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Sample records for resistance cotransfection experiments

  1. Enhanced transient recombinant protein production in CHO cells through the co-transfection of the product gene with Bcl-xL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zustiak, Matthew P.; Jose, Lisa; Xie, Yueqing; Zhu, Jianwei; Betenbaugh, Micheal J.

    2014-01-01

    Transient gene expression is gaining popularity as a method to rapidly produce recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. Although significant improvements have been made, in terms of expression, more improvements are needed to compete with the yields achievable in stable gene expression. Much progress has come from optimization of transfection media and parameters, as well as altering culturing conditions to enhance productivity. Recent studies have included using cell lines engineered for apoptosis resistance through the constitutive expression of an anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-xL. In this study we examine an alternative method of using the benefits of anti-apoptotic gene expression to enhance the transient expression of biotherapeutics, namely, through the co-transfection of bcl-xL and the product-coding gene. CHO-S cells were co-transfected with the product-coding gene and a vector containing Bcl-xL using polyethylenimine. Cells co-transfected with Bcl-xL showed reduced levels of apoptosis, increased specific productivity, and an overall increase in product yield of approximately 100%. Similar results were produced by employing another anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 delta in CHO cells, or through the co-transfection with bcl-xL using HEK-293E cells. This work provides an alternative method for increasing yields of therapeutic proteins in TGE applications without generating a prior stable cell line and subsequent screening which are both time and resource consuming. PMID:24604826

  2. Antibiotic resistance: the Iowa experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy

    2002-11-01

    In the past 10 years, the number of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other common respiratory pathogens that are resistant to penicillin has increased. The Iowa Department of Public Health convened a multidisciplinary task force in January 1998 to develop strategies to combat antibiotic resistance in the state because they were alarmed by these reports. Within 18 months, the task force implemented statewide surveillance of resistant organisms and posted information about the surveillance on the Internet, distributed a public health guide on judicious antibiotic use and infection control measures to 7500 healthcare providers, and held a press conference to inform the public about antibiotic resistance. The task force collaborated with several major insurers in the state to profile the top prescribers of antibiotic agents in their plan. The profiling and educational interventions led to a substantial decrease in both overall antibiotic prescribing and drug costs. Other states may want to undertake similar programs to help protect their citizens from infections caused by resistant pathogens.

  3. Dealing with antimicrobial resistance - the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2000-01-01

    Following the discovery in 1994 and 1995 that use of the glycopeptide antimicrobial avoparcin for growth promotion was associated with the occurrence of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in food animals and in food, the Danish Minister of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries banned the use...... the availability of tetracycline as non-registered speciality products. The focus on consumption of antimicrobials and on resistance prompted a number of initiatives by Danish authorities to limit the increase in antimicrobial resistance. One such initiative was the implementation of an integrated programme...... on the prudent use of antimicrobials in order to reduce the development of resistance without compromising therapeutic efficacy. Our experience with avoparcin shows that a restrictive policy on the use of antimicrobials can curb the development of resistance. However, the occurrence and persistence of specific...

  4. Dealing with antimicrobial resistance - the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2000-01-01

    as possible and ultimately abolished. During the first half of the 1990s the consumption of tetracyclines, mainly in pig production, increased markedly. This was countered by severely reducing through legal means the financial enticement for veterinarians to prescribe medicines and by restricting...... (DANMAP), which monitors resistance among bacteria from food animals, food and humans. A programme to monitor all use of prescription medicine in food animals at the herd level is presently being implemented. Another initiative was the elaboration of a series of practical recommendations to veterinarians...... of avoparcin in May 1995. The ban was later extended by the European Commission to include all EU member states. In May 1999, the EU Scientific Steering Committee recommended that use for growth promotion of antimicrobials, which are or may be used in human or veterinary medicine should be phased out as soon...

  5. Early experience with tedizolid: clinical efficacy, pharmacodynamics, and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Jeffrey M; Marx, Kayleigh; Martin, Craig A

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance among gram-positive organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) continues to limit therapeutic options. The oxazolidinones are a synthetic class of agents now commonly relied on for the treatment of serious MRSA and VRE infections. With increasing utilization of linezolid, resistant pathogens have once again begun to emerge. Tedizolid, a next-generation oxazolidinone, possesses a spectrum of activity including MRSA and VRE, with significantly enhanced potency also against linezolid-resistant strains. Preclinical and early clinical studies have reported positive results, demonstrating a favorable pharmacokinetic profile in combination with key potential safety advantages. In two phase III clinical trials, tedizolid was found noninferior to linezolid in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Investigations for treatment of ventilator-acquired and health care-associated pneumonia are currently underway. Tedizolid has been subjected to pharmacodynamics studies throughout its development that have highlighted properties unique to this agent. Considerable accumulations in epithelial lining fluid and antimicrobial activity greatly augmented by the presence of granulocytes suggest that slow but bactericidal activity may be possible in some clinical scenarios. Structural distinctions between tedizolid and linezolid suggest that tedizolid has decreased vulnerability to oxazolidinone resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid minimum inhibitory concentrations are essentially unchanged in organisms possessing the chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance gene, a horizontally transferable linezolid resistance mechanism. Although the clinical experience with tedizolid remains limited, early data suggest a potential role in the treatment of serious infections due to multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Experiência e linguagem como estratégias de resistência Experience and language as resistance strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Debieux Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo visamos apontar, apoiadas em W. Benjamim e G. Agamben, a fragilização do registro da experiência e sua incidência na lógica do poder/violência. Analisamos, pretendendo desmistificar a eficácia dos discursos mortificadores da experiência, a figura do "mulçumano"; - nome que designava os mortos-vivos nos campos de concentração, conforme relato de Primo Levi e outros. Tal figura é emblemática do estado limite a que chegaram algumas pessoas e podem expressar o destino de alguns sujeitos na contemporaneidade. Pudemos identificar nessa posição tanto um movimento na direção da perda do laço identificatório com o semelhante, como uma forma de resistência à violência perpetrada pelo discurso social. Tal resistência consiste em operar uma mimese ao objeto resto, o que permite ao sujeito a manutenção da estrutura fantasmática. Indicamos que, apesar das estratégias do poder, o sujeito reinventa modos de se situar na relação ao Outro, nos quais se fazem importantes a presença e a palavra, incluindo aí a experiência psicanalítica.Drawing on Walter Benjamin and Giorgio Agamben, this article points out the fragilization of the registration of the experience and its incidence in the logic of power / violence. Seeking to demythify the efficacy of discourses that mortify experiences, it analyzes the figure of the "Muslim"; (Muselmänn - name that conveyed the walking dead in the Nazi concentration camps, according to accounts by Primo Levi and others. Such figure is emblematic of the limit condition some people have reached and can express the fate of some subjects in contemporary society. This position allows identifying both a movement toward the loss of an identifying bond with one's kind and a means to resist the violence perpetrated by the social discourse. This resistance consists in operating a mimesis of the object-rest, which permits the subject to maintain the phantasmatic structure. The article indicates

  7. [RECOMBINANT ADENOVIRUS-MEDIATED BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 9 AND ERYTHROPOIETIN GENES CO-TRANSFECTION IN PROMOTING OSTEOGENIC DIFFERENTIATION OF ADIPOSE-DERIVED STEM CELLS IN VITRO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangde; Su, Chengshuai; Jin, Xia; Yang, Shimao; Fang, Dianji; Guo, Yanwei

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of recombinant adenovirus-mediated bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) and erythropoietin (EPO) genes co-transfection on osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro. The inguinal adipose tissue was harvested from 4-month-old New Zealand rabbits, ADSCs were isolated with enzyme digestion and adherence method, and multipotent differentiation capacity was identified. The 3rd generation ADSCs were divided into 5 groups: normal cells (group A), empty plasmid control group (group B), BMP-9 or EPO recombinant adenovirus transfected cells (groups C and D), BMP-9 and EPO recombinant adenovirus co-transfected cells (group E). The inverted phase contrast microscope was used to observe the cell growth at 7 days; the expression of cell fluorescence was observed under a fluorescence microscope at 14 days, and viral transfection efficiency was calculated at 48 hours; Western blot was used to detect the expressions of BMP-9 and EPO proteins at 14 days. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was detected at 3, 7, and 14 days after osteogenic induction, and alizarin red staining was used to detect calcium nodules formation and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR to detect the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) at 3 weeks. At 7 days after transfected, some cells showed oval, round, and irregular shape under the inverted phase contrast microscope in groups A and B; a few fusiform cells were observed in groups C and D; oval cells increased obviously, and there were only few round cells in group E. The fluorescence microscope observation showed that BMP-9 and EPO, BMP-9/EPO recombinant adenovirus could stably transfected ADSCs, with transfection efficiency of 80%-93%. The expressions of BMP-9 and EPO proteins significantly higher in group E than the other groups by Western blot (P transfect ADSCs, which can stably express in ADSCs, BMP-9/EPO genes co-transfection can more promote the

  8. Bedaquiline in the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment: Belarus experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Skrahina

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our interim results on safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB patients are encouraging. They will add value to understanding role and place of this new anti-TB drug in M/XDR-TB treatment.

  9. DNA from radiation resistant human tumor cells transfers resistance to NIH/3T3 cells with varying degrees of penetrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasid, U.; Dritschilo, A.; Weichselbaum, R.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that clinical radiation resistance may correlate with in vitro radiation survival parameters. Specifically, they isolated several cell lines from radioresistant head and neck carcinomas with D/sub 0/ values greater than 2 Gy. The authors co-transfected DNA from cell line SQ2OB (D/sub 0/ = 2.4 Gy) with the rhoSVNeO plasmid into NIH/3T3 cells (D/sub 0/ = 1.7 Gy). Antibiotic G418 resistant, transformed clones were isolated and confirmed by Southern blotting to contain human alu, as well as rhoSVNeO sequences. Screening for radiation resistance with 8Gy (Cs-137) revealed that 3 of 4 tested hybrid clones show a radiation survival intermediate between NIH/3T3 and SQ2OB. This suggests that radiation resistance is a dominant, transfectable phenotype of mammalian cells and can be expressed in more sensitive cells. Karyotyping of resistant hybrid clones shows the presence of double minute chromosomes. Secondary transfection results and experiments to clone the genetic factors responsible for radiation resistance are in progress and results will be reported

  10. Resistance patterns and trends of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: 5-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Kumar Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB strains were emerged when multidrug-resistant TB (MDR- TB was inadequately treated. Inadequate treatment of MDR-TB cases may result in additional resistance especially non-XDR-TB and then XDR-TB. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence, resistance patterns and trends of the XDR-TB strains among the MDR-TB at a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, India Methods: A total of 430 Mycobacterium isolates were underwent NAP test and TB MPT64 Ag test for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Drug-susceptibility test (DST was performed over MTBC for the first line drugs by 1% proportion method (Bactec and for the second-line drugs by 1% proportion method (Lowenstein- Jensen media. The XDR-TB status was further confirmed by line probe assay (GenoType® MTBDRsl assay. Results: Among the 430 isolates of mycobacterium, 365 (84.9% were MTBC and 139 (38.1% were MDR-TB respectively. Further 97 MDR-TB from “highly suspected drug resistant-TB (DR-TB” cases among MDR-TB were tested with second line drugs in which 15 (15.5% XDR-TB and 82 (84.5% were non-XDR-TB. Regarding XDR-TB status, using the 1% proportion method a 100% agreement was seen with the GenoType® MTBDRsl assay. Resistance patterns of XDR-TB were as; 10/15 (66.7% as isoniazid + rifampicin + ciprofloxacin + amikacin resistance and 5/15 (33.3% as isoniazid + rifampicin + ciprofloxacin + amikacin + kanamycin resistance. Conclusion:The prevalence of XDR-TB was 15.5% among MDR-TB. Hence laboratory testing of “highly suspected drug resistant-TB” isolates should be done for both first and second line drugs simultaneously especially in developing countries.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013;3(4: 169-175

  11. Resistive Plate Chambers in running and future experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, G

    2004-01-01

    This document surveys the RPC-based detection systems of running and future collider experiments focusing on the implications of the choice of some basic detector features: number of gaps, electrode material and operating mode. The muon identification systems of the B-factory experiments BaBar and Belle is described and the RPC performance since the first operation of the detectors is briefly reported. The trigger systems of the future LHC experiments ALICE, ATLAS and CMS are discussed and some results obtained in the extensive research and development programs carried out by the Collaborations are reported. The application of the multi-gap RPC for the Time-of-Flight system of the ALICE and STAR experiments is also considered.

  12. Resistive Plate Chambers performance with Cosmic Rays in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Piccolo, D; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Marinov, A; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Verwilligen, P; Zaganidis, N; Akimenko, S; Ball, A; Crotty, I; Guida, R; Sharma, A; Van Doninck, W; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Marangelli, B; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Trentadue, R; Tupputi, S; Colaleo, A; Loddo, F; Ranieri, A; Cimmino, A; Sciacca, C; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Lomidze, D; Paolucci, P; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Fabbri, F L; Baesso, P; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Avila, C; Carrillo, C; Gomez, B; Ocampo, A; Osorio, A; Sanabria, J C; Polese, G; Tuuva, T; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Doroba, K; Kalinowski, A; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Kierzkowski, K; Kudla, I M; Oklinski, W; Pietrusinski, M; Bluj, M; Fruboes, T; Gorski, M; Kazana, M; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Poznik, K T; Zabolotny, W; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Ye, Y L; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Butt, J B; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Malik, I A; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S F; Shahzad, H; Cho, S W; Jo, M; Hong, B; Kim, C; Kim, H C; Kim, J H; Lee, H S; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S; Rhee, H B; Seo, E S; Shin, S S; Sim, K S; Lee, J S; Lee, S E

    2010-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers are used in the CMS experiment as a dedicated muon trigger both in barrel and endcap system. About 4000 square meter of double gap RPCs have been produced and have been installed in the experiment since more than one year and half. The full barrel system and a fraction of the endcaps have been monitored to study dark current behaviour and system stability, and have been extensively commissioned with Cosmic Rays collected by the full CMS experiment.

  13. Identification of stable resistance to Phytophthora infestans in potato genotypes evaluated in field experiments in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Pérez, W.; Nelson, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: In this study, genotype by environment (G x E) interactions and phenotypic stability of resistance to Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight, were analysed in Peru lot 13 potato genotypes, using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis and Huehn's non......-parametric test. The potato genotypes were tested in seven experiments over two years in the vicinity of Comas, Peru, an area used by the International potato Center to screen for resistance to late blight. Results of the two analyses generally correlated and indicated that quantitative resistance to P. infestans...

  14. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted......) and Tetracycline resistant bacteria. The die-off of the different organisms was quantified showing an extended survival close to the manure string. Genomic DNA from 400 Tetracycline resistant bacteria was isolated and their phylogenetic relationship was established using BOX PCR showing that the main Tetracycline...... resistant bacterial species is E. coli. Drainage water from the field sites were collected weekly from one year prior to manure application, where no Tetracycline resistant bacteria were detected. For a period of 11 months following the first manure application, drainage water was sampled proportional...

  15. Evaluating the Relationship of Computer Literacy Training Competence and Nursing Experience to CPIS Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Dorothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive/correlational project was to examine the relationship between the level of computer literacy, informatics training, nursing experience, and perceived competence in using computerized patient information systems (CPIS) and nursing resistance to using CPIS. The Nurse Computerized Patient Information…

  16. Pim-1 kinase inhibits the activation of reporter gene expression in Elk-1 and c-Fos reporting systems but not the endogenous gene expression: an artifact of the reporter gene assay by transient co-transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the molecular mechanism and signal transduction of pim-1, an oncogene encoding a serine-threonine kinase. This is a true oncogene which prolongs survival and inhibits apoptosis of hematopoietic cells. In order to determine whether the effects of Pim-1 occur by regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, we used a transcriptional reporter assay by transient co-transfection as a screening method. In this study, we found that Pim-1 inhibited the Elk-1 and NFkappaB transcriptional activities induced by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in reporter gene assays. However, Western blots showed that the induction of Elk-1-regulated expression of endogenous c-Fos was not affected by Pim-1. The phosphorylation and activation of neither Erk1/2 nor Elk-1 was influenced by Pim-1. Also, in the gel shift assay, the pattern of endogenous NFkappaB binding to its probe was not changed in any manner by Pim-1. These data indicate that Pim-1 does not regulate the activation of Erk1/2, Elk-1 or NFkappaB. These contrasting results suggest a pitfall of the transient co-transfection reporter assay in analyzing the regulation of transcription factors outside of the chromosome context. It ensures that results from reporter gene expression assay should be verified by study of endogenous gene expression.

  17. Experiences of nursing staff caring for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, H; Andreassen Gleissman, S; Lindholm, C; Fossum, B

    2016-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a resistant variant of S. aureus and can cause pneumonia, septicaemia and, in some cases, death. Caring for patients with antibiotic resistant bacteria is a challenge for healthcare personnel. There is a risk of spreading the bacteria among patients and of healthcare personnel being infected themselves. To describe nursing staffs' experiences of caring for patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus in Sweden. A descriptive qualitative approach was used and 15 nurses from different hospitals and care units, including emergency and geriatric wards and nursing homes in Stockholm, were interviewed. All nurses had been involved in the care of patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, but not on a regular basis. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: feeling ignorant, afraid and insecure, feeling competent and secure and feeling stressed and overworked. The more knowledge the nurses acquired about methicillin-resistant S. aureus, the more positive was their attitude to caring for these patients. Caring for patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus without adequate knowledge of how to protect oneself and other patients against transmission may provoke anxiety among personnel. Guidelines, memos and adequate information at the right time are of central importance. Healthcare personnel must feel safe in their role as caregivers. All patients have the right to have the same quality of care regardless of the diagnosis and a lack of knowledge influences the level of care given. This study demonstrates the importance of education when caring for patients with infectious diseases. Hopefully, knowledge gained from our study can provide guidance for future health care when new diseases and infections occur. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Electronic Health Record (EHR) Organizational Change: Explaining Resistance Through Profession, Organizational Experience, and EHR Communication Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ashley K

    2018-04-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act passed by the U.S. government in 2009 mandates that all healthcare organizations adopt a certified electronic health record (EHR) system by 2015. Failure to comply will result in Medicare reimbursement penalties, which steadily increase with each year of delinquency. There are several repercussions of this seemingly top-down, rule-bound organizational change-one of which is employee resistance. Given the penalties for violating EHR meaningful use standards are ongoing, resistance to this mandate presents a serious issue for healthcare organizations. This study surveyed 345 employees in one healthcare organization that recently implemented an EHR. Analysis of variance results offer theoretical and pragmatic contributions by demonstrating physicians, nurses, and employees with more experience in their organization are the most resistant to EHR change. The job characteristics model is used to explain these findings. Hierarchical regression analyses also demonstrate the quality of communication surrounding EHR implementation-from both formal and informal sources-is negatively associated with EHR resistance and positively associated with perceived EHR implementation success and EHR's perceived relative advantage.

  19. Experiments on the rf surface resistance of the perovskite superconductors at 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, M.; Klein, N.; Mueller, G.; Piel, H.; Roeth, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Since the discovery of the perovskite superconductors many experiments to explore their physical properties have been performed and various potential applications have been considered. The high critical temperature of more than 90 K obtained with Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-δ/ (Y may be substituted by other rare earth elements) makes these superconductors interesting for applications in microwave technology. This has focused the authors interest on the investigation of their rf properties. Due to the sensitivity of the rf surface resistance to surface impurities and remaining non superconducting phases rf measurements are a good means to provide useful information about the quality of sample preparation and about physical properties of the superconductor itself. This contribution reports on the experimental determination of the rf surface resistance of Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-δ/ and Eu 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-δ/ in the normal and superconducting state at 3 GHz. In the first chapter the preparation of the ceramic samples and initial dc experiments are described. The main part of the paper describes the rf measurements which are performed in a superconducting niobium host cavity. The obtained results for both the surface resistance and the high field performance are discussed with respect to the preparation of the samples and regarding possible applications. 7 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  20. Resistance to uprooting of Alfalfa and Avena Sativa and related importance for flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation influences sediment dynamics by stabilizing the alluvial sediment with its root system. Thus, vegetation engineers the riparian ecosystem by contributing to the formation and stabilization of river bars and islands. The resistance to uprooting of young plants in non-cohesive sediment depends on the competition between flow induced drag and root growth timescales. The investigation of flow-sediment-plant interactions in situ is difficult since variables cannot be controlled and material hardly be collected. In order to investigate ecomorphological processes, laboratory experiments are essential and have gained importance in the last decade. To achieve a better understanding of the dependence of resistance to uprooting on the root system (length and structure) we conducted vertical uprooting experiments with Alfalfa and Avena Sativa which are both species that have been used in flume experiments on vegetation-flow interactions (e.g. Tal and Paola, 2010; Perona et al., in press). Seeds were seeded on quartz sand and vertically uprooted with constant velocity whereat the weight force required to uproot a seedling was measured. After uprooting, roots were scanned and analyzed and the correlation of root parameters with the uprooting work was studied. Total root length was found to be the best explanatory variable, in particular the uprooting work increases following a power law with increasing root length. The impact of other root parameters (main root length, root number, tortuosity) on the uprooting work was as well analyzed. Still, not all influencing root parameters could be captured, like the angle between roots or root hair distribution. Environmental conditions like grain size and saturation were also found to have an effect on the uprooting resistance of roots. So, lower saturated sediment results in a higher uprooting work. This work is a first step to better understand the energy regime for vegetation uprooting and its dependence on various

  1. Ras Labs.-CASIS-ISS NL experiment for synthetic muscle: resistance to ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Sandberg, Eric; Albers, Leila N.; Rodriguez, Simone; Gentile, Charles A.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Hitchner, Robert; Taylor, James; Hoffman, Dan; Cylinder, David; Moy, Leon; Mark, Patrick S.; Prillaman, Daniel L.; Nordarse, Robert; Menegus, Michael J.; Ratto, Jo Ann; Thellen, Christopher; Froio, Danielle; Furlong, Cosme; Razavi, Payam; Valenza, Logan; Hablani, Surbhi; Fuerst, Tyler; Gallucci, Sergio; Blocher, Whitney; Liffland, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    In anticipation of deep space travel, new materials are being explored to assist and relieve humans in dangerous environments, such as high radiation, extreme temperature, and extreme pressure. Ras Labs Synthetic Muscle - electroactive polymers (EAPs) that contract and expand at low voltages - which mimic the unique gentle-yet-strong nature of human tissue, is a potential asset to manned space travel through protective gear and human assist robotics and for unmanned space exploration through deep space. Generation 3 Synthetic Muscle was proven to be resistant to extreme temperatures, and there were indications that these materials may also be radiation resistant. The purpose of the Ras Labs-CASIS-ISS Experiment is to test the radiation resistivity of the third and fourth generation of these EAPs, as well as to make them even more radiation resistant or radiation hardened. On Earth, exposure of the Generation 3 and Generation 4 EAPs to a Cs-137 radiation source for 47.8 hours with a total dose of 305.931 kRad of gamma radiation was performed at the US Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) at Princeton University, followed by pH, peroxide, Shore Hardness Durometry, and electroactivity testing to determine the inherent radiation resistivity of these contractile EAPs and to determine whether the EAPs could be made even more radiation resistant through the application of appropriate additives and coatings. The on Earth preliminary tests determined that selected Ras Labs EAPs were not only inherently radiation resistant, but with the appropriate coatings and additives, could be made even more radiation resistant. Gforce testing to over 10 G's was performed at US Army's ARDEC Labs, with excellent results, in preparation for space flight to the International Space Station National Laboratory (ISS-NL). Selected samples of Generation 3 and Generation 4 Synthetic Muscle™, with various additives and coatings, were launched to the ISS-NL on April

  2. Systematic review of allelic exchange experiments aimed at identifying mutations that confer drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Jacobson, Karen R; Farhat, Maha R; Murray, Megan B

    2014-02-01

    Improving our understanding of the relationship between the genotype and the drug resistance phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis will aid the development of more accurate molecular diagnostics for drug-resistant tuberculosis. Studies that use direct genetic manipulation to identify the mutations that cause M. tuberculosis drug resistance are superior to associational studies in elucidating an individual mutation's contribution to the drug resistance phenotype. We systematically reviewed the literature for publications reporting allelic exchange experiments in any of the resistance-associated M. tuberculosis genes. We included studies that introduced single point mutations using specialized linkage transduction or site-directed/in vitro mutagenesis and documented a change in the resistance phenotype. We summarize evidence supporting the causal relationship of 54 different mutations in eight genes (katG, inhA, kasA, embB, embC, rpoB, gyrA and gyrB) and one intergenic region (furA-katG) with resistance to isoniazid, the rifamycins, ethambutol and fluoroquinolones. We observed a significant role for the strain genomic background in modulating the resistance phenotype of 21 of these mutations and found examples of where the same drug resistance mutations caused varying levels of resistance to different members of the same drug class. This systematic review highlights those mutations that have been shown to causally change phenotypic resistance in M. tuberculosis and brings attention to a notable lack of allelic exchange data for several of the genes known to be associated with drug resistance.

  3. Cosmic ray test results on resistive plate chamber for the BESIII experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jifeng; Zhang, Jiawen; Chen, Jin; Zhao, Jianbin; Liu, Qian; Xie, Yuguang; Zhang, Qingmin; Qian, Sen; Yao, Ning; Ma, Liehua

    2007-01-01

    A cosmic ray test system has been built to fully qualify the resistive plate chambers for the MUON system of the BESIII experiment. The setup has been designed to measure detector's performance and to verify the stability and reliability of the MUON system. The same electronics, similar readout method and data analysis for BESIII MUON system have been used for this station. With this station, the 72-barrel detectors were tested, only one detector was rejected and then accepted again after reparation, and the average detector efficiency of the double-layer counters has been measured to be 98%

  4. Modeling the Responses to Resistance Training in an Animal Experiment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony G. Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R2=0.53; P<0.001. In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training.

  5. Peeking at ecosystem stability: making use of a natural disturbance experiment to analyze resistance and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruelheide, Helge; Luginbühl, Ute

    2009-05-01

    To determine which factors contribute most to the stability of species composition in a beech forest after profound disturbance, we made use of a natural experiment caused by a severe windthrow that occurred at a permanent monitoring site in an old beech forest in Lower Saxony (Germany). The floristic composition was recorded for the succeeding five years after the disturbance and used to derive measures of resistance and resilience for plots as well as for individual species. Due to the existence of previously established randomly distributed permanent plots, we had precise information of the pre-disturbance state, including initial cover of the herb layer, species richness, and species composition. Variables describing the floristic change, resistance, and resilience were derived from correspondence analysis allowing for partitioning the effects of variation among plots from those of temporal change. We asked to which degree these variables could be predicted by pre-disturbance state and disturbance intensity. We found that both the pre-disturbance state and the disturbance intensity were good predictors for floristic change and resistance, while they failed to predict resilience. Among the descriptors of the pre-disturbance state the initial cover of the herb layer turned out to be a useful predictor, which is explained by a high vegetation cover buffering against losses and preventing establishment of newcomers. In contrast, species number neither showed a relationship to floristic change nor to resistance. Putative positive effects of species number on stability according to the insurance hypothesis might have been counterbalanced by a disruption of niche complementarity in species-rich communities. Among the descriptors of disturbance intensity, the loss in canopy cover and the change in photosynthetically active radiation after the storm were equally good predictors for the change in floristic composition and resistance. The analysis of the responses of

  6. Quality of Acute Psychedelic Experience Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy of Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Leor; Nutt, David J.; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: It is a basic principle of the “psychedelic” treatment model that the quality of the acute experience mediates long-term improvements in mental health. In the present paper we sought to test this using data from a clinical trial assessing psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In line with previous reports, we hypothesized that the occurrence and magnitude of Oceanic Boundlessness (OBN) (sharing features with mystical-type experience) and Dread of Ego Dissolution (DED) (similar to anxiety) would predict long-term positive outcomes, whereas sensory perceptual effects would have negligible predictive value. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with treatment resistant depression underwent treatment with psilocybin (two separate sessions: 10 and 25 mg psilocybin). The Altered States of Consciousness (ASC) questionnaire was used to assess the quality of experiences in the 25 mg psilocybin session. From the ASC, the dimensions OBN and DED were used to measure the mystical-type and challenging experiences, respectively. The Self-Reported Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS-SR) at 5 weeks served as the endpoint clinical outcome measure, as in later time points some of the subjects had gone on to receive new treatments, thus confounding inferences. In a repeated measure ANOVA, Time was the within-subject factor (independent variable), with QIDS-SR as the within-subject dependent variable in baseline, 1-day, 1-week, 5-weeks. OBN and DED were independent variables. OBN-by-Time and DED-by-Time interactions were the primary outcomes of interest. Results: For the interaction of OBN and DED with Time (QIDS-SR as dependent variable), the main effect and the effects at each time point compared to baseline were all significant (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively, for main effects), confirming our main hypothesis. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation of OBN with QIDS-SR (5 weeks) was specific compared to perceptual dimensions of the ASC (p

  7. Quality of Acute Psychedelic Experience Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy of Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leor Roseman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a basic principle of the “psychedelic” treatment model that the quality of the acute experience mediates long-term improvements in mental health. In the present paper we sought to test this using data from a clinical trial assessing psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression (TRD. In line with previous reports, we hypothesized that the occurrence and magnitude of Oceanic Boundlessness (OBN (sharing features with mystical-type experience and Dread of Ego Dissolution (DED (similar to anxiety would predict long-term positive outcomes, whereas sensory perceptual effects would have negligible predictive value.Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with treatment resistant depression underwent treatment with psilocybin (two separate sessions: 10 and 25 mg psilocybin. The Altered States of Consciousness (ASC questionnaire was used to assess the quality of experiences in the 25 mg psilocybin session. From the ASC, the dimensions OBN and DED were used to measure the mystical-type and challenging experiences, respectively. The Self-Reported Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS-SR at 5 weeks served as the endpoint clinical outcome measure, as in later time points some of the subjects had gone on to receive new treatments, thus confounding inferences. In a repeated measure ANOVA, Time was the within-subject factor (independent variable, with QIDS-SR as the within-subject dependent variable in baseline, 1-day, 1-week, 5-weeks. OBN and DED were independent variables. OBN-by-Time and DED-by-Time interactions were the primary outcomes of interest.Results: For the interaction of OBN and DED with Time (QIDS-SR as dependent variable, the main effect and the effects at each time point compared to baseline were all significant (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively, for main effects, confirming our main hypothesis. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation of OBN with QIDS-SR (5 weeks was specific compared to perceptual dimensions of the

  8. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. S.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Qian, S.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D.; Goh, J.; Choi, S.; Hong, B.; Kang, J. W.; Kang, M.; Kwon, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. K.; Park, S. K.; Pant, L. M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Chudasama, R.; Singh, J. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Mehta, A.; Kumar, R.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Costantini, S.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Ocampo, A.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Doninck, W. V.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro, L.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Avila, C.; Ahmad, A.; Muhammad, S.; Shoaib, M.; Hoorani, H.; Awan, I.; Ali, I.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Shahzad, H.; Sayed, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Aly, S.; Assran, Y.; Radi, A.; Elkafrawy, T.; Sharma, A.; Colafranceschi, S.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Paolucci, P.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Merola, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, O. M.; Braghieri, A.; Montagna, P.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Vai, I.; Magnani, A.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Stoykova, S.; Hadjiiska, R.; Ibargüen, H. S.; Morales, M. I. P.; Bernardino, S. C.; Bagaturia, I.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Crotty, I.

    2014-10-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time.

  9. Simulation and design of feedback control on resistive wall modes in Keda Torus eXperiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chenguang; Liu, Wandong; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) (Liu et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 094009 (2014)) is investigated by simulation. A linear model is built to describe the growth of the unstable modes in the absence of feedback and the resulting mode suppression due to feedback, given the typical reversed field pinch plasma equilibrium. The layout of KTX with two shell structures (the vacuum vessel and the stabilizing shell) is taken into account. The feedback performance is explored both in the scheme of “clean mode control” (Zanca et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1425 (2007)) and “raw mode control.” The discrete time control model with specific characteristic times will mimic the real feedback control action and lead to the favored control cycle. Moreover, the conceptual design of feedback control system is also presented, targeting on both RWMs and tearing modes

  10. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Min Suk

    2014-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time.

  11. Web-based monitoring tools for Resistive Plate Chambers in the CMS experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.S.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Qian, S.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Choi, Y.; Kim, D.; Goh, J.; Choi, S.; Hong, B.; Kang, J.W.; Kang, M.; Kwon, J.H.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, S.K.; Park, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) are used in the CMS experiment at the trigger level and also in the standard offline muon reconstruction. In order to guarantee the quality of the data collected and to monitor online the detector performance, a set of tools has been developed in CMS which is heavily used in the RPC system. The Web-based monitoring (WBM) is a set of java servlets that allows users to check the performance of the hardware during data taking, providing distributions and history plots of all the parameters. The functionalities of the RPC WBM monitoring tools are presented along with studies of the detector performance as a function of growing luminosity and environmental conditions that are tracked over time

  12. Performance of Resistive Plate Chambers installed during the first long shutdown of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shopova, M.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Sultanov, G.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Assran, Y.; Sayed, A.; Radi, A.; Aly, S.; Singh, G.; Abbrescia, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Verwilligen, P.; Van Doninck, W.; Colafranceschi, S.; Sharma, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Rios, A.A.O.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Gul, M.; Fagot, A.; Bhatnagar, V.; Singh, J.; Kumari, R.; Mehta, A.; Ahmad, A.; Awan, I.M.; Shahzad, H.; Hoorani, H.; Asghar, M.I.; Muhammad, S.; Ahmed, W.; Shah, M.A.; Cho, S.W.; Choi, S.Y.; Hong, B.; Kang, M.H.; Lee, K.S.; Lim, J.H.; Park, S.K.; Kim, M.S.; Laktineh, I.B.; Lagarde, F.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Pedraza, I.; Bernardino, S. Carpinteyro; Estrada, C. Uribe; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Valencia, F. Vazquez; Pant, L.M.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Fabozzi, F.; Orso, I.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Thyssen, F.; Lanza, G.; Esposito, M.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Montagna, P.; Ban, Y.; Qian, S.J.; Choi, M.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Dimitrov, A.; Litov, L.; Petkov, P.; Pavlov, B.; Bagaturia, I.; Lomidze, D.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Sanabria, J.C.; Crotty, I.; Vaitkus, J.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment, located at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, has a redundant muon system composed by three different detector technologies: Cathode Strip Chambers (in the forward regions), Drift Tubes (in the central region) and Resistive Plate Chambers (both its central and forward regions). All three are used for muon reconstruction and triggering. During the first long shutdown (LS1) of the LHC (2013-2014) the CMS muon system has been upgraded with 144 newly installed RPCs on the forth forward stations. The new chambers ensure and enhance the muon trigger efficiency in the high luminosity conditions of the LHC Run2. The chambers have been successfully installed and commissioned. The system has been run successfully and experimental data has been collected and analyzed. The performance results of the newly installed RPCs will be presented.

  13. Multi-Electrode Resistivity Probe for Investigation of Local Temperature Inside Metal Shell Battery Cells via Resistivity: Experiments and Evaluation of Electrical Resistance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Current (DC electrical resistivity is a material property that is sensitive to temperature changes. In this paper, the relationship between resistivity and local temperature inside steel shell battery cells (two commercial 10 Ah and 4.5 Ah lithium-ion cells is innovatively studied by Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT. The Schlumberger configuration in ERT is applied to divide the cell body into several blocks distributed in different levels, where the apparent resistivities are measured by multi-electrode surface probes. The investigated temperature ranges from −20 to 80 °C. Experimental results have shown that the resistivities mainly depend on temperature changes in each block of the two cells used and the function of the resistivity and temperature can be fitted to the ERT-measurement results in the logistical-plot. Subsequently, the dependence of resistivity on the state of charge (SOC is investigated, and the SOC range of 70%–100% has a remarkable impact on the resistivity at low temperatures. The proposed approach under a thermal cool down regime is demonstrated to monitor the local transient temperature.

  14. Resistive Micromegas for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Iodice, Mauro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Large size resistive Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments for the Muon Spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The current innermost stations of the muon endcap system, the Small Wheel, will be upgraded in 2019 to retain the good precision tracking and trigger capabilities in the high background environment expected with the upcoming luminosity increase of the LHC. Along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) the “New Small Wheel” will be equipped with eight layers of Micromegas (MM) detectors arranged in multilayers of two quadruplets, for a total of about 1200 m$^2$ detection planes. All quadruplets have trapezoidal shapes with surface areas between 2 and 3 m$^2$. The Micromegas system will provide both trigger and tracking capabilities. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction for each plane of the assembled modules, with an alig...

  15. Resistive Micromegas for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215987; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Large size resistive micromegas detectors (MM) will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments for the Muon Spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The current innermost stations of the muon endcap system, the Small Wheel, will be upgraded in 2019 to retain the good precision tracking and trigger capabilities in the high background environment expected with the upcoming luminosity increase of the LHC. Along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) the ``New Small Wheel'' will be equipped with eight layers of MM detectors arranged in multilayers of two quadruplets, for a total of about 1200 m$^2$ detection planes. All quadruplets have trapezoidal shapes with surface areas between 2 and 3 m$^2$. The MM system will provide both trigger and tracking capabilities. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, a challenging mechanical precision is required in the construction for each plane of the assembled modules, with an alignment of the reado...

  16. [Clinical experience with tigecycline in the treatment of nosocomial infections caused by isolates exhibiting prevalent resistance mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M J; García-Rey, C; Barberán, J; Aguilar, L

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical experience with tigecycline in the treatment of infections caused by microorganisms with prevalent resistance mechanisms among nosocomial microbiota, as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, multidrug- resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and enterobacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases. Most of articles found in the literature describe the use of tigecycline in the treatment of severe infections (sepsis and septic shock, nosocomial pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia...) produced by multidrug-resistant microorganisms, in patients with multiple comorbidities (admitted in ICU, with malignancies, transplants and/or immunodepressed...) and in many occasions after failures of previous antibiotic treatments. Favourable outcomes with tigecycline are reported in most articles. However, an accurate global assessment is difficult since, in addition to the described confounding factors, there are concomitant or sequential antibiotic treatments in several communications, and lack of relevant clinical (as comorbidities), microbiological (as susceptibility) and outcome (different criteria by different authors) data in others. More even, the described series are retrospective and lack of control groups. Nevertheless the usefulness of this revision is based on the fact that in daily clinical practice the use of tigecycline will increase, since epidemiology of specific hospital medical units shows multidrug resistance among nosocomial isolates and tigecycline can be one of the scarce available compounds active against multidrug-resistant strains/clones.

  17. Power and resistance within the hospital's hierarchical system: the experiences of chronically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griscti, Odette; Aston, Megan; Warner, Grace; Martin-Misener, Ruth; McLeod, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    To explore experiences of chronically ill patients and registered nurses when they negotiate patient care in hospital settings. Specifically, we explored how social and institutional discourses shape power relations during the negotiation process. The hospital system is embedded in a hierarchical structure where the voice of the healthcare provider as expert is often given more importance than the patient. This system has been criticised as being oppressive to patients who are perceived to be lower in the hierarchy. In this study, we illustrate how the hospital's hierarchical system is not always oppressing but can also create moments of empowerment for patients. A feminist poststructuralist approach informed by the teaching of Foucault was used to explore power relations between nurses and patients when negotiating patient care in hospital settings. Eight individuals who suffered from chronic illness shared their stories about how they negotiated their care with nurses in hospital settings. The interviews were tape-recorded. Discourse analysis was used to analyse the data. Patients recounted various experiences when their voices were not heard because the current hospital system privileged the healthcare provider experts' advice over the patients' voice. The hierarchical structure of hospital supported these dynamics by privileging nurses as gatekeepers of service, by excluding the patients' input in the nursing notes and through a process of self-regulation. However, patients in this study were not passive recipients of care and used their agency creatively to resist these discourses. Nurses need to be mindful of how the hospital's hierarchical system tends to place nurses in a position of power, and how their authoritative position may positively or adversely affect the negotiation of patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Studies of purification of the Resistive Plate Chamber gas mixture for the Large Hadron Collider experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Capeans, M; Guida, R; Hahn, F; Haider, S

    2009-01-01

    The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) installed as part of the large muon detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments use a gas mixture of 94.7% C2H2F4, 5% iC(4)H(10) and 0.3% SF6. Based on economical grounds, the design philosophy of the gas systems for the ATLAS and CMS RPC's foresees to recirculate the gas mixture in 90-95% closed loop circulation. At the LHC, RPC chambers are operated in a high radiation environment, conditions for which large amount of impurities in the return gas have been observed in earlier studies. They are potentially dangerous for the stable operation of the detectors, the materials in the detector and the gas system. While several purification stages have been foreseen in the present gas systems, chemical reactions between the absorber and the impurities are yet not well understood. Furthermore, the effects on the gas mixture of the foreseen factor 10 increase of luminosity for the LHC upgraded phase should be studied. We present the results of systematic studies of the...

  19. Dominant Cultural Narratives, Racism, and Resistance in the Workplace: A Study of the Experiences of Young Black Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasford, Julian

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined lived experiences of racism and resistance in various contexts, relatively little research has examined such experiences among Black youth within the workplace-particularly in the Canadian context. In this study I use qualitative analyses of narrative interviews with 24 Black Canadian youth and young adults (aged 16-35) to examine the impact of dominant cultural narratives on lived experiences of workplace racism and resistance. Findings are presented using theatrical games as a central conceptual metaphor, suggesting that: (a) dominant cultural narratives have a major impact on relational dynamics of oppression in the workplace; (b) identity performance is a critical strategy for negotiating dominant cultural narratives in the workplace; and (c) panopticism (the internalized gaze) is a significant aspect of internalized oppression. Implications for future research and action are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  20. A single-center experience of antimicrobial resistance patterns in pediatric urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Saliha; Karacan, Candemir; Erkek, Nilgun; Gol, Nese

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of urinary tract pathogens and their resistance patterns against antimicrobial agents in a single center. In children <16 years of age admitted for urinary tract infection (UTI) to the Dr. Sami Ulus Teaching and Training Hospital from January 2004 to December 2008, positive urine cultures were reviewed. A total of 3,485 positive urine cultures were identified, of which 2,379 (68%) were from females and 106 (32%) from males. Their mean age was 63.5 +/- 40.7 months. Escherichia coli was the most common causative agent both in total and among different age groups. Ampicillin had the highest resistance rate from all the pathogens isolated (63.8%), followed by piperacillin (51.8%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX; 48.6%). Cephalotin also had a high resistance rate (32.7%). The least resistance was for imipenem, amikacin, netilmicin and ciprofloxacin (0.13, 1.7, 2.4 and 7.5%, respectively). None of the Klebsiella and Pseudomonas isolates were resistant to imipenem. None of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and vancomycin. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. were isolated from two cultures. E. coli was the most common causative agent of UTI in children. Ampicillin, TMP-SMX or cephalothin and piperacillin had the highest resistance rates against urinary tract pathogens in our center. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. [Experience with cabazitaxel therapy for patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maráz, Anikó; Boér, Katalin; Dankovics, Zsófia; Dank, Magdolna; Lahm, Erika; Petrányi, Ágota; Révész, János; Ruzsa, Ágnes; Szûcs, Miklós; Valikovics, Anikó; Vas, Mária; Küronya, Zsófia

    2017-12-18

    Our aim was to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of cabazitaxel (CBZ), a chemotherapeutic agent that can be administered to patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) after docetaxel (DOC) therapy. We retrospectively analyzed data of CBZ received by mCRPC patients in 12 Hungarian oncological centers between 01/2016 and 06/2017. CBZ (25 or 20 mg/m2 q3w) was administered after DOC. Physical and laboratory examinations were performed in every cycle, tumor response was evaluated in every third cycle based on PCWG2 criteria. Adverse effects were evaluated based on CTCAE 4.0. Data of 60 patients were analyzed. CBZ was administered in 2nd and 3rd lines in 31.6% and 46.6%, while in 4th and 5th lines in 15% and 6.6% patients, respectively. Its starting dose was 25 mg/m2 and 20 mg/m2 in 65% and 35% of cases, respectively. The median number of cycles was 5. Progression-free survival and overall survival were 5.52 and 15.77 months, respectively. Survival results were similar in case of DOC-CBZ-ART/alfaradin and DOC-ART/alfaradin-CBZ sequences. Adverse effects were detected in 63,3% of patients. The most common adverse effects were neutropenia, anemia, and diarrhea. Our observations suggest that CBZ, with the appropriate support and chemotherapeutic experience, is well-tolerated and effective therapy of mCRPC after DOC.

  2. Immunosupressive therapy in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome: single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, Catalina Velez; Valencia, Gustavo Adolfo Zuluaga; Higuita, Lina Maria Serna; Gayubo, Ana Katherina Serrano; Ochoa, Carolina Lucia; Rosas, Luisa Fernanda Rojas; Muñoz, Laura Carolina; Sierra, Javier; Zuleta, Jhon Jairo; Ruiz, Juan José Vanegas

    2013-01-01

    [corrected] Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most frequent glomerular diseases among children, and steroid therapy remains as the treatment choice. In spite of this, 10 to 15% of the patients are steroidresistant, and the best therapy for such cases has never been defined. Mycophenolate acid (MA) is one of the treatments used in such situations. To describe the clinical behavior of children diagnosed with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and to assess the therapeutic response to MA. This was a retrospective and descriptive study. 26 clinical records of patients with SRNS; 70% male and 30% female. All patients underwent kidney biopsies, which showed a predominance of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The immunosuppresive drugs used were: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 100%, Cyclosporine 69.2%, Cyclophosphamide 23.1%, and Rituximab 23%. One month after treatment initiation with MMF 61.5% achieved remission. The median of relapses per year for the patients was 3 (p25: 2.75 - p75: 4). This median became 1 (p25: 1 - p75: 3.25) after using this medication (p = 0.08). Furthermore, prior to the start of the MMF treatment, the median of the steroid dose was 1 (p25: 0.5- p75: 1.62) mg/k/day. After using MMF, this median became 0.07 (p25: 0 - p75: 0.55) mg/k/day (p < 0.001), in 8 patients prednisolone was stopped. In our experience, treatment with MMF showed positive results such as decrease in the frequency of relapses, less proteinuria, and reduction in the dose of steroids administered without deterioration of glomerular filtration rates. However, more studies are needed to assess efficacy, safety, and optimal dosage.

  3. Immunosupressive therapy in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome: single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Velez Echeverri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTODUCTION: Nephrotic syndrome is one of the most frequent glomerular diseases among children, and steroid therapy remains as the treatment choice. In spite of this, 10 to 15% of the patients are steroidresistant, and the best therapy for such cases has never been defined. Mycophenolate acid (MA is one of the treatments used in such situations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical behavior of children diagnosed with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS and to assess the therapeutic response to MA. METHODS: This was a retrospective and descriptive study. RESULTS: 26 clinical records of patients with SRNS; 70% male and 30% female. All patients underwent kidney biopsies, which showed a predominance of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. The immunosuppresive drugs used were: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF 100%, Cyclosporine 69.2%, Cyclophosphamide 23.1%, and Rituximab 23%. One month after treatment initiation with MMF 61.5% achieved remission. The median of relapses per year for the patients was 3 (p25: 2.75 - p75: 4. This median became 1 (p25: 1 - p75: 3.25 after using this medication (p = 0.08. Furthermore, prior to the start of the MMF treatment, the median of the steroid dose was 1 (p25: 0.5- p75: 1.62 mg/k/day. After using MMF, this median became 0.07 (p25: 0 - p75: 0.55 mg/k/day (p < 0.001, in 8 patients prednisolone was stopped. CONCLUSION: In our experience, treatment with MMF showed positive results such as decrease in the frequency of relapses, less proteinuria, and reduction in the dose of steroids administered without deterioration of glomerular filtration rates. However, more studies are needed to assess efficacy, safety, and optimal dosage.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  5. Molecular detection of drug resistance in microbes by isotopic techniques: The IAEA experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, L.; Boussaha, A.; Padhy, A.K.; Khan, B.

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports various programmes on the uses of radionuclide techniques in the management of human communicable diseases. An important issue, being addressed through several technology transfer projects, is the detection of drug resistance in microbes by radioisotope based molecular-biology diagnostic procedures. The techniques employed include dot blot hybridisation with P-32 labelled oligonucleotide probes to detect point mutations, associated with drug resistance, in microbial genes amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular methods have been used for the detection of drug resistance in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Radioisotope based molecular-biology methods have been demonstrated to have comparative advantages in being sensitive, specific, cost-effective, and suitable for application to large-scale molecular surveillance for drug resistance. (author)

  6. Preliminary experiment on the negative magneto-resistance effect in a weakly ionized discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, M.

    2002-04-01

    Compared with the interest in the magneto-resistance effect in solid conductors, the effect in a gas plasma has hardly been addressed. In this work, a theoretical result that a magneto-resistance in an infinite plasma decreases is examined experimentally in an actual discharge plasma. Furthermore, a modified expression for the ambipolar diffusion coefficient in the case where electrons are scattered by heavy neutral atoms is presented. (author)

  7. Observing solute transport in the capillary fringe using image analysis and electrical resistivity tomography in laboratory experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Magnus; Dahlin, Torleif; Günther, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Five laboratory experiments were conducted to study solute transport in the capillary fringe in a sand filled glass tank containing an artificial groundwater zone, an unsaturated zone, and a capillary fringe in between. Dye stained water, applied at the soil surface, moved downwards through the unsaturated zone and then horizontally in the capillary fringe. The horizontal velocity of the dye plume front was calculated using optical image analysis and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) me...

  8. Infrared nondestructive measurement of thermal resistance between liner and engine block: design of experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloue, P.; L' Ecolier, J.; Nigon, F. [PSA Peugeot Citroen, Laboratoire Optique et Thermique, 45 rue Jean-Pierre Timbaud, 78 300 Poissy (France); Bissieux, C.; Henry, J.-F.; Pron, H. [Universite de Reims, Unite de Thermique et Analyse Physique, EA 3802, Laboratoire de Thermophysique, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51 687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-03-15

    Thermal resistances between liners and engine blocks are nondestructively studied by photothermal infrared thermography. Under controlled sinusoidal light irradiation, the thermal response of the sample is measured by means of an infrared camera. A numerical lock-in procedure yields amplitude and absolute phase maps of the thermal field periodic component. Then, apart from classical qualitative detection of air layers, a quantitative characterization of thermal resistance becomes available. An analytical modeling, associated with an inverse procedure using the Gauss-Newton parameter estimation method, allows to identify the thermal resistance on academic samples representative of the liner-engine block interface. Simply joined cast iron and aluminum plates present thermal resistances about 2 x 10{sup -3} K m{sup 2} W{sup -1}. The implementation of a numerical modeling allows to study two-dimensional defects. When the samples are pressed on their periphery, thus straightened, contact resistances ranging from 2 x 10{sup -4} to 7 x 10{sup -4} K m{sup 2} W{sup -1} have been measured. Then, the method is applied to liner-engine block interfaces where the thermal resistances fall to about 2 x 10{sup -5} K m{sup 2} W{sup -1}, matching the values obtained when a cast iron plate is locally pressed against an aluminum plate. (author)

  9. Our experiences with vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Jesenice General hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ribič

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE present a great problem in health care, especially because of their resistance to many groups of antibiotics and because of the way of their spreading in health care and long-term care institutions. Genes responsible for resistance to vancomycin can be transmitted to other species of enterococci and also to other grampositive cocci, for example Staphylococcus aureus. Experts anticipate that failure to control methicilin-resistant S. aureus and VRE may make control of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus impossible.Methods: In the medical microbiology laboratory of Institute Public Health Kranj we perform microbiology diagnosis for Jesenice General Hospital, where surveillance culturing for VRE started in May 2007. Until 15th June, 364 surveillance samples for VRE were taken from 92 patients. We also analysed the results of enterococci that were isolated in our laboratory during routine work in the period from 2004 to 2006.Results: In the three-year period we isolated 1593 strains of enterococci and among them 7 strains were VRE. In the Jesenice General Hospital, the first strain of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium was isolated in May 2007 in a patient, treated in internal intensive care unit. Nine strains of VRE with the same resistance type in nine patients followed the first case. The first four patients with VRE were moved from the same hospital. Among next six patients the common risk factor was contact with VRE positive patient.Conclusions: Control of VRE strains claims for intensive action. Active surveillance of colonised and infected patients, contact precautions with barrier isolation, intensive hand hygiene measures, aggressive environmental decontamination and prudent use of antimicrobials are needed.

  10. Precision rectifier detectors for ac resistance bridge measurements with application to temperature control systems for irradiation creep experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M. G.

    1977-05-01

    The suitability of several temperature measurement schemes for an irradiation creep experiment is examined. It is found that the specimen resistance can be used to measure and control the sample temperature if compensated for resistance drift due to radiation and annealing effects. A modified Kelvin bridge is presented that allows compensation for resistance drift by periodically checking the sample resistance at a controlled ambient temperature. A new phase-insensitive method for detecting the bridge error signals is presented. The phase-insensitive detector is formed by averaging the magnitude of two bridge voltages. Although this method is substantially less sensitive to stray reactances in the bridge than conventional phase-sensitive detectors, it is sensitive to gain stability and linearity of the rectifier circuits. Accuracy limitations of rectifier circuits are examined both theoretically and experimentally in great detail. Both hand analyses and computer simulations of rectifier errors are presented. Finally, the design of a temperature control system based on sample resistance measurement is presented. The prototype is shown to control a 316 stainless steel sample to within a 0.15/sup 0/C short term (10 sec) and a 0.03/sup 0/C long term (10 min) standard deviation at temperatures between 150 and 700/sup 0/C. The phase-insensitive detector typically contributes less than 10 ppM peak resistance measurement error (0.04/sup 0/C at 700/sup 0/C for 316 stainless steel or 0.005/sup 0/C at 150/sup 0/C for zirconium).

  11. Testing and design of radon resisting membranes based on the experience from the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.

    2004-01-01

    Testing of barrier properties of insulating materials against radon is usually based on the measurement of the radon diffusion coefficient. Presented report summarizes results of radon diffusion coefficients measurements in more than 120 insulating materials obtained throughout Europe. All measurements were performed by the Czech Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering in cooperation with the Radiation Protection Institute. We have found out that great differences exist in diffusion properties, because the diffusion coefficients vary within eight orders from 10 -15 m 2 /s to 10 -8 m 2 /s. For each material category of different chemical composition statistical evaluation of results is presented. Possibilities of usage of the radon diffusion coefficient for the design of radon resisting membranes are discussed. Based on the experience from the Czech Republic the paper is trying to show that controlling applicability of membranes by setting of the upper limit for the radon diffusion coefficient is not a convenient approach. The main reason is that it is almost impossible to choose correctly one limit value for the whole Europe. The second reason is that a great number of common waterproofing materials have their radon diffusion coefficients above the probable limit value. As a consequence of this the protection against radon will be solved preferably by materials with Al foils, which is from the technical point of view meaningless, because membranes with Al foils have very low elongation and therefore they can very easily loose their barrier properties by destroying of the Al foil. The paper will show that it seems to be reasonable to replace strict limits by the real design of the insulation in dependence on particular building and soil characteristics. The design is proposed to be based on the calculation of the insulation thickness according to the formula: d ≥ l.arc sinh ((α 1 .l.λ.C S .(A f + A w ))/C dif .n.V)) (in m), where C S is the third

  12. Increased incidences of multidrug-resistant gonorrhea in Taiwanese men: Experiences from a single institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Lin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Genital discharge swab culture is a more effective method than urine culture to detect gonorrhea in patients with dysuria and urethral discharge. The increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains is a major problem in treating gonococcal urethritis.

  13. Does antimicrobial use increase the rate of antimicrobial resistance? A one year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Gedik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance has been a challenge in all countries. The aim of this study is to ascertain the risk factors that predispose patients to infections with extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Patients who were treated in the secondary care hospital due to infections in 2009 and their isolates were evaluated retrospectively. In total, 174 patients and their 189 isolates, which contained 36 ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria, 112 non-ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria, and 41 gram-positive bacteria were evaluated retrospectively. Hospitalisation in the previous 3 months, comorbidity, and usage of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the previous 3 months were determined to be the risk factors associated with infections by the ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria. Hospitalisation was found to be a risk factor for infection with MRSA. Hospitalisation and underlying conditions increase the colonisation with resistant bacteria and resistance rates in the patients, hospitals and communities. An infection control programme should be contemplated not only for hospitals, but also for the greater community.

  14. Resistive Micromegas for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dudder, Andreas Christian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    It is reported on the construction and test of large scale resistive Micromegas detectors for the ATLAS New Small Wheel upgrade. The production procedure of the 2 to 3 m2 active area is described. The validation of the construction procedure is proven with results obtained with prototype detectors showing 100 µm spatial resolution in the precision coordinate and above 98% efficiency

  15. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M.

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require Fluorine based (F-based) gases for optimal performance. Recent European regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade, several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector with these new ecological gas mixtures, in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard CMS electronic setup are under test. In this paper preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze, with CO2 and CF3I based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  16. Preliminary results of Resistive Plate Chambers operated with eco-friendly gas mixtures for application in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, Marcello; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Cauwenbergh, Simon Marc D; Ferrini, Mauro; Muhammad, Saleh; Passamontic, L; Pierluigi, Daniele; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Russo, Alessandro; Savianoc, G; Tytgat, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The operations of Resistive Plate Chambers in LHC experiments require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. In view of the CMS experiment upgrade several tests are ongoing to measure the performance of the detector in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge and time resolution. Prototype chambers with readout pads and with the standard cms electronic setup are under test. In this talk preliminary results on performance of RPCs operated with a potential eco-friendly gas candidate 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene, commercially known as HFO-1234ze and with CO2 based gas mixtures are presented and discussed for the possible application in the CMS experiment.

  17. Being Met as marked - patients' experiences of being infected with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyman, Eva; Lindahl, Berit; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Sjöström, Harrieth Thunberg; Åhrén, Christina

    2016-12-01

    It is known that patients who acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals suffer and feel as plague. Moreover, the patient interaction with nurses and physicians is described as frightening. Little is known about patient experiences after having acquired CA-MRSA concerning care and everyday life. To reveal and interpret otherwise healthy patients' lived experiences of receiving care and their everyday life after having acquired community MRSA (CA-MRSA). A phenomenological hermeneutic approach guided by Ricouer was conducted. Interviews with twelve patients were transcribed verbatim into a text. The text was analysed in three phases: naive understanding, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding to reveal a possible being in the world. In this study, this referred to what it means to be infected with CA-MRSA. The findings indicate that patients who acquired MRSA experience a changed body image. They suffer from ignorant and frightened behavior from healthcare workers, social contacts, and also of being bullied by colleagues. Despite this, patients assume great responsibility for protecting others. However, knowledgeable staff alleviate suffering and bring peace of mind to the patients. Preventing patient's feelings of being a pest, an outsider living with fear, requires urgent education and understanding about resistant bacteria and how to meet an infected patient. The results describing patients, affected with MRSA, may contribute and touch the readers to better understanding of patient's changed body image and suffering and how to mitigate these feelings. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Experiment of radiation-resistant materials for nuclear powers generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, J.H.; Lee, C.K.; Kong, Y.K.; Chang, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    The properties of polyethylene materials exhibit good insulation and radiation resistance, but exhibit poor flame resistance. Flame retardant properties of the polyethylene were improved by the radiation induced grafting, coating or cross-linking. When the various flame retardants were fixed onto polyethylene, the amount of fixation in grafting or coating was increased with the increase of radiation dosages. In the case of grafting, it is necessary for high grafting yield that the polyethylene films were swelled before irradiation with γ-rays or electron beams. It is the suitable method for the fixation of flame retardant that polyethylene samples were blended with various flame retardants at 125 0 C and then blended polymers were crosslinked by the electron beams at room temperature

  19. Reversed-field pinch experiments in EXTRAP T2R with a resistive shell boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, J.-A.; Cecconello, M.; Brunsell, P.R.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch has a resistive shell with a magnetic penetration time of 6 ms. This time is intermediate between the dynamo/relaxation cycle time scale (<2ms) and the pulse length (∼20ms). The resonant tearing modes do not wall-lock. They rotate with angular phase velocities in the range of 20 to 600 krad/s. As a result of the rotation the radial component of the perturbations at the shell from the resonant modes is suppressed. Non-resonant (resistive-wall) kink modes are unstable and their linear growth rates have been measured. The measured growth rates follow the trend expected from theoretical estimates for a range of equilibrium parameters. Furthermore, when the resonant modes are rotating, the loop voltage and confinement parameters have values comparable to those of a conducting shell RFP. The poloidal beta is around 10% for a range of current and density. (author)

  20. Management of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children with cyclosporine - a tertiary care centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.S.H.; Akhtar, N.; Sunbleen, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the response and adverse effects of cyclosporine in combination with oral steroids for management of idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in pediatric patients. Methodology: It was an observational study conducted at Children Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan from March 2014 to June 2015. Forty normotensive patients of idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome between one and twelve years of age with normal renal function were included in the study. Patients were prescribed cyclosporine with prednisolone and were followed to see the response and adverse effects of drugs. Results: Out of 40 patients, 20(50%) were males and 20(50%) females. Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis was found in 27(67.5%) patients followed by Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 9(22.5%) patients. Complete response was observed in 32(80%) children while partial response in 8(20%) patients at the end of six months. The most common adverse effects were cushingoid features seen in 26(65%) and cyclosporine related hypertrichosis in 34(85%). Conclusion: Management of idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children with a combination of cyclosporine and prednisolone provided good results as response to treatment was seen in 80% patients. (author)

  1. Feature enhancement from electrical resistivity data in an archaeological survey: the Sapelos hillfort experiment (Boticas, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mafalda; Bernardes, Paulo; Fontes, Luís.; Martins, Manuela; Madeira, Joaquim

    2015-06-01

    The PoPaTERVA project is developing applied research regarding the comprehension of the multi-layered cultural background of the Terva Valley Archaeological Park, in Boticas, Portugal. One of the main aspects focused on the project is the appliance of remote sensing techniques to enhance non visible archaeological features. An earth resistance tomography (ERT) survey was carried out at the Sapelos hillfort, by the specialized SINERGEO geophysicist's team, using a Wenner-Schlumberger array. The resulting data was analyzed by the authors in order to extract and verify valid archaeological features regarding the settlement's structures. There are several adequate systems that can be used to visualize the surveyed data (x, y, z, Ω). However, the authors preferred the open source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) from Kitware Inc., since it supports several visualization and modelling techniques that are useful for interpretation purposes in archaeological contexts: for instance, it is possible to represent the archaeological site as a virtual scale model, which can be freely manipulated. For the Sapelos hillfort, two distinct visualizations were developed to represent the acquired electrical resistivity data. The first one is used to create a comprehensive volume from the surveyed data, which is imported as structured 3D points and mapped into a 3D volume. However, this representation does not provide the necessary insight for analysis purposes, so a second visualization is needed to cluster the relevant data for archaeological research. This visualization is based on contouring algorithms that generate isosurfaces from scalar resistivity values (Ω), therefore enhancing the features with potential archaeological interest.

  2. Effects of resistive magnetic field on fast electron divergence measured in experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, H.X.; Zhuo, H.B.; Ma, Y.Y.; Xu, H.; Yu, T.P.; Zou, D.B.; Ge, Z.Y.; Xu, B.B.; Zhu, Q.J.; Shao, F.Q.; Borghesi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2015), s. 025011 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : fast electron * divergence measument * resistive magnetic field * laser-plasma interactions * short-pulse * acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.404, year: 2015

  3. Ras Labs-CASIS-ISS NL experiment for synthetic muscle returned to Earth: resistance to ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Albers, Leila N.; Rodriguez, Simone; Gentile, Charles; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Hitchner, Robert; Taylor, James; Hoffman, Dan; Cylinder, David; Gaza, Ramona; Moy, Leon; Mark, Patrick S.; Prillaman, Daniel L.; Nodarse, Robert; Menegus, Michael J.; Ratto, Jo Ann; Thellen, Christopher T.; Froio, Danielle; Valenza, Logan; Poirier, Catherine; Sinkler, Charles; Corl, Dylan; Hablani, Surbhi; Fuerst, Tyler; Gallucci, Sergio; Blocher, Whitney; Liffland, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    In anticipation of deep space travel, new materials are being explored to assist and relieve humans in dangerous environments, such as high radiation, extreme temperature, and extreme pressure. Ras Labs Synthetic Muscle™ - electroactive polymers (EAPs) that contract and expand at low voltages - which mimic the unique gentle-yet-strong nature of human tissue, is a potential asset to manned space travel through protective gear and human assist robotics and for unmanned space exploration through deep space. Gen 3 Synthetic Muscle™ was proven to be resistant to extreme temperatures, and there were indications that these materials would also be radiation resistant. The purpose of the Ras Labs-CASIS-ISS Experiment was to test the radiation resistivity of the third and fourth generation of these EAPs, as well as to make them even more radiation resistant. On Earth, exposure of the Generation 3 and Generation 4 EAPs to a Cs-137 radiation source for 47.8 hours with a total dose of 305.931 kRad of gamma radiation was performed at the US Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) at Princeton University, followed by pH, peroxide, Shore Hardness durometer, and electroactivity testing to determine the inherent radiation resistivity of these contractile EAPs, and to determine whether the EAPs could be made even more radiation resistant through the application of appropriate additives and coatings. The on Earth preliminary tests determined that selected Ras Labs EAPs were not only inherently radiation resistant, but with the appropriate coatings and additives, could be made even more radiation resistant. G-force testing to over 10 G's was performed at US Army's ARDEC Labs, with excellent results, in preparation for space flight to the International Space Station National Laboratory (ISS-NL). Selected samples of Generation 3 and Generation 4 Synthetic Muscle™, with various additives and coatings, were launched to the ISS-NL on April 14, 2015 on the

  4. Animal experiment and clinical preliminary application of percutaneous 70% ethanol injection therapy in multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fuquan; Yue Zhendong; Gao Shunyu; Li YanSheng; Wei Guobin; Guo Weiyi; Chen Xijun; Li Baoyu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of percutaneous injection of 70% ethanol in the treatment of multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Percutaneous and transcatheter absolute ethanol, 70% ethanol, and 60% meglucamine diatrizoate(or distilled water) injection into the lung (25 cases) and the bronchi (25 cases) of healthy rabbits were performed, respectively.All specimens were studied with pathology. On the base of animals experiment, thirty-five patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with percutaneous 70% ethanol injection. Every patient was treated by the same way for 1-3 times. Results: Pathological findings of the specimens of pulmonary tissue showed nonspecific inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis. The chief pathological changes with percutaneous or transcatheter 70% ethanol injection were slighter than those with absolute ethanol injection. Pathological findings of the specimens of bronchi showed slight mucosal edema, nonspecific inflammation, and focal cytonecrosis. Recovery of the damaged bronchial mucosa occurred within 14-30 days after the treatment. All patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis were followed up for 6 to 33 months. The sputum bacterial conversion to negative rate was 100% within 6 months after the treatment. Cavity closing, shrinking, and no changing rate were 47.1% (16/34), 50.0% (17/34), and 2.9% (1/34), respectively. Radiographic improvement rate was 94.3 % (33/35). No severe complications and adverse reactions occurred. Conclusion: Percutaneous 70% ethanol injection is safe, effective, and easy to perform in the treatment of multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. (authors)

  5. Infective endocarditis due to multidrug resistant gram-negative bacilli: single centre experience over 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Andini, Roberto; Agrusta, Federica; Iossa, Domenico; Mattucci, Irene; Bernardo, Mariano; Utili, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) due to gram-negative (GN) bacilli is uncommon. Although multi- and extensively-drug resistant (MDR/XDR) GN infections are emerging, very few data are available on IE due to these microrganisms. In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics, course and outcome of five contemporary, definite, MDR/XDR GNIE cases seen at our centre. All patients had been admitted to a hospital during the 6months before IE onset, 2 were on hemodialysis and 3 on intravenous medications. Three of the 5 cases were hospital-acquired. Intracardiac prosthetic devices were present in all cases (3 central venous lines, 2 prosthetic heart valves, 2 pacemakers). Mean Charlson comorbidity index was 5.8. Causative pathogens were XDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2 cases), XDR Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Burkolderia cepacia and MDR Escherichia coli (1 case each). Concomitant pathogens with a MDR/XDR phenotype were isolated in 4 patients. Both valves and intracardiac devices and left and right sides of the heart were involved. The rate of complications was high. Antibiotic treatment hinged on the use of colistin, a carbapenem or both. Cardiovascular surgical procedures were performed in 3 patients. Despite aggressive therapeutic regimens, outcomes were poor. Clearance of bacteremia was obtained in 3 patients, in-hospital death occurred in 3 patients, only 1 patient survived during follow up. MDR/XDR GN are emerging as a cause of IE in carriers of intracardiac prostheses with extensive healthcare contacts and multiple comorbidities. Resistant GNIE has a complicated course and shows a dismal prognosis. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Intern's Experience as Supervisor: Managing Resistance, Identification, and Countertransference While Feeling Insecure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMino, John L.; Risler, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the experiences of predoctoral interns supervising the clinical work of less experienced externs in psychology and social work as part of a training program in a large university counseling center. After 4 years of running a relationally based supervision of supervision group, the authors believe that providing supervision…

  7. Experience of Using Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Treat Drug Resistant Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lipatova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine tolerability and effectiveness of continuous vagus nerve stimulation (VNS in patients with drug resistance epilepsy (DRE. Patients and Methods. A VNS system was implanted to 9 adults (aged 14–38 with DRE. The duration of catamnesis was 8–12 months. Results. During the first 2–3 months after the VNS system had been implanted, seizure frequency reduced by over 50% in half of the patients with DRE. The remaining patients showed a similar positive effect 8–12 months after the VNS parameters had been adjusted. A decrease in seizure frequency, duration and severity, as well as shortening of the post-seizure period were observed in 12.5% of patients. Negative side effects, such as dysphonia and throat discomfort, were found in 12.5% of patients. These undesirable effects were eliminated by adjusting magnetic stim- ulation parameters. Significant positive EEG dynamics, such as regression of paroxysmal epileptic activity, were obtained in 62.5% the cases. Conclusions. VNS therapy is a safe and effective treatment method for reducing the frequency and severity of seizures in patients with DRE. 

  8. Ability to predict repetitions to momentary failure is not perfectly accurate, though improves with resistance training experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Steele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘Repetitions in Reserve’ (RIR scales in resistance training (RT are used to control effort but assume people accurately predict performance a priori (i.e. the number of possible repetitions to momentary failure (MF. This study examined the ability of trainees with different experience levels to predict number of repetitions to MF. One hundred and forty-one participants underwent a full body RT session involving single sets to MF and were asked to predict the number of repetitions they could complete before reaching MF on each exercise. Participants underpredicted the number of repetitions they could perform to MF (Standard error of measurements [95% confidence intervals] for combined sample ranged between 2.64 [2.36–2.99] and 3.38 [3.02–3.83]. There was a tendency towards improved accuracy with greater experience. Ability to predict repetitions to MF is not perfectly accurate among most trainees though may improve with experience. Thus, RIR should be used cautiously in prescription of RT. Trainers and trainees should be aware of this as it may have implications for the attainment of training goals, particularly muscular hypertrophy.

  9. Ability to predict repetitions to momentary failure is not perfectly accurate, though improves with resistance training experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Andreas; Fisher, James; Gentil, Paulo; Giessing, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    ‘Repetitions in Reserve’ (RIR) scales in resistance training (RT) are used to control effort but assume people accurately predict performance a priori (i.e. the number of possible repetitions to momentary failure (MF)). This study examined the ability of trainees with different experience levels to predict number of repetitions to MF. One hundred and forty-one participants underwent a full body RT session involving single sets to MF and were asked to predict the number of repetitions they could complete before reaching MF on each exercise. Participants underpredicted the number of repetitions they could perform to MF (Standard error of measurements [95% confidence intervals] for combined sample ranged between 2.64 [2.36–2.99] and 3.38 [3.02–3.83]). There was a tendency towards improved accuracy with greater experience. Ability to predict repetitions to MF is not perfectly accurate among most trainees though may improve with experience. Thus, RIR should be used cautiously in prescription of RT. Trainers and trainees should be aware of this as it may have implications for the attainment of training goals, particularly muscular hypertrophy. PMID:29204323

  10. [Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a black African carceral area: Experience of Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloba, Y; Ouattara, K; Soumaré, D; Kanouté, T; Berthé, G; Baya, B; Konaté, B; Keita, M; Diarra, B; Cissé, A; Camara, F S; Diallo, S

    2018-02-01

    Prison constitutes a risk factor for the emergence of multi-drug resistance of tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of this work was to study MDR-TB in a black African carceral center. Prospective study from January to December 2016 at the central house of arrest for men, Bamako. The study population was composed of tuberculous detainee. The suspicion of MDR-TB was done in any tuberculosis case remained positive in the second month of first-line treatment or in contact with an MDR-TB case. Among 1622 detainee, 21 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were notified (1.29%), with an annual incidence of 13 cases/1000 detainee, they were 16 cases of SP-PTB (microscopy smear positive tuberculosis) and five cases of microscopy smear negative tuberculosis. The mean age was 28±7 years, extremes of 18 and 46 years. A negative association was found between the notion of smoking and occupation in the occurrence of tuberculosis (OR=0.036, [95% CI: 0.03-0.04], P=0.03. Among the 21 tuberculosis cases notified, one confirmed case of MDR-TB was detected (4.7%). In the first semester of 2016 cohort, we notified a cure rate of 87.5% (7/8 SP-PTB cases), and the confirmed MDR-TB case on treatment (21-month regimen), evolution enameled of pulmonary and hearing sequelae at seven months treatment. It was the first case of MDR-TB detected in a prison in Mali. Late diagnosis, evolution is enameled of sequelae and side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening as a patient safety initiative: using patients' experiences to improve the quality of screening practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kay; Knussen, Christina; Price, Lesley; Reilly, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    To explore the patient experience and acceptability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening of inpatient admissions to acute hospital settings. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major patient safety concern internationally. Screening of patients for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation is becoming a routine aspect of hospital admission; however, evidence of the patient experience and acceptability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening is limited. A mixed-methods study set in six acute care hospitals in three Scottish regions. Data collection involved postdischarge self-report survey of patients who had been screened (n = 54) and qualitative patient interviews (n = 10). Theoretical constructs derived from the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behaviour used in analysis. Findings indicated that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening was broadly acceptable to patients. The experience of screening did not appear to be problematic; responses demonstrate that screening provided reassurance and generated confidence that health organisations were tackling healthcare-associated infections. Patients were less positive regarding the provision of information, the possibility of refusing a screen and the consequences of a positive test result. Furthermore, there were indications that patients wanted to be told the results of the screen and strong support for screening of hospital staff. Analysis of constructs from our theoretical frameworks provides evidence that attitudes were largely positive; responses indicate a belief in the beneficial impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus screening for patients and the wider community. However, it is important that health professionals continually assess the patient experience of 'routine' aspects of health care such as MRSA screening. The findings from this study suggest that

  12. The use of capacitive resistivity imaging (CRI) for monitoring laboratory experiments simulating permafrost growth, persistence and thaw in bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, O.; Uhlemann, S.; Krautblatter, M.; Murton, J.; Haslam, E.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the impact on bedrock properties of permafrost degradation as a result of climate change is of major interest in a number of areas, including the assessment of rising instability of high-altitude mountain rock walls. The remote sensing of rock walls with the primary aim of monitoring the spatial and temporal behaviour of rock temperature (and thus permafrost distribution) is an emerging field of research for geohazard mitigation where geophysical tomography has the potential to make a significant and lasting contribution. Recent work has shown that temperature-calibrated Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) using galvanic sensors is capable of imaging recession and re-advance of rock permafrost in response to the ambient temperature regime, yet the use of galvanic sensors can impose practical limitations on field measurements. In this study, we evaluate the use of Capacitive Resistivity Imaging (CRI), a technique based upon low-frequency, capacitively-coupled measurements across permanently installed multi-sensor arrays, in order to emulate well-established ERT methodology, but without the need for galvanic contact on frozen soils or rocks. Numerical simulation of multi-sensor CRI measurements on the rock samples under a quasi-static electromagnetic regime allowed us initially to validate our measurement concept and prototype CRI instrumentation. We have subsequently applied CRI as well as conventional ERT to controlled long-term experiments in the Permafrost Laboratory at the University of Sussex, simulating permafrost growth, persistence and thaw in bedrock. Water-saturated samples of limestone and chalk (450 mm high, 300 mm × 300 mm wide) of varying porosity are being monitored. The lower half of each sample is maintained at temperatures below 0°C (simulating permafrost) and the upper half is cycled above and below 0°C (simulating seasonal thawing and freezing of the overlying active layer). Samples are instrumented with both capacitive and

  13. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian ePenny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: 1 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone 2 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams 3 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and 4 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra. We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson was applied rather than a peak based (Dice and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: 1 five percent 2 nine percent 3 ten percent, and 4 two percent. An additional second

  14. Monitoring a pilot CO2 injection experiment in a shallow aquifer using 3D cross-well electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Lassen, R. N.; Looms, M. C.; Jensen, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Three dimensional electrical resistance tomography (ERT) was used to monitor a pilot CO2 injection experiment at Vrøgum, Denmark. The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ERT method for monitoring the two opposing effects from gas-phase and dissolved CO2 in a shallow unconfined siliciclastic aquifer. Dissolved CO2 increases water electrical conductivity (EC) while gas phase CO2 reduce EC. We injected 45kg of CO2 into a shallow aquifer for 48 hours. ERT data were collected for 50 hours following CO2 injection. Four ERT monitoring boreholes were installed on a 5m by 5m square grid and each borehole had 24 electrodes at 0.5 m electrode spacing at depths from 1.5 m to 13 m. ERT data were inverted using a difference inversion algorithm for bulk EC. 3D ERT successfully detected the CO2 plume distribution and growth in the shallow aquifer. We found that the changes of bulk EC were dominantly positive following CO2 injection, indicating that the effect of dissolved CO2 overwhelmed that of gas phase CO2. The pre-injection baseline resistivity model clearly showed a three-layer structure of the site. The electrically more conductive glacial sand layer in the northeast region are likely more permeable than the overburden and underburden and CO2 plumes were actually confined in this layer. Temporal bulk EC increase from ERT agreed well with water EC and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar data. ERT monitoring offers a competitive advantage over water sampling and GPR methods because it provides 3D high-resolution temporal tomographic images of CO2 distribution and it can also be automated for unattended operation. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC. LLNL IM release#: LLNL-PROC-657944.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas sp. causing infections in trauma patients: A 6 year experience from a south asian country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Pseudomonas sp. has spread to such a level irrespective of the type of patients, that its pattern of distribution and antibiotic resistance needs to be studied in detail, especially in trauma patients and hence the study. A 6 year study was carried out among trauma patients to see the trend and type of resistance prevalent in the apex hospital for trauma care in India among nonduplicate isolates where multidrug-resistance (MDR, cross-resistance and pan-drug resistance in Pseudomonas sp. were analyzed. Of the total 2,269 isolates obtained, the species, which was maximally isolated was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2,224, 98%. The highest level of resistance was seen in tetracycline (2,166, 95.5%, P < 0.001 and chloramphenicol (2,160, 95.2%, P < 0.001 and least in meropenem (1,739, 76.7%, P < 0.003. Of the total, 1,692 (74.6% isolates were MDR in which P. aeruginosa (75% were maximum. MDR Pseudomonas is slowing increasing since the beginning of the study period. Of 1,797 imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated during the study period, 1,763 (98% showed resistance to ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin, suggesting that cross-resistance may have developed for imipenem due to prior use of fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas sp. is fast becoming a problem in trauma patients, especially in those who requires prolong hospital stay, which calls for proper antimicrobial stewardship.

  16. A modified surface-resistance approach for representing bare-soil evaporation: wind tunnel experiments under various atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Takeda, A.; Sugita, F.

    1997-01-01

    A physically based (i.e., nonempirical) representation of surface-moisture availability is proposed, and its applicability is investigated. This method is based on the surface-resistance approaches, and it uses the depth of evaporating surface rather than the water content of the surface soil as the determining factor of surface-moisture availability. A simple energy-balance model including this representation is developed and tested against wind tunnel experiments under various atmospheric conditions. This model can estimate not only the latent heat flux but also the depth of the evaporating surface simultaneously by solving the inverse problem of energy balance at both the soil surface and the evaporating surface. It was found that the depth of the evaporating surface and the latent heat flux estimated by the model agreed well with those observed. The agreements were commonly found out under different atmospheric conditions. The only limitation of this representation is that it is not valid under conditions of drastic change in the radiation input, owing to the influence of transient phase transition of water in the dry surface layer. The main advantage of the approach proposed is that it can determine the surface moisture availability on the basis of the basic properties of soils instead of empirical fitting, although further investigations on its practical use are needed

  17. Design, construction, quality checks and test results of first resistive-Micromegas read-out boards for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Iengo, Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The development work carried out at CERN to push the Micromegas technology to a new frontier is now coming to an end. The construction of the first read-out boards for the upgrade of the ATLAS muon system will demonstrate in full-scale the feasibility of this ambitious project. The read-out boards, representing the heart of the detector, are manufactured in industries, making the Micromegas for ATLAS the first MPGD for a large experiment with a relevant part industrially produced. The boards are 50 cm wide and up to 220 cm long, carrying copper strips 315 μm wide with 415 μm pitch. Interconnected resistive strips, having the same pattern as the copper strips, provide spark protection. The boards are completed by the creation of cylindrical pillars 128 μm high, 280 μm in diameter and arranged in a triangular array 7 mm aside. The total number of boards to be produced for ATLAS is 2048 of 32 different types. We will review the main design parameters of the read-out boards for the ATLAS Micromegas, following...

  18. Ceftaroline: clinical and microbiology experience with focus on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after regulatory approval in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjewski, Martin E; Jones, Ronald N; Corey, G Ralph

    2015-03-01

    Ceftaroline fosamil was approved in 2010 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USA-FDA) for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). After approval, several studies and case reports have described the postmarketing clinical experience with ceftaroline in ABSSSIs and CABP and in patients with invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, many of whom had failed prior antibiotics. Successful clinical outcomes observed among the majority of these patients were supported by preapproval and postapproval in vitro surveillance of ceftaroline activity using breakpoint criteria that have been harmonized between the USA-FDA and CLSI. MIC90 values/percentage of strains susceptible to ceftaroline has remained stable over the period 2009-2012. Taken together, these postapproval studies support the use of ceftaroline for ABSSSI as well as CABP. Importantly, these data also suggest that ceftaroline can be effective in patients with serious invasive MRSA infections who have failed other therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of SF$_{6}$ on the avalanche mode operation of a real-sized double-gap resistive plate chamber for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Ito, M; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S; Kang, T I

    2005-01-01

    We present the design and the test, results for a real-sized prototype resistive plate chamber by using cosmic-ray muons for the forward region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In particular, we investigate the effects of adding SF/sub 6/ to the gas mixture for the avalanche mode operation of a resistive plate chamber. A small fraction of SF/sub 6/ is very effective in suppressing streamer signals in a resistive plate chamber. The shapes of the muon detection efficiency and the muon cluster size remain similar, but are shifted to higher operating voltage by SF/sub 6/. The noise cluster rate and size are not influenced by SF/sub 6/.

  20. Health system factors influencing management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in four European Union countries - learning from country experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Gerard; Tsolova, Svetla; Anderson, Laura F; Gebhard, Agnes C; Heldal, Einar; Hollo, Vahur; Cejudo, Laura Sánchez-Cambronero; Schmid, Daniela; Schreuder, Bert; Varleva, Tonka; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2017-04-19

    In the European Union and European Economic Area only 38% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients notified in 2011 completed treatment successfully at 24 months' evaluation. Socio-economic factors and patient factors such as demographic characteristics, behaviour and attitudes are associated with treatment outcomes. Characteristics of healthcare systems also affect health outcomes. This study was conducted to identify and better understand the contribution of health system components to successful treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We selected four European Union countries to provide for a broad range of geographical locations and levels of treatment success rates of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cohort in 2009. We conducted semi-structured interviews following a conceptual framework with representatives from policy and planning authorities, healthcare providers and civil society organisations. Responses were organised according to the six building blocks of the World Health Organization health systems framework. In the four included countries, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, and the United Kingdom, the following healthcare system factors were perceived as key to achieving good treatment results for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: timely diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis; financial systems that ensure access to a full course of treatment and support for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients; patient-centred approaches with strong intersectoral collaboration that address patients' emotional and social needs; motivated and dedicated healthcare workers with sufficient mandate and means to support patients; and cross-border management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis to secure continuum of care between countries. We suggest that the following actions may improve the success of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients: deployment of rapid molecular diagnostic tests; development of context-specific treatment

  1. Low Enteric Colonization with Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Soldiers Returning from Deployments- Experience from the Years 2007-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Frickmann

    Full Text Available This assessment describes the enteric colonization of German soldiers 8-12 weeks after returning from mostly but not exclusively subtropical or tropical deployment sites with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Between 2007 and 2015, 828 stool samples from returning soldiers were enriched in nonselective broth and incubated on selective agars for Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL, VRE and MRSA. Identification and resistance testing of suspicious colonies was performed using MALDI-TOF-MS, VITEK-II and agar diffusion gradient testing (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France. Isolates with suspicion of ESBL were characterized by ESBL/ampC disc-(ABCD-testing and molecular approaches (PCR, Sanger sequencing. Among the returnees, E. coli with resistance against third-generation cephalosporins (37 ESBL, 1 ESBL + ampC, 1 uncertain mechanism were found in 39 instances (4.7%. Associated quinolone resistance was found in 46.2% of these isolates. Beta-lactamases of the blaCTX-M group 1 predominated among the ESBL mechanisms, followed by the blaCTX-M group 9, and blaSHV. VRE of vanA-type was isolated from one returnee (0.12%. MRSA was not isolated at all. There was no clear trend regarding the distribution of resistant isolates during the assessment period. Compared with colonization with resistant bacteria described in civilians returning from the tropics, the colonization in returned soldiers is surprisingly low and stable. This finding, together with high colonization rates found in previous screenings on deployment, suggests a loss of colonization during the 8- to 12-week period between returning from the deployments and assessment.

  2. Experience and conclusions from the work at Risoe on induced mutations for powdery mildew resistance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews published results on (1) screening for and identification of powdery mildew resistant mutants of spring barley, (2) localization of the mutant locus, ml-o, to chromosome 4, (3) intra-locus recombination with the ml-o locus, (4) resistance characteristics of the mutants, and (5) pleiotropic effects of the mutant genes. Recent results indicate that ml-o mutant genes confer resistance to the pathogen apparently because of an early, rapid and extensive formation of callose-containing cell wall appositions in the epidermal cells below the infection sites. It is suggested that the ml-o resistance is due to a destruction of a functional wild-type gene regulating the formation of the cell wall appositions. The monogenic but quantitative defence reaction of the host, and the apparently polygenic aggressiveness of the pathogen, support the suggestion that the ml-o resistance is unspecific, i.e. not conforming to the gene-for-gene system. Further, the functional similarity of eleven independently arisen ml-o genes studied, irrespective of their structural differences within the locus, suggests that the eleven genes may be considered only as one source of resistance to powdery mildew. (author)

  3. Bacterial profile and patterns of antimicrobial drug resistance in intra-abdominal infections: Current experience in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Shree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bacterial isolates from intra-abdominal infections, in particular, peritonitis and their unpredictable antimicrobial resistance patterns, continue to be a matter of concern not only globally but regionally too. Aim: An attempt in the present study was made to study the patterns of drug resistance in bacterial isolates, especially gram negative bacilli in intra-abdominal infections (IAI in our hospital. Materials and Methods: From 100 cases of peritonitis, identification of isolates was done as per recommended methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL testing were performed following the CLSI guidelines. Results: A total of 133 clinical isolates were obtained, of which 108 were aerobes and 22 anaerobes. Fungal isolates were recovered in only three cases. Escherichia coli (47/108 emerged as the most predominant pathogen followed by Klebsiella spp. (27/108, while Bacteroides fragilis emerged as the predominant anaerobe (12/22. Among coliforms, 61.7% E. coli and 74.1% Klebsiella spp. were ESBL positive. A high level of resistance was observed for beta lactams, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and ertapenem. Ertapenem resistance (30-41% seen in coliforms, appears as an important issue. Imipenem, tigecycline, and colistin were the most consistently active agents tested against ESBL producers. Conclusion: Drug resistance continues to be a major concern in isolates from intra-abdominal infections. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics preceded by antimicrobial resistance testing aided by early diagnosis, adequate surgical management, and knowledge of antibiotic - resistant organisms appears effective in reducing morbidity and mortality in IAI cases.

  4. Discussion on research methods of bacterial resistant mutation mechanisms under selective culture--uncertainty analysis of data from the Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianling; Wei, Gang; Yang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Gao, Peiji

    2012-11-01

    Whether bacterial drug-resistance is drug-induced or results from rapid propagation of random spontaneous mutations in the flora prior to exposure, remains a long-term key issue concerned and debated in both genetics and medicinal fields. In a pioneering study, Luria and Delbrück exposed E. coli to T1 phage, to investigate whether the number of resistant colonies followed the Poisson distribution. They deduced that the development of resistant colonies is independent of phage presence. Similar results have since been obtained on solid medium containing antibacterial agents. Luria and Delbrück's conclusions were long considered a gold standard for analyzing drug resistance mutations. More recently, the concept of adaptive mutation has triggered controversy over this approach. Microbiological observation shows that, following exposure to drugs of various concentrations, drug-resistant cells emerge and multiply depending on the time course, and show a process function, inconsistent with the definition of Poisson distribution (which assumes not only that resistance is independent of drug quantity but follows no specific time course). At the same time, since cells tend to aggregate after division rather than separating, colonies growing on drug plates arise from the multiplication of resistant bacteria cells of various initial population sizes. Thus, statistical analysis based on equivalence of initial populations will yield erroneous results. In this paper, 310 data from the Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment were reanalyzed from this perspective. In most cases, a high-end abnormal value, resulting from the non-synchronous variation of the two above-mentioned time variables, was observed. Therefore, the mean value cannot be regarded as an unbiased expectation estimate. The ratio between mean value and variance was similarly incomparable, because two different sampling methods were used. In fact, the Luria-Delbrück data appear to follow an aggregated, rather than

  5. Data on post irradiation experiments of heat resistant ceramic composite materials. PIE for 97M-13A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Shin-ichi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Souzawa, Shizuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Sekino, Hajime [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The research on the radiation damage mechanism of heat resistant ceramic composite materials is one of the research subjects of the innovative basic research in the field of high temperature engineering, using the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Three series of irradiation tests on the heat resistant ceramic composite materials, first to third irradiation test program, were carried out using the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR). This is a summary report on the first irradiation test program; irradiation induced dimensional change, thermal expansion coefficient, X-ray diffraction and {gamma}-ray spectrum are reported. (author)

  6. Sujeitos no sumidouro: a experiência de criação e resistência do Jornal Boca de Rua Subjects in the gutter: the experience of creation and resistance of the Jornal Boca de Rua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danichi Hausen Mizoguchi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto versa sobre o Jornal Boca de Rua, periódico confeccionado por moradores de rua da cidade de Porto Alegre. Procura-se nele relacionar a posição subversiva destes moradores de rua com a lógica do capitalismo contemporâneo em três instâncias - espaço urbano, mídia e consumo -, trabalhando seus detalhes, implicações, ambivalências e comentando seus resultados parciais. A resistência espacial é tida como a própria maneira do morador de rua habitar a urbe - seja como morador, seja como vendedor -, ou seja, a reinvenção dos desvalidos vãos da cidade. A resistência midiática, por sua vez, é caracterizada pela construção de um meio de dispersão alternativo ao mass-mídia, possibilitando a um grupo emitir palavras e imagens sobre si e fazê-las agenciáveis em circuitos antes não alcançados. A resistência do consumo, por fim, dá-se na possibilidade do deslocamento da posição de pedinte para a de prestador de serviço, o que, em última análise, possibilita outros modos de inserção do morador de rua nas tramas da sociedade atual.This text is about Jornal Boca de Rua, a periodical made by homeless people of Porto Alegre. Its aim is to establish a relation between the subversive position of these people and the logic of contemporary capitalism in three different ways - urban space, media and consumption -, working on the details, implications, ambiguities and commenting on the partial results. Spatial resistance is seen as a way the homeless inhabit the city, either as an inhabitant or as a salesperson, which means reinventing valueless empty spaces of the city. Media resistance is characterized by the construction of an alternative diffusive medium from that of mass-media, giving the opportunity for this group to publish their works and placing them in spaces never imagined before. Consumption resistance, finally, becomes possible when the homeless render services instead of begging, offering other ways for them

  7. Contrasting effects of tree diversity on young tree growth and resistance to insect herbivores across three biodiversity experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, J.; Castagneyrol, B.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Ghazoul, J.; Kattge, J.; Koricheva, J.; Scherer-Lorenzen, M.; Morath, S.; Jactel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Tree diversity is an important driver of forest ecosystem functioning, hypothesised to enhance tree growth and resistance to herbivores. To test this, we assessed the relative importance of tree species richness and functional diversity on tree height growth and insect herbivore damage across three

  8. First experience of Candida non-albicans isolates with high antibiotic resistance pattern caused oropharyngeal candidiasis among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, oropharyngeal Candidiasis is a serious infection among cancer patients. The isolated Candida spp. were resistant to common antifungal agents, which may lead to longer hospital stay, more expensive/toxic drugs and higher mortality. Therefore, interval surveillance is necessary in developing institutional guidelines.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Kolkata, India, and In Vitro Experiments on Effect of Combined Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamapada Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication states the changing patterns of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi isolates causing enteric fever in and around Kolkata, India. Among the isolates resistance to ampicillin (A, chloramphenicol (C, cotrimoxazole (Co and tetracycline (T were plasmid mediated; the plasmid was unstable in S. Typhi, and the other enteric bacteria like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris were found to be the potential source of dissemination of such plasmids into S. Typhi. The infection with such S. Typhi strains were successfully treated with ciprofloxacin (Cp: MICs 0.0075–0.075 μg mL−1 and/or ofloxacin (Ofx: MICs 0.0125–0.075 μg mL−1, but in the later course, the S. Typhi strains, showing resistance to nalidixic acid, developed low level of resistance to Cp and Ofx, causing the treatment failure. Thus, the treatment regimen was shifted to the third generation cephalosporins like ceftriaxone (Ct and cefotaxime (Cf. Keeping in mind the anticipation of development of resistance to Ct/Cf, we prepared the treatment regimen for MDR enteric fever, based on the double-drug synergy tests in vitro; Cp-gentamycin (FICI 0.121–0.216 and Cp-trimethoprim (FICI 0.14–0.483 combinations were found effective against S. Typhi isolates having decreased sensitivity to cp (MICs: 0.5–1.25 μg mL−1.

  10. The effect of a resistance-training program on muscle strength, physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-Reenen, H.H. van; Visser, B.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Dieën, J.H. van; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resistance-training program on muscle strength of the back and neck/shoulder muscles, relative physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort during a simulated assembly and lifting task. Twenty-two workers were

  11. Effects of ultra-vacuum and space environment on contact ohmic resistance: LDEF experiment AO 138-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assie, Jean-Pierre; Perotto, Alfred

    1992-01-01

    The FRECOPA experimentation of chemical resistance of electrical connector contacts, as described, has evidenced the detrimental time variations of nickel plated conductors and gilded copper contacts, irrespective of crimping storage or metal peening conditions. With a view to reorient aluminum technology a silvered aluminum conductor/gilded aluminum contact solution was evaluated.

  12. Increases in doxorubicin sensitivity and radioiodide uptake by transfecting shMDR and sodium/iodide symporter gene in cancer cells expressing multidrug resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sohn Joo; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, You La; Choi, Chang Ik; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, In Kyu; Lee, Jae Tae

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of the cancer cells related to mdr1 gene expression can be effectively treated by selective short hairpin RNA for mdr1 gene (shMDR). Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene is well known to have both reporter and therapeutic gene characteristics. We have co-transfected both shMDR and NIS gene into colon cancer cells (HCT15 cell) expressing MDR and Tc-99m sestamibi and I-125 uptake were measured. In addition, cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin and I-131 therapy were also assessed after transfection. At first, shMDR was transfected with liposome reagent into human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and HCT cells. shMDR transfection was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Adenovirus expressing NIS (Ad-NIS) gene and shMDR (Ad-shMDR) were co-transfected with Ad-NIS into HCT15 cells. Forty-eight hours after infection, inhibition of P-gycoprotein (Pgp) function by shMDR was analyzed by a change of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake and doxorubicin cytotoxicity, and functional activity of induced NIS gene expression was assessed with I-125 uptake assay. In HEK293 cells transfected with shMDR, mdr1 mRNA and Pgp protein expressions were down regulated. HCT15 cells infected with 20 MOI of Ad-NIS was higher NIS protein expression than control cells. After transfection of 300 MOI of Ad-shMDR either with or without 10 MOI of Ad-NIS, uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi increased up to 1.5-fold than control cells. HCT15 cells infected with 10 MOI of Ad-NIS showed approximately 25-fold higher I-125 uptake than control cells. Cotransfection of Ad-shMDR and Ad-NIS resulted in enhanced cytotoxic by doxorubicin in HCT15 cells. I-131 treatment on HCT15 cells infected with 20 MOI of Ad-NIS revealed increased cytotoxic effect. Suppression of mdr1 gene expression, retention of Tc-99m sestamibi, enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity and increases in I-125 uptake were achieved in MDR expressing cancer cell by co-transfection of shMDR and NIS gene. Dual therapy with doxorubicin and

  13. Indefinite Detention / Enduring Freedom: What Former Detainees' Experiences Can Teach Us About Institutional Violence, Resistance and the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Kimberly Alexa

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the experiences of former Guantánamo detainees as communicated in 78 interviews. An analysis of those interviews centers on former detainees' worst experiences to parse how those experiences might inform society's understanding of cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment. The dissertation is organized into nine chapters.Chapter one situates this study in the context of the United States' response to the events of 9/11, with an emphasis on the imprisonment of indivi...

  14. Cyclosporine in the treatment of childhood idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome: a single centre experience in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladapo, Taiwo Augustina; Esezobor, Christopher Imokhuede; Lesi, Foluso Ebunoluwa

    2016-01-01

    Children with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome usually require treatment with second-line agents and calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine are now recommended as initial therapy. These agents only recently become available in our environment and their impact on care is unknown. We reviewed the short-term treatment outcomes of their use in comparison with previous outcomes. Medical records of children managed for idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome over a 5 year period were reviewed. Remission rates and improvement in renal function following use of various agents were compared. Of 103 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, 25(24.3%) were steroid resistant, of whom 17 received additional medications. Full remission rate for cyclosporine was 70% (7/10). Remission rates prior to the availability of cyclosporine were 40% (2/5) for cyclophosphamide and 66% (2/3), (partial remission only) with enalapril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used in combination with alternate day prednisolone. One child with cyclophosphamide resistance subsequently achieved remission with cyclosporine. Remission was not related to sex (p=0.96) , age (p=0.54) , serum albumin (p=0.37) or hypertension (p=0.43) but to serum cholesterol (p= 0.02) . The estimated glomerular filteration rate (eGFR) among children treated with cyclosporine ranged from 30-167 ml/min/1.73m 2 as follows: >90 (5); 60-89 (3); 30-59 (2) while the mean pre and post treatment eGFR in those with eGFR nephrotic syndrome.

  15. A Five-Year Experience of Carbapenem Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Causing Neonatal Septicaemia: Predominance of NDM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saswati; Roy, Subhasree; Chatterjee, Somdatta; Saha, Anindya; Sen, Barsha; Pal, Titir; Som, Tapas; Basu, Sulagna

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of neonatal sepsis has become a challenge with the emergence of carbapenemase-producing bacteria. This study documents the trend of carbapenem susceptibility in Enterobacteriaceae that caused septicaemia in neonates over a five year period (2007–2011) and the molecular characterisation of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems and cephalosporins. Hundred and five Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli (n = 27), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 68) and Enterobacter spp. (n = 10) were isolated from blood of septicaemic neonates followed by antibiotic susceptibility tests, determination of MIC values, phenotypic and genotypic detection of β-lactamases. Carbapenem was the most active antimicrobial tested after tigecycline. CTX-M type was the most prevalent ESBL throughout the period (82%). New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1), which is a recent addition to the carbapenemase list, was the only carbapenemase identified in our setting. Fourteen percent of the isolates possessed blaNDM-1. Carbapenem non-susceptibility was first observed in 2007 and it was due to loss of Omp F/Ompk36 in combination with the presence of ESBLs/AmpCs. NDM-1 first emerged in E. coli during 2008; later in 2010, the resistance was detected in K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae isolates. NDM-1-producing isolates were resistant to other broad-spectrum antibiotics and possessed ESBLs, AmpCs, 16S-rRNA methylases, AAC(6′)-Ib-cr, bleomycin resistant gene and class 1 integron. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the NDM-1-producing isolates indicated that the isolates were clonally diverse. The study also showed that there was a significantly higher incidence of sepsis caused by NDM-1-harbouring isolates in the male sex, in neonates with low birth weight and neonates born at an extramural centre. However, sepsis with NDM-1-harbouring isolates did not result in a higher mortality rate. The study is the first to review the carbapenem resistance patterns in neonatal sepsis

  16. The prevalence of resistant arterial hypertension and secondary causes in a cohort of hypertensive patients: a single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Petramala

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of resistant hypertension (RHT still remains unknown. Aim of the study was to investigate in a large cohort of hypertensive patients the prevalence of RHT, and to identify in these patients the secondary forms of arterial hypertension (SH. We enrolled a series of 3685 consecutive hypertensive patients. All patients underwent complete physical examination, laboratory tests, screening for SH. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed to exclude white-coat hypertension. Further, we investigated for any obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA. Only 232 (5.8% hypertensive patients fulfilled criteria for RHT. 91 (39% had a SH; 56 (61% hypertensive patients had a primary aldosteronism, 22 (24% had OSA, 7 (7.7% had a hypercortisolism, and 5 (5.5% had a renovascular hypertension (RVH. Only one patient had adrenal pheochromocytoma. An accurate definition and investigation into RHT is needed. We recommend ABPM to all patients at diagnosis. Finally, all patients must be screened for SH, such as adrenal hypertension, OSA and RVH, especially those who are apparently resistant to polypharmacological treatment.

  17. Ability of Latin America laboratories to detect antimicrobial resistance patterns: experience of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo E. Mendes

    Full Text Available The accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility tests is a crucial step for the clinical management of patients with serious infections. They must be reliable and precise because they will guide antimicrobial therapy. Our main objective was to compare the results of susceptibility testing performed by the SENTRY coordinator laboratory with those reported by the participating Latin American medical centers. A total of 10,277 bacterial isolates were tested by the reference broth microdilution method at the coordinator laboratory in the United States. The tests were performed and interpreted following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Ten antimicrobial agent-organism combinations were analyzed. The susceptibility methods utilized in each of the medical centers were also evaluated. Total agreement of the results was obtained in nearly 88% of the antimicrobial agent-organism combinations. "Very major" (false-susceptible results and "major errors" (false-resistant results were observed in 12% and 6% of the cases, respectively. The highest disagreements were observed for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - oxacillin (20% - very major error and Burkholderia cepacia - imipenem (21% - very major error. The susceptibility method with the highest agreement rate was Etest® (92% > PASCO® (91% > agar dilution (91% > MicroScan® (90% > Vitek® (87%. External quality assurance data obtained by surveillance programs such as the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program are not only helpful for detecting the emergence of patterns of antimicrobial resistance, but also to monitor the performance of the participating microbiology laboratories.

  18. Ability of Latin America laboratories to detect antimicrobial resistance patterns: experience of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Rodrigo E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility tests is a crucial step for the clinical management of patients with serious infections. They must be reliable and precise because they will guide antimicrobial therapy. Our main objective was to compare the results of susceptibility testing performed by the SENTRY coordinator laboratory with those reported by the participating Latin American medical centers. A total of 10,277 bacterial isolates were tested by the reference broth microdilution method at the coordinator laboratory in the United States. The tests were performed and interpreted following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Ten antimicrobial agent-organism combinations were analyzed. The susceptibility methods utilized in each of the medical centers were also evaluated. Total agreement of the results was obtained in nearly 88% of the antimicrobial agent-organism combinations. "Very major" (false-susceptible results and "major errors" (false-resistant results were observed in 12% and 6% of the cases, respectively. The highest disagreements were observed for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - oxacillin (20% - very major error and Burkholderia cepacia - imipenem (21% - very major error. The susceptibility method with the highest agreement rate was Etest® (92% > PASCO® (91% > agar dilution (91% > MicroScan® (90% > Vitek® (87%. External quality assurance data obtained by surveillance programs such as the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program are not only helpful for detecting the emergence of patterns of antimicrobial resistance, but also to monitor the performance of the participating microbiology laboratories.

  19. Juventud Sin Futuro : Subjective experiences of Spanish youth: resistance and organization in the context of economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Trejo Mendez (Paulina)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper looks at the subjective experiences of Spanish organized youth who are being affected by the economic crisis. This paper follows a standpoint epistemology. This research focuses on how their practices question the current dominant discourse depicting today’s Spanish youth as a

  20. Resistance and Assent: How Racial Socialization Shapes Black Students' Experience Learning African American History in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Theodore E.

    2016-01-01

    African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…

  1. Application of 2-D geoelectrical resistivity tomography for mountain permafrost detection in sporadic permafrost environments: Experiences from Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Mountain permafrost covers some 2000 km² of the Austrian Alps which is less than 2.5% of the national territory. Delineating the altitudinal lower limit of permafrost in the mountains of Austria is difficult due the complex topography, the rather sparseness of field verification data and the lack of long-term permafrost monitoring data. Such monitoring data should cover different slope aspects, different elevations, different substrates and different mountain regions of Austria. In this study it was attempted to delineate the lower limit of permafrost at two study sites in the Tauern Range, Austria, applying two-dimensional geoelectrical resistivity tomography (ERT). In addition, multi-annual ground temperature data collected by miniature temperature datalogger (MDT) were used to validate the results. At the study site Hochreichart (maximum elevation 2416 m asl), located in the Seckauer Tauern Range, 14 ERT profiles (lengths 48-196 m; electrode spacing 2, 2.5 or 4 m) were measured at elevations between 1805 and 2416 m asl. Measurements were carried out at two cirques (Reichart, Schöneben) and at the summit plateau of Hochreichart. Results at this site indicate that permafrost lenses are detectable at elevations down to c.1900 m asl at radiation-sheltered sites. Furthermore, at the summit plateau permafrost only occurs as rather small lenses. The ERT-based permafrost pattern is generally confirmed by the MTD data with negative mean annual ground temperature values at only a few monitoring sites. However, the possibility of air-filled cavities causing higher resistive zones faking permafrost existence cannot be excluded because coarse-grained sediments (i.e. relict rock glaciers and autochthonous block fields) are widespread at this study site. At the second study site Kögele Cirque (maximum elevation 3030 m asl) located in the Schober Mountains 12 ERT profiles (lengths 48 m; electrode spacing 2 m) were measured at elevations between 2631 and 2740 m asl. Spatially

  2. European perspective and update on the management of nosocomial pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after more than 10 years of experience with linezolid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastre, J; Blasi, F; Masterton, R G; Rello, J; Torres, A; Welte, T

    2014-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of antimicrobial-resistant hospital-acquired infections worldwide and remains a public health priority in Europe. Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) involving MRSA often affects patients in intensive care units with substantial morbidity, mortality and associated costs. A guideline-based approach to empirical treatment with an antibacterial agent active against MRSA can improve the outcome of patients with MRSA NP, including those with ventilator-associated pneumonia. New methods may allow more rapid or sensitive diagnosis of NP or microbiological confirmation in patients with MRSA NP, allowing early de-escalation of treatment once the pathogen is known. In Europe, available antibacterial agents for the treatment of MRSA NP include the glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) and linezolid (available as an intravenous or oral treatment). Vancomycin has remained a standard of care in many European hospitals; however, there is evidence that it may be a suboptimal therapeutic option in critically ill patients with NP because of concerns about its limited intrapulmonary penetration, increased nephrotoxicity with higher doses, as well as the emergence of resistant strains that may result in increased clinical failure. Linezolid has demonstrated high penetration into the epithelial lining fluid of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and shown statistically superior clinical efficacy versus vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA NP in a phase IV, randomized, controlled study. This review focuses on the disease burden and clinical management of MRSA NP, and the use of linezolid after more than 10 years of clinical experience. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  3. Resisting Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously reminded of how change induces controversy and resistance, regardless of support. We repeatedly experience resistance in difficulties of implementation, little progress, and poor results, rather than increased productivity as anticipated. In a detailed account of how change plays out, a mosaic of what resistance looks like emerges. The picture is both familiar and absolutely concrete, and challenges the structural assumptions and dichotomies on support and resistance in an...

  4. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  5. Acaricide rotation strategy for managing resistance in the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acarina: Ixodidae): laboratory experiment with a field strain from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullner, Friederike; Willadsen, Peter; Kemp, David

    2007-09-01

    During the past two decades, resistance to pyrethroids within the cattle tick genus Boophilus has caused tick control problems in various tropical countries, mainly in Latin America, southern Africa, Australia, and New Caledonia. A Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) strain from Costa Rica, exhibiting resistance to the pyrethroid deltamethrin but only a very low resistance to organophosphates (OP) was kept under selection pressure for 9 to 11 generations by using deltamethrin or coumaphos (OP), either exclusively or in rotation. The objective of this acaricide rotation was to examine the possibility of delaying or reducing the full emergence of pyrethroid resistance. In the substrain selected with deltamethrin at the LD50 concentration, resistance to deltamethrin was measured after five generations (resistance factor [RF] = 9.2) and very high resistance after 11 generations (RF = 756), compared with the starting field strain from Costa Rica. In the substrain selected with deltamethrin then coumaphos in rotation, resistance to deltamethrin was variable from one generation to the next (RF = 1-4.2), but no high, stable resistance developed. After 10 generations of rotation, the deltamethrin RF was 1.6. In the substrains selected continuously with coumaphos or coumaphos and deltamethrin in rotation, no consistent change in resistance to coumaphos was observed. Rotation of deltamethrin with coumaphos seems to delay the development of strong resistance to deltamethrin in a population that had initially a low level of deltamethrin resistance.

  6. Dissolution rates of subsoil limestone in a doline on the Akiyoshi-dai Plateau, Japan: An approach from a weathering experiment, hydrological observations, and electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Sanae; Hattanji, Tsuyoshi; Matsushi, Yuki; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at estimating the controlling factors for the denudation rates of limestone, which often forms solution dolines on karst tablelands. Our approaches include (1) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to reveal shallow subsurface structures and hydrological settings, (2) automated monitoring of volumetric water content in soil profiles and manual measurements of subsurface CO2 concentrations and soil water chemistry, and (3) a field weathering experiment using limestone tablets with the micro-weight loss technique for determining current denudation rates. The field experiment and monitoring were carried out over 768 days from 2009-2011 at four sites with varying topographic and hydrological conditions along the sideslope of a doline on the Akiyoshi-dai karst plateau in SW-Japan. The installation depths of the limestone tablets were 15 cm or 50 cm below the slope surface. The soil moisture conditions varied site by site. Water-saturated conditions continued for 40-50% of the whole experimental period at 50-cm depth of upper and middle sites, while only 0-10% of the experimental period was water-saturated at the other sites. Chemical analysis revealed that the soil water was chemically unsaturated with calcite for all the sites. Spatial differences in concentrations of CO2 in soil pore air were statistically less significant. The denudation rates of the buried limestone tablets were 17.7-21.9 mg cm- 2 a- 1 at the upper and middle slopes, where the soil was water-saturated for a long time after precipitation. The lowest denudation of 3.9 mg cm- 2 a- 1 was observed on lower slopes where soil was not capable of maintaining water at a near saturation level even after precipitation. Statistical analysis revealed that the denudation rates of the tablets were strongly controlled by the duration for which soil pores were saturated by water (the conditions defined here are degrees of water saturation greater than 97%). Electrical resistivity tomography

  7. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, H F

    1988-01-01

    Strains of staphylococci resistant to methicillin were identified immediately after introduction of this drug. Methicillin-resistant strains have unusual properties, the most notable of which is extreme variability in expression of the resistance trait. The conditions associated with this heterogeneous expression of resistance are described. Methicillin resistance is associated with production of a unique penicillin-binding protein (PBP), 2a, which is bound and inactivated only at high concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics. PBP2a appears to be encoded by the mec determinant, which also is unique to methicillin-resistant strains. The relationships between PBP2a and expression of resistance and implications for the mechanism of resistance are discussed. The heterogeneous expression of methicillin resistance by staphylococci poses problems in the detection of resistant strains. Experience with several susceptibility test methods is reviewed and guidelines for performance of these tests are given. Treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci is discussed. Vancomycin is the treatment of choice. Alternatives have been few because methicillin-resistant strains often are resistant to multiple antibiotics in addition to beta-lactam antibiotics. New agents which are active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci are becoming available, and their potential role in treatment is discussed. Images PMID:3069195

  8. Seismic response and resistance capacity of 'as built' WWER 440-230 NPP Kozloduy: Verification of the results by experiments and real earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachanski, S.

    1993-01-01

    Although Kozloduy NPP units 1 and 2 were not designed for earthquakes they have withstood successfully the Vrancea Earthquake in 1977 with sire peak ground acceleration of 83 sm/s 2 . Both units as well as units 3 and 4 were later recalculated for maximum peak acceleration of 0.1 g. According to values calculated by two-dimensional model, in 1980 reactor buildings had sufficient earthquake resistance capacity for the accepted design seismic excitation. The non symmetric design of WWER-440 structures in plan and elevation, the large eccentricity between the center of rigidities and masses as well as technological connections between the separate substructures and units led to complicated space response and rotational effects which cannot be calculated by two-dimensional models. Three dimensional detailed 'as built' mathematical models were established and verified by series of experiments and real earthquake for: detailed analysis of 'as built' structural response, comparing the results of two and three dimensional models, detailed analyses of seismic safety margins

  9. The incidence and risk factors of resistant E. coli infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis: a single-centre experience with 2215 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Özlem; Bozlu, Murat; Efesoy, Ozan; Güntekin, Onur; Tek, Mesut; Akbay, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp., 3 (1·9%) MRCNS, and 2 (1·3%) Klebsiella spp. Of the positive urine cultures which yielded E. coli, 99 (76·7%) were evaluated for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of those, 83 (83·8%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant and composed of 51 (61·4%) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli ratios were 73·4 and 95·9% before 2008 and after 2008, respectively (P = 0·002). The most sensitive antibiotics for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains were imipenem (100%), amikacin (84%) and cefoperazone (83%). The use of quinolones in the last 6 months and a history of hospitalization in the last 30 days were found to be significant risk factors. We found that resistant E. coli strains might be a common microorganism in patients with this kind of complication. The risk factors for development of infection with these resistant strains were history of the use of fluoroquinolones and hospitalization.

  10. Whole Abdominopelvic Radiotherapy Using Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy in the Palliative Treatment of Chemotherapy-Resistant Ovarian Cancer With Bulky Peritoneal Disease: A Single-Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Meerleer, Gert; Vandecasteele, Katrien; Ost, Piet; Delrue, Louke; Denys, Hannelore; Makar, Amin; Speleers, Bruno; Van Belle, Simon; Van den Broecke, Rudy; Fonteyne, Valerie; De Neve, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our experience with whole abdominopelvic radiotherapy (WAPRT) using intensity-modulated arc therapy in the palliative treatment of chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer with bulky peritoneal disease. Methods and Materials: Between April 2002 and April 2008, 13 patients were treated with WAPRT using intensity-modulated arc therapy. We prescribed a dose of 33 Gy to be delivered in 22 fractions of 1.5 Gy to the abdomen and pelvis. All patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III or IV ovarian cancer at the initial diagnosis. At referral, the median age was 61 years, and the patients had been heavily pretreated with surgery and chemotherapy. All patients had symptoms from their disease, including gastrointestinal obstruction or subobstruction in 6, minor gastrointestinal symptoms in 2, pain in 4, ascites in 1, and vaginal bleeding in 2. A complete symptom or biochemical response required complete resolution of the patient's symptoms or cancer antigen-125 level. A partial response required ≥50% resolution of these parameters. The actuarial survival was calculated from the start of radiotherapy. Results: The median overall survival was 21 weeks, with a 6-month overall survival rate of 45%. The 9 patients who completed treatment obtained a complete symptom response, except for ascites (partial response). The median and mean response duration (all symptoms grouped) was 24 and 37 weeks, respectively. Of the 6 patients presenting with obstruction or subobstruction, 4 obtained a complete symptom response (median duration, 16 weeks). Conclusion: WAPRT delivered using intensity-modulated arc therapy offers important palliation in the case of peritoneal metastatic ovarian cancer. WAPRT resolved intestinal obstruction for a substantial period.

  11. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacist-managed dose adjustment feedback using therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin was useful for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: a single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano R

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Junichi Kitazawa,2 Shoji Yamamoto,1 Naoki Tachibana2 1Department of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood Transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori-shi, Japan Background: Vancomycin (VCM requires dose adjustment based on therapeutic drug monitoring. At Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, physicians carried out VCM therapeutic drug monitoring based on their experience, because pharmacists did not participate in the dose adjustment. We evaluated the impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP on attaining target VCM trough concentrations and pharmacokinetics (PK/pharmacodynamics (PD parameters in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections. Materials and methods: The ASP was introduced in April 2012. We implemented a prospective audit of prescribed VCM dosages and provided feedback based on measured VCM trough concentrations. In a retrospective pre- and postcomparison study from April 2007 to December 2011 (preimplementation and from April 2012 to December 2014 (postimplementation, 79 patients were treated for MRSA infection with VCM, and trough concentrations were monitored (pre, n=28; post, n=51. In 65 patients (pre, n=15; post, n=50, 24-hour area under the ­concentration–time curve (AUC 0–24 h/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ratios were calculated. Results: Pharmacist feedback, which included recommendations for changing dose or using alternative anti-MRSA antibiotics, was highly accepted during postimplementation (88%, 29/33. The number of patients with serum VCM concentrations within the therapeutic range (10–20 μg/mL was significantly higher during postimplementation (84%, 43/51 than during preimplementation (39%, 11/28 (P<0.01. The percentage of patients who attained target PK/PD parameters (AUC 0–24 h/MIC >400 was significantly higher during postimplementation (84%, 42/50 than during preimplementation (53%, 8/15; P=0.013. There were

  13. The Experience of a Novel Glycylcycline Antibiotic for a Patient with Infection Caused by Multiple Drug-Resistant Pathogens: What is the Benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Chi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a 75-year-old man with septic shock induced by ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by multiple drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and catheter-related infection by vancomycin-resistant enterococci. He failed to respond to the initial management, including antibiotics (linezolid, imipenem, sulbactam and colistin and hemodynamic-guided fluid challenge. However, his condition improved dramatically after the antibiotic regimen was changed to tigecycline and ceftazidime. In addition to the superiority of the antibacterial effect of tigecycline, fluid control can be achieved more easily while using a single antibiotic instead of multiple drugs, which is also important for care of a critically ill elderly man with compromised cardiorespiratory or renal function. Here, we present a patient infected with multiple drug-resistant pathogens, who improved clinically after being treated with tigecycline, to demonstrate the benefits of this antibiotic.

  14. Rapid report acetamiprid resistance and cross-resistance in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninsin, Kodwo D

    2004-09-01

    A 110-fold acetamiprid-resistant Plutella xylostella (L) strain was established after four selection experiments (in five generations) on a 9.5-fold resistant colony in the laboratory. The resistant strain did not show cross-resistance to chlorfluazuron or Bacillus thuringiensis subsp kurstaki Berliner, but displayed low resistance to cartap and phenthoate.

  15. A designed experiments approach to optimizing MALDI-TOF MS spectrum processing parameters enhances detection of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this...

  16. [A report on a clinical experience of which has successfully made several antibiotics-resistant bacteria (MRSA etc.) negative on a bedsore].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, T

    1992-02-01

    At the treatment of a bedsore of which had been resistant to various sorts of antibiotics, the mixture of several drugs was used for the treatment of its bedsore. Those drugs from which were used as the drugs-mixture, are 1% liquid of Pioctanin (C24H28N3Cl). 600 mg of Ascorbic acid, 9 mg of Pantothenic calcium and 20mg of hydrochloric Amitriptyline, respectively. The drugs-mixture, as mentioned above, has been scattered over its bedsore before the usual traditional treatment. After that, the bedsore has been treated by Gebencream (1% Cream of Sulfadiazine silver) as usually. Since a few days after that, Pseudomonas aeruginosa has never been able to be found on its bedsore at all. After a month, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Serratia marcescens, which had been resistant to many antibioticus till that, cannot be found at all, too.

  17. WZ di-boson measurements with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and performance of resistive Micromegas in view of HL-LHC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjarres-Ramos, Joany

    2013-01-01

    During the past two years, the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has performed exceptionally. The data collected by ATLAS made possible the first Standard Model physics measurements and produced a number of important experimental results. In the first part of this document the measurement of the WZ production with the ATLAS detector is presented and the second part is devoted to the study of resistive Micromegas properties, in view of the installation in the ATLAS spectrometer forward regions for the first phase of High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The measurement of the WZ production probes the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at high energies and allows for generic tests for New Physics beyond the Standard Model. Two datasets of LHC proton-proton collisions were analyzed, 4.8 fb -1 of integrated luminosity at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and 13 fb -1 at 8 TeV, collected in 2011 and the first half of 2012 respectively. Fully leptonic decay events are selected with electrons, muons and missing transverse momentum in the final state. Different date-driven estimates of the background were developed in the context of this analysis. The fiducial and total cross section of WZ production are measured and limits on anomalous triple gauge boson couplings are set. The second part of the document is devoted to the upgrade of the ATLAS detector. The conditions at the High Luminosity LHC calls for detectors capable of operating in a flux of collisions and background particles approximately ten times larger compared to today's conditions. The efficiency, resolution and robustness of resistive Micromegas were studied, as part of the R and D project aimed at the construction of large-area spark-resistant muon chambers using the Micromegas technology. (author) [fr

  18. Predictive factors of drug-resistant epilepsy in children presenting under 2 years of age: experience of a tertiary center in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Edibe Pembegul; Gunes, Dilek; Bektas, Gonca; Aksu Uzunhan, Tugce; Tatli, Burak; Caliskan, Mine; Aydinli, Nur; Ozmen, Meral

    2018-03-01

    Population-based studies report that children with epilepsy have relatively better prognosis than those with an onset at infancy, though studies about this period are limited. We aimed to evaluate the etiology in infant epilepsy less than 2 years of age and foreseeable risk factors for anti-epileptic drug resistance. We evaluated the patients who were presented to the division of pediatric neurology in our university hospital with seizures when they were between 1 and 24 months of age and diagnosed as epilepsy. Two hundred and twenty-nine patients (110 male and 119 female) who were diagnosed between the ages of 1-24 months were included in the study. The etiologies were structural (n = 55;24%), genetic (n = 29;12.7%), metabolic (n = 27;11.7%), and infectious (n = 8;3.5%), and it was unknown in 110 patients (48%). One-hundred and forty (61%) patients met the criteria for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that developmental delay at onset (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.22, 12.47, p = 0.021), multifocal epileptiform discharges (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1, 7.44, p = 0.031), and history of status epilepticus (OR 32.9, 95% CI 3.8, 285.35, p = 0.001) were strong predictive factors for DRE. The epilepsy in children under 2 years of age is highly resistant to the anti-epileptic drugs, which could be related to the history of status epilepticus, developmental delay at onset, and multifocal epileptiform discharges.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  20. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Drug-resistance testing results are used to decide which HIV medicines to include in a person’s first HIV regimen. After treatment is started, drug-resistance testing is repeated if ...

  1. Discipline, Resistance, Solace and the Body: Catholic Women Religious’ Convent Experiences from the Late 1930s to the Late 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Gervais

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the corporal forms of discipline and techniques of resistance exercised through and by Catholic women religious (sisters/nuns in Ontario, Canada. Borrowing from Foucault’s conception of controlled activity as a technique for disciplining the body, as well as Cvetkovich’s notion of repetitive activity as imbued with possibility for knowledge and hope, this paper demonstrates how Catholic women religious, due to their unique position as both leaders and subjects of the institutional church, have been agents of, and subjected to particular forms of disciplinary ritual, both in the Church and in their lived religion. Drawing on the experiential accounts of thirty-two current and former women religious in Canada, the paper demonstrates more or less overt forms of embodied, ritualistic discipline and the extent to which women have resisted this disciplinary power both in convent life and in their later years. The paper sheds light on how women’s perception of discipline is related to disobedience and compliance, nuancing the well-known “old norms” of convent life before the Second Vatican Council.

  2. Enhancement of methanol resistance of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase 2 using β-cyclodextrin as an additive: Insights from experiments and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hao; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Haiyang; Nie, Kaili; Lei, Ming; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-01-01

    The methanol resistance of lipase is a critical parameter in enzymatic biodiesel production. In the present work, the methanol resistance of Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase 2 (YLLIP2) was significantly improved using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as an additive. According to the results, YLLIP2 with β-CD exhibited approximately 7000U/mg specific activity in 30wt% methanol for 60min compared with no activity without β-CD under the same conditions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results indicated that the β-CD molecules weakened the conformational change of YLLIP2 and maintained a semi-open state of the lid by overcoming the interference caused by methanol molecules. Furthermore, the β-CD molecule could directly stabilize "pathway" regions (e.g., Asp61-Asp67) and indirectly stabilize "pathway" regions (e.g., Gly44-Phe50) by forming hydrogen bonds with "pathway" regions and nearby "pathway" regions, respectively. The regions stabilized by the β-CD molecule then prevented the closure of active pockets, thus retaining the enzymatic activity of YLLIP2 with β-CD in methanol solvent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Electrical Resistivity Structure of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, USA: Results From 3D Inversion of Modern and Legacy Magnetotelluric Data Collected by Industry and the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P.; Jiracek, G. R.; Pellerin, L.; Nettleton, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Valles caldera, in north-central New Mexico, USA, is a 20-km wide topographic depression in the Jemez Mountains volcanic complex that formed during two massive ignimbrite eruptions 1.65 and 1.26 Ma. Post-collapse volcanic activity in the caldera includes the rise of a 1 km high resurgent dome, periodic eruptions of the Valles rhyolite along ring fractures, and the presence of a geothermal reservoir beneath the western caldera with temperatures in excess of 300°C at a mere 2 km depth. We present an electrical resistivity model of the upper crust from three-dimensional (3D) inversion of broadband (100 Hz to 600 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in and around the Valles caldera. The Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) has been acquiring geophysical data in the northern Rio Grande rift for more than three decades (1983-2017). Included in that vast dataset are over 60 broadband magnetotelluric soundings that have recently been cataloged, geo-located, and digitized for use in modern geophysical processing and modeling. The resistivity models presented here were produced by inverting a subset of SAGE MT data along with 30 broadband MT soundings acquired by the Unocal Corporation in 1983 for geothermal exploration of the caldera. We use the 3D inversion algorithm ModEM (Egbert and Kelbert, 2012) to invert full impedance tensors and tipper functions from >30 MT stations for the electrical resistivity structure beneath the caldera. Our preferred model reveals the geometry and electrical properties of (1) the conductive caldera fill, (2) the resistive crystalline basement, and (3) an enigmatic mid-crustal conductor related to magmatic activity that post-dates caldera formation.

  4. Bacterial evolution: Resistance is a numbers game

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, J.P.J.; Harrison, E.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmids are well known for spreading antibiotic-resistance genes between bacterial strains. Recent experiments show that they can also act as catalysts for evolutionary innovation, promoting rapid evolution of novel antibiotic resistance.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I......Bacteria can avoid extinction during antimicrobial exposure by becoming resistant. They achieve this either via adaptive mutations or horizontally acquired resistance genes. If resistance emerges in clinical relevant species, it can lead to treatment failure and ultimately result in increasing...... morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...

  6. Retrospective mutational analysis of NPHS1, NPHS2, WT1 and LAMB2 in children with steroid-resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis – a single-centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bińczak-Kuleta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine NPHS1, NPHS2, WT1 and LAMB2 mutations, previously reported in two thirds of patients with nephrotic syndrome with onset before the age of one year old. Genomic DNA samples from Polish children (n=33 with Steroid-ResistantNephrotic Syndrome (SRNS due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, manifesting before the age of 13 years old, underwent retrospective analysis of NPHS1, NPHS2, WT1 (exons 8, 9 and adjacent exon/intron boundaries and LAMB2. No pathogenic NPHS1 or LAMB2 mutations were found in our FSGS cohort. SRNS-causing mutations of NPHS2 and WT1 were detected in 7 of 33 patients (21%, including those with nephrotic syndrome manifesting before one year old: five of seven patients. Four patients had homozygous c.413G>A (p.Arg138Gln NPHS2 mutations; one subject was homozygous for c.868G>A (p.Val290Met NPHS2. A phenotypic female had C>T transition at position +4 of the WT1 intron 9 (c.1432+4C>T splice-donor site, and another phenotypic female was heterozygous for G>A transition at position +5 (c.1432+5G>A. Genotyping revealed a female genotypic gender (46, XX for the first subject and male (46, XY for the latter. In addition, one patient was heterozygous for c.104dup (p.Arg36Profs*34 NPHS2; two patients carried a c.686G>A (p.Arg229Gln NPHS2 non-neutral variant. Results indicate possible clustering of causative NPHS2 mutations in FSGS-proven SRNS with onset before age one year old, and provide additional evidence that patients with childhood steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to focal segmentalglomerulosclerosis should first undergo analysis of NPHS2 coding sequence and WT1 exons 8 and 9 and surrounding exon/intron boundary sequences, followed by gender genotyping.

  7. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    The mitoxantrone resistance (MXR) gene encodes a recently characterized ATP-binding cassette half-transporter that confers multidrug resistance. We studied resistance to the camptothecins in two sublines expressing high levels of MXR: S1-M1-80 cells derived from parental S1 colon cancer cells...... and MCF-7 AdVp3,000 isolated from parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both cell lines were 400- to 1,000-fold more resistant to topotecan, 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin, and the active metabolite of irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), than their parental cell lines. The cell lines...... demonstrated much less resistance to camptothecin and to several camptothecin analogues. Reduced accumulation and energy-dependent efflux of topotecan was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. A significant reduction in cleavable complexes in the resistant cells could be observed after SN-38 treatment...

  8. A retrospective critic Re-Debate on Stakeholders’ resistance checklist in software project management within multi-cultural, multi-ethnical and cosmopolitan society context: The Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Taherdoost

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Risks stemming from software projects were extensively studied. However, software project risk management has rarely researched organizational risks within multi-cultural and multi-ethnical atmospheres. The fact of the matter is that problems occur when the stakeholders’ cultural and ethnical aspects are not addressed, especially in multi-cultural, multi-ethnical, and cosmopolitan society such as Malaysia. To avoid analyzing something that has already been studied in detail, this study conducted based on in-depth literature review considering key word search in subject-specific databases. Journal articles published in reputed journals were reviewed. By employing Rumelt’s resistance to change checklist and culture gap tool source, this paper develops an organizational risk framework considering cross-cultural and cross-ethnical critical factors in order to show how can risks be better comprehended and managed. The significance of bio-cultural dimensions was scrutinized as vital criteria which should be considered in international project sphere, so that, not only the odds of project success would be increased but also the risks can be mitigated significantly. A review of the risk management process, Rumelt’s Checklist, cultural issues in international project environment allows a better understanding of the importance of cultural dimensions in project spheres.

  9. "From resistance to challenge": child health service nurses experiences of how a course in group leadership affected their management of parental groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2017-01-01

    All parents in Sweden are invited to child health service (CHS) parental groups, however only 49% of the families participate. The way the parental groups are managed has been shown to be of importance for how parents experience the support and CHS nurses describe feeling insecure when running the groups. Lack of facilitation, structure and leadership might jeopardise the potential benefit of such support groups. This study describes CHS nurses' experiences of how a course in group leadership affected the way they ran their parental groups. A course in group leadership given to 56 CHS nurses was evaluated in focus group interviews 5-8 months after the course. The nurses felt strengthened in their group leader role and changed their leadership methods. The management of parental groups was after the course perceived as an important work task and the nurses included time for planning, preparation and evaluation, which they felt improved their parental groups. Parental participation in the activities in the group had become a key issue and they used their new exercises and tools to increase this. They expressed feeling more confident and relaxed in their role as group leaders and felt that they could adapt their leadership to the needs of the parents. Specific training might strengthen the CHS nurses in their group leader role and give them new motivation to fulfil their work with parental groups.  Clinical Trials.gov ID: NCT02494128.

  10. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  11. Managing Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents some considerations and ideas for managing students' resistance. They are organized around four topics: the impact of context on behavior, the importance of being comprehensive and nonrestrictive in behavior, the adaptive function of resistant behavior, and the benefit of joining children in their frame of reference.…

  12. Development of a Novel Contamination Resistant Ion Chamber for Process Tritium Measurement and Use in the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worth, L.B.C.; Pearce, R.J.H.; Bruce, J.; Banks, J.; Scales, S.

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of process measurements of tritium with conventional ion chambers is often affected by surface tritium contamination. The measurement of tritium in the exhaust of the JET torus is particularly difficult due to surface contamination with highly tritiated hydrocarbons. JET's first unsuccessful attempt to overcome the contamination problem was to use an ion chamber, with a heating element as the chamber wall so that it could be periodically decontaminated by baking. The newly developed ion chamber works on the principle of minimising the surface area within the boundary of the anode and cathode.This paper details the design of the ion chamber, which utilises a grid of 50-micron tungsten wire to define the ion chamber wall and the collector electrode. The effective surface area which, by contamination, is able to effect the measurement of tritium within the process gas has been reduced by a factor of ∼200 over a conventional ion chamber. It is concluded that the new process ion chamber enables sensitive accurate tritium measurements free from contamination issues. It will be a powerful new tool for future tritium experiments both to improve tritium tracking and to help in the understanding of tritium retention issues

  13. An ochre mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene causes hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D sub 3 -resistant rickets in three families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, H.H.; Hughes, M.R.; Thompson, E.T.; Pike, J.W.; O' Malley, B.W. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Malloy, P.J.; Feldman, D. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (USA)); Hochberg, Z. (Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel))

    1989-12-01

    Hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets is a rare autosomal-recessive disease resulting from target-organ resistance to the action of the active hormonal form of vitamin D. Four affected children from three related families with the classical syndrome of hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets and the absence of detectable binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in cultured fibroblasts or lymphoblasts were examined for genetic abnormalities in the VDR gene. Genomic DNA from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts of eight family members was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction techniques. Amplified fragments containing the eight structural exons encoding the VDR protein were sequenced. The DNA from all affected children exhibited a single C {yields} A base substitution within exon 7 at nucleotide 970. Although the affected children were all homozygotic for the mutation, the four parents tested all exhibited both wild-type and mutant alleles, indicating a heterozygous state. Recreated mutant receptor exhibited no specific 1,25-({sup 3}H)dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} binding and failed to activate a cotransfected VDR promoter-reporter gene construct. Thus these findings identify an ochre mutation in a human steroid hormone receptor in patients with hereditary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}-resistant rickets.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening infections – to a last resort treatment (carbapenem antibiotics) has spread to all regions of the ... unit patients. In some countries, because of resistance, carbapenem antibiotics do not work in more than half ...

  15. Desirability-Based Multi-Criteria Optimization of HVOF Spray Experiments to Manufacture Fine Structured Wear-Resistant 75Cr3C2-25(NiCr20) Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Vogli, E.; Baumann, I.; Kopp, G.; Weihs, C.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal spraying of fine feedstock powders allow the deposition of cermet coatings with significantly improved characteristics and is currently of great interest in science and industry. However, due to the high surface to volume ratio and the low specific weight, fine particles are not only difficult to spray but also show a poor flowability in the feeding process. In order to process fine powders reliably and to preserve the fine structure of the feedstock material in the final coating morphology, the use of novel thermal spray equipment as well as a thorough selection and optimization of the process parameters are fundamentally required. In this study, HVOF spray experiments have been conducted to manufacture fine structured, wear-resistant cermet coatings using fine 75Cr3C2-25(Ni20Cr) powders (-8 + 2 μm). Statistical design of experiments (DOE) has been utilized to identify the most relevant process parameters with their linear, quadratic and interaction effects using Plackett-Burman, Fractional-Factorial and Central Composite designs to model the deposition efficiency of the process and the majorly important coating properties: roughness, hardness and porosity. The concept of desirability functions and the desirability index have been applied to combine these response variables in order to find a process parameter combination that yields either optimum results for all responses, or at least the best possible compromise. Verification experiments in the so found optimum obtained very satisfying or even excellent results. The coatings featured an average microhardness of 1004 HV 0.1, a roughness Ra = 1.9 μm and a porosity of 1.7%. In addition, a high deposition efficiency of 71% could be obtained.

  16. Public health impact of isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with a mutation at amino-acid position 315 of katG: a decade of experience in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, H. R.; de Haas, P. E. W.; Kremer, K.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Borgdorff, M. W.; van Soolingen, D.

    2006-01-01

    A previous limited study demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with a mutation at amino-acid position 315 of katG (Delta315) exhibited high-level resistance to isoniazid and were more frequently resistant to streptomycin. In the present study, isoniazid-resistant M. tuberculosis

  17. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  18. Resident resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J L; Cleary, B

    1999-01-01

    Clearly, faculty must work hard with residents to explore the nature of their resistance to a program's learning and growth opportunities. Initial steps to a deeper, more effective, and longer-lasting change process must be pursued. If resident resistance is mishandled or misunderstood, then learning and professional growth may be sidetracked and the purposes of residency training defeated. Listening to the whole person of the resident and avoiding the trap of getting caught up in merely responding to select resident behaviors that irritate us is critical. Every faculty member in the family practice residency program must recognize resistance as a form of defense that cannot immediately be torn down or taken away. Resident defenses have important purposes to play in stress reduction even if they are not always healthy. Residents, especially interns, use resistance to avoid a deeper and more truthful look at themselves as physicians. A family practice residency program that sees whole persons in their residents and that respects resident defenses will effectively manage the stress and disharmony inherent to the resistant resident.

  19. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  20. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  1. “I have to do what I believe”: Sudanese women’s beliefs and resistance to hegemonic practices at home and during experiences of maternity care in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that immigrant women having different ethnocultural backgrounds than those dominant in the host country have difficulty during their access to and reception of maternity care services, but little knowledge exists on how factors such as ethnic group and cultural beliefs intersect and influence health care access and outcomes. Amongst immigrant populations in Canada, refugee women are one of the most vulnerable groups and pregnant women with immediate needs for health care services may be at higher risk of health problems. This paper describes findings from the qualitative dimension of a mixed-methodological study. Methods A focused ethnographic approach was conducted in 2010 with Sudanese women living in an urban Canadian city. Focus group interviews were conducted to map out the experiences of these women in maternity care, particularly with respect to the challenges faced when attempting to use health care services. Results Twelve women (mean age 36.6 yrs) having experience using maternity services in Canada within the past two years participated. The findings revealed that there are many beliefs that impact upon behaviours and perceptions during the perinatal period. Traditionally, the women mostly avoid anything that they believe could harm themselves or their babies. Pregnancy and delivery were strongly believed to be natural events without need for special attention or intervention. Furthermore, the sub-Saharan culture supports the dominance of the family by males and the ideology of patriarchy. Pregnancy and birth are events reflecting a certain empowerment for women, and the women tend to exert control in ways that may or may not be respected by their husbands. Individual choices are often made to foster self and outward-perceptions of managing one’s affairs with strength. Conclusion In today’s multicultural society there is a strong need to avert misunderstandings, and perhaps harm, through facilitating cultural awareness

  2. Resistance welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Zhang, Wenqi; Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance welding comprises not only the well known spot welding process but also more complex projection welding operations, where excessive plastic deformation of the weld point may occur. This enables the production of complex geometries and material combinations, which are often not possible...

  3. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure

  4. Novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of resistance reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C. Pehrsson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching healthcare and societal costs. Recent evidence has established a link between antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens and those found in non-pathogenic, commensal, and environmental organisms, prompting deeper investigation of natural and human-associated reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. Functional metagenomic selections, in which shotgun-cloned DNA fragments are selected for their ability to confer survival to an indicator host, have been increasingly applied to the characterization of many antibiotic resistance reservoirs. These experiments have demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes are highly diverse and widely distributed, many times bearing little to no similarity to known sequences. Through unbiased selections for survival to antibiotic exposure, functional metagenomics can improve annotations by reducing the discovery of false-positive resistance and by allowing for the identification of previously unrecognizable resistance genes. In this review, we summarize the novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of natural and human-impacted resistance reservoirs. Examples of novel antibiotic resistance genes include those highly divergent from known sequences, those for which sequence is entirely unable to predict resistance function, bifunctional resistance genes, and those with unconventional, atypical resistance mechanisms. Overcoming antibiotic resistance in the clinic will require a better understanding of existing resistance reservoirs and the dissemination networks that govern horizontal gene exchange, informing best practices to limit the spread of resistance-conferring genes to human pathogens.

  5. Novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of resistance reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrsson, Erica C; Forsberg, Kevin J; Gibson, Molly K; Ahmadi, Sara; Dantas, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Rates of infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria have increased precipitously over the past several decades, with far-reaching healthcare and societal costs. Recent evidence has established a link between antibiotic resistance genes in human pathogens and those found in non-pathogenic, commensal, and environmental organisms, prompting deeper investigation of natural and human-associated reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. Functional metagenomic selections, in which shotgun-cloned DNA fragments are selected for their ability to confer survival to an indicator host, have been increasingly applied to the characterization of many antibiotic resistance reservoirs. These experiments have demonstrated that antibiotic resistance genes are highly diverse and widely distributed, many times bearing little to no similarity to known sequences. Through unbiased selections for survival to antibiotic exposure, functional metagenomics can improve annotations by reducing the discovery of false-positive resistance and by allowing for the identification of previously unrecognizable resistance genes. In this review, we summarize the novel resistance functions uncovered using functional metagenomic investigations of natural and human-impacted resistance reservoirs. Examples of novel antibiotic resistance genes include those highly divergent from known sequences, those for which sequence is entirely unable to predict resistance function, bifunctional resistance genes, and those with unconventional, atypical resistance mechanisms. Overcoming antibiotic resistance in the clinic will require a better understanding of existing resistance reservoirs and the dissemination networks that govern horizontal gene exchange, informing best practices to limit the spread of resistance-conferring genes to human pathogens.

  6. [Resistance to integrase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Carolina; de Mendoza, Carmen; Soriano, Vicente

    2008-11-01

    Integrase inhibitors are the most recently approved family of antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infection. As with other antiretroviral agents, under pharmacological pressure, the virus selects resistance mutations if viral suppression is incomplete. Mutations are selected in the integrase gene, specifically in positions proximal to the catalytic center. Because clinical experience with these drugs is scarce, information on resistance is limited. Virologic failure with raltegravir is associated with selection of primary mutations such as N155H (40%) and distinct changes in position Q148 (28%). Less frequently, Y143R (6.6%) and E92Q are selected. The most frequently observed mutations in failure with elvitegravir are E92Q, E138K, Q148R/K/H and N155H, and less frequently S147G and T66A/I/K. The most common resistance pattern seems to be E138K + E147G + Q148R. There is a high grade of cross resistance between raltegravir and elvitegravir, making sequencing between these two drugs impossible.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  8. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Hoffmann, Tammy C; McCullough, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous opportunities are available in primary care for alleviating the crisis of increasing antibiotic resistance. Preventing patients from developing an acute respiratory infection (ARI) will obviate any need for antibiotic use downstream. Hygiene measures such as physical barriers and hand...... will greatly improve the use of antibiotics for ARIs. However, used in concert, combinations are likely to enable clinicians and health care systems to implement the strategies that will reduce antimicrobial resistance in the future....... antibiotic prescribing are a major factor in the prescribing for ARIs. Professional interventions with educational components are effective, although they have modest effects, and are expensive. GPs' perceptions - that mistakenly assume as a default that patients want antibiotics for their ARIs - are often...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...... is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self-limiting conditions. Antibiotic overprescribing is a particular problem in primary care, where viruses cause most infections. About 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by general...

  10. Resisting dehumanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the influx of asylum-seekers in Scandinavia, and in Denmark this has led to ever-tighter immigration control. This article discusses emerging practices of refugee solidarity and resistance to hegemonic migration policy in Danish civil society in the wake of w...... 2015) and appraisal analysis of the incident in focus. Keywords: immigration, discursive discrimination, populism, solidarity, governmentality, topoi, appraisal...

  11. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Contact Us ABOUT THE ISSUE What is Antibiotic Resistance? General Background Science of Resistance Glossary References ... for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Project (ROAR) INTERNATIONAL CHAPTERS APUA Chapter Network ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  14. Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the normal range. What happens with insulin resistance? In insulin resistance, muscle, fat, and liver cells do not ... they do not usually test specifically for insulin resistance. Insulin resistance can be assessed by measuring the level ...

  15. Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    Insulin resistance (IR) is escalating with alarming pace and is no longer restricted to westernized countries. As a forerunner for some of the most serious threats to human health including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2-diabetes, the need for new treatment modalities...... interventions. We further show that improving the inflammatory toning, using fish oil as fat source, protects mice against diet induced obesity and -inflammation while preserving insulin sensitivity, even in the absence of free fatty acid receptor 4. Conversely, HFD-induced intestinal dysbiosis is associated...

  16. Resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, P; Oliveras, A; de la Sierra, A

    2013-11-01

    A 53 year old woman with hypercholesterolemia treated with statins, with no history of cardiovascular disease, was referred to the Hypertension and Vascular Risk Unit for management of hypertension resistant to 4 antihypertensive agents at full doses. The patient had obesity, with a body mass index of 36.3kg/m(2) and office blood pressure 162/102mm Hg. Physical examination showed no data of interest. glucose 120mg/dl, glycated Hb: 6.4%, albuminuria 68mg/g, kidney function and study of the renin angiotensin system and other biochemical parameters were normal. Echocardiography: left ventricular mass, 131g/m(2) (normal, <110g/m(2)). True resistant hypertension was confirmed by ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure during 24h (153/89mm Hg). Spironolactone treatment (25mg/day) was added and was well tolerated, with no change in renal function and kaliemia within normal (4.1mmol/l) following the treatment. After 8 weeks, blood pressure was well controlled: office blood pressure 132/86mm Hg and 24h-ambulatory blood pressure: 128/79mm Hg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistance to Disruption in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Cruwys, Diana E.; Neal, Carrie M.; Ahearn, William H.; Wheeler, Emily E.; Premchander, Raseeka; Loeb, Melissa B.; Dube, William V.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial experimental evidence indicates that behavior reinforced on a denser schedule is more resistant to disruption than is behavior reinforced on a thinner schedule. The present experiment studied resistance to disruption in a natural educational environment. Responding during familiar activities was reinforced on a multiple…

  18. A single-loop recombinant pseudotyped-virus-based assay to detect HIV-1 phenotypic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shouli; Yan, Pingping; Yan, Yansheng; Qiu, Lijun; Xie, Meirong

    2015-06-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading public health concern throughout the world. Currently, treatment of HIV/AIDS still depends on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, there is increasing evidence showing the emergence of resistance to antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1 strains, making ART less effective over time. Intensive monitoring of HIV-1 drug resistance is therefore of great importance to evaluate the current sensitivity of antiretroviral agents and is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to develop a single-loop recombinant pseudotyped-virus-based assay to detect phenotypic resistance in clinical HIV-1 strains. HIV-1 RNA was extracted from HIV-1-infected human plasma samples, and an approximately 3-kb fragment containing p7/p1/p6 cleavage sites and full-length protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), thermonuclease (TNase), and integrase (1-280 aa) genes was amplified by nested RT-PCR. A retroviral vector was constructed using the HIV-1 infectious molecular clone pLWJ to test antiretroviral drug susceptibility. pLWJ-SV40-Luc contained a luciferase expression cassette inserted within a deleted region of the envelope (env) gene as an indicator gene. Resistance test vectors (RTVs) were constructed by incorporating amplified target genes into pLWJ-SV40-Luc by using ApaI or AgeI and AarI restriction sites and conventional cloning methods. The virus stocks used for drug susceptibility test were produced by co-transfecting 293T cells with RTVs and a plasmid that provided vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G). Viral replication was monitored by measuring luciferase activity in infected target cells at approximately 48 h postinfection. A total of 35 clinical plasma samples from HIV-1-infected humans were tested, and target fragments were successfully amplified from 34 samples (97.1 %) and 33 RTVs were successfully constructed by directional cloning, with an overall success rate of 94.3 %. A clear-cut dose-dependent relationship was detected between

  19. Mechanisms of ouabain resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.T. III.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the mechanism of ouabain resistance in two distinct types of transfected cells derived from ouabain-sensitive CV-1 cell parents. The first type of transfectant is the recipient of a gene encoding the alpha subunit of the rodent renal Na,K-ATPase (R-alphal gene); the second type of transfectant is the recipient of the mouse ouabain resistance gene. Measurements of 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K=ATPase activity in R-alphal gene transfectant cells and CV-1 parent cells indicate that the ouabain-resistant phenotype of the transfectants is due to expression of a relatively ouabain-insensitive Na,K=ATPase. CV-1 parent cells express one component of ouabain sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and one component of ouabain-sensitive Na, K-ATPase activity. R-alpha 1 gene transfectants express the parental forms of ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and Na,K-ATPase activity, but in addition express new,relatively ouabain-insensitive forms of 86 Rb + uptake activity and Na,K-ATPase activity

  20. Resisting dehumanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the influx of asylum-seekers in Scandinavia, and in Denmark this has led to ever-tighter immigration control. This article discusses emerging practices of refugee solidarity and resistance to hegemonic migration policy in Danish civil society in the wake...... of an incident from September 2015, when a member of a Danish City Council offered private shelter to immigrants who were on their way to Norway. The incident led to legal proceedings in August 2016 for what the defendant referred to as ‘the offense of helping fellow human beings in need’. The study is informed...... 2015) and appraisal analysis of the incident in focus. Keywords: immigration, discursive discrimination, populism, solidarity, governmentality, topoi, appraisal...

  1. Seeing Imagination as Resistance and Resistance as Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    with the objects of experience that can then resist our actions and thus become Gegenstand. Directionality and resistance are fundamental parts of any developmental process and characterize such relationships with the phenomenon of Gegenstand. Finally, I argue that imaginative processes are the distinctive...... features that enable humans to deal with uncertainty and change. Imagination is related to the creation of Gegenstand from non-existing objects. Imagination is also the faculty to go beyond problems in order to solve them. That is the reason why imagination is so dangerous for every dictatorship....

  2. Mathematical analysis of multi-antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-09-15

    Multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial infections is a growing threat to public health. Some experiments were carried out to study the multi-antibiotic resistance. The changes of the multi-antibiotic resistance with time were achieved by numerical simulations and the mathematical models, with the calculated temperature field, velocity field, and the antibiotic concentration field. The computed results and experimental results are compared. Both numerical simulations and the analytic models suggest that minor low concentrations of antibiotics could induce antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro

    1982-01-01

    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  5. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  6. Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Farm Animals FDA: Cutting-Edge Technology Sheds Light on Antibiotic Resistance For More Information Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antimicrobial Resistance Information for Consumers and Health Professionals CDC: Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work More in Consumer Updates ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation of Antimicrobial ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of Antimicrobials Page Last Updated: ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  10. Flow resistance of textile materials. Part II: Multifilament Fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, H.; Gooijer, H.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Groot Wassink, J.

    2003-01-01

    Part I of this series presented a new model for predicting the flow resistance of monofilament fabrics. In this part, the model is applied to the flow resistance of multi filament fabrics. Experiments show that flow resistance in multifilament fabrics can be modeled in general, but it appears that

  11. Genetic analysis of baculovirus resistance in lepidopteran model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify the resistant mechanism of BmNPV in silkworm, and from negative to prove agricultural pest inheritance of virus resistance, in this study, we used the highly resistant strain NB and susceptible strain 306 as the material through the method of classical genetics experiment, and proved that the baculovirus ...

  12. The resistance of lettuce to the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van M.

    1995-01-01

    The resistance of lettuce to the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri is based on a single, dominant gene, the Nr-gene. On the resistant plant aphids died within a few days, without any honeydew production. Transfer-experiments with a short stay on a resistant plant followed by a

  13. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  14. In vitro selection of resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, C E; Nix, D E; Schentag, J J

    1990-09-01

    Four strains of Helicobacter pylori were subjected to an in vitro serial passage technique to compare the propensity of the organisms to develop resistance to seven classes of antibacterial agents. The passages were made on serially doubling concentrations of antibacterial agents incorporated into agar starting at one-half the base-line MIC. The frequency of spontaneous resistance was also determined for each strain at four and eight times the MIC of each antibacterial agent. Strains resistant to ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, erythromycin, and tobramycin were isolated. The experiments failed to select organisms resistant to bismuth subsalicylate, furazolidone, or amoxicillin, although the MIC of amoxicillin was increased 4- to 16-fold. With the exception of erythromycin, organisms with the selected resistance were stable after at least three passages on antibacterial agent-free medium. Spontaneous resistance rates were generally of a low magnitude and were not predictive of the serial passage results.

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  17. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Rodrigues, João V C; Souza, Thadeu C; Tavares, Clébson S; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul N C; Pereira, Eliseu J G

    2015-12-17

    Transgenic crop "pyramids" producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the "pyramid" resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to Cry1F maize with Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab maize for ten generations produced resistance that allowed the larvae to colonize and complete the life cycle on these Bt maize plants. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the resistance was completely recessive (Dx = 0), incomplete, autosomal, and without maternal effects or cross-resistance to the Vip3Aa20 toxin produced in other Bt maize events. This profile of resistance supports some of the assumptions of the pyramid strategy for resistance management. However, laboratory experiments with purified Bt toxin and plant leaf tissue showed that resistance to Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 maize further increased resistance to Cry1Fa, which indicates that populations of fall armyworm have high potential for developing resistance to some currently available pyramided maize used against this pest, especially where resistance to Cry1Fa was reported in the field.

  19. Diagnosing resistance to change in the change management process

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzhda, Tetiana

    2016-01-01

    This article explains the change management process and resistance to organizational change through examining causes of resistance to change, diagnosing them, and finding the ways to deal with resistance to change. In business environment, the one thing any company can be assured of is change. If an organization experiences change it may also need to implement new business strategies, which can create resistance among employees. Managers need to know in which phase they have to expect unusual...

  20. CMS Resistive plate Champers

    CERN Document Server

    Zainab, Karam

    2013-01-01

    There are many types of gas detectors which are used in CERN in LHC project, There is a main parts for the gas detectors which must be in all gas detectors types like Multiwire proportional chambers, such as the micromesh gaseous structure chamber (the MicroMegas), Gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detector, Resistive Plate Champers... Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment detecting muons which are powerful tool for recognizing signatures of interesting physics processes. The CMS detector uses: drift tube (DT), cathode strip chamber (CSC) and resistive plate chamber (RPC). Building RPC’s was my project in summer student program (hardware). RPC’s have advantages which are triggering detector and Excellent time resolution which reinforce the measurement of the correct beam crossing time. RPC’s Organized in stations :  RPC barrel (RB) there are 4 stations, namely RB1, RB2, RB3, and RB4  While in the RPC endcap (RE) the 3 stations are RE1, RE2, and RE3. In the endcaps a new starion will be added and this...

  1. Resisting decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Koch, Lene; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper approaches institutionalized dementia care as a site of societal disposal, valuation, and care for human life. Drawing upon six weeks of ethnographic fieldwork and ten qualitative interviews carried out in a Danish dementia nursing home in 2014, we analyze how nursing home staff, throu....... Dementia care, we propose, is not only about preserving the lives of people with dementia. At stake in the daily care practices around severely disabled residents in the nursing home is the very continuance of the main principles of the welfare society....... everyday care, uphold the value of life for residents in severe mental and physical decline. We argue that life's worth is established when residents gain qualities of personhood and agency through substitution processes carried out by staff. Yet the persistent absence of conventional personhood...... and autonomous agency in residents (i.e. capacities for memory, consciousness, language, and mobility) evokes experiences of ambiguity in staff and relatives of residents. We close the article with a discussion of this ambiguity and the significance of the nursing home as care institution in the welfare state...

  2. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F.; Rodrigues, Jo?o V. C.; Souza, Thadeu C.; Tavares, Cl?bson S.; Campos, Silverio O.; Guedes, Raul N.C.; Pereira, Eliseu J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic crop ?pyramids? producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the ?pyramid? resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to...

  3. Mechanism for detecting NAPL using electrical resistivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halihan, Todd; Sefa, Valina; Sale, Tom; Lyverse, Mark

    2017-10-01

    The detection of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) related impacts in freshwater environments by electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) has been clearly demonstrated in field conditions, but the mechanism generating the resistive signature is poorly understood. An electrical barrier mechanism which allows for detecting NAPLs with ERI is tested by developing a theoretical basis for the mechanism, testing the mechanism in a two-dimensional sand tank with ERI, and performing forward modeling of the laboratory experiment. The NAPL barrier theory assumes at low bulk soil NAPL concentrations, thin saturated NAPL barriers can block pore throats and generate a detectable electrically resistive signal. The sand tank experiment utilized a photographic technique to quantify petroleum saturation, and to help determine whether ERI can detect and quantify NAPL across the water table. This experiment demonstrates electrical imaging methods can detect small quantities of NAPL of sufficient thickness in formations. The bulk volume of NAPL is not the controlling variable for the amount of resistivity signal generated. The resistivity signal is primarily due to a zone of high resistivity separate phase liquid blocking current flow through the fully NAPL saturated pores spaces. For the conditions in this tank experiment, NAPL thicknesses of 3.3 cm and higher in the formation was the threshold for detectable changes in resistivity of 3% and greater. The maximum change in resistivity due to the presence of NAPL was an increase of 37%. Forward resistivity models of the experiment confirm the barrier mechanism theory for the tank experiment.

  4. Control of nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, M A; Phipps, R J; Wang, J C; Widdicombe, J G

    1984-01-01

    Nasal vascular and airflow resistances have been measured in dogs, simultaneously on both sides separately. Vascular resistance was measured either by constant flow perfusion of the terminal branch of the maxillary artery (which supplies, via the sphenopalatine artery, the nasal septum, most of the turbinates and the nasal sinuses) or by measuring blood flow through this artery, maintained by the dog's own blood pressure. Airflow resistance was assessed by inserting balloon-tipped endotracheal catheters into the back of each nasal cavity via the nasopharynx, and measuring transnasal pressure at constant airflow through each side of the nose simultaneously. Preliminary experiments indicated that there was 5-10% collateral anastomosis between the two sides. Close-arterial injection of drugs showed different patterns of response. Adrenaline, phenylephrine, chlorpheniramine and low doses of prostaglandin F2 alpha increased vascular resistance and lowered airway resistance. Salbutamol, methacholine and histamine lowered vascular resistance and increased airway resistance. Dobutamine decreased airway resistance with a small increase in vascular resistance. Prostaglandins E1, E2 and F2 alpha (high dose) decreased both vascular and airway resistances. Substance P, eledoisin-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide lowered vascular resistance with little change in airway resistance. The results are interpreted in terms of possible drug actions on precapillary resistance vessels, sinusoids and venules, and arteriovenous anastomoses. It is concluded that nasal airway resistance cannot be correlated with vascular resistance or blood flow, since the latter has a complex and ill-defined relationship with nasal vascular blood volume. PMID:6204040

  5. Resistance of a water spark.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2005-11-01

    The later time phase of electrical breakdown in water is investigated for the purpose of improving understanding of the discharge characteristics. One dimensional simulations in addition to a zero dimensional lumped model are used to study the spark discharge. The goal is to provide better electrical models for water switches used in the pulse compression section of pulsed power systems. It is found that temperatures in the discharge channel under representative drive conditions, and assuming small initial radii from earlier phases of development, reach levels that are as much as an order of magnitude larger than those used to model discharges in atmospheric gases. This increased temperature coupled with a more rapidly rising conductivity with temperature than in air result in a decreased resistance characteristic compared to preceding models. A simple modification is proposed for the existing model to enable the approximate calculation of channel temperature and incorporate the resulting conductivity increase into the electrical circuit for the discharge channel. Comparisons are made between the theoretical predictions and recent experiments at Sandia. Although present and past experiments indicated that preceding late time channel models overestimated channel resistance, the calculations in this report seem to underestimate the resistance relative to recent experiments. Some possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  6. The CONNIE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; et al.

    2016-10-19

    The CONNIE experiment uses fully depleted, high resistivity CCDs as particle detectors in an attempt to measure for the first time the Coherent Neutrino-Nucleus Elastic Scattering of antineutrinos from a nuclear reactor with silicon nuclei.This talk, given at the XV Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields (MWPF), discussed the potential of CONNIE to perform this measurement, the installation progress at the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant, as well as the plans for future upgrades.

  7. Inheritance of peroxyacetyl nitrate resistance in petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, N.E.; Hill, R.R. Jr.; Hepler, R.W.; Pell, E.J.; Craig, R.

    1980-03-01

    The inheritance of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) resistance in Petunia hybrida Vilm. was studied using the inbred parents of White Cascade, a susceptible F/sub 1/ hybrid, and Coral Magic, a resistant hybrid. In each of 6 experiments, 4-week-old plants of the parents, their reciprocal F/sub 1/ hybrids, the F/sub 2/ generation, and reciprocal backcross generations were simultaneously tested for PAN resistance. Plants were exposed to 742 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.15 ppm) PAN for 1.5 hours in a controlled environment chamber. The percent area of bifacial necrosis was determined for each leaf on a plant and an average was calculated to yield an injury rating. Significant genetic variation was detected in each experiment, but the best fitting genetic model varied among experiments, indicating large genotype by environment interaction. In the experiment with the most severe PAN injury, genes for susceptibility exhibited almost complete dominance to those for resistance and epistatic effects were not significant. In other experiments with lower levels of PAN injury, resistance was partially dominant to susceptibility and one or more epistatic parameters were significant. 17 references, 4 tables.

  8. Resistance profile of herbicide-resistant Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass) populations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshtkar, E.; Mathiassen, S. K; Moss, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Alopecurus myosuroides Huds is one of the most important grass-weeds in North-western Europe and is also the most important herbicide-resistant weed species in European agricultural systems. Fifty-three Danish A. myosuroides populations, previously confirmed to be fenoxaprop-P resistant, were...... evaluated for five and two known mutation points within the ACCase and ALS genes, respectively. The resistance pattern of 28 out of the 53 populations was investigated to four herbicides using a seed bioassay technique. A whole plant dose response experiment was conducted on seven populations in 2012...... and 2013 to evaluate the accuracy of the seed bioassay results. Two resistant populations from the UK and a susceptible population from Denmark were included as reference populations in all experiments. Of the 53 populations, nine (17%) populations were ACCase target site resistant (TSR), all...

  9. Enhancing TB case detection: experience in offering upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing to pediatric presumptive TB and DR TB cases for early rapid diagnosis of drug sensitive and drug resistant TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children is challenging due to difficulties in obtaining good quality sputum specimens as well as the paucibacillary nature of disease. Globally a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB cases are diagnosed based only on clinical findings. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents the results from pediatric groups taking part in a large demonstration study wherein Xpert MTB/RIF testing replaced smear microscopy for all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities across India.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 programmatic sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each study TU. Pediatric presumptive PTB cases (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing any public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and tested on Xpert MTB/RIF following a standardized diagnostic algorithm.4,600 pediatric presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled. 590 (12.8%, CI 11.8-13.8 pediatric PTB were diagnosed. Overall 10.4% (CI 9.5-11.2 of presumptive PTB cases had positive results by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 4.8% (CI 4.2-5.4 who had smear-positive results. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and presumptive DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 79 and 12 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high (98%, CI 90.1-99.9, with no statistically significant variation with respect to past history of treatment.Upfront access to Xpert MTB/RIF testing in pediatric presumptive PTB cases was associated with a two-fold increase in bacteriologically-confirmed PTB, and increased detection of rifampicin-resistant TB cases under routine operational conditions across India. These results suggest that routine Xpert MTB/RIF testing is a promising

  10. A gestalt-experiential perspective on resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, David; Holiman, Marjorie

    2002-02-01

    The authors present background on the gestalt-experiential understanding of resistance, conceptualized to be either resistance to awareness or resistance to contact. The authors discuss why they do not use the term resistance and describe the phenomena as a client's self-protective attempt to avoid the anxiety necessitated by change. Such resistant behaviors occur outside a client's awareness and often result in an ambivalence or conflict about change. The authors also describe using in-session experiments as a way to engage with the client in exploring such a state of ambivalence or conflict. Finally, they respond to the case studies presented elsewhere in this issue and propose intervention strategies consistent with the gestalt-experiential perspective. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Effects of atmospheric moisture on rock resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R.

    1973-01-01

    This study examines the changes in resistivity of rock samples as induced by atmospheric moisture. Experiments were performed on samples of hematitic sandstone, pyrite, and galena. The sandstone underwent a change in resistivity of four orders of magnitude when it was measured in a vacuum of 500 ntorr and in air of 37% relative humidity. Pyrite and galena showed no variations in resistivity when they were measured under the same conditions. These results, plus others obtained elsewhere, indicate that rocks of the resistive type are affected in their electrical properties by atmospheric moisture, whereas rocks of the conductive type are not. The experimental evidence obtained is difficult to reconcile with a model of aqueous electrolytic conduction on the sample surface. It is instead suggested that adsorbed water molecules alter the surface resistivity in a manner similar to that observed in semiconductors and insulators.

  12. Resistivity in Play-Doh: Time and Color Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Christopher; August, Brandon; Cannaday, Ashley; Barker, Casey

    2013-09-01

    The study of electricity and magnetism is fundamental to all first-year physics courses. Developing simple electricity laboratory experiences that are open ended and inquiry based can be difficult. We wished to create a lab experiment where the students have some control over the experimental design, data analysis is required, and students investigate the concept of resistivity as found in Halliday Resnick, and Walker. This experiment uses modeling clay or Play-Doh™ to demonstrate the properties of ohmic materials and resistivity. We were familiar with the paper "Resistance Measurements on Play-Doh™" by Jones2 and we have worked to more accurately explain the physics of the experiment. We have also further developed the experiment to better understand how the resistivity of Play-Doh changes with time. This lab is an exciting, fun experiment that connects a new concept with a familiar childhood toy.

  13. Resistance to Powdery Mildews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwoszek, Agnieszka Izabela

    in majority of them. Resistance to barley powdery mildew in the field is controlled by use of resistant varieties in a combination with fungicides. Early disease management is crucial for effective control. Yet, the pathogen commonly develops fungicide resistance due to simple point mutations. Several studies...... investigated reduced fitness of plants as a cost of resistance to pathogens. In case of barley powdery mildew, most common resistance (mlo) is linked to a higher susceptibility to other pathogens and spontaneous necrosis that leads to yield reduction. Thus, there is a clear need for alternative methods of crop...... protection. In the present study, I provide an overview of the current knowledge about plant pathogens and plant disease resistance. I use Arabidopsis as a model to investigate the mechanism of non-host resistance, presumed to be the most durable and broad-spectrum form of resistance. I attempt to determine...

  14. Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Buying & Using Medicine Safely Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotics ... Antibiotic Resistance and Protect Public Health The White House Blog FDA’s Take on the Executive Order and ...

  15. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Threat Gonorrhea has progressively developed resistance to the antibiotic drugs prescribed to treat it. Following the spread ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  17. Resistance seam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the resistance seam welding process are presented. Types of seam welds, types of seam welding machines, seam welding power supplies, resistance seam welding parameters and seam welding characteristics of various metals

  18. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. ... concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  2. MDRO - Multidrug-Resistant Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staphylococcus aureus VRE - Vancomycin-resistant enterococci ESBLs - Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (which are resistant to cephalosporins and monobactams) PRSP - Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Multi- ...

  3. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    form of musical consumption and experience. The three pieces draw lines connecting different aspects of persistence, resistance, and resonance.

  4. Resistance of sunflower hybrids to imazamox and tribenuron-methyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozic, D; Saric, M; Malidza, G

    2012-01-01

    The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post-emergence wi......The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post...

  5. Resistive Threshold Logic

    OpenAIRE

    James, A. P.; Francis, L. R. V. J.; Kumar, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report a resistance based threshold logic family useful for mimicking brain like large variable logic functions in VLSI. A universal Boolean logic cell based on an analog resistive divider and threshold logic circuit is presented. The resistive divider is implemented using memristors and provides output voltage as a summation of weighted product of input voltages. The output of resistive divider is converted into a binary value by a threshold operation implemented by CMOS inverter and/or O...

  6. European perspective and update on the management of complicated skin and soft tissue infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after more than 10 years of experience with linezolid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, M; Baguneid, M; Bouza, E; Dryden, M; Nathwani, D; Wilcox, M

    2014-04-01

    Complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) are a diverse group of infections, with a range of presentations and microbiological causes. Hospitalization is common for patients with a cSSTI, which is treated by drainage of the affected area and with antibiotics. Host factors such as co-morbidities, and microbial factors, in particular drug resistance, complicate the management of these infections. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cSSTI pathogen in Europe, and its involvement can be associated with poor patient outcomes. European guidelines recommend vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline or ceftaroline for treatment of MRSA cSSTIs. Of primary importance when treating cSSTIs is the agent's clinical efficacy against the causative pathogens, as well as its bioavailability in the skin and associated structures. Linezolid is well-suited for the treatment of MRSA cSSTIs; it achieves high penetration into skin and soft tissues with 100% oral bioavailability, and therefore enables an intravenous to oral switch and outpatient treatment. When eligible patients are offered oral therapy the associated length of hospital stay and overall costs can be reduced. Linezolid has demonstrated clinical efficacy and favourable outcomes in patients for the treatment of MRSA cSSTIs including the treatment of lower extremity infections. Furthermore, efficacy has been documented in key defined populations, such as individuals with renal impairment and the obese. The safety profile of linezolid is well-documented, making this antibacterial a viable choice for the treatment of MRSA cSSTIs. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from environmental

  8. Antibiotic resistance reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    One of the major threats to human health in the 21st century is the emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, thereby limiting treatment options. An important route through which pathogens become resistant is via acquisition of resistance genes from

  9. Theorizing the Racial and Gendered Educational Experiences of Chicanas and Native American Women at the Ph.D. Level in Higher Education: "Testimonios" of Resistance, Defiance, Survival, and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Bert Maria

    2013-01-01

    This national case study examines the educational experiences of twenty-one women that self-identified as low-income or working-class Chicanas or Native American women pursuing professoriate degrees in the Humanities, Social Sciences, Forestry, and Education. The case study includes forty-two qualitative "testimonio" interviews that…

  10. Development of large area resistive electrodes for ATLAS NSW Micromegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Atsuhiko

    2018-02-01

    Micromegas with resistive anodes will be used for the NSW upgrades of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Resistive electrodes are used in MPGD devices to prevent sparks in high-rate operation. Large-area resistive electrodes for Micromegas have been developed using two different technologies: screen printing and carbon sputtering. The maximum resistive foil size is 45 × 220 cm with a printed pattern of 425-μm pitch strips. These technologies are also suitable for mass production. Prototypes of a production model series have been successfully produced. In this paper, we report the development, the production status, and the test results of resistive Micromegas.

  11. Plant agricultural streptomycin formulations do not carry antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Stockwell, Virginia O; Duffy, Brion

    2009-07-01

    Streptomycin is used in plant agriculture for bacterial disease control, particularly against fire blight in pome fruit orchards. Concerns that this may increase environmental antibiotic resistance have led to bans or restrictions on use. Experience with antibiotic use in animal feeds raises the possible influence of formulation-delivered resistance genes. We demonstrate that agricultural streptomycin formulations do not carry producer organism resistance genes. By using an optimized extraction procedure, Streptomyces 16S rRNA genes and the streptomycin resistance gene strA were not detected in agricultural streptomycin formulations. This diminishes the likelihood for one potential factor in resistance development due to streptomycin use.

  12. KTA 625 alloy tube with excellent corrosion resistance and heat resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazuo; Kadonaga, Toshiki; Kikuma, Seiji.

    1982-01-01

    The problems when seamless tubes are produced by using nickel base 625 alloy (61Ni-22Cr-9Mo-Cb) which is known as a corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloyF were examined, and the confirmation experiment was carried out on its corrosion resistance and heat resistance. Various difficulties have been experienced in the tube making owing to the characteristics due to the chemical composition, but they were able to be solved by the repeated experiments. As for the characteristics of the product, the corrosion resistance was excellent particularly in the environment containing high temperature, high concentration chloride, and also the heat resistance was excellent in the wide temperature range from normal temperature to 1000 deg C. From these facts, the wide fields of application are expected for these alloy tubes, including the evaporation and concentration equipment for radioactive wastes in atomic energy field. Expecting the increase of demand hereafter, Kobe Steel Ltd. examined the problems when seamless tubes are produced from the 625 alloy by Ugine Sejournet process. The aptitude for tube production such as the chemical composition, production process and the product characteristics, the corrosion resistance against chloride, hydrogen sulfide, polythionic and other acids,F the high temperature strength and oxidation resistance are reported. (Kako, I.)

  13. Co-transfection of decorin and interleukin-10 modulates pro-fibrotic extracellular matrix gene expression in human tenocyte culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbah, Sunny A.; Thomas, Dilip; Browne, Shane; O'Brien, Timothy; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix synthesis and remodelling are driven by increased activity of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). In tendon tissue repair, increased activity of TGF-β1 leads to progressive fibrosis. Decorin (DCN) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) antagonise pathological collagen synthesis by exerting a neutralising effect via downregulation of TGF-β1. Herein, we report that the delivery of DCN and IL-10 transgenes from a collagen hydrogel system supresses the constitutive expression of TGF-β1 and a range of pro-fibrotic extracellular matrix genes.

  14. Resistance in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  15. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in the mid-1990s, genetically engineered (GE) crops have been the topic of much debate. This report reviews evidence accumulated from experiences on the most widely grown GE crops to date: herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties of maize, soybean, and cotton.

  16. Experiences of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønberg, Mette

    In this thesis, I examine the complex experiences of what we call depression in everyday life, the multifaceted and ambiguous experiences of getting a depression diagnosis, and the in-depth processes involved in learning to live under the description of depression. The thesis is based...... on ethnographic fieldwork among adults diagnosed with depression in Denmark, and consists of three articles that provide glimpses into experiences of depression and diagnostic processes. The articles deal with creativity, variability and resistance in diagnostic processes and illustrates how these not are once......-and-for-all-dealt-with matters but rather messy and complicated processes, that involve several actors and multiple relations to the diagnosis. The thesis furthermore challenges the dominant diagnostic understanding depression as a neurobiological, and individual disorder in present-day diagnostic cultures, by arguing...

  17. Powdery Mildew Disease Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Shauna C.

    2010-08-31

    The overall goal of this project was to characterize the PMR5 protein, a member of the DUF231/TBR family, and to determine its role in plant cell wall biogenesis. Since the pmr5 mutants are also resistant to the fungal powdery mildew pathogen, we wished to determine what specific cell wall changes are associated with disease resistance and why. The graduate student working on this project made mutations in the putative active site of PMR5, assuming it is a member of the SGNH/GDSL esterase superfamily (Anantharaman and Aravind, 2010, Biology Direct 5, 1). These mutants were inactive in planta suggesting that PMR5 is a functional enzyme and not a binding protein or chaperone. In addition, she determined that cell wall preparations from the pmr5 mutant exhibited a modest reduction (13%) in total acetyl groups. To pursue characterization further, the graduate student expressed the PMR5 protein in a heterologous E. coli system. She could purify PMR5 using a two step protocol based on tags added to the N and C terminus of the protein. She was able to show the PMR5 protein bound to pectins, including homogalacturonan, but not to other cell wall components (e.g., xyloglucans, arabinans). Based on these observations, a postdoctoral fellow is currently developing an enzyme assay for PMR5 based on the idea that it may be acetylating the homogalacturonic acid pectin fraction. Our initial experiments to localize PMR5 subcellularly suggested that it occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, since the various pectins are believed to be synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, we felt it necessary to repeat our results using a native promoter expression system. Within the past year, we have demonstrated conclusively that PMR5 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, a location that sets it apart from most cell wall biogenesis and modification enzymes. The graduate student contributed to the characterization of two suppressor mutants, which were selected as restoring powdery

  18. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  19. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast ( 5 counts/mm 2 . A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (≥10 10 Ω·cm) materials. In practice RPCs are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm 2 , leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases

  20. OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, M.

    2003-01-01

    OPERA is an accelerator experiment designed to explore Super-Kamiokande suggested ν μ ↔ν τ oscillation region in CNGS beam from CERN to LNGS. The key technique in OPERA is modern emulsion read out which applied to CHORUS and DONUT experiments. ECC technique which used in DONUT and OPERA has good modularity to enlarge apparatus for future Neutrino Factory experiments

  1. Einstein and the "Crucial" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Gerald

    1969-01-01

    Examines the widespread view that it was the crucial Michelson-Morley experiment that led Einstein to formulate the special relativity theory. From Einstein's writings, evidence is presented that no such direct genetic connection exists. The author suggests that the historian of science must resist the experimenticist's fallacy of imposing a…

  2. Stability of ideal and resistive modes in cylindrical plasmas with resistive walls and plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.; Xie, H.X.

    1996-01-01

    The stabilization of cylindrical plasmas by resistive walls combined with plasma rotation is analyzed. Perturbations with a single mode rational surface q=m/n in a finitely conducting plasma are treated by the resistive kink dispersion relation of Coppi. The possibilities for stabilization of ideal and resistive instabilities are explored systematically in different regions of parameter space. The study confirms that an ideal instability can be stabilized by a close-fitting wall and a rotation velocity of the order of resistive growth rate. However, the region in parameter space where such stabilization occurs is very small and appears to be difficult to exploit in experiments. The overall conclusion from the cylindrical plasma model is that resistive modes can readily be wall stabilized, whereas complete wall stabilization is hard to achieve for plasmas that are ideally unstable with the wall at infinity. 26 refs, 5 figs

  3. Resisting persuasion by the skin of one's teeth: the hidden success of resisted persuasive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormala, Zakary L; Clarkson, Joshua J; Petty, Richard E

    2006-09-01

    Recent research has suggested that when people resist persuasion they can perceive this resistance and, under specifiable conditions, become more certain of their initial attitudes (e.g., Z. L. Tormala & R. E. Petty, 2002). Within the same metacognitive framework, the present research provides evidence for the opposite phenomenon--that is, when people resist persuasion, they sometimes become less certain of their initial attitudes. Four experiments demonstrate that when people perceive that they have done a poor job resisting persuasion (e.g., they believe they generated weak arguments against a persuasive message), they lose attitude certainty, show reduced attitude-behavioral intention correspondence, and become more vulnerable to subsequent persuasive attacks. These findings suggest that resisted persuasive attacks can sometimes have a hidden yet important success by reducing the strength of the target attitude. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The induction of streptomycin resistance in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.E.; Snel, E.A.M.; Akerboom, M.; HiIle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the research is to investigate cytoplasmic genetics. For the analysis of organelle transfer and segregation in cybrids the presence of selectable and easily screenable genetic markers on organelles is indispensable. Streptomycin resistance is the best characterised cytoplasmic marker. The resistance is dominant and can be induced by a single basepair change in the chloroplast DNA. Protoplasts were treated with several MNU concentrations directly after isolation. Three months after the protoplast mutagenesis about 600 green colonies were isolated from 28x10 6 treated protoplasts. These colonies were retested several times on streptomycin containing media and approximately 150 colonies remained. We distinguished four classes of streptomycin resistance. Experiments were also done without the use of MNU. By somaclonal variation, only a small quantity of streptomycin resistant colonies was isolated at a 50 fold lower frequency. (author)

  5. Resistance to HER2-targeted therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Valadan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Production and approval of trastuzumab (Herceptin® for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC was a millstone in antibody-based targeted therapy in the cancer treatment. However, despite the early success in the clinical trials, trastuzumab failed to appreciate the initial attraction due to development of resistance to the drug. The majority of patients who benefit from the drug acquire resistance to it and experience tumor recurrence within 1 year. Several molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the resistance to trastuzumab have been proposed. In this review, first, we provide a brief history leading to production of trastuzumab. Also we consider the cellular and molecular antitumor effects of trastuzumab and then, we discuss the mechanisms underlying trastuzumab resistance in four levels.

  6. When Does Air Resistance Become Significant in Projectile Motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2018-01-01

    In an article in this journal, it was shown that air resistance could never be a significant source of error in typical free-fall experiments in introductory physics laboratories. Since projectile motion is the two-dimensional version of the free-fall experiment and usually follows the former experiment in such laboratories, it seemed natural to…

  7. Plant Agricultural Streptomycin Formulations Do Not Carry Antibiotic Resistance Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Stockwell, Virginia O.; Duffy, Brion

    2009-01-01

    Streptomycin is used in plant agriculture for bacterial disease control, particularly against fire blight in pome fruit orchards. Concerns that this may increase environmental antibiotic resistance have led to bans or restrictions on use. Experience with antibiotic use in animal feeds raises the possible influence of formulation-delivered resistance genes. We demonstrate that agricultural streptomycin formulations do not carry producer organism resistance genes. By using an optimized extracti...

  8. Calorimetry Hadronic with semidigital reading based on camera of resistive planes of glass for experiments on collision linear e + e-; Calorimetr@a hadr@nica con lectura semidigital basada en c@mara de planos resistivos de vidrio para experimentos en colisionadores lineales e + e-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguer Antequera, J.

    2015-07-01

    Calorimetry Hadronic with semidigital reading based on camera of resistive planes of glass for experiments on collision linear e + e-. Electron-positron linear colliders have been proposed as next generation particle colliders to complement and extend the physics programme of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN. Currently, two projects, ILC (International Linear Collider) and CLIC (Compact LInear Collider), have been suggested by the international community to reach this purpose. The requirements for a detector for both linear colliders are defined by the precision needed to fully exploit the physics potential of these colliders. In particular, one of the most important requirements is an excellent jet energy resolution. This can be achieved with the particle-flow concept in which the overall detector performance for jet reconstruction is optimised by reconstructing each particle individually. For this reason, the calorimeter system has to have unprecedented granularity fulfilling the task of shower separation and providing excellent jet energy resolution and background separation. (Author)

  9. Progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB differentially regulate expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honggang; Lee, Eun-Woo; Zhou, Lin; Leung, Peter C K; Ross, Douglas D; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Mao, Qingcheng

    2008-03-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) plays a significant role in drug disposition and in conferring multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Previous studies have shown that steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol and progesterone can affect BCRP expression in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which BCRP expression in human placental choriocarcinoma BeWo cells is regulated by progesterone. Transfection of the progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms PRA and PRB resulted in a similarly increased expression of PRA and PRB, respectively. However, progesterone significantly increased BCRP expression and activity only in PRB-transfected cells. This stimulatory effect of progesterone was abrogated by the PR antagonist mifepristone (RU-486). Consistently, transcriptional activity of the BCRP promoter was induced 2- to 6-fold by 10(-8) to 10(-5) M progesterone in PRB-transfected cells. Progesterone had little effect on BCRP expression and activity and transcriptional activity of the BCRP promoter in PRA-transfected cells; however, cotransfection of PRA and PRB significantly decreased the progesterone-response compared with that in cells transfected with only PRB. Mutations in a novel progesterone response element (PRE) identified between -243 to -115 bp of the BCRP promoter region significantly attenuated the progesterone-response in PRB-transfected cells, and deletion of the PRE nearly completely abrogated the progesterone effect. Specific binding of both PRA and PRB to the BCRP promoter through the identified PRE was confirmed using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Collectively, progesterone induces BCRP expression in BeWo cells via PRB but not PRA. PRA represses the PRB activity. Thus, PRA and PRB differentially regulate BCRP expression in BeWo cells.

  10. Surface resistance of superconductors - examples from Nb - O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, F.

    1988-01-01

    The observed surface resistance of most superconductors can be written as the sum of two terms. R/sub obs/ = R/sub BCS/ + R/sub res/. This paper is divided into three sections. The first section describes the BCS theory of surface resistance in terms of a simplified two-fluid model. The second section describes several possible causes of residual resistance including normal conducting materials, tunneling across cracks in the surface, and direct generation of phonons by the RF electric field. The last section describes recent experiments having to do with the effects of oxide layers on surface resistance. Layers grown in pure oxygen at room temperature were found to have little or no effect, but if these layers are heated to temperatures near 300 0 C, they can alter both the BCS resistance and the residual resistance. Heated oxide layers also increased the dependence of the residual resistance on ambient magnetic field. 31 references, 13 figures, 3 tables

  11. Studies on stem and leaf rust resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Stem and leaf rust resistance was successfully transferred from Agropyron to wheat by radiation-induced translocations. Mutation induction subsequently proved to be useful in separating an undesired gene for yellow pigment from the resistance. The homoeologous pairing mutant obtained by Sears was also used successfully in obtaining transfers through crossing-over between wheat and Agropyron chromosomes. Another experimental series succeeded in accumulating minor genes for rust resistance, after eliminating major genes for specific resistance. The resistance is polygenic and widely effective although not general. It is recessively inherited, and hoped to be more durable than major gene resistance used so far in the Canadian prairies. An attempt to induce mutations for leaf rust resistance in a small-scale experiment with leading Canadian wheat varieties Manitou and Neepawa using gamma rays and EMS has not been successful. (author)

  12. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  13. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized...... antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3...... responsive from treatment-resistant patients. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment...

  14. Determination of hydraulic resistance of rough annular channels by resistance of rough pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsun, A. S.; Pisarevsky, M. I.; Fedoseev, V. N.; Kreps, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    According to the current calculation recommendations for turbulent flow, coefficient of hydraulic resistance of a smooth annular channel with an equivalent hydraulic diameter dh is assumed to be equal to the coefficient of hydraulic resistance of a pipe with a diameter dh multiplied by a conversion factor. The value of this conversion factor, depending on the Reynolds number and the ratio of the inner diameter of the annular channel to the outer diameter, varies from 1 to 1.07. That is, a smooth annular channel and a smooth pipe with the same hydraulic diameters have practically the same hydraulic resistance coefficients. In this paper, experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of such an approach to channels with rough walls. According to measurements of water flow and pressure gradient, the coefficients of hydraulic resistance of a rough annular channel and a pipe with hydraulic diameters dh = 6 mm were calculated and compared. A trapezoidal artificial roughness was applied to the surfaces, which are flowing with a liquid. The experiments were carried out on a water circuit in the Reynolds number range from 103 to 105 in the regime of full roughness. The obtained experimental results were compared with calculations of coefficients of hydraulic resistance of pipes with artificial roughness according to the existing recommendations. Conclusions are drawn on the possibility of determining the hydraulic resistance of rough annular channels through the resistance of rough pipes.

  15. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  16. Radiation-resistant beamline components at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.e.; Werbeck, R.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of highly radiation-resistant beamline components have been successfully developed at LAMPF primarily for use in the target cells and beam stop area of the intense proton beamline. Design features and operating experience are reviewed for magnets, instrumentation, targets, vacuum seals, vacuum windows, collimators, and beam stops

  17. Trangressive segregation for resistance in wheat to Septoria tritici ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to study the inheritance of resistance in F6 progenies obtained from 36 crosses involving 14 wheat cultivars. Transgressive segregation towards more resistance and/or more susceptibility to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat occurred in most of the crosses. With so many parents, most showing ...

  18. Accounting for youth audiences' resistances to HIV and AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results from the study show that HIV and AIDS messages in Tsha Tsha face substantial resistances from situated youth viewers whose social contexts of consumption, shared identities, quotidian experiences and subjectivities, provide critical lines along which the E-E text is often resisted and inflected. These findings do ...

  19. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  20. Resistance/reactance level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Larry E; Harwood, T Mark; Michelson, Aaron; Song, Xiaoxia; Holman, John

    2011-02-01

    Psychotherapists from all professions and perspectives periodically struggle to effectively manage a patient's resistance to change. This article provides definitions and examples of patient-treatment matching applied to patient resistance or reactance. We report the results from an original meta-analysis of 12 select studies (N = 1,102) on matching therapist directiveness to patient reactance. Our findings support the hypothesis that patients exhibiting low levels of trait-like resistance respond better to directive types of treatment, while patients with high levels of resistance respond best to nondirective treatments (d = .82). Limitations of the research reviewed are noted, and practice recommendations are advanced. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evolution in the Lab: Biocide Resistance in E.coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welden, Charles W.; Hossler, Rex A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment on resistance to teach about evolution and issues of misuse of antimicrobial compounds. Investigates Escherichia coli's response to treatment of triclosan, a biocide used in consumer products. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  2. Evaluation of corrosion resistance of various concrete reinforcing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Vermont Agency of Transportation undertook a simple experiment to determine the corrosion : resistance ability of various reinforcing steels (rebar) that may be used in bridges and other concrete : structures. Eight types of rebar were used in th...

  3. OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsu, M

    2003-01-01

    OPERA is an accelerator experiment designed to explore Super- Kamiokande suggested nu//mu arrow left right nu//tau oscillation region in CNGS beam from CERN to LNGS. The key technique in OPERA is modern emulsion read out which applied to CHORUS and DONUT experiments. ECC technique which used in DONUT and OPERA has good modularity to enlarge apparatus for future Neutrino Factory experiments.

  4. The Ritual and Liminal Dimensions of Student Resistance to the Formal Culture of Schooling: The Relational Conditions That Promote Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.

    Few empirical studies have examined student resistance and counterculture. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the subjective experience of high school students to understand student resistance to the formal culture of schools. The research used a conceptual framework based on the anthropological concepts of "ritual" and…

  5. Effect of physiological age on radiation resistance of some bacteria that are highly radiation resistant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.C.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological age-dependent variation in radiation resistance was studied for three bacteria that are highly radiation resistant: Micrococcus radiodurans, Micrococcus sp. isolate C-3, and Moraxella sp. isolate 4. Stationary-phase cultures of M. radiodurans and isolate C-3 were much more resistant to gamma radiation than were log-phase cultures. This pattern of relative resistance was reversed for isolate 4. Resistance of isolate 4 to UV light was also greater during log phase, although heat resistance and NaCl tolerance after heat stresses were greater during stationary phase. Radiation-induced injury of isolate 4 compared with injury of Escherichia coli B suggested that the injury process, as well as the lethal process, was affected by growth phase. The hypothesis that growth rate affects radiation resistance was tested, and results were interpreted in light of the probable confounding effect of methods used to alter growth rates of bacteria. These results indicate that dose-response experiments should be designed to measure survival during the most resistant growth phase of the organism under study. The timing is particularly important when extrapolations of survival results might be made to potential irradiation processes for foods. 17 references

  6. Axes of resistance for tooth movement: does the center of resistance exist in 3-dimensional space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecilli, Rodrigo F; Budiman, Amanda; Burstone, Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The center of resistance is considered the most important reference point for tooth movement. It is often stated that forces through this point will result in tooth translation. The purpose of this article is to report the results of numeric experiments testing the hypothesis that centers of resistance do not exist in space as 3-dimensional points, primarily because of the geometric asymmetry of the periodontal ligament. As an alternative theory, we propose that, for an arbitrary tooth, translation references can be determined by 2-dimensional projection intersections of 3-dimensional axes of resistance. Finite element analyses were conducted on a maxillary first molar model to determine the position of the axes of rotation generated by 3-dimensional couples. Translation tests were performed to compare tooth movement by using different combinations of axes of resistance as references. The couple-generated axes of rotation did not intersect in 3 dimensions; therefore, they do not determine a 3-dimensional center of resistance. Translation was obtained by using projection intersections of the 2 axes of resistance perpendicular to the force direction. Three-dimensional axes of resistance, or their 2-dimensional projection intersections, should be used to plan movement of an arbitrary tooth. Clinical approximations to a small 3-dimensional "center of resistance volume" might be adequate in nearly symmetric periodontal ligament cases. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Resistance mutations against dolutegravir in HIV integrase impair the emergence of resistance against reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maureen; Mesplède, Thibault; Quashie, Peter K; Moïsi, Daniela; Wainberg, Mark A

    2014-03-27

    Among 1222 antiretroviral-naive patients who received dolutegravir (DTG) as part of first-line therapy, none has developed resistance against this compound after 48-96 weeks of follow-up. Moreover, only four occurrences of virological failure with resistance mutations have been documented in previously drug-experienced patients who received DTG as a first time integrase inhibitor as a component of a second-line regimen. The R263K integrase resistance mutation was observed in two of these individuals who received suboptimal background regimens. We have previously selected mutations at position R263K, G118R, H51Y, and E138K as being associated with low-level resistance to DTG. Now, we sought to investigate the facility with which resistance on the part of R263K-containing viruses might develop. We tested the ability of DTG-resistant viruses containing either the R263K or G118R and/or H51Y mutations to develop further resistance against several reverse transcriptase inhibitors during in-vitro selection experiments. Our results show that DTG-resistant viruses are impaired in their ability to acquire further resistance to each of nevirapine and lamivudine as a consequence of their relative inability to develop resistance mutations associated with these two compounds. Our findings provide an explanation for the fact that no individual has yet progressed to virological failure with resistance mutations associated with dolutegravir in clinical trials in which patients received dolutegravir together with an optimized background regimen.

  8. Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens is recognized as a major public health threat affecting humans worldwide. Multidrug-resistant organisms have emerged not only in the hospital environment but are now often identified in community settings, suggesting that reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are present outside the hospital. The bacterial response to the antibiotic “attack” is the prime example of bacterial adaptation and the pinnacle of evolution. “Survival of the fittest” is a consequence of an immense genetic plasticity of bacterial pathogens that trigger specific responses that result in mutational adaptations, acquisition of genetic material or alteration of gene expression producing resistance to virtually all antibiotics currently available in clinical practice. Therefore, understanding the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance is of paramount importance to design strategies to curtail the emergence and spread of resistance and devise innovative therapeutic approaches against multidrug-resistant organisms. In this chapter, we will describe in detail the major mechanisms of antibiotic resistance encountered in clinical practice providing specific examples in relevant bacterial pathogens. PMID:27227291

  9. How Many Equivalent Resistances?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is straightforward to construct the set of equiv- alent resistance for circuits constructed from a bunch of four or five equal resistors. But as the bunch size increases it becomes difficult to find the order of the set of equivalent resistances. Even the computer programs runs out of mem- ory. Here we present an analytical result ...

  10. Drug-resistant tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. (DR-TB) is a public health emergency that threatens to destabilise global TB control. Although TB incidence and mortality are decreasing in several parts of the world, the overall prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing in many high-burden countries, ...

  11. Containing Unusual Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the health department to stop spread of unusual resistance. Review and support infection control in the facility. Clinical labs: Know what isolates to send for testing. Establish protocols that immediately ... of unusual resistance. Validate new tests to identify the latest threats. ...

  12. Drug resistance in malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Parija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimalarial chemotherapy is an important component of all malaria control programmes throughout the world. This is especially so in light of the fact that there are no antimalarial vaccines which are available for clinical use at present. Emergence and spread of malaria parasites which are resistant to many of the available antimalarials today is, therefore, a major cause for concern. Till date, resistance to all groups of antimalarials excluding artemisinin has been reported. In recent years, in vitro resistance to even artemisinin has been described. While resistance to antibacterial agents has come to prominence as a clinical problem in recent years, antiparasitic resistance in general and antimalarial resistance in particular has not received much attention, especially in the Indian scenario. The present review deals with commonly used antimalarial drugs and the mechanisms of resistance to them. Various methods of detecting antimalarial resistance and avoiding the same have also been dealt with. Newer parasite targets which can be used in developing newer antimalarial agents and antimalarials obtained from plants have also been mentioned.

  13. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  14. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disruptive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  15. Resistance to change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, J.; Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Established firms often fail to maintain leadership following disrup tive market shifts. We argue that such firms are more prone to internal resistance. A radical adjustment of assets affects the distribution of employee rents, creating winners and losers. Losers resist large changes when strong

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ol Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  17. Resistance to Linezolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Ntokou, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    Linezolid is an antimicrobial agent that binds to the bacterial ribosome and thereby inhibits protein synthesis. Soon after its release as a clinical drug, it became clear that bacteria could become resistant to linezolid. The resistance mechanisms are mainly causing alteration of the drug target...

  18. Resistent tuberkulose i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, V O; Johansen, I S; Bauer, J O

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been reported from countries close to Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of drug resistance in Denmark in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Susceptibility testing was performed ...

  19. Engineered plant virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-11-01

    Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  1. Resistance and conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Westenberg, P.M.; Levesque, R.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to peer influence, or the ability to resist making choices or adopting views under the implicit or explicit influence of your peers, is expected to undergo changes during adolescence. Two developmental trajectories have emerged from the field. On the one hand, adolescents show a temporary

  2. Resistance and Conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, S.R.; Bokhorst, C.L.; Westenberg, P.M.; Levesque, R.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to peer influence, or the ability to resist making choices or adopting views under the implicit or explicit influence of your peers, is expected to undergo changes during adolescence. Two opposing developmental trajectories have emerged from the field. On the one hand, adolescents show a

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  4. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple

  5. Resistance, Reactance, and Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Falk, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a review of techniques for dealing with consultee resistance. Suggests the social psychological theory of reactance is a useful conceptual framework for considering resistance in consultation. Discusses examples of its application, variables that predict the likely effectiveness of a reactance utilization intervention, and ethical issues.…

  6. Mechanisms of Drug Resistance: Daptomycin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Truc T.; Munita, Jose M.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2016-01-01

    Daptomycin (DAP) is a cyclic lipopeptide with in vitro activity against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms. Since its introduction in clinical practice in 2003, DAP has become an important key front-line antibiotic for severe or deep-seated infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. Unfortunately, DAP-resistance (R) has been extensively documented in clinically important organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, and Streptococcus spp. Studies on the mechanisms of DAP-R in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria indicate that the genetic pathways of DAP resistance are diverse and complex. However, a common phenomenon emerging from these mechanistic studies is that DAP-R is associated with important adaptive changes in cell wall and cell membrane homeostasis with critical changes in cell physiology. Findings related to these adaptive changes have offered novel insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of bacterial cell envelope stress response and the manner in which Gram-positive bacteria cope with the antimicrobial peptide attack and protect vital structures of the cell envelope such as the cell membrane. In this review, we will examine the most recent findings related to the molecular mechanisms of resistance to DAP in relevant Gram-positive pathogens and discuss the clinical implications for therapy against these important bacteria. PMID:26495887

  7. TRIO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

  8. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  9. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    Literature review: Collaborative experience has been shown to have a positive effect on the collaborative outcome in general (Anand & Khanna, 2000; Kale, Dyer & Singh, 2002). Furthermore, it has been linked to the ability to exploit the network of the firm for learning (Powell, Koput and Smith...... experience was largest the higher the hypothesized ambiguity. Theoretically contribution: This research project aims at contributing to existing literature by arguing, that collaborative experience is a moderating variable which moderates the effects on collaborative outcome from the level of complexity......, that the largest effects from collaborative experience is from recent collaborative experience, since knowledge depreciates when it is not used. Methodologically contribution: The research project studies the dyad and aims at introducing, to this field of research, an established way of collecting data, a new...

  10. When Does Air Resistance Become Significant in Projectile Motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2018-03-01

    In an article in this journal, it was shown that air resistance could never be a significant source of error in typical free-fall experiments in introductory physics laboratories. Since projectile motion is the two-dimensional version of the free-fall experiment and usually follows the former experiment in such laboratories, it seemed natural to extend the same analysis to this type of motion. We shall find that again air resistance does not play a significant role in the parameters of interest in a traditional projectile motion experiment.

  11. [Hypertension and insulin resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, A; Kutkuhn, B; Rösen, P; Grabensee, B

    1997-10-17

    Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity are defined as classical insulin resistant states. Essential hypertension is now also considered to be an insulin resistant state, even in absence of NIDDM or obesity, as shown in epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies. Neither the underlying mechanism nor a direct causality between the two phenomena has been detected as yet, but different hypotheses have been postulated where, on the one hand, insulin resistance and hypertension are considered to be causally related and, on the other hand, they are considered to be parallel phenomena due to genetic and acquired factors. The clarification of the connection between hypertension and insulin resistance seems to be of great clinical importance, since they are both independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality from cardiovascular complications. This paper gives an overview of the results of recent research on the possible underlying pathogenetic mechanisms linking hypertension and insulin resistance.

  12. Human ClC-6 is a late endosomal glycoprotein that associates with detergent-resistant lipid domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Ignoul

    and ClC-7 when cotransfected in COS-1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that human ClC-6 is an endosomal glycoprotein that partitions in detergent resistant lipid domains. The differential sorting of endogenous (late endosomal versus overexpressed (early and recycling endosomal ClC-6 is reminiscent of that of other late endosomal/lysosomal membrane proteins (e.g. LIMP II, and is consistent with a rate-limiting sorting step for ClC-6 between early endosomes and its final destination in late endosomes.

  13. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N.; Paredes, Roger; Battegay, Manuel; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Machala, Ladislav; Tomazic, Janez; Girard, Pierre M.; Januskevica, Inga; Gronborg-Laut, Kamilla; Lundgren, Jens D.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Clumeck, N.; de Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Pedersen, C.; Møller, N. F.; Ostergaard, L.; Dragsted, U. B.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stefan, C.; Bogner, J.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Chkhartishvili, N.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Shahar, E.; Hassoun, G.; Elinav, H.; Haouzi, M.; Sthoeger, Z. M.; d'Arminio, A.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Zaccarelli, M.; Reiss, P.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Inglot, M.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Maciejewska, K.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Smiatacz, T.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Mozer-Lisewska, I.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Radoi, R.; Oprea, C.; Babes, Victor; Rakhmanova, A.; Trofimora, T.; Khromova, I.; Kuzovatova, E.; Jevtovic, D.; Shunnar, A.; Stanekova, D.; Tomazic, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miro, J. M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M. A.; Laporte, J. M.; Blaxhult, A.; Flamholc, L.; Thalme, A.; Sonnerborg, A.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Calmy, A.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Schmid, P.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Baskakov, I.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kyselyova, G.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Simons, E.; Edwards, S.; Phillips, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Mocroft, A.; Orkin, C.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Gatell, J.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Lundgren, J.; DeWit, S.; Kirk, O.; Grarup, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Thiebaut, R.; Burger, D.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Matthews, C.; Fischer, A. H.; Bojesen, A.; Raben, D.; Kristensen, D.; Laut, K. Grønborg; Larsen, J. F.; Grint, D.; Shepherd, L.; Schultze, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. Design: Multinational cohort

  14. Mixture Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.

    2007-12-01

    A mixture experiment involves combining two or more components in various proportions or amounts and then measuring one or more responses for the resulting end products. Other factors that affect the response(s), such as process variables and/or the total amount of the mixture, may also be studied in the experiment. A mixture experiment design specifies the combinations of mixture components and other experimental factors (if any) to be studied and the response variable(s) to be measured. Mixture experiment data analyses are then used to achieve the desired goals, which may include (i) understanding the effects of components and other factors on the response(s), (ii) identifying components and other factors with significant and nonsignificant effects on the response(s), (iii) developing models for predicting the response(s) as functions of the mixture components and any other factors, and (iv) developing end-products with desired values and uncertainties of the response(s). Given a mixture experiment problem, a practitioner must consider the possible approaches for designing the experiment and analyzing the data, and then select the approach best suited to the problem. Eight possible approaches include 1) component proportions, 2) mathematically independent variables, 3) slack variable, 4) mixture amount, 5) component amounts, 6) mixture process variable, 7) mixture of mixtures, and 8) multi-factor mixture. The article provides an overview of the mixture experiment designs, models, and data analyses for these approaches.

  15. Simulated experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, R.

    1977-01-01

    A cybernetic model has been developed to elucidate some of the main principles of the growth regulation system in the epidermis of the hairless mouse. A number of actual and theoretical biological experiments have been simulated on the model. These included simulating the cell kinetics as measured by pulse labelling with tritiated thymidine and by continuous labelling with tritiated thymidine. Other simulated experiments included steady state, wear and tear, painting with a carcinogen, heredity and heredity and tumour. Numerous diagrams illustrate the results of these simulated experiments. (JIW)

  16. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    , dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  17. [Resistance mechanisms and cross-resistance of phoxim-resistant Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yin; Zhou, Xian-Hong; Zhang, An-Sheng; Li, Li-Li; Men, Xing-Yuan; Zhang, Si-Cong; Liu, Yong-Jie; Yu, Yi

    2012-07-01

    To understand the resistance risks of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande against phoxim, this paper studied the resistance mechanisms of phoxim-resistant F. occidentalis population against phoxim and the cross-resistance of the population against other insecticides. The phoxim-resistant population had medium level cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and methomyl, low level cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, emamectin-benzoate, and spinosad, but no cross-resistance to acetamiprid and abamectin. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), s, s, s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) had significant synergism (P occidentalis could play an important role in the resistance of the plant against phoxim.

  18. AC resistance measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  19. Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Stefani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid, the first oxazolidinone to be used clinically, is effective in the treatment of infections caused by various Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus. It has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with endocarditis and bacteraemia, osteomyelitis, joint infections and tuberculosis and it is often used for treatment of complicated infections when other therapies have failed. Linezolid resistance in Gram-positive cocci has been encountered clinically as well as in vitro, but it is still a rare phenomenon. The resistance to this antibiotic has been, until now, entirely associated with distinct nucleotide substitutions in domain V of the 23S rRNA genes. The number of mutated rRNA genes depends on the dose and duration of linezolid exposure and has been shown to influence the level of linezolid resistance. Mutations in associated ribosomal proteins also affect linezolid activity. A new phenicol and clindamycin resistance phenotype has recently been found to be caused by an RNA methyltransferase designated Cfr. This gene confers resistance to lincosamides, oxazolidinones, streptogramin A, phenicols and pleuromutilins, decrease the susceptibility of S. aureus to tylosin, to josamycin and spiramycin and thus differs from erm rRNA methylase genes. Research into new oxazolidinones with improved characteristics is ongoing. Data reported in patent applications demonstrated that some oxazolidinone derivatives, also with improved characteristics with respect to linezolid, are presently under study: at least three of them are in an advanced phase of development.

  20. Insulin and Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    As obesity and diabetes reach epidemic proportions in the developed world, the role of insulin resistance and its consequences are gaining prominence. Understanding the role of insulin in wide-ranging physiological processes and the influences on its synthesis and secretion, alongside its actions from the molecular to the whole body level, has significant implications for much chronic disease seen in Westernised populations today. This review provides an overview of insulin, its history, structure, synthesis, secretion, actions and interactions followed by a discussion of insulin resistance and its associated clinical manifestations. Specific areas of focus include the actions of insulin and manifestations of insulin resistance in specific organs and tissues, physiological, environmental and pharmacological influences on insulin action and insulin resistance as well as clinical syndromes associated with insulin resistance. Clinical and functional measures of insulin resistance are also covered. Despite our incomplete understanding of the complex biological mechanisms of insulin action and insulin resistance, we need to consider the dramatic social changes of the past century with respect to physical activity, diet, work, socialisation and sleep patterns. Rapid globalisation, urbanisation and industrialisation have spawned epidemics of obesity, diabetes and their attendant co-morbidities, as physical inactivity and dietary imbalance unmask latent predisposing genetic traits. PMID:16278749

  1. Genetics Home Reference: clopidogrel resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Clopidogrel resistance Clopidogrel resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Clopidogrel resistance is a condition in which the drug clopidogrel ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: warfarin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Warfarin resistance Warfarin resistance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Warfarin resistance is a condition in which individuals have a ...

  3. Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea (ARG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Basic Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea: An Overview Antibiotic resistance is the ...

  4. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods...... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the reflexivity lab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body......, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...

  5. Interpretive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  6. Antimatter Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Antimatter should behave in identical fashion to matter if a form of spacetime symmetry called CPT invariance holds. Two experiments at CERN near Geneva are testing this hypothesis using antihydrogen atoms

  7. Media experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2010-01-01

    on their particular iconic systems of meaning perceived through form, lines, contrasts, colours, structures textures, rhythm and composite qualities with embedded interdependent codes and culturally conditioned potential for construction of knowledge and meaning. Mediated experience adds new perspectives...

  8. Experiment Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  9. Researching Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods for ...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design.......In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods...... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the ReflexivityLab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  10. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  11. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNerney Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With almost 9 million new cases each year, tuberculosis remains one of the most feared diseases on the planet. Led by the STOP-TB Partnership and WHO, recent efforts to combat the disease have made considerable progress in a number of countries. However, the emergence of mutated strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to the major anti-tuberculosis drugs poses a deadly threat to control efforts. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB has been reported in all regions of the world. More recently, extensively drug resistant-tuberculosis (XDR-TB that is also resistant to second line drugs has emerged in a number of countries. To ensure that adequate resources are allocated to prevent the emergence and spread of drug resistance it is important to understand the scale of the problem. In this article we propose that current methods of describing the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis are not adequate for this purpose and argue for the inclusion of population based statistics in global surveillance data. Discussion Whereas the prevalence of tuberculosis is presented as the proportion of individuals within a defined population having disease, the prevalence of drug resistant tuberculosis is usually presented as the proportion of tuberculosis cases exhibiting resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Global surveillance activities have identified countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union and regions of China as having a high proportion of MDR-TB cases and international commentary has focused primarily on the urgent need to improve control in these settings. Other regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa have been observed as having a low proportion of drug resistant cases. However, if one considers the incidence of new tuberculosis cases with drug resistant disease in terms of the population then countries of sub-Saharan Africa have amongst the highest rates of transmitted MDR-TB in the world. We propose

  12. I Hate Chicken Breast: A Tale of Resisting Stories and Disembodied Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    In this performance autoethnography, the author explores the simultaneity of telling and resisting stories of lived experience. In the process, the author constructs the notion of "resisting stories" as autoethnographic narratives that both resist and demand telling in the process of making themselves public. In the process the author engages in a…

  13. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  14. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  15. Evolutionary Origin of Antibiotic Resistance, A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamile Adriana Celis Bustos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a natural aspect of bacterial evolution that can result from mutations or acquisition of foreign genes. Various views on the origin of this resistance explain the ability of these organisms to acquire new features. Lamarck andDarwin’s theories of evolution have led to experiments designed to explore the origin of bacterial variation and the emergence of new features. These experiments show that antimicrobial resistance is related to mutations in chromosomal genes and/or transfer of extrachromosomal genetic elements that can be expressed based on the antibiotic pressure exerted. The main experiments and findings that seek to explain the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance are reviewed here in.

  16. The experience of an experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Alexandra Marie

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a popular phenomenon that allows us to see ourselves from various perspectives, and allows us to perpetuate moments enabling us to relive experiences in a different state of mind or at a different time. To examine the phenomenon of experiencing an experience hermeneutic...... is a tool to create a particular mindset, in the developer, to generate a new way of thinking. This model is dynamic by nature and although it is not completed in every branch, it is complete in relation to experiencing your own experience. A company can apply the PoC to gain insight into primary...

  17. Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.

    1997-01-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment is proposed for experimental studies of spheromak confinement issues in a controlled way: in steady state relative to the confinement timescale and at low collisionality. Experiments in a flux - conserver will provide data on transport in the presence of resistive modes in shear-stabilized systems and establish operating regimes which pave the way for true steady-state experiments with the equilibrium field supplied by external coils. The proposal is based on analysis of past experiments, including the achievement of T e = 400 eV in a decaying spheromak in CTX. Electrostatic helicity injection from a coaxial ''''gun'''' into a shaped flux conserver will form and sustain the plasma for several milliseconds. The flux conserver minimizes fluxline intersection with the walls and provides MHD stability. Improvements from previous experiments include modem wall conditioning (especially boronization), a divertor for density and impurity control, and a bias magnetic flux for configurational flexibility. The bias flux will provide innovative experimental opportunities, including testing helicity drive on the large-radius plasma boundary. Diagnostics include Thomson scattering for T e measurements and ultra-short pulse reflectrometry to measure density and magnetic field profiles and turbulence. We expect to operate at T e of several hundred eV, allowing improved understanding of energy and current transport due to resistive MHD turbulence during sustained operation. This will provide an exciting advance in spheromak physics and a firm basis for future experiments in the fusion regime

  18. The Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana Nicoara, Floare

    2016-04-01

    My name is Nicoara Floarea and I am teacher at Secondary School Calatele and I teach students from preparatory class and the second grade . They are six-eight years old. In my activity, for introducing scientific concepts to my students, I use various and active methods or traditional methods including experiments. The experiment stimulates students' curiosity, their creativity, the understanding and knowledge taught accessibility. I propose you two such experiments: The life cycle of the plants (long-term experiment, with rigorous observation time):We use beans, wheat or other; They are grown in pots and on the cotton soaked with water,keeping under students' observation protecting them ( just soak them regularly) and we waiting the plants rise. For discussions and comments of plant embryo development we use the plants which rose on the cotton soaked with water plants at the end of the first week. Last school year we had in the pot climbing beans which in May made pods. They were not too great but our experiment was a success. The students could deduce that there will develop those big beans which after drying will be planted again. The influence of light on plants (average duration experiment with the necessary observation time): We use two pots in which plants are of the same type (two geraniums), one of them is situated so as to get direct sunlight and other plant we put in a closed box. Although we wet both plants after a week we see that the plant that benefited from sunlight has turned strain in direct sunlight, developing normally in return the plant out of the box I have yellowed leaves, photosynthesis does not She has occurred . Students will understand the vital role of the Sun in plants' life, both in the classroom and in nature. The experiment is a method of teaching students extremely pleasant, with a remarkable percentage of acquiring more knowledge.

  19. [Insulin resistance in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stąpor, Natalia; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the state of reduced tissue sensitivity to insulin. The frequency of this occurrence is increasing dramatically in developed countries. Both, environmental and genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Sedentary lifestyle and the excessive calorie intake cause the substantial increase of the fat issue, leading to overweight and obesity. Insulin resistance occurs physiologically during puberty, but it is also a pathological condition predisposing children to develop abnormal glucose tolerance, diabetes, hypertension and polycystic ovary syndrome among girls. More frequent occurrence of metabolic syndrome can be observed among children born small for gestational age (SGA). The article presents the current views on risk factors, etiology, diagnosis and consequences insulin resistance and disorders of glucose tolerance. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  20. Treatment-Resistant Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's designed for treatment-resistant conditions. Interpersonal psychotherapy. Interpersonal psychotherapy focuses on resolving relationship issues that may contribute to your depression. Family or marital therapy. This type of therapy involves family members or ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  3. Piggyback resistive Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, D; Durand, D; Desforge, D; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; Giomataris, Y; Gongadze, A; Iguaz, F J; Jeanneau, F; de Oliveira, R; Papaevangelou, T; Peyaud, A; Teixeira, A

    2013-01-01

    Piggyback Micromegas consists in a novel readout architecture where the anode element is made of a resistive layer on a ceramic substrate. The resistive layer is deposited on the thin ceramic substrate by an industrial process which provides large dynamic range of resistivity (10$^6$ to 10$^{10}$\\,M$\\Omega$/square). The particularity of this new structure is that the active part is entirely dissociated from the read-out element. This gives a large flexibility on the design of the anode structure and the readout scheme. Without significant loss, signals are transmitted by capacitive coupling to the read-out pads. The detector provides high gas gain, good energy resolution and the resistive layer assures spark protection for the electronics. This assembly could be combined with modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests with different Piggyback detectors and configurations will be presented. This structure is adequate for cost effective fabrication and low outgassing detectors. It was designed to perform ...

  4. Regicide and Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of resistance in Michel Foucault’s political thought. The article recovers this otherwise obscured aspect of Foucault’s thought through a systematic analysis of his theoretical regicide and consequent reconceptualization of power, agency and resistance. It is argued...... that Foucault developed a highly original account of resistance, which was, and should continue to be considered, central to his thought and its critical potential. It is shown how Foucault’s concept of resistance overcomes the limitation of voluntarism and determinism, which continue to mare contemporary...... political theory, providing a passage from the critique of contemporary configurations of power to the irrepressible possibility that they may be contested and changed....

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases ...

  6. Tetracycline Antibiotics and Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Trudy H

    2016-04-01

    Tetracyclines possess many properties considered ideal for antibiotic drugs, including activity against Gram-positive and -negative pathogens, proven clinical safety, acceptable tolerability, and the availability of intravenous (IV) and oral formulations for most members of the class. As with all antibiotic classes, the antimicrobial activities of tetracyclines are subject to both class-specific and intrinsic antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Since the discovery of the first tetracyclines more than 60 years ago, ongoing optimization of the core scaffold has produced tetracyclines in clinical use and development that are capable of thwarting many of these resistance mechanisms. New chemistry approaches have enabled the creation of synthetic derivatives with improved in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy, ensuring that the full potential of the class can be explored for use against current and emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to veterinarians, livestock producers, lawmakers, consumer ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  8. Skid Resistance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Skidding causes many traffic accidents. Streets and highways with skid-resisting surfaces reduce the incidence of such accidents. In fact, resurfacing roads to improve skid resistance is now required by federal law. Skid resistance is measured by road testing with specially equipped skid trailers. A project underway at NASA-Langley may considerably reduce the cost of skid trailers, thus making them more widely available to highway departments. For testing the skid resistance of aircraft runways, Langley engineers developed a relatively inexpensive test vehicle and a "pulsed braking" technique that is now being applied experimentally to road testing. The vehicle is a standard automobile modified to incorporate instrumentation, special test tires and valves, and a trailing fifth wheel for monitoring distance and velocity. The instrumentation includes a low-cost meter, a set of accelerometers that sense motion changes, and a chart recorder.

  9. Retroviral superinfection resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nethe, Micha; Berkhout, Ben; van der Kuyl, Antoinette C.

    2005-01-01

    The retroviral phenomenon of superinfection resistance (SIR) defines an interference mechanism that is established after primary infection, preventing the infected cell from being superinfected by a similar type of virus. This review describes our present understanding of the underlying mechanisms

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  11. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes of resistance. Learn more about research and investigations currently underway . Clinical Research Clinical research projects related ... Interest for NIAID’s Small Business Program Division of AIDS High-Priority Areas of Interest Division of Allergy, ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  13. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ... can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long ...

  14. Transposon characterization of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) and dissemination of resistance associated with transferable plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Liebana, Ernesto; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2007-01-01

    of the resistance. Methods and results: One hundred and one vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from 19 unrelated farms have been investigated. Tn 1546 characterization by long PCR and Clal-digestions of amplicons showed a very low diversity of Tn types (n = 4) in comparison to the high genotypic...... diversity demonstrated by PFGE (n = 62). Conjugation experiments were carried out to assess the transfer of vancomycin resistance. Co-transfer of vanA together with erm(B) positioned on the same conjugative plasmid containing a replicon similar to pRE25 was demonstrated and also the presence of different...... plasmid replicons, associated with antimicrobial resistance on several unrelated farms. Conclusions: Horizontal transfer of vancomycin resistance may play a more important role in the persistence of antimicrobial resistance than clonal spread. The presence of different plasmid replicons, associated...

  15. Correlation of molecular resistance mechanisms and phenotypic resistance levels in streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, A; Sander, P; Schaper, K J; Scholz, M; Böttger, E C

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis demonstrated that there is a close correlation between the molecular resistance mechanism and the in vitro activity of streptomycin: mutations in rpsL were mainly associated with high-level resistance, mutations in rrs were associated with an intermediate level of resistance, and streptomycin-resistant isolates with wild-type rpsL and rrs exhibited a low-level resistance phenotype. In...

  16. Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

  17. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojarski, J.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Stab resistant body armour

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I

    2000-01-01

    There is now a widely accepted need for stab resistant body armour for the police in the UK. However, very little research has been done on knife resistant systems and the penetration mechanics of sharp projectiles are poorly understood. This thesis explores the general background to knife attack and defence with a particular emphasis on the penetration mechanics of edged weapons. The energy and velocity that can be achieved in stabbing actions has been determined for a numb...

  19. [Resistance profile of rilpivirine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz, Arkaitz; García, Federico; di Yacovo, Silvana; Llibre, Josep M

    2013-06-01

    Rilpivirine (RPV) is a new second-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) approved for use in combination with two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) as initial therapy in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients with a baseline viral load ≤100,000 copies/mL. RPV is a diarylpyrimidine derivative with potent in vitro activity against multiple HIV-1 variants with resistance mutations to first-generation NNRTI such as K103N. In vitro studies and phase III clinical trials have allowed the identification of 16 mutations associated with resistance to RPV K101E/P, E138A/G/K/Q/R, V179L, Y181C/I/V, Y188L, H221Y, F227C and M230I/L. The risk of virologic failure in patients receiving RPV plus 2 NRTI with plasma viral load ≤ 100,000 copies/mL is low, but a high percentage of patients failing RPV develop resistance mutations to both RPV and NRTI. The most common resistance mutation that emerges in this setting is E138K. This mutation is usually associated with M184I due to a double compensatory effect of this combination, which confers resistance to RPV, as well as to lamivudine and emtricitabine. The emergence of RPV resistance confers cross-resistance to all NNRTI and, importantly, high percentages of cross-resistance to etravirine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing resistance and negotiating co-design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yndigegn, Signe Louise

    work. The aim was to design services for senior citizens with the focus on social interaction – and with technology as a way to support the interaction among communities of elderlies. The dissertation is a retrospective reflection of the author’s experience with taking part and being heavily involved...... as participant in this project. This is done through a series of selected “moments” from the project and beyond, which in various ways are significant for what is happening in the project – and how the project is enacted. The dissertation contains of two research aims. The first is concerned with resistance...... as part of co-design and citizen involvement with the aim to reflect upon something that is rarely described or discussed within co-design and participatory design. The question is here how resistance is performed in practice, especially in the meetings between citizens and the project, and how resistance...

  1. Sand resistance of sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Michael; Wood, Caryl; Martinez, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Like water resistance in sunscreens, sand resistance in sunscreens is the ability of the sunscreen to retain its effectiveness while undergoing sand treatment. The influence of the type of sand on the sand resistance of sunscreens has not been described. The sand resistance of a control standard sunscreen, P2, and data on three grades of Quickrete commercial grade sand, #1961, #1962, and #1152, are described. These sands represent a fine sand, a medium sand, and an all-purpose sand. Using the methodology described in the 2007 proposed amendment of the Final Monograph (1) with one exception, we obtained an SPF of 16.5 (1.6) for the control standard, compared to the expected SPF of 16.3 (3.4). After a five-minute treatment of sand #1961, #1962, or #1151, the SPF of the control standard was 18.3 (1.6), 18.4 (2.0), and 17.5 (2.2), respectively. Thus, all three sands exhibited a similar sand-resistance response. Thus, there was no significant difference in the average SPF with and without sand. The medium grade sand, Quickrete commercial grade #1962, was preferred for sand-resistance testing because the fine sand was difficult to remove from the subject's backs and the coarse sand was unpleasant to the subjects.

  2. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... design it became relevant to investigate the use of LEDs as the physical equivalent of a pixel as a design approach. In this book our interest has been in identifying how the qualities of LEDs can be used in lighting applications. With experiences in the planning and implementation of architectural...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...

  3. Researching Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    , dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas.      Researching Experiences is relevant not only...... for students and researchers in media and communication studies but also for practitioners within the fields of media, communication and experience design....... for researching experiences in a variety of settings ranging from the museum, to news photography, and interactive media. The research led to the development of a set of methodological tools and approaches we term the ReflexivityLab. The interaction in the experimental situation between the media and body...

  4. Electrical resistivity study of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesegang, J.; Senn, B.C.; Holcombe, S.R.; Pigram, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Conventional methods of electrical resistivity measurement of dielectric materials involve the application of electrodes to a sample whereby a potential is applied and a current through the material is measured. Although great care and ingenuity has often been applied to this technique, the recorded values of electrical resistivity (p), especially for insulator materials, show great disparity. In earlier work by the authors, a method for determining surface charge decay [Q(t)], using a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement interfaced to a personal computer, was adapted to allow the relatively straightforward measurement of electrical resistivity in the surface region of charged insulator materials. This method was used to develop an ionic charge transport theory, based on Mott-Gurney diffusion to allow a greater understanding into charge transport behaviour. This theory was extended using numerical analysis to produce a two dimensional (2-D) computational model to allow the direct comparison between experimental and theoretical charge decay data. The work also provided a means for the accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) and the layer of thickness of surface charge (Δz) on the sample. The work outlined here involves an extension of the theoretical approach previously taken, using a computational model based more closely on the 3-D experimental set-up, to reinforce the level of confidence in the results achieved for the simpler 2-D treatment. Initially, a 3-D rectangular box arrangement similar to the experimental set-up was modelled and a theoretical and experimental comparison of voltage decay results made. This model was then transferred into cylindrical coordinates to allow it to be almost identical to the experiment and again a comparison made. In addition, theoretical analysis of the coupled non-linear partial differential equations governing the charge dissipation process has led to a simplification involving directly, the

  5. Genetic mapping of a major dominant gene for resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in eggplant

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, A.; Gouy, M.; Daunay, Marie Christine; Wicker, E.; Chiroleu, F.; Prior, P.; Frary, Anne; Dintinger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of eggplant against Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I strains was assessed in a F6 population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a intra-specific cross between S. melongena MM738 (susceptible) and AG91-25 (resistant). Resistance traits were determined as disease score, percentage of wilted plants, and stem-based bacterial colonization index, as assessed in greenhouse experiments conducted in Réunion Island, France. The AG91-25 resistance was highly efficient toward st...

  6. Effects of Behavioral History on Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H.; Cirino, Sergio; Mayfield, Kristin H.; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Okouchi, Hiroto; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether differential resistance to change would occur under identical variable-interval schedules as a function of a differential behavioral history. In Experiment 1, each of 3 pigeons first pecked at different rates under a multiple variable-ratio differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule. In a subsequent condition,…

  7. Surface electrical resistivity of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, B. C.; Liesegang, J.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented here for measuring surface charge decay, and theory has been developed so as to produce determinations of resistivity in the surface region of insulator films or wafers. This method incorporates the use of a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement and an electrometer interfaced to a PC. The charge transport theory given here is based on Mott-Gurney diffusion, and allows easy interpretation of the experimental data, especially for the initial phase of surface charge decay. Resistivity measurements are presented for glass, mica, perspex and polyethylene, covering a range of 10 9 to 10 18 Ωm, as an illustration of the useful range of the instrument for static and antistatic materials, particularly in film or sheet form. Values for the surface charge diffusion constants of the materials are also presented. The charge transport theory has also been extended to allow the experimental and computational theoretical comparison of surface charge decay not only over the initial phase of charge decay, but also over longer times. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with experiment using the values for the diffusion constants referred to above

  8. EXPERIENCE WITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGERY DEPT

    Abstract. Background:Island flap techniques currently used in urethroplasty utilize the prepuce and the dorsal penile skin. Our experience with a one-stage island flap urethroplasty for urethral strictures utilizing the ventral penile skin is described. Patients and Method: This is a longitudinal study of seventy six consecutive ...

  9. Resistance to Change of Responding Maintained by Unsignaled Delays to Reinforcement: A Response-Bout Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A.; Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Ward, Ryan D.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that unsignaled delayed reinforcement decreases response rates and resistance to change. However, the effects of different delays to reinforcement on underlying response structure have not been investigated in conjunction with tests of resistance to change. In the present experiment, pigeons responded on a…

  10. Resistance in psychotherapy with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafsma, T; Anbeek, M

    1984-03-01

    Resistances are of considerable significance in psychoterapy with adolescents. In this article, that significance is investigated further, because the way in which resistances are valued is very important in treatment. The forms in which it appears and, the source and intention of resistances are discussed. It is proposed that the investigation of resistances should not be aimed primarily at their removal.

  11. Drug resistance in cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehta, Kapil, Dr; Siddik, Zahid H

    2009-01-01

    ... from disappointment with the drug resistance reversal strategies that were carried out in the 1990s using pump inhibitors to block drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein, product of the MDR-1 gene. However, if one takes the larger definition - multidrug resistance as simultaneous resistance to multiple structurally unrelated anticancer therapies - its...

  12. Desiccation resistance in Arcobacter butzleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otth Laura

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation resistance of A. butzleri was studied. Two, 3 and 4 of the strains did not resist desiccation for more than 2, 12 and 36 h, respectively. Two strains resisted desiccation for > 48 h. A. butzleri seems to be more resistant to desiccation than the classical enteropathogenic Campylobacter species.

  13. Plasma treatment of heat-resistant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V A; Kosmachev, P V; Skripnikova, N K; Bezukhov, K A

    2015-01-01

    Refractory lining of thermal generating units is exposed to chemical, thermal, and mechanical attacks. The degree of fracture of heat-resistant materials depends on the chemical medium composition, the process temperature and the material porosity. As is known, a shortterm exposure of the surface to low-temperature plasma (LTP) makes possible to create specific coatings that can improve the properties of workpieces. The aim of this work is to produce the protective coating on heat-resistant chamotte products using the LTP technique. Experiments have shown that plasma treatment of chamotte products modifies the surface, and a glass-ceramic coating enriched in mullite is formed providing the improvement of heat resistance. For increasing heat resistance of chamotte refractories, pastes comprising mixtures of Bacor, alumina oxide, and chamot were applied to their surfaces in different ratios. It is proved that the appropriate coating cannot be created if only one of heat-resistant components is used. The required coatings that can be used and recommended for practical applications are obtained only with the introduction of powder chamot. The paste composition of 50% chamot, 25% Bacor, and 25% alumina oxide exposed to plasma treatment, has demonstrated the most uniform surface fusion. (paper)

  14. Herbivory enhances the resistance of mangrove forest to cordgrass invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihui; Meng, Hanyu; Wang, Yi; He, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    The biotic resistance hypothesis proposes that biotic interactions, such as competition and herbivory, resist the establishment and spread of non-native species. The relative and interactive role of competition and herbivory in resisting plant invasions, however, remains poorly understood. We investigated the interactive role of competition and herbivory (by the native rodent Rattus losea) in resisting Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) invasions into mangrove forests. In southern China, although exotic cordgrass numerically dominates intertidal mudflats and open gaps in mangrove forests, intact forests appear to be highly resistant to cordgrass invasion. A field transplant and rodent exclusion experiment showed that while the impact of rodent grazing on cordgrass was weak on mangrove forest edges and open mudflats, rodent grazing strongly suppressed cordgrass in mangrove understory habitats. A greenhouse experiment confirmed a synergistic interaction between grazing and light availability (a proxy for mangrove shading and light competition) in suppressing cordgrass establishment, with the strongest impacts of grazing in low light conditions that likely weakened cordgrass to survive and resprout. When both were present, as in mangrove understory habitats, grazing and low light acted in concert to eliminate cordgrass establishment, resulting in resistance of mangrove forests to cordgrass invasion. Our results reveal that grazing by native herbivores can enhance the resistance of mangrove forests to cordgrass invasion in southern China, and suggest that investigating multifactor interactions may be critical to understanding community resistance to exotic invasions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Bevirimat resistance of HIV-1 from genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maturation inhibitors are a new class of antiretroviral drugs. Bevirimat (BVM was the first substance in this class of inhibitors entering clinical trials. While the inhibitory function of BVM is well established, the molecular mechanisms of action and resistance are not well understood. It is known that mutations in the regions CS p24/p2 and p2 can cause phenotypic resistance to BVM. We have investigated a set of p24/p2 sequences of HIV-1 of known phenotypic resistance to BVM to test whether BVM resistance can be predicted from sequence, and to identify possible molecular mechanisms of BVM resistance in HIV-1. Results We used artificial neural networks and random forests with different descriptors for the prediction of BVM resistance. Random forests with hydrophobicity as descriptor performed best and classified the sequences with an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve of 0.93 ± 0.001. For the collected data we find that p2 sequence positions 369 to 376 have the highest impact on resistance, with positions 370 and 372 being particularly important. These findings are in partial agreement with other recent studies. Apart from the complex machine learning models we derived a number of simple rules that predict BVM resistance from sequence with surprising accuracy. According to computational predictions based on the data set used, cleavage sites are usually not shifted by resistance mutations. However, we found that resistance mutations could shorten and weaken the α-helix in p2, which hints at a possible resistance mechanism. Conclusions We found that BVM resistance of HIV-1 can be predicted well from the sequence of the p2 peptide, which may prove useful for personalized therapy if maturation inhibitors reach clinical practice. Results of secondary structure analysis are compatible with a possible route to BVM resistance in which mutations weaken a six-helix bundle discovered in recent experiments

  16. The behavior of electrochemical cell resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritley, K.A.; Dull, P.M.; Weber, M.H.; Carroll, M.; Hurst, J.J.; Lynn, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge of the basic electrochemical behavior found in typical cold fusion experiments is important to understanding and preventing experimental errors. For a Pd/LiOH(D)/Pt electrochemical cell, the applied cell voltage/current relationship (the effective cell resistance) does not obey Ohm's law directly, but instead exhibits a complicated response to the current, voltage, temperature, electrolyte conductance, and other factors. Failure to properly consider this response can possibly result in errors that could affect the heat balance in calorimetry and temperature measurement experiments. Measurements of this response under varying voltage, temperature, and electrolyte conductivity conditions are reported. A plausible scenario in which the temperature dependence of the effective cell resistance can either exaggerate or ameliorate novel exothermic processes is suggested

  17. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A Shalaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The develop­ment of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of graz­ing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointes­tinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been ob­served that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode popula­tions is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the suscepti­ble genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists to­wards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new

  18. Low resistive trasparent conductors with metallic grids : modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Rendering, H.; Mannetje, H.H 't; Klerk, L.; Hovestad, A.

    2012-01-01

    At present, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are still superior in performance to most other transparent conductors. Results on opto-electronic modeling and design optimization of TCOs are presented using a monolithically integrated CIGS cell configuration as case. For various cell dimensions

  19. Glovebox fire experiment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Keiichi; Sunaoshi, Mitsugu; Mishima, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Koichi.

    1979-01-01

    The gloveboxes used for plutonium facilities in Japan and foreign countries have considerable combustibles as their components, so that the fire resistivity of the gloveboxes is a serious problem in the safety evaluation of the facilities. Actually, a big fire having burned gloveboxes occurred in a foreign weapon facility. But the fire in the weapon facility should be distinguished from that in nuclear fuel facilities, since the former handles quite combustible plutonium metal, while the latter handle quite stable plutonium oxide. The countermeasures to fires should be decided, considering the properties and quantity of combustibles around gloveboxes and ventilation systems, as the probability and scale of fires can be presumed from them. From the viewpoint of safety, the experiment on glovebox fires was carried out by the Plutonium Fuel Division, PNC. The experimental conditions are explained. The samples were the acrylic resin panels with four glove ports and a small glovebox currently used. The glovebox showed the considerable fire resistance, and the panel hardly burned. The weakest component of the glovebox against fire was the gloves. The countermeasure to curtain the gloves with an insulating material seemed to be effective. The ventilation of the room and the glovebox worked as fire preventer at least in the first stage of fire. (Kako, I.)

  20. Resistance to technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isensee, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article deals with the tolerance test the constitutional system (Basic Law) of the Federal Republic of Germany is currently put to as a consequence of the resistance to the power structure of this country, which is expressed in the name of protection and defense for the environment and world peace. This biopacifistic resistance movment, the author says, has nothing to do with the legal right to resist, as laid down in art. 20 (4) of the Basic Law. According to the author, this attitude is an offspring of fear of the hazards of technological progress, primarily of nuclear hazards. Practical resistance, the author states, is preceded by theoretical resistance in speech: De-legitimation of the democratic legality, of the parliamentary functions, of the supreme power of the government, and denial of the citizens duty of obedience. The author raises the question as to whether this attitude of disobedience on ecological grounds marks the onset of a fourth stage of development of the modern state, after we have passed through stages characterised by fear of civil war, of tyranny, and of social privation and suffering. There are no new ideas brought forward by the ecologically minded movement, the author says, for re-shaping our institutions or constitutional system. (HP) [de

  1. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  2. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  3. Industrial experience with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author)

  4. Extending Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...... and the impacts of setting up, crossing and breaking the boundaries of game and non-game. Part three, Interfaces of Play, looks at games as technological and historical artefacts and commodities. The fourth part, Beyond Design, introduces new models for the practical and theoretical dimensions of game design....

  5. Dirac experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P

    2001-04-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime {tau} of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of {tau} with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies.

  6. Dirac experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, F; Afanasev, L; Benayoun, M; Brekhovskikh, V; Caragheorgheopol, G; Cechák, T; Chiba, M; Constantinescu, S; Doudarev, A; Dreossi, D; Drijard, Daniel; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Gallas, M V; Gerndt, J; Giacomich, R; Gianotti, P; Goldin, D; Gorin, A; Gortchakov, O; Guaraldo, C; Hansroul, M; Hosek, R; Iliescu, M; Jabitski, M; Kalinina, N; Karpoukhine, V; Kluson, J; Kobayshi, M; Kokkas, P; Komarov, V; Koulikov, A; Kouptsov, A; Krouglov, V; Krouglova, L; Kuroda, K I; Lanaro, A; Lapshine, B; Lednicky, R; Leruste, P; Levisandri, P; López-Aguera, A; Lucherini, V; Mäki, T; Manuilov, I; Montanet, L; Narjoux, J L; Nemenov, L; Nikitin, M; Nunez Pardo, T; Okada, K; Olchevskii, V; Pazos, A; Pentia, M; Penzo, Aldo L; Perreau, J M; Petrascu, C; Pló, M; Ponta, T; Pop, D; Riazantsev, A; Rodríguez, J M; Rodriguez Fernandez, A; Rykaline, V; Santamarina, C; Saborido, J; Schacher, J; Sidorov, A; Smolik, J; Takeutchi, F; Tarasov, A; Tauscher, L; Tobar, M J; Trusov, S; Vasquez, P; Vlachos, S; Yazkov, V; Yoshimura, Y; Zrelov, P

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime tau of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of pi /sup +/ and pi /sup -/ mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ to pi /sup 0/ pi /sup 0/ due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference a/sub 0/-a/sub 2/ for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of tau with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of a/sub 0/-a/sub 2/at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies. (19 refs).

  7. Experiment 7

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    Over-all view of the arrangement of counters around the polarized target in the kaon-polarized proton experiment. The beam enters through the quadrupole magnet on the left, and strikes the target placed in a 18.5 kG field (one pole of the magnet is just visible above the ring of counters). The scatterred kaon and recoil proton are detected by the counters on the ring and recorded onto magnetic tape.

  8. QUBIC Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Stolpovskiy, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    QUBIC is a ground-based experiment, currently under construction, that uses the novel bolometric interferometry technology. It is dedicated to measure the primordial B-modes of CMB. As a bolometric interferometer, QUBIC has high sensitivity and good systematics control. Dust contamination is controlled by operating with two bands -- 150 and 220 GHz. There are two possible sites for QUBIC: either Concordia station in Antarctic or in the Argentinian Puna desert. It is planned to see the first l...

  9. Experiments expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Gorini, B; Meschi, E

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the expectations and the constraints of the experiments relatively to the commissioning procedure and the running conditions for the 2015 data taking period. The views about the various beam parameters for the p-p period, like beam energy, maximum pileup, bunch spacing and luminosity limitation in IP2 and IP8, are discussed. The goals and the constraints of the 2015 physics program are also presented, including the heavy ions period as well as the special...

  10. Fast Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of ∼1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed

  11. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  12. Fast Resistive Bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-02-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of {approximately}1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed.

  13. Fast resistive bolometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, R.B.; Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.

    1998-06-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. The authors describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high power Z pinches on Sandia`s Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of {approximately}1 ns. They describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed.

  14. A new measurement method for the dynamic resistance signal during the resistance spot welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijing; Hou, Yanyan; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Hongjie; Xi, Tao; Qi, Xiangyang; Li, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    To measure the dynamic resistance signal during the resistance spot welding process, some original work was carried out and a new measurement method was developed. Compared with the traditional method, using the instantaneous electrode voltage and welding current at peak current point in each half cycle, the resistance curve from the newly proposed method can provide more details of the dynamic resistance changes over time. To test the specific performance of the proposed method, a series of welding experiments were carried out and the tensile shear strengths of the weld samples were measured. Then, the measurement error of the proposed method was evaluated. Several features were extracted from the dynamic resistance curves. The correlations between the extracted features and weld strength were analyzed and the results show that these features are closely related to the weld strength and they can be used for welding quality monitoring. Moreover, the dynamic resistance curve from the newly proposed method can also be used to monitor some abnormal welding conditions. (paper)

  15. Aggressive chemotherapy and the selection of drug resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijben, Silvie; Bell, Andrew S; Sim, Derek G; Tomasello, Danielle; Mideo, Nicole; Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F

    2013-09-01

    Drug resistant pathogens are one of the key public health challenges of the 21st century. There is a widespread belief that resistance is best managed by using drugs to rapidly eliminate target pathogens from patients so as to minimize the probability that pathogens acquire resistance de novo. Yet strong drug pressure imposes intense selection in favor of resistance through alleviation of competition with wild-type populations. Aggressive chemotherapy thus generates opposing evolutionary forces which together determine the rate of drug resistance emergence. Identifying treatment regimens which best retard resistance evolution while maximizing health gains and minimizing disease transmission requires empirical analysis of resistance evolution in vivo in conjunction with measures of clinical outcomes and infectiousness. Using rodent malaria in laboratory mice, we found that less aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens substantially reduced the probability of onward transmission of resistance (by >150-fold), without compromising health outcomes. Our experiments suggest that there may be cases where resistance evolution can be managed more effectively with treatment regimens other than those which reduce pathogen burdens as fast as possible.

  16. Aggressive chemotherapy and the selection of drug resistant pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Huijben

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistant pathogens are one of the key public health challenges of the 21st century. There is a widespread belief that resistance is best managed by using drugs to rapidly eliminate target pathogens from patients so as to minimize the probability that pathogens acquire resistance de novo. Yet strong drug pressure imposes intense selection in favor of resistance through alleviation of competition with wild-type populations. Aggressive chemotherapy thus generates opposing evolutionary forces which together determine the rate of drug resistance emergence. Identifying treatment regimens which best retard resistance evolution while maximizing health gains and minimizing disease transmission requires empirical analysis of resistance evolution in vivo in conjunction with measures of clinical outcomes and infectiousness. Using rodent malaria in laboratory mice, we found that less aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens substantially reduced the probability of onward transmission of resistance (by >150-fold, without compromising health outcomes. Our experiments suggest that there may be cases where resistance evolution can be managed more effectively with treatment regimens other than those which reduce pathogen burdens as fast as possible.

  17. Depression and Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Sue; Schmidt, Mike; Patton, George; Dwyer, Terry; Blizzard, Leigh; Otahal, Petr; Venn, Alison

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in a sample of young adults using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to ascertain depression status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,732 participants aged between 26 and 36 years. Insulin resistance was derived from blood chemistry measures of fasting insulin and glucose using the homeostasis model assessment method. Those identified with mild, moderate, or severe depression were classified as having depressive disorder. RESULTS The 12-month prevalence of depressive disorder was 5.4% among men and 11.7% among women. In unadjusted models mean insulin resistance was 17.2% (95% CI 0.7–36.0%, P = 0.04) higher in men and 11.4% (1.5–22.0%, P = 0.02) higher in women with depressive disorder. After adjustment for behavioral and dietary factors, the increased level of insulin resistance associated with depressive disorder was 13.2% (−3.1 to 32.3%, P = 0.12) in men and 6.1% (−4.1 to 17.4%, P = 0.25) in women. Waist circumference was identified as a mediator in the relationship between depression and insulin resistance, reducing the β coefficient in the fully adjusted models in men by 38% and in women by 42%. CONCLUSIONS A positive association was found between depressive disorder and insulin resistance in this population-based sample of young adult men and women. The association seemed to be mediated partially by waist circumference. PMID:20185745

  18. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  19. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    Through years, the dynamic resistance across the electrodes has been used for weld quality estimation and contact resistance measurement. However, the previous methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly based on measuring the voltage and current on the secondary side...... of the transformer in resistance welding machines, implying defects from induction noise and interference with the leads connected to the electrodes for measuring the voltage. In this study, the dynamic resistance is determined by measuring the voltage on the primary side and the current on the secondary side......, as another application, the proposed method is used to measure the faying surface contact resistance....

  20. Non-p-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in detransformed rat cells selected for resistance to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J M; Sircar, S; Horvath, J; Dion, P

    1989-11-01

    Three independent variants (G2, G4, G5), resistant to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), an anticancer drug, have been isolated by single step selection from an adenovirus-transformed rat brain cell line (1). These variants display selective cross-resistance to several natural product drugs of dissimilar structure and action. Multidrug resistance has recently been shown to be caused by overexpression of the membrane-associated p-glycoprotein, most often caused by amplification of the mdr gene. Several types of experiments were conducted to determine whether the observed drug resistance in our cell lines could be due to changes at the mdr locus. The following results were obtained: (a) the mdr locus was not amplified; (b) transcription of the mdr gene and p-glycoprotein synthesis were not increased; (c) multidrug resistance cell lines, which carry an amplified mdr locus, were not cross-resistant to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone); (d) verapamil did not reverse the resistance of G cells or mdr cells to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), nor that of G cells to vincristine; and (e) methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) resistance was recessive and depended on a block to drug uptake, as opposed to mdr cells which are dominant and express increased drug efflux. The results obtained suggest that the drug resistance in the G2, G4, and G5 cells was atypical and may be due to a mechanism distinct from that mediated by the mdr locus.

  1. Toward a Psychology of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeanette A; Dodds, Agnes E

    2018-03-01

    Resistance is all around us in contemporary life. It is an everyday phenomenon of personal and cultural life, as the Chaudhary et al. (2017) volume establishes with theoretical analyses and empirical examples from diverse cultural contexts. Resistance functions in the dynamics of person-by-culture encounters when one party takes an opposing position. With the purpose of working towards a unified approach to resistance, the authors in this volume lay down the foundations for a psychology of resistance as an everyday phenomenon. As a basis for analyzing the role of resistance in the dialectical processes of change, the volume presents resistance as: personal and social, oppositional, intentional and future-oriented, transformational and developmental. We see different positions opening up a debate about whether resistance is a particular, intentional and oppositional phenomenon, or is the basic process of all dialectical transformational change. Further resistance to either position is consistent with moving forward in the development of a psychology of resistance.

  2. Managing resistance with multiple pesticide tactics: theory, evidence, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, B E

    1989-10-01

    Sequences, mixtures, rotations, and mosaics are potential strategies for using more than one pesticide to manage pest populations and for slowing the evolution of pesticide resistance. Results from theoretical models suggest that, under certain conditions, mixtures might be especially effective for resistance management. The assumptions of such models, however, are probably not widely applicable. Potential disadvantages associated with mixtures that are usually not considered in modeling studies include disruption of biological control, promotion of resistance in secondary pests, and intense selection for cross-resistance. Results from limited experimental work suggest that pesticide combinations do not consistently suppress resistance development. More thorough evaluation of tactics that seek to optimize benefits of more than one insecticide will require rigorous experiments with the particular pest and pesticide combinations. Because of the difficulty in generalizing results across systems and the potential negative effects of multiple insecticide use, emphasis on minimizing insecticide use is recommended.

  3. Sensitivity Enhancement of Wheatstone Bridge Circuit for Resistance Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarikul ISLAM

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Present work deals with the development of a low cost, appreciably accurate and sensitive electronic circuit for resistive sensor. The circuit is based on the modification of the Wheatstone bridge using active devices. It helps measurement of the incremental resistance precisely and linearly. It requires few components for its hardware implementation and found to be suitable in case there is small change in resistance due to change in physical quantity or chemical analytes to be measured. Theory of the proposed bridge circuit has been discussed and experimental results have been compared with conventional full bridge circuit. Experiments have been conducted with metallic strain gauge sensor but it can be utilized to other resistive sensors. Results show that the output of the circuit is almost four times more than usual full Wheatstone bridge circuit. Experimental results show that the errors due to the effects of the ambient temperature and connecting lead resistance are minimized.

  4. Investigating antibiotic resistance in non-clinical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona eWalsh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been many calls for more information about the natural resistome and these have also highlighted the importance of understanding the soil resistome in the preservation of antibiotics for the treatment of infections. However, to date there have been few studies which have investigated the culturable soil resistome, which highlights the difficulties faced by microbiologists in designing these experiments to produce meaningful data. The World Health Organization definition of resistance is the most fitting to non-clinical environmental studies: Antimicrobial resistance is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive. The ideal investigation of non-clinical environments for antibiotic resistance of clinical relevance would be using standardized guidelines and breakpoints. This review outlines different definitions and methodologies used to understand antibiotic resistance and suggests how this can be performed outside of the clinical environment.

  5. Recent advances in the management of resistant hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Manolis, Athanasios J.; Kallistratos, Manolis S.; Doumas, Michalis; Pagoni, Stamatina; Poulimenos, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    And suddenly, following the preliminary results of renal denervation and carotid baroreceptor stimulation, a big interest in resistant hypertension rose, and all interventionists, many of them with no previous experience with hypertension, fell in love with hypertension and especially resistant hypertension. In the European Society of Hypertension/International Society of Hypertension (ESH/ISH) 2014 Joint Hypertension meeting in Athens, there were no more than four to five sessions related to...

  6. Overcoming resistance to change in business innovation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Berná Martínez, José Vicente; Maciá Pérez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in dealing with resistance to change appeared in the companies when they develop innovative processes related to the adoption of new technologies, tools, equipment, infrastructure and methodologies. Technological innovation is rapidly absorbed by society on a personal level. But at the enterprise level, resistance to innovation can occur at any hierarchical level of the company and may appear with different intensity. Depending on the type of enterp...

  7. Drug resistance plasmids in Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    OpenAIRE

    Vescovo, M; Morelli, L; Bottazzi, V

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and 20 strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus were tested for resistance to 22 antibiotics by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Evidence suggesting linkage of these resistances to plasmids was obtained by "curing" experiments with acridine dyes and high growth temperatures. Examination of plasmid patterns of agarose gel electrophoresis provided further evidence of loss in plasmid DNA under curing conditions in some of the strains examined.

  8. Factors underlying the natural resistance of animals against snake venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moussatché

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of mammals and reptilia with a natural resistance to snake venoms is known since a long time. This fact has been subjected to the study by several research workers. Our experiments showed us that in the marsupial Didelphis marsupialis, a mammal highly resistant to the venom of Bothrops jararaca, and other Bothrops venoms, has a genetically origin protein, a alpha-1, acid glycoprotein, now highly purified, with protective action in mice against the jararaca snake venom.

  9. Effects of pressure and temperature on thermal contact resistance between different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore whether pressure and temperature can affect thermal contact resistance, we have proposed a new experimental approach for measurement of the thermal contact resistance. Taking the thermal contact resistance between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites, cuprum, and aluminum as the examples, the influence of the thermal contact resistance between specimens under pressure is tested by experiment. Two groups of experiments are performed and then an analysis on influencing factors of the thermal contact resistance is presented in this paper. The experimental results reveal that the thermal contact resistance depends not only on the thermal conductivity coefficient of materials, but on the interfacial temperature and pressure. Furthermore, the thermal contact resistance between cuprum and aluminum is more sensitive to pressure and temperature than that between phenolic resin and carbon-carbon composites.

  10. Shatter resistance in sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langham, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of the world's sesame (probably over 99%) is shattering, and most of the harvest is manual. In a non-mechanized environment the last thing that farmers want is seed retention (''hold''). They want the seed to fall out as easily as possible. The amount of shattering desired is dependent on the method of harvest. By 1944 the first stage of mechanization was initiated. The indehiscent mutant found in 1943 showed in succeeding generations that it was controlled monogenically, and the homozygous recessive (id/id) gave indehiscence. Unfortunately, the id allele had pleiotropic effects including cupped leaves, twisted stems, short seed pods, semi-sterility, and low yield. Improvements in shatter resistance are relative within a specific program. For example, Sesaco has improved its shatter resistance each year, and still for the USA methods of harvest, further improvements are necessary to allow for better retention in adverse weather. This paper presents a methodology for quantifying shatter resistance so researchers can compare levels of shatter resistance between programs. (author)

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial for treatment. Accordingly, efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. ...

  12. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  13. Infinite resistive lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D; van Steenwijk, F.J.

    The resistance between two arbitrary nodes in an infinite square lattice of:identical resistors is calculated, The method is generalized to infinite triangular and hexagonal lattices in two dimensions, and also to infinite cubic and hypercubic lattices in three and more dimensions. (C) 1999 American

  14. How Many Equivalent Resistances?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.prenhall.com/boylestad/. [3]. Antoni Amengual, The intriguing properties of the equivalent resistances of n equal resistors combined in series and in parallel, American Journal of Physics, Vol.68, No.2, pp.175–179, 2000. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/. 10.1119/1.19396. [4]. Neil J A Sloane (Ed.), The On-Line Encyclopedia ...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit ... non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material ...

  16. Overcoming Faculty Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaff, Jerry G.

    1978-01-01

    Teaching improvement and institutional renewal efforts often face pessimism about change, if not suspicion and resistance, but faculty teams can overcome these problems through an action-oriented but low-profile "organic" approach. The need for personal invitations by colleagues is shown. (Author/LBH)

  17. Overcoming Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to change is a major obstacle in developing and implementing effective instructional programs, yet it is rarely considered, discussed, or addressed. The school leaders who are responsible for improvement frequently feel that their efforts are being blocked or thwarted. For the most part, they are correct, but they may not realize that…

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... 語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map ...

  20. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

    1982-01-01

    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  1. Individual Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    Giddens , 1979). It is based on this perception that the model presents the factors of resistance to change. The model’s elements are expressed as... Giddens , Anthony, (1979). Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis. Berkeley, CA: University of

  2. Oseltamivir-Resistant Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-13

    Dr. Aaron Storms, an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer at CDC, discusses his paper about oseltamivir-resistant H1N1flu.  Created: 4/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/17/2012.

  3. CONFERENCE REPORT ANTIRETROVIRAL RESISTANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-02

    Aug 2, 2004 ... had achieved full virological suppression (viral load. < 50 copies/ml). Thirty-two per cent of women had nevirapine-resistant virus. A novel strategy to avoid maternal exposure to nevirapine might be administering the drug to the newborn as post- exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Researchers from South Africa3.

  4. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  5. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  6. Return to Resistance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book is addressed mainly to readers who are concerned about the world food supply, and the pollution of our environment with chemical pesticides, but who lack detailed scientific ...... And, like the chain, the super-cultivar would be ruined with the failure of only one weak link, one short-lived vertical resistance.

  7. The resistance brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm; Uldam, Julie

    aspects of CSR (Hoff-Clausen and Ihlen, 2015; Morsing, 2006) and the ways in which they are used by corporations for self- presentations as political actors beyond CSR programmes (Palazzo and Scherer, 2006). We will conclude that there is not one resistance brand, but a series of ways in which...

  8. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains ... human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One of the major obstacles to understanding the ... Page Last Updated: 02/23/2018 ...

  10. Insulin Resistance and Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Shermin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgound: The number of hypogonads is increasing day by day. It may be due to sedentary life style with increased obesity, increased tension or stressed lifestyle among all groups of populations. Visceral obesity is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and also with hypogonadism.Objective: This study was carried out to determine the proportion of insulin resistance among male subjects with hypogonadism in different age groups along with status of erectile quality among diabetics and non diabetics.Materials and method: This cross sectional study among 161 adult male subjects aged ≥ 20 to ≤ 60 years were purposively selected from Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh between May 2009 to September 2010. Glycemic status and insulin resistance (by HOMA-R were done and relevant history were documented.Results: The highest proportion (38.9% of hypogonadism was in ≥ 50 years age group whereas highest proportion (39.6% of the eugonads was in the age group of 40 to 49 years. More than half of the hypogonad subjects had weak erectile quality (54.0% which were followed by absent erectile quality in 32.7% and 13.3% subjects had normal erectile quality. Among the eugonad subjects 41.7% had normal erectile quality, 41.6% subjects had weak erectile quality and 16.7% subjects had no erectile quality. More than ninety percent of the hypogonad subjects and about 60% of the eugonad subjects had insulin resistance. The average HOMA-R was more in the subjects with hypogonadism with diabetes which was highly significant (p-value < 0.001.Conclusion: Hypogonadism is associated with insulin resistance.

  11. Hyper-resistivity produced by tearing mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Tearing mode turbulence produces a hyper-resistivity or effective anomalous electron viscosity. The hyper-resistivity is calculated for the mean magnetic field quasilinearly, and for long-wavelength modes using the direct interaction approximation. The hyper-resistivity accounts for current relaxation in reversed-field pinch experiments, and gives a magnetic fluctuation sealing of S -1 /sup // 3 . It causes enhanced tearing mode growth rates in the turbulent phase of tokamak disruptions. In astrophysics, it limits magnetic energy growth due to the dynamo effect, and may explain rapid reconnection phenomena such as solar flares

  12. Are Sewage Treatment Plants Promoting Antibiotic Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction 1.1. How bacteria exhibit resistance 1.1.1. Resistance to -lactams 1.1.2. Resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim 1.1.3. Resistance to macrolides 1.1.4. Resistance to fluoroquinolones 1.1.5. Resistance to tetracyclines 1.1.6. Resistance to nitroimidaz...

  13. Resistant plasmid profile analysis of multidrug resistant Escherichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli has become a major threat and cause of many urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the resistant plasmids of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from (Urinary tract infections)UTIs in Abeokuta.

  14. Virus Resistance Is Not Costly in a Marine Alga Evolving under Multiple Environmental Stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Heath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are important evolutionary drivers of host ecology and evolution. The marine picoplankton Ostreococcus tauri has three known resistance types that arise in response to infection with the Phycodnavirus OtV5: susceptible cells (S that lyse following viral entry and replication; resistant cells (R that are refractory to viral entry; and resistant producers (RP that do not all lyse but maintain some viruses within the population. To test for evolutionary costs of maintaining antiviral resistance, we examined whether O. tauri populations composed of each resistance type differed in their evolutionary responses to several environmental drivers (lower light, lower salt, lower phosphate and a changing environment in the absence of viruses for approximately 200 generations. We did not detect a cost of resistance as measured by life-history traits (population growth rate, cell size and cell chlorophyll content and competitive ability. Specifically, all R and RP populations remained resistant to OtV5 lysis for the entire 200-generation experiment, whereas lysis occurred in all S populations, suggesting that resistance is not costly to maintain even when direct selection for resistance was removed, or that there could be a genetic constraint preventing return to a susceptible resistance type. Following evolution, all S population densities dropped when inoculated with OtV5, but not to zero, indicating that lysis was incomplete, and that some cells may have gained a resistance mutation over the evolution experiment. These findings suggest that maintaining resistance in the absence of viruses was not costly.

  15. Interferon in resistance to bacterial and protozoan infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Gould, Cheryl L.; Kierszenbaum, Felipe; Degee, Antonie L. W.; Mansfield, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of genetic differences in mouse strains on the modulation of protozoan infections by interferon (IFN) were investigated. In one set of experiments, three different strains of mice were injected with T. cruzi, and their sera were assayed at five time intervals for IFN titer. A greater quantity of IFN was produced by mouse strains that were susceptible to T. cruzi infection than by the more resistant strain. In another set of experiments, spleen cell cultures from inbred strains of mice were challenged with an antigen made from T.b. rhodesiense. The cells from mice resistant to infection, produced greater amounts of IFN-gamma than did cells from the susceptible mice. In a third set of experiments, it was found that mice injected with T.b. rhodesiense before being infected with a diabetogenic virus (EMC-D) were resistant to the effects of the virus and did not produce virus-specific antibody.

  16. Experimenting with a design experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker, Judith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design experiment is an experimental research method that aims to help design and further develop new (policy instruments. For the development of a set of guidelines for the facilitation of citizens’ initiatives by local governments, we are experimenting with this method. It offers good opportunities for modeling interventions by testing their instrumental validity –the usefulness for the intended practical purposes. At the same time design experiments are also useful for evaluating the empirical validity of theoretical arguments and the further development of these arguments in the light of empirical evidence (by using e.g. the technique of pattern matching. We describe how we have applied this methodology in two cases and discuss our research approach. We encountered some unexpected difficulties, especially in the cooperation with professionals and citizens. These difficulties complicate the valid attribution of causal effects to the use of the new instrument. However, our preliminary conclusion is that design experiments are useful in our field of study

    El experimento de diseño es un método de investigación experimental que tiene como objetivo diseñar y desarrollar posteriormente nuevas herramientas (políticas. En este artículo experimentamos con este método para desarrollar un conjunto de directrices que permitan a los gobiernos locales facilitar las iniciativas ciudadanas. El método ofrece la oportunidad de modelar las intervenciones poniendo a prueba su validez instrumental (su utilidad para el fin práctico que se proponen. Al mismo tiempo, los experimentos de diseño son útiles también para evaluar la validez empírica de las discusiones teóricas y el posterior desarrollo de esas discusiones a la luz de la evidencia empírica (usando, por ejemplo, técnicas de concordancia de patrones. En este trabajo describimos cómo hemos aplicado este método a dos casos y discutimos nuestro enfoque de

  17. Operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, L.P.; Six, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company began operating a first-generation integrated safeguards system in the Plutonium Finishing Plant storage vaults. This Vault Safety and Inventory System is designed to integrate data into a computer-based nuclear material inventory monitoring system. The system gathers, in real time, measured physical parameters that generate nuclear material inventory status data for thousands of stored items and sends tailored report to the appropriate users. These data include canister temperature an bulge data reported to Plant Operations and Material Control and Accountability personnel, item presence and identification data reported to Material Control and Accountability personnel, and unauthorized item movement data reported to Security response forces and Material Control and Accountability personnel. The Westinghouse Hanford Company's experience and operational benefits in using this system for reduce radiation exposure, increase protection against insider threat, and real-time inventory control are discussed in this paper

  18. Management Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popovici

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the survey about the changes in modern management, identified from the experience of Romanian managers. By this online study one presents both the obstacles encountered and the recommendations for such a type of management that the present and future mangers must take into account. What motivated the respondent Romanian managers most to open their own business is the independence it offered them. They work in the field they have liked since they were young. The second reason was the perspective to have an additional income from the business development. The third argument in favour of opening a business is the possibility to assure the balance between personal life and career.

  19. Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection with ceftriaxone resistance and intermediate resistance to azithromycin, Denmark, 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, David; Tolstrup, Jacob; Johnsen, Camilla Hundahl

    2017-01-01

    We describe a multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection with ceftriaxone resistance and azithromycin intermediate resistance in a heterosexual man in Denmark, 2017. Whole genome sequencing of the strain GK124 identified MSLT ST1903, NG-MAST ST1614 and all relevant resistance determinants...... including similar penA resistance mutations previously described in ceftriaxone-resistant gonococcal strains. Although treatment with ceftriaxone 0.5 g plus azithromycin 2 g was successful, increased awareness of spread of gonococcal strains threatening the recommended dual therapy is crucial....

  20. Galileo's Trajectory with Mild Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    An aspect of Galileo's classical trajectory that persists in a simple resistance model is noted. The resistive model provides a case study for the classroom analysis of limiting behaviour of an implicitly defined function. (Contains 1 note.)

  1. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  2. Retroviral superinfection resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Kuyl Antoinette C

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The retroviral phenomenon of superinfection resistance (SIR defines an interference mechanism that is established after primary infection, preventing the infected cell from being superinfected by a similar type of virus. This review describes our present understanding of the underlying mechanisms of SIR established by three characteristic retroviruses: Murine Leukaemia Virus (MuLV, Foamy Virus (FV, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. In addition, SIR is discussed with respect to HIV superinfection of humans. MuLV resistant mice exhibit two genetic resistance traits related to SIR. The cellular Fv4 gene expresses an Env related protein that establishes resistance against MuLV infection. Another mouse gene (Fv1 mediates MuLV resistance by expression of a sequence that is distantly related to Gag and that blocks the viral infection after the reverse transcription step. FVs induce two distinct mechanisms of superinfection resistance. First, expression of the Env protein results in SIR, probably by occupancy of the cellular receptors for FV entry. Second, an increase in the concentration of the viral Bet (Between-env-and-LTR-1-and-2 protein reduces proviral FV gene expression by inhibition of the transcriptional activator protein Tas (Transactivator of spumaviruses. In contrast to SIR in FV and MuLV infection, the underlying mechanism of SIR in HIV-infected cells is poorly understood. CD4 receptor down-modulation, a major characteristic of HIV-infected cells, has been proposed to be the main mechanism of SIR against HIV, but data have been contradictory. Several recent studies report the occurrence of HIV superinfection in humans; an event associated with the generation of recombinant HIV strains and possibly with increased disease progression. The role of SIR in protecting patients from HIV superinfection has not been studied so far. The phenomenon of SIR may also be important in the protection of primates that are vaccinated with live

  3. Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Schwarz, S.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from healthy piglets and piglets with exudative epidermitis originating from 100 different herds was examined for drug-resistance and prevalence of plasmids. Resistance to macrolide/lincosamide antibiotics could be related to plasmids in 55 (93%) of the 59...... resistant strains: A plasmid of 2.4 kb mediating resistance to macrolides and lincosamides was observed in 25 strains, and a plasmid of 11.5 kb mediating resistance to both macrolides/lincosamides and tetracycline was observed in 30 strains. A plasmid with a molecular weight of 4.5 kb was shown by curing...... experiments to be associated with resistance to tetracycline in 12 strains. All together, 47 strains were resistant to tetracycline. In 42 (89%) of these strains tetracycline-resistance was found to be encoded by plasmids. Fifty six strains were resistant to streptomycin, and resistance was associated...

  4. Copper resistance determinants in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N L; Rouch, D A; Lee, B T

    1992-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element that is utilized in a number of oxygenases and electron transport proteins, but it is also a highly toxic heavy metal, against which all organisms must protect themselves. Known bacterial determinants of copper resistance are plasmid-encoded. The mechanisms which confer resistance must be integrated with the normal metabolism of copper. Different bacteria have adopted diverse strategies for copper resistance, and this review outlines what is known about bacterial copper resistance mechanisms and their genetic regulation.

  5. Insulin Resistance in Liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad, M

    2011-01-01

    Present report gives a brief and consolidated review of insulin resistance developed in chronic liver diseases. Insulin resistance remains an important feature of chronic liver diseases and progresses disease towards fibrogenesis. Of hepatitis viral infections, hepatitis C virus (HCV) was reported to have a significant role in inducing insulin resistance. Both viral particles as such, as well its structural components induce insulin resistance. Hepatitis C virus core protein, specially, cause...

  6. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Wading River, NY

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  7. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  8. Test for bacterial resistance build-up against plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J L; Shimizu, T; Li, Y-F; Morfill, G E; Schmidt, H-U; Isbary, G

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the evolution of resistance of microorganisms to a range of different antibiotics presents a major problem in the control of infectious diseases. Accordingly, new bactericidal ‘agents’ are in great demand. Using a cold atmospheric pressure (CAP) plasma dispenser operated with ambient air, a more than five orders of magnitude inactivation or reduction of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; resistant against a large number of the tested antibiotics) was obtained in less than 10 s. This makes CAP the most promising candidate for combating nosocomial (hospital-induced) infections. To test for the occurrence and development of bacterial resistance against such plasmas, experiments with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus mundtii) were performed. The aim was to determine quantitative limits for primary (naturally) or secondary (acquired) resistance against the plasma treatment. Our results show that E. coli and E. mundtii possess no primary resistance against the plasma treatment. By generating four generations of bacteria for every strain, where the survivors of the plasma treatment were used for the production of the next generation, a lower limit to secondary resistance was obtained. Our results indicate that CAP technology could contribute to the control of infections in hospitals, in outpatient care and in disaster situations, providing a new, fast and efficient broad-band disinfection technology that is not constrained by bacterial resistance mechanisms. (paper)

  9. Flow resistance in rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsun, A.S.; Sokolova, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    The general form of relation between the resistance force and the velocity vector, resistance tensor structure and possible types of anisotropy in the flow thorough such structures as rod or tube assemblies are under discussion. Some questions of experimental determination of volumetric resistance force tensor are also under consideration. (author)

  10. Studying Resistance: Some Cautionary Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The question of "resistance" has oriented the field of critical ethnography for several generations now. Indeed, the reproduction-resistance binary has animated much of the most important, critical work in educational studies over the last 30 years. Yet, this reproduction-resistance binary has perhaps calcified in recent years. Such work…

  11. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  12. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  13. Tubing with high corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioffe, A. V.; Tetyueva, T. V.; Vyboyshchik, M. A.; Trifonova, E. A.; Lutsenko, E. S.

    2010-07-01

    The optimum chemical composition and the regime for heat treatment of heat-resistant steel 15Kh5M are determined for the production of tubing with strength of group L80 (API 5CT) and high cold resistance and resistance to carbon dioxide and sulfurated hydrogen corrosion at low alloying additives of chromium and molybdenum.

  14. Interventions for Dealing with Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dorinda J.

    Basic intervention strategies for dealing with client resistance include psychoanalytic, learning/behavioral, and hypnotic/paradoxical. Psychoanalytic theory views resistance as a way to avoid the anxiety aroused by increasing awareness of unconscious materials and vulnerable areas in the person's life. Resistance is dealt with after it has…

  15. Development of herbicide resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides is one of the most important grass weeds in Bavaria. Chemical weed control with high efficacy is very important in crops like winter cereals, oilseed rape and maize. Crop rotations with more winter cereals, reduced soil cultivation and e.g. contract harvesting enhanced distribution of blackgrass in arable farming regions. Effects of herbicide resistance were observed since the last 20 years. The blackgrass herbicide resistance is well observed by the official plant protection service of Bavaria. A wide experience of resistance tests shows the development of resistant black-grass and provides an opportunity for future prospects in resistance dynamics.

  16. Development of large area resistive electrodes for ATLAS NSW MicroMEGAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ochi, Atsuhiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    MicroMegas with resistive anode will be used for the NSW upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The resistive electrode is one of key technology for MPGDs to prevent sparks. Large area resistive electrodes for the MM have been developed using two different technology; screen printing and carbon sputtering. Maximum size of each resistive foil is 45cm x 220cm with printed pattern of 425 micron pitch strips. Those technologies are also suitable to mass production. The prototypes of series production model have been produced successfully. We will report the development and production status and test results of the resistive MicroMegas.

  17. Data report on series 5 reflood experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun; Murao, Yoshio; Iguchi, Tadashi; Sudoh, Takashi; Sudo, Yukio

    1978-01-01

    Measured results and calculated heat transfer behavior in Series 5 reflood experiment are presented. The purpose of experiments carried out from March to April 1977 was 1) to examine quench characteristics at low flooding rate in 2 step-wise variable flow rate, 2) to measure steady state differential pressure in the core, and 3) to observe flow oscillation behavior of the system with small inlet flow resistance. Analysis was given previously. (auth.)

  18. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  19. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...

  20. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating...... background threaded by a vertical magnetic field when disturbances with wavenumbers perpendicular to the shear are considered. We provide a geometrical description of these viscous, resistive MRI modes and show how their physical structure is modified as a function of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds...... momentum transport is always directed outwards. We also find that, for any combination of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers, magnetic disturbances dominate both the energetics and the transport of angular momentum and that the total mean energy density is an upper bound for the total mean stress...

  1. Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-28

    In this podcast, Dr. Oeltmann discusses multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. An outbreak occurred in Thailand, which led to 45 cases in the U.S. This serious illness can take up to 2 years to treat. MDR TB is a real threat and a serious condition.  Created: 10/28/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/28/2008.

  2. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  3. Insecticide Resistance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    thuringiensis var. membranes israeknsis A2 Bacillus sphaencus Inhibitocs of chitin biosynthesis type 0 15 Benzaylureas Diflubenzuron, triflnmuron...resources/ pdf /fsp/ir_manual/ir_cdc_bioassay_en.pdf 22 STEP 5: INTERPRETING RESULTS The time required for all susceptible mosquitoes to die in the...purchase by contacting: Dr Zairi Jaal, Tel: 604-6574776; zairi@usm.my http://www.who.int/whopes/resistance/en/WHO_CDS_CPE_PV C_2001.2. pdf 27

  4. Metal Resistance and Its Association With Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chandan; Asiani, Karishma; Arya, Sankalp; Rensing, Christopher; Stekel, Dov J; Larsson, D G Joakim; Hobman, Jon L

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is recognised as a major global threat to public health by the World Health Organization. Currently, several hundred thousand deaths yearly can be attributed to infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The major driver for the development of antibiotic resistance is considered to be the use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics in humans and animals. Nonantibiotic compounds, such as antibacterial biocides and metals, may also contribute to the promotion of antibiotic resistance through co-selection. This may occur when resistance genes to both antibiotics and metals/biocides are co-located together in the same cell (co-resistance), or a single resistance mechanism (e.g. an efflux pump) confers resistance to both antibiotics and biocides/metals (cross-resistance), leading to co-selection of bacterial strains, or mobile genetic elements that they carry. Here, we review antimicrobial metal resistance in the context of the antibiotic resistance problem, discuss co-selection, and highlight critical knowledge gaps in our understanding. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydraulic resistance in part-full pipes with composite roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrusquia, G.; Petersen, O.; Larsen, Torben

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with composite roughness. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical turbulence model. The results from the numerical model are compared with the sid......The paper discusses the boundary shear stresses and the hydraulic resistance in part-full sewer pipes with composite roughness. The discussion is based on a series of numerical experiments using a validated numerical turbulence model. The results from the numerical model are compared...

  6. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...... calculated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Compared to 74.2% of ART-experienced individuals in 1997, only 5.1% showed evidence of virological failure in 2012. The odds of resistance testing declined after 2004 (global P Resistance was detected in 77...

  7. Assessing resistance of stabilized corrosion resistant steels to intergranular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, A.; Cihal, V. Jr.; Vanek, V.; Herzan, J.; Protiva, K.; Cihal, V.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance to intergranular corrosion was determined for four types of titanium-stabilized steels from the coefficients of stabilization efficiency according to the degree the chemical composition was known. The ATA SUPER steel showed the highest resistance parameter value. The resistance of this type of steel of a specific composition, showing a relatively low value of mean nitrogen content was compared with steel of an optimized chemical composition and with low-carbon niobium stabilized, molybdenum modified steels. The comparison showed guarantees of a sufficient resistance of the steel to intergranular corrosion. The method of assessing the resistance to intergranular corrosion using the calculation of the minimum content of Cr', i.e., the effective chromium content, and the maximum effective carbon content C' giving the resistance parameter k seems to be prospective for practical use in the production of corrosion resistant steels. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 15 refs

  8. Inter-filament resistance, effective transverse resistivity and coupling loss in superconducting multifilamentary NbTi and Nb3Sn strands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2012-01-01

    The effective transverse resistivity of a range of multi-filamentary Nb3Sn and NbTi strands is measured with a direct four-probe method and the data are compared to the transverse resistivity values obtained from AC coupling loss experiments. Correspondence between both is satisfactory provided that

  9. Fitness Cost of VanA-Type Vancomycin Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Marie-Laure; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    We have quantified the biological cost of VanA-type glycopeptide resistance due to the acquisition of the resistance operon by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Enterococcus sp. Exponential growths of recipient strain HIP11713, its transconjugant VRSA-1, VRSA-5, and VRSA-6 were compared in the absence or, except for HIP11713, in the presence of vancomycin. Induction of resistance was performed by adding vancomycin in both the preculture and the culture or the culture at only 1/50 the MIC. In the absence of vancomycin, the growth rates of the vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains were similar to that of susceptible MRSA strain HIP11713. When resistance was induced, and under both conditions, there was a significant reduction of the growth rate of the VRSA strains relative to that of HIP11713 and to those of their noninduced counterparts, corresponding to a ca. 20% to 38% reduction in fitness. Competition experiments between isogenic VRSA-1 and HIP11713 mixed at a 1:1, 1:100, or 100:1 ratio revealed a competitive disadvantage of 0.4% to 3% per 10 generations of the transconjugant versus the recipient. This slight fitness burden can be attributed to the basal level of expression of the van genes in the absence of induction combined with a gene dosage effect due to the presence of the van operon on multicopy plasmids. These data indicate that VanA-type resistance, when induced, is highly costly for the MRSA host, whereas in the absence of induction, its biological cost is minimal. Thus, the potential for the dissemination of VRSA clinical isolates should not be underestimated. PMID:19332680

  10. Fitness cost of VanA-type vancomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Marie-Laure; Courvalin, Patrice; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine

    2009-06-01

    We have quantified the biological cost of VanA-type glycopeptide resistance due to the acquisition of the resistance operon by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Enterococcus sp. Exponential growths of recipient strain HIP11713, its transconjugant VRSA-1, VRSA-5, and VRSA-6 were compared in the absence or, except for HIP11713, in the presence of vancomycin. Induction of resistance was performed by adding vancomycin in both the preculture and the culture or the culture at only 1/50 the MIC. In the absence of vancomycin, the growth rates of the vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strains were similar to that of susceptible MRSA strain HIP11713. When resistance was induced, and under both conditions, there was a significant reduction of the growth rate of the VRSA strains relative to that of HIP11713 and to those of their noninduced counterparts, corresponding to a ca. 20% to 38% reduction in fitness. Competition experiments between isogenic VRSA-1 and HIP11713 mixed at a 1:1, 1:100, or 100:1 ratio revealed a competitive disadvantage of 0.4% to 3% per 10 generations of the transconjugant versus the recipient. This slight fitness burden can be attributed to the basal level of expression of the van genes in the absence of induction combined with a gene dosage effect due to the presence of the van operon on multicopy plasmids. These data indicate that VanA-type resistance, when induced, is highly costly for the MRSA host, whereas in the absence of induction, its biological cost is minimal. Thus, the potential for the dissemination of VRSA clinical isolates should not be underestimated.

  11. Multiple herbicide resistance in Lolium multiflorum and identification of conserved regulatory elements of herbicide resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mahmood

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is a ubiquitous challenge to herbicide sustainability and a looming threat to control weeds in crops. Recently four genes were found constituently over-expressed in herbicide resistant individuals of Lolium rigidum, a close relative of L. multiflorum. These include two cytochrome P450s, one nitronate monooxygenase and one glycosyl-transferase. Higher expressions of these four herbicide metabolism related (HMR genes were also observed after herbicides exposure in the gene expression databases, indicating them a reliable marker. In order to get an overview of herbicidal resistance status of Lolium multiflorum L, 19 field populations were collected. Among these populations, four populations were found to be resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors while three exhibited resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase inhibitors in our initial screening and dose response study. The genotyping showed the presence of mutations Trp-574-Leu and Ile-2041-Asn in ALS and ACCase, respectively and qPCR experiments revealed the enhanced expression of HMR genes in individuals of certain resistant populations. Moreover, co-expression networks and promoter analyses of HMR genes in O.sativa and A.thaliana resulted in the identification of a cis-regulatory motif and zinc finger transcription factors. The identified transcription factors were highly expressed similar to HMR genes in response to xenobiotics whereas the identified motif known to play a vital role in coping with environmental stresses and maintaining genome stability. Overall, our findings provide an important step forward towards a better understanding of metabolism-based herbicide resistance that can be utilized to devise novel strategies of weed management.

  12. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  13. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  14. Multi-polar resistance switching and memory effect in copper phthalocyanine junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Shi-Zhu; Kang Shi-Shou; Li Qiang; Zhong Hai; Kang Yun; Yu Shu-Yun; Han Guang-Bing; Yan Shi-Shen; Mei Liang-Mo; Qin Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Copper phthalocyanine junctions, fabricated by magnetron sputtering and evaporating methods, show multi-polar (unipolar and bipolar) resistance switching and the memory effect. The multi-polar resistance switching has not been observed simultaneously in one organic material before. With both electrodes being cobalt, the unipolar resistance switching is universal. The high resistance state is switched to the low resistance state when the bias reaches the set voltage. Generally, the set voltage increases with the thickness of copper phthalocyanine and decreases with increasing dwell time of bias. Moreover, the low resistance state could be switched to the high resistance state by absorbing the phonon energy. The stability of the low resistance state could be tuned by different electrodes. In Au/copper phthalocyanine/Co system, the low resistance state is far more stable, and the bipolar resistance switching is found. Temperature dependence of electrical transport measurements demonstrates that there are no obvious differences in the electrical transport mechanism before and after the resistance switching. They fit quite well with Mott variable range hopping theory. The effect of Al 2 O 3 on the resistance switching is excluded by control experiments. The holes trapping and detrapping in copper phthalocyanine layer are responsible for the resistance switching, and the interfacial effect between electrodes and copper phthalocyanine layer affects the memory effect. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Investigating Resistance of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. ‎Populations to Tribenuron-Methyl Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‎ Mehdi Afshari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribenuron-methyl is commonly used for post emergence control of broad leaf weeds in wheat fields. In order to survey suspicious resistant weeds in wheat fields to this herbicide thirty-eight fields of Kermanshah province were investigated during 2012- 2013. Seeds of suspected resistance of wild mustard were gathered and tested in a randomized complete blocks design experiment with three replications. First, for early detection of herbicide resistance, the suspected population was screened using discriminating dose of tribenuron-methyl. Determining of the resistance degree was conducted by whole plant bioassay tests using dose-response curves. The resistance mechanisms were assayed by molecular methods, especially using the ALS gene cloning by PJET1.2/blunt Vector. For susceptible populations, the concentration required for complete control was 10.4 g ai ha-1 tribenuron-methyl. Also, in screening tests 50% of populations as resistant populations were identified. According to the Beckie and Tardif, it was found that 57.8% of these population did have a very high degree of resistance, 31.5% with high resistance and 10/5% with low resistance degree. GR50 of the resistant weeds was also increased as compared to sensitive weed, which indicates resistance in this province, Thus to control the resistant populations Z15, this amount increased to 1309 g ai ha-1.The results of DNA sequencing showed that mutation by replacing proline amino acid at position Ala122 causes resistance based on target-site mutation.

  16. Strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchil, Rajesh R; Kohli, Gurdeep Singh; Katekhaye, Vijay M; Swami, Onkar C

    2014-07-01

    The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is rising and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in clinical and community setting. Spread of antibiotic resistance to different environmental niches and development of superbugs have further complicated the effective control strategies. International, national and local approaches have been advised for control and prevention of antimicrobial resistance. Rational use of antimicrobials, regulation on over-the-counter availability of antibiotics, improving hand hygiene and improving infection prevention and control are the major recommended approaches. Thorough understanding of resistance mechanism and innovation in new drugs and vaccines is the need. A multidisciplinary, collaborative, regulatory approach is demanded for combating antimicrobial resistance.

  17. Rhythms of Resistance and Existence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Nandita; Hviid, Pernille; Marsico, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    and, when it is, resistance is most often considered counter-productive. Simple evaluations of resistance as positive or negative are avoided in this volume; instead it is conceptualised as a vital process for human development and well-being. While resistance is usually treated as an extraordinary...... occurrence, the focus here is on everyday resistance as an intentional process where new meaning constructions emerge in thinking, feeling, acting or simply living with others. Resistance is thus conceived as a meaning-making activity that operates at the intersection of personal and collective systems...

  18. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  19. Imaging microchannel plate detectors for XUV sky survey experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barstow, M.A.; Fraser, G.W.; Milward, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the development of microchannel plate detectors for the Wide Field Camera (WFC) XUV (50-300 A) sky survey experiment on Rosat. A novel feature of the detector design is that the microchannel plates and their resistive anode readout are curved to the same radius as the WFC telescope focal surface. It is shown that curving the channel plates is not detrimental to gain uniformity. The paper describes the design of a curved resistive anode readout element and contrasts the present measurements of spatial resolution, global and local uniformity and temperature coefficient of resistance with the poor performance recently ascribed to resistive anodes in the literature. 18 references

  20. Happy Festivus! Parody as playful consumer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Ilona; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon literary theory, play and consumer resistance literature, we conceptualize consumer parodic resistance – a resistant form of play that critically refunctions dominant consumption discourses and marketplace ideologies. We explore parodic resistance empirically by analyzing Festivus, a...

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  2. Antibiotic policies and control of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Ian M

    2002-08-01

    The current worldwide pandemic of antibiotic resistance shows no signs of abating. It is clear that it is driven mainly by heavy and often inappropriate antibiotic use. Although control measures are widely practised, it is important that we assess their efficacy critically in order to concentrate expensive control efforts where they will be most effective. The past year has seen much activity in this area, with evidence-based assessments of the literature according to strict guidelines, as well as progress in basic science studies of mechanisms of resistance, and their causes and relations to pathogenicity and adaptability. The present review summarizes current developments in the causes of antibiotic resistance, the classification of antibiotic stewardship and control measures, the evidence base for their efficacy, current problems in hospital practice, the adaptability of bacteria, the content of antibiotic policies and anticipated activities. The conclusions from the published literature are that much of it that pertains to changing prescribing practices does not stand up to modern evidence-based analysis concepts. Nevertheless, we can learn from experience in changing other areas of medical practice. We must be pragmatic and must not expect to change the world, but rather take it step by step, recognizing barriers and measuring outcomes and quality indicators. Studies into the molecular basis of resistance confirm the superb genetic adaptability of micro-organisms. They will always be several steps ahead of us. Nevertheless, we are learning how to modify our prescribing habits to minimize resistance, not only by using antibiotics less frequently but also by altering dosing schedules in various ways.

  3. Foster carers influence brood pathogen resistance in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Chapuisat, Michel

    2014-10-07

    Social organisms face a high risk of epidemics, and respond to this threat by combining efficient individual and collective defences against pathogens. An intriguing and little studied feature of social animals is that individual pathogen resistance may depend not only on genetic or maternal factors, but also on the social environment during development. Here, we used a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether the pathogen resistance of individual ant workers was shaped by their own colony of origin or by the colony of origin of their carers. The origin of care-giving workers significantly influenced the ability of newly eclosed cross-fostered Formica selysi workers to resist the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana. In particular, carers that were more resistant to the fungal entomopathogen reared more resistant workers. This effect occurred in the absence of post-infection social interactions, such as trophallaxis and allogrooming. The colony of origin of eggs significantly influenced the survival of the resulting individuals in both control and pathogen treatments. There was no significant effect of the social organization (i.e. whether colonies contain a single or multiple queens) of the colony of origin of either carers or eggs. Our experiment reveals that social interactions during development play a central role in moulding the resistance of emerging workers. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Aversive conditioning of elevations in total peripheral resistance in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D E; Yingling, J E

    1979-06-01

    Operant conditioning experiments were performed with 12 chronically instrumented dogs to which aversive stimulation was presented whenever total peripheral resistance (mean pressure/cardiac output) decreased acutely below a criterion level. Initial experiments in which aversive stimulation occurred whenever total peripheral resistance decreased below mean base-line levels resulted in sustained decreases in total peripheral resistance, accompanied by elevations in heart rate, cardiac output, and arterial pressure. Subsequent experiments showed, however, that if aversive stimulation occurred only following large-magnitude decreases in resistance (30% below base-line levels), a progressive cardiovascular response pattern emerged during daily sessions of 5--16 h. This cardiovascular pattern included progressive elevations in resistance (10--50%), accompanied by progressive decreases or no change in heart rate and cardiac output and moderate increases in arterial (up to 20 mmHg) and pulse pressure. These within-session cardiovascular changes were accompanied by sustained inhibition of overt behavioral acitivity and progressive inhibition in respiratory activity. Implications of these observation for behavioral regulation of circulatory function are discussed.

  5. Tunable resistance coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Mane, Anil U.

    2015-08-11

    A method and article of manufacture of intermixed tunable resistance composite materials containing at least one of W:Al.sub.2O.sub.3, Mo:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 or M:Al.sub.2O.sub.3 where M is a conducting compound containing either W or Mo. A conducting material and an insulating material are deposited by such methods as ALD or CVD to construct composites with intermixed materials which do not have structure or properties like their bulk counterparts.

  6. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Pullen, William C.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Bell, Richard T.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  7. Organic ice resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Le, Hoa Thanh

    2017-01-01

    that simple organic molecules, e.g. alcohols, condensed to form thin-films at low temperature demonstrate resist-like capabilities for EBL applications and beyond. The entire lithographic process takes place in a single instrument, and avoids exposing chemicals to the user and the need of cleanrooms. Unlike...... EBL that requires large samples with optically flat surfaces, we patterned on fragile membranes only 5-nm-thin, and 2 x 2 mm2 diamond samples. We created patterns on the nm to sub-mm scale, as well as three-dimensional structures by stacking layers of frozen organic molecules. Finally, using plasma...

  8. Outwitting the series resistance in scanning spreading resistance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, A.; Cao, R.; Eyben, P.; Hantschel, T.; Vandervorst, W.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of nanoelectronics devices critically depends on the distribution of active dopants inside these structures. For this reason, dopant profiling has been defined as one of the major metrology challenges by the international technology roadmap of semiconductors. Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) has evolved as one of the most viable approaches over the last decade due to its excellent spatial resolution, sensitivity and quantification accuracy. However, in case of advanced device architectures like fins and nanowires a proper measurement of the spreading resistance is often hampered by the increasing impact of parasitic series resistances (e.g. bulk series resistance) arising from the confined nature of the aforementioned structures. In order to overcome this limitation we report in this paper the development and implementation of a novel SSRM mode (fast Fourier transform-SSRM: FFT-SSRM) which essentially decouples the spreading resistance from parasitic series resistance components. We show that this can be achieved by a force modulation (leading to a modulated spreading resistance signal) in combination with a lock-in deconvolution concept. In this paper we first introduce the principle of operation of the technique. We discuss in detail the underlying physical mechanisms as well as the technical implementation on a state-of-the-art atomic force microscope (AFM). We demonstrate the performance of FFT-SSRM and its ability to remove substantial series resistance components in practice. Eventually, the possibility of decoupling the spreading resistance from the intrinsic probe resistance will be demonstrated and discussed. - Highlights: • A novel electrical AFM mode for carrier profiling in confined volumes is presented. • Thereby the force and hence the contact area between AFM probe and sample is modulated. • Information on the spreading resistance is derived using a lock-in approach. • Bulk series resistance components are

  9. First resistance mechanisms characterization in glyphosate-resistant Leptochloa virgata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptochloa virgata (L. P. Beauv. is an annual weed common in citrus groves in the states of Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico limiting their production. Since 2010, several L. virgata populations were identified as being resistant to glyphosate, but studies of their resistance mechanisms developed by this species have been conducted. In this work, three glyphosate-resistant populations (R8, R14 and R15 collected in citrus orchards from Mexico, were used to study their resistance mechanisms comparing them to one susceptible population (S. Dose-response and shikimic acid accumulation assays confirmed the glyphosate resistance of the three resistant populations. Higher doses of up to 720 g ae ha-1 (field dose were needed to control by 50% plants of resistant populations. The S population absorbed between 7 and 13% more 14C-glyphosate than resistant ones, and translocated up to 32.2% of 14C-glyphosate to the roots at 96 h after treatment (HAT. The R8, R14 and R15 populations translocated only 24.5, 26.5 and 21.9%, respectively. The enzyme activity of 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS was not different in the S, R8 and R14 populations. The R15 Population exhibited 165.9 times greater EPSPS activity. Additionally, this population showed a higher EPSPS basal activity and a substitution in the codon 106 from Proline to Serine in the EPSPS protein sequence. EPSPS gene expression in the R15 population was similar to that of S population. In conclusion, the three resistant L. virgata populations show reduced absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate. Moreover, a mutation and an enhanced EPSPS basal activity at target-site level confers higher resistance to glyphosate. These results describe for the first time the glyphosate resistance mechanisms developed by resistant L. virgata populations of citrus orchards from Mexico.

  10. A resistência olha a resistência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ponciano Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Resistência é um processo humano que acontece quando a pessoa se encontra sob algum tipo de ameaça. Não é essencialmente um acontecimento psicoterapêutico. Ocorre na terapia não como uma oposição a si mesmo ou ao terapeuta, mas como uma forma de se ajustar a uma nova situação. A resistência, é por natureza, a atualização do instinto de auto-preservação. E o organismo inteligentemente segue a lei da preferência. Resistência é uma forma de contato que não pode ser destruída, mas administrada, porque ela surge como uma defesa da totalidade vivenciada pela pessoa. A Resistência é, às vezes, resistência e awareness mais que ao contato. Ela revela mais o caminho seguido do que oculta a caminhada feita. A resistência é um processo natural, porque o corpo que não resiste, morre, mas falamos em processos de auto-regulação organísmica. Valorizamos mais o que mantêm a resistência funcionando do que à própria resistência. O terapeuta também resiste, ou seja, ele se auto-regula na sua relação com o cliente. Não questionamos a resistência, mas o processo que a mantêm. Trabalhamos com nove mecanismos de defesa, também tradicionalmente, chamados de resistência.

  11. Relaxation resistance of heat resisting alloys with cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdyka, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation resistance of refractory nickel-chromium alloys containing 5 to 14 % cobalt is under study. The tests involve the use of circular samples at 800 deg to 850 deg C. It is shown that an alloy containing 14% cobalt possesses the best relaxation resistance exceeding that of nickel-chromium alloys without any cobalt by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The relaxation resistance of an alloy with 5% cobalt can be increased by hardening at repeated loading

  12. Small plasma physics experiments 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Sakanaka, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains 9 review papers and 13 contributed papers presented at the second symposium on Small Scale Laboratory Plasma Physics Experiments, held May 15 - June 9, 1989, at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. The main objective of the symposium was the gathering of researchers of small experimental laboratory plasma physics groups to give lectures and present papers. The meeting also included workshops as a forum for exchange of experiences, partial research results and interesting solutions found for experimental problems. The Symposium serves as a counterpart of the rest of the Spring College activities, in which many of the presentations come from the large laboratories with budgets hundreds of times larger than those for small scale laboratory plasma experimentation reported on here. In the 3-day Symposium, 9 lectures and 28 contributed papers including poster papers were given and 10 workshops were conducted on themes of small scale laboratory experiments. Twenty-five research groups from 20 countries participated. The review lectures are divided into devices: Rotamak, Tokamak, compact tori, and plasma focus; and into techniques: pulse technology, optical and electric diagnostics. The contributed papers range from pinch and focus devices and experiments to vacuum spark, a multi-magnetic dipole device and a small FRC experiment, and includes techniques such as surface preparation, electrostatic lens and multiframe holographic interferometry. There is also a section on theoretical work including dimensionality of fluctuations, heat transport and classical resistive decay. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. The dolutegravir R263K resistance mutation in HIV-1 integrase is incompatible with the emergence of resistance against raltegravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maureen; Mesplède, Thibault; Moïsi, Daniela; Ibanescu, Ruxandra-Ilinca; Brenner, Bluma; Wainberg, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    Although the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has demonstrated greater resilience than other antiretroviral drugs at withstanding the emergence of HIV-1 resistance mutations, such substitutions can develop, albeit rarely, in treatment-experienced integrase inhibitor-naïve individuals. The most common substitution in integrase under those circumstances is R263K whereas another substitution that was selected against DTG in tissue culture was G118R. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of these DTG-specific resistance substitutions on the ability of HIV-1 to become resistant against either of two other integrase inhibitors, raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir (EVG). We performed tissue culture selection experiments using DTG-resistant viruses containing integrase substitutions at positions R263K, H51Y/R263K, E138K/R263K, G118R and H51Y/G118R in the presence of increasing concentrations of either RAL or EVG. Changes in integrase sequences were monitored by genotyping. The presence of the R263K substitution delayed the emergence of resistance against RAL whereas the simultaneous presence of either the H51Y or E138K secondary substitutions in combination with R263K somewhat mitigated this inhibitory effect. In contrast, resistance against EVG appeared earlier than in wild-type virus in viruses containing the R263K and E138K/R263K DTG-associated resistance substitutions. The DTG-resistant R263K substitution antagonized the development of HIV-1 resistance against RAL while partially facilitating the occurrence of resistance against EVG.

  14. Impact resistance of guards on grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Detlef; Mewes, Olaf; Herbst, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Guards on machine tools are meant to protect persons from injuries caused by parts ejected with high kinetic energy from the machine's working zone. With respect to stationary grinding machines, Standard No. EN 13218:2002, therefore, specifies minimum wall thicknesses for guards. These values are mainly based on estimations and experience instead of systematic experimental investigations. This paper shows to what extent simple impact tests with standardizable projectiles can be used as basis for the evaluation of the impact resistance of guards, provided that not only the kinetic energy of the projectiles used but also, among others, their geometry corresponds to the abrasive product fragments to be expected.

  15. Formation factor determinations by in-situ resistivity logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, M.; Ohlsson, Y.; Neretnieks, I.

    2001-01-01

    Matrix diffusion in bedrock is traditionally studied by laboratory liquid diffusion experiments, which are time consuming and expensive. A new way of studying matrix diffusion is to measure the electrical resistivity of the rock. This could be done either in laboratories or in-situ. A fast method of obtaining a formation factor log, later used in matrix diffusion calculations, for an entire borehole is proposed. It is a standard procedure in geophysical well logging to measure rock resistivity and there are well-developed tools for this in the oil industry. The SKB, Sweden, uses boreholes with a small diameter (56 mm) and this reduces the options in choosing resistivity tools. Therefore they have so far relied on the Normal log that only gives quantitative measurements in special cases, after corrections are made. Modern tools, such as the slimhole Dual-Laterolog, are accurate with a high vertical resolution. The pore fluid resistivity is required when obtaining a formation factor log. In previous work the borehole fluid resistivity has been used. A new method measures the resistivity in groundwater from local fractures. These values seem more appropriate to use as new in-situ measurements show that there may be local groundwater resistivity differences. A preliminary study shows that the conductivity could be obtained in saline Swedish groundwater by measuring the chloride concentration only. Anomalies in the formation factor log have to be sorted out by using supporting core logging and non-electrical in-situ methods. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  16. Impact Resistance Behaviour of Banana Fiber Reinforced Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Rifdy Samsudin, Muhamad; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Usman, Fathoni; Beddu, Salmia; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the performance of banana fibre reinforced slabs 300mm × 300mm size with varied thickness subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.25 kg drop at 1 m height has been used in this research work. The main variables for the study is to find the relationship of the impact resistance against the BF contents and slab thickness. A linear relationship has been established between first and ultimate crack resistance against BF contents and slab thickness by the experiment. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the BF contents for a constant spacing for various banana fibre reinforced slab thickness. The increment in BF content has more effect on the first crack resistance than the ultimate crack resistance. The linear relationship has also been established between the service (first) crack and ultimate crack resistance against the various slab thickness. Overall 1.5% BF content with slab thickness of 40 mm exhibit better first and ultimate crack resistance up to 16 times and up to 17 times respectively against control slab (without BF)

  17. Resistive Memory Devices for Radiation Resistant Non-Volatile Memory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionizing radiation in space can damage electronic equipment, corrupting data and even disabling computers. Radiation resistant (rad hard) strategies must be employed...

  18. Resistance diagnosis and the changing epidemiology of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, David

    2017-01-01

    Widespread adoption of point-of-care resistance diagnostics (POCRD) reduces ineffective antibiotic use but could increase overall antibiotic use. Indeed, in the context of a standard susceptible-infected epidemiological model with a single antibiotic, POCRD accelerates the rise of resistance in the disease-causing bacterial population. When multiple antibiotics are available, however, POCRD may slow the rise of resistance even as more patients receive antibiotic treatment, belying the conventional wisdom that antibiotics are "exhaustible resources" whose increased use necessarily promotes the rise of resistance. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Resistance scaling function for two-dimensional superconductors and Monte Carlo vortex-fluctuation simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnhagen, P.; Weber, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of the Ginsburg-Landau Coulomb-gas model for vortex fluctuations is described and compared to the measured resistance scaling function for two-dimensional superconductors. This constitutes a new, more direct way of confirming the vortex-fluctuation explanation for the resistive tail of high-sheet-resistance superconducting films. The Monte Carlo data obtained indicate a striking accordance between theory and experiments

  20. Teachers' perceptions of resistant behaviour of children in the middle childhood developmental phase / Nicola Taryn Richardson

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Nicola Taryn

    2014-01-01

    Resistant behaviour is a serious reality in South African primary schools. South Africa’s teachers strive to be agents of positive change amidst the multiple challenges they and their learners encounter, yet they admittedly experience daily frustration at addressing resistant behaviour. Considering the harsh external realities which many learners encounter, resistant behaviour cannot be expected to disappear at the introduction of specific techniques. The research consequently aimed to examin...

  1. Mapping the Qademah Fault with Traveltime, Surface-wave, and Resistivity Tomograms

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2015-08-19

    Traveltime, surface-wave, and resistivity tomograms are used to track the buried Qademah fault located near King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC), Saudi Arabia. The fault location is confirmed by the 1) resistivity tomogram obtained from an electrical resistivity experiment, 2) the refraction traveltime tomogram, 3) the reflection image computed from 2D seismic data set recorded at the northern part of the fault, and 4) the surface-wave tomogram.

  2. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  3. Primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Supriya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year old man presented at our institution with back pain, low-grade fever and weight-loss. X-ray of chest (postero-anterior view showed multiple opacities with erosion of right 2nd and left 6th ribs. CT-scan of thorax and CT-guided FNAC con-firmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis of ribs. Even after 5-months of treatment with four first line drugs, the patient developed a cold abscess at the back. Mycobacterial culture and drug sensitivity of material aspirated by Radiometric method from the cold abscess showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and those bacilli were resistant to both isoniazide and rifampicin. The patient did not have anti-tubercu-lar medication in the past, and that established the diagnosis of primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis of ribs. Patient was treated successfully with 2nd line drugs at the cost of moderate degree of hearing loss. After one and half years of treatment X-ray of chest (PA view showed complete healing of rib erosions with new bone formation.

  4. [Resistant hypertension: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, N F

    2018-01-31

    An estimated 10% to 20% of hypertensive patients could be considered resistant to treatment (RH). These are patients who are not controlled using three drugs, at the maximum tolerated doses, including a diuretic, as well as those with high blood pressure controlled using four or more drugs. The term is used to identify patients that might benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic consideration. The term 'refractory hypertension' has recently been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure. It refers to patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximum treatment. The first studies of this phenotype indicate that it is rare and affects less than 5% of patients with RH. Adherence to or compliance with medical treatment is key to defining resistant hypertension. Closer attention has been paid to clinical and experimental research since the first scientific statement for the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of RH from the American Heart Association, and in the European guidelines, was published in 2008. This review will set out the concepts relating to prevalence, prognosis and compliance and cover the latest developments on this subject. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Clopidogrel resistance: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Thomas; Cayla, Guillaume; Silvain, Johanne

    2010-01-01

    The concept of clopidogrel resistance emerged several years ago. Since then, many studies have been performed to elucidate the mechanisms and potential clinical impact of this biological finding. These studies identified complex mechanisms, including drug-drug interactions, genetic polymorphisms and clinical factors, and showed consistently the clinical relevance of the variability of clopidogrel response, with higher ischaemic risk in low-responders or non-responders, and higher bleeding risk in hyper-responders. Several strategies for overcoming clopidogrel resistance have been evaluated in small clinical studies, but the benefit of tailored antiplatelet therapy has yet to be validated in large randomized trials, which are currently ongoing. Upcoming antiplatelet drugs that are more potent will change the field of antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndromes. The future of antiplatelet therapy sounds more complex, with different drugs, and tailored therapy based on platelet tests and/or genetic testing, but it will lead us to propose a more individualized therapy, which hopefully will improve patient outcome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Eight Weeks Resistance Training on Leptin and Insulin Resistance in Obese Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khalili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leptin , the main peptide secreted by adipose tissue, is considered an alarming factor in the regulation of body fat content . With regard to the physiological effect of exercise as one of the potential regulators of leptin secretion from adipose tissue , this study was performed to examine the effects of resistance exercise on leptin. Materials & Methods: Twenty inactive and obese female students (10 controls and 10 experi-mentals participated in this study. The subjects in the experimental group performed an 8 week resistance training program (chest press, leg press, lat pull down, leg curl, bicep curl, leg extension with 60 - 70 percent of 1RM. ELISA was used to measure leptin. Results: The results of this study showed that 8 weeks of resistance training significantly decreased BMI (31.32 kg/m2 versus 29.73 kg/m2 , P=0.0001, weight body (80.5kg versus 76.25kg, P=0.0001, WHR (0.93 ver-sus0.89, P=0.0001 and body fat percent (27.48 versus 24.85, P=0.0001 in EG. Statistically significant differ-ences were not seen in leptin (P=0.939, insulin (P=0.336, glucose (P=0.264 and insulin resistance (P=0.306 between CG and EG. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that , there was no significant difference in leptin levels and insulin resistance between the control and experimental groups, after 8 weeks of resistance training. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:59-65

  7. ENTEROCOCCI AND THEIR RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS AND THYME ESSENTIAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Ducková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are important part of microflora of food animal origin. They have positive (probiotic effect, production flavor compounds during food ripening and also negative (production biogenic amine, antibiotic resistance, biofilm production properties. The aim of this work was to determine resistance to different concentrations of thyme essential oil and antibiotic resistance of enterococci isolated from pork (n=3 and poultry (n=17. The antibiotic resistance of isolates was determined by disc diffusion method and the antibacterial effect of thyme essential oil was assayed by a microdilution method in 96-well microtitration plates after determination of absorbance at 630 nm (A630. Of 20 tested enterococci, 85 % were resistant to tetracycline, 35 % to erythromycin, 15 % to ampicillin and 5 % to gentamicin. No resistance to vancomycin was detected. All tested strains of enterococci were able to grow and reproduce at concentrations of thyme essential oil 0.033 % and 0.066 %. Inhibitory effect of thyme essential oil began at a concentration of 0.099 %, but only for 10 % of the tested strains. Even the highest concentration tested thyme essential oil 0.166 % did not inhibit all the tested strains, because 25 % of enterococcal strains continued to grow. No correlation between antibiotic resistance and resistance to the thyme essential oil was detected for tested enterococci. The thyme essential oil has potential for using in food industry to inhibit spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms, but it is necessary to test antimicrobial activity in other in vitro and in vivo experiments and also in experiments with impact on the sensory properties of food.

  8. The DAMIC Dark Matter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Mello Neto, J. R.T. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). et al

    2015-10-07

    The DAMIC (DArk Matter In CCDs) experiment uses high-resistivity, scientific-grade CCDs to search for dark matter. The CCD’s low electronic noise allows an unprecedently low energy threshold of a few tens of eV; this characteristic makes it possible to detect silicon recoils resulting from interactions of low-mass WIMPs. In addition, the CCD’s high spatial resolution and the excellent energy response results in very effective background identification techniques. The experiment has a unique sensitivity to dark matter particles with masses below 10 GeV/c2. Previous results have motivated the construction of DAMIC100, a 100 grams silicon target detector currently being installed at SNOLAB. The mode of operation and unique imaging capabilities of the CCDs, and how they may be exploited to characterize and suppress backgrounds are discussed, as well as physics results after one year of data taking.

  9. Selecting soybean resistant to the cyst nematode Heterodera glycines using simple sequence repeat (microssatellite) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, S M C G; Hamawaki, O T; Oliveira, A P; Hamawaki, C D L; Hamawaki, R L; Takahashi, L M

    2016-03-11

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major cause of soybean yield reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of marker-assisted selection to identify genotypes resistant to SCN race 3 infection, using Sat_168 and Sat-141 resistance quantitative trait loci. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, using soybean populations originated from crosses between susceptible and resistant parent stock: CD-201 (susceptible) and Foster IAC (resistant), Conquista (susceptible) and S83-30 (resistant), La-Suprema (susceptible) and S57-11 (resistant), and Parecis (susceptible) and S65-50 (resistant). Plants were inoculated with SCN and evaluated according to the female index (FI), those with FI markers Sat-141 and Sat_168. Marker selection efficiency was analyzed by a contingency table, taking into account genotypic versus phenotypic evaluations for each line. These markers were shown to be useful tool for selection of SCN race 3.

  10. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  11. The Prehistory of Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Julie; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global problem that is reaching crisis levels. The global collection of resistance genes in clinical and environmental samples is the antibiotic "resistome," and is subject to the selective pressure of human activity. The origin of many modern resistance genes in pathogens is likely environmental bacteria, including antibiotic producing organisms that have existed for millennia. Recent work has uncovered resistance in ancient permafrost, isolated caves, and in human specimens preserved for hundreds of years. Together with bioinformatic analyses on modern-day sequences, these studies predict an ancient origin of resistance that long precedes the use of antibiotics in the clinic. Understanding the history of antibiotic resistance is important in predicting its future evolution. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Tales of resistance and other emancipatory functions of storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassley, Jane S; Nelms, Tommie P

    2009-11-01

    Tales of resistance and other emancipatory functions of storytelling. This paper is the report of a study to explore how the process of storytelling might facilitate women's emancipatory knowing, using examples from women's breastfeeding stories. Storytelling, as an interactive process, can give women a way to explain pivotal life events, justify choices, examine reality and find meaning in experiences. Emancipatory functions of storytelling have been identified as contextual grounding, bonding with others, validating and affirming experiences, venting and catharsis, resisting oppression and educating others. Secondary data analysis was conducted in 2008 on breastfeeding stories originally gathered from 13 women from 2002 to 2004 for a feminist hermeneutic study of maternal breastfeeding confidence. The stories were re-examined through the lens of the emancipatory functions of storytelling. Illustrations of contextual grounding, validating and affirming experiences, venting and catharsis and acts of resistance were found in the breastfeeding stories and presented as exemplars of emancipatory knowing. Women revealed the difficulties they encountered breastfeeding, transforming these experiences as they discovered their meaning. They described collisions that occurred when personal, familial, healthcare professionals' or cultural expectations differed from their experience. The stories suggested possible liberation from old ideologies about breastfeeding as women redefined the difficulties they encountered. Storytelling has potential as a simple, yet profound, and powerful emancipatory intervention which nurses can use to help women in their care make sense of and transform experiences of health and illness. Storytelling may have global implications for nursing practice and research.

  13. Stigma, identity and resistance among people living with HIV in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS-related stigma can cause delays in testing, poor treatment adherence, and greater numbers of new infections. Existing studies from low- and middle-income countries focus on the negative experiences of stigma, and few document resistance strategies. In this article we document the diverse journeys of people living ...

  14. Fast temperature programming in gas chromatography using resistive heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallüge, J.; Ou-Aissa, R.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Veraart, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The features of a resistive-heated capillary column for fast temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) have been evaluated. Experiments were carried out using a commercial available EZ Flash GC, an assembly which can be used to upgrade existing gas chromatographs. The capillary column is placed

  15. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and…

  16. Evaluation on the resistance to aphids of wheat germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collection of more than 200 wheat lines from the main wheat-producing areas of China was evaluated for resistance to wheat aphids, using fuzzy recognition technique in five field experiments over 2 years. The results show that susceptibility to wheat aphids was exhibited in most of the lines tested, and no immune and ...

  17. Animal Models for Studying Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, R.E.; Verweij, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    Infections caused by triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus are associated with a higher probability of treatment failure and mortality. Because clinical experience in managing these infections is still limited, mouse models of invasive aspergillosis fulfill a critical void for studying treatment

  18. Regeneration systems for pyramiding disease resistance into walnut rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to regenerate selected walnut rootstocks adventitiously. This is an essential step to be able to produce transgenic walnut rootstocks with superior traits, such as disease resistance. A series of plant tissue culture experiments were conducted on RX1 and VX211 rootstocks wit...

  19. In vitro fermentability of differently digested resistant starch preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fässler, C.; Arrigoni, E.; Venema, K.; Brouns, F.; Amadò, R.

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro fermentability of two resistant starch preparations type 2 (RS2) and type 3 (RS3) was investigated using human colonic microbiota. Prior to the fermentation experiments, samples were digested using two in vitro models, a batch (ba) and a dynamic (dy), as well as an in vivo method (il)

  20. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  1. Particle physics experiments 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes work carried out in 1983 on experiments approved by the Particle Physics Experiments Selection Panel. The contents consist of unedited contributions from each experiment. (author)

  2. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  3. Resistance governance in IT projects

    OpenAIRE

    Vrhovec, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The failure rate of projects introducing major changes is worrying. Resistance to change is recognized as an important factor in project failure. Resistance is a natural part of the change process and is therefore present in all changes. IS changes are mostly evolutionary. Organizations infrequently implement more important strategic changes with a broader scope. Resistance often remains overlooked and usually does not constitute a serious threat to the change as it is proportional to the cha...

  4. Resistive Switching Assisted by Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, G. A.; Fierens, P. I.; Grosz, D. F.

    2013-01-01

    We extend results by Stotland and Di Ventra on the phenomenon of resistive switching aided by noise. We further the analysis of the mechanism underlying the beneficial role of noise and study the EPIR (Electrical Pulse Induced Resistance) ratio dependence with noise power. In the case of internal noise we find an optimal range where the EPIR ratio is both maximized and independent of the preceding resistive state. However, when external noise is considered no beneficial effect is observed.

  5. Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron A. Wade; Natasha Kyprianou

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival ...

  6. Overcoming resistance to organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P K

    1997-10-01

    Resistance to assertive organization change is inevitable because people are asked to reexamine and modify their behavior, which breeds resistance. Resistance serves to maintain equilibrium until the reasons for change are both conscious and compelling. Instead of accepting people's feelings as excuses, persistently push for what you know needs to happen in the face of today's harsh realities. Provide clarity, time, support, and the stability of a persistent message.

  7. Potato stem cuttings to study Verticillium dahliae infection for resistance breeding and ‘omics’ studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of consistent and effective methods for early discrimination of resistance to pathogens and selection of appropriate times for tissue sampling are important for experiments focused on global gene expression and metabolomics. Assays for resistance to the vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae...

  8. Resistiveness to Care as Experienced by Family Caregivers Providing Care for Someone With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigelmyer, Pamela C; Hupcey, Judith E; Smith, Carol A; Loeb, Susan J; Kitko, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    This research explored family caregivers' lived experiences of resistiveness to care when they provided care for people with dementia. The goal was to identify a general meaning of family caregivers' lived experiences to target potential areas for future nursing interventions to help family caregivers manage their caregiving role and provide a base for future research surrounding resistiveness to care. Descriptive phenomenology was used to provide descriptions of eight family caregivers who provided care for someone with dementia and experienced resistiveness to care. Family caregivers were recruited from Alzheimer's support groups from June to November 2014. Caregiver interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using scientific phenomenology to identify essential constituents of the experience. The identified general meaning structure contained five essential constituents. These included self-questioning of abilities; signal for increased future caregiver responsibilities; changed perception of personal self; unexpected emotional responses; and seeing a changed person, not the disease. Study findings represent family caregivers' lived perceptions of resistiveness to care, which are different from current research findings regarding nurses' perceptions of resistiveness to care. The identified meaning structure indicates focus areas for future research and for nursing interventions to help family caregivers manage their distress when experiencing resistiveness to care. Identification of the meaning caregivers ascribe to their lived experience of resistiveness to care (five essential constituents) provides nurses with opportunities to help family caregivers (coproviders of care) holistically. Supporting caregivers in their caregiving role can decrease caregiver distress when resistiveness to care occurs. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Being involved in something one should not get involved with: resistance to sexual music videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; Peter, J.; Boot, I.

    2012-01-01

    Research on sexual music videos has paid little attention to the possibility that viewers can resist the sexual content of music videos and has largely ignored the processes that may explain this resistance. The present study aimed to fill these gaps in the literature. In an experiment with a

  10. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  11. Resistance to rifampicin: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Beth P

    2014-09-01

    Resistance to rifampicin (RIF) is a broad subject covering not just the mechanism of clinical resistance, nearly always due to a genetic change in the β subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), but also how studies of resistant polymerases have helped us understand the structure of the enzyme, the intricacies of the transcription process and its role in complex physiological pathways. This review can only scratch the surface of these phenomena. The identification, in strains of Escherichia coli, of the positions within β of the mutations determining resistance is discussed in some detail, as are mutations in organisms that are therapeutic targets of RIF, in particular Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Interestingly, changes in the same three codons of the consensus sequence occur repeatedly in unrelated RIF-resistant (RIF(r)) clinical isolates of several different bacterial species, and a single mutation predominates in mycobacteria. The utilization of our knowledge of these mutations to develop rapid screening tests for detecting resistance is briefly discussed. Cross-resistance among rifamycins has been a topic of controversy; current thinking is that there is no difference in the susceptibility of RNAP mutants to RIF, rifapentine and rifabutin. Also summarized are intrinsic RIF resistance and other resistance mechanisms.

  12. HIV resistance testing: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resistance testing has become an important tool in optimizing the combination therapy for treating HIV infected individuals. The identification of resistance mutations has allowed physicians to select the antiviral agents with maximum therapeutic benefic and minimum toxic side effects. The current therapeutic agents approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), their mechanisms of actions, and the mutations of the HIV viral genome that lead to resistance to antiviral agents are discussed. In addition, methods of resistance testing, both genotypic and phenotypic, are evaluated with consideration of their inherent advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Integrating tuberculosis and antimicrobial resistance control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Rumina; Shakoor, Sadia; Hanefeld, Johanna; Khan, Mishal

    2018-03-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries facing high levels of antimicrobial resistance, and the associated morbidity from ineffective treatment, also have a high burden of tuberculosis. Over recent decades many countries have developed effective laboratory and information systems for tuberculosis control. In this paper we describe how existing tuberculosis laboratory systems can be expanded to accommodate antimicrobial resistance functions. We show how such expansion in services may benefit tuberculosis case-finding and laboratory capacity through integration of laboratory services. We further summarize the synergies between high-level strategies on tuberculosis and antimicrobial resistance control. These provide a potential platform for the integration of programmes and illustrate how integration at the health-service delivery level for diagnostic services could occur in practice in a low- and middle-income setting. Many potential mutual benefits of integration exist, in terms of accelerated scale-up of diagnostic testing towards rational use of antimicrobial drugs as well as optimal use of resources and sharing of experience. Integration of vertical disease programmes with separate funding streams is not without challenges, however, and we also discuss barriers to integration and identify opportunities and incentives to overcome these.

  14. Induced mutations for soybean rust resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.; Wongpiyasatid, A.; Lamseejan, S.

    1983-01-01

    Soybean mutation experiments for inducing rust resistance in the cultivars G 8375, Wakashima mutant number 10, Taichung N, S.J.2, S.J.4, BM 50, BM 98, G 8377, G 8586 and G 8587 have been carried out since 1979. Six pods from each of 4438 control and 43,907 M 1 plants were randomly harvested. M 2 seeds of each cultivar of different doses were bulked (M 2 bulk). In addition, 270 good M 1 plants were selected and threshed singly (M 2 single). M 2 -bulk and M 2 -single seeds were advanced to M 3 . Both, M 3 -bulk and M 3 -single plants, together with the remaining M 2 -bulk seeds were screened for rust resistance in the rainy season of 1980 in Nong Hoi Valley (altitude about 1000 m above sea level) and at Mae Joe Station, both in Chiang Mai Province (latitude 18 deg. 31'-19 deg. N). Based on the IWGSR rating system, soybean plants with slow growth of rust were selected from both locations. The results were as follows: Six plants were selected from a total of 2802 control plants, and 115 from a total of 28,834 M 2 and M 3 plants. Further evaluation of these selections for rust resistance will be carried out in the rainy season of 1981 in Nong Hoi Valley, Chiang Mai. (author)

  15. The role of ethylene and wound signaling in resistance of tomato to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz, J.; Have, ten A.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ethylene, jasmonate, and salicylate play important roles in plant defense responses to pathogens. To investigate the contributions of these compounds in resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, three types of experiments were conducted: (a) quantitative

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk and soft cheese (wara) sold in Abeokuta, Nigeria. ... (100%), ampicillin 16 (94.1%), doxycycline 11 (64.7%), tetracycline 17 (100%), oxacillin 15 (88.2%), augmentin 17 (100%), gentamycin 15 (88.2%), colistin 15 (88.2%), ...

  17. plasmid mediated resistance in multidrug resistant bacteria isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    PLASMID MEDIATED RESISTANCE IN MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA. ISOLATED FROM CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED SEPTICAEMIA IN ZARIA,. NIGERIA. AbdulAziz, Z. A.,1* Ehinmidu, J. O.,1 Adeshina, G. O.,1 Pala, Y. Y2., Yusuf, S. S2. and. Bugaje, M. A.3. 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical ...

  18. Electrical resistivity measurements to predict abrasion resistance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prediction of Los Angeles (LA) abrasion loss from some indirect tests is useful for practical applications. For this purpose, LA abrasion, electrical resistivity, density and porosity tests were carried out on 27 different rock types. LA abrasion loss values were correlated with electrical resistivity and a good correlation ...

  19. Mechanisms of polymyxin resistance: acquired and intrinsic resistance in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Olumuyiwa Olaitan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxins are polycationic antimicrobial peptides that are currently the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections. The reintroduction of polymyxins for antimicrobial therapy has been followed by an increase in reports of resistance among Gram-negative bacteria. Some bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, develop resistance to polymyxins in a process referred to as acquired resistance, whereas other bacteria, such as Proteus spp., Serratia spp. and Burkholderia spp., are naturally resistant to these drugs. Reports of polymyxin resistance in clinical isolates have recently increased, including acquired and intrinsically resistant pathogens. This increase is considered a serious issue, prompting concern due to the low number of currently available effective antibiotics. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning the different strategies bacteria employ to resist the activities of polymyxins.Gram-negative bacteria employ several strategies to protect themselves from polymyxin antibiotics (polymyxin B and colistin, including a variety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS modifications, such as modifications of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine and 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, in addition to the use of efflux pumps, the formation of capsules and overexpression of the outer membrane protein OprH, which are all effectively regulated at the molecular level. The increased understanding of these mechanisms is extremely vital and timely to facilitate studies of antimicrobial peptides and find new potential drugs targeting clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Measurement of Dynamic Resistance in Resistance Spot Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Lu, J.; Zhang, Wenqi

    2007-01-01

    The conventional methods of determining the dynamic resistance were mostly done by measuring the voltage and current at secondary side of transformer in resistance welding machines, in which the measuring set-up normally interferes with the movement of electrode, and the measuring precision is in...