Beta cell function is significantly different between obese and non-obese groups. (author)

  12. Antibiotic resistance determinants and genetic analysis of Salmonella enterica isolated from food in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Manuela; Bouchrif, Brahim; Timinouni, Mohammed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Cappuccinelli, Pietro; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-12-23

    Antimicrobial-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are an important cause of infection in Africa, but there is a lack of information on their molecular mechanisms of resistance and epidemiology. This study contributes to fill this gap through the characterization by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), plasmid profiling and analysis of antibiotic-resistance determinants of 94 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from food in Morocco. PFGE revealed considerable heterogeneity among the strains, showing 32 pulsotypes. MLST of strains representative of the different serovars evidenced 13 sequence types (STs), three of which were newly identified (ST1694, ST1768 and ST1818) and nine not previously reported in Morocco. Thirty-four strains harbored from one to four plasmids, of IncI1 group in S. Mbandaka, IncFIIA in S. Typhimurium, IncL/M in S. Hadar and S. Blockley. For the first time in Morocco an intact Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) carrying the resistance genes aadA2, floR, tetG, blaPSE-1 and sul1 was detected in S. Typhimurium DT104. In serovar Hadar resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and streptomycin was associated to blaTEM-1, tetA and strA genes respectively, whereas one mutation in gyrA (Asp87Asn) and one in parC (Thr54Ser) genes conferred resistance to nalidixic acid. These findings improve the information on foodborne Salmonella in Morocco, evidencing the presence of MDR strains potentially dangerous to humans, and provide useful data for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Bengtsson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012–2014 in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis. The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley.

  14. Full-Genome Sequencing Identifies in the Genetic Background Several Determinants That Modulate the Resistance Phenotype in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Carrying the NovelmecCGene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheiriço, Catarina; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics due to the presence of the mecA gene, encoding an extra penicillin-binding protein (PBP2A) that has low affinity for virtually all beta-lactam antibiotics. Recently, a new resistance determinant-the mecC gene-was identified in S. aureus isolates recovered from humans and dairy cattle. Although having typically low MICs to beta-lactam antibiotics, MRSA strains with the mecC determinant are also capable of expressing high levels of oxacillin resistance when in an optimal genetic background. In order to test the impact of extensive beta-lactam selection on the emergence of mecC -carrying strains with high levels of antibiotic resistance, we exposed the prototype mecC -carrying MRSA strain, LGA251, to increasing concentrations of oxacillin. LGA251 was able to rapidly adapt to high concentrations of oxacillin in growth medium. In such laboratory mutants with increased levels of oxacillin resistance, we identified mutations in genes with no relationship to the mecC regulatory system, indicating that the genetic background plays an important role in the establishment of the levels of oxacillin resistance. Our data also indicate that the stringent stress response plays a critical role in the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance phenotype of MRSA strains carrying the mecC determinant. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. The rarely reported tet(31) tetracycline resistance determinant is common in Gallibacterium anatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Bager, Ragnhild J.; Ifrah, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to identify and characterize the tetracycline resistance determinant in 22 Gallibacterium anatis strains for which no determinant was identified using primers specific for tet(A, B, C, D, E, G, H, K, L, M, O). A recent study found tet(B) to be the most pre...... from very different production systems and localities. In addition, tet(31) was identified in strains isolated over a 30-year period. This is the first report on tet(31) since its original identification in Aeromonas salmonicida....

  16. Translocation of integron-associated resistance in a natural system: Acquisition of resistance determinants by Inc P and Inc W Plasmids from Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Diggle, M.; Platt, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    and tetracycline). A range of natural plasmids was used as targets for the translocation of resistance. Plasmids that acquired resistance from the DT104 chromosome were segregated by conjugation into Escherichia coli K12. Plasmids R751, R388, and RP4::Tn7 acquired several combinations of resistance determinant....... Sequencing of the R751 transconjugants confirmed these findings and showed that the translocation of streptomycin and ampicillin cassettes was associated with the precise excision of dhfrIIc and orfD cassettes. Furthermore, the translocation of multiple determinants occurred by at least two mechanisms, one...

  17. Genome-wide SNP identification and characterization in two soybean cultivars with contrasting Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus disease resistance traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Bhan Yadav

    Full Text Available Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV is a bipartite Geminivirus, which causes severe yield loss in soybean (Glycine max. Considering this, the present study was conducted to develop large-scale genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers and identify potential markers linked with known disease resistance loci for their effective use in genomics-assisted breeding to impart durable MYMIV tolerance. The whole-genome re-sequencing of MYMIV resistant cultivar 'UPSM-534' and susceptible Indian cultivar 'JS-335' was performed to identify high-quality SNPs and InDels (insertion and deletions. Approximately 234 and 255 million of 100-bp paired-end reads were generated from UPSM-534 and JS-335, respectively, which provided ~98% coverage of reference soybean genome. A total of 3083987 SNPs (1559556 in UPSM-534 and 1524431 in JS-335 and 562858 InDels (281958 in UPSM-534 and 280900 in JS-335 were identified. Of these, 1514 SNPs were found to be present in 564 candidate disease resistance genes. Among these, 829 non-synonymous and 671 synonymous SNPs were detected in 266 and 286 defence-related genes, respectively. Noteworthy, a non-synonymous SNP (in chromosome 18, named 18-1861613 at the 149th base-pair of LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE gene responsible for a G/C transversion [proline (CCC to alanine(GCC] was identified and validated in a set of 12 soybean cultivars. Taken together, the present study generated a large-scale genomic resource such as, SNPs and InDels at a genome-wide scale that will facilitate the dissection of various complex traits through construction of high-density linkage maps and fine mapping. In the present scenario, these markers can be effectively used to design high-density SNP arrays for their large-scale validation and high-throughput genotyping in diverse natural and mapping populations, which could accelerate genomics-assisted MYMIV disease resistance breeding in soybean.

  18. Genome-wide SNP identification and characterization in two soybean cultivars with contrasting Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus disease resistance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Bhareti, Priyanka; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Mukherjee, Minakshi; Khan, Yusuf; Rathi, Pushpendra; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a bipartite Geminivirus, which causes severe yield loss in soybean (Glycine max). Considering this, the present study was conducted to develop large-scale genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and identify potential markers linked with known disease resistance loci for their effective use in genomics-assisted breeding to impart durable MYMIV tolerance. The whole-genome re-sequencing of MYMIV resistant cultivar 'UPSM-534' and susceptible Indian cultivar 'JS-335' was performed to identify high-quality SNPs and InDels (insertion and deletions). Approximately 234 and 255 million of 100-bp paired-end reads were generated from UPSM-534 and JS-335, respectively, which provided ~98% coverage of reference soybean genome. A total of 3083987 SNPs (1559556 in UPSM-534 and 1524431 in JS-335) and 562858 InDels (281958 in UPSM-534 and 280900 in JS-335) were identified. Of these, 1514 SNPs were found to be present in 564 candidate disease resistance genes. Among these, 829 non-synonymous and 671 synonymous SNPs were detected in 266 and 286 defence-related genes, respectively. Noteworthy, a non-synonymous SNP (in chromosome 18, named 18-1861613) at the 149th base-pair of LEUCINE-RICH REPEAT RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE gene responsible for a G/C transversion [proline (CCC) to alanine(GCC)] was identified and validated in a set of 12 soybean cultivars. Taken together, the present study generated a large-scale genomic resource such as, SNPs and InDels at a genome-wide scale that will facilitate the dissection of various complex traits through construction of high-density linkage maps and fine mapping. In the present scenario, these markers can be effectively used to design high-density SNP arrays for their large-scale validation and high-throughput genotyping in diverse natural and mapping populations, which could accelerate genomics-assisted MYMIV disease resistance breeding in soybean.

  19. Tylosin Resistance in Arcanobacterium pyogenes Is Encoded by an Erm X Determinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, B. Helen; Field, Adam C.; Trinh, Hien T.; Songer, J. Glenn; Billington, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Arcanobacterium pyogenes, a commensal on the mucous membranes of many economically important animal species, is also a pathogen, causing abscesses of the skin, joints, and visceral organs as well as mastitis and abortion. In food animals, A. pyogenes is exposed to antimicrobial agents used for growth promotion, prophylaxis, and therapy, notably tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic used extensively for the prevention of liver abscessation in feedlot cattle in the United States. Of 48 A. pyogenes isolates, 11 (22.9%) exhibited inducible or constitutive resistance to tylosin (MIC of ≥128 μg/ml). These isolates also exhibited resistance to other macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics, suggesting a macrolide-lincosamide resistance phenotype. Of the 11 resistant isolates, genomic DNA from nine hybridized to an erm(X)-specific probe. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the A. pyogenes erm(X) gene indicated that it was >95% similar to erm(X) genes from Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium spp. Eight of the erm(X)-containing A. pyogenes isolates exhibited inducible tylosin resistance, which was consistent with the presence of a putative leader peptide upstream of the erm(X) open reading frame. For at least one A. pyogenes isolate, 98-4277-2, erm(X) was present on a plasmid, pAP2, and was associated with the insertion sequence IS6100. pAP2 also carried genes encoding the repressor-regulated tetracycline efflux system determinant Tet 33. The repA gene from pAP2 was nonfunctional in Escherichia coli and at least one A. pyogenes isolate, suggesting that there may be host-encoded factors required for replication of this plasmid. PMID:14576111

  20. Antimicrobial resistance determinants in Staphylococcus spp. recovered from birds of prey in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Margarida; Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Silva, Filipe; Sargo, Roberto; Alegria, Nuno; Benito, Daniel; Gómez, Paula; Lozano, Carmen; Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Caniça, Manuela; Poeta, Patrícia

    2014-07-16

    Antibiotic resistance among wild animals represent an emerging public health concern. The objective of this study was to analyze the staphylococcal nasal microbiota in birds of prey and their content in antimicrobial resistance determinants. Nasal samples from 16 birds of prey were collected, swabs were dipped and incubated into BHI broth [6.5% NaCl] and later seeded on manitol salt agar and oxacillin-resistance screening agar base media. Staphylococcal colonies were isolated from both media and were identified by biochemical and molecular methods. Susceptibility testing to 18 antimicrobial agents was performed by disk-diffusion method. Six of the 16 tested animals carried staphylococci (37.5%) and 7 isolates of the following species were recovered: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri rodentium, Staphylococcus cohnii urealitycum, and Staphylococcus gallinarum. The S. aureus isolate was penicillin-resistant (with blaZ gene) but methicillin-susceptible and was ascribed to spa-type t012, sequence-type ST30 and agr-type III. The S. epidermidis isolate carried blaZ, mecA, mrs(A/B), mphC, tet(K), drfA, and fusC genes, ica operon, and was typed as ST35. The genes ant6'-Ia, tet(K), tet(L), dfrG, cat221, cat194, and cat223 were detected in S. saprophyticus or S. gallinarum isolates. Birds of prey seem to be a natural reservoir of S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci resistant to multiple antibiotics. Due to the convergence between habitats, the contact between wildlife, other animals and humans is now more common and this involves an increased possibility of interchange of these microorganisms in the different ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Mathematical Method for Determining Optimal Quantity of Backfill Materials Used for Grounding Resistance Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Trifunovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During installation of grounding system, which represents a significant part of any electrical power system, various backfill materials are used for grounding resistance reduction. The general mathematical method for determining an optimal quantity of backfill materials used for grounding resistance reduction, based on the mathematical tools, 3D FEM modeling, numerical analysis of the obtained results, and the “knee” of the curve concept, as well as on the engineering analysis based on the designer’s experience, is developed and offered in this paper. The proposed method has been tested by applying it to a square loop enveloped by a backfill material and buried in a 2-layer soil. The results obtained by the presented method showed a good correlation with the experimentally obtained data from literature. The proposed method can help the designers to avoid the saturation areas in order to maximize efficiency of backfill material usage.

  2. Presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants and mutations in gyrase and topoisomerase in Salmonella enterica isolates with resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Monique Ribeiro Tiba; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Soares, Flávia Barrosa; da Silveira, Wanderley Dias; Fernandes, Sueli Aparecida

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, the emergence and spread of resistance to nalidixic acid are usually associated with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among Salmonella serotypes. The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms associated with resistance to fluoroquinolone and the clonal relatedness of Salmonella strains isolated from human and nonhuman origins, in a 5-year period in São Paulo, Brazil. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Salmonella isolates was performed. PCR and DNA sequencing were accomplished to identify mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the topoisomerase genes and to determine the fluoroquinolone determinants. The strains presented MIC to ciprofloxacin ranging from 0.125 to 8.0 mg/L (all nonsusceptible). From these, 16 strains (17.5%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥1 mg/L) and belonging to serotypes Typhimurium, I. 4,5,12:i:-, Enteritidis, and Heidelberg. Amplification and DNA sequencing of topoisomerases genes identified multiple amino acid substitutions in GyrA and ParC. No mutations were identified in GyrB, and 1 amino acid substitution was identified in ParE. Among the 16 Salmonella strains resistant to ciprofloxacin, 8 S. I. 4,5,12:i:- presenting mutations in gyrA and parE genes were grouped into the same pulsotype. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants: qnrB, aac(6')-lb-cr, and oqxA/B were detected among 13 strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to report Salmonella isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin in Brazil. Indeed, this is the first detection of PMQR determinants in Salmonella strains from Sao Paulo State. These findings alert for the potential spread of quinolone resistance of Salmonella strains, particularly in S. I. 4,5,12:i:-, a prevalent serotype implicated in human disease and foodborne outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The nickel resistance determinant cloned from the enterobacterium Klebsiella oxytoca: conjugational transfer, expression, regulation and DNA homologies to various nickel-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, R D; Meyer, M; Schlegel, H G

    1995-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca strain CCUG 15788, isolated from a mineral oil emulsion tank in Göteborg, Sweden, was found to be nickel-resistant (tolerating 10 mM NiCl2 in non-complexing mineral-gluconate media; inducible resistance). The nickel resistance determinants were transferred by helper-assisted conjugation to various strains of Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii and expressed to between 5 and 10 mM NiCl2. A 4.3 kb HindIII fragment was cloned from the genomic DNA of K. oxytoca. Ligated into the vector pSUP202, the fragment caused constitutive nickel resistance (of up to 3 or 10 mM Ni2+) in various E. coli strains. After cloning into the broad host range vector pVDZ'2 the fragment even expressed low nickel resistance in the transconjugant of Alcaligenes eutrophus AE104. With the 4.3 kb HindIII fragment as a biotinylated DNA probe it was shown by DNA-DNA hybridization that the nickel resistance determinant resides on the chromosome of K. oxytoca and not on its circular plasmid pKO1 (160 kb) or linear plasmid pKO2 (50 kb). Nickel resistance strongly correlated with the presence of the 4.3 kb HindIII fragment in the transconjugants. No homologies were detected when the nickel resistance determinants of other well-known nickel-resistant bacteria, such as A. eutrophus CH34 or A. denitrificans 4a-2, were used as target DNA. Among the 60 strains examined, positive signals only appeared with the 3.1 kb DNA fragment from A. xylosoxydans 31A and the genomic DNA of two enterobacterial strains (5-1 and 5-5) isolated from nickel-rich soil in New Caledonia.

  4. Genome-wide identification and characterization of MADS-box family genes related to organ development and stress resistance in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Chung, Mi-Young; Hur, Yoonkang; Cho, Yong-Gu; Watanabe, Masao; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-03-14

    MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) are important in floral organ specification as well as several other aspects of plant growth and development. Studies on stress resistance-related functions of MADS-box genes are very limited and no such functional studies in Brassica rapa have been reported. To gain insight into this gene family and to elucidate their roles in organ development and stress resistance, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of MADS-box genes in B. rapa. Whole-genome survey of B. rapa revealed 167 MADS-box genes, which were categorized into type I (Mα, Mβ and Mγ) and type II (MIKC(c) and MIKC*) based on phylogeny, protein motif structure and exon-intron organization. Expression analysis of 89 MIKC(c) and 11 MIKC* genes was then carried out. In addition to those with floral and vegetative tissue expression, we identified MADS-box genes with constitutive expression patterns at different stages of flower development. More importantly, from a low temperature-treated whole-genome microarray data set, 19 BrMADS genes were found to show variable transcript abundance in two contrasting inbred lines of B. rapa. Among these, 13 BrMADS genes were further validated and their differential expression was monitored in response to cold stress in the same two lines via qPCR expression analysis. Additionally, the set of 19 BrMADS genes was analyzed under drought and salt stress, and 8 and 6 genes were found to be induced by drought and salt, respectively. The extensive annotation and transcriptome profiling reported in this study will be useful for understanding the involvement of MADS-box genes in stress resistance in addition to their growth and developmental functions, which ultimately provides the basis for functional characterization and exploitation of the candidate genes for genetic engineering of B. rapa.

  5. Multiplex PCR to identify macrolide resistance determinants in Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Simon; Desmolaize, Benoit; Jaju, Puneet; Wilhelm, Cornelia; Warrass, Ralf; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    The bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are major etiological agents in respiratory tract infections of cattle. Although these infections can generally be successfully treated with veterinary macrolide antibiotics, a few recent isolates have shown resistance to these drugs. Macrolide resistance in members of the family Pasteurellaceae is conferred by combinations of at least three genes: erm(42), which encodes a monomethyltransferase and confers a type I MLS(B) (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) phenotype; msr(E), which encodes a macrolide efflux pump; and mph(E), which encodes a macrolide-inactivating phosphotransferase. Here, we describe a multiplex PCR assay that detects the presence of erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E) and differentiates between these genes. In addition, the assay distinguishes P. multocida from M. haemolytica by amplifying distinctive fragments of the 23S rRNA (rrl) genes. One rrl fragment acts as a general indicator of gammaproteobacterial species and confirms whether the PCR assay has functioned as intended on strains that are negative for erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E). The multiplex system has been tested on more than 40 selected isolates of P. multocida and M. haemolytica and correlated with MICs for the veterinary macrolides tulathromycin and tilmicosin, and the newer compounds gamithromycin and tildipirosin. The multiplex PCR system gives a rapid and robustly accurate determination of macrolide resistance genotypes and bacterial genus, matching results from microbiological methods and whole-genome sequencing.

  6. An efficient in vitro test to determine carrot genotypes resistance to cavity spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelon, S; Vandemoortele, J L

    2001-01-01

    As part of a carrot breeding programme, our objective was to develop a test for determining genotypes resistance against two Pythium species responsible for cavity spot. Ten different media were tested for carrot callus culture, Pythium culture and dual cultures. Carrot callus growth was greater on Murashige and Skoog medium plus 1.25 microM 2.4D plus 2.5 microM BA plus 2.5 microM NAA. Pythium violae was more sensitive to medium composition than Pythium sulcatum. When carrot callus were inoculated by Pythium violae or sulcatum on Murashige and Skoog mineral medium, callus growth of Bolero, an resistant cultivar in the field, was highly inhibited whereas Nanco, a susceptible cultivar was not. Such a medium should be used for screening genotypes resistance to Pythium. A Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.25 microM 2.4D, 2.5 microM BA and 2.5 microM NAA, where callus growth was highly reduced whatever the genotype used, should be useful for selection of cell lines tolerant to Pythium.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Substrate-Binding Domain from Listeria monocytogenes Bile-Resistance Determinant BilE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Stephanie J.; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Poolman, Bert

    2016-01-01

    BilE has been reported as a bile resistance determinant that plays an important role in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of listeriosis. The mechanism(s) by which BilE mediates bile resistance are unknown. BilE shares significant sequence

  8. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and of multidrug-resistant E. coli from foods of animal origin illegally imported to the EU by flight passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, B; Szmolka, A; Smole Možina, S; Kovač, J; Strauss, A; Schlager, S; Beutlich, J; Appel, B; Lušicky, M; Aprikian, P; Pászti, J; Tóth, I; Kugler, R; Wagner, M

    2015-09-16

    The aim of this study was to reveal phenotype/genotype characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and multidrug resistant E. coli in food products of animal origin confiscated as illegal import at Austrian, German and Slovenian airports. VTEC isolates were obtained by using ISO guidelines 16654:2001 for O157 VTEC or ISO/ TS13136:2012 for non-O157 VTEC, with additional use of the RIDASCREEN® Verotoxin immunoassay. The testing of 1526 samples resulted in 15 VTEC isolates (1.0%) primarily isolated from hard cheese from Turkey and Balkan countries. Genotyping for virulence by using a miniaturized microarray identified a wide range of virulence determinants. One VTEC isolate (O26:H46) possessing intimin (eae) and all other essential genes of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) was designated as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). None of the other VTEC strains belonged to serogroups O157, O145, O111, O104 or O103. VTEC strains harbored either stx(1) (variants stx1(a) or stx(1c)) or st(x2) (variants stx(2a), stx(2b), stx(2a/d) or stx(2c/d)) genes. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated high genetic diversity and identified three new sequence types (STs): 4505, 4506 and 4507. Food samples collected from the Vienna airport were also tested for E. coli quantities using the ISO 16649:2001, and for detection of multidrug resistant phenotypes and genotypes. The resulting 113 commensal E. coli isolates were first tested in a pre-screening against 6 selected antimicrobials to demonstrate multidrug resistance. The resulting 14 multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates, representing 0.9% of the samples, were subjected to further resistance phenotyping and to microarray analyses targeting genetic markers of antimicrobial resistance and virulence. Genotyping revealed various combinations of resistance determinants as well as the presence of class 1, class 2 integrons. The isolates harbored 6 to 11 antibiotic

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing Approaches in Genome-Wide Discovery of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Associated with Pungency and Disease Resistance in Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Manivannan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pepper is an economically important horticultural plant that has been widely used for its pungency and spicy taste in worldwide cuisines. Therefore, the domestication of pepper has been carried out since antiquity. Owing to meet the growing demand for pepper with high quality, organoleptic property, nutraceutical contents, and disease tolerance, genomics assisted breeding techniques can be incorporated to develop novel pepper varieties with desired traits. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS approaches has reformed the plant breeding technology especially in the area of molecular marker assisted breeding. The availability of genomic information aids in the deeper understanding of several molecular mechanisms behind the vital physiological processes. In addition, the NGS methods facilitate the genome-wide discovery of DNA based markers linked to key genes involved in important biological phenomenon. Among the molecular markers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP indulges various benefits in comparison with other existing DNA based markers. The present review concentrates on the impact of NGS approaches in the discovery of useful SNP markers associated with pungency and disease resistance in pepper. The information provided in the current endeavor can be utilized for the betterment of pepper breeding in future.

  10. Molecular determinants of resistance activation and suppression by Phytophthora infestans effector IPI-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Liu, Zhenyu; Halterman, Dennis A

    2012-01-01

    Despite intensive breeding efforts, potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, remains a threat to potato production worldwide because newly evolved pathogen strains have consistently overcome major resistance genes. The potato RB gene, derived from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers resistance to most P. infestans strains through recognition of members of the pathogen effector family IPI-O. While the majority of IPI-O proteins are recognized by RB to elicit resistance (e.g. IPI-O1, IPI-O2), some family members are able to elude detection (e.g. IPI-O4). In addition, IPI-O4 blocks recognition of IPI-O1, leading to inactivation of RB-mediated programmed cell death. Here, we report results that elucidate molecular mechanisms governing resistance elicitation or suppression of RB by IPI-O. Our data indicate self-association of the RB coiled coil (CC) domain as well as a physical interaction between this domain and the effectors IPI-O4 and IPI-O1. We identified four amino acids within IPI-O that are critical for interaction with the RB CC domain and one of these amino acids, at position 129, determines hypersensitive response (HR) elicitation in planta. IPI-O1 mutant L129P fails to induce HR in presence of RB while IPI-O4 P129L gains the ability to induce an HR. Like IPI-O4, IPI-O1 L129P is also able to suppress the HR mediated by RB, indicating a critical step in the evolution of this gene family. Our results point to a model in which IPI-O effectors can affect RB function through interaction with the RB CC domain.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of plasmid-determined mercury and cadmium resistances in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucifora, G.

    1989-01-01

    The structural basis for induction of the broad spectrum mercurial resistance operon of pDU1358 with inorganic mercury and with phenylmercury acetate was addressed by DNA sequencing analysis (that showed that a major difference occurred in the 3' 29 base pairs of the ital merR gene compared to the merR genes of Tn501 and R100) and by lac-fusion transcription experiments regulated by merR in trans. The lac-fusion results were compared with those from a narrow spectrum operon, and the pDU1358 merR deleted at the 3' end. A hybrid mer operon containing the merR gene from pDU1358 and lacking the merB gene was inducible by both phenylmercury and inorganic Hg 2+ , showing that organomercurial lyase is not needed for induction by organomercurials. A mutant form of pDU1358 merR missing the C-terminal 17 amino acids responded to inorganic Hg 2+ but not to phenylmercury, indicating that the C-terminal region of the MerR protein of the pDU1358 mer operon is required for the recognition of phenylmercury acetate. The down regulation of the mer operon by the merD gene was also measured in trans with complementing mer operons of pDU1358 or R100 or merD - mutants. In the presence of the merD gene, beta-galactosidase activity was lowered by 2 to 4 fold. The merD gene gene product was visualized by autoradiography. The Cd 2+ resistance determinant cadA of S. aureus was investigated. The nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment containing the cadA determinant revealed two open reading frames the larger one of which is essential for expression of cadmium resistance

  12. Using Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR and Cell Culture Plaque Assays to Determine Resistance of Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts to Chemical Sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are highly resistant to many chemical sanitizers. Current methods used to determine oocyst infectivity have relied exclusively on mouse, chicken, and feline bioassays. Although considered gold standards, they only provide a qualitative assessment of oocyst infectivity. I...

  13. A Laboratory Exercise in Physics: Determining the Resistance of Single Resistors and Series and Parallel Combinations of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a secondary level physics unit which introduces students to electrical resistance in series and parallel combinations, use of the voltmeter and ammeter, wiring simple circuits, and writing scientific reports. (SL)

  14. A State-Wide Survey of South Australian Secondary Schools to Determine the Current Emphasis on Ergonomics and Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Janet; Penman, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pattern of teaching of healthy computing skills to high school students in South Australia. A survey approach was used to collect data, specifically to determine the emphasis placed by schools on ergonomics that relate to computer use. Participating schools were recruited through the Department for Education and Child…

  15. Development of a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    In this study a test method for determining the cracking susceptibility of resistance spot welded high strength steel sheets was investigated. The development of a suitable test procedure is based on the External-Loaded Hot Crack Test (PVC-Test). The test modification for resistance spot welding contains a constant tensile force load. The test method for determining the cracking susceptibility was experimentally verified for a high strength steel, a transformation induced plasticity steel (TR...

  16. Determining the bounds of skilful forecast range for probabilistic prediction of system-wide wind power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Cannon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art wind power forecasts beyond a few hours ahead rely on global numerical weather prediction models to forecast the future large-scale atmospheric state. Often they provide initial and boundary conditions for nested high resolution simulations. In this paper, both upper and lower bounds on forecast range are identified within which global ensemble forecasts provide skilful information for system-wide wind power applications. An upper bound on forecast range is associated with the limit of predictability, beyond which forecasts have no more skill than predictions based on climatological statistics. A lower bound is defined at the lead time beyond which the resolved uncertainty associated with estimating the future large-scale atmospheric state is larger than the unresolved uncertainty associated with estimating the system-wide wind power response to a given large-scale state.The bounds of skilful ensemble forecast range are quantified for three leading global forecast systems. The power system of Great Britain (GB is used as an example because independent verifying data is available from National Grid. The upper bound defined by forecasts of GB-total wind power generation at a specific point in time is found to be 6–8 days. The lower bound is found to be 1.4–2.4 days. Both bounds depend on the global forecast system and vary seasonally. In addition, forecasts of the probability of an extreme power ramp event were found to possess a shorter limit of predictability (4.5–5.5 days. The upper bound on this forecast range can only be extended by improving the global forecast system (outside the control of most users or by changing the metric used in the probability forecast. Improved downscaling and microscale modelling of the wind farm response may act to decrease the lower bound. The potential gain from such improvements have diminishing returns beyond the short-range (out to around 2 days.

  17. DETERMINATION OF THE ISSUE CONCERNING THE LIFT RESISTANCE FACTOR OF LIGHTWEIGHT CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analytical study of the connection between the longitudinal force, acting on the light-weight car, lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail» with the lift resistance factor value is to provide a simple relationships between them. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading the freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved sections of a track. Findings. Even in the absence of «lift» accordingly the classical train stability theory, as the hinge-rod system, the presence of the longitudinal compressive forces may become a factor provoking cars derailment. The main reason of wheel climbing on rails is the combination of processes of dynamic interaction between the hunting vehicle and the track with simultaneous action of longitudinal compressive forces, and not the destabilization of train as a hingedrod system. To assess the impact of the longitudinal forces value on the lift resistance factor there are presented the calculation results for the empty gondola car motion, model No. 12-532, on 250 m radius curve with 150 mm rise and cross starting of car underframe relating to the track axis in 50 mm guiding section. The calculations were made in such a curve excluding the inertial forces from outstanding acceleration and taking into account the unbalanced acceleration with the permissible speed of 65 km/h. Originality. This study provides the technique of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces, which is somewhat different from the standard one, as well as evaluates impact of rolling stock speed on this factor. Practical value. The authors clarify the current method of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces and assess the impact of rolling stock speed on the value of this factor. From these studies one can conclude that because of cars hunting their lift is possible even when the train as

  18. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  19. Biofilm plasmids with a rhamnose operon are widely distributed determinants of the 'swim-or-stick' lifestyle in roseobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Victoria; Frank, Oliver; Bartling, Pascal; Scheuner, Carmen; Göker, Markus; Brinkmann, Henner; Petersen, Jörn

    2016-10-01

    Alphaproteobacteria of the metabolically versatile Roseobacter group (Rhodobacteraceae) are abundant in marine ecosystems and represent dominant primary colonizers of submerged surfaces. Motility and attachment are the prerequisite for the characteristic 'swim-or-stick' lifestyle of many representatives such as Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395. It has recently been shown that plasmid curing of its 65-kb RepA-I-type replicon with >20 genes for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis including a rhamnose operon results in nearly complete loss of motility and biofilm formation. The current study is based on the assumption that homologous biofilm plasmids are widely distributed. We analyzed 33 roseobacters that represent the phylogenetic diversity of this lineage and documented attachment as well as swimming motility for 60% of the strains. All strong biofilm formers were also motile, which is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of surface attachment. We established transposon mutants for the four genes of the rhamnose operon from P. inhibens and proved its crucial role in biofilm formation. In the Roseobacter group, two-thirds of the predicted biofilm plasmids represent the RepA-I type and their physiological role was experimentally validated via plasmid curing for four additional strains. Horizontal transfer of these replicons was documented by a comparison of the RepA-I phylogeny with the species tree. A gene content analysis of 35 RepA-I plasmids revealed a core set of genes, including the rhamnose operon and a specific ABC transporter for polysaccharide export. Taken together, our data show that RepA-I-type biofilm plasmids are essential for the sessile mode of life in the majority of cultivated roseobacters.

  20. Genetic architecture of aluminum tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa determined through genome-wide association analysis and QTL mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam N Famoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a primary limitation to crop productivity on acid soils, and rice has been demonstrated to be significantly more Al tolerant than other cereal crops. However, the mechanisms of rice Al tolerance are largely unknown, and no genes underlying natural variation have been reported. We screened 383 diverse rice accessions, conducted a genome-wide association (GWA study, and conducted QTL mapping in two bi-parental populations using three estimates of Al tolerance based on root growth. Subpopulation structure explained 57% of the phenotypic variation, and the mean Al tolerance in Japonica was twice that of Indica. Forty-eight regions associated with Al tolerance were identified by GWA analysis, most of which were subpopulation-specific. Four of these regions co-localized with a priori candidate genes, and two highly significant regions co-localized with previously identified QTLs. Three regions corresponding to induced Al-sensitive rice mutants (ART1, STAR2, Nrat1 were identified through bi-parental QTL mapping or GWA to be involved in natural variation for Al tolerance. Haplotype analysis around the Nrat1 gene identified susceptible and tolerant haplotypes explaining 40% of the Al tolerance variation within the aus subpopulation, and sequence analysis of Nrat1 identified a trio of non-synonymous mutations predictive of Al sensitivity in our diversity panel. GWA analysis discovered more phenotype-genotype associations and provided higher resolution, but QTL mapping identified critical rare and/or subpopulation-specific alleles not detected by GWA analysis. Mapping using Indica/Japonica populations identified QTLs associated with transgressive variation where alleles from a susceptible aus or indica parent enhanced Al tolerance in a tolerant Japonica background. This work supports the hypothesis that selectively introgressing alleles across subpopulations is an efficient approach for trait enhancement in plant breeding programs

  1. Genetic architecture of cold tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) determined through high resolution genome-wide analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Ehsan; Edwards, Jeremy D.; Jodari, Farman; Duke, Sara E.; Baldo, Angela M.; Korniliev, Pavel; McCouch, Susan R.; Eizenga, Georgia C.

    2017-01-01

    Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress which negatively affects morphological development and seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.). At the seedling stage, cold stress causes poor germination, seedling injury and poor stand establishment; and at the reproductive stage cold decreases seed yield. The Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) is a global collection of over 400 O. sativa accessions representing the five major subpopulations from the INDICA and JAPONICA varietal groups, with a genotypic dataset consisting of 700,000 SNP markers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the RDP1 accessions for the complex, quantitatively inherited cold tolerance traits at the germination and reproductive stages, and to conduct genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to identify SNPs and candidate genes associated with cold stress at these stages. GWA mapping of the germination index (calculated as percent germination in cold divided by warm treatment) revealed 42 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with cold tolerance at the seedling stage, including 18 in the panel as a whole, seven in temperate japonica, six in tropical japonica, 14 in JAPONICA, and nine in INDICA, with five shared across all subpopulations. Twenty-two of these QTLs co-localized with 32 previously reported cold tolerance QTLs. GWA mapping of cold tolerance at the reproductive stage detected 29 QTLs, including seven associated with percent sterility, ten with seed weight per panicle, 14 with seed weight per plant and one region overlapping for two traits. Fifteen co-localized with previously reported QTLs for cold tolerance or yield components. Candidate gene ontology searches revealed these QTLs were associated with significant enrichment for genes related to with lipid metabolism, response to stimuli, response to biotic stimuli (suggesting cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stresses), and oxygen binding. Overall the JAPONICA accessions were more tolerant to cold stress than INDICA

  2. A comparative study of genome-wide SNP, CGH microarray and protein expression analysis to explore genotypic and phenotypic mechanisms of acquired antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Neil; Speirs, Valerie; Curtin, Nicola J; Hall, Andrew G

    2008-09-01

    Allelic imbalance is a common feature of many malignancies. We have measured allelic imbalance in genomic DNA from the breast cancer cell lines T47D, MDA-MB-231, two antiestrogen sensitive (MCF7N and MCF7L) and two resistant MCF7 cell lines (MMU2 and LCC9) using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) oligonucleotide microarrays. DNA from MCF7(L) and MMU2 cells was also analysed by comparative genome hybridisation (CGH) to compare with SNP microarray data. Proteins previously determined to be involved in disease progression were quantified by Western blot and compared to array data. The SNP and CGH array both detected cytogenetic abnormalities commonly found in breast cancer: amplification of chromosomes 11q13-14.1, 17q and 20q containing cyclin D1, BCAS1 and 3 (Breast Cancer Amplified Sequence) and AIB1 (Amplified in Breast cancer) genes; losses at 6q, 9p and X chromosomes, which included ERalpha (Estrogen Receptor alpha) and p16 ( INK4A ) genes. However the SNP chip array data additionally identified regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) followed by duplication of the remaining allele-uniparental disomy (UPD). Good concordance between SNP arrays and CGH analyses was observed, however there was poor correlation between gene copy number and protein levels between the cell lines. There were reductions in ERalpha, cyclin D1 and p27 protein levels whilst p21 protein levels were elevated in antiestrogen resistant MCF7 cell lines. Although protein levels varied there was no difference in gene copy number. This study shows SNP and CGH array analysis are powerful tools for analysis of allelic imbalance in breast cancer. However, the antiestrogen resistant phenotype was likely to be due to changes in gene expression and protein degradation rather than in altered gene copy number.

  3. World-wide intercomparison exercise for the determination of trace elements in Fucus sample IAEA-140. Report no. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquery, M.; Carvalho, F.P.; Horvat, M.; Azemard, S.

    1997-09-01

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine samples is fundamental to pollution assessment in coastal and marine environments. Analyses of sea plants are important to investigate the uptake of toxic elements along the trophic chain and sea plants may be used as indicators for water pollution and to compare the levels of contamination of different aquatic environments. IAEA. together with UNEP and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) work closely with other producers of Reference Materials in order to assure a continuous supply of these vital compounds for quality assurance procedures. A full catalogue of materials is published regularly. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace elements for over twenty years as part of its contribution to IAEA's Analytical Quality Control Service, UNEP's Regional Seas Programme. and, occasionally, in association with the IOC GIPME (Global Investigation of the Pollution in the Marine Environment) programme. This report describes the performance of laboratories in one intercomparison run conducted during 1996 that was organized for the determination of trace elements in a marine macro algae (Fucus sp.) sample. This study was intended to give laboratories responsible for trace element analyses of marine materials an opportunity for checking their analytical performance

  4. Molecular Characterization of Copper and Cadmium Resistance Determinants in the Biomining Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Orell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfolobus metallicus is a thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon used in high-temperature bioleaching processes that is able to grow under stressing conditions such as high concentrations of heavy metals. Nevertheless, the genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for heavy metal resistance in S. metallicus remain uncharacterized. Proteomic analysis of S. metallicus cells exposed to 100 mM Cu revealed that 18 out of 30 upregulated proteins are related to the production and conversion of energy, amino acids biosynthesis, and stress responses. Ten of these last proteins were also up-regulated in S. metallicus treated in the presence of 1 mM Cd suggesting that at least in part, a common general response to these two heavy metals. The S. metallicus genome contained two complete cop gene clusters, each encoding a metallochaperone (CopM, a Cu-exporting ATPase (CopA, and a transcriptional regulator (CopT. Transcriptional expression analysis revealed that copM and copA from each cop gene cluster were cotranscribed and their transcript levels increased when S. metallicus was grown either in the presence of Cu or using chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 as oxidizable substrate. This study shows for the first time the presence of a duplicated version of the cop gene cluster in Archaea and characterizes some of the Cu and Cd resistance determinants in a thermophilic archaeon employed for industrial biomining.

  5. Protein Arrays for Multidrug-resistance in Human Leukemia Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhong Lu

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique was developed, that was high throughput simultaneousscreening of multiple resistance protein expression based on a protein array system. Themethod combined the advantage of the specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbentassays with the sensitivity and high throughput of microspot. In this system, the multipleresistance protein arrays were created by spotting the captured antibodies onto the glassslide. The arrays were then incubated with cell samples of leukemia patients. The boundproteins were recognized by biotin-conjugated antibodies and detected by CCD.Experiments demonstrated that three multiple resistance proteins, including Pgp, MRPand BCRP which are members of the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC superfamily ofmembrane transporters could be simultaneously detected using this new approach.Research work shows the result is coincident with flow cytometry (FCM (P>0.01. Itprovided a methodology to develop many high-density protein array systems to detect avariety of proteins. The protein arrays will provide a powerful tool to identify theleukemia cell protein expression and rapidly validate their MDR determination.

  6. Determination of carbapenem resistance mechanism in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from burn patients, in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Mirsalehian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenems are the most important therapeutic options that effect against serious infections caused by multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA isolates. Carbapenems resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa are increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the carbapenem resistance mechanisms in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates from burn patients, in Tehran, Iran. A total of 53 non-duplicated isolates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were collected from burn patients. The presence of carbapenemase genes were determined by PCR. AmpC overproducer isolates were detected by phenotypic method. The mutation and transcription level of oprD were determined by PCR-sequencing and quantitative Real-time PCR (RT-PCR, respectively. Twenty-seven (50.9% isolates were positive for carbapenemase (blaVIM = 25 and blaIMP = 2 and showed high-level resistance to imipenem and meropenem. Twenty-eight isolates were AmpC overproducers. All isolates had a mutation in the oprD gene and down-regulation of oprD was found in 56.6% of MDR-PA isolates. Although the presence of carbapenemase is the common mechanism of resistant to carbapenem, but carbapenem resistance was found by oprD mutation-driven and the AmpC overproducing isolates in Tehran, Iran.

  7. Determination of the resistance to tensile fracture of refractory mixtures of gunite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Sanchez, A; Tomba Martinez, A.G

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the mechanical properties of cooled refractory mixtures is useful since it allows the materials to be compared for the purposes of selection and reports on their degree of internal cohesion, green or calcination, so that their structural ability can be estimated, especially during installation. Given the testing difficulties originating in the fragility of the ceramic materials, the tension test is not generally used in refractories. However, ASTM C-307 94 determines the tensile strength of cured chemical-resistant materials, for which this work considered the possibility of testing cement-based monolithic refractories in this non conventional condition. The tensile resistance to the fracture of three different refractory mixtures (A, B 1 and B 2 ), used in heat repairing by gunite in coking ovens, that were characterized by chemical, granulometric, and mineralogical analysis pycnometric density measurements. The pieces for the tests ('bone' type: length = 75 mm, maximum width = 40 mm, minimum width = 25 mm, thickness = 10 - 25 mm) were prepared by ramming of mixtures of material/water in a metallic mold; they were sinterized (1200 o C, 1h) and characterized by measures of bulk density, porosity and observation of the surface texture, in green and calcinated. The tensile tests, based on ASTM C-307 94, were performed in an Instron model 4467 machine in open air, at room temperature and position control (0.5 mm/min). The following values were obtained, in kPa: AW347±308; B 1 W738±130; B 2 W604±64. These values were lower than those for the tensile fracture module (MOR), although they displayed an equivalent order: A≤B 2 ≤B 1 . This was related to the characteristics of each refractory mixture and at the end of the pieces tested (CW)

  8. Young's modulus determination of low-k porous films by wide-band DCC/LD LSAW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maosen, Bai; Xing, Fu; Dorantes, Dante; Baoyin, Jin; Xiaotang, Hu

    2011-10-01

    Low-k interconnection is one of the key concepts in the development of high-speed ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) circuits. To determine the Young's modulus of ultra thin, low hardness and fragile low-k porous films more accurately, a wideband differential confocal configured laser detected and laser-generated surface acoustic wave (DCC/LD LSAW) detection system is developed. Based on the light deflection sensitivity detection principle, with a novel differential confocal configuration, this DCC/LD LSAW system extends the traditional laser generated surface acoustic wave (LSAW) detection system's working frequency band, making the detected SAW signals less affected by the hard substrate and providing more information about the thin porous low-k film under test. Thus it has the ability to obtain more accurate measurement results. Its detecting principle is explained and a sample of porous silica film on Si (100) is tested. A procedure of fitting an experimental SAW dispersion curve with theoretical dispersion curves was carried out in the high frequency band newly achieved by the DCC/LD LSAW system. A comparison of the measurement results of the DCC/LD LSAW with those from the traditional LSAW shows that this newly developed DCC/LD LSAW can dramatically improve the Young's modulus measuring accuracy of such porous low-k films.

  9. Young's modulus determination of low-k porous films by wide-band DCC/LD LSAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Maosen; Fu Xing; Dorantes Dante; Jin Baoyin; Hu Xiaotang

    2011-01-01

    Low-k interconnection is one of the key concepts in the development of high-speed ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) circuits. To determine the Young's modulus of ultra thin, low hardness and fragile low-k porous films more accurately, a wideband differential confocal configured laser detected and laser-generated surface acoustic wave (DCC/LD LSAW) detection system is developed. Based on the light deflection sensitivity detection principle, with a novel differential confocal configuration, this DCC/LD LSAW system extends the traditional laser generated surface acoustic wave (LSAW) detection system's working frequency band, making the detected SAW signals less affected by the hard substrate and providing more information about the thin porous low-k film under test. Thus it has the ability to obtain more accurate measurement results. Its detecting principle is explained and a sample of porous silica film on Si (100) is tested. A procedure of fitting an experimental SAW dispersion curve with theoretical dispersion curves was carried out in the high frequency band newly achieved by the DCC/LD LSAW system. A comparison of the measurement results of the DCC/LD LSAW with those from the traditional LSAW shows that this newly developed DCC/LD LSAW can dramatically improve the Young's modulus measuring accuracy of such porous low-k films. (semiconductor materials)

  10. Cloning and DNA sequence of the mercuric- and organomercurial-resistance determinants of plasmid pDU1358

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, H.G.; Foster, T.J.; Silver, S.; Misra, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    The broad-spectrum mercurial-resistance plasmid pDU1358 was analyzed by cloning the resistance determinants and preparing a physical and genetic map of a 45-kilobase (kb) region of the plasmid that contains two separate mercurial-resistance operons that mapped about 20 kb apart. One encoded narrow-spectrum mercurial resistance to Hg 2+ and a few organomercurials; the other specified broad-spectrum resistance to phenylmercury and additional organomercurials. Each determinant governed mercurial transport functions. Southern DNA x DNA hybridization experiments using gene-specific probes from the plasmid R100 mer operon indicated close homology with the R100 deteminant. The 2153 base pairs of the promoter-distal part of the broad-spectrum Hg 2+ -resistance operon of pDU1358 were sequenced. This region included the 3'-terminal part of the merA gene, merD, unidentified reading frame URF1, and a part of URF2 homologous to previously sequenced determinants of plasmid R100. Between the merA and merD genes, an open reading frame encoding a 212 amino acid polypeptide was identified as the merB gene that determines the enzyme organomercurial lyase that cleaves the C-Hg bond of phenylmercury

  11. Identification of Tet 39, a novel class of tetracycline resistance determinant in Acinetobacter spp. of environmental and clinical origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Guardabassi, L.

    2005-01-01

    A novel tetracycline resistance determinant named Tet 39 was found in unrelated Acinetobacter strains isolated from freshwater trout farms (n=4) and sewage (n=6) in Denmark, and from a clinical specimen in the Netherlands (n=1). The determinant was located on transferable plasmids and consisted...

  12. Genetically Determined Insulin Resistance is Characterized by Down-Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Skov, Vibe; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and high-risk individuals have demonstrated a co-ordinated down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) genes, suggesting a link between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, whether...... mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance remains to be clarified. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of patients with genetically determined insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle biopsies.......02), and complex V (ATP5B; p=0.005). Our data demonstrate that genetically determined insulin resistance is associated with a co-ordinated down-regulation of OxPhos components both at the transcriptional and translational level. These findings suggest that an impaired biological response to insulin in skeletal...

  13. Resistance of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria of African and European origin to antimicrobials: Determination and transferability of the resistance genes to other bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene Ivette; Lei, Vicki; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2008-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria and starter cultures of Lactobacillus, Weissella and Bifidobacterium of African and European origins were studied and compared for their susceptibility to antimicrobials. The study included, for all isolates, determination of MICs (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) for 24...... levels of intrinsic resistance were found among the tested species. Positive amplicons were obtained for resistance genes encoding aminoglycoside (aph(3')-III, aadA, aadE) and tetracycline (tet(S)) from isolates from Europe and macrolide (erm(B)) from an isolate from Africa. However, only the erm(B) gene...

  14. Molecular determination of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from raw meat in Addis Ababa and Bishoftu, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messele, Yohannes Equar; Abdi, Reta Duguma; Yalew, Shimels Tikuye; Tegegne, Desiye Tesfaye; Emeru, Bezina Arega; Werid, Gebremeskel Mamu

    2017-08-15

    Consumption of meat contaminated by E. coli causes a serious illness and even death to affected individuals. Recently the emerging of antibiotic resistant foodborne E. coli poses serious public health risks worldwide. However, little is known about the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) status of E. coli isolated from different type of meat. Overall 292 samples were collected from December 2015 to April 2016 from slaughterhouses to determine the prevalence and AMR of E. coli isolated from raw beef, mutton, chevon and chicken meat from Addis Ababa and Bishoftu, Ethiopia. The isolates were screened for AMR against commonly used antibiotics circulating in the Ethiopian market. Both phenotypic and genotypic approach were employed for AMR detection using disc diffusion test and PCR respectively. The prevalence of E. coli was 63 (21.6%), indicating one sample in every five samples harbors E. coli. Among these, the highest E. coli isolates was observed in chicken meat samples (37.0%; 27), followed by mutton (23.3%; 17), chevon (20.6%; 15) and beef (5.5%; 4). Results of disk diffusion test on the 63 isolates showed that only 4.8% of them were not resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to ≥3 drugs) was 46.0%. Significantly high resistance to ampicillin (71.4%) and tetracycline (47.6%) was observed. Identification of genes associated with AMR was also done using PCR. The prevalence of E. coli isolates harboring resistance gene responsible for tetracycline (tet(A)), beta lactams (blaCMY) and sulphanamide (sulI) antibiotics were found 65.1, 65.1 and 54.0%, respectively. Twenty-five out of the 63 (39.7% %) E. coli isolates have got antimicrobial resistance gene to three or more classes of drugs. The associations of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and resistance genes was also determined. The detection of resistance trait against

  15. Genome-wide association study of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) HG type 2.5.7 (race 1) resistance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Thus far, most of the commercial SCN-resistant soybean cultivars have been developed from very limited resistant germplasm resources. Overuse of these limited resistant sources has resulted in SCN race ...

  16. The tetracycline resistance determinant Tet 39 and the sulphonamide resistance gene sulII are common among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish farms in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Petersen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    genes [tet(A), tet(B), tet(H), tet(M) and tet(39)] and class II integrons by PCR. One hundred and thirty-four of these isolates were also sulphonamide resistant and these isolates were screened for sulphonamide resistance genes (sulII and sulIII) as well as class I integrons. Plasmid extraction...... and Southern blots with sulII and tet(39) probes were performed on selected isolates. Results: The recently identified tetracycline resistance gene tet(39) was demonstrated in 75% (166/222) of oxytetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Isolates that were also...... sulfamethoxazole-resistant contained sulII (96%; 129/134) and/or sulI (14%; 19/134) (as part of class I integrons). sulII and tet(39) were located on plasmids differing in size in the isolates tested. Conclusions: The study shows tet(39) and sulII to be common resistance genes among clonally distinct Acinetobacter...

  17. An Inter-Comparison of Techniques for Determining Velocities of Maritime Arctic Glaciers, Svalbard, Using Radarsat-2 Wide Fine Mode Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schellenberger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glacier dynamics play an important role in the mass balance of many glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets. In this study we exploit Radarsat-2 (RS-2 Wide Fine (WF data to determine the surface speed of Svalbard glaciers in the winters of 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 using Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR offset and speckle tracking. The RS-2 WF mode combines the advantages of the large spatial coverage of the Wide mode (150 × 150 km and the high pixel resolution (9 m of the Fine mode and thus has a major potential for glacier velocity monitoring from space through offset and speckle tracking. Faster flowing glaciers (1.95 m·d−1–2.55 m·d−1 that are studied in detail are Nathorstbreen, Kronebreen, Kongsbreen and Monacobreen. Using our Radarsat-2 WF dataset, we compare the performance of two SAR tracking algorithms, namely the GAMMA Remote Sensing Software and a custom written MATLAB script (GRAY method that has primarily been used in the Canadian Arctic. Both algorithms provide comparable results, especially for the faster flowing glaciers and the termini of slower tidewater glaciers. A comparison of the WF data to RS-2 Ultrafine and Wide mode data reveals the superiority of RS-2 WF data over the Wide mode data.

  18. Adiponectin expression in visceral adiposity is an important determinant of insulin resistance in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Anca Elena; Buburuzan, Laura; Kevorkian, Steliana; Martin, Sorina; Barbu, Carmen; Copaescu, Catalin; Smeu, Bogdan; Fica, Simona

    2018-04-12

    Visceral adiposity is associated with decreased serum adiponectin levels, peripheral resistance to insulin and an increased risk of cardio-metabolic complications. However, the link between adiponectin expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), its serum levels and metabolic protection is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the adiponectin gene expression in VAT and clinical and metabolic parameters in patients with severe obesity. This is a cross-sectional study that included 51 severely obese patients (age 43.24±11.29 years, BMI 45.13±8.67 kg/m2), extensively evaluated clinically and biologically (metabolic tests, serum adiponectin measurements, HOMA-IR) before bariatric surgery. Omental adipose tissue was sampled during the intervention and the relative quantification of adiponectin gene expression was performed by real-time PCR, using beta-actin as reference gene. Adiponectin mRNA in VAT was significantly higher in obese insulin-sensitive patients than in the rest of obese patients (p<0.05) and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (r =-0.354, p=0.016) and uric acid (r =-0.304, p=0.045). After adjustment for gender, TG/HDL ratio and uric acid, adiponectin expresion (β= -0.439, p=0.001), waist circumference (β=0.467, p=0.001) and serum adiponectin (β =-0.339, p=0.011) remained significantly associated with HOMA-IR, together explaining more than 50% of its variation. In severely obese patients, adiponectin gene expression in VAT is negatively correlated with serum levels of uric acid and is an independent determinant, together with anthropometric parameters of visceral obesity and serum adiponectin levels, of insulin resistance.

  19. Evolution of multi-drug resistant HCV clones from pre-existing resistant-associated variants during direct-acting antiviral therapy determined by third-generation sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Haruhiko; Ueda, Yoshihide; Inuzuka, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Osaki, Yukio; Nasu, Akihiro; Umeda, Makoto; Takemura, Ryo; Seno, Hiroshi; Sekine, Akihiro; Marusawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Resistance-associated variant (RAV) is one of the most significant clinical challenges in treating HCV-infected patients with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). We investigated the viral dynamics in patients receiving DAAs using third-generation sequencing technology. Among 283 patients with genotype-1b HCV receiving daclatasvir + asunaprevir (DCV/ASV), 32 (11.3%) failed to achieve sustained virological response (SVR). Conventional ultra-deep sequencing of HCV genome was performed in 104 patients (32 non-SVR, 72 SVR), and detected representative RAVs in all non-SVR patients at baseline, including Y93H in 28 (87.5%). Long contiguous sequences spanning NS3 to NS5A regions of each viral clone in 12 sera from 6 representative non-SVR patients were determined by third-generation sequencing, and showed the concurrent presence of several synonymous mutations linked to resistance-associated substitutions in a subpopulation of pre-existing RAVs and dominant isolates at treatment failure. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close genetic distances between pre-existing RAVs and dominant RAVs at treatment failure. In addition, multiple drug-resistant mutations developed on pre-existing RAVs after DCV/ASV in all non-SVR cases. In conclusion, multi-drug resistant viral clones at treatment failure certainly originated from a subpopulation of pre-existing RAVs in HCV-infected patients. Those RAVs were selected for and became dominant with the acquisition of multiple resistance-associated substitutions under DAA treatment pressure.

  20. Sharing individual patient and parasite-level data through the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network platform: A qualitative case study [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pisani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, biomedical researchers are encouraged or required by research funders and journals to share their data, but there's very little guidance on how to do that equitably and usefully, especially in resource-constrained settings. We performed an in-depth case study of one data sharing pioneer: the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN. Methods: The case study included a records review, a quantitative analysis of WAARN-related publications, in-depth interviews with 47 people familiar with WWARN, and a witness seminar involving a sub-set of 11 interviewees. Results: WWARN originally aimed to collate clinical, in vitro, pharmacological and molecular data into linked, open-access databases intended to serve as a public resource to guide antimalarial drug treatment policies. Our study describes how WWARN navigated challenging institutional and academic incentive structures, alongside funders' reluctance to invest in capacity building in malaria-endemic countries, which impeded data sharing. The network increased data contributions by focusing on providing free, online tools to improve the quality and efficiency of data collection, and by inviting collaborative authorship on papers addressing policy-relevant questions that could only be answered through pooled analyses. By July 1, 2016, the database included standardised data from 103 molecular studies and 186 clinical trials, representing 135,000 individual patients. Developing the database took longer and cost more than anticipated, and efforts to increase equity for data contributors are on-going. However, analyses of the pooled data have generated new methods and influenced malaria treatment recommendations globally. Despite not achieving the initial goal of real-time surveillance, WWARN has developed strong data governance and curation tools, which are now being adapted relatively quickly for other diseases. Conclusions: To be useful, data sharing requires

  1. Determination of bending moment resistance of t-type joints constructed with wood biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kahvand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate effects of wood species (Beech and Fir, number of connectors (1 and 2, size of biscuit (10 and 20 and type of adhesives (Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc, polyurethane (PU and urea-formaldehyde (UF on bending moment resistance of joints fabricated with biscuit. Results have shown that member of joint, number of connector, size of biscuit and type of adhesive had significant effect on the bending moment resistance. Bending moment resistance of joints made of Beech wood were stronger than joints made of Fir ones. Bending moment resistance has increased, with the increase of size and number of biscuit. Performance of joints with PU adhesive had better than PVA and UF. Highest bending moment resistance were obtained from joints glued with PU adhesive, size of biscuit 20 and 2 connectors. The results also indicated that joints made with biscuit and glued with PU had higher resistance than wooden dowel joints.

  2. Determination of Resistance Levels of Myzus persicae (Sulzer by Biochemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Petrović-Obradović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach/potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer has developed three mechanisms of resistance: overproduction of one or two closely related carboxylesterases (E4 and FE4, production of modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE and knockdown resistance. Biochemicaldiagnostic methods can be used to identify levels of carboxylesterase production and sensitivity of modified acetylcholinesterase and, based on the values acquired we can classify aphids into one of the resistance cathegories. We used two tests: the total esterase activitytest and test for checking sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase (MACE. Myzus periscae persicae from peach and Myzus persicae nicotianae from tobacco were tested. The total esterase activity test showed that 65% of the aphids tested were moderately resistant and 35% were highly resistant. Resistance based on the production of modified acetylcholinesterase is less represented because 80% of the aphids tested were susceptible to pirimicarb, which was used in the experiment. Also, both tests showed that aphids from tobacco were more susceptible than aphids from peach.

  3. A genome-wide association study of field and seedling response to stem rust pathogen races reveals combinations of race-specific resistance genes in North American spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici historically caused major yield losses of wheat worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in conventional North American spring wheat, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was conducted on a...

  4. Detection of Methicillin-Resistance Gene (mec-A in Staphylococcus aureus Strains by PCR and Determination of Antibiotic Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zamani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most important causes of hospital infections worldwide. Treatment of these infections has become more difficult because of resistance to methicillin/oxacillin and other antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of MRSA infections in hospitals affiliated to Hamadan University of Medical Sciences.Materials & Methods: Seventy S. aureus clinical strains were isolated from patients from June, 2005 to June, 2006 and examined by conventional microbiological tests and PCR, respectively. Then, the antibiotic susceptibility to methicillin/oxacillin and other antibiotic were performed by Disk Diffusion Agar (DDA.Results: The results of this study showed that Methicillin resistance gene was detected in 35 (50% and 22 (31.4% cases by PCR and DDA, respectively. The results of antibiotic sensitivity assays also showed there was high resistance in MRSA strains to Penicillin (100%, Cloxacillin (91.4%, Tetracycline (74.2%, Cotrimoxazole (68.6% Erythromycin (68.5% and Ceftazidim (51.4%. The strains of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA showed high sensitivity results to antibiotic used, except penicillin, which all of the isolates were penicillin resistance.Conclusion: As a conclusion, the resistant to methicillin/oxacillin in Hamadan hospitals has reached to 50% and they show multi-drug resistant.

  5. Heterogeneity of plasmids determining high-level resistance to gentamicin in clinical isolates of Streptococcus faecalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Zervos, M J; Mikesell, T S; Schaberg, D R

    1986-01-01

    Between November 1981 and October 1984, 48 of 3,458 clinical isolates of Streptococcus faecalis at the University of Michigan Hospital showed high-level (greater than 2,000 micrograms/ml) resistance to gentamicin, as well as to all other clinically available aminoglycosides. Thirteen percent of clinical isolates in the University of Michigan Hospital currently demonstrate this level of resistance. Transfer of resistance to a plasmid-free streptococcal recipient was observed in filter matings ...

  6. In situ determination of the static inductance and resistance of a plasma focus capacitor bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.; Roy, F.; Chong, P. L.; Vengadeswaran, V.; Sidik, A. S. M.; Leong, Y. W.; Singh, A.

    2010-05-01

    The static (unloaded) electrical parameters of a capacitor bank are of utmost importance for the purpose of modeling the system as a whole when the capacitor bank is discharged into its dynamic electromagnetic load. Using a physical short circuit across the electromagnetic load is usually technically difficult and is unnecessary. The discharge can be operated at the highest pressure permissible in order to minimize current sheet motion, thus simulating zero dynamic load, to enable bank parameters, static inductance L0, and resistance r0 to be obtained using lightly damped sinusoid equations given the bank capacitance C0. However, for a plasma focus, even at the highest permissible pressure it is found that there is significant residual motion, so that the assumption of a zero dynamic load introduces unacceptable errors into the determination of the circuit parameters. To overcome this problem, the Lee model code is used to fit the computed current trace to the measured current waveform. Hence the dynamics is incorporated into the solution and the capacitor bank parameters are computed using the Lee model code, and more accurate static bank parameters are obtained.

  7. In situ determination of the static inductance and resistance of a plasma focus capacitor bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S H; Lee, S; Roy, F; Chong, P L; Vengadeswaran, V; Sidik, A S M; Leong, Y W; Singh, A

    2010-05-01

    The static (unloaded) electrical parameters of a capacitor bank are of utmost importance for the purpose of modeling the system as a whole when the capacitor bank is discharged into its dynamic electromagnetic load. Using a physical short circuit across the electromagnetic load is usually technically difficult and is unnecessary. The discharge can be operated at the highest pressure permissible in order to minimize current sheet motion, thus simulating zero dynamic load, to enable bank parameters, static inductance L(0), and resistance r(0) to be obtained using lightly damped sinusoid equations given the bank capacitance C(0). However, for a plasma focus, even at the highest permissible pressure it is found that there is significant residual motion, so that the assumption of a zero dynamic load introduces unacceptable errors into the determination of the circuit parameters. To overcome this problem, the Lee model code is used to fit the computed current trace to the measured current waveform. Hence the dynamics is incorporated into the solution and the capacitor bank parameters are computed using the Lee model code, and more accurate static bank parameters are obtained.

  8. In situ determination of the static inductance and resistance of a plasma focus capacitor bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saw, S. H. [INTI University College, Nilai 71800 (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone, Victoria 3148 (Australia); Lee, S. [INTI University College, Nilai 71800 (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone, Victoria 3148 (Australia); National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Roy, F.; Chong, P. L.; Vengadeswaran, V.; Sidik, A. S. M.; Leong, Y. W.; Singh, A. [INTI University College, Nilai 71800 (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    The static (unloaded) electrical parameters of a capacitor bank are of utmost importance for the purpose of modeling the system as a whole when the capacitor bank is discharged into its dynamic electromagnetic load. Using a physical short circuit across the electromagnetic load is usually technically difficult and is unnecessary. The discharge can be operated at the highest pressure permissible in order to minimize current sheet motion, thus simulating zero dynamic load, to enable bank parameters, static inductance L{sub 0}, and resistance r{sub 0} to be obtained using lightly damped sinusoid equations given the bank capacitance C{sub 0}. However, for a plasma focus, even at the highest permissible pressure it is found that there is significant residual motion, so that the assumption of a zero dynamic load introduces unacceptable errors into the determination of the circuit parameters. To overcome this problem, the Lee model code is used to fit the computed current trace to the measured current waveform. Hence the dynamics is incorporated into the solution and the capacitor bank parameters are computed using the Lee model code, and more accurate static bank parameters are obtained.

  9. Detection of Genes that Determine Maize Grain Quality Characteristics and Resistance to Stress Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovskyi, O.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 200 experimental maize samples (Maize Company were examined for the presence of genes that determine the quality characteristics of grain (wx and fl-2 genes, herbicide (bar (pat, epsps genes and insect (cry-genes resistance. The total DNA was extracted from maize living plant tissue. Primers to detect wx, fl-2, bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 genes were designed and selected. Multiplex and Touchdown PCR were worked out. PCR amplification of certain sequences was carried out. No transgenes (bar (pat, mepsps, CP4 epsps, cry1A(b, cry1F, cry1A.105, mcry3A, cry2Ab2, cry3Bb1, cry34Ab1, cry35Ab1 were found among 200 analyzed experimental maize samples. At the same time, fl-2 gene was found in 41 samples, wx gene was found in 192 analyzed samples.

  10. In situ determination of the static inductance and resistance of a plasma focus capacitor bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.; Roy, F.; Chong, P. L.; Vengadeswaran, V.; Sidik, A. S. M.; Leong, Y. W.; Singh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The static (unloaded) electrical parameters of a capacitor bank are of utmost importance for the purpose of modeling the system as a whole when the capacitor bank is discharged into its dynamic electromagnetic load. Using a physical short circuit across the electromagnetic load is usually technically difficult and is unnecessary. The discharge can be operated at the highest pressure permissible in order to minimize current sheet motion, thus simulating zero dynamic load, to enable bank parameters, static inductance L 0 , and resistance r 0 to be obtained using lightly damped sinusoid equations given the bank capacitance C 0 . However, for a plasma focus, even at the highest permissible pressure it is found that there is significant residual motion, so that the assumption of a zero dynamic load introduces unacceptable errors into the determination of the circuit parameters. To overcome this problem, the Lee model code is used to fit the computed current trace to the measured current waveform. Hence the dynamics is incorporated into the solution and the capacitor bank parameters are computed using the Lee model code, and more accurate static bank parameters are obtained.

  11. Application of bioassay technique to determine onduty herbicide resistance in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, F. A. A.; Ismail, B. S.; Bajrai, F. S. M.

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the resistance of OnDuty herbicide in paddy soil with different concentrations by using a broadleaf plant, Brassica juncea. The herbicide was used in the Clearfield® Production System that was adopted in Malaysia to overcome problems mainly caused by weedy rice. Evaluation of herbicide half-life was based on bioassay technique with different concentrations, i.e 0% (control), 50% (half dose), 100% (recommended dose) and 200% (double dose). The study was done in three replicates and followed the Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD). Results showed that there was a correlation between the amount of herbicide doses and degradation period. The highest half-life value was shown by root inhibition in the double dose concentration of 33 days half-life, followed by the recommended dose with 23 days half-life. Meanwhile, the half dose treatment indicated a half-life value of 17 days for root and 11 days for shoot. Therefore, application of herbicides should follow the recommended dose as the degradation period will not be too long, hence providing maximum effectiveness of the herbicide to overcome weed infestation problems.

  12. Reproducible extracellular vesicle size and concentration determination with tunable resistive pulse sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. W. Coumans

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The size of extracellular vesicles (EVs can be determined with a tunable resistive pulse sensor (TRPS. Because the sensing pore diameter varies from pore to pore, the minimum detectable diameter also varies. The aim of this study is to determine and improve the reproducibility of TRPS measurements. Methods: Experiments were performed with the qNano system (Izon using beads and a standard urine vesicle sample. With a combination of voltage and stretch that yields a high blockade height, we investigate whether the minimum detected diameter is more reproducible when we configure the instrument targeting (a fixed stretch and voltage, or (b fixed blockade height. Results: Daily measurements with a fixed stretch and voltage (n=102 on a standard urine sample show a minimum detected vesicle diameter of 128±19 nm [mean±standard deviation; coefficient of variation (CV 14.8%]. The vesicle concentration was 2.4·109±3.8·109 vesicles/mL (range 1.4·108–1.8·1010. When we compared setting a fixed stretch and voltage to setting a fixed blockade height on 3 different pores, we found a minimum detected vesicle diameter of 118 nm (CV 15.5%, stretch, and 123 nm (CV 4.5%, blockade height. The detected vesicle concentration was 3.2–8.2·108 vesicles/mL with fixed stretch and 6.4–7.8·108 vesicles/mL with fixed blockade height. Summary/conclusion: Pore-to-pore variability is the cause of the variation in minimum detected size when setting a fixed stretch and voltage. The reproducibility of the minimum detectable diameter is much improved by setting a fixed blockade height.

  13. Skid resistance determination for pavement management and wet-weather road safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Fwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents during wet weather have been a topic of major concern of road engineers in regions of wet-tropical climate and in other parts of the world during the wet season of the year. Road safety studies indicate that approximately 20% of all road accidents occurred during wet weather, and that the skid resistance of wet pavements have a major influence on the occurrences of wet-weather accidents. Monitoring of wet pavement skid resistance has been an integral part of a typical pavement management system. However, because of the lack of prediction capability of pavement skid resistance under various rainfall intensities, the minimum skid resistance threshold for safe wet-weather driving has been specified by highway agencies based on either engineering judgement or past experience. It is shown in this paper that the single-point minimum skid resistance threshold is inadequate to offer a complete description of the skid resistance performance of the pavement sections in question for effective management of a road network. It is unable to assess the risk involved in an actual wet-weather condition where the pavement surface water-film thickness and vehicle speed are different from standard test conditions. This limitation of the current system of specifying a minimum skid resistance threshold can be overcome by adopting a theoretically sound approach to represent pavement skid resistance under different conditions of water-film thickness and vehicle speed. This paper describes the theoretical basis of the approach and the development of a mechanistically derived three-dimensional finite-element skid resistance simulation model to predict skid resistance. The application of the proposed approach and the skid resistance prediction procedure in pavement management system and wet-weather driving safety assessment is presented.

  14. Enhanced resistance to fluoroquinolones in laboratory-grown mutants & clinical isolates of Shigella due to synergism between efflux pump expression & mutations in quinolone resistance determining region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Mishra, Arti; Kumar, Ajay; Verma, Garima; Sharma, Meera

    2015-01-01

    There is a worldwide emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella species. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoroquinolone resistance, naturally occurring fluoroquinolone-resistant strains and laboratory-induced spontaneous mutants of Shigella spp. were used and the relative contributions of acrAB-tolC efflux pumps, gyrase and topoisomerase target gene mutations towards fluoroquinolone resistance were determined. Eight Shigella flexneri and six S. dysenteriae clinical isolates were studied. Three consecutive mutants resistant to ciprofloxacin for S. flexneri SFM1 (≥ 0.25 µg/ml), SFM2 (≥ 4 µg/ml) and SFM3 (≥ 32 µg/ml) were selected in 15 steps from susceptible isolates by serial exposure to increasing concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Similarly, two mutants for S. dysenteriae SDM1 (≥ 0.25 µg/ml) and SDM2 (≥ 4 µg/ml) were selected in eight steps. After PCR amplification sequence analyses of gyrase and topoisomerase target genes were performed. Expression of efflux genes acrA, acrB, acrR and tolC was measured using real-time PCR. Mutations were observed in gyrA Ser [83]→Leu, Asp [87]→Asn/Gly, Val [196]→Ala and in parC Phe [93]→Val, Ser [80]→Ile, Asp [101]→Glu and Asp [110]→Glu. Overall, acrA and acrB overexpression was associated with fluoroquinolone resistance ( p0 Shigella spp. is the end product of either a single or a combination of mutations in QRDRs and/ or efflux activity. Novel polymorphisms were observed at Val [196]→Ala in gyrA in clinical isolates and Phe [93]→Val, Asp [101]→Glu, Asp [110]→Glu and in parC in majority of laboratory-grown mutants.

  15. Occurrences and Characterization of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Genetic Determinants of Hospital Wastewater in a Tropical Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai-Hoang; Ng, Charmaine; Chen, Hongjie; Yi, Xin Zhu; Koh, Tse Hsien; Barkham, Timothy Mark Sebastian; Zhou, Zhi; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2016-12-01

    Wastewater discharged from clinical isolation and general wards at two hospitals in Singapore was examined to determine the emerging trends of antibiotic resistance (AR). We quantified the concentrations of 12 antibiotic compounds by analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), the class 1 integrase gene (intI1), and 16 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that confer resistance to 10 different clinically relevant antibiotics. A subset of 119 antibiotic-resistant isolates were phylogenetically classified and tested for the presence of ARGs encoding resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (bla NDM , bla KPC , bla SHV , bla CTX-M ), amikacin [aac(6')-Ib], co-trimoxazole (sul1, sul2, dfrA), ciprofloxacin (qnrA, qnrB), and the intI1 gene. Among these resistant isolates, 80.7% were detected with intI1 and 66.4% were found to carry at least 1 of the tested ARGs. Among 3 sampled locations, the clinical isolation ward had the highest concentrations of ARB and the highest levels of ARGs linked to resistance to β-lactam (bla KPC ), co-trimoxazole (sul1, sul2, dfrA), amikacin [aac(6')-Ib], ciprofloxacin (qnrA), and intI1 We found strong positive correlations (P bacteria resistant to meropenem, ceftazidime, amikacin, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin and abundances of bla KPC , aac(6')-Ib, sul1, sul2, dfrA, qnrA, and intI1 genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Atypical Pneumococci and Oral Streptococci: Evidence of Horizontal Gene Transfer of Fluoroquinolone Resistance Determinants from Streptococcus pneumoniae▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Margaret; Chau, Shirley S. L.; Chi, Fang; Tang, Julian; Chan, Paul K.

    2007-01-01

    Atypical strains, presumed to be pneumococcus, with ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥4.0 μg/ml and unique sequence variations within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the gyrase and topoisomerase genes in comparison with the Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 strain, were examined. These strains were reidentified using phenotypic methods, including detection of optochin susceptibility, bile solubility, and agglutination by serotype-specific antisera, and genotypic methods, including detection of pneumolysin and autolysin genes by PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The analysis based on concatenated sequences of the six MLST loci distinguished the “atypical” strains from pneumococci, and these strains clustered closely with S. mitis. However, all these strains and five of nine strains from the viridans streptococcal group possessed one to three gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes whose QRDR sequences clustered with those of S. pneumoniae, providing evidence of horizontal transfer of the QRDRs of the gyrase and topoisomerase genes from pneumococci into viridans streptococci. These genes also conferred fluoroquinolone resistance to viridans streptococci. In addition, the fluoroquinolone resistance determinants of 32 well-characterized Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis strains from bacteremic patients were also compared. These strains have unique amino acid substitutions in GyrA and ParC that were distinguishable from those in fluoroquinolone-resistant pneumococci and the “atypical” isolates. Both recombinational events and de novo mutations play an important role in the development of fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:17548487

  17. Transgressive segregation of root-knot nematode resistance in cotton determined by QTL analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgressive resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, was found in intraspecific (Gossypium hirsutum; resistant Acala NemX x susceptible Acala SJ-2) and interspecific (G. barbadense susceptible Pima-S7 x Acala NemX) cotton recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Similar contribut...

  18. Interrogating the plasmidome to determine antibiotic resistance gene mobility within the swine fecal microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of antibiotics in animal production has been highlighted as a key contributor to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems. Gram negative bacteria, such as the Enterobacteriaceae, are important facilitators for resistance gene dissemination in the environment and i...

  19. GenoType HelicoDR test in the determination of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Nayoung; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori is most important factor in eradication success. GenoType HelicoDR test has been developed for rapid detection of antimicrobial resistance. The present study evaluated the clinical usefulness of GenoType HelicoDR test in Korea. To detect 23S rRNA for clarithromycin resistance and gyrA mutations for fluoroquinolone resistance, both DNA sequencing after minimal inhibitory test (MIC) and GenoType HelicoDR test were performed in H. pylori isolates from the gastric mucosa of 101 patients. The eradication results of clarithromycin and moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy were evaluated by the 23S rRNA and gyrA mutations. For 42 isolates with A2143G mutation by GenoType HelicoDR, 83.3% (35/42) of concordance rate was estimated with DNA sequencing method and 85.7% (36/42) for MIC test. For 43 isolates with N87K mutation by GenoType HelicoDR, 71.1% (31/43) of concordance rate was estimated with DNA sequencing and 88.4% (38/43) for MIC test. The sensitivity and specificity of GenoType HelicoDR test in determination of 23S rRNA mutation were 94.9% and 87.1%, and those of gyrA 98.2% and 80.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of GenoType HelicoDR test in determination of clarithromycin resistance based on MIC test were 55.0% and 80.0%, for fluoroquinolone 74.4% and 70.0%. GenoType HelicoDR test is useful to determine mutations responsible for clarithromycin or fluoroquinolone-containing eradication failure but has a limitation for the clinical applicability in determination of resistance.

  20. Detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates as determined by gyrA/B gene mutation by using PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salah Eldin

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of FO-resistant M. tuberculosis is gradually increasing to alarming levels this may be due to wide spread use of this vital groups of drugs in community-acquired pneumonia and urinary tract infections.

  1. Determinants of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Faeces and Urine of Women with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Casper D. J.; Beerepoot, Mariëlle A. J.; Prins, Jan M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Stobberingh, Ellen E.

    2012-01-01

    For women with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI), the contribution of antibiotic use versus patient-related factors in determining the presence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal and urinary Escherichia coli, obtained from the same patient population, has not been assessed yet. Within the

  2. Antibiotic Resistance In Neisseria Gonorrhoeae: Impact Of Ceftriaxone Resistance On Microbial Fitness And Potential Of Resistance Determinants To Spread During Mixed Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    mega Dalton (MDa) conjugative plasmid. Evidence supported the theory that this resistance gene was introduced into the plasmid 48 through a one...six percent of clinical Gc isolates carry a 2.6 mega Dalton (MDa) cryptic plasmid, but this plasmid is not associated with any known virulence...so many strains. This theory is supported by the fact that portions of the plasmid, both large and small, are incorporated into the chromosome

  3. New test procedure to determine fuel's knock resistance; Neues Kraftstoffpruefverfahren zur Bestimmung der Klopffestigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Karl [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Thermodynamik und Verbrennungsmotoren; Hauber, Johann; Raba, Andreas [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Forschung; Nell, Robert [Rofa Laboratory and Process Analyzers, Kritzendorf (Austria). Bereich Produktentwicklung

    2013-07-15

    Knock resistance is one of the most important quality features of gasoline that is determined by standardised motor test procedures. These procedures were developed more than 80 years ago and have been used nearly unchanged since then. During a four-year research project at Ingolstadt University of Applied Sciences, the procedures for determination of octane numbers were analysed in order to develop a new engine-based test method. (orig.)

  4. Molecular genetics and transport analysis of the copper-resistance determinant (pco) from Escherichia coli plasmid pRJ1004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Barrett, S R; Camakaris, J; Lee, B T; Rouch, D A

    1995-09-01

    The copper-resistance determinant (pco) of Escherichia coli plasmid pRJ1004 was cloned and sequenced. Tn1000 transposon mutagenesis identified four complementation groups, mutations in any of which eliminated copper resistance. DNA sequence analysis showed that the four complementation groups contained six open reading frames, designated pco-ABCDRS. The protein product sequences derived from the nucleotide sequence show close homology between this copper-resistance system and the cop system of a plasmid pPT23D of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. The PcoR and PcoS protein sequences show homology to the family of two-component sensor/responder phosphokinase regulatory systems. A seventh reading frame (pcoE) was identified from DNA sequence data, and lies downstream of a copper-regulated promoter. Transport assays with 64Cu(II) showed that the resistant cells containing the plasmid had reduced copper accumulation during the log phase of growth, while increased accumulation had previously been observed during stationary phase. Chromosomal mutants defective in cellular copper management were obtained and characterized. In two of these mutants pco resistance was rendered totally inactive, whilst in another two mutants pco complemented the defective genes. These data indicate that plasmid-borne copper resistance in E. coli is linked with chromosomal systems for copper management.

  5. An NS5A single optimized method to determine genotype, subtype and resistance profiles of Hepatitis C strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Andre-Garnier

    Full Text Available The objective was to develop a method of HCV genome sequencing that allowed simultaneous genotyping and NS5A inhibitor resistance profiling. In order to validate the use of a unique RT-PCR for genotypes 1-5, 142 plasma samples from patients infected with HCV were analysed. The NS4B-NS5A partial region was successfully amplified and sequenced in all samples. In parallel, partial NS3 sequences were analyzed obtained for genotyping. Phylogenetic analysis showed concordance of genotypes and subtypes with a bootstrap >95% for each type cluster. NS5A resistance mutations were analyzed using the Geno2pheno [hcv] v0.92 tool and compared to the list of known Resistant Associated Substitutions recently published. In conclusion, this tool allows determination of HCV genotypes, subtypes and identification of NS5A resistance mutations. This single method can be used to detect pre-existing resistance mutations in NS5A before treatment and to check the emergence of resistant viruses while undergoing treatment in major HCV genotypes (G1-5 in the EU and the US.

  6. Pathogenicity determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci from foods of animal origin in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elal Mus, Tulay; Cetinkaya, Figen; Cibik, Recep; Soyutemiz, Gul Ece; Simsek, Husniye; Coplu, Nilay

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the presence of genes responsible for the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance profile of enterococci isolated from various foodstuffs of animal origin was investigated. The percentage prevalence of enterococci was 54.1% (203/375) and the average count was found to be 3.81 log cfu/ml-g. Species-specific primers revealed Enterococcus faecalis as the predominant species carrying one or more virulence-associated traits of efa, gelE, ace, esp and agg genetic markers. Only one E. faecium isolate (from milk) was positive for the esp gene. Regarding antibiotic resistance, the highest frequency of resistance was observed for tetracycline (21.7%), followed by quinupristin/dalfopristin (13.3%), ciprofloxacin (2.0%), penicillin (2.0%), linezolid (1.0%), ampicillin (1.0%), streptomycin (1.0%), and gentamicin (0.5%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a higher prevalence of antibiotic resistance than other enterococci. The percentage of multidrug resistance among the isolates was 3.4%. Twenty-nine E. faecalis isolates (26.6%) carrying one of the virulence-associated traits were at the same time resistant to at least one antibiotic. Our results show that foods of animal origin, including ready-to-eat products, may be reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent enterococci.

  7. The Application of 2-D Resistivity and Self Potential (SP) Methods in Determining the Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiana, M. M.; Tajudeen Olugbenga, Adeeko; Afiq Saharudin, Muhamad; nabila, S.; El Hidayah Ismail, Noer

    2018-04-01

    Existence of water flow at urban area will decrease the shear strength and increase hydraulic conductivity of soil which finally caused subsurface problems at this area. To avoid landslide, slope instability and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. The understanding about geological condition has to be considering before construction activities be done. Six 2-D resistivity survey lines with minimum 5 m electrode spacing were executed using Pole-dipole array. The field investigation such as borehole was carried out at multiple locations in the area where the 2-D resistivity method have been conducted. The directions and intensities of the water were evaluated with self-potential (SP) method. Subsequently, the results from borehole were used to verify the results of electrical resistivity method. Interpretation of 2-D resistivity data showed a low resistivity value (support the results of 2-D resistivity method relating a saturated zone in the survey area. There is a good correlation between the 2-D resistivity investigations and the results of borehole records.

  8. Determination of withdrawal resistance of staple joints constructed with various members of upholstered furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid Kazemi Najafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of joints members type (oriented strand lumber, plywood and poplar wood (Populusdeltoides, penetration deeps of staple (12 and 17mm and adhesives (with and without adhesive on face and edge withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated with staple. Experimental specimens under withdrawal load test of face and edge consisted of two principal structural members, main member and a secondary member which were joined together by one staple. The results showed that joint member, penetration deeps and adhesive significantly influence on the withdrawal resistance. Staple withdrawal resistance in the face was higher than that in the edge. Staple holding resistance increased with the increase of penetration deep and the withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated by adhesive was higher than those without adhesive. The joints made by oriented strand lumber exhibited better performance than other two members and joints made with poplar wood had higher resistance than plywood joints. The highest face (2326N and edge (1265N withdrawal resistances were obtained from joints prepared from oriented strand lumber with adhesive and17mm penetration deeps.

  9. Genetic Determinants of Cisplatin Resistance in Patients With Advanced Germ Cell Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrodia, Aditya; Lee, Byron H; Lee, William; Cha, Eugene K; Sfakianos, John P; Iyer, Gopa; Pietzak, Eugene J; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Zabor, Emily C; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Kaffenberger, Samuel D; Syed, Aijazuddin; Arcila, Maria E; Chaganti, Raju S; Kundra, Ritika; Eng, Jana; Hreiki, Joseph; Vacic, Vladimir; Arora, Kanika; Oschwald, Dayna M; Berger, Michael F; Bajorin, Dean F; Bains, Manjit S; Schultz, Nikolaus; Reuter, Victor E; Sheinfeld, Joel; Bosl, George J; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Solit, David B; Feldman, Darren R

    2016-11-20

    Purpose Owing to its exquisite chemotherapy sensitivity, most patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (GCTs) are cured with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, up to 30% of patients with advanced GCT exhibit cisplatin resistance, which requires intensive salvage treatment, and have a 50% risk of cancer-related death. To identify a genetic basis for cisplatin resistance, we performed whole-exome and targeted sequencing of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant GCTs. Methods Men with GCT who received a cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen and had available tumor tissue were eligible to participate in this study. Whole-exome sequencing or targeted exon-capture-based sequencing was performed on 180 tumors. Patients were categorized as cisplatin sensitive or cisplatin resistant by using a combination of postchemotherapy parameters, including serum tumor marker levels, radiology, and pathology at surgical resection of residual disease. Results TP53 alterations were present exclusively in cisplatin-resistant tumors and were particularly prevalent among primary mediastinal nonseminomas (72%). TP53 pathway alterations including MDM2 amplifications were more common among patients with adverse clinical features, categorized as poor risk according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) model. Despite this association, TP53 and MDM2 alterations predicted adverse prognosis independent of the IGCCCG model. Actionable alterations, including novel RAC1 mutations, were detected in 55% of cisplatin-resistant GCTs. Conclusion In GCT, TP53 and MDM2 alterations were associated with cisplatin resistance and inferior outcomes, independent of the IGCCCG model. The finding of frequent TP53 alterations among mediastinal primary nonseminomas may explain the more frequent chemoresistance observed with this tumor subtype. A substantial portion of cisplatin-resistant GCTs harbor actionable alterations, which might respond to targeted therapies. Genomic

  10. Genetic characteristics of soybean resistance to HG type 0 and HG type 1.2.3.5.7 of the cyst nematode analyzed by genome-wide association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Cao, Guanglu; Wang, Yan; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Dongyuan; Teng, Weili; Zhang, Zhiwu; Li, Dongmei; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2015-08-13

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is one of the most fatal pests of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide and causes huge loss of soybean yield each year. Multiple sources of resistance are urgently needed for effective management of SCN via the development of resistant cultivars. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic architecture of resistance to SCN HG Type 0 (race 3) and HG Type 1.2.3.5.7 (race 4) in landraces and released elite soybean cultivars mostly from China. A total of 440 diverse soybean landraces and elite cultivars were screened for resistance to SCN HG Type 0 and HG Type 1.2.3.5.7. Exactly 131 new sources of SCN resistance were identified. Lines were genotyped by SNP markers detected by the Specific Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq) approach. A total of 36,976 SNPs were identified with minor allele frequencies (MAF) > 4% that were present in 97% of all the genotypes. Genome-wide association mapping showed that a total of 19 association signals were significantly related to the resistance for the two HG Types. Of the 19 association signals, eight signals overlapped with reported QTL including Rhg1 and Rhg4 genes. Another eight were located in the linked regions encompassing known QTL. Three QTL were found that were not previously reported. The average value of female index (FI) of soybean accessions with resistant alleles was significantly lower than those with susceptible alleles for each peak SNP. Disease resistance proteins with leucine rich regions, cytochrome P450s, protein kinases, zinc finger domain proteins, RING domain proteins, MYB and WRKY transcription activation families were identified. Such proteins may participate in the resistant reaction to SCN and were frequently found in the tightly linked genomic regions of the peak SNPs. GWAS extended understanding of the genetic architecture of SCN resistance in multiple genetic backgrounds. Nineteen association signals were

  11. Diversity and dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in cheese as determined by PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Ana Belén; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-12-02

    This work reports the composition and succession of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant bacterial communities in a model cheese, monitored by polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were examined using this technique to detect structural changes in the cheese microbiota over manufacturing and ripening. Total bacterial genomic DNA, used as a template, was extracted from cultivable bacteria grown without and with tetracycline or erythromycin (both at 25 μg ml(-1)) on a non-selective medium used for enumeration of total and viable cells (Plate Count agar with Milk; PCA-M), and from those grown on selective and/or differential agar media used for counting various bacterial groups; i.e., lactic acid bacteria (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar; MRSA), micrococci and staphylococci (Baird-Parker agar; BPA), and enterobacteria (Violet Red Bile Glucose agar; VRBGA). Large numbers of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria were detected in cheese samples at all stages of ripening. Counts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria varied widely depending on the microbial group and the point of sampling. In general, resistant bacteria were 0.5-1.0 Log10 units fewer in number than the corresponding susceptible bacteria. The PCR-DGGE profiles obtained with DNA isolated from the plates for total bacteria and the different bacterial groups suggested Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. as the microbial types resistant to both antibiotics tested. This study shows the suitability of the PCR-DGGE technique for rapidly identifying and tracking antibiotic resistant populations in cheese and, by extension, in other foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated ribotyping and antibiotic resistance determining of Bacillus spp from conjunctiva of diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertaç Argun Kıvanç

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Diabetic patients seem to be more prone to B. cereus infections than healthy individuals. It would be greatly beneficial to understand and recognize the prevalence of microorganisms and their resistance patterns for better outcome in ocular surgeries.

  13. Phylogenetic relatedness determined between antibiotic resistance and 16S rRNA genes in actinobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ságová-Marečková, M.; Ulanová, Dana; Šanderová, P.; Omelka, M.; Kameník, Zdeněk; Olšovská, J.; Kopecký, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, APR 2015 (2015) ISSN 1471-2180 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Actinobacteria * 16S rRNA diversity * Resistance genes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2015

  14. Determinants of High Fasting Insulin and Insulin Resistance Among Overweight/Obese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jerri Chiu Yun Ling; Mohd Nahar Azmi Mohamed; Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin; Sanjay Rampal; Nur Lisa Zaharan; Zahurin Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Hyperinsulinaemia is the earliest subclinical metabolic abnormality, which precedes insulin resistance in obese children. An investigation was conducted on the potential predictors of fasting insulin and insulin resistance among overweight/obese adolescents in a developing Asian country. A total of 173 overweight/obese (BMI?>?85th percentile) multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents aged 13 were recruited from 23 randomly selected schools in this cross-sectional study. Waist circumference (WC), bod...

  15. Identifying Chloris Species from Cuban Citrus Orchards and Determining Their Glyphosate-Resistance Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo R. Bracamonte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Chloris genus is a C4 photosynthetic species mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Populations of three Chloris species occurring in citrus orchards from central Cuba, under long history glyphosate-based weed management, were studied for glyphosate-resistant status by characterizing their herbicide resistance/tolerance mechanisms. Morphological and molecular analyses allowed these species to be identified as C. ciliata Sw., Chloris elata Desv., and Chloris barbata Sw. Based on the glyphosate rate that causes 50% mortality of the treated plants, glyphosate resistance (R was confirmed only in C. elata, The R population was 6.1-fold more resistant compared to the susceptible (S population. In addition, R plants of C. elata accumulated 4.6-fold less shikimate after glyphosate application than S plants. Meanwhile, populations of C. barbata and C. ciliata with or without glyphosate application histories showed similar LD50 values and shikimic acid accumulation rates, demonstrating that resistance to glyphosate have not evolved in these species. Plants of R and S populations of C. elata differed in 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation. The R population exhibited 27.3-fold greater 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS activity than the S population due to a target site mutation corresponding to a Pro-106-Ser substitution found in the EPSPS gene. These reports show the innate tolerance to glyphosate of C. barbata and C. ciliata, and confirm the resistance of C. elata to this herbicide, showing that both non-target site and target-site mechanisms are involved in its resistance to glyphosate. This is the first case of herbicide resistance in Cuba.

  16. Within-Population Distribution of Trimethoprim Resistance in Escherichia coli before and after a Community-Wide Intervention on Trimethoprim Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Martin; Granholm, Susanne; Naseer, Umaer; Rydén, Patrik; Brolund, Alma; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year prospective intervention on the prescription of trimethoprim reduced the use by 85% in a health care region with 178,000 inhabitants. Here, we performed before-and-after analyses of the within-population distribution of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic and population genetic methods were applied to multilocus sequence typing data of 548 consecutively collected E. coli isolates from clinical urinary specimens. Results were analyzed in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and the presence and genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance gene classes. A total of 163 E. coli sequence types (STs) were identified, of which 68 were previously undescribed. The isolates fell into one of three distinct genetic clusters designated BAPS 1 (E. coli phylogroup B2), BAPS 2 (phylogroup A and B1), and BAPS 3 (phylogroup D), each with a similar frequency before and after the intervention. BAPS 2 and BAPS 3 were positively and BAPS 1 was negatively associated with trimethoprim resistance (odds ratios of 1.97, 3.17, and 0.26, respectively). In before-and-after analyses, trimethoprim resistance frequency increased in BAPS 1 and decreased in BAPS 2. Resistance to antibiotics other than trimethoprim increased in BAPS 2. Analysis of the genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance genes in isolates of ST69, ST58, and ST73 identified multiple independent acquisition events in isolates of the same ST. The results show that despite a stable overall resistance frequency in E. coli before and after the intervention, marked within-population changes occurred. A decrease of resistance in one major genetic cluster was masked by a reciprocal increase in another major cluster. PMID:25288078

  17. Enhanced resistance to fluoroquinolones in laboratory-grown mutants & clinical isolates of Shigella due to synergism between efflux pump expression & mutations in quinolone resistance determining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: There is a worldwide emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella species. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoroquinolone resistance, naturally occurring fluoroquinolone-resistant strains and laboratory-induced spontaneous mutants of Shigella spp. were used and the relative contributions of acrAB-tolC efflux pumps, gyrase and topoisomerase target gene mutations towards fluoroquinolone resistance were determined. Methods: Eight Shigella flexneri and six S. dysenteriae clinical isolates were studied. Three consecutive mutants resistant to ciprofloxacin for S. flexneri SFM1 (≥0.25 µg/ml, SFM2 (≥4 µg/ml and SFM3 (≥32 µg/ml were selected in 15 steps from susceptible isolates by serial exposure to increasing concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Similarly, two mutants for S. dysenteriae SDM1 (≥0.25 µg/ml and SDM2 (≥4 µg/ml were selected in eight steps. After PCR amplification sequence analyses of gyrase and topoisomerase target genes were performed. Expression of efflux genes acrA, acrB, acrR and tolC was measured using real-time PCR. Results: Mutations were observed in gyrA Ser [83]→Leu, Asp [87]→Asn/Gly, Val [196]→Ala and in parC Phe [93]→Val, Ser [80]→Ile, Asp [101]→Glu and Asp [110]→Glu. Overall, acrA and acrB overexpression was associated with fluoroquinolone resistance ( p0 <0.05; while tolC and acrR expression levels did not. Interpretation & conclusions: Fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella spp. is the end product of either a single or a combination of mutations in QRDRs and/ or efflux activity. Novel polymorphisms were observed at Val [196]→Ala in gyrA in clinical isolates and Phe [93]→Val, Asp [101]→Glu, Asp [110]→Glu and in parC in majority of laboratory-grown mutants.

  18. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Trinkl, A.; Makarewicz, M.; Yonezawa, C.; Kim, C.K.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Benesch, T.; Schorn, R.

    2007-05-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. As an incorrect decision can be extremely costly and detrimental, it is essential that such measurements are accurate, reliable, cost effective and defensible. In addition, measurements performed by laboratories located worldwide should yield traceable and comparable results. Proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. The IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in water grass and soil is conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria), which is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation report for each laboratory

  19. Genetically Determined Insulin Resistance is Characterized by Down-Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas M; Skov, Vibe; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    mitochondrial dysfunction is a cause or consequence of insulin resistance remains to be clarified. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism was down-regulated in skeletal muscle of patients with genetically determined insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle biopsies......Transcriptional profiling of skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and high-risk individuals have demonstrated a co-ordinated down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) genes, suggesting a link between insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, whether...... Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Gene Map Annotator and Pathway Profiler (GenMAPP). In carriers of a INSR mutation reduced insulin-stimulated total and non-oxidative glucose disposal and impaired insulin signaling through Akt and glycogen synthase were associated with a co-ordinated down...

  20. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    1994-01-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.)

  1. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko [Japan Radioisotope Association, Shiga (Japan). Koka Laboratory

    1994-12-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.).

  2. Analytical profiling of mutations in quinolone resistance determining region of gyrA gene among UPEC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley R Varughese

    Full Text Available Mutations in gyrA are the primary cause of quinolone resistance encountered in gram-negative clinical isolates. The prospect of this work was to analyze the role of gyrA mutations in eliciting high quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC through molecular docking studies. Quinolone susceptibility testing of 18 E.coli strains isolated from UTI patients revealed unusually high resistance level to all the quinolones used; especially norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The QRDR of gyrA was amplified and sequenced. Mutations identified in gyrA of E.coli included Ser83Leu, Asp87Asn and Ala93Gly/Glu. Contrasting previous reports, we found Ser83Leu substitution in sensitive strains. Strains with S83L, D87N and A93E (A15 and A26 demonstrated norfloxacin MICs ≥1024mg/L which could be proof that Asp87Asn is necessary for resistance phenotype. Resistance to levofloxacin was comparatively lower in all the isolates. Docking of 4 quinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and norfloxacin to normal and mutated E.coli gyrase A protein demonstrated lower binding energies for the latter, with significant displacement of norfloxacin in the mutated GyrA complex and least displacement in case of levofloxacin.

  3. Analytical profiling of mutations in quinolone resistance determining region of gyrA gene among UPEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Lesley R; Rajpoot, Meenakshi; Goyal, Soniya; Mehra, Ravinder; Chhokar, Vinod; Beniwal, Vikas

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in gyrA are the primary cause of quinolone resistance encountered in gram-negative clinical isolates. The prospect of this work was to analyze the role of gyrA mutations in eliciting high quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) through molecular docking studies. Quinolone susceptibility testing of 18 E.coli strains isolated from UTI patients revealed unusually high resistance level to all the quinolones used; especially norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The QRDR of gyrA was amplified and sequenced. Mutations identified in gyrA of E.coli included Ser83Leu, Asp87Asn and Ala93Gly/Glu. Contrasting previous reports, we found Ser83Leu substitution in sensitive strains. Strains with S83L, D87N and A93E (A15 and A26) demonstrated norfloxacin MICs ≥1024mg/L which could be proof that Asp87Asn is necessary for resistance phenotype. Resistance to levofloxacin was comparatively lower in all the isolates. Docking of 4 quinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and norfloxacin) to normal and mutated E.coli gyrase A protein demonstrated lower binding energies for the latter, with significant displacement of norfloxacin in the mutated GyrA complex and least displacement in case of levofloxacin.

  4. Quantitative scanning thermal microscopy based on determination of thermal probe dynamic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzenta, J; Juszczyk, J; Chirtoc, M

    2013-09-01

    Resistive thermal probes used in scanning thermal microscopy provide high spatial resolution of measurement accompanied with high sensitivity to temperature changes. At the same time their sensitivity to variations of thermal conductivity of a sample is relatively low. In typical dc operation mode the static resistance of the thermal probe is measured. It is shown both analytically and experimentally that the sensitivity of measurement can be improved by a factor of three by measuring the dynamic resistance of a dc biased probe superimposed with small ac current. The dynamic resistance can be treated as a complex value. Its amplitude represents the slope of the static voltage-current U-I characteristic for a given I while its phase describes the delay between the measured ac voltage and applied ac current component in the probe. The phase signal also reveals dependence on the sample thermal conductivity. Signal changes are relatively small but very repeatable. In contrast, the difference between dynamic and static resistance has higher sensitivity (the same maximum value as that of the 2nd and 3rd harmonics), and also much higher amplitude than higher harmonics. The proposed dc + ac excitation scheme combines the benefits of dc excitation (mechanical stability of probe-sample contact, average temperature control) with those of ac excitation (base-line stability, rejection of ambient temperature influence, high sensitivity, lock-in signal processing), when the experimental conditions prohibit large ac excitation.

  5. Experimental determination of the electrical resistivity of iron at Earth's core conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kenji; Kuwayama, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Kei; Shimizu, Katsuya; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2016-06-02

    Earth continuously generates a dipole magnetic field in its convecting liquid outer core by a self-sustained dynamo action. Metallic iron is a dominant component of the outer core, so its electrical and thermal conductivity controls the dynamics and thermal evolution of Earth's core. However, in spite of extensive research, the transport properties of iron under core conditions are still controversial. Since free electrons are a primary carrier of both electric current and heat, the electron scattering mechanism in iron under high pressure and temperature holds the key to understanding the transport properties of planetary cores. Here we measure the electrical resistivity (the reciprocal of electrical conductivity) of iron at the high temperatures (up to 4,500 kelvin) and pressures (megabars) of Earth's core in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The value measured for the resistivity of iron is even lower than the value extrapolated from high-pressure, low-temperature data using the Bloch-Grüneisen law, which considers only the electron-phonon scattering. This shows that the iron resistivity is strongly suppressed by the resistivity saturation effect at high temperatures. The low electrical resistivity of iron indicates the high thermal conductivity of Earth's core, suggesting rapid core cooling and a young inner core less than 0.7 billion years old. Therefore, an abrupt increase in palaeomagnetic field intensity around 1.3 billion years ago may not be related to the birth of the inner core.

  6. Phenotypic Assays to Determine Virulence Factors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Isolates and their Correlation with Antibiotic Resistance Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasi, Mohsen; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Mehri; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infection caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains is one of the most important infections in the world. UPEC encode widespread virulence factors closely related with pathogenesis of the bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of different phenotypic virulence markers in UPEC isolates and determine their correlation with antibiotic resistance pattern. UPEC isolates from patients with different clinical symptoms of UTI were collected and screened for biofilm and hemolysin production, mannose resistant, and mannose sensitive hemagglutination (MRHA and MSHA, respectively). In addition, antimicrobial resistance pattern and ESBL-producing isolates were recorded. Of the 156 UPEC isolates, biofilm and hemolysin formation was seen in 133 (85.3%) and 53 (34%) isolates, respectively. Moreover, 98 (62.8%) and 58 (37.2%) isolates showed the presence of Types 1 fimbriae (MSHA) and P fimbriae (MRHA), respectively. Our results also showed a relationship between biofilm formation in UPEC isolated from acute cystitis patients and recurrent UTI cases. Occurrence of UTI was dramatically correlated with the patients' profiles. We observed that the difference in antimicrobial susceptibilities of the biofilm and nonbiofilm former isolates was statistically significant. The UPEC isolates showed the highest resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, and cotrimoxazole. Moreover, 26.9% of isolates were ESBL producers. This study indicated that there is a relationship between the phenotypic virulence traits of the UPEC isolates, patients' profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Detection of the phenotypic virulence factors could help to improve understanding of pathogenesis of UPEC isolates and better medical intervention.

  7. Enterococcus spp. Resistant to Multiple Antimicrobial Drugs and Determination of Fecal Contamination Levels in Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Annes Rubião

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine and compare the Most Probable Number (MPN of Total Coliforms (TC, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. and to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolated from oysters collected in the Barra de Guaratiba Mangrove, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The enumeration of E. coli has been used to indicate fecal contamination and hygienic-sanitary conditions of bivalve molluscs. Enterococci are capable to transfer several antimicrobial resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria, including those from Gram-negative group. The oysters were bought from local fishermen and a total of 123 individuals were analyzed. The TC, E. coli and Enterococcus spp. MPN mean were 26,300/100 g, 3,260/100 g and 2,820/100 g, respectively. The only correlation found was between TC and E. coli. Two strains of Enterococcus spp. were resistant to three different antimicrobial categories, including a high level resistance to streptomycin. One strain presented intermediate resistance to vancomycin. The E. coli levels exceeded the limits established by international legislation. This microbiological contamination in oysters reflects the water pollution and indicates a probable contamination of other seafood species from this mangrove, which can represent a risk for consumers and a threat to the environment and public health.

  8. Determination of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in Campylobacter jejuni with a fluorogenic polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padungtod, Pawin; Kaneene, John B; Wilson, David L; Bell, Julia; Linz, John E

    2003-02-01

    A fluorogenic polymerase chain reaction assay for the gyrA gene was used to determine the frequency of a Thr-86 mutation in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from food animals and humans in northern Thailand and to investigate the correlation between this mutation and bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones. Eighty-four isolates of C. jejuni were used: 65 from healthy chickens on farms, 16 from chickens at the slaughterhouse, 1 from chicken meat at the market, and 1 from a healthy farm worker. The microbroth dilution technique was used for in vitro susceptibility testing. MIC breakpoints established by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System were used to categorize the resistance of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Sixty of the 84 C. jejuni isolates tested carried the Thr-86 mutation in the gyrA gene. All isolates with ciprofloxacin MICs of > or = 2 mg/liter carried the mutation, and no isolates with nalidixic acid MICs of < or = 16 mg/liter carried the Thr-86-to-Ile mutation. There was a very strong association between ciprofloxacin resistance and the presence of the mutation (kappa = 0.971, P < 0.01). The association between the presence of the Thr-86-to-Ile mutation and nalidixic acid resistance was weaker (kappa 0.859: P < or = 0.01).

  9. Determination of renal vascular resistance in dogs with diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellas, R; de Gopegui, R Ruiz; Espada, Y

    2008-11-15

    In dogs, diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism are causes of hypertension associated with increases in vascular peripheral resistance. In human patients, the renal resistive index (ri) and pulsatility index (pi) are related to hypertension and diabetes and are used as indicators of disease severity. In this study the renal vascular resistance was measured in 12 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, three with diabetes mellitus and four with both conditions, and the possible relationships between the two indices, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were investigated. Hypertension, defined as a systolic blood pressure more than 150 mmHg, was recorded in two of the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and three of the dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes. The overall mean values for ri, pi and systolic blood pressure were higher in the diseased group of dogs than in 27 healthy dogs, and both indices were correlated with blood glucose concentration.

  10. Distribution of virulence determinants among antimicrobial-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli implicated in urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAM Stephenson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC rely on the correlation of virulence expression with antimicrobial resistance to persist and cause severe urinary tract infections (UTIs. Objectives: We assessed the virulence pattern and prevalence among UPEC strains susceptible and resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes. Methods: A total of 174 non-duplicate UPEC strains from patients with clinically significant UTIs were analysed for susceptibility to aminoglycoside, antifolate, cephalosporin, nitrofuran and quinolone antibiotics for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and for the presence of six virulence determinants encoding adhesins (afimbrial, Type 1 fimbriae, P and S-fimbriae and toxins (cytotoxic necrotising factor and haemolysin. Results: Relatively high resistance rates to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (82%, 78%, 62% and 59%, respectively were observed. Fourteen distinct patterns were identified for the virulence determinants such as afaBC, cnfI, fimH, hylA, papEF and sfaDE. The toxin gene, cnfI (75.3%, was the second most prevalent marker to the adhesin, fimH (97.1%. The significant association of sfaDE/hylA (P < 0.01 among antimicrobial resistant and susceptible strains was also observed notwithstanding an overall greater occurrence of virulence factors among the latter. Conclusions: This study provides a snapshot of UPEC complexity in Jamaica and highlights the significant clonal heterogeneity among strains. Such outcomes emphasise the need for evidence-based strategies in the effective management and control of UTIs.

  11. Stab resistant body armour

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I

    2000-01-01

    There is now a widely accepted need for stab resistant body armour for the police in the UK. However, very little research has been done on knife resistant systems and the penetration mechanics of sharp projectiles are poorly understood. This thesis explores the general background to knife attack and defence with a particular emphasis on the penetration mechanics of edged weapons. The energy and velocity that can be achieved in stabbing actions has been determined for a numb...

  12. Genome-wide and expression-profiling analyses suggest the main cytochrome P450 genes related to pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles sinensis (Diptera Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng-Wen; He, Zheng-Bo; Yan, Zhen-Tian; Si, Feng-Ling; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Bin

    2018-02-02

    Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors. However, pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis is threatening malaria control. Cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification is an important pyrethroid resistance mechanism that has been unexplored in An. sinensis. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the An. sinensis P450 gene superfamily with special attention to their role in pyrethroid resistance using bioinformatics and molecular approaches. Our data revealed the presence of 112 individual P450 genes in An. sinensis, which were classified into four major clans (mitochondrial, CYP2, CYP3 and CYP4), 18 families and 50 subfamilies. Sixty-seven genes formed nine gene clusters, and genes within the same cluster and the same gene family had a similar gene structure. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of An. sinensis P450s (82/112) had very close 1: 1 orthology with Anopheles gambiae P450s. Five genes (AsCYP6Z2, AsCYP6P3v1, AsCYP6P3v2, AsCYP9J5 and AsCYP306A1) were significantly upregulated in three pyrethroid-resistant populations in both RNA-seq and RT-qPCR analyses, suggesting that they could be the most important P450 genes involved in pyrethroid resistance in An. sinensis. Our study provides insight on the diversity of An. sinensis P450 superfamily and basis for further elucidating pyrethroid resistance mechanism in this mosquito species. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Experimental determination of the hydraulic resistance coefficient at the microchannel inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniskin, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of the hydraulic resistance coefficient measurements at the inlet of microchannel. The Reynolds number ranged from 900 to 2300. The channel with inlet diameter of 3.5 mm is abruptly narrowed to a diameter of 0.9 mm. We measured the pressure drop in the area of sharp change in diameter. Measured hydraulic resistance coefficient was compared with the previously obtained coefficients for microchannels of the same geometry. It is shown that for the studied interconnected channel geometry no differences were found between micro and minichannels.

  14. Occurrence of Diverse Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in Genetically Unrelated Biocide Tolerant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabha Mondal

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae is a significant problem in health care settings worldwide. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic profiles and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates of Indian origin. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating the high prevalence of β-lactamases, aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, quinolone resistance genes besides demonstrating the involvement of active efflux in K. pneumoniae Indian isolates. This study has enabled us to correlate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics in K. pneumoniae, providing an important base for continued monitoring and epidemiological studies of this emerging nosocomial pathogen in Indian hospitals.

  15. Skid resistance determination for pavement management and wet-weather road safety

    OpenAIRE

    T.F. Fwa

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents during wet weather have been a topic of major concern of road engineers in regions of wet-tropical climate and in other parts of the world during the wet season of the year. Road safety studies indicate that approximately 20% of all road accidents occurred during wet weather, and that the skid resistance of wet pavements have a major influence on the occurrences of wet-weather accidents. Monitoring of wet pavement skid resistance has been an integral part of a typical pavement ...

  16. Serotype, virulence profile, antimicrobial resistance and macrolide-resistance determinants in Streptococcus agalactiae isolates in pregnant women and neonates in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yuly; Parra, Elena; Cepas, Virginio; Sanfeliú, Isabel; Juncosa, Teresa; Andreu, Antonia; Xercavins, Mariona; Pérez, Josefa; Sanz, Sergi; Vergara, Andrea; Bosch, Jordi; Soto, Sara Maria

    2017-10-10

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococci (GBS), is the main aetiological agent of early neonatal sepsis in developed countries. This microorganism belongs to the gastrointestinal tract microbiota wherefrom it can colonize the vagina and be vertically transmitted to the child either before or at birth, and subsequently cause infection in the newborn. Approximately, 50% of newborns born to women with GBS become colonized, with 1-2% developing early neonatal infection if no preventive intervention is performed. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare serotypes, virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of GBS isolates collected from pregnant women and newborns in several hospitals in Catalonia. 242 GBS strains were analyzed including 95 colonizers and 68 pathogenic strains isolated from pregnant women, and 79 strains isolated from neonates with sepsis in order to determine serotype, virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Serotype distribution was different among the three groups, with serotypes Ia and II being significantly more frequent among colonizing strains (p=0.001 and 0.012, respectively). Virulence factors bca and scpB were significantly more frequent among neonatal strains than pathogenic or colonizing strains (p=0.0001 and 0.002, respectively). Pathogenic strains were significantly more resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin and azithromycin than their non-pathogenic counterparts. Taking into account that neonatal sepsis represents a significant problem on a global scale, epidemiological surveillance, antimicrobial resistance and GBS virulence at the local level could provide important knowledge about these microorganisms as well as help to improve treatment and prevent invasive infection caused by this microorganism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Density Determination of Liquid Copper and Liquid Nickel by Means of Fast Resistive Pulse Heating and Electromagnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmon, Alexander; Aziz, Kirmanj; Pottlacher, Gernot

    2015-06-01

    Fast resistive pulse-heating techniques and electromagnetic levitation techniques are capable of determining thermophysical properties of metals in the liquid phase. These properties have become increasingly important as input data for modern numerical simulations. Among others, density is a very relevant parameter for e.g., casting modeling. Density determinations of copper and nickel in their liquid states are performed using a fast resistive pulse-heating setup and a recently build up electromagnetic levitation apparatus. Both methods use optical imaging techniques to determine thermal expansion of the specimen under investigation, but are operating at very different experimental durations. The pulse-heating setup provides a heating of the sample using it as part of an electrical discharge circuit. Heating rates of 108 K/s lead to experimental durations of about 60 µs. Temperature is determined by measuring surface radiance emitted from the sample by a pyrometer. The sample's thermal expansion is monitored by an adapted CCD camera system. The electromagnetic levitation apparatus enables noncontact investigations of samples by levitating and heating them by an induction coil generating inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. Temperature again is determined by a pyrometer. For thermal expansion determination, shadowgraph images are recorded with a high-speed CCD camera and evaluated with an edge detection algorithm. Thermal expansion then is calculated by averaging several 1000 frames for each temperature point. Investigations of copper and nickel in the liquid state were performed with both techniques and are compared to each other and to literature values.

  18. Determination of Maximum Follow-up Speed of Electrode System of Resistance Projection Welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The maximum follow-up speed of electrode system represents the dynamic mechanical response capacity of resistance projection welding machines, which is important to make the diffrernce from one machine to the other and to consider the individual behavior of machines in designing or optimizing the...

  19. Determination of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry in the Central Coast Region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in 2013 to investigate the occurrence of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea populations in California’s northern strawberry growing region; specifically in Watsonville and Salinas. In mid-May, 59 samples consisting of a single diseased fruit or plant part with gray mold s...

  20. Resistance gene expression determines the in vitro chemosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Khalid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NSCLC exhibits considerable heterogeneity in its sensitivity to chemotherapy and similar heterogeneity is noted in vitro in a variety of model systems. This study has tested the hypothesis that the molecular basis of the observed in vitro chemosensitivity of NSCLC lies within the known resistance mechanisms inherent to these patients' tumors. Methods The chemosensitivity of a series of 49 NSCLC tumors was assessed using the ATP-based tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA and compared with quantitative expression of resistance genes measured by RT-PCR in a Taqman Array™ following extraction of RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. Results There was considerable heterogeneity between tumors within the ATP-TCA, and while this showed no direct correlation with individual gene expression, there was strong correlation of multi-gene signatures for many of the single agents and combinations tested. For instance, docetaxel activity showed some dependence on the expression of drug pumps, while cisplatin activity showed some dependence on DNA repair enzyme expression. Activity of both drugs was influenced more strongly still by the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes by the tumor for both docetaxel and cisplatin. The doublet combinations of cisplatin with gemcitabine and cisplatin with docetaxel showed gene expression signatures incorporating resistance mechanisms for both agents. Conclusion Genes predicted to be involved in known mechanisms drug sensitivity and resistance correlate well with in vitro chemosensitivity and may allow the definition of predictive signatures to guide individualized chemotherapy in lung cancer.

  1. Cytoplasmic p21 expression levels determine cisplatin resistance in human testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Roelof; di Pietro, Alessandra; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Gibcus, Johan H.; van den Berg, Anke; Suurmeijer, Albert J.; Bischoff, Rainer; Gietema, Jourik A.; de Jong, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapies such as cisplatin are used as first-line treatment for many cancers. Although there is often a high initial responsiveness, the majority of patients eventually relapse with platinum-resistant disease. For example, a subset of testicular cancer patients still die even

  2. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia, and Enterococcus using PCR and Microarray Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia, and Enterococcus can be important carriers of antimicrobial resistance. Limited work has been done to examine the relationship among strains co-cultured from the gastrointestinal tract of individual animals. To address this, 1284 isolates were collected from s...

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance determinants among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus isolated from Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The importance of Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus as carriers of antimicrobial resistance is well known, but limited work has been done to examine the relationship between this phenotypic characteristic and genotypic attributes among strains isolated in similar set...

  4. Resistivity method contribution in determining of fault zone and hydro-geophysical characteristics of carbonate aquifer, eastern desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kamal, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Determination of fault zone and hydro-geophysical characteristics of the fractured aquifers are complicated, because their fractures are controlled by different factors. Therefore, 60 VESs were carried out as well as 17 productive wells for determining the locations of the fault zones and the characteristics of the carbonate aquifer at the eastern desert, Egypt. The general curve type of the recorded rock units was QKH. These curves were used in delineating the zones of faults according to the application of the new assumptions. The main aquifer was included at end of the K-curve type and front of the H-curve type. The subsurface layers classified into seven different geoelectric layers. The fractured shaly limestone and fractured limestone layers were the main aquifer and their resistivity changed from low to medium (11-93 Ω m). The hydro-geophysical properties of this aquifer such as the areas of very high, high, and intermediate fracture densities of high groundwater accumulations, salinity, shale content, porosity distribution, and recharging and flowing of groundwater were determined. The statistical analysis appeared that depending of aquifer resistivity on the water salinities (T.D.S.) and water resistivities add to the fracture density and shale content. The T.D.S. increasing were controlled by Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and then (SO4)2-, respectively. The porosity was calculated and its average value was 19%. The hydrochemical analysis of groundwater appeared that its type was brackish and the arrangements of cation concentrations were Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and anion concentrations were Cl- > (SO4)2- > HCO3 - > CO3 -. The groundwater was characterized by sodium-bicarbonate and sodium-sulfate genetic water types and meteoric in origin. Hence, it can use the DC-resistivity method in delineating the fault zone and determining the hydro-geophysical characteristics of the fractured aquifer with taking into account the quality of measurements and interpretation.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification of Chalcone Reductase Gene Family in Soybean: Insight into Root-Specific GmCHRs and Phytophthora sojae Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. Sepiol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr is one of the main grain legumes worldwide. Soybean farmers lose billions of dollars’ worth of yield annually due to root and stem rot disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Many strategies have been developed to combat the disease, however, these methods have proven ineffective in the long term. A more cost effective and durable approach is to select a trait naturally found in soybean that can increase resistance. One such trait is the increased production of phytoalexin glyceollins in soybean. Glyceollins are isoflavonoids, synthesized via the legume-specific branch of general phenylpropanoid pathway. The first key enzyme exclusively involved in glyceollin synthesis is chalcone reductase (CHR which coacts with chalcone synthase for the production of isoliquiritigenin, the precursor for glyceollin biosynthesis. Here we report the identification of 14 putative CHR genes in soybean where 11 of them are predicted to be functional. Our results show that GmCHRs display tissue-specific gene expression, and that only root-specific GmCHRs are induced upon P. sojae infection. Among 4 root-specific GmCHRs, GmCHR2A is located near a QTL that is linked to P. sojae resistance suggesting GmCHR2A as a novel locus for partial resistance that can be utilized for resistance breeding.

  6. Empirical ranking of a wide range of WC-Co grades in terms of their abrasion resistance measured by the ASTM standard B 611-85 test

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Quigley, DGF

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a comprehensive investigation into the abrasion resistance of WC-Co alloys, as measured by the ASTM Standard B 611-85 test. The alloys ranged from 3 to 50 wt% and from 0.6 to 5 mu-m average grain size. Careful...

  7. Electric resistivity distribution in the Earth's crust and upper mantle for the southern East European Platform and Crimea from area-wide 2D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Igor M.; Tarasov, Viktor N.

    2018-03-01

    Previously obtained magnetotelluric 2D models for 30 profiles made it possible to create an overview model of electric resistivity for the territory between 28°E and 36°E and between 44.5°N and 52.5°N. It allows us to distinguish a number of low resistivity objects (LRO) with resistivities lower than 100 Ω m the Earth's crust and mantle. Two regional conductivity anomalies are traced. The Kirovograd conductivity anomaly extends south to the Crimea mountains. A new regional conductivity anomaly (Konkskaya) can be distinguished along the southern slope of the Ukrainian Shield from 29° to 34°E. In addition, many local LROs have been identified. According to the modeling results, the local low resistivity objects on the East European Platform appear along fault zones activated during last 5-7 M years and the model suggests their relation to known zones of graphitization and polymetallic ore deposits. Local LROs in the Dnieper-Donets Basin correlate with the main oil and natural gas fields in this area. The depth of the anomalous objects amounts to 5-22 km. This is consistent with the hypotheses that hydrocarbon deposits are related to generation and transport zones of carbon-bearing fluids.

  8. Genome-wide sequencing and an open reading frame analysis of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) susceptible (91-C) and resistant (91-R) Drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drosophila melanogaster 91-R and 91-C strains are of common origin, however, 91-R has been intensely selected for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance over six decades while 91-C has been maintained as the non-selected control strain. These fly strains represent a unique genetic res...

  9. Two RxLR avirulence genes in Phytophthora sojae determine soybean Rps1k-mediated disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tianqiao; Kale, Shiv D; Arredondo, Felipe D; Shen, Danyu; Su, Liming; Liu, Li; Wu, Yuren; Wang, Yuanchao; Dou, Daolong; Tyler, Brett M

    2013-07-01

    Resistance to Phytophthora sojae (Rps) genes have been widely used in soybean against root and stem rot diseases caused by this oomycete. Among 15 known soybean Rps genes, Rps1k has been the most widely used in the past four decades. Here, we show that the products of two distinct but closely linked RxLR effector genes are detected by Rps1k-containing plants, resulting in disease resistance. One of the genes is Avr1b-1, that confers avirulence in the presence of Rps1b. Three lines of evidence, including overexpression and gene silencing of Avr1b-1 in stable P. sojae transformants, as well as transient expression of this gene in soybean, indicated that Avr1b could trigger an Rps1k-mediated defense response. Some isolates of P. sojae that do not express Avr1b are nevertheless unable to infect Rps1k plants. In those isolates, we identified a second RxLR effector gene (designated Avr1k), located 5 kb away from Avr1b-1. Silencing or overexpression of Avr1k in P. sojae stable transformants resulted in the loss or gain, respectively, of the avirulence phenotype in the presence of Rps1k. Only isolates of P. sojae with mutant alleles of both Avr1b-1 and Avr1k could evade perception by the soybean plants carrying Rps1k.

  10. NIRS determination of non-structural carbohydrates, water soluble carbohydrates and other nutritive quality traits in whole plant maize with wide range variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Campo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS to predict non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC, in vitro organic dry matter digestibility (IVOMD, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch in samples of whole plant maize with a wide range of variability. The samples were analyzed in reflectance mode by a spectrophotometer FOSS NIRSystems 6500. Four hundred and fifty samples of wide spectrum from different origin were selected out of 3000 scanned for the calibration set, whereas 87 independent random samples were used in the external validation. The goodness of the calibration models was evaluated using the following statistics: coefficient of determination (R2, standard error of cross-validation (SECV, standard error of prediction for external validation (SEP and the RPDCV and RPDP indexes [ratios of standard deviation (SD of reference analysis data to SECV and SEP, respectively]. The smaller the SECV and SEP and the greater the RPDCV and RPDP, the predictions are better. Trait measurement units were g/100g of dry matter (DM, except for IVOMD (g/100g OM. The SECV and RPDCV statistics of the calibration set were 1.34 and 3.2 for WSC, 2.57 and 3 for NSC and 2.3 and 2.2 for IVOMD, respectively. The SEP and RPDP statistics for external validation were 0.74 and 4.7 for WSC, 2.14 and 2.5 for NSC and 1.68 and 1.6 for IVOMD respectively. It can be concluded that the NIRS technique can be used to predict WSC and NSC with good accuracy, whereas prediction of IVOMD showed a lesser accuracy. NIRS predictions of OM, CP, NDF, ADF and starch also showed good accuracy.

  11. The role of peripheral vascular resistance in determining the infrainguinal arterial reconstruction patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshmedzhiev, Mihail V; Knyazhev, Victor V; Radev, Radoslav S; Yordanov, Emil D

    2011-01-01

    To find if there is any correlation between the peripheral vascular resistance, its change following an intragraft prostaglandin infusion and the infrainguinal reconstruction patency. Ninety-seven patients with infrainguinal reconstructions were included in the study: in 48 patients they were compromised (32 with graft thrombosis and 16 with stenosis of the distal anastomoses); 49 patients had their bypasses patent for no less than 12 months. Intraoperative flowmetry was performed on the target artery under the distal anastomosis, after declamping, and after a five-minute intragraft prostaglandin infusion. We measured the peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) by two methods - as a ratio of the invasively measured average pressure to the average blood flow volume (mmHg/ml/min. = peripheral resistance unit [PRU]) and by using the readings by the flowmeter (ohms). The decrease of peripheral resistance was calculated in the functioning and the compromised reconstructions after administration of prostaglandin. We found that if PVR decreases 4.5 times (in ohms) the prognosis is good; we can make the same positive prognosis when the ratio of the mean invasively measured pressure to the mean blood flow volume (Pmean/Qmean) decreases more than four times. Values greater than 1.07 ohms, after peripheral vasodilatation, are indicative of high peripheral vascular resistance, at a level of specificity of 86%, and values greater than 0.57 PRU - at a level of specificity of 87%. Although PVR measurements cannot predict with absolute certainty that bypasses under the inguinal ligament shall stay patent for a long time, it is a valuable indicator showing the immediate outcome of reconstruction work carried out with the patient on the operating table. Finding Any technical errors and dealing with them saves time and money, as well as prevents the stress on the part of patients caused by the required additional revisions and multiple operations.

  12. Identification of Loci Associated with Drought Resistance Traits in Heterozygous Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genome-Wide Association Studies with Genotyping by Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Yu, Long-Xi; Zheng, Ping; Li, Yajun; Rivera, Martha; Main, Dorrie; Greene, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Drought resistance is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Identification of genes involved in drought tolerance will facilitate breeding for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency in alfalfa. Our objective was to use a diversity panel of alfalfa accessions comprised of 198 cultivars and landraces to identify genes involved in drought tolerance. The panel was selected from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System alfalfa collection and genotyped using genotyping by sequencing. A greenhouse procedure was used for phenotyping two important traits associated with drought tolerance: drought resistance index (DRI) and relative leaf water content (RWC). Marker-trait association identified nineteen and fifteen loci associated with DRI and RWC, respectively. Alignments of target sequences flanking to the resistance loci against the reference genome of M. truncatula revealed multiple chromosomal locations. Markers associated with DRI are located on all chromosomes while markers associated with RWC are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Co-localizations of significant markers between DRI and RWC were found on chromosomes 3, 5 and 7. Most loci associated with DRI in this work overlap with the reported QTLs associated with biomass under drought in alfalfa. Additional significant markers were targeted to several contigs with unknown chromosomal locations. BLAST search using their flanking sequences revealed homology to several annotated genes with functions in stress tolerance. With further validation, these markers may be used for marker-assisted breeding new alfalfa varieties with drought resistance and enhanced water use efficiency.

  13. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus in order to determine the spread of drug resistant strains inside and outside hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobiega, Monika; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Heczko, Piotr B

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important etiological factors of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus is frequently isolated nowadays. Antibiotics used on the hospital ward exert a selective pressure on the strains and favor resistant strains. Multidrug-resistant and highly virulent strains can spread not only within the hospital but also between hospitals. Numerous studies show a predominance of one clone on a specific territory. The spread of such dangerous clones to neighboring countries and the entire continent is possible. Typing methods are very useful in infection control and prevention. Modern methods which are based on sequencing are necessary in rationalizing of infection control programs. Typing of Staphylococcus aureus includes methods that allow to determine the spread of drug-resistant pathogens. 'Gold standard' is pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which relies on separating the DNA fragments after restriction cutting. MLST (Multi Locus Sequence Typing) is based on a comparison of"housekeeping" gene sequences controlling the basic cell functions. With the MLST method, it is possible to demonstrate a broad, international spread of the specific clones. However, for epidemiological investigations, MLST seems to be too time-consuming and expensive to be used as a basic typing tool. The complementary method is spa typing, based on the sequencing of short repetitive sequences of the polymorphic X region from the gene encoding protein A. This method can be used for studying molecular evolution of S. aureus, as well as for testing for hospital outbreaks. It is faster and cheaper than MLST. It is also necessary to subtype the elements responsible for methycillin resistance (SCCmec), which allows to distinguish MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) clones with a common ancestor, but different epidemiological origin. All of those methods have their specific advantages and disadvantages and

  14. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in the genus Streptococcus: characterization of a vanB transferable determinant in Streptococcus bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyart, C; Pierre, C; Quesne, G; Pron, B; Berche, P; Trieu-Cuot, P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis NEM760 was isolated from a stool swab collected on admission from a patient as surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Strain NEM760 was identified as S. bovis by conventional biochemical methods and partial sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA. This strain was resistant to a low level of vancomycin (MIC, 64 micrograms/ml) but was susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 1 micrograms/ml), and vancomycin induced resistance to both glycopeptides. The presence of a vanB-related gene in NEM760 was demonstrated in a PCR assay which enabled specific amplification of a 635-hp internal segment of vanB. Sequence analysis of the corresponding PCR product revealed that it was highly homologous (96% identity) to the prototype vanB sequence of Enterococcus faecalis V583. The VanB resistance of determinant of S. bovis NEM760 was transferred by conjugation to E. faecalis and Enterococcus faecium at a similar frequency of 2 x 10(-5) per donor. SmaI-digested genomic DNAs of independently obtained transconjugants of E. faecalis and E. faecium were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization with a vanB DNA probe. The electrophoretic and hybridization patterns obtained with all transconjugants of the same species were indistinguishable and revealed vanB-containing chromosomal insertions of approximately 100 kb. These results suggest that the genes mediating VanB-type resistance in S. bovis NEM760 are part of large transferable genetic elements. The results presented in the report demonstrate for the first time the role of streptococci in the dissemination of vancomycin resistance among gram-positive bacteria. PMID:8980749

  15. Identification of MupP as a New Peptidoglycan Recycling Factor and Antibiotic Resistance Determinant in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Fumeaux

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan (PG is an essential cross-linked polymer that surrounds most bacterial cells to prevent osmotic rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane. Its synthesis relies on penicillin-binding proteins, the targets of beta-lactam antibiotics. Many Gram-negative bacteria, including the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are resistant to beta-lactams because of a chromosomally encoded beta-lactamase called AmpC. In P. aeruginosa, expression of the ampC gene is tightly regulated and its induction is linked to cell wall stress. We reasoned that a reporter gene fusion to the ampC promoter would allow us to identify mutants defective in maintaining cell wall homeostasis and thereby uncover new factors involved in the process. A library of transposon-mutagenized P. aeruginosa was therefore screened for mutants with elevated ampC promoter activity. As an indication that the screen was working as expected, mutants with transposons disrupting the dacB gene were isolated. Defects in DacB have previously been implicated in ampC induction and clinical resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. The screen also uncovered murU and PA3172 mutants that, upon further characterization, displayed nearly identical drug resistance and sensitivity profiles. We present genetic evidence that PA3172, renamed mupP, encodes the missing phosphatase predicted to function in the MurU PG recycling pathway that is widely distributed among Gram-negative bacteria.

  16. Coastal seawater bacteria harbor a large reservoir of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in Jiaozhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-yi; Dang, Hongyue

    2012-07-01

    Diversity and prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants were investigated in environmental bacteria isolated from surface seawater of Jiaozhou Bay, China. Five qnr gene alleles were identified in 34 isolates by PCR amplification, including qnrA3 gene in a Shewanella algae isolate, qnrB9 gene in a Citrobacter freundii isolate, qnrD gene in 22 Proteus vulgaris isolates, qnrS1 gene in 1 Enterobacter sp. and 4 Klebsiella spp. isolates, and qnrS2 gene in 1 Pseudomonas sp. and 4 Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolates. The qnrC, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA genes could not be detected in this study. The 22 qnrD-positive Proteus vulgaris isolates could be differentiated into four genotypes based on ERIC-PCR assay. The qnrS1 and qnrD genes could be transferred to Escherichia coli J53 Azi(R) or E. coli TOP10 recipient strains using conjugation or transformation methods. Among the 34 qnr-positive isolates, 30 had a single point mutation in the QRDRs of GyrA protein (Ala67Ser, Ser83Ile, or Ser83Thr), indicating that cooperation of chromosome- and plasmid-mediated resistance contributed to the spread and evolution of quinolone resistance in this coastal bay. Eighty-five percent of the isolates were also found to be resistant to ampicillin, and bla(CMY), bla(OXY), bla(SHV), and bla(TEM) genes were detected in five isolates that also harbored the qnrB9 or qnrS1 gene. Our current study is the first identification of qnrS2 gene in Pseudoalteromonas and Pseudomonas strains, and qnrD gene in Proteus vulgaris strains. High prevalence of diverse qnr genes in Jiaozhou Bay indicates that coastal seawater may serve as an important reservoir, natural source, and dissemination vehicle of quinolone resistance determinants.

  17. Determination of Heritage SSME Pogo Suppressor Resistance and Inertance from Waterflow Pulse Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Chris; Eberhart, Chad; Lee, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Waterflow tests of a heritage Space Shuttle Main Engine pogo suppressor were performed to experimentally quantify the resistance and inertance provided by the suppressor. Measurements of dynamic pressure and flow rate in response to pulsing flow were made throughout the test loop. A unique system identification methodology combined all sensor measurements with a one-dimensional perturbational flow model of the complete water flow loop to spatially translate physical measurements to the device under test. Multiple techniques were then employed to extract the effective resistance and inertance for the pogo suppressor. Parameters such as steady flow rate, perturbational flow rate magnitude, and pulse frequency were investigated to assess their influence on the behavior of the pogo suppressor dynamic response. These results support validation of the RS-25 pogo suppressor performance for use on the Space Launch System Core Stage.

  18. Multiplex PCR To Identify Macrolide Resistance Determinants in Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Simon; Desmolaize, Benoit; Jaju, Puneet

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are major etiological agents in respiratory tract infections of cattle. Although these infections can generally be successfully treated with veterinary macrolide antibiotics, a few recent isolates have shown resistance...... to these drugs. Macrolide resistance in members of the family Pasteurellaceae is conferred by combinations of at least three genes: erm(42), which encodes a monomethyltransferase and confers a type I MLS(B) (macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B) phenotype; msr(E), which encodes a macrolide efflux pump...... fragments of the 23S rRNA (rrl) genes. One rrl fragment acts as a general indicator of gammaproteobacterial species and confirms whether the PCR assay has functioned as intended on strains that are negative for erm(42), msr(E), and mph(E). The multiplex system has been tested on more than 40 selected...

  19. Study on contamination of sheep meat in Shahrekord area with Listeria ivanovii and determination its antibiotic resistance pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Khalili Borujeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii are two pathogenic species of Listeria. The role of Listeria ivanovii is important in abortion, stillbirth, septicemia in animals and this bacterium sometimes is pathogenic in humans. Contamination of ovine carcasses during the slaughter and processing can cause foodborne infections in humans. In this study we examined the contamination of sheep meat in slaughter house of Shahrekord city to Listeria ivanovii and determined its antibiotic resistance pattern.Material and Methods: A total 200 samples of sheep meat were collected from abattoir and processed by use of two enrichment method. After doing specific biochemical tests and PCR, Listeria spp was identified and antibiotic resistance of isolated Listeria were tested by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: The contamination of sheep carcasses with listeria was 2.5% (5 out of 200 samples. All five isolates (2.5% were recognized as Listeria ivanovii and were resistant to four antibiotics, sensitive to six antibiotics and intermediate to other antibiotics.  Conclusion: According to the contamination rate in sheep carcasses with Listeria ivanovii and the relatively high antibiotic resistance specified in this bacteria, the role of red meat in transmission of Listeria spp. and appropriate use of antibiotics against this bacteria should be considered.

  20. Characterization of genetic determinants involved in antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms isolated from different aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, Alessandro; Mauri, Federica; Demarta, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms, two abundant and cultivable bacterial populations that can be found in water ecosystems, might substantially contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. We investigated the presence and spread of transposons (elements that can move from one location to another in the genome), integrons (structures able to capture and incorporate gene cassettes) and resistance plasmids in strains isolated from polluted and unpolluted water. We recovered 231 Aeromonas and 250 fecal coliforms from water samplings with different degrees of pollution (hospital sewage, activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant, river water before and after treatment and water from an alpine lake). Sixteen Aeromonas spp. and 22 fecal coliforms carried intI, coding for the site-specific integrase of class 1 integrons, while 22 Aeromonas spp. and 14 fecal coliforms carried tnpA, the transposase gene of the Tn3-family of replicative transposons. The majority of intI and tnpA-positive strains were phenotypically resistant to at least four antibiotics. Integrons and transposons were mainly located on mobilizable plasmids. Our results did not detect common mobile structures in the two populations and therefore relativize the role played by Aeromonas spp. as vectors of antimicrobial resistance determinants between water and commensal gut bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The survey of shigellosis frequency and determination of antibiotic resistance profile of isolated strains from infected children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Abbaspour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigellosis is endemic throughout the world and it is among the most common causes of bacterial diarrheal diseases. Antibiotic resistance of Shigella is becoming a progressive problem in world. The aim of this study was the survey of shigellosis frequency and determination of antibiotic resistance profile of isolated strains from infected children in Tehran. Material and Methods: This study conducted on 9131 patients with acute diarrheal disease. For isolation of Shigella spp. from stool samples, culture performed on different selective and differential media. After confirmation of bacteria by biochemical tests, susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method according to clinical and laboratory standards (CLSI recomendations. Results: Among 9131 stool samples, Shigella spp. was isolated from 90 cases. Shigella sonnei was the most common isolated species. 92/2 % of isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. In contrast, most of the Shigella spp. was founded to be sensitive to ciprofloxacin, imipenem and third-generation cephalosporins. Conclusion: Surveillance programs on antimicrobial resistance not only identify pathogenic bacterial species, by reporting data like serotyping, microorganisms incidence rates, and susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents currently used for treatment, but also contribute to monitoring the intervention strategies including removing organism from reservoirs.

  3. Preliminary report for analysis of genome wide mutations from four ciprofloxacin resistant B. anthracis Sterne isolates generated by Illumina, 454 sequencing and microarrays for DHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, Crystal [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vergez, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinckley, Aubree [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thissen, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gardner, Shea [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McLoughlin, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jackson, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ellingson, Sally [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hauser, Loren [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brettin, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fofanov, Viacheslav [Eureka Genomics, Hercules, CA (United States); Koshinsky, Heather [Eureka Genomics, Hercules, CA (United States); Fofanov, Yuriy [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-06-21

    The objective of this project is to provide DHS a comprehensive evaluation of the current genomic technologies including genotyping, Taqman PCR, multiple locus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing in the analysis of biothreat agents from complex environmental samples. As the result of a different DHS project, we have selected for and isolated a large number of ciprofloxacin resistant B. anthracis Sterne isolates. These isolates vary in the concentrations of ciprofloxacin that they can tolerate, suggesting multiple mutations in the samples. In collaboration with University of Houston, Eureka Genomics and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we analyzed the ciprofloxacin resistant B. anthracis Sterne isolates by microarray hybridization, Illumina and Roche 454 sequencing to understand the error rates and sensitivity of the different methods. The report provides an assessment of the results and a complete set of all protocols used and all data generated along with information to interpret the protocols and data sets.

  4. Timing of tensor and levator veli palatini force application determines eustachian tube resistance patterns during the forced-response test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiali, Samir N; Bell, E David; Swarts, J Douglas

    2010-12-01

    The forced-response test (FRT) is used to assess eustachian tube (ET) function in patients with middle ear disease (otitis media). This test often documents a dynamic pattern of luminal dilation and constriction during swallowing which can be quantified as a function relating active tubal resistance with time. The goal of this study is to use a generalized finite element model (FEM) to test the hypothesis that the relative timing of muscle force application by the tensor veli palatini muscle (mTVP) and levator veli palatini muscle (mLVP) on the ET determines the form of active resistance functions. Seven resistance waveforms were obtained during the FRT in five adult subjects. A 2D FEM of the ET was constructed from an adult histological specimen and viscoelastic tissue mechanical properties were specified based on measurements obtained in each subject. Least-squared regression routines were used to vary the timing and magnitude of mTVP and mLVP force applications to the ET in order to match the active resistance functions recorded during the FRT. Variation of muscle force timing and magnitude in the FEM simulations reproduced the seven active resistance waveforms with high fidelity. Early application of mTVP force in combination with mLVP force produced a waveform characterized by an initial dilation (low resistances) followed by lumen constriction (higher resistances), while delayed mTVP force application caused an initial lumen constriction followed by dilation. These results indicate that the active resistance waveforms observed during the FRT reflect differences in the temporal pattern of mLVP and mTVP force application to the ET and emphasize that, like the mTVP, the mLVP functionally interacts with the ET. Results also indicate that in normal adults contraction of the mLVP promotes lumen constriction and that the initial lumen constriction is highly sensitive to the relative delay timing of mTVP and mLVP force application. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland

  5. Determination of Antibiotic resistance pattern of Biofilm producing Pathogenic Bacteria associated with UTI

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir Md. Shahidul; Akter Asma; Feroz Farahnaaz; Ahsan Sunjukta

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to ascertain the antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Escherichia coli was found to be the most prevalent uropathogen (75.0%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5%), Pseudomonas spp. (8.33%) and Staphylococcus aureus (4.16%). Isolated bacteria (n=24) were characterized for their sensitivity to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Although Congo red binding assay indicated that all of the isolates (100%) we...

  6. Determine the Impact of Novel BRCA1 Translation Start Sites on Therapy Resistance in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Impact 11 5. Changes /Problems 11 6. Products 11 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations 12 8. Special Reporting Requirements 12 9...Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0197 TITLE: PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Neil Johnson, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : Institute for Cancer Research...Therapy Resistance in Ovarian Cancer The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be

  7. An alternative hypothesis to the widely held view that renal excretion of sodium accounts for resistance to salt-induced hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurtz, T. W.; DiCarlo, S. E.; Pravenec, Michal; Schmidlin, O.; Tanaka, M.; Morris Jr., R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2016), s. 965-973 ISSN 0085-2538 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1502 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * hypertension * kidney * salt * salt-resistance * salt-sensitivity * sodium * sodium chloride Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 8.395, year: 2016

  8. Camptothecin resistance is determined by the regulation of topoisomerase I degradation mediated by ubiquitin proteasome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Koji; Shah, Ankur K; Sachdev, Vibhu; Kleinstiver, Benjamin P; Taylor-Parker, Julian; Welch, Moira M; Hu, Yiheng; Salgia, Ravi; White, Forest M; Parvin, Jeffrey D; Ozonoff, Al; Rameh, Lucia E; Joung, J Keith; Bharti, Ajit K

    2017-07-04

    Proteasomal degradation of topoisomerase I (topoI) is one of the most remarkable cellular phenomena observed in response to camptothecin (CPT). Importantly, the rate of topoI degradation is linked to CPT resistance. Formation of the topoI-DNA-CPT cleavable complex inhibits DNA re-ligation resulting in DNA-double strand break (DSB). The degradation of topoI marks the first step in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) dependent DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we show that the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer binds with topoI, and that the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylates topoI on serine 10 (topoI-pS10), which is subsequently ubiquitinated by BRCA1. A higher basal level of topoI-pS10 ensures rapid topoI degradation leading to CPT resistance. Importantly, PTEN regulates DNA-PKcs kinase activity in this pathway and PTEN deletion ensures DNA-PKcs dependent higher topoI-pS10, rapid topoI degradation and CPT resistance.

  9. Insulin is a key determinant of elevated retinal arteriolar flicker response in insulin-resistant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Manja; Vilser, Walthard; Gruber, Matthias; Bornstein, Stefan R; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2015-09-01

    Insulin may link metabolic disorders to retinal microvascular pathology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of early insulin resistance on retinal microcirculation. Retinal diameter responses to flicker-light stimulation were investigated in 81 clinically healthy participants (32 ± 6 years [mean ± SD], 59% women) who were recruited according to their BMI. All participants underwent an OGTT and euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp (40 mU/m(2) · min(-1) insulin dose). After stratification by low and high insulin sensitivity based on a clamp-derived glucose disposal rate of ≤ or >4.9 mg/kg body mass, respectively, baseline retinal diameters and their relative changes to flicker stimulation were compared while controlling for mean arterial pressure, BMI and sex. The arterial vasodilator response at the end of flicker stimulation (p = 0.044) and the area under the arterial reaction curve during flicker stimulation (p = 0.015) were significantly higher in individuals with low vs high insulin sensitivity. Vasodilatory responses of retinal veins to flicker stimulation and baseline retinal diameters did not differ between insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant participants (p > 0.05). In a stepwise linear regression analysis, fasting insulin remained the only predictor of the arterial vasodilator response to flicker-light (p flicker response in insulin-resistant states is a result of higher circulating insulin levels.

  10. Development of a PCR assay for identification of antibiotic resistance determinants at Staphylococcus aureus

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    Cornelia CRĂCIUNAŞ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a PCR assay for identification of antibiotic resistance genes at Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. Thirty five isolates from the Emergency County Hospital and Clinical Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, were analyzed. The bacteria were isolated over two years period, in 2007 and 2009 and serotyped at the Clinical Hospital of Infectious Disease, Cluj-Napoca. In order to develop a PCR assay for identification of antibiotic resistance genes at S. aureus clinical isolates, the bacterial strains were tested for the presence of the tst, sea, mecA, femA, ermC and ermA genes using the polymerase chain reaction and gene-specific primers. We succeeded in amplifying mecA gene to all isolates that exhibit methicillin resistance. Our result concord 100% with standard culture method but they were obtained in 5 hours instead of four days. In order to increase the efficiency of PCR typing and reduce reagent costs, multiple sets of primers were included in a single reaction tube in a multiplex PCR. We succeeded in elaborating a multiplex PCR for mecA and femA genes.

  11. Salting-out-enhanced ionic liquid microextraction with a dual-role solvent for simultaneous determination of trace pollutants with a wide polarity range in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Man; Qu, Jingang; Chen, Kai; Jin, Lide; Dahlgren, Randy Alan; Wang, Huili; Tan, Chengxia; Wang, Xuedong

    2017-11-01

    In real aquatic environments, many occupational pollutants with a wide range of polarities coexist at nanogram to milligram per liter levels. Most reported microextraction methods focus on extracting compounds with similar properties (e.g., polarity or specific functional groups). Herein, we developed a salting-out-enhanced ionic liquid microextraction based on a dual-role solvent (SILM-DS) for simultaneous detection of tetracycline, doxycycline, bisphenol A, triclosan, and methyltriclosan, with log K ow ranging from -1.32 to 5.40 in complex milk and environmental water matrices. The disperser in the ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was converted to the extraction solvent in the subsequent salting-out-assisted microextraction procedures, and thus a single solvent performed a dual role as both extractant and disperser in the SILM-DS process. Acetonitrile was selected as the dual-role solvent because of its strong affinity for both ionic liquids and water, as well as the extractant in the salting-out step. Optimized experimental conditions were 115 μL [C 8 MIM][PF 6 ] as extractor, 1200 μL acetonitrile as dual-role solvent, pH 2.0, 5.0 min ultrasound extraction time, 3.0 g Na 2 SO 4 , and 3.0 min vortex extraction time. Under optimized conditions, the recoveries of the five pollutants ranged from 74.5 to 106.9%, and their LODs were 0.12-0.75 μg kg -1 in milk samples and 0.11-0.79 μg L -1 in environmental waters. Experimental precision based on relative standard deviation was 1.4-6.4% for intraday and 2.3-6.5% for interday analyses. Compared with previous methods, the prominent advantages of the newly developed method are simultaneous determination of pollutants with a wide range of polarities and a substantially reduced workload for ordinary environmental monitoring and food tests. Therefore, the new method has great application potential for simultaneous determination of trace pollutants with strongly contrasting polarities in several

  12. A Somatically Diversified Defense Factor, FREP3, Is a Determinant of Snail Resistance to Schistosome Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanington, Patrick C.; Forys, Michelle A.; Loker, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease, owes its continued success to freshwater snails that support production of prolific numbers of human-infective cercariae. Encounters between schistosomes and snails do not always result in the snail becoming infected, in part because snails can mount immune responses that prevent schistosome development. Fibrinogen-related protein 3 (FREP3) has been previously associated with snail defense against digenetic trematode infection. It is a member of a large family of immune molecules with a unique structure consisting of one or two immunoglobulin superfamily domains connected to a fibrinogen domain; to date fibrinogen containing proteins with this arrangement are found only in gastropod molluscs. Furthermore, specific gastropod FREPs have been shown to undergo somatic diversification. Here we demonstrate that siRNA mediated knockdown of FREP3 results in a phenotypic loss of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 of 70 (21.4%) snails of the resistant BS-90 strain of Biomphalaria glabrata. In contrast, none of the 64 control BS-90 snails receiving a GFP siRNA construct and then exposed to S. mansoni became infected. Furthermore, resistance to S. mansoni was overcome in 22 of 48 snails (46%) by pre-exposure to another digenetic trematode, Echinostoma paraensei. Loss of resistance in this case was shown by microarray analysis to be associated with strong down-regulation of FREP3, and other candidate immune molecules. Although many factors are certainly involved in snail defense from trematode infection, this study identifies for the first time the involvement of a specific snail gene, FREP3, in the phenotype of resistance to the medically important parasite, S. mansoni. The results have implications for revealing the underlying mechanisms involved in dictating the range of snail strains used by S. mansoni, and, more generally, for better understanding the phenomena of host specificity and host switching. It also

  13. Determination of Abundance of Tellurite-Resistant Bacteria and the Ability of Remove of them from Qom Province Industrial Wastewater, Qom, Iran

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    Mahboubeh Soleimani Sasani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Accumulation of toxic oxyanion of potassium tellurite, which has increased in the environment due to industrial activities, can cause complications in human, such as skin irritation, dermatitis, anorexia, tremor, nausea, vomiting, nervous system stimulation, convulsion, and respiratory arrest. The purpose of this research was to isolate tellurite-resistant bacteria, determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and evaluate bioreduction of tellurite in strains.Methods: MIC was measured by agar dilution method in 84 resistant strains isolated from wastewater. QWTm6 strain with tolerance of tellurite concentration of 6684μg/ml was selected as superior strain. Toleration of this level of tellurite has not been reported yet. Results: According to biochemical, phenotypic, and physiological characteristics, QWTm6 was initially classified into Staphylococcus genus. Using the spectrophotometric technique and DDTC reagent (A340nm & sodium diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate, maximum elimination was seen in 0.4mM concentration of potassium tellurite in 24 hours. The strain showed high ability in the elimination of toxic oxyanion of potassium tellurite under a wide range of factors such as pH=(5-11, temperature (15-50◦C, blender speed (50, 100, 150, and 200rpm, various oxyanion concentrations (0.04-1mM, and different percentages of NaCl (0-20%. This strain was also resistant to penicillin, cefixime, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, neomycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that QWTm6 could be introduced in the international societies as an acceptable candidate for bioremediation, because of its high ability in removal and reduction of potassium tellurite.

  14. Is heart rate variability a feasible method to determine anaerobic threshold in progressive resistance exercise in coronary artery disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Milena P R; Simões, Rodrigo P; Caruso, Flávia C R; Mendes, Renata G; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the magnitude of the metabolic and autonomic responses during progressive resistance exercise (PRE) is associated with the determination of the anaerobic threshold (AT). AT is an important parameter to determine intensity in dynamic exercise. To investigate the metabolic and cardiac autonomic responses during dynamic resistance exercise in patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Twenty men (age = 63±7 years) with CAD [Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) = 60±10%] underwent a PRE protocol on a leg press until maximal exertion. The protocol began at 10% of One Repetition Maximum Test (1-RM), with subsequent increases of 10% until maximal exhaustion. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indices from Poincaré plots (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2) and time domain (rMSSD and RMSM), and blood lactate were determined at rest and during PRE. Significant alterations in HRV and blood lactate were observed starting at 30% of 1-RM (p<0.05). Bland-Altman plots revealed a consistent agreement between blood lactate threshold (LT) and rMSSD threshold (rMSSDT) and between LT and SD1 threshold (SD1T). Relative values of 1-RM in all LT, rMSSDT and SD1T did not differ (29%±5 vs 28%±5 vs 29%±5 Kg, respectively). HRV during PRE could be a feasible noninvasive method of determining AT in CAD patients to plan intensities during cardiac rehabilitation.

  15. Genetic determinants of heel bone properties: genome-wide association meta-analysis and replication in the GEFOS/GENOMOS consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Karasik, David; Estrada, Karol; Xiao, Su-Mei; Nielson, Carrie; Srikanth, Priya; Giroux, Sylvie; Wilson, Scott G.; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Smith, Albert V.; Pye, Stephen R.; Leo, Paul J.; Teumer, Alexander; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ohlsson, Claes; McGuigan, Fiona; Minster, Ryan L.; Hayward, Caroline; Olmos, José M.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lewis, Joshua R.; Swart, Karin M.A.; Masi, Laura; Oldmeadow, Chris; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Cheng, Sulin; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Kruk, Marcin; del Greco M, Fabiola; Igl, Wilmar; Trummer, Olivia; Grigoriou, Efi; Luben, Robert; Liu, Ching-Ti; Zhou, Yanhua; Oei, Ling; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Zmuda, Joseph; Tranah, Greg; Brown, Suzanne J.; Williams, Frances M.; Soranzo, Nicole; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Holliday, Kate L.; Hannemann, Anke; Go, Min Jin; Garcia, Melissa; Polasek, Ozren; Laaksonen, Marika; Zhu, Kun; Enneman, Anke W.; McEvoy, Mark; Peel, Roseanne; Sham, Pak Chung; Jaworski, Maciej; Johansson, Åsa; Hicks, Andrew A.; Pludowski, Pawel; Scott, Rodney; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Sievänen, Harri; Raitakari, Olli T.; González-Macías, Jesús; Hernández, Jose L.; Mellström, Dan; Ljunggren, Östen; Cho, Yoon Shin; Völker, Uwe; Nauck, Matthias; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Haring, Robin; Brown, Matthew A.; McCloskey, Eugene; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A.; Jones, Graeme; Reid, Ian R.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Wark, John; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C.W.; Aspelund, Thor; Richards, J. Brent; Bauer, Doug; Hofman, Albert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Dedoussis, George; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Gyllensten, Ulf; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Lorenc, Roman S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Lips, Paul; Alen, Markku; Attia, John; Brandi, Maria Luisa; de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Riancho, José A.; Campbell, Harry; Liu, Yongmei; Harris, Tamara B.; Akesson, Kristina; Karlsson, Magnus; Lee, Jong-Young; Wallaschofski, Henri; Duncan, Emma L.; O'Neill, Terence W.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Spector, Timothy D.; Rousseau, François; Orwoll, Eric; Cummings, Steven R.; Wareham, Nick J.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Prince, Richard L.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Reeve, Jonathan; Kaptoge, Stephen K.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound of the heel captures heel bone properties that independently predict fracture risk and, with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by X-ray (DXA), may be convenient alternatives for evaluating osteoporosis and fracture risk. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to assess the genetic determinants of heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; n = 14 260), velocity of sound (VOS; n = 15 514) and BMD (n = 4566) in 13 discovery cohorts. Independent replication involved seven cohorts with GWA data (in silico n = 11 452) and new genotyping in 15 cohorts (de novo n = 24 902). In combined random effects, meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10−8) associations with heel bone properties. Alongside SNPs within or near previously identified osteoporosis susceptibility genes including ESR1 (6q25.1: rs4869739, rs3020331, rs2982552), SPTBN1 (2p16.2: rs11898505), RSPO3 (6q22.33: rs7741021), WNT16 (7q31.31: rs2908007), DKK1 (10q21.1: rs7902708) and GPATCH1 (19q13.11: rs10416265), we identified a new locus on chromosome 11q14.2 (rs597319 close to TMEM135, a gene recently linked to osteoblastogenesis and longevity) significantly associated with both BUA and VOS (P < 8.23 × 10−14). In meta-analyses involving 25 cohorts with up to 14 985 fracture cases, six of 10 SNPs associated with heel bone properties at P < 5 × 10−6 also had the expected direction of association with any fracture (P < 0.05), including three SNPs with P < 0.005: 6q22.33 (rs7741021), 7q31.31 (rs2908007) and 10q21.1 (rs7902708). In conclusion, this GWA study reveals the effect of several genes common to central DXA-derived BMD and heel ultrasound/DXA measures and points to a new genetic locus with potential implications for better understanding of osteoporosis pathophysiology. PMID:24430505

  16. Determination of the resistance of fabric printed with triclosan microcapsules to the action of soil micro-flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golja, B.; Forte Tavčer, P.

    2017-10-01

    Microcapsules with a pressure-sensitive melamine-formaldehyde wall and triclosan core were printed to 100% cotton fabric with screen printing technique. Previous research showed excellent antibacterial activity (estimated for E. Coli and S. Aureus) of such fabric, so our aim in this research was to determine its resistance to the action of microorganisms present in the soil. The soil burial test was conducted. The breaking strength of the buried samples was measured and also the scanning electron microscope analysis was done. The results showed that none of the samples are resistant to decay. It is evident from SEM micrographs that on all of the buried samples greater morphological changes occur due to the functions of the soil microflora. It can be concluded that the samples printed with triclosan microcapsules are biodegradable which is environmentally preferable.

  17. Milk contamination and resistance to processing conditions determine the fate of Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages in dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Carmen; Monjardín, Cristina; Suárez, Juan E

    2004-12-01

    Milk contamination by phages, the susceptibility of the phages to pasteurization, and the high levels of resistance to phage infection of starter strains condition the evolution dynamics of phage populations in dairy environments. Approximately 10% (83 of 900) of raw milk samples contained phages of the quasi-species c2 (72%), 936 (24%), and P335 (4%). However, 936 phages were isolated from 20 of 24 (85%) whey samples, while c2 was detected in only one (4%) of these samples. This switch may have been due to the higher susceptibility of c2 to pasteurization (936-like phages were found to be approximately 35 times more resistant than c2 strains to treatment of contaminated milk in a plate heat exchanger at 72 degrees C for 15 s). The restriction patterns of 936-like phages isolated from milk and whey were different, indicating that survival to pasteurization does not result in direct contamination of the dairy environment. The main alternative source of phages (commercial bacterial starters) does not appear to significantly contribute to phage contamination. Twenty-four strains isolated from nine starter formulations were generally resistant to phage infection, and very small progeny were generated upon induction of the lytic cycle of resident prophages. Thus, we postulate that a continuous supply of contaminated milk, followed by pasteurization, creates a factory environment rich in diverse 936 phage strains. This equilibrium would be broken if a particular starter strain turned out to be susceptible to infection by one of these 936-like phages, which, as a consequence, became prevalent.

  18. Porosity determination from 2-D resistivity method in studying the slope failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslinda, Umi; Nordiana, M. M.; Bery, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Slope failures have become the main focus for infrastructures development on hilly areas in Malaysia especially the development of tourism and residential. Lack of understanding and information of the subsoil conditions and geotechnical issues are the main cause of the slope failures. The failures happened are due to a combination of few factors such as topography, climate, geology and land use. 2-D resistivity method was conducted at the collapsed area in Selangor. The 2-D resistivity was done to study the instability of the area. The collapsed occurred because of the subsurface materials was unstable. Pole-dipole array was used with 5 m minimum electrode spacing for the 2-D resistivity method. The data was processed using Res2Dinv software and the porosity was calculated using Archie's law equation. The results show that the saturated zone (1-100 Ωm), alluvium or highly weathered rock (100-1000 Ωm), boulders (1600-7000 Ωm) and granitic bedrock (>7000 Ωm). Generally, the slope failures or landslides occur during the wet season or after rainfall. It is because of the water infiltrate to the slope and cause the saturation of the slope which can lead to landslides. Then, the porosity of saturated zone is usually high because of the water content. The area of alluvium or highly weathered rock and saturated zone have high porosity (>20%) and the high porosity also dominated at almost all the collapsed area which means that the materials with porosity >20% is potential to be saturated, unstable and might trigger slope failures.

  19. Determination of Characteristics of Erythromycin Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae with Preferred PCV Usage in Iran.

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    Malihe Talebi

    Full Text Available Amongst 100 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from clinical cases and nasopharynx of healthy individuals, 60 erythromycin resistant strains were isolated and characterized using MLST, PFGE, transposon analysis and Quellung reaction. Most of the S. pneumoniae erythromycin resistant (80% were found to be attributable to the ermB-edncoded ribosome methylase activity which differs from the dominant mechanism of macrolide resistance seen in North America. The most predominant transposons were; Tn1545/6003 (27%, Tn6002 (22%, Tn2009 (20%, Tn2010 (17%. Number of the clinical isolates carrying Tn2010 was more significant than the normal flora. The serotypes found were; 14 (33%, 3 (22%, 23F (15%, 19F (15%, 19A (7%, 6A (3%, 9V (3% and 6B (2%. The most prevalent serotypes among the clinical (n = 28 and normal flora (n = 32 isolates were serotypes 14 (46% and 3 (31%, respectively. The most prevalent vaccine serotypes amongst the clinical isolates and the healthy individuals were pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV 13 and PCV10, respectively. PFGE revealed 34 pulsotypes with 9 common and 25 single types. Significant number of the normal isolates belonged to CT5 and CT6. On the other hand, significant number of clinical isolates belonged to CT8 as compared to the normal flora isolates. MLST showed 2 dominant sequence types. ST3130 (23% and ST180 (22% were the most predominant sequence types in the clinical and normal isolates, respectively. There was no significant difference in other sequence types between clinical and normal flora isolates. Three polyclonal complexes including Sweden15A -25, Spain23F-1 and Spain9V-3 constituted 58% of the isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic diversity and transposon distribution were high among S. pneumoniae, particularly in the isolates containing erm(B and double antibiotic resistant genes (erm/mef. The results presented here could influence the change in the current vaccination practices in Iran which currently

  20. Application of the surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method to determine patterns of regional joint orientation in glacial tills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Joints within unconsolidated material such as glacial till can be primary avenues for the flow of electrical charge, water, and contaminants. To facilitate the siting and design of remediation programs, a need exists to map anisotropic distribution of such pathways within glacial tills by determining the azimuth of the dominant joint set. The azimuthal survey method uses standard resistivity equipment with a Wenner array rotated about a fixed center point at selected degree intervals that yields an apparent resistivity ellipse. From this ellipse, joint set orientation can be determined. Azimuthal surveys were conducted at 21 sites in a 500-km2 (193 mi2) area around Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and more specifically, at sites having more than 30 m (98 ft) of glacial till (to minimize the influence of underlying bedrock joints). The 26 azimuthal surveys revealed a systematic pattern to the trend of the dominant joint set within the tills, which is approximately parallel to ice flow direction during till deposition. The average orientation of the joint set parallel with the ice flow direction is N77??E and N37??E for the Oak Creek and Ozaukee tills, respectively. The mean difference between average direct observation of joint set orientations and average azimuthal resistivity results is 8??, which is one fifth of the difference of ice flow direction between the Ozaukee and Oak Creek tills. The results of this study suggest that the surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method used for local in situ studies can be a useful noninvasive method for delineating joint sets within shallow geologic material for regional studies. Copyright ?? 2010 The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  1. Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents. Moreover, to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at MS risk. Methods 3203 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified by a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definition. HOMA-IR index was calculated and the normal reference ranges were defined from the healthy participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR for diagnosis of MS. Results With the increase of insulin resistance (quintile of HOMA-IR value), the ORs of suffering MS or its related components were significantly increased. Participants in the highest quintile of HOMA-IR were about 60 times more likely to be classified with metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quintile group. Similarly, the mean values of insulin and HOMA-IR increased with the number of MS components. The present HOMA-IR cutoff point corresponding to the 95th percentile of our healthy reference children was 3.0 for whole participants, 2.6 for children in prepubertal stage and 3.2 in pubertal period, respectively. The optimal point for diagnosis of MS was 2.3 in total participants, 1.7 in prepubertal children and 2.6 in pubertal adolescents, respectively, by ROC curve, which yielded high sensitivity and moderate specificity for a screening test. According to HOMA-IR > 3.0, the prevalence of insulin resistance in obese or MS children were 44.3% and 61.6% respectively. Conclusions Our data indicates insulin resistance is common among Chinese obese children and adolescents, and is strongly related to MS risk, therefore requiring consideration early in life. As a reliable measure of insulin resistance and

  2. Insulin resistance determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and associations with metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinhua; Li, Ming; Xu, Lu; Wang, Ying; Cheng, Hong; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the association between the degree of insulin resistance and the different components of the metabolic syndrome among Chinese children and adolescents. Moreover, to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at MS risk. 3203 Chinese children aged 6 to 18 years were recruited. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was identified by a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definition. HOMA-IR index was calculated and the normal reference ranges were defined from the healthy participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR for diagnosis of MS. With the increase of insulin resistance (quintile of HOMA-IR value), the ORs of suffering MS or its related components were significantly increased. Participants in the highest quintile of HOMA-IR were about 60 times more likely to be classified with metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quintile group. Similarly, the mean values of insulin and HOMA-IR increased with the number of MS components. The present HOMA-IR cutoff point corresponding to the 95th percentile of our healthy reference children was 3.0 for whole participants, 2.6 for children in prepubertal stage and 3.2 in pubertal period, respectively. The optimal point for diagnosis of MS was 2.3 in total participants, 1.7 in prepubertal children and 2.6 in pubertal adolescents, respectively, by ROC curve, which yielded high sensitivity and moderate specificity for a screening test. According to HOMA-IR > 3.0, the prevalence of insulin resistance in obese or MS children were 44.3% and 61.6% respectively. Our data indicates insulin resistance is common among Chinese obese children and adolescents, and is strongly related to MS risk, therefore requiring consideration early in life. As a reliable measure of insulin resistance and assessment of MS risk, the optimal HOMA-IR cut

  3. Determination of Soft Lithology Causes The Land Subsidence in Coastal Semarang City by Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widada, Sugeng; Saputra, Sidhi; Hariadi

    2018-02-01

    Semarang City is located in the northern coastal plain of Java which is geologically composed of alluvial deposits. The process of the sediment diagenesis has caused a land subsidence. On the other hand, the development of the industrial, service, education and housing sectors has increased the number of building significantly. The number of building makes the pressure of land surface increased, and finally, this also increased the rate of land subsidence. The drilling data indicates that not all layers of lithology are soft layers supporting the land subsidence. However, vertical distribution of the soft layer is still unclear. This study used Resistivity method to map out the soft zone layers of lithology. Schlumberger electrode configuration with sounding system method was selected to find a good vertical resolution and maximum depth. The results showed that the lithology layer with resistivity less than 3 ohm is a layer of clay and sandy clay that has the low bearing capacity so easily compressed by pressure load. A high land subsidence is happening in the thick soft layer. The thickness of that layer is smaller toward the direction of avoiding the beach. The improvement of the bearing capacity of this layer is expected to be a solution to the problem of land subsidence.

  4. The Escherichia coli BtuE protein functions as a resistance determinant against reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A Arenas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows that the recently described Escherichia coli BtuE peroxidase protects the bacterium against oxidative stress that is generated by tellurite and by other reactive oxygen species elicitors (ROS. Cells lacking btuE (ΔbtuE displayed higher sensitivity to K(2TeO(3 and other oxidative stress-generating agents than did the isogenic, parental, wild-type strain. They also exhibited increased levels of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species, oxidized proteins, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and lipoperoxides. E. coli ΔbtuE that was exposed to tellurite or H(2O(2 did not show growth changes relative to wild type cells either in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Nevertheless, the elimination of btuE from cells deficient in catalases/peroxidases (Hpx(- resulted in impaired growth and resistance to these toxicants only in aerobic conditions, suggesting that BtuE is involved in the defense against oxidative damage. Genetic complementation of E. coli ΔbtuE restored toxicant resistance to levels exhibited by the wild type strain. As expected, btuE overexpression resulted in decreased amounts of oxidative damage products as well as in lower transcriptional levels of the oxidative stress-induced genes ibpA, soxS and katG.

  5. Estimation of hydraulic conductivity on clay content in soil determined from resistivity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevnin, Vladimir; Delgado-Rodriguez, Omar; Mousatov, Aleksandr [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ryjov, Albert [Moscow State Geological Prospecting Academy, Geophysical Faculty, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-15

    The influence of clay content in sandy and clayey soils on hydraulic conductivity (filtration coefficient) is considered. A review of published experimental data on the relationship of hydraulic conductivity with soil lithology and grain size, as dependent on clay content is presented. Theoretical calculations include clay content. Experimental and calculated data agree, and several approximation formulas for filtration coefficient vs clay content are presented. Clay content in soil is estimated from electric resistivity data obtained from 2D VES interpretation. A two-step method is proposed, the first step including clay content calculating from soil resistivity and groundwater salinity, and the second step including filtration coefficient estimating from clay content. Two applications are presented. [Spanish] El contenido de arcilla en suelos areno-arcillosos influye sobre la permeabilidad hidraulica (coeficiente de filtracion). Se presenta una revision de datos experimentales publicados que relacionan el coeficiente de filtracion con el tipo litologico del suelo y el tamano de las particulas. A partir de calculos teoricos, se modifican las conocidas formulas que relacionan el coeficiente de filtracion con el contenido de arcilla. Se estima el contenido de arcilla a partir de los datos interpretados por el metodo SEV, y se propone un procedimiento para la estimacion del coeficiente de filtracion: (a) calculo del contenido de arcilla a partir de la resistividad del suelo y de la salinidad del agua subterranea, (b) estimacion del coeficiente de filtracion a partir del contenido de arcilla. Se presentan algunos ejemplos de la aplicacion de esta metodologia.

  6. Identification of Qnr and AAC(6')-1b-cr plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in multidrug-resistant Enterobacter spp. isolated from extraintestinal infections in companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Justine S; Cobbold, Rowland N; Heisig, Peter; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Trott, Darren J

    2010-07-14

    Fluoroquinolone resistance is becoming more common in veterinary medicine. Resistance is due to a combination of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to screen 17 multidrug-resistant Enterobacter isolates obtained from opportunistic infections in companion animals for chromosomal and plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance determinants and to determine if they are co-located with other antimicrobial resistance genes including beta-lactamases. Phenotypic tests (biochemical identification, organic solvent tolerance testing) were combined with genotypic analysis (PCR, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, sequencing, plasmid isolation and southern blot hybridization) to characterize the molecular basis for fluoroquinolone resistance. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution for fluoroquinolone antimicrobials (enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin) and by disk diffusion for other antimicrobials. Sixteen isolates were resistant to at least one of the five fluoroquinolones tested. Fourteen isolates possessed PMQR determinants which were identified as qnrA1 (n=3) or qnrB2 (n=11), often in combination with aac(6')-1b-cr (n=6). The PMQR genes were localized to large, transferable MDR plasmids often associated with an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and quinolone resistance was co-transferred with bla(SHV-12) for 10 of the 14 qnr-positive strains. Three isolates had wild-type topoisomerases, 11 had a single point mutation in gyrA (Ser83Phe or Tyr), and three had two mutations; one in gyrA (Ser83Ile) and one in parC (Ser80Ile). PMQR genes in clinical veterinary Enterobacter isolates are co-located with beta-lactamases and other resistance genes on large transferable plasmids. PMQR genes contribute to fluoroquinolone resistance when combined with topoisomerase mutations and efflux. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexually dimorphic genome-wide binding of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα determines male-female differences in the expression of hepatic lipid processing genes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Kosters

    Full Text Available Many hepatic functions including lipid metabolism, drug metabolism, and inflammatory responses are regulated in a sex-specific manner due to distinct patterns of hepatic gene expression between males and females. Regulation for the majority of these genes is under control of Nuclear Receptors (NRs. Retinoid X Receptor alpha (RXRα is an obligate partner for multiple NRs and considered a master regulator of hepatic gene expression, yet the full extent of RXRα chromatin binding in male and female livers is unclear. ChIP-Seq analysis of RXRα and RNA Polymerase2 (Pol2 binding was performed livers of both genders and combined with microarray analysis. Mice were gavage-fed with the RXR ligand LG268 for 5 days (30 mg/kg/day and RXRα-binding and RNA levels were determined by ChIP-qPCR and qPCR, respectively. ChIP-Seq revealed 47,845 (male and 46,877 (female RXRα binding sites (BS, associated with ∼12,700 unique genes in livers of both genders, with 91% shared between sexes. RXRα-binding showed significant enrichment for 2227 and 1498 unique genes in male and female livers, respectively. Correlating RXRα binding strength with Pol2-binding revealed 44 genes being male-dominant and 43 female-dominant, many previously unknown to be sexually-dimorphic. Surprisingly, genes fundamental to lipid metabolism, including Scd1, Fasn, Elovl6, and Pnpla3-implicated in Fatty Liver Disease pathogenesis, were predominant in females. RXRα activation using LG268 confirmed RXRα-binding was 2-3 fold increased in female livers at multiple newly identified RXRα BS including for Pnpla3 and Elovl6, with corresponding ∼10-fold and ∼2-fold increases in Pnpla3 and Elovl6 RNA respectively in LG268-treated female livers, supporting a role for RXRα regulation of sexually-dimorphic responses for these genes. RXRα appears to be one of the most widely distributed transcriptional regulators in mouse liver and is engaged in determining sexually-dimorphic expression of key

  8. High Prevalence of Mutations in Quinolone-resistance-determining Regions and mtrR Loci in Polyclonal Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates at a Tertiary Hospital in Southern Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Po-Lin Chen; Hsin-Chun Lee; Jing-Jou Yan; Yu-Hsiang Hsieh; Nan-Yao Lee; Nai-Ying Ko; Chia-Wei Lin; Chia-Ming Chang; Chi-Jung Wu; Ching-Chi Lee; Wen-Chien Ko

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a great challenge in controlling gonorrhea. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance among 45 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae collected at a university hospital in Southern Taiwan during 1999-2004. Methods: Mutations in mtrR loci and quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were examined by gene sequencing. Polymerase chain reactions with specific primers w...

  9. Determining resistance to mastitis in a bovine subject involves detecting presence or absence of genetic marker associated with trait indicative of mastitis resistance of the bovine subject and/or off-spring from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    to mastitis in a bovine subject for determining mastitis resistance in a bovine subject; for detecting the presence or absence in a bovine subject of at least one genetic marker associated with resistance to mastitis; and for estimating breeding value in respect of susceptibility to mastitis in a bovine...... subject. The bovine subject is a member of Finnish Ayrshire, Swedish Red and White, or Danish Red cattle breed (claimed). ADVANTAGE - The method efficiently selects bovine subjects with increased resistance to mastitis and thereby avoiding economic losses in connection with animals suffering from mastitis....... The genetic predisposition for resistance to mastitis may be detected by the present method....

  10. Molecular determinants of the bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupala, Cecylia S; Gomez-Gutierrez, Patricia; Perez, Juan J

    2013-06-01

    Quinolones constitute a large class of antibacterial agents whose action is mediated through the formation of a ternary complex with DNA and either, DNA Gyrase or topoisomerase IV, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication. In order to get a deeper insight into the features of the complex formation, we carried out docking studies of fifteen diverse quinolones to the cleaved topoisomerase IV-DNA complex. Docking studies were performed using the crystal structures of the cleaved complex with levofloxacin and moxifloxacin (pdb entries 3K9F and 2XKK, respectively) using the GOLD software. Ligands dock in positions similar to those of the crystal structures. Analysis of the results reveals that bound quinolones appear intercalated between the two nucleotides that are involved in the DNA cleavage and exhibit hydrogen bonds with Arg(117) and, the latter mediated though a water molecule. Arg(117) has not been described to be involved in resistance, since it is putatively involved in the enzymatic reaction and its mutation would be lethal for the organism. Mutants of Ser(79) exhibit resistance to quinolones which can be explained by the loss of an important anchoring point. Interestingly, quinolone resistance observed in Asp(83) mutants cannot be explained directly on the basis of the loss of a direct interaction, but could be explained on the basis of its involvement at the entrance of the ligands to their binding pocket since the residue is located at the mouth of the pocket. The results of the present study suggest that the 4-keto and 3-carboxyl groups of the fluoroquinolones bind a Mg(2+) before binding to the cleaved topoisomarase IV-DNA complex and use Asp(83) for entry into the binding pocket. Accordingly, mutations that do not conserve the binding capacity for the quinolone-Mg(2+) complex will prevent the binding of this class of ligands. The results we present here are also compared with the structure of PD0305970 a 2,4-dione active against the Ser(79) and Asp

  11. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  12. Determination of antibiotic resistance profile in Klebsiella pneumonia strains isolated from urinary tract infections of patients hospitalized in Peyambaran hospital (Tehran-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Tavakol

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the second prevalent infection in human mostly caused by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profile and detect the prevalence of antibiotic resistance encoding genes in K .pneumoniae isolated from UTI. Materials and Methods: Fifty K. pneumonia strains isolated from 122 UTI samples of hospitalized patients in Payambaran Hospital (Tehran, Iran which were subjected to this study (2014 were confirmed by standard biochemical tests. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial drugs by using disk diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance encoding genes frequently include the aadA1, aac(3-IV, sul1, blaSHV, Cat1, cmlA, tetA, tetB, dfrA1, CITM, qnr in isolates were determined by PCR. Results: The highest antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae isolates were for Tetracycline and the lowest resistance (2% for Gentamicin and Imipenem. To determine the frequency of antibiotic resistant genes, 64% and 4% of isolates had tetA and Gentamicin-(aac(3-IV resistant genes, respectively. Conclusion: Frequency of antibiotic resistance encoding genes may have important and basic role in the occurrence and transfer of antibiotic resistance which can be due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.

  13. Rapid determination of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance from whole-genome sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2015-05-27

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance (DR) challenges effective tuberculosis disease control. Current molecular tests examine limited numbers of mutations, and although whole genome sequencing approaches could fully characterise DR, data complexity has restricted their clinical application. A library (1,325 mutations) predictive of DR for 15 anti-tuberculosis drugs was compiled and validated for 11 of them using genomic-phenotypic data from 792 strains. A rapid online ‘TB-Profiler’ tool was developed to report DR and strain-type profiles directly from raw sequences. Using our DR mutation library, in silico diagnostic accuracy was superior to some commercial diagnostics and alternative databases. The library will facilitate sequence-based drug-susceptibility testing.

  14. Genome-Wide High-Throughput Screening to Investigate Essential Genes Involved in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398 Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Chaudhuri, Roy R.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) Sequence Type 398 (ST398) is an opportunistic pathogen that is able to colonize and cause disease in several animal species including humans. To better understand the adaptation, evolution, transmission and pathogenic...... common MRSA isolated from pigs, the transposon mutant library was screened in whole porcine blood. Twenty-four genes were specifically identified as important for bacterial survival in porcine blood. Mutations in 23 of these genes resulted in attenuated bacterial fitness. Seven of the 23 genes were...... of unknown function, whereas 16 genes were annotated with functions predominantly related to carbon metabolism, pH shock and a variety of regulations and only indirectly to virulence factors. Mutations in one gene of unknown function resulted in a hypercompetitive mutant. Further evaluation of these genes...

  15. Molecular determinants of bacterial sensitivity and resistance to mammalian Group IIA phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jerrold P

    2015-11-01

    Group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA(2)-IIA) of mammalian species is unique among the many structurally and functionally related mammalian sPLA(2) in their high net positive charge and potent (nM) antibacterial activity. Toward the Gram-positive bacteria tested thus far, the global cationic properties of sPLA(2)-IIA are necessary for optimal binding to intact bacteria and penetration of the multi-layered thick cell wall, but not for the degradation of membrane phospholipids that is essential for bacterial killing. Various Gram-positive bacterial species can differ as much as 1000-fold in sPLA(2)-IIA sensitivity despite similar intrinsic enzymatic activity of sPLA(2)-IIA toward the membrane phospholipids of various bacteria. d-alanylation of wall- and lipo-teichoic acids in Staphylococcus aureus and sortase function in Streptococcus pyogenes increase bacterial resistance to sPLA(2)-IIA by up to 100-fold apparently by affecting translocation of bound sPLA(2)-IIA to the cell membrane. Action of the sPLA(2)-IIA and other related sPLA(2) against Gram-negative bacteria is more dependent on cationic properties of the enzyme near the amino-terminus of the protein and collaboration with other host defense proteins that produce alterations of the unique Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane that normally represents a barrier to sPLA(2)-IIA action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutrition, insulin resistance and dysfunctional adipose tissue determine the different components of metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders. Adipose tissue could expand to inflexibility levels. Then, adiposity is associated with a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, with increased tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release, which interfere with adipose cell differentiation, and the action pattern of adiponectin and leptin until the adipose tissue begins to be dysfunctional. In this state the subject presents insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, probably the first step of a dysfunctional metabolic system. Subsequent to central obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, hypertension and fatty liver are grouped in the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS). In subjects with MetS an energy balance is critical to maintain a healthy body weight, mainly limiting the intake of high energy density foods (fat). However, high-carbohydrate rich (CHO) diets increase postprandial peaks of insulin and glucose. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are also increased, which interferes with reverse cholesterol transport lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, CHO-rich diets could move fat from peripheral to central deposits and reduce adiponectin activity in peripheral adipose tissue. All these are improved with monounsaturated fatty acid-rich diets. Lastly, increased portions of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids also decrease triglyceride levels, and complement the healthy diet that is recommended in patients with MetS. PMID

  17. Laboratory determination of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in tumor cells from patients with leukemia, using a fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Kristensen, J; Sandberg, C; Nygren, P

    1992-01-21

    An automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein was employed for chemotherapeutic-drug-sensitivity testing of tumor-cell suspensions from patients with leukemia. Fluorescence was linearly related to cell number, and reproducible measurements of drug sensitivity could be performed using fresh or cryopreserved leukemia cells. A marked heterogeneity with respect to chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity was observed for a panel of cytotoxic drugs tested in 43 samples from 35 patients with treated or untreated acute and chronic leukemia. For samples obtained from patients with chronic lymphocytic and acute myelocytic leukemia, sensitivity profiles for standard drugs corresponded to known clinical activity and the assay detected primary and acquired drug resistance. Individual in vitro/in vivo correlations indicated high specificity with respect to the identification of drug resistance. The results suggest that the FMCA may be a simple and rapid method for in vivo-representative determinations of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in tumor cells obtained from patients with leukemia.

  18. Vibrio cholerae O1 strain TSI-4 produces the exopolysaccharide materials that determine colony morphology, stress resistance, and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, S N; Mizunoe, Y; Takade, A; Kawabata, S I; Yoshida, S I

    1998-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 strain TSI-4 (El Tor, Ogawa) can shift to a rugose colony morphology from its normal translucent colony morphology in response to nutrient starvation. We have investigated differences between the rugose and translucent forms of V. cholerae O1 strain TSI-4. Electron microscopic examination of the rugose form of TSI-4 (TSI-4/R) revealed thick, electron-dense exopolysaccharide materials surrounding polycationic ferritin-stained cells, while the ferritin-stained material was absent around the translucent form of TSI-4 (TSI-4/T). The exopolysaccharide produced by V. cholerae TSI-4/R was found to have a composition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, D-mannose, 6-deoxy-D-galactose, and D-galactose (7.4:10.2:2.4:3.0). The expression of an amorphous exopolysaccharide promotes biofilm development under static culture conditions. Biofilm formation by the rugose strain was determined by scanning electron microscopy, and most of the surface of the film was colonized by actively dividing rod cells. The corresponding rugose and translucent strains were compared for stress resistance. By having exopolysaccharide materials, the rugose strains acquired resistance to osmotic and oxidative stress. Our data indicated that an exopolysaccharide material on the surface of the rugose strain promoted biofilm formation and resistance to the effects of two stressing agents.

  19. The evaluation of the classical Kirby-Bauer antibiogram method for the determination of antibiotic resistant microorganisms in tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecka Agata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are the main source of potable water for many inhabitants. The European Union and Polish laws demand high quality of tap water, but the aspect of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB is not mentioned. The special emphasis is placed on the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in water, determining by the presence of chosen indicators. Although these regulations provide quite good quality of drinking water, the neglect of resistance vectors could lead to a serious threat to human health. In this study the randomly chosen sample of water from the Wroclaw water supply system was tested in order to evaluate the usefulness of Kirby-Bauer antibiogram method for the assessment of the presence of ARB. The susceptibility testing with 6 chosen antibiotics was performed on bacterial strains isolated from the sample. The diameters of growth inhibition zones were measured and the preliminary identification of strains was carried out, including Gram staining and bacterial cellular morphologies assessments. Although full recognition of the drug resistance phenomenon demands the identification of bacterial species for the comparison with susceptibility testing guidelines, this preliminary research could answer the question, whether the Kirby-Bauer method is sufficient for investigations of ARB dwelling in Wroclaw tap water or the other solution should be applied.

  20. Determination antimicrobial resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Different Part of Taleghani Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah Ahmadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the genus Acinetobacter are Gram-negative cocobacilli that are frequently found in the environment but also in the hospital setting where they have been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, burn wound infection and bacteremia. This organism has been shown resistance to different antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to determination antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Taleghani hospital (Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Clinical specimens were cultured on microbiological media. Subsequently, drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Results: Acinetobacter strains were isolated from different specimens consisting biopsy 24 (55.8%, wound 13 (30/2% and blood 6 (14%. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, colistin exhibited the greatest activity (60.5% against isolated strains. 33 (76/7% isolates demonstrated resistance to imipenem. Conclusion: In outbreak situations, surveillance cultures of patients involved in the outbreak or who are deemed at risk for colonization/infection with the outbreak organism are often parts of the planned intervention.

  1. The Distribution of Fitness Costs of Resistance-Conferring Mutations Is a Key Determinant for the Future Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Model-Based Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knight, Gwenan M.; Colijn, Caroline; Shrestha, Sourya; Fofana, Mariam; Cobelens, Frank; White, Richard G.; Dowdy, David W.; Cohen, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance poses a serious challenge for the control of tuberculosis in many settings. It is well established that the expected future trend in resistance depends on the reproductive fitness of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the variability in fitness between strains with

  2. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM THE ENDANGERED AUSTRALIAN SEA LION (NEOPHOCA CINEREA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delport, Tiffany C; Harcourt, Robert G; Beaumont, Linda J; Webster, Koa N; Power, Michelle L

    2015-07-01

    Greater interaction between humans and wildlife populations poses significant risks of anthropogenic impact to natural ecosystems, especially in the marine environment. Understanding the spread of microorganisms at the marine interface is therefore important if we are to mitigate adverse effects on marine wildlife. We investigated the establishment of Escherichia coli in the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) by comparing fecal isolation from wild and captive sea lion populations. Fecal samples were collected from wild colonies March 2009-September 2010 and from captive individuals March 2011-May 2013. Using molecular screening, we assigned a phylotype to E. coli isolates and determined the presence of integrons, mobile genetic elements that capture gene cassettes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents common in fecal coliforms. Group B2 was the most abundant phylotype in all E. coli isolates (n = 37), with groups A, B1, and D also identified. Integrons were not observed in E. coli (n = 21) isolated from wild sea lions, but were identified in E. coli from captive animals (n = 16), from which class I integrases were detected in eight isolates. Sequencing of gene cassette arrays identified genes conferring resistance to streptomycin-spectinomycin (aadA1) and trimethoprim (dfrA17, dfrB4). Class II integrases were not detected in the E. coli isolates. The frequent detection in captive sea lions of E. coli with resistance genes commonly identified in human clinical cases suggests that conditions experienced in captivity may contribute to establishment. Identification of antibiotic resistance in the microbiota of Australian