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Sample records for resin shell epon

  1. Effects of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Nanoparticles on the Fracture Toughness of an Epoxy Resin at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Cannon, S. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core-shell rubber (CSR) nanoparticles on the fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Varying amounts of Kane Ace (Registered TradeMark) MX130 toughening agent were added to a commercially available EPON 862/W epoxy resin. Resulting fracture toughness was evaluated by the use of Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The size and distribution of the CSR nanoparticles were characterized using Transmission Electric Microscopy (TEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Up to nominal 4.6% addition of the CSR nanoparticles, resulted in a nearly 5 times increase in the measured breaking energy. However, further increases in the amount of CSR nanoparticles had no appreciable affect on the breaking energy.

  2. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS) Resin with Polyester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    cobalt amine (accelerator), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst) to develop two sets of ... shell liquid (CNSL) resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. ... permit diffusion of water, this function is often not adequately ... When designed ... blades in gas turbine engines, wing leading edges and flaps.

  3. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  4. Thermodynamic and Mechanical Properties of Epon 862 With Curing Agent Detda by Molecular Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tack, Jeremy L

    2006-01-01

    Fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to predict the properties of EPON 862 cross-linked with curing agent DETDA, a potentially useful epoxy resin for future applications of nanocomposites...

  5. SHALLOW SHELL RESIN VERSUS TRADITIONAL RESIN: A CASE STUDY FOR Cu(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Arar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on Cu2+ removal by shallow shell resin (Purolite SST 60 and traditional strongly acidic cation exchange resin (Purolite PFC 100 was performed. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of  resin  dosage and  solution pH and contact time. Ion exchange reaction showed a pH depended feature.  Maximum removal of Cu2+ achieved  pH  from 2 to 5. Sorption isothermal data is well interpreted by the Langmuir equation. Additionally, kinetic experiments showed that the pseudo first-order model was suitable for such resins. The regeneration performance of shallow shell technology (SST resin is better than PFC 100.  A solution of 2M H2SO4 performed well in regenerationof SST 60 resin. On the other han maximum regeneration reached 80% for PFC 100 resin.Özet: Bu çalışmada, klasik iyon değiştirici reçine (Purolite PFC 100 ve  sığ kabuk  reçine (Purolite SST 60  ile Cu2+ giderilmesi incelenmiştir. Yapılan kesikli çalışmalarla Cu2+ giderilmesine, reçine miktarı, çözelti pH`ı ve temas süresinin etkisi incelenmiştir. Çözelti pH`ının 2 ile 5 arasında olduğu durumda Cu2+ iyonları tamamen giderilmiştir. Denge çalışmalarında elde edilen sonuçlar Langmuir izoterm modeline daha uygun olmuştur. Kinetik çalışmalarda elde edilen sonuçlar yalancı birinci mertebe kinetik modeline uygunluk göstermişir. SST 60 reçinesinin rejenerasyon verimi PFC 100 reçinesinden daha yüksektir. 2M H2SO4 ile SST 60 reçinesi tamamen rejenere edilmiştir.

  6. Cashew nut shell liquid resin used as matrix for compound materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes de; Nogueira, Ricardo Emilio Ferreira Quevedo

    1996-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid resin a by product of cashew processing industry is a naturally occurring phenol of low cost and are used in Brazil as fuel in the industrial production of cashew nut or as a structural material when associated with coconut fiber or rice shell. A high measured Tg points to noble applications. This paper presents some properties of LCC resin and concludes that it has good perspectives as a composite matrice to work at elevated temperatures. (author)

  7. Enhanced Sleep Mode MAC Control for EPON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler.......This paper introduces sleep mode operations for EPON. New MAC control functions are proposed to schedule sleep periods. Traffic profiles are considered to optimize energy efficiency and network performances. Simulation results are analyzed in OPNET modeler....

  8. NaF-loaded core-shell PAN-PMMA nanofibers as reinforcements for Bis-GMA/TEGDMA restorative resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liyuan; Zhou, Xuegang; Zhong, Hong; Deng, Xuliang; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    A kind of core-shell nanofibers containing sodium fluoride (NaF) was produced and used as reinforcing materials for dimethacrylate-based dental restorative resins in this study. The core-shell nanofibers were prepared by coaxial-electrospinning with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions as core and shell fluids, respectively. The produced PAN-PMMA nanofibers varied in fiber diameter and the thickness of PMMA shell depending on electrospinning parameters. NaF-loaded nanofibers were obtained by incorporating NaF nanocrystals into the core fluid at two loadings (0.8 or 1.0wt.%). Embedment of NaF nanocrystals into the PAN core did not damage the core-shell structure. The addition of PAN-PMMA nanofibers into Bis-GMA/TEGDMA clearly showed the reinforcement due to the good interfacial adhesion between fibers and resin. The flexural strength (Fs) and flexural modulus (Ey) of the composites decreased slightly as the thickness of PMMA shell increasing. Sustained fluoride releases with minor initial burst release were achieved from NaF-loaded core-shell nanofibers and the corresponding composites, which was quite different from the case of embedding NaF nanocrystals into the dental resin directly. The study demonstrated that NaF-loaded PAN-PMMA core-shell nanofibers were not only able to improve the mechanical properties of restorative resin, but also able to provide sustained fluoride release to help in preventing secondary caries. © 2013.

  9. ONU Power Saving Scheme for EPON System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Hiroaki; Tano, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Masaki; Kozaki, Seiji; Yamanaka, Hideaki

    PON (Passive Optical Network) achieves FTTH (Fiber To The Home) economically, by sharing an optical fiber among plural subscribers. Recently, global climate change has been recognized as a serious near term problem. Power saving techniques for electronic devices are important. In PON system, the ONU (Optical Network Unit) power saving scheme has been studied and defined in XG-PON. In this paper, we propose an ONU power saving scheme for EPON. Then, we present an analysis of the power reduction effect and the data transmission delay caused by the ONU power saving scheme. According to the analysis, we propose an efficient provisioning method for the ONU power saving scheme which is applicable to both of XG-PON and EPON.

  10. Biodegradation Study of Nanocomposites of Phenol Novolac Epoxy/Unsaturated Polyester Resin/Egg Shell Nanoparticles Using Natural Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials refer to those materials whose reinforcing phase has dimensions on a scale from one to one hundred nanometers. In this study, the nanocomposite biodegradation of the phenol Novolac epoxy and the unsaturated polyester resins was investigated using the egg shell nanoparticle as bioceramic as well as starch and glycerin as natural polymers to modify their properties. The phenol Novolac epoxy resin has a good compatibility with the unsaturated polyester resin. The prepared samples with different composition of materials for specified time were buried under soil and their biodegradation was studied using FTIR and SEM. The FTIR results before and after degradation showed that the presence of the hydroxyl group increased the samples degradation. Also adding the egg shell nanoparticle to samples had a positive effect on its degradation. The SEM results with and without the egg shell nanoparticle also showed that use of the egg shell nanoparticle increases the samples degradation. Additionally, increasing the amount of starch, and glycerol and the presence of egg shell nanoparticles can increase water adsorption.

  11. Using IGMP V3 for controllable multicast over EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanhao; Liu, Deming; Zhang, Li; Wu, Guangsheng

    2008-11-01

    The character of 1Gbps bandwidth and tree-based structure make EPON very suitable for broadcast or multicast services such as IPTV. The document proposed a novel scheme, based on the former research for controllable multicast over EPON system, mainly considering system security and maintainability. It can both control the IPTV program source's and the receiver's validity, improving the efficiency and precision. The processing of the two configurations mode is given in detail.

  12. A novel IPTV program multiplex access system to EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xian; Liu, Deming; He, Wei; Lu, Xi

    2007-11-01

    With the rapid development of high speed networks, such as Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON), traffic patterns in access networks have evolved from traditional text-oriented service to the mixed text-, voice- and video- based services, leading to so called "Triple Play". For supporting IPTV service in EPON access network infrastructure, in this article we propose a novel IPTV program multiplex access system to EPON, which enables multiple IPTV program source servers to seamlessly access to IPTV service access port of optical line terminal (OLT) in EPON. There are two multiplex schemes, namely static multiplex scheme and dynamic multiplex scheme, in implementing the program multiplexing. Static multiplex scheme is to multiplex all the IPTV programs and forward them to the OLT, regardless of the need of end-users. While dynamic multiplex scheme can dynamically multiplex and forward IPTV programs according to what the end-users actually demand and those watched by no end-user would not be multiplexed. By comparing these two schemes, a reduced traffic of EPON can be achieved by using dynamic multiplex scheme, especially when most end-users are watching the same few IPTV programs. Both schemes are implemented in our system, with their hardware and software designs described.

  13. A new thermoplastic resin shell for immobilization of patients receiving high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Kurisu, Koichi; Taniguchi, Midori; Miura, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    An adjustable immobilizing shell, made of thermoplastic resin (Kurare Shell Filter, KSL) was developed for stabilizing the source during radiotherapy. A piece of KSF was cut to about 15 x 30 cm in size. The KSF was heated at 70-80deg C to soften up. It was kept at room temperature until it cooled to 40deg C. A colonoscope was used to determine the source position in patients being in a left lateral position on the table of the simulator. A piece of KSF was then molded around the patient to fit it over the gluteofemoral region in conformity with the body curvature. The position of the anus was confirmed and marked on the KSF. A cold towel was applied to the shell to harden it rapidly. When the KSF became transparent and hard, it was detached from the patient. A hole was made to insert the outer tube of the radiation source. A cylinder for immobilizing the outer tube was attached. The outer tube of the radiation source was inserted into the patient lying in a left lateral position on the radiotherapy couch. The shell was placed over the outer tube and hold in position on the patient using an elastic tape. The inner tube with its dummy source was introduced into the outer tube, and the source position was fluoroscopically determined. The shell and the inner tube were immobilized with a tape and irradiation was commenced. The newly developed shell was clinically used in 5 patients. The movement of the source during radiotherapy was compared with that in 5 other patients not using the shell. There were no significant differences in irradiation time between the groups, The movement of the source per unit time varied between 0 and 0.13 with a mean of 0.05 in the shell group and 0.09 and 0.60 with a mean of 0.48 in the non-shell group, with statistically significant difference. (N.K.)

  14. The recovery of gold from the aqua regia leachate of electronic parts using a core–shell type anion exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cyganowski

    2017-09-01

    The investigated resins revealed great selectivity towards gold. Despite the fact that the obtained solutions contained only 1.5% (CPU or 0.1% (PIN of Au, its removal reached 86% and the logarithms of partition coefficients indicate that affinity of the applied resins to gold is almost ten times greater than the very competitive nickel present in the obtained solutions. Finally, the gold-containing core–shell polymers were effectively eluted, recovering 100% of the taken from the solutions gold.

  15. Cashew nut shell liquid resin used as matrix for compound materials; O LCC (Liquido da castanha do caju) como matriz em materiais compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Hamilton Ferreira Gomes de; Nogueira, Ricardo Emilio Ferreira Quevedo [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1996-12-31

    Cashew nut shell liquid resin a by product of cashew processing industry is a naturally occurring phenol of low cost and are used in Brazil as fuel in the industrial production of cashew nut or as a structural material when associated with coconut fiber or rice shell. A high measured Tg points to noble applications. This paper presents some properties of LCC resin and concludes that it has good perspectives as a composite matrice to work at elevated temperatures. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with uniform size and unique fluorescent properties by a synergized soft-hard template process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haisheng; Zhu Enbo; Zheng Shunji; Yang Xingyun; Li Liangchao; Tong Guoxiu; Li Zhengquan; Hu Yong; Guo Changfa; Guo Huichen

    2010-01-01

    One-pot hydrothermal process has been developed to synthesize uniform Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with unique fluorescent properties. A synergistic soft-hard template mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of the core-shell nanowires. The Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires display unique fluorescent properties, which give strong luminescent emission in the blue-violet and green regions with excitation wavelengths of 270 nm and 402 nm, respectively.

  17. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible Te@phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with uniform size and unique fluorescent properties by a synergized soft-hard template process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haisheng; Zhu, Enbo; Zheng, Shunji; Li, Zhengquan; Hu, Yong; Guo, Changfa; Yang, Xingyun; Li, Liangchao; Tong, Guoxiu; Guo, Huichen

    2010-12-10

    One-pot hydrothermal process has been developed to synthesize uniform Te@phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with unique fluorescent properties. A synergistic soft-hard template mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of the core-shell nanowires. The Te@phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires display unique fluorescent properties, which give strong luminescent emission in the blue-violet and green regions with excitation wavelengths of 270 nm and 402 nm, respectively.

  18. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with uniform size and unique fluorescent properties by a synergized soft-hard template process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haisheng; Zhu Enbo; Zheng Shunji; Yang Xingyun; Li Liangchao; Tong Guoxiu [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Li Zhengquan; Hu Yong; Guo Changfa [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Guo Huichen, E-mail: shqian@zjnu.cn, E-mail: ghch-2004@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology and Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 11, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046 (China)

    2010-12-10

    One-pot hydrothermal process has been developed to synthesize uniform Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires with unique fluorescent properties. A synergistic soft-hard template mechanism has been proposed to explain the formation of the core-shell nanowires. The Te-phenol formaldehyde resin core-shell nanowires display unique fluorescent properties, which give strong luminescent emission in the blue-violet and green regions with excitation wavelengths of 270 nm and 402 nm, respectively.

  19. Reducing Attendance Time in LR-EPONs With Differentiated Services

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-04-09

    This work presents a novel on-the-fly void filling scheme for Long-Reach EPON called Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). SCBVF aims at reducing the time between consecutive bandwidth grants (attendance time) and hence reducing the average delay for delay-sensitive traffic.

  20. A Practical Approach For Excess Bandwidth Distribution for EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2014-03-09

    This paper introduces a novel approach called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES), which practically reuse the excess bandwidth in EPONs system. DES is suitable for the industrial deployment as it requires no timing constraint and achieves better performance compared to the previously reported schemes.

  1. A Fast Channel Switching Method in EPON System for IPTV Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yaling; Yoshiuchi, Hideya

    This paper presents a fast channel switching method in Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) system for IPTV service. Fast channel switching is one of the important features of successful IPTV systems. Users surely prefer IPTV systems with small channel switching time rather than a longer one. Thus a channel switching control module and a channel/permission list in EPON system’s ONU or OLT is designed. When EPON system receives channel switching message from IPTV end user, the channel switching control module will catch the message and search the channel list and permission list maintained in EPON system, then got the matching parameter of EPON for the new channel. The new channel’s data transmission will be enabled by directly updating the optical filter of the ONU that end user connected. By using this method in EPON system, it provides a solution for dealing with channel switching delays in IPTV service.

  2. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shen

    2012-05-01

    Maximizing the optical network unit’s (ONU) sleep time is an effective approach for achieving maximum energy conservation in green Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). While overlapping downstream and upstream ONU transmissions can maximize the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality of service (QoS) performance of the network, especially for downstream traffic in case the overlapping is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green EPONs under the limited service discipline and the upstream-based overlapped time window. Specifically, we first derive the expected mean packet delay, and then present a closed-form expression of the ONU sleep time, setting identical upstream/downstream transmission cycle times based on a maximum downstream traffic delay re-quirement. With the proposed system model, we present a novel downstream bandwidth allocation scheme for energy conservation in green EPONs. Simulation results verify the proposed model and highlight the advantages of our scheme over conventional approaches.

  3. Bandwidth Allocation Method by Service for WDM EPON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongseok; Chang; Changgyu; Choi; Jonghoon; Eom; Sungho; Kim

    2003-01-01

    A WDM(Wavelength Division Multiplexing) EPON(Ethernet Passive Optical Network) is an economical and efficient access network that has attracted significant research attention in recent years. A MAC(Media Access Control) Protocol of PON is based on TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access) basically, we can classify this protocol into a fixed length slot assignment method suitable for leased line supporting Qos(Quality of Service) and a variable length slot assignment method suitable for LAN/MAN with the best ...

  4. Overflow control mechanism (OCM) for Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduczenia, Marek; da Silva, Henrique J. A.; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    2007-05-01

    The nonfragmentable nature of Ethernet data frames, as well as operation of the priority oriented packet schedulers in the optical network units, in conjunction with heavy network load conditions and the lack of detailed knowledge about the queue's composition at the optical line terminal (OLT) level, result in the creation of upstream channel slot remainders. The existing methods, in the form of nonpreemptive packet schedulers and multithreshold reporting process defined vaguely by the IEEE 802.3-2005 standard, result in either increased packet delay or Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) system incompatibility, respectively, since threshold processing was never officially defined in the scope of the respective EPON standard. We propose an alternative approach, based on basic modifications of the standard and extended GATE multipoint control protocol data unit format and meaning, allowing for the OLT packet scheduling agent to grant always exactly the requested slot size, thus preventing creation of any upstream channel slot remainders. It is estimated that, on average, ˜3% of upstream channel bandwidth can be salvaged when slot remainders are absent in the upstream channel transmission.

  5. A design and implementation of IPTV STB over EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Liu, Deming; Wang, Jinjuan; Chang, Yuguang

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a system of digital television over EPON is first introduced. System structure and working process are described in detail, including technology scheme of each part. According to DVB-C, digital TV signal is first received, then TS streams are de-multiplexed and decrypted and so IP stream made up of TS streams is transmitted in EPON. Then, as the most important terminal device on the side of users, STB receives Ethernet data, gets the MPEG-2 TS through network processing. After that, STB parses TS file, decodes video and audio, analyzes SI data, and sends the gained data to TV to display video and EPG. Besides, STB fulfills the web browser. According to the function of the system, technical requirements and main scheme of an IPTV STB are analyzed and realized. It's based on AMD Au1200 processor with Linux operation system. The hardware and software architectures are introduced, together with functional description of every part. We realize all modules required and the experiment shows a good performance of facility and stability.

  6. Development of a novel resin-based dental material with dual biocidal modes and sustained release of Ag+ ions based on photocurable core-shell AgBr/cationic polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weiwei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xi; Chen, Yinyan; Li, Qiang; Xing, Xiaodong; Xiao, Yuhong; Peng, Xuefeng; Ye, Zhiwen

    2017-07-01

    Research on the incorporation of cutting-edge nano-antibacterial agent for designing dental materials with potent and long-lasting antibacterial property is demanding and provoking work. In this study, a novel resin-based dental material containing photocurable core-shell AgBr/cationic polymer nanocomposite (AgBr/BHPVP) was designed and developed. The shell of polymerizable cationic polymer not only provided non-releasing antibacterial capability for dental resins, but also had the potential to polymerize with other methacrylate monomers and prevented nanoparticles from aggregating in the resin matrix. As a result, incorporation of AgBr/BHPVP nanocomposites did not adversely affect the flexural strength and modulus but greatly increased the Vicker's hardness of resin disks. By continuing to release Ag + ions without the impact of anaerobic environment, resins containing AgBr/BHPVP nanoparticles are particularly suitable to combat anaerobic cariogenic bacteria. By reason of the combined bactericidal effect of the contact-killing cationic polymers and the releasing-killing Ag + ions, AgBr/BHPVP-containing resin disks had potent bactericidal activity against S. mutans. The long-lasting antibacterial activity was also achieved through the sustained release of Ag + ions due to the core-shell structure of the nanocomposites. The results of macrophage cytotoxicity showed that the cell viability of dental resins loading less than 1.0 wt% AgBr/BHPVP was close to that of neat resins. The AgBr/BHPVP-containing dental resin with dual bactericidal capability and long term antimicrobial effect is a promising material aimed at preventing second caries and prolonging the longevity of resin composite restorations.

  7. Design of EPON far-end equipment based on FTTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiancheng; Yun, Xiang

    2008-12-01

    Now, most favors fiber access is mainly the EPON fiber access system. Inheriting from the low cost of Ethernet, usability and bandwidth of optical network, EPON technology is one of the best technologies in fiber access and is adopted by the carriers all over the world widely. According to the scheme analysis to FTTH fan-end equipment, hardware design of ONU is proposed in this paper. The FTTH far-end equipment software design deference modulation design concept, it divides the software designment into 5 function modules: the module of low-layer driver, the module of system management, the module of master/slave communication, and the module of main/Standby switch and the module of command line. The software flow of the host computer is also analyzed. Finally, test is made for Ethernet service performance of FTTH far-end equipment, E1 service performance and the optical path protection switching, and so on. The results of test indicates that all the items are accordance with technical request of far-end ONU equipment and possess good quality and fully reach the requirement of telecommunication level equipment. The far-end equipment of FTTH divides into several parts based on the function: the control module, the exchange module, the UNI interface module, the ONU module, the EPON interface module, the network management debugging module, the voice processing module, the circuit simulation module, the CATV module. In the downstream direction, under the protect condition, we design 2 optical modules. The system can set one group optical module working and another group optical module closure when it is initialized. When the optical fiber line is cut off, the LOS warning comes out. It will cause MUX to replace another group optical module, simultaneously will reset module 3701/3711 and will make it again test the distance, and will give the plug board MPC850 report through the GPIO port. During normal mode, the downstream optical signal is transformed into the

  8. Design of controllable multicast for IPTV over EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanhao; Liu, Deming; Zhang, Li; Wu, Guangsheng

    2007-11-01

    The character of 1Gbps bandwidth and tree-based structure make EPON very suitable for broadcast or multicast services such as IPTV. In this paper we focus on security mechanisms that should be available to groups that specifically request it, and therefore are willing to pay the extra cost of implementing those mechanisms. We concentrate on two issues: how unauthorized multicast traffic can be prevented by means of multicast transit traffic control; how a group's susceptibility is likely to be reduced by means of multicast group access control. We have proposed a novel scheme that should be available to multicast groups that desire precautionary measures be taken to avert the threats of Invalid source and unauthorized access.

  9. Energy Efficiency in Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs): Protocol Design and Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    a suitable wakeup time scheduler at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT). A generic EPON system is considered, which is composed of an OLT and several ONUs that are EMM enabled. An energy consumption optimization problem aimed at saving energy is proposed and two heuristic sleep mode scheduling policies......As concerns about energy consumption grow, the power consumption of the EPON becomes a matter of increasing importance. In respect of energy efficiency, the current standard has no management protocols aiming to reduce power consumption in EPONs. In this paper, we propose an Energy Management...... and guaranteeing the network performance at the same time. Simulation results show that an EMM-based EPON with well designed scheduling disciplines is essential to achieving significant energy saving while meeting the delay constraint....

  10. Shock and Release Response of Unreacted Epon 828: Shot 2s-905

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisa, Matthew Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fredenburg, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dattelbaum, Dana M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandoval, Donald Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-16

    This document summarizes the shock and release response of Epon 828 measured in the dynamic impact experiment 2s-905. Experimentally, a thin Kel-F impactor backed by a low impedance foam impacted an Epon 828 target with embedded electromagnetic gauges. Computationally, a one dimensional simulation of the impact event was performed, and tracer particles were located at the corresponding electromagnetic gauge locations. The experimental configuration was such that the Epon 828 target was initially shocked, and then allowed to release from the high-pressure state. Comparisons of the experimental gauge and computational tracer data were made to assess the performance of equation of state (EOS) 7603, a SESAME EOS for Epon 828, on and off the principal shock Hugoniot. Results indicate that while EOS 7603 can capture the Hugoniot response to better that 1%, while the sound speeds at pressure are under-predicted by 6 - 7%.

  11. Largely improved the low temperature toughness of acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA) resin: Fabricated a core-shell structure of two elastomers through the differences of interfacial tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zepeng; Zhang, Jun

    2018-06-01

    The phase morphology of two elastomers (i.e., chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and polybutadiene rubber (BR)) were devised to be a core-shell structure in acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA) resin matrix, via the interfacial tension differences of polymer pairs. Selective extraction test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to verify this special phase morphology. The results demonstrated that the core-shell structure, BR core and CPE shell, significantly contributed to improve the low temperature toughness of ASA/CPE/BR ternary blends, which may be because the nonpolar BR core was segregated from polar ASA by the CPE shell. The CPE shell served dual functions: Not only did it play compatibilizing effect in the interface between BR and ASA matrix, but it also toughened the blends at 25 and 0 °C. The blends of ASA/CPE/BR (100/27/3, w/w/w) and ASA/CPE/BR (100/22/8, w/w/w) showed the peak impact strengths at about 28 and 9 kJ/m2 at 0 and -30 °C, respectively, which were higher than both that of ASA/CPE/BR (100/30/0, w/w/w) and ASA/CPE/BR (100/0/30, w/w/w). Moreover, the impact strength of ternary blends at room temperature kept at 40 kJ/m2 when BR content was lower than 10 phr. Other characterizations including contact angle measurement, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), morphology of impact-fractured surfaces, tensile properties, flexural properties, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were measured as well.

  12. A flexible solution for the next generation EPON with hybrid bidirectional 1Gbps and 10Gbps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixun; Qiao, Yaojun; Li, Hui; Ji, Yuefeng

    2007-11-01

    Ethernet PON (EPON) has been proved to be a successful technology among all the standardized PON systems [1, 2], in terms of its cost-effective and large bandwidth virtue. And EPON has become a network of a choice for subscriber oriented digital service delivery, taking over the market previously dominated by DSL. However, with the development of advanced video services, the bandwidth capacity of current EPON seems to be not well suited for the future large deployment of triple-play services. Many researches are now taken about the Next Generation EPON; and the recent 10G EPON system standardization effort in the IEEE [3] results a lot of interest in the evolution of current PON systems towards high data rate system capable of providing a future-proof platform for delivery of personalized triple-play services. In this paper, a novel architecture of TDM-based 10GE-PON system is proposed. It combines the GE-PON and 10GE-PON systems, and provides symmetric 1Gbps/10Gbps or asymmetric access simultaneously. According to the results of the simulation on the system throughput and latency performance, the system is verified to be one solution and an important step from 1Gbit/s to 10Gbit/s for the Next Generation EPON.

  13. Electron Beam Induced Mass Loss Dependence on Stained Thin Epon Resin Sections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skoupý, Radim; Nebesářová, Jana; Krzyžánek, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 926-927 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : TEM * STEM * EFTEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering (BC-A) Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  14. Synthesis of adhesive radiohardenable resins of the modified polyepoxide type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquacalda, J.-M.

    1972-01-01

    Eight adhesive radiohardenable resins of the modified epoxide type have been synthesized. Four were obtained from commercial resins: EPON 812, 827, 871 and ARALDITE 106. The synthesis of the four others required the development of analytical techniques to characterize of the reagents beforehand and then to identify the resins themselves. From a study of behavior under irradiation it seems that all the compounds obey a law of acrylic double bond disappearance with the logarithm of irradiation dose for which it is hard to find a detailed theoretical interpretation. The fracture of irradiated adhesive assemblies and their comparison has shown that for acceptable irradiation doses the synthesized resins, especially the product of Bisphenol A condensation on glycidyl acrylate, behave quite as well as polyepoxide resins without possessing the disadvantages inherent to the incorporation of standard chemical hardeners [fr

  15. Experimental demonstration of an improved EPON architecture using OFDMA for bandwidth scalable LAN emulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Zhao, Ying; Yu, Xianbin

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an improved Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) architecture supporting bandwidth-scalable physical layer local area network (LAN) emulation. Due to the use of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) technology for the LAN traffic transmission, there i...

  16. L’idéologie dans les chants de l’EPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Dalègre

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available L’idéologie de l’EPON, (organisation de jeunesse de la résistance grecque vue à travers ses chants, l’une de ses armes favorites de propagande.Cette communication se propose, à travers quelques chants, de montrer les grandes thèmes idéologiques de l’EPON, tout en la replaçant dans le cadre spécifique grec. Créée par le mouvement de résistance de masse du pays, l’EAM, l’EPON se propose d’encadrer les jeunes de tous âges, de les faire participer à la résistance, civile et parfois armée et de les conduire vers la construction de l’avenir radieux qui leur est promis à la fin de la guerre. Le chant fait partie des nombreux moyens de propagande utilisés par l’EPON (et précédemment par l’EON mais aussi d’un réel travail d’éducation entrepris en tous lieux par les cadres de l’organisation, souvent des enseignants. Justice, travail, école, prospérité, égalité homme/femme, des réalités inconnues dans la Grèce de l’avant-guerre qui ne peuvent que provoquer enthousiasme et espérance dans une génération prête à se sacrifier généreusement.Based on a number of songs, this communication summarizes the great ideological themes of EPON, while at the same time placing them in the specifically Greek context. Created by EAM, the national resistance movement, EPON set out to recruit the young of all ages, to make them participate in the civil and armed resistance against the occupiers, and to help them build the brilliant future they were promised at the end of the war. Song was one of the many forms of propaganda used by EPON, but also a real form of education undertaken everywhere by the heads of the organisation, who were often teachers. Justice, work, school, prosperity, equality between men and women, unknown realities in pre-war Greece that could only inspire enthusiasm and hope in a generation prepared to make any sacrifice.

  17. Effects of Core-Shell Rubber (CSR) Nanoparticles on the Cryogenic Fracture Toughness of CSR Modified Epoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Magee, Daniel; Schneider, Judy; Cannon, Seth

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of core-shell rubber (CSR) nanoparticles on the mechanical properties and fracture toughness of an epoxy resin at ambient and liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Varying amounts of Kane Ace(Registered TradeMark) MX130 and Kane Ace(Registered TradeMark) MX960 toughening agent were added to a commercially available EPON 862/Epikure W epoxy resin. Elastic modulus was calculated using quasi-static tensile data. Fracture toughness was evaluated by the resulting breaking energy measured in Charpy impact tests conducted on an instrumented drop tower. The size and distribution of the CSR nanoparticles were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to study the fracture surface morphology. The addition of the CSR nanoparticles increased the breaking energy with negligible change in elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress (UTS). At ambient temperature the breaking energy increased with increasing additions of the CSR nanoparticles up to 13.8wt%, while at LN2 temperatures, it reached a plateau at much lower CSR concentration.

  18. Analysis of Sleep-Mode Downlink Scheduling Operations in EPON Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Energy management strategy has been considered as an important component in the future Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs). In this paper, a sleeping mode operation is studied, and a downlink packet scheduling scheme is analyzed to preserve energy consumption and maintain the required QoS. This paper proposes a novel sleep-mode downlink packet scheduling scheme in order to enhance the sleep control function. Simulation results confirm that the proposed approach offers effective power ma...

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Handover Scheme in Integrated EPON-WiMAX Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the seamless handover problem in integrated optical wireless networks. Our model applies for the convergence network of EPON and WiMAX and a mobilityaware signaling protocol is proposed. The proposed handover scheme, Integrated Mobility Management Scheme (IMMS), is assisted...... by enhancing the traditional MPCP signaling protocol, which cooperatively collects mobility information from the front-end wireless network and makes centralized bandwidth allocation decisions in the backhaul optical network. The integrated network architecture and the joint handover scheme are simulated using...... OPNET modeler. Results show validation of the protocol, i.e., integrated handover scheme gains better network performances....

  20. Analysis of Sleep-Mode Downlink Scheduling Operations in EPON Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Energy management strategy has been considered as an important component in the future Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs). In this paper, a sleeping mode operation is studied, and a downlink packet scheduling scheme is analyzed to preserve energy consumption and maintain the required Qo......S. This paper proposes a novel sleep-mode downlink packet scheduling scheme in order to enhance the sleep control function. Simulation results confirm that the proposed approach offers effective power management on the basis of the traffic conditions. The trade-off between network performances and the power...

  1. An autonomous recovery mechanism against optical distribution network failures in EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Andrew Tanny; Hwang, I.-Shyan; Nikoukar, AliAkbar

    2014-10-01

    Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is chosen for servicing diverse applications with higher bandwidth and Quality-of-Service (QoS), starting from Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH), FTTB (business/building) and FTTO (office). Typically, a single OLT can provide services to both residential and business customers on the same Optical Line Terminal (OLT) port; thus, any failures in the system will cause a great loss for both network operators and customers. Network operators are looking for low-cost and high service availability mechanisms that focus on the failures that occur within the drop fiber section because the majority of faults are in this particular section. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an autonomous recovery mechanism that provides protection and recovery against Drop Distribution Fiber (DDF) link faults or transceiver failure at the ONU(s) in EPON systems. In the proposed mechanism, the ONU can automatically detect any signal anomalies in the physical layer or transceiver failure, switching the working line to the protection line and sending the critical event alarm to OLT via its neighbor. Each ONU has a protection line, which is connected to the nearest neighbor ONU, and therefore, when failure occurs, the ONU can still transmit and receive data via the neighbor ONU. Lastly, the Fault Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for recovery mechanism is presented. Simulation results show that our proposed autonomous recovery mechanism is able to maintain the overall QoS performance in terms of mean packet delay, system throughput, packet loss and EF jitter.

  2. Blind void filling in LR-EPONs: How efficient it can be?

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a novel blind void (idle periods) filling in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (LR-EPONs) namely Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). We emphasize on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. SCBVF delay reduction is achieved by early flushing data during the idle time periods (voids) between allocated grants. The proposed approach can be integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. SCBVF is less sensitive to differential distance between ONUs and can work well in case of small differential distances compared to previously reported void filling schemes. We support our work by extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependency. Numerical results show a delay reduction up to 35% compared to non-void filling scheme outperforming its main competitors that can achieve up to 7% delay reduction.

  3. Blind void filling in LR-EPONs: How efficient it can be?

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-07-01

    This work proposes a novel blind void (idle periods) filling in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (LR-EPONs) namely Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). We emphasize on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. SCBVF delay reduction is achieved by early flushing data during the idle time periods (voids) between allocated grants. The proposed approach can be integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. SCBVF is less sensitive to differential distance between ONUs and can work well in case of small differential distances compared to previously reported void filling schemes. We support our work by extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependency. Numerical results show a delay reduction up to 35% compared to non-void filling scheme outperforming its main competitors that can achieve up to 7% delay reduction.

  4. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    A new analytical model for chemoviscosity variation during cure of thermosetting resins was developed. This model is derived by modifying the widely used WLF (Williams-Landel-Ferry) Theory in polymer rheology. Major assumptions involved are that the rate of reaction is diffusion controlled and is linearly inversely proportional to the viscosity of the medium over the entire cure cycle. The resultant first order nonlinear differential equation is solved numerically, and the model predictions compare favorably with experimental data of EPON 828/Agent U obtained on a Rheometrics System 4 Rheometer. The model describes chemoviscosity up to a range of six orders of magnitude under isothermal curing conditions. The extremely non-linear chemoviscosity profile for a dynamic heating cure cycle is predicted as well. The model is also shown to predict changes of glass transition temperature for the thermosetting resin during cure. The physical significance of this prediction is unclear at the present time, however, and further research is required. From the chemoviscosity simulation point of view, the technique of establishing an analytical model as described here is easily applied to any thermosetting resin. The model thus obtained is used in real-time process controls for fabricating composite materials.

  5. An energy saving mechanism of EPON networks for real time video transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Ping; Wu, Ho-Ting; Chiang, Yun-Ting; Chien, Shieh-Chieh; Ke, Kai-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Modern access networks are constructed widely by passive optical networks (PONs) to meet the growing bandwidth demand. However, higher bandwidth means more energy consumption. To save energy, a few research works propose the dual-mode energy saving mechanism that allows the ONU to operate between active and sleep modes periodically. However, such dual-mode energy saving design may induce unnecessary power consumption or packet delay increase in the case where only downstream data exist for most of the time. In this paper, we propose a new tri-mode energy saving scheme for Ethernet PON (EPON). The new tri-mode energy saving design, combining the dual-mode saving mechanism with the doze mode, allows the ONU to switch among these three modes alternatively. In the doze mode, the ONU may receive downstream data while keeping its transmitter close. Such scenario is often observed for real time video downstream transmission. Furthermore, the low packet delay of high priority upstream data can be attained through the use of early wake-up mechanism employed in both energy saving modes. The energy saving and system efficiency can thus be achieved jointly while maintaining the differentiated QoS for data with various priorities. Performance results via simulation have demonstrated the effectiveness of such mechanism.

  6. Heavy Traffic Feasible Hybrid Intracycle and Cyclic Sleep for Power Saving in 10G-EPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in optical access networks costs carriers substantial operational expense (OPEX every year and is one of contributing factors for the global warming. To reduce energy consumption in the 10-gigabit Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON, a hybrid intracycle and cyclic sleep mechanism is proposed in this paper. Under heavy traffic load, optical network units (ONUs can utilize short idle slots within each scheduling cycle to enter intracycle sleep without postponing data transmission. In this way, energy conservation is achieved even under heavy traffic load with quality of service (QoS guarantee. Under light traffic load, ONUs perform long cyclic sleep for several scheduling cycles. The adoption of cyclic sleep instead of intracycle sleep under light traffic load can reduce unnecessary frequent transitions between sleep and full active work caused by using intracycle sleep. Further, the Markov chain of the proposed mechanism is established. The performances of the proposed mechanism and existing approaches are analyzed quantitatively based on the chain. For the proposed mechanism, power saving ability with QoS guarantee even under heavy traffic and better power saving performance than existing approaches are verified by the quantitative analysis. Moreover, simulations validate the above conclusions based on the chain.

  7. Relationship Between the Process Parameters and Resin Content of a Glass/Epoxy Prepreg Produced by Dipping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khalafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The properties of prepregs are characterized in terms of their volatile content, resin content, the degree of pre-cure, void content, tack and flow ability. Resin content is one of the most important properties of prepregs so that its changing will result in altered properties such as, tack and resin flow. In order to monitor the resin content, a quantitative relation to the processing parameters such as line speed, viscosity and distance between the resin up taking rollers have to be determined. In this study, a tri-axial E-glass fabric with the areal weight of 1025 g/m2 and an epoxy resin (Epon 828 were used to produce the prepreg by the dipping method. In the theoretical part of this work, the free coating is studied and as a result the thickness layer of the coating resin through the resin bath is calculated by Landau-Levich model. In continuation, the achieved thickness was considered as a feed for the calendering process. Using the momentum equation for the passing impregnated fibres through the extra resin uptake rollers, the relation between the internal resin layer thickness and final coating resin layer thickness was achieved in an integral equation form. In order to solve this integral equation, MAPLE software was applied. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental data and showed that the resin content increased linearly with increasing the distance between rollers, the radius and roller angular velocity. In contrast, the resin content decreased with increasing the line speed. According to our calculations, the effect of the resin viscosity variation on the resin content was negligibly small.

  8. Shell Venster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.; Looijesteijn, B.; Regeer, B.; Stip, B.

    1995-03-01

    In the bi-monthly issues of 'Shell Venster' (window on Shell) attention is paid to the activities of the multinational petroleum company Shell Nederland and the Koninklijke/Shell Groep by means of non-specialist articles

  9. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  10. Variable disparity estimation based intermediate view reconstruction in dynamic flow allocation over EPON-based access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Eun-Soo

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, a variable disparity estimation (VDE)-based intermediate view reconstruction (IVR) in dynamic flow allocation (DFA) over an Ethernet passive optical network (EPON)-based access network is proposed. In the proposed system, the stereoscopic images are estimated by a variable block-matching algorithm (VBMA), and they are transmitted to the receiver through DFA over EPON. This scheme improves a priority-based access network by converting it to a flow-based access network with a new access mechanism and scheduling algorithm, and then 16-view images are synthesized by the IVR using VDE. Some experimental results indicate that the proposed system improves the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) to as high as 4.86 dB and reduces the processing time to 3.52 s. Additionally, the network service provider can provide upper limits of transmission delays by the flow. The modeling and simulation results, including mathematical analyses, from this scheme are also provided.

  11. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  12. Genetic expression programming-based DBA for enhancing peer-assisted music-on-demand service in EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Andrew Tanny; Hwang, I.-Shyan; Nikoukar, AliAkbar; Lee, Jhong-Yue

    2015-03-01

    Today, the popularity of peer-assisted music-on-demand (MoD) has increased significantly worldwide. This service allows users to access large music library tracks, listen to music, and share their playlist with other users. Unlike the conventional voice traffic, such an application maintains music quality that ranges from 160 kbps to 320 kbps, which most likely consumes more bandwidth than other traffics. In the access network, Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) is one of the best candidates for delivering such a service because of being cost-effective and with high bandwidth. To maintain music quality, a stutter needs to be prevented because of either network effects or when the due user was not receiving enough resources to play in a timely manner. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two genetic expression programming (GEP)-based dynamic bandwidth allocations (DBAs). The first DBA is a generic DBA that aims to find an optimum formula for voice, video, and data services. The second DBA aims to find optimum formulas so that Optical Line Terminal (OLT) can satisfy not only the voice and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) MoD traffics but also reduce the stutter. Optical Network Unit (ONU) traits such as REPORT and GATE messages, cycle time, and mean packet delay are set to be predictor variables. Simulation results show that our proposed DBAs can satisfy the voice and P2P MoD services packet delay and monitor other overall system performances such as expedited forwarding (EF) jitter, packet loss, bandwidth waste, and system throughputs.

  13. Integración de las redes ópticas pasivas Ethernet EPON/GPON con la tecnología WiMAX . (Artículo)

    OpenAIRE

    Logroño Gómez, Jorge Israel

    2009-01-01

    El presente proyecto está orientado al estudio de las redes EPON/GPON y su integración con la tecnología WiMAX. Este artículo inicia con un estudio de las características generales sobre la Convergencia Fijo-Móvil (CFM), sus razones en este proceso de continuo cambio en las telecomunicaciones y de manera general las características del desarrollo de la tecnología WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) como tecnología de acceso de banda ancha inalámbrica. Posteriormente se inc...

  14. Shell supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  15. Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core-shell particles. MO Munyati, PA Lovell. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Science and Technology Special Edition 2004: 24-31. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  17. The emerging WDM EPON

    CERN Document Server

    Radivojević, Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    This book proposes dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation (DWBA), a hybrid of time-division multiplexing (TDM) and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), which offers a solution for service providers faced with multiservice networks. It discusses different models, architectures and implementations and evaluates their performance.

  18. Radiation curable epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najvar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    A carboxyl containing polymer is either prepared in the presence of a polyepoxide or reacted with a polyepoxide. The polymer has sufficient acid groups to react with only about 1 to 10 percent of the epoxide (oxirane) groups. The remaining epoxide groups are reacted with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid such as acrylic or methacrylic acid to form a radiation curable resin

  19. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  20. Embedding in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de

    1985-01-01

    Medium activity waste coming either from nuclear power plants in operation such as evaporator concentrates, spent resins, filter cartridges or the dismantling of installations are embedded in order to obtain a product suitable for long term disposal. Embedding in thermosetting resins (polyester or epoxy) is one among currently used techniques; it is being developed by the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and Technicatome (subsidiary of CEA and EDF). The process is easy to operate and yields excellent results particularly as far as volume reduction and radioelement containment (cesium particularly) are concerned. The process has already been in operation in four stationary plants for several years. Extension of the process to mobile units has been completed by Technicatome in collaboration with the CEA [fr

  1. The management of spent resins at rad waste installation (RWI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan, Bahdir

    2002-01-01

    During years 2000 RWI has been managed 1.596 liters the spent resins from MPR, multipurpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS). The spent resins containing 6 0 C o, 1 37 C s and 8 9 S r. The immobilization of spent resins using Portland cement type I and sand in shell 950 liter has been carried out. The immobilization product quality was characterized by measurement of surface exposure, density, compression strength and leaching rate. The samples each being 3000 g are made by taking cement slurry from the 950 liter shell. The samples are molded in the form of cylinder of 50 mm diameter and height 50 mm. The density was determined by weighing and measuring sample's volume. The compression strength was determinate using P aul Weber a pparatus. The leaching rate by immerse of the samples in the demineralized water and the rate the contact surface dose measures using survey meter. The results show that the density ρ= (1,72 ± 0,01) s/d 1,73 ± 0,03) g.cm - 3 , the compression strength Γ= (20,10 ± 0,02 s/d 20,18 ± 0,02) N.mm - 2 , the leaching rate R n = (1,32x10 - 2 s /d 2,0x10 - 3 ) g.cm - 2 . h - 1 , the contact surface rate D 0 = (0,374 s/d 0,79) mrem.jam - 1 a nd 1m distance from the surface D 1 = (0,18 s/d 0,19) mrem.jam - 1 h ave been in compliance with the criteria recommended by IAEA the quality of spent resins concrete in shell 950 liters (number 22C to 27C) is qualified for ultimate disposal

  2. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  3. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  4. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  5. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarki, J., E-mail: sarksj@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Hassan, S.B., E-mail: hassbolaji@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S., E-mail: aigbodionv@yahoo.com [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria); Oghenevweta, J.E. [Department of Fire and Safety, Kaduna International Airport, Kaduna-State (Nigeria); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria (Nigeria)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  6. Potential of using coconut shell particle fillers in eco-composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarki, J.; Hassan, S.B.; Aigbodion, V.S.; Oghenevweta, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The production and characterization of the composites has been done. - Abstract: Morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material in engineering applications. Coconut shell filled composites were prepared from epoxy polymer matrix containing up to 30 wt% coconut shell fillers. The effects of coconut shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the composite surfaces indicates that there are fairly good interfacial interaction between coconut shell particles and epoxy matrix. It was shown that the value of tensile modulus and tensile strength values increases with the increase of coconut shell particles content, while the impact strength slightly decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. This work has shown that coconut shell particles can be used to improve properties of epoxy polymer composite to be used in eco-buildings.

  7. Resin regenerating device in condensate desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Hiroo; Oosumi, Katsumi; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Norikazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy in the separation of anionic and cationic exchange resins. Constitution: Resins transferred from a condensate desalting column are charged in a cationic exchange resin column. The temperature of water for separating and transferring the resins is measured by a temperature detector disposed in a purified water injection line, and water is adjusted to a suitable flow rate for the separation and transfer of the resins by an automatic flow rate control valve, and then is injected. The resins are separated into cationic exchange resins and anionic exchange resins, in which only the anionic exchange resins are transferred, through an anionic exchange transfer line, into an anionic exchange resin column. By controlling the flow rate depending on the temperature of the injected water, the developing rate of the resin layer is made constant to enable separation and transfer of the resins at high accuracy. (Seki, T.)

  8. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  9. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  10. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A chemoviscosity model, which describes viscosity rise profiles accurately under various cure cycles, and correlates viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with structural transformations of the thermosetting resin system during cure, was established. Work completed on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins is reported.

  11. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  12. Sorption of Uranium Ions from Their Aqueous Solution by Resins Containing Nanomagnetite Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud O. Abd El-Magied

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic amine resins composed of nanomagnetite (Fe3O4 core and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA/N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA shell were prepared by suspension polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate with N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of nanomagnetite particles and immobilized with different amine ligands. These resins showed good magnetic properties and could be easily retrieved from their suspensions using an external magnetic field. Adsorption behaviors of uranium ions on the prepared resins were studied. Maximum sorption capacities of uranium ions on R-1 and R-2 were found to be 92 and 158 mg/g. Uranium was extracted successfully from three granite samples collected from Gabal Gattar pluton, North Eastern Desert, Egypt. The studied resins showed good durability and regeneration using HNO3.

  13. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  14. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  15. Effects of blood contamination on resin-resin bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksson, Sigurdur O; Pereira, Patricia N R; Swift, Edward J; Heymann, Harald O; Sigurdsson, Asgeir

    2004-02-01

    Incremental placement and curing of resin composites has been recommended. However, this requires longer operating time, and therefore, increased risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination on microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) between resin interfaces and to determine the best decontamination method to re-establish the original resin-resin bond strength. The top surfaces of 64, 4-mm composite blocks (Z-250, Renew, APX, Pertac II) were untreated as the control, or were treated as follows: blood applied and dried on the surface (Treatment 1), blood applied, rinsed, dried (Treatment 2), blood applied, rinsed, and an adhesive applied (Single Bond, One-Step, Clearfil SE, Prompt L-Pop) (Treatment 3). Fresh composite was applied and light-cured in 2-mm increments. After 24 h storage in water, the specimens were sectioned into 0.7-mm thick slabs, trimmed to a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2), and loaded to failure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min using an Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (pcontamination resulted in resin-resin bond strengths of only 1.0-13.1 MPa. Rinsing raised bond strengths to over 40 MPa for each material. Use of an adhesive further increased bond strengths except for Pertac II. Rinsing blood from contaminated surfaces increases the resin-resin bond strength significantly and the application of an appropriate adhesive increases the bond strength to control levels.

  16. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  17. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Kamiya, Kunio.

    1975-01-01

    Object: In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant, to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Structure: Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  19. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Kamiya, K

    1975-01-16

    In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant the objectives is to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use.

  20. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  1. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  2. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  3. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  4. Application of microwaves for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, investigation results of microwave heating application for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores made of moulding sands with thermosetting resins are presented. It was found that waste shell cores or shell moulds left after casting, separated from moulding sand, can be effectively incinerated. It was evidenced that microwave heating allows effective control of this process and its results. Incineration of waste moulds and cores made of commercial grades of resin-coated moulding sand using microwave heating was found to be an effective way of their utilisation. It was determined that the optimum burning time of these wastes (except those insufficiently disintegrated and not mixed with an activating agent is maximum 240 s at the used magnetron power of 650 W. It was noticed that proper disintegration of the wastes and use of suitable additives to intensify the microwave heating process guarantee significant reduction of the process time and its full stabilisation. Application of microwave heating for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores ensure substantial and measurable economic profits due to shorter process time and lower energy consumption.

  5. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  6. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  7. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells

  8. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-Shell Acrylate Based Latex and Study of Its Reactive Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Nie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Techniques in resin blending are simple and efficient method for improving the properties of polymers, and have been used widely in polymer modification field. However, polymer latex blends such as the combination of latexes, especially the latexes with water-soluble polymers, were rarely reported. Here, we report a core-shell composite latex synthesized using methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl acrylate (BA, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA as monomers and ammonium persulfate and sodium bisulfite redox system as the initiator. Two stages seeded semi-continuous emulsion polymerization were employed for constructing a core-shell structure with P(MMA-co-BA component as the core and P(EHA-co-GMA component as the shell. Results of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Dynamics Light Scattering (DLS tests confirmed that the particles obtained are indeed possessing a desired core-shell structural character. Stable reactive latex blends were prepared by adding the latex with waterborne melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF or urea-formaldehyde resin (UF. It was found that the glass transition temperature, the mechanical strength and the hygroscopic property of films cast from the latex blends present marked enhancements under higher thermal treatment temperature. It was revealed that the physical properties of chemically reactive latexes with core-shell structure could be altered via the change of crosslinking density both from the addition of crosslinkers and the thermal treatment.

  10. Molluscan shell colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T

    2017-05-01

    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  11. Casting granular ion exchange resins with medium-active waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijer, O.

    1980-01-01

    Medium active waste from nuclear power stations in Sweden is trapped in granular ion exchange resins. The resin is mixed with cement paste and cast in a concrete shell which is cubic and has an edge dimension of 1.2 m. In some cases the ion exchange cement mortar has cracked. The report presents laboratory sutdies of the properties of the ion exchange resin and the mortar. Also the leaching of the moulds has been investigated. It was shown that a mixture with a water cement ratio higher than about 0.5 swells considerably during the first weeks after casting. The diffusion constant for cesium 137 has been determined at 3.10 -4 cm 2 /24-hour period in conjunction with exposure of the mould and mortar to sea water. The Swedish language report has 400 pages with 90 figures and 30 tables. (author)

  12. Supercooling suppression of microencapsulated phase change materials by optimizing shell composition and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Fangyu; Yang, Bao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for supercooling suppression of microPCMs by optimizing the structure of the microcapsule shell. • Large effective latent heat (up to 213 J/g) of the microPCMs, much higher than those using additive as nucleating agents. • Change of shell composition and structure significantly affects the phase transition processes of the encapsulated PCMs. • The latent heat of the shell-induced phase transition is maximized, reaching 83.7% of the latent heat of bulk octadecane. • Hollow spheres with porous rather than solid resin shell are also formed when the SDS concentration is very high. - Abstract: A new method for supercooling suppression of microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) has been developed by optimizing the composition and structure of the microcapsule resin shell. The microcapsules comprising paraffin octadecane encapsulated in melamine–formaldehyde resin shell were synthesized with the use the oil-in-water emulsion technique. These PCM microcapsules are 5–15 μm in diameter. The supercooling of these octadecane microcapsules can be as large as 13.6 °C, when the homogeneous nucleation is dominant during the melt crystallization into the thermodynamically stable triclinic phase. It is discovered that the homogeneous nucleation can be mediated by shell-induced nucleation of the triclinic phase and the metastable rotator phase when the shell composition and structure are optimized, without need of any nucleating additives. The effects of synthesis parameters, such as ratio of melamine to formaldehyde, pH of pre-polymer, and pH of emulsion, on the phase transition properties of the octadecane microcapsules have been investigated systemically. The optimum synthesis conditions have been identified in terms of minimizing the supercooling while maintaining heat capacity. Potential applications of this type of phase changeable microcapsules include high heat capacity thermal fluids, thermal management in smart buildings

  13. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  14. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  15. Nuclear shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    de-Shalit, Amos; Massey, H S W

    1963-01-01

    Nuclear Shell Theory is a comprehensive textbook dealing with modern methods of the nuclear shell model. This book deals with the mathematical theory of a system of Fermions in a central field. It is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the single particle shell model. The second part focuses on the tensor algebra, two-particle systems. The last part covers three or more particle systems. Chapters on wave functions in a central field, tensor fields, and the m-Scheme are also presented. Physicists, graduate students, and teachers of nuclear physics will find the book invaluable.

  16. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu; Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.)

  17. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro

    1995-11-07

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.).

  18. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of the...

  19. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  20. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  1. A comprehensive study of soft magnetic materials based on FeSi spheres and polymeric resin modified by silica nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strečková, M.; Füzer, J.; Kobera, L.; Brus, J.; Fáberová, M.; Bureš, R.; Kollár, P.; Lauda, M.; Medvecký, Ĺ.; Girman, V.; Hadraba, H.; Bat'ková, M.; Bat'ko, I.

    2014-01-01

    A novel soft magnetic composite (SMC) based on spherical FeSi particles precisely covered by hybrid phenolic resin was designed. The hybrid resin including silica nano-rods chemically incorporated into the phenolic polymer matrix was prepared by the modified sol–gel method. A chemical bridge connecting silica nano-rods with the base polymeric net was verified by FTIR, 13 C and 29 Si NMR spectroscopy, whereas the shape and size of silica nano-rods were determined by TEM. It is shown that the modification of polymeric resin by silica nano-rods generally leads to the improved thermal and mechanical properties of the final samples. The hybrid resin serves as a perfect insulating coating deposited on FeSi particles and the core–shell particles can be further compacted by standard powder metallurgy methods in order to prepare final samples for mechanical, electric and magnetic testing. SEM images evidence negligible porosity, uniform distribution of the hybrid resin around FeSi particles, as well as, dimensional shape stability of the final samples after thermal treatment. The hardness, flexural strength and density of the final samples are comparable to the sintered SMCs, but they simultaneously exhibit much higher specific resistivity along with only slightly lower coercivity and permeability. - Highlights: • Soft magnetic composites are designed for electrotechnical applications. • Electroinsulating layer consists of phenolic resin modified with silica nano-rods. • NMR, FTIR and DSC analysis is used to characterize hybrid resin. • Spherical Fe–Si particles covered by hybrid resin form a core–shell composite. • Mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties are described in detail

  2. Shell Buckling Knockdown Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment #: 07-010-E, was established in March of 2007 by the NESC in...

  3. Shells and Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  4. Resins production: batch plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banti, M.; Mauri, G.

    1996-01-01

    Companies that look for automation in their plants without external resources, have at their disposal flexible, custom and easy to use DCS, open towards PLC. In this article it is explained why Hoechts has followed this way of new plants for resins production automation

  5. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  6. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.S., E-mail: Lam@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: yyao@umich.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  7. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  8. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, ion exchange resins are used for purification of aqueous streams. The major contaminants of the resins are usually the radioactive materials that are removed from the aqueous streams. The use of the ion exchange resins creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resin often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposal alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  9. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  10. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  11. Use of an Italian pozzolanic cement for the solidification of bead ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.

    1988-05-01

    Granular ion-exchange resins represent a large portion of the medium-active wastes generated at nuclear power stations. The most common practice for their confinement is to mix them with cement paste and cast the mixture in a concrete shell. Such a procedure however does not prove successful in many cases, because of the extreme swelling to which the embedded resin can give rise. This phenomenon has been investigated carefully. In particular, measurements of the swelling pressure have been made together with evaluation of the volume changes of the resin beads due to ion exchange and of the weight increase as a function of relative humidity. The ion exchange capacity, which continues even after incorporation in the cement matrix has also been put into evidence. The conclusion was drawn that a three component diagram (water - dry resin- cement) has to be prepared every time in order to identify the region corresponding to the better formulations. With this in mind the optimum waste loading of 11.5 wt% of dry resin was chosen to incorporate a mixed bed resin (Amberlite IR 120 Na + and IRA 400 Cl - in the weight ratio of 1:1) into an Italian pozzolanic cement (425 type). Several properties of the final waste form have been investigated, ranging from mechanical (crushing strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, elastic modulus and Poisson ratio), to thermal stability, radiation stability, permeability, leachability and resistance to bacterial attack. Dimensional stability was also measured with the aim of examining the expansion phenomena which can take place in the presence of resin beads. The data obtained are encouraging for future application of the type 425 cement tested in the field of radwastes. An attempt to explain the performance of this binder, based on its intrinsic properties, was also made. (author)

  12. Dyson shells: a retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert J.

    2001-08-01

    More than 40 years have passed since Freeman Dyson suggested that advanced technological civilizations are likely to dismantle planets in their solar systems to harvest all of the energy their stars wastefully radiate into space. Clearly this was an idea that was ahead of its time. Since that time, dozens of SETI searches have been conducted and almost all of them have focused their attention on stars which by definition cannot be the advanced civilizations that Dyson envisioned. I will review the data that created the confusion between Dyson spheres and Dyson shells. The sources that disprove Dyson spheres while still allowing Dyson shells will be discussed. The use of outmoded ideas that have biased the few searches for Dyson Shells that have occurred will be pointed out. An update of the concept of Dyson shells to include our current knowledge of biotechnology, nanotechnology and computer science will be explored. Finally, an approach to setting limits on the abundance of Dyson shells in our galaxy using existing optical astronomical data and future optical satellites will be proposed.

  13. Robust synthesis of epoxy resin-filled microcapsules for application to self-healing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolimowski, Patryk A; Bond, Ian P; Wass, Duncan F

    2016-02-28

    Mechanically and thermally robust microcapsules containing diglycidyl ether bisphenol A-based epoxy resin and a high-boiling-point organic solvent were synthesized in high yield using in situ polymerization of urea and formaldehyde in an oil-in-water emulsion. Microcapsules were characterized in terms of their size and size distribution, shell surface morphology and thermal resistance to the curing cycles of commercially used epoxy polymers. The size distribution of the capsules and characteristics such as shell thickness can be controlled by the specific parameters of microencapsulation, including concentrations of reagents, stirrer speed and sonication. Selected microcapsules, and separated core and shell materials, were analysed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. It is demonstrated that capsules lose minimal 2.5 wt% at temperatures no higher than 120°C. These microcapsules can be applied to self-healing carbon fibre composite structural materials, with preliminary results showing promising performance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  15. Preparation of porous carbon particle with shell/core structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous carbon particles with a shell/core structure have been prepared successfully by controlled precipitation of the polymer from droplets of oil-in-water emulsion, followed by curing and carbonization. The droplets of the oil phase are composed of phenolic resin (PFR, a good solvent (ethyl acetate and porogen (Poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA. The microstructure was characterized in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, nitrogen adsorption, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The obtained carbon particles have a capsular structure with a microporous carbon shell and a mesoporous carbon core. The BET surface area and porous volume are calculated to be 499 m2g-1 and 0.56 cm3g-1, respectively. The effects of the amount of porogen (PMMA, co-solvent (acetone and surfactant on the resultant structure were studied in detail.

  16. Morphology and properties of periwinkle shell asbestos-free brake pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Yawas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of asbestos-free automotive brake pad using periwinkle shell particles as frictional filler material is presented. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of the periwinkle shell, which is largely deposited as a waste, in replacing asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Five sets of brake pads with different sieve size (710–125 μm of periwinkle shell particles with 35% resin were produced using compressive moulding. The physical, mechanical and tribological properties of the periwinkle shell particle-based brake pads were evaluated and compared with the values for the asbestos-based brake pads. The results obtained showed that compressive strength, hardness and density of the developed brake pad samples increased with decreasing the particle size of periwinkle shell from 710 to 125 μm, while the oil soak, water soak and wear rate decreased with decreasing the particle size of periwinkle shell. The results obtained at 125 μm of periwinkle shell particles compared favourably with that of commercial brake pad. The results of this research indicate that periwinkle shell particles can be effectively used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pad manufacture.

  17. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  18. Mobility restrictions and glass transition behaviour of an epoxy resin under confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemour, A; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J

    2015-04-07

    Confinement can have a big influence on the dynamics of glass formers in the vicinity of the glass transition. Already 40 to 50 K above the glass transition temperature, thermal equilibration of glass formers can be strongly influenced by the confining substrate. We investigate the linear thermal expansion and the specific heat capacity cp of an epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, DGEBA) in a temperature interval of 120 K around the glass transition temperature. The epoxy resin is filled into controlled pore glasses with pore diameters between 4 and 111 nm. Since DGEBA can form H-bonds with silica surfaces, we also investigate the influence of surface silanization of the porous substrates. In untreated substrates a core/shell structure of the epoxy resin can be identified. The glass transition behaviours of the bulk phase and that of the shell phase are different. In silanized substrates, the shell phase disappears. At a temperature well above the glass transition, a second transition is found for the bulk phase - both in the linear expansion data as well as in the specific heat capacity. The cp data do not allow excluding the glass transition of a third phase as being the cause for this transition, whereas the linear expansion data do so. The additional transition temperature is interpreted as a separation between two regimes: above this temperature, macroscopic flow of the bulk phase inside the porous structure is possible to balance the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients between DGEBA and the substrate. Below the transition temperature, this degree of freedom is hindered by geometrical constraints of the porous substrates. Moreover, this second transition could also be found in the linear expansion data of the shell phase.

  19. and phenol–formaldehyde resin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ites after curing process due to the evaporation of initially existing water and ... the prepared coatings improved ultraviolet resistance of. UFP/MPA/SiO2. The best anti-ultraviolet and anticorrosive ... In this article, the design of core–shell composites com- ... Composition of prepared samples and methods of characterization.

  20. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  1. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  2. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  3. Removal of radiocesium using cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Tachibana, Yoshitaka; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    Cation exchange resins (calcium polystyrene sulfonate, Ca-resin and sodium polystyrene sulfonate, Na-resin) have been used as agents to improve hyperkerlemia. For removing 137 Cs from the human body, the adsorption ability of the resin for 137 Cs was examined and evaluated. Resin (0.03 g) and 137 Cs (ca.1 kBq) were introduced into 3 mL of water, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 1st fluid for a dissolution test (pH 1.2) and 2nd fluid (pH 6.8), respectively, and shaken. After 1-3 hours, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was 99% in water, 60% in a pH 1.2 fluid and, 66% in a pH 6.8 fluid. By adding potassium, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Ca-resin was reduced. However, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was almost unchanged. These results show that both resins have adsorption ability for 137 Cs in the stomach and the intestines. Therefore, the proposed method will be an effective means in the case of a radiological emergency due to 137 Cs. (author)

  4. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  5. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  6. Stability of charged thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  7. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  8. OPTIMASI PROSES POLIMERISASI MINYAK KULIT JAMBU METE (CNSL, CASHEW NUT SHELL LIQUID DENGAN FORMALDEHID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jambu mete represents the crop which is a lot of its benefit. From various benefit of jambu mete, there is onepart of which not yet been exploited in an optimal that is husk. Whereas in its husk is contain oil so-calledCashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL about 32-36%. This oil can be used as natural source phenol and alternativelysubstitution phenol from petroleum. This phenol is reacted by formaldehyde will form the phenol formaldehyderesin. Besides containing natural phenol, CNSL also contain the other bunch like karboksilat bunch, alkylbunch and alkenes bunch. This bunch will influence process of forming of phenol formaldehyde resin as aconsequence have an effect on characteristic and quality of resin so that require to be searched the optimumcondition in making of phenol formaldehyde resin. Objective of this research is to look for the optimumcondition in making of phenol formaldehyde resin of novolac type and also know the influence of comparison ofreactant and operating temperature for to resin yielded. Dependent variables in this research are reactorvolume (500 ml with the volume bases 250 ml, catalyst acid HCl, mixing speed (200 rpm, operating time (90minute, pH (2 and operating pressure (1 atm. Independent variables are CNSL/formaldehyde ratio andoperating temperature. Perceived parameter is free rate formaldehyde. Method is used to design and processdata is RSM (Response Surface Methodology method constructively the Static program. Result of this researchindicates that the most effect on variable is ratio CNSL/formaldehyde. Optimum condition are obtained at F/Cratio of 0.65-0.85 and temperature of 75-850C with the conversion of 0.55. The biggest rate resin obtained atF/C ratio 0.75/1 and temperature 80oC. This resin is very jell and have best sticky and also drug after runningdry. This novolac resin is applicated as furniture coating. Coating yielded have well sticky with the auburncolor.

  9. Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2001-07-10

    Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

  10. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  11. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins; Karboxylatjonbytarmassans egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Boren, Hans [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden); Torstenfelt, Boerje [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  12. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2018-06-01

    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  13. Overview on resins available in microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, B.; Schue, F.; Montginoul, C.; Giral, L.

    1985-01-01

    Lithographic equipments using electrons and X radiation are developed. Velocity and resolution requirements fix the nature of the material to irradiate. Circuit making principles are recalled here; resists (organic polymers) are employed for it. The different types of resins and then needed characteristics are reviewed here. In the scope of electron sensitive resins methyl polymethacrylate and derivative and its copolymers (and copolymers of methacrylonitrile) and reticulated copolymers are studied. Polysulfones are also presented (poly(buten-1 sulfone), poly(styrene sulfone), poly(methyl-1 cyclopentene-1 sulfone). The interest in photosensitive resins (such as AZ) as electron sensitive resins is recalled. In the field of negative resins, the polyepoxyds, polystyrene and halogenated derivates from polystyrene (CMS and PCMS), the poly(vinyl-2 naphtalene) and its derivatives (PSTTF) are presented. The X radiation sensitive resins are also reviewed: the methyl polymethacrylate and its halogenated derivates, the acrylic homopolymers and copolymers (example of poly(acrylate of chlorinated alcoyls). The resins developable by plasma are mentioned. At last, for photosensitive resins, the diazide polydiene systems are presented together with systems diazo-2 2H-naphtalenone-1. The systems with salt photolysis are just recalled [fr

  14. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  15. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disodium salt of 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol is made to react with 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone in such a... Limitations Dimethyl sulfoxide Not to exceed 50 parts per million as residual solvent in finished basic resin... residual solvent in finished basic resin in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone Not to...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...′-iso-propylidenediphenol with molten diphenyl carbonate in the presence of the disodium salt of 4,4... chloride Monochlorobenzene Not to exceed 500 p.p.m. as residual solvent in finished resin. Pentaerythritol...-88-3) Not to exceed 800 parts per million as residual solvent in finished resin. Triethylamine (c...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of an article... substances required in the production of basic resins or finished food-contact articles. The optional... and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park...

  18. 21 CFR 177.2440 - Polyethersulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2440 Polyethersulfone resins. Polyethersulfone resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended... Petition Control (HFS-215), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 1110 Vermont Ave. NW., suite 1200...

  19. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  20. Measurement of opalescence of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lu, Huan; Powers, John M

    2005-11-01

    Opalescence is an optical property, where there is light scattering of the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum, giving the material a bluish appearance under reflected light and an orange/brown appearance under transmitted light. The objective of this study was to determine the opalescence of resin composites with a color measuring spectrophotometer. Colors of A2 and enamel or translucent shades of four resin composites and of an unfilled resin measured in the reflectance and transmittance modes were compared, and the opalescence parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in blue-yellow coordinate (Deltab*) and red-green parameter (Deltaa*) between the reflected and transmitted colors of 1-mm thick specimens. The masking effect was calculated as the color difference between the color of a black background and the color of specimen over the black background. The range of OP in resin composites was 5.7-23.7, which was higher than that of the unfilled resin. However, there were significant differences among the brands and shades of the resin composites. Opalescence varied by brand and shade of the resin composites, and contributed to the masking of background color along with translucency parameter. Some of the resin composites actually displayed opalescence.

  1. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  2. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  3. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  4. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  5. Optimal Design for Hybrid Ratio of Carbon/Basalt Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Resin Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The optimum hybrid ratio range of carbon/basalt hybrid fiber reinforced resin composites was studied. Hybrid fiber composites with nine different hybrid ratios were prepared before tensile test.According to the structural features of plain weave, the unit cell's performance parameters were calculated. Finite element model was established by using SHELL181 in ANSYS. The simulated values of the sample stiffness in the model were approximately similar to the experimental ones. The stress nephogram shows that there is a critical hybrid ratio which divides the failure mechanism of HFRP into single failure state and multiple failure state. The tensile modulus, strength and limit tensile strain of HFRP with 45% resin are simulated by finite element method. The result shows that the tensile modulus of HFRP with 60% hybrid ratio increases by 93.4% compared with basalt fiber composites (BFRP, and the limit tensile strain increases by 11.3% compared with carbon fiber composites(CFRP.

  6. 基于EPON的池州配电通信网综合管理系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the Integrated Management System of Chizhou Distribution Communication Network Based on EPON Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江龙才; 霍朝辉; 步冬静

    2016-01-01

    Distribution communication networks have many characteristics, such as wide distribution, a number of terminal nodes, various types of bearer services, multiple access technology of mixed applications and the bad running scene environment, which may cause lots of problem, such as diversiifed technology standards, too many equipment manufacturers and complex network structures.These problems make the scheduling and management of distribution communication networks inconvenient.Because of the present situation of Chizhou power supply company, this paper puts forward management requirements of distribution communication networks based on its existing technology and architectures.This paper also designs and develops a comprehensive network management prototype system based on EPON technology.The management requirements and comprehensive network management prototype system can manage distribution communication networks effectively and improve its availability.%配用电通信网具有分布广泛、终端节点众多、承载业务类型丰富多样、多种接入技术混合应用、现场运行环境恶劣等特点,导致配用电通信网存在技术制式多样化、设备厂家众多、组网结构复杂等问题,不便于管理和调度。文章基于池州供电公司现状,在现有配用电通信网技术及体系架构的基础上,提出配用电通信网的管理需求,基于EPON设计并研发了配用电通信综合网管原型系统,以便能够有效地管理配用电通信网络,提高配用电通信网的可用率。

  7. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1985-12-01

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation

  8. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  9. Decomposing method for ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Takeshi; Sato, Shinshi; Akai, Yoshie; Moniwa, Shinobu; Yamada, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of decomposing ion exchange resins generated in a nuclear power plant to carbon dioxide reliably in a short period of time. (1) The ion exchange resins are mixed with water, and then they are kept for a predetermined period of time in the presence of an inert gas at high temperature and high pressure exceeding the critical point of water to decompose the ion exchange resins. (2) The ion exchange resins is mixed with water, an oxidant is added and they are kept for a predetermined time in the presence of an inert gas at a high temperature and a high pressure exceeding a critical point of water of an inert gas at a high temperature to decompose the ion exchange resins. (3) An alkali or acid is added to ion exchange resins and water to control the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution and the ion exchange resins are decomposed in above-mentioned (1) or (2). Sodium hydroxide is used as the alkali and hydrochloric acid is used as the acid. In addition, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or ozone is used as an oxidant. (I.S.)

  10. Seismic analysis of axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jospin, R.J.; Toledo, E.M.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells subjected to multiple support excitation are studied. The shells are spatialy discretized by the finite element method and in order to obtain estimates for the maximum values of displacements and stresses the response spectrum tecnique is used. Finally, some numerical results are presented and discussed in the case of a shell of revolution with vertical symmetry axis, subjected to seismic ground motions in the horizontal, vertical and rocking directions. (Author) [pt

  11. Creep analysis of orthotropic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, V.K.; Ghosh, A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of creep analysis of orthotropic cylindrical shells subjected to axisymmetric loads has been developed. A general study of creep behaviour of cylindrical shells subjected to a uniform internal pressure has been conducted for a wide range of values of anisotropy coefficients and creep law exponent. Analysis includes determination of stress re-distribution, strain rates, stationary state stresses. Application of reference stress technique has been extended to analysis of shells. (author)

  12. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  13. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  14. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  15. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  16. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  17. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the products' properties. (author)

  18. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives up an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (orig.)

  19. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Yokota, Rikio

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives us an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (author)

  20. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  1. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use

  2. Thermosetting behavior of pitch-resin from heavy residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingfang, Z.; Yansheng, G.; Baohua, H.; Yuzhen, Z. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong (China). State Key LAboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Heavy Oil Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Thermosetting resins are widely employed as a basic matrix for c/c composites in carbon materials production. A new type of synthesized thermosetting resin is called pitch resin. Pitch resin is a cheaper resin and possesses a potential opportunity for future use. However, the thermosetting behavior of pitch resin is not very clear. The hardening process and conditions for thermosetting are very important for future use of pitch resin. B-stage pitch resin is a soluble and meltable inter-media condensed polymer, which is not fully reacted and is of a low molecular weight. The insoluble and unmelted pitch resin can only be obtained from synthesized B-stage resin after a hardening stage. This paper presented an experiment that synthesized B-stage pitch resin with a link agent (PXG) under catalyst action from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of the slurry's aromatic enriched component (FCCDF). The paper discussed the experiment, including the synthesis of pitch resin and thermosetting of pitch resin. Two kinds of thermosetting procedures were used in the study called one-step thermosetting and two-step thermosetting. It was concluded that the B-stage pitch resin could be hardened after a thermosetting procedure by heat treatment. The thermosetting pitch resin from 2-step thermosetting possesses was found to have better thermal resistant properties than that of the 1-step thermosetting pitch resin. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Condensate-polisher resin-leakage quantification and resin-transport studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, C.C.; Doss, P.L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this program were to: (1) determine the extent of resin leakage from current generation condensate polisher systems, both deep bed and powdered resin design, during cut-in, steady-state and flow transient operation, (2) analyze moisture separator drains and other secondary system samples for resin fragments and (3) document the level of organics in the secondary system. Resin leakage samples were obtained from nine-power stations that have either recirculating steam generators or once through steam generators. Secondary system samples were obtained from steam generator feedwater, recirculating steam generator blowdown and moisture separator drains. Analysis included ultraviolet light examination, SEM/EDX, resin quantification and infrared analysis. Data obtained from the various plants were compared and factors affecting resin leakage were summarized

  4. The mechanism of uranium adsorption on Resin 508 and isoelectric point of the resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Qingping; Lu Weichang; Su Huijuan; Hu Jinbo; Zhang Liqin; Chen Banglin

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption process of uranium by Resin 508 at the solid-liquid interface was investigated and the mechanism of uranium adsorption including adsorption dynamics, adsorption thermodynamics and isoelectric point of resin was studied. The results are as follows: The maximum of uranium adsorption is attained at pH5-7; Uranium adsorption isotherm by Resin 508 in experimental conditions agrees with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm, the maximum of uranium adsorbed (Vm) is 716 mg U/g-dried resin; The adsorption of uranium by Resin 508 is an endothermic reaction and ΔH = 16.87 kJ/mol; The exchange-adsorption rate is mainly controlled by liquid film diffusion; The isoelectric points of Resin 508 before and after uranium adsorption are found to be pH7.5 and pH5.7 respectively. It is a specific adsorption for uranium

  5. Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon; Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matla, P.

    2012-05-15

    Three articles address subjects concerning the annual race with highly energy efficient cars: the Shell Eco-Marathon. [Dutch] In 3 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan de ontwerpen voor de jaarlijkse race met superzuinige auto's, de Shell Eco-Marathon.

  6. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiles, C.

    1984-01-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10 0 . We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo

  7. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  8. Nanosilica Modification of Elastomer-Modified VARTM Epoxy Resins for Improved Resin and Composite Toughness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Jason; Bujanda, Andres; DeSchepper, Daniel; Dibelka, Jessica; Costanzo, Philip; Jensen, Robert; McKnight, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Recent publications have reported a synergy between rubber and silica in modified epoxy resins that results in significantly improved fracture toughness without reductions in other material properties...

  9. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  10. Calcium, strontium and fluorine patterns in shells of Pacific Oyster and Rock Oyster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The IGNS proton microprobe has been applied in a study of the distribution of Calcium, Strontium and Fluorine in the calcite shells of Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the native Rock oyster (Crassostrea glomerata). The ultimate aim is to derive information which could have application in such fields as archaeology, biology, palaeontology, aquaculture and environmental studies. Calcium and strontium were determined from their emissions of K X-rays under proton bombardment, and fluorine from the 19 F (p,alpha gamma) 16 O nuclear reaction. The three elements were determined simultaneously at points no more than 20 micrometres apart. A total of 14 one and 17 two-dimensional scans were performed on sections of the shells embedded in epoxy resin. We studied shells from nine Pacific oysters (five transferred from the Marlborough Sounds to Wellington Harbour and four from the Bay of Islands). (author). 11 refs.; 5 figs

  11. Study on the Ingredient Proportions and After-Treatment of Laser Sintering Walnut Shell Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqiang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate resource shortage, reduce the cost of materials consumption and the pollution of agricultural and forestry waste, walnut shell composites (WSPC consisting of walnut shell as additive and copolyester hot melt adhesive (Co-PES as binder was developed as the feedstock of selective laser sintering (SLS. WSPC parts with different ingredient proportions were fabricated by SLS and processed through after-treatment technology. The density, mechanical properties and surface quality of WSPC parts before and after post processing were analyzed via formula method, mechanical test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Results show that, when the volume fraction of the walnut shell powder in the WSPC reaches the maximum (40%, sintered WSPC parts have the smallest warping deformation and the highest dimension precision, although the surface quality, density, and mechanical properties are low. However, performing permeating resin as the after-treatment technology could considerably increase the tensile, bending and impact strength by 496%, 464%, and 516%, respectively.

  12. A method for producing a hydrocarbon resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsachev, A B; Andonov, K S; Igliyev, S P

    1980-11-25

    Rock coal resin (KS), for instance, with a relative density of 1,150 to 1,190 kilograms per cubic meter, which contains 8 to 10 percent naphthaline, 1.5 to 2.8 percent phenol and 6 to 15 percent substances insoluble in toluene, or its mixture with rock coal or oil fractions of resin are subjected to distillation (Ds) in a pipe furnace with two evaporators (Is) and a distillation tower with a temperature mode in the second stage of 320 to 360 degrees and 290 to 340 degrees in the pitch compartment. A hydrocarbon resin is produced with a high carbon content, especially for the production of resin and dolomite refractory materials, as well as fuel mixtures for blast furnace and open hearth industry.

  13. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  14. Integrating Porous Resins In Enzymatic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Haque, Naweed

    . Screening resins for moderately hydrophobic multi-component systems is challenging. Often it is found that the capacity of the resin is inversely related with product selectivity. Therefore a tradeoff has to be made between these parameters which can be crucial from an economic point of view. A low resin...... procedure. The screening therefore becomes a multi-objective task that has to be solved simultaneously. Such an approach has been applied in the method formulated in this framework. To overcome these challenges, different process strategies are required to obtain high yields. A number of different...... inhibition, has gained considerable recognition. The resins act as a reservoir for the inhibitory substrate and a sink for the inhibitory product and simultaneously attain the required high substrate loading to make the process economically feasible. In this way the potential benefit of the enzyme can...

  15. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas; Wilkes, Marty

    2012-01-01

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  16. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  17. Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Two laboratory-scale runs have recently been completed to test the feasibility of a single-step incineration/vitrification process for Three Mile Island EPICOR II resins. The process utilizes vitrification equipment, specifically a 15-cm-dia in-can melter, and a specially designed feed technique. Two process tests, each conducted with 1.2 kg of EPICOR II resins loaded with nonradioactive cesium and strontium, showed excellent operational characteristics. Less than 0.8 wt% of the resins were entrained with the gaseous effluents in the second test. Cesium and strontium losses were controlled to 0.71 wt% and less. In addition, all the carbonaceous resins were converted completely to CO 2 with no detectable CO. Future activities are being directed to longer-term tests in laboratory-scale equipment to determine attainable volume reduction, process rates, and material conformance to processing conditions

  18. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  19. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    A general formalism for the dynamics of nonrotating cylindrical thin-shell wormholes is developed. The time evolution of the throat is explicitly obtained for thin-shell wormholes whose metric has the form associated with local cosmic strings. It is found that the throat collapses to zero radius, remains static, or expands forever, depending only on the sign of its initial velocity

  20. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, P.

    2007-01-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  1. Conventional shell model: some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallieres, M.; Pan, X.W.; Feng, D.H.; Novoselsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some important issues in shell-model calculations related to the effective interactions used in different regions of the periodic table; in particular the quality of different interactions is discussed, as well as the mass dependence of the interactions. Mention is made of the recently developed Drexel University shell-model (DUSM). (orig.)

  2. Expert system development (ESD) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  3. Photopolymerizable silicone monomers, oligomers, and resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobine, A.F.; Nakos, S.T.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to acquaint the general photopolymer researcher with the historical development of the chemistry and technology of photopolymerizable silicone monomers, fluids, and resins. The current status of research in these areas is assessed. The focus of this chapter is not only on the polymer chemistry and application of this technology, but also on important aspects of the synthetic chemistry involved in the preparation of UV-curable silicone monomers, oligomers, and resins. 236 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschueren, K.; Balwant Kaur

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  5. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  6. Dynamic centering of liquid shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamopoulos, J.A.; Brown, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The moderate-amplitude axisymmetric oscillations of an inviscid liquid shell surrounding an incompressible gas bubble are calculated by a multiple-time-scale expansion for initial deformations composed of two-lobed perturbations of the shell and a displacement of the bubble from the center of mass of the liquid. Two types of small-amplitude motion are identified and lead to very different nonlinear dynamic interactions, as described by the results valid up to second order in the amplitude of the initial deformation. In the ''bubble mode,'' the oscillations of the captive bubble and the liquid shell are exactly in phase and the bubble vibrates about its initial eccentric location. The bubble moves toward the center of the drop when the shell is perturbed into a ''sloshing mode'' of oscillation where both interfaces move out of phase. These results explain the centering of liquid shells observed in several experiments

  7. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH 2 BO 3 -H 3 BO 3 solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  8. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  9. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  10. Molluscan shell evolution with review of shell calcification hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furuhashi, T.; Schwarzinger, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Smrž, Miloslav; Beran, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 3 (2009), s. 351-371 ISSN 1096-4959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mollusca * shell * biomineralization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2009

  11. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  12. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hot dewatering and resin encapsulation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, J.; Birch, D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the processes involved in the hot dewatering and encapsulation of alumino-ferric hydroxide floc in epoxide resin have been studied. Pretreatment of the floc to reduce resin attack and hydrolysis and to increase the dimensional stability of the solidified wasteform has been evaluated. It has been demonstrated that removal of ammonium nitrate from the floc and control of the residual water in the resin are important factors in ensuring dimensional stability of the solidified resin. Resin systems have been identified which, together with the appropriate waste pretreatment have successfully encapsulated a simulated magnox sludge producing a stable wasteform having mechanical and physical properties comparable with the basic resin. (author)

  14. Dispersion properties of three-layered orthotropic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the harmonic wave propagation in thick, cylindrical, three-layered shells of infinite length. Both the outer layers and the core are composites made of short strand fiberglass and polyester resin. The randomly oriented fibers were approximately in parallel planes to constitute a transversely isotropic fibre composite. The planes of isotropy in the outer layers are orthogonal to the plane of isotropy at the core. A closed form solution of the exact linear equations of elasticity in sought in terms of a Frobenius series. The influence of the core thickness on the dynamics of the wave motion is estimated from numerically computed dispersion curves. Asymmetric wave motion is given prime consideration and the different types of waves which can occur are identified over a wide range of wave numbers

  15. Characterization of Polyimide Matrix Resins and Prepregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximovich, M. G.; Galeos, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/polyimide composite materials are attractive candidates for a wide range of aerospace applications. They have many of the virtues of graphite/epoxies, i.e., high specific strengths and stiffness, and also outstanding thermal/oxidative stability. Yet they are not widely used in the aerospace industry due to problems of procesability. By their nature, modern addition polyimide (PI) resins and prepregs are more complex than epoxies; the key to processing lies in characterizing and understanding the materials. Chemical and rheological characterizations are carried out on several addition polyimide resins and graphite reinforced prepregs, including those based on PMR-15, LARC 160 (AP 22), LARC 160 (Curithane 103) and V378A. The use of a high range torque transducer with a Rheometrics mechanical spectrometer allows rheological data to be generated on prepreg materials as well as neat resins. The use of prepreg samples instead of neat resins eliminates the need for preimidization of the samples and the data correlates well with processing behavior found in the shop. Rheological characterization of the resins and prepregs finds significant differences not readily detected by conventional chemical characterization techniques.

  16. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  17. Patterning of the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-08-01

    Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits. The similarity and diversity of turtles allows research into how changes in development create evolutionary novelty, interacting modules, and adaptive physiology and anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ion chromatography for the analysis of salt splitting capacities of cation and anion resin in premixed resin sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Satinath; Kumar, Rakesh; Tripathy, M.K.; Dhole, K.; Sharma, R.S.; Varde, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Mixed bed ion exchange resin is commonly used in various plants including nuclear reactors for the purpose of fine polishing. The analysis of ion exchange capacities of cation and anion resin in resin mixture is therefore an agenda in the context of purchasing of premixed resin from the manufacturer. An ion chromatographic method for assaying ion exchange capacities of pure as well as mixed resin has been optimized. The proposed method in contrast to the conventional ASTM method has been found to be quite encouraging to consider it as an alternate method for the analysis of premixed resin. (author)

  19. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  20. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  1. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  2. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Yokota, R.

    1986-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure similar to that of CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics as nuclear track detectors. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives us an important clue to develop highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. For example, butanediol bis allylcarbonate (BuAC) shows the sensitivity about ten times higher than diallyl and adipate (DAA). This suggests the carbonate groups in the BuAC molecule provide a much higher sensitivity than the ester groups in the DAA. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been developed. Though the sensitivity of DAA is low, it will be useful for observations of ultra heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (author)

  3. Aging in CTBN modified epoxy resin stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, K.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The cause of degradation in the glass transition temperature (T/sub G/) of a partially crystallized polymer was investigated. Sample epoxy resin filled capacitors were cured at 90 0 C for 24 hours, then stored at room atmospheric conditions. These showed typical degradation in T/sub G/ after storage for one month. One set of epoxy resin castings was stored at room atmosphere and another set was stored in a dry box at 0% relative humidity and 27 0 C. The samples at room atmospheric conditions showed typical degradation in T/sub G/, while the T/sub G/ for those stored in the dry box increased. Further tests were then made on epoxy resin castings at various curing temperatures and times at both room atmosphere and 0% humidity. Resulting data indicated that absorption of moisture during storage was the predominant cause of T/sub G/ degradation, with stress relaxation another, though smaller, contributing factor

  4. Restoration of traumatized teeth with resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2018-01-01

    For a long time, the primary choice for initial restoration of a crown-fractured front tooth has been resin composite material. The restoration can in most cases be performed immediately after injury if there is no sign of periodontal injury. The method’s adhesive character is conservative to tooth...... present an aesthetic problem due to exposure of un-aesthetic crown-margins. The invasive permanent crown restorations are therefore often not suc-cessful on a long-term scale. On the other hand, a conservative direct restoration of an extensively fractured incisor crown with resin composite may......-structure and with minimal risk of pulpal complication. In addition, it offers an aesthetic solution to the patient immediately after an injury, which may bring a little comfort in a sad situation. The resin composite build-up is often changed or repaired a couple of times, before the tooth is restored with a porcelain...

  5. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  6. Comparative study of resin sealant and resin modified glass ionomer as pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Malek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the marginal integrity of resin modified glass ionomer cement with that of resin sealant, in vitro. Forty artificial pit and fissure cavities were prepared in occlusal surface of extracted premolar teeth by using ¼ round carbide bur. Cavities were condensed with artificial organic debris followed by cleaning with prophylaxis pumice brush and paste and then separated into two treatment groups. In Group A, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin sealant and in Group B, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant. These specimens were subjected to thermo-cycling followed by dye penetration test. The remaining 5 cavities from each group were analyzed for debris score by the SEM. The results of the microleakage test showed that the efficacy of preventing microleakage of samples sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant was higher than the samples sealed by resin sealant. However, no significant differences were found. It can be concluded that use of resin modified glass ionomer sealant is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures.

  7. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G

    2014-11-01

    Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The μ-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates.

  8. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2012-09-04

    This paper constitutes the first steps in our work concerning isogeometric shell analysis. An isogeometric shell model of the Reissner-Mindlin type is introduced and a study of its accuracy in the classical pinched cylinder benchmark problem presented. In contrast to earlier works [1,2,3,4], the formulation is based on a shell model where the displacement, strain and stress fields are defined in terms of a curvilinear coordinate system arising from the NURBS description of the shell middle surface. The isogeometric shell formulation is implemented using the PetIGA and igakit software packages developed by the authors. The igakit package is a Python package used to generate NURBS representations of geometries that can be utilised by the PetIGA finite element framework. The latter utilises data structures and routines of the portable, extensible toolkit for scientific computation (PETSc), [5,6]. The current shell implementation is valid for static, linear problems only, but the software package is well suited for future extensions to geometrically and materially nonlinear regime as well as to dynamic problems. The accuracy of the approach in the pinched cylinder benchmark problem and present comparisons against the h-version of the finite element method with bilinear elements. Quadratic, cubic and quartic NURBS discretizations are compared against the isoparametric bilinear discretization introduced in [7]. The results show that the quadratic and cubic NURBS approximations exhibit notably slower convergence under uniform mesh refinement as the thickness decreases but the quartic approximation converges relatively quickly within the standard variational framework. The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  9. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  10. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five... revocation of the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely...

  11. Development of amino resin for paint formulation: Copolymerization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... IR spectroscopy and macro phase separation techniques. At a given TEA ... form aldehyde emission from urea formaldehyde resin through one step ..... of resin molecules (Barminas and Osemeahon, 2007;. Sekaran et al.

  12. Composite resin fillings and inlays: An 11-year evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, U.; Qvist, V.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical trial, composite resin, direct restorations, indirect restorations, long-term behaviour, posterior teeth......Clinical trial, composite resin, direct restorations, indirect restorations, long-term behaviour, posterior teeth...

  13. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  14. Thermal behavior of halogenated imidebismaleimide resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, A.; Al-Halim, N.Z.

    1995-01-01

    Several new poly-halogenated malecimides, bismaleimides and therir copoly resins were synthessised thermally from their corresponding amic acids. The synthesis was accomplished by two way method (amic acid-polimide) instead of the well-known three way method (amic acid-imide-polyimide). Thermal characterization of monomers and their cured resins was achieved using differential thermal analysis (DTA), dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA). The effect of halogen substituent, especially in the ortho postion, is clear in the imidization proces, while polymerization proceeds almost equally in all systems. Thermal properties of homo and copolymers were correlated with their chemical structures. (author). 15 refs., 4

  15. Understanding of the color in composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Park

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In clinic, esthetic restoration of a defective natural tooth with composite resin is challenging procedure and needs complete understanding of the color of tooth itself and materials used. The optical characteristics of the composites are different because the chemical compositions and microstructures are not same. This review provided basic knowledge of the color and the color measurement devices, and analyze the color of the natural tooth. Further, the accuracy of the shade tab, color of the composite resins before and after curing, effect of the water, food and bleaching agent, and translucency, opalescence, and fluorescence effects were evaluated.

  16. Creep buckling of shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the characteristics of LMFBR primary piping components (thin-walled, low pressure, high temperature), the designer must guard against creep buckling as a potential failure mode for certain critical regions, such as elbows, where structural flexibility and inelastic response may combine to concentrate deformation and cause instability. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, through its elevated temperature Code Case 1592 (Section III, Division 1) provides design rules for Class 1 components aimed at preventing creep buckling during the design life. A similar set of rules is being developed for Class 2 and 3 components at this time. One of the original concepts behind the creep buckling rules was that the variability in creep properties (especially due to the effects of prior heat treatment), the uncertainty about initial imperfections, and the lack of confirmed accuracy of design analysis meant that conservatism would be difficult to assure. As a result, a factor of ten on service life was required (i.e. analysis must show that, under service conditions that extrapolate the life of the component by ten times, creep buckling does not occur). Two obvious problems with this approach are that: first, the creep behavior must also be extrapolated (since most creep experiments are terminated at a small fraction of the design life, extrapolation of creep data is already an issue, irrespective of the creep buckling question); second the nonlinear creep analysis, which is very nearly prohibitively expensive for design life histograms, becomes even more costly. Analytical results for an aluminum cylindrical shell subjected to axial loads at elevated temperatures are used to examine the supposed equivalence of two types of time-dependent buckling safety factors - a factor of ten on service life and a factor of 1.5 on loading

  17. Cure Behavior and Thermal Properties of Diepoxidized Cardanol Resin Cured by Electron Beam Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Donghwan; Cheon, Jinsil

    2013-01-01

    Thermal curing of epoxy resin requires high temperature, time-consuming process and the volatilization of hardener. It has known that electron beam curing of epoxy resin is a fast process and occurs at low or room temperature that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in thermosetting polymers. Diepoxidized cardanol (DEC) can be synthesized by an enzymatic method from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), that constitutes nearly one-third of the total nut weight. A large amount of CNSL can be formed as a byproduct of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kerneledible and its total production approaches one million tons annually, which can be bio-degradable and replace the industrial thermosetting plastics. It is expected that DEC may be cured as in an epoxy resin, which was constituted on two epoxide group and long alkyl chain, and two-types of onium salts (cationic initiator) were used as a photo-initiator. The experimental variables of this study are type and concentration of photo-initiators and electron beam dosage. In this study, the effects of initiator type and concentration on the cure behavior and the thermal properties of DEC resin processed by using electron beam technology were studied using FT-IR, TGA, TMA, DSC, and DMA. Figure 1 is the FT-IR results, showing the change of chemical structure of pure DEC and electron beam cured DEC. The characteristic absorption peak of epoxide group appeared at 850cm -1 . The shape and the height were reduced when the sample was irradiated with electron beam. From this result, the epoxide groups is DEC were opened by electron beam and cured. After then, electron beam cured DEC was investigated the effect of forming 3-dimensional network

  18. Cure Behavior and Thermal Properties of Diepoxidized Cardanol Resin Cured by Electron Beam Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Donghwan; Cheon, Jinsil [Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Thermal curing of epoxy resin requires high temperature, time-consuming process and the volatilization of hardener. It has known that electron beam curing of epoxy resin is a fast process and occurs at low or room temperature that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in thermosetting polymers. Diepoxidized cardanol (DEC) can be synthesized by an enzymatic method from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), that constitutes nearly one-third of the total nut weight. A large amount of CNSL can be formed as a byproduct of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kerneledible and its total production approaches one million tons annually, which can be bio-degradable and replace the industrial thermosetting plastics. It is expected that DEC may be cured as in an epoxy resin, which was constituted on two epoxide group and long alkyl chain, and two-types of onium salts (cationic initiator) were used as a photo-initiator. The experimental variables of this study are type and concentration of photo-initiators and electron beam dosage. In this study, the effects of initiator type and concentration on the cure behavior and the thermal properties of DEC resin processed by using electron beam technology were studied using FT-IR, TGA, TMA, DSC, and DMA. Figure 1 is the FT-IR results, showing the change of chemical structure of pure DEC and electron beam cured DEC. The characteristic absorption peak of epoxide group appeared at 850cm{sup -1}. The shape and the height were reduced when the sample was irradiated with electron beam. From this result, the epoxide groups is DEC were opened by electron beam and cured. After then, electron beam cured DEC was investigated the effect of forming 3-dimensional network.

  19. Study on the Novel Dicyanate Ester Resin Containing Naphthalene Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Qiang YAN; Hong Yun PENG; Li JI; Guo Rong QI

    2004-01-01

    The novel dicyanate ester resin containing naphthalene unit (DNCY) was synthesized, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analysis (EA).The thermal properties of DNCY resin was studied by thermal degradation analysis at a heating rate of 10 (C /min-1 in N2 and air. The DNCY resin exhibited better thermal and thermal-oxidative stability than bisphenol A dicyanate (BACY) resin.

  20. Modification of Aliphatic Petroleum Resin by Peracetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bondaletov, Vladimir Grigoryevich; Bondaletova, Lyudmila Ivanovna; Hamlenko, A.; Bondaletov, Oleg Vladimirovich; Starovoit, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining modified aliphatic resin (PRC5) by means of petroleum resin oxidation by peracetic acid. We have experimentally determined oxidation conditions that lead to producing resin with maximum epoxy and acid numbers. Ratio of "oxidative system: PRC5" is 0.5:1, process duration is 2 hours. The modified resin structure is determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Performances and improvement of copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenfen; Zhang Hao; Sun Haijun; Liu Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin is tested to examine its performances including effluent water quality and capacity of deoxidisation. By the means of changing the resin type and regeneration, the deoxidising capacity of the resin can be improved to 13 times more than before. At the same time, physical performances of the resin are also greatly improved while maintaining its velocity of deoxidisation and effluent quality. (authors)

  2. Recovery of tretrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery of the tretrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q=kC''n. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20 degree centigree. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin. (Author) 6 refs

  3. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  4. Evaluation of an Experimental Adhesive Resin for Orthodontic Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgesh, B. H.; Alkheraif, A. A.; Pavithra, D.; Hashem, M. I.; Alkhudhairy, F.; Elsharawy, M.; Divakar, D. D.; Vallittu, P. K.; Matinlinna, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of an experimental adhesive resin for orthodontic bonding by measuring some the chemical and mechanical properties. The resin demonstrated increased values of nanohardness and elastic modulus, but the differences were not significant compared with those for the Transbond XT adhesives. The experimental adhesive resin could be a feasible choice or a substitute for the traditional bis-GMA-based resins used in bonding orthodontic attachments.

  5. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50 Section 414.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The provisions... the products classified under SIC 28214 thermosetting resins including those resins and resin groups...

  6. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  7. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  8. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device that consists of a water...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the...

  11. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for use in a two-step dental mold fabricating... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670 Section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  14. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface of molded...

  15. Evaluation of some anionic exchange resins as potential tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of resin concentration and compression force on the properties of tablets using the selected resin was investigated. In addition, the disintegrant efficacy of the selected resin in the tablet formulations containing either a basic drug, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DMP), or an acidic drug, e.g., diclofenac ...

  16. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Dahlan; Harun, Abdul Ghani [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive.

  17. 21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlorinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyether resins, chlorinated. 177.2430 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use in...

  18. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Abdul Ghani Harun

    1993-01-01

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive

  19. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  20. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  1. Resin Flow in Fiber Preformed by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding with Flexible Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Shokrieh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, as a sub-branch of RTM is a method of manufacturing composite specimens. Considering the industrial development of this method, different modified techniques are designed to improve its performance. Among these techniques, using a half flexible mold is regarded as an important method. In this work, dominant equations of resin flow through the mold in polar coordinates are solved analytically. Based on this approach, closed-form solutions have been presented for different parameters such as thickness variation of preformed fiber, resin pressure, resin velocity and fiber volume fraction as functions of two variables, namely, time and the distance from injection port. After verification of the approach employed in this work, the results are presented. Important parameters influencing the quality and the rate production are studied in detail.

  2. Mechanical properties of epoxy/coconut shell filler particle composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Harimi, M.; Maleque, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile and flexural properties of composites made from coconut shell filler particles and epoxy resin. The tensile and flexural tests of composites based on coconut shell filler particles at three different filler contents viz., 5%, 0% and 15%were carried out using universal tensile testing machine according to ASTM D 3039/D M-95a and ASTM D790-90 tensile respectively and their results were presented. Experimental results showed that tensile and flexural properties of the composites increased with the increase of the filler particle content. The composite materials demonstrate somewhat linear behavior and sharp structure for tensile and slight nonlinear behavior and sharp fracture of flexural testing. The relation between stress and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests were found to b linear with correlation factors of 0.9929 and 0.9973 respectively. Concerning the relation between the modulus and percentage of filler for tensile and flexural tests, it was found to be a quadratic relation with the same correlation factor approximated to 1. The same behavior was observed for the strain versus percentage of filler tensile and flexural tests, with the same correlation factor. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyarylate resins. 177.1555 Section 177.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... in contact with all foods except beverages containing more than 8 volume percent ethanol under...

  4. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O.

    2001-01-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  5. [Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A resin-bonded fixed partial denture is a prosthetic construction which can replace I or several teeth in an occlusal system and which comprises a pontic element which is adhesively attached to 1 or more abutment teeth. To compensate for the limited shear strength of the adhesive layer, the Jixed

  6. Studies on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J. M.; Hou, T. H.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1987-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resins has been formulated. The model is developed by modifying the well-established Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By introducing a relationship between the glass transition temperature Tg(t) and the degree of cure alpha(t) of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants C sub 1 (t) and C sub 2 (t) were determined from the isothermal cure data. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data. This work represents progress toward establishing a chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformation of the thermosetting resin systems during cure.

  7. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Polyestercarbonate resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for use in producing.... Copies are available from the Office of Premarket Approval, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition... examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100...

  8. Effect of Resin Extract from Commiphora swynnertonii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    of Commiphora swynnertonii resin on biochemical parameters in rats was investigated. Sixty rats were ... significantly elevated protein and albumin levels but had no significant effect on bilirubin and all the liver enzymes in the rats. These findings are ... hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects against high fat diet- induced ...

  9. Evaluation of resins for use in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Luiz Claudio F.M. Garcia; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Santos, Ana Maria M., E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b, E-mail: amms@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment where radioactive seeds or sources are placed near or directly into the tumor thus reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. Prostate cancer can be treated with interstitial brachytherapy in initial stage of the disease in which tiny radioactive seeds with cylindrical geometry are used. Several kinds of seeds have been developed in order to obtain a better dose distribution around them and with a lower cost manufacturing. These seeds consist of an encapsulation, a radionuclide carrier, and X-ray marker. Among the materials that have potential for innovation in the construction of seeds, biocompatible resins appear as an important option. In this paper, we present some characterization results with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) performed on two types of resins in which curing temperatures for each one were varied as also the results of coatings with these resins under titanium substrates. Interactions of these resins in contact with the simulated body fluid were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  10. Foam shell project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 μm thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D 2 or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE

  11. The evolution of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Degnan, Bernard M

    2018-05-01

    Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains. Outside a few conserved genes, such as carbonic anhydrase, a so-called "biomineralization toolkit" has yet to be discovered. Despite this, a common suite of protein domains, which are often associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity, appear to have been independently and often uniquely co-opted into the mantle secretomes of different species. The evolvability of the mantle secretome provides a molecular explanation for the evolution and diversity of molluscan shells. These genomic processes are likely to underlie the evolution of other animal biominerals, including coral and echinoderm skeletons. This article is categorized under: Comparative Development and Evolution > Regulation of Organ Diversity Comparative Development and Evolution > Evolutionary Novelties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Creep buckling of shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Hagihara, Seiya

    2015-01-01

    The present article contains a review of the literatures on the creep buckling of shell structures published from late 1950's to recent years. In this article, the creep buckling studies on circular cylindrical shells, spherical shells, partial cylindrical shells and other shells are reviewed in addition to creep buckling criteria. Creep buckling is categorized into two types. One is the creep buckling due to quasi-static instability, in which the critical time for creep buckling is determined by tracing a creep deformation versus time curve. The other is the creep buckling due to kinetic instability, in which the critical time can be determined by examining the shape of total potential energy in the vicinity of a quasi-static equilibrium state. Bifurcation buckling and snap-through buckling during creep deformation belong to this type of creep buckling. A few detailed descriptions are given to the bifurcation and snap-through type of creep buckling based on the present authors' works. (author)

  13. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert

    2001-09-03

    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  14. Dominant thermogravimetric signatures of lignin in cashew shell as compared to cashew shell cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangil, Sandip

    2014-03-01

    Dominant thermogravimetric signatures related to lignin were observed in cashew shell as compared to these signatures in cashew shell cake. The phenomenon of weakening of lignin from cashew shell to cashew shell cake was explained on the basis of changes in the activation energies. The pertinent temperature regimes responsible for the release of different constituents of both the bio-materials were identified and compared. The activation energies of cashew shell and cashew shell cake were compared using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. Thermogravimetric profiling of cashew shell and cashew shell cake indicated that these were different kinds of bio-materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  16. The Potential of Coconut Shell Powder (CSP) and Coconut Shell Activated Carbon (CSAC) Composites as Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Absorbing Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Nurbazilah Abdul Jabal; Seok, Y.B.; Hoon, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture waste is potentially useful as an alternative material to absorb and attenuate electromagnetic interference (EMI). This research highlights the use of coconut shell powder (CSP) and coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC) as raw materials with epoxy resin and amine hardener composite to absorb microwave signals over frequency of 1 - 8 GHz. In order to investigate the suitability of these raw materials as EMI absorbing material, carbon composition of the raw materials is determined through CHNS Elemental Analysis. The surface morphology of the raw materials in term of porosity is investigated by using TM3000 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The complex permittivity of the composites is determined by using high temperature dielectric probe in conjunction with Network Analyzer. From the result, the Carbon% of CSP and CSAC is 46.70 % and 84.28 % respectively. In term of surface morphology, the surface porosity of CSP and CSAC is in the range of 2 μm and 1 μm respectively. For the dielectric properties, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss factor for CSP and CSAC is 4.5767 and 64.8307 and 1.2144 and 13.8296 respectively. The materials more potentially useful as substitute materials for electromagnetic interference (EMI) absorbing are discussed. (author)

  17. Development of silane grafted ZnO core shell nanoparticles loaded diglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites film for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S; Saravanan, P; Jayamoorthy, K; Ananda Kumar, S; Karthikeyan, S

    2016-07-01

    In this article a series of epoxy nanocomposites film were developed using amine functionalized (ZnO-APTES) core shell nanoparticles as the dispersed phase and a commercially available epoxy resin as the matrix phase. The functional group of the samples was characterized using FT-IR spectra. The most prominent peaks of epoxy resin were found in bare epoxy and in all the functionalized ZnO dispersed epoxy nanocomposites (ZnO-APTES-DGEBA). The XRD analysis of all the samples exhibits considerable shift in 2θ, intensity and d-spacing values but the best and optimum concentration is found to be 3% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposites supported by FT-IR results. From TGA measurements, 100wt% residue is obtained in bare ZnO nanoparticles whereas in ZnO core shell nanoparticles grafted DGEBA residue percentages are 37, 41, 45, 46 and 52% for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7% ZnO-APTES-DGEBA respectively, which is confirmed with ICP-OES analysis. From antimicrobial activity test, it was notable that antimicrobial activity of 7% ZnO-APTES core shell nanoparticles loaded epoxy nanocomposite film has best inhibition zone effect against all pathogens under study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Incineration of ion exchange resins using concentric burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, T.; Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kuriyama, O.; Yusa, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new incineration method, using concentric burners, is studied to reduce the volume of spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants. Resins are ejected into the center of a propane-oxygen flame and burned within it. The flame length is theoretically evaluated by the diffusion-dominant model. By reforming the burner shape, flame length can be reduced by one-half. The decomposition ratio decreases with larger resin diameters due to the loss of unburned resin from the flame. A flame guide tube is adapted to increase resin holding time in the flame, which improves the decomposition ratio to over 98 wt%

  19. Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.

    1975-01-01

    An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)

  20. Method for detecting resin leakage in LWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    Resin leakage from condensate polishing units can result in steam generator corrosion. This report describes the development of a resin leakage detection method based in analyzing the organic breakdown products released from resin on heating. The breakdown products are analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Some of the organic products formed have been identified. A design for a resin monitoring unit, suitable for incorporation into the IONTRAC system, is presented. Theoretically, detection of ppB levels of resin by processing about one liter of water, is possible

  1. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.; Dean, D.J.; Langanke, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; the resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, the thermal and rotational behavior of rare-earth and γ-soft nuclei, and the calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Cask for concrete shells transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labergri, F.

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, nuclear plant radioactive waste are conditioned in situ into concrete shells. Most of them enter in the industrial waste category defined by the regulations of radioactive material transportation. However, the content of a few ones exceeds the limits set for low specific activity substances. Thus, these shells must be transported into type B packagings. To this end, Robatel has undertaken, for EDF (Electricite de France), the development of a container, named ROBATEL TM R68, for further licensing. The particularity of this packaging is that the lid must have a wide opening to allow the usual handling operations of the concrete shells. This leads to a non-conventional conception, and makes the package more vulnerable to drop test solicitations. In order to define a minimal drop test program on a reduced scale model, we use a simple method to find the most damageable drop angle. (author)

  3. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of γ-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs

  4. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome

    2011-01-01

    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  5. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange for separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penwell, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. The flowsheet also discusses process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs associated with the ion exchange process. It is expected that this flowsheet will evolve as open issues are resolved and progress is made on development needs. This is part of the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. 26 refs, 6 figs, 25 tabs

  6. Learning Shell scripting with Zsh

    CERN Document Server

    Festari, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial that will teach you, through real-world examples, how to configure and use Zsh and its various features. If you are a system administrator, developer, or computer professional involved with UNIX who are looking to improve on their daily tasks involving the UNIX shell, ""Learning Shell Scripting with Zsh"" will be great for you. It's assumed that you have some familiarity with an UNIX command-line interface and feel comfortable with editors such as Emacs or vi.

  7. Method of burning ion-exchange resin contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To process spent ion exchange resins to reduce their volume, without increasing the load on a off-gas system and in a stable state and at the same time not leaving any uncombusted portions. Method: The water slurries of the ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive materials is dehydrated or dry combusted to reduce the water content. A binder is then added to solidify the ion exchange resin. The solidified ion exchange resins are then combusted in a furnace. This prevents the ion exchange resin from being dispersed by air and combustion gases. Furthermore, the solidified ion exchange resins in the form of small pellets burn from the surface inwards. Moreover the binder is carbonized by the combustion heat and promotes combustion to convert the ion exchange resins into a solid mass, making sure that no uncombusted portion is left. (Takahashi, M.)

  8. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper

  9. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti; Collier, Nathan; Dalcí n, Lisandro D.; Ghommem, Mehdi; Calo, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  10. Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Resin Composites with Resin Modified Glass Ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha NA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are controversial reports regarding physical and mechanical properties of resin composites and glass ionomer cements. Some revealed higher strength and hardness for resin composites while others showed a comparable value for glass ionomer cements. Evaluation of mechanical properties of different types of resin composites in comparison with resin modified glass ionomers is not widely studied. Objectives: To measure and compare the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of three resin composites and two resins modified glass ionomer cements before and after ageing. Materials and Methods: Three resin composites, i.e. Filtek Supreme XTE (3M ESPE, Ice (SDI, Gradia (GC, and two resins modified glass ionomers, i.e. Fuji II LC (GC and Riva Light Cure (SDI, were selected. Ten barshaped specimens were prepared for each material and cured using LED curing light. After 24 hours storage in distilled water at 37oC, the specimens were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=5. The first group was tested as a baseline and the second group was restored at 37oC for another 29 days. Flexural strength was performed by four-point bending test using universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min, and the maximum load at failure was recorded. The specimen’s halves were used for evaluating Vickers hardness, using a Digital Hardness Tester (300 g/15 sec and the Vickers hardness number (VHN was recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey’s and student’s t-test. Results: After 24 hours of immersion, the highest hardness number was found for Filtek Supreme and Ice and the highest flexural strength was obtained for Gradia. After 30 days of storage, hardness of Fuji II LC and Gradia showed a significant decrease; flexural strength of Ice and Fuji II LC revealed a significant increase while Gradia and Filtek Supreme showed a significant decrease. Conclusions: Resin modified glass ionomers showed

  11. [Physical properties of resins for veneer crown. (Part 1) Bending strength of thermosetting methacrylic resins (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, T

    1979-01-01

    The physical properties of thermosetting methacrylic resins contain a kind or more than two kinds of cross linking agents were investigated. Knoop hardness and bending strength after drying, water sorption and thermal cycling were listed in table 4 and 5. Hydrophilic resins absorbed water about 3 times as much as hydrophobic resins. The materials contain a small amount of hydrophobic cross linking agents in MMA indicate comparatively excellent properties after drying, water sorption and thermal cycling. Knoop hardness of resins generally reduced by water sorption, especially in the case of the resin contains a large amount of triethylene glycol dimethacrylate.

  12. Development and application of high performance resins for crud removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Tatsuya; Izumi, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    The development of crud removal technology has started with the finding of the resin aging effect that an old ion exchange resin, aged by long year of use in the condensate demineralizer, had an enhanced crud removal capability. It was confirmed that some physical properties such as specific surface area and water retention capacity were increased due to degradation caused by long year of contact with active oxygens in the condensate water. So, it was speculated that those degradation in the resin matrix enhanced the adsorption of crud particulate onto the resin surface, hence the crud removal capability. Based on this, crud removal resin with greater surface area was first developed. This resin has shown an excellent crud removal efficiency in an actual power plant, and the crud iron concentration in the condensate effluent was drastically reduced by this application. However, the cross-linkage of the cation resin had to be lowered in a delicate manner for that specific purpose, and this has caused higher organic leachables from the resin, and the sulfate level in the reactor was raised accordingly. Our major goals, therefore, has been to develop a crud resin of as little organic leachables as possible with keeping the original crud removal efficiency. It was revealed through the evaluation of the first generation crud resin and its improved version installed in the actual condensate demineralizers that there was a good correlation between crud removal efficiency and organic leaching rate. The bast one among a number of developmental resins has shown the organic leaching rate of 1/10 of that of the original crud resin (ETR-C), and the crud removal efficiency of 90%. So far as we understand, the resin was considered to have the best overall balance between crud removal and leaching characteristics. The result of six month evaluation of this developmental resin, ETR-C3, in one vessel of condensate demineralizer of a power plant will be presented. (J.P.N.)

  13. Composite adhesive bonds reinforced with microparticle filler based on egg shell waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Miroslav; Valášek, Petr

    2018-05-01

    A research on composite adhesive bonds reinforced with waste from hen eggs processing, i.e. egg shell waste (ESW) is based on an assumption of the utilization of agricultural/food production waste. The aim of the research is to gain new pieces of knowledge about the material utilization of ESW, i.e. to evaluate possibilities of the use of various concentrations of ESW microparticles smaller than 100 µm based on hen egg shells as the filler in a structural resin used for a creation of adhesive bonds from bearing metal elements. An adhesive bond strength, an elongation at break and a fracture surface were evaluated within the research on adhesive bonds. The experiment results proved the efficiency of ESW filler in the area of composite adhesive bonds. The adhesive bond strength was increased up of more than 17 % by adding 40 wt.% of ESW microparticles.

  14. Activated carbons prepared from hazelnut shells, walnut shells and peanut shells for high CO2 adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewicka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research treats about producing activated carbons for CO2 capture from hazelnut shells (HN, walnut shells (WN and peanut shells (PN. Saturated solution of KOH was used as an activating agent in ratio 1:1. Samples were carbonized in the furnace in the range of temperatures 600°C–900°C. Properties of carbons were tested by N2 adsorption method, using BET equation, DFT method and volumetric CO2 adsorption method. With the increase of carbonization temperature specific surface area of studied samples increased. The largest surface area was calculated for samples carbonized at 900°C and the highest values of CO2 adsorption had samples: PN900 at 0°C (5.5 mmol/g and WN900 at 25°C (4.34 mmol/g. All of the samples had a well-developed microporous structure.

  15. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  16. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  17. Nanomechanical properties of dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S; Akhtar, R; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2012-12-01

    To determine by nanoindentation the hardness and elastic modulus of resin-composites, including a series with systematically varied filler loading, plus other representative materials that fall into the categories of flowable, bulk-fill and conventional nano-hybrid types. Ten dental resin-composites: three flowable, three bulk-fill and four conventional were investigated using nanoindentation. Disc specimens (15mm×2mm) were prepared from each material using a metallic mold. Specimens were irradiated in the mold at top and bottom surfaces in multiple overlapping points (40s each) with light curing unit at 650mW/cm(2). Specimens were then mounted in 3cm diameter phenolic ring forms and embedded in a self-curing polystyrene resin. After grinding and polishing, specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. Specimens were investigated using an Agilent Technologies XP nanoindenter equipped with a Berkovich diamond tip (100nm radius). Each specimen was loaded at one loading rate and three different unloading rates (at room temperature) with thirty indentations, per unloading rate. The maximum load applied by the nanoindenter to examine the specimens was 10mN. Dependent on the type of the resin-composite material, the mean values ranged from 0.73GPa to 1.60GPa for nanohardness and from 14.44GPa to 24.07GPa for elastic modulus. There was a significant positive non-linear correlation between elastic modulus and nanohardness (r(2)=0.88). Nonlinear regression revealed a significant positive correlation (r(2)=0.62) between elastic moduli and filler loading and a non-significant correlation (r(2)=0.50) between nanohardness and filler loading of the studied materials. Varying the unloading rates showed no consistent effect on the elastic modulus and nanohardness of the studied materials. For a specific resin matrix, both elastic moduli and nanohardness correlated positively with filler loading. For the resin-composites investigated, the group-average elastic

  18. Study on the pyrolysis of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and modified PF resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jigang, E-mail: wangjigang@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Jiang, Haiyun [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 210013 (China); Jiang, Nan [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-12-10

    The pyrolysis of pure phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) modified PF resin was investigated by using thermogravimetry (TG) and pyrolysis gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry (PY-GC/MS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were also employed to investigate the micro-structural evolution. It was shown from the TG analysis that the char residues of pure PF resin were 62.9 and 60.5% after being pyrolyzed at 700 and 1000 {sup o}C, respectively. The degradation and failure of the resin matrix were mainly resulted from the release of volatiles. The phenol and its methyl derivates took a large proportion in the amount of volatiles. In comparison with the pure PF resin, the char residues of B{sub 4}C modified PF resin were obviously higher, with the values of 71.9 and 68.4% at 700 and 1000 {sup o}C, respectively. Due to the oxidation-reduction reactions between B{sub 4}C additive and oxygen-containing volatiles including CO and H{sub 2}O, partial carbon and oxygen elements in the volatiles remained in the resin matrix in the forms of amorphous carbon and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. The results of SEM and FT-IR characterization demonstrated the occurrence of the modification, and the amorphous carbon existed in the form of reticular substance. In addition, the amount of the released phenol and its methyl derivates was also decreased drastically due to the formation of borate.

  19. Effect of Resin Coating and Chlorhexidine on Microleakage of Two Resin Cements after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shafie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluating the effect of resin coating and chlorhexidine on microleakage of two resin cements after water storage.Materials and Methods: Standardized class V cavities were prepared on facial and lingual surfaces of one hundred twenty intact human molars with gingival margins placed 1mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Indirect composite inlays were fabricated and thespecimens were randomly assigned into 6 groups. In Groups 1 to 4, inlays were cemented with Panavia F2.0 cement. G1: according to the manufacturer’s instruction. G2: with light cured resin on the ED primer. G3: chlorhexidine application before priming. G4: withchlorhexidine application before priming and light cured resin on primer. G5: inlays were cemented with Nexus 2 resin cement. G6: chlorhexidine application after etching. Each group was divided into two subgroups based on the 24-hour and 6-month water storagetime. After preparation for microleakage test, the teeth were sectioned and evaluated at both margins under a 20×stereomicroscope. Dye penetration was scored using 0-3 criteria.The data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and complementary Dunn tests.Results: There was significantly less leakage in G2 and G4 than the Panavia F2.0 control group at gingival margins after 6 months (P<0.05. There was no significant differences in leakage between G1 and G3 at both margins after 24 hours and 6 months storage. After 6months, G6 revealed significantly less leakage than G5 at gingival margins (P=0.033. In general, gingival margins showed more leakage than occlusal margins.Conclusion: Additionally, resin coating in self-etch (Panavia F2.0 and chlorhexidine application in etch-rinse (Nexus resin cement reduced microleakage at gingival margins after storage.

  20. Post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, A.U.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin using a digital microhardness tester. Change in hardness of these materials over a period of 6 months was compared to that of conventional glass ionomer cements and a composite resin. With the exception of the composite resin, all materials showed a significant increase in hardness over 24 h after their initial set. Dual-cure resin-modified glass ionomer cements showed decreased hardness with increased storage time in saline at 37 o C. Results suggest that the addition of resins to glass ionomer cements does not improve initial hardness and does not negate the acid-base reaction of conventional cements. Resin addition may, however, lead to increased water sorption and decreased hardness. (author)

  1. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2012-01-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal

  2. Adaptative mixed methods to axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, S.M.C.; Loula, A.F.D.; Garcia, E.L.M.

    1989-09-01

    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin method is applied to axisymmetric shells with uniform and non uniform meshes. Numerical experiments with a cylindrical shell showed a significant improvement in convergence and accuracy with adaptive meshes. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  3. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  4. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  5. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  6. Shell energy scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Shell developed two scenarios that describe alternative ways the energy future may develop. In the first scenario (Scramble) policymakers pay little attention to more efficient energy use until supplies are tight. Likewise, greenhouse gas emissions are not seriously addressed until there are major climate shocks. In the second scenario (Blueprints) growing local actions begin to address the challenges of economic development, energy security and environmental pollution. A price is applied to a critical mass of emissions giving a huge stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage, and energy efficiency measures. The result is far lower carbon dioxide emissions. Both these scenarios can help Shell to test their strategy against a range of possible developments over the long-term. However, according to Shell, the Blueprints' outcomes offer the best hope for a sustainable future, whether or not they arise exactly in the way described. However, with the right combination of policy, technology and commitment from governments, industry and society globally, Shell believes it can be realized. But achieving the targets will not be easy, and time is short. Clear thinking, huge investment, and effective leadership are required

  7. Collapse analysis of toroidal shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomares, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to determine the collapse characteristics of a toroidal shell using finite element method (FEM) analysis. The study also included free drop testing of a quarter scale prototype to verify the analytical results. The full sized toroidal shell has a 24-inch toroidal diameter with a 24-inch tubal diameter. The shell material is type 304 strainless steel. The toroidal shell is part of the GE Model 2000 transportation packaging, and acts as an energy absorbing device. The analyses performed were on a full sized and quarter scaled models. The finite element program used in all analyses was the LIBRA code. The analytical procedure used both the elasto-plastic and large displacement options within the code. The loading applied in the analyses corresponded to an impact of an infinite rigid plane oriented normal to the drop direction vector. The application of the loading continued incrementally until the work performed by the deforming structure equalled the kinetic energy developed in the free fall. The comparison of analysis and test results showed a good correlation

  8. Studies of dust shells around stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedijn, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis deals with some aspects of circumstellar dust shells. This dust shell, emitting infrared radiation, is described by way of its absorptive and emissive properties as well as by the transfer of radiation through the dust shell itself. Model calculations are compared to experimental results and agree reasonably well. The author also discusses the dynamics of the extended shells of gas and dust around newly formed stars

  9. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Ikladious, N.E.; Eskander, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    PMMA was studied with the aim to evaluate its usefulness as an incorporation medium for the final containment of spent ion-exchange resins. The study of the effect of water content (ranging from 25 to 100%) of the incorporated resin into PMMA on the compression strength of the final solid products shows that with the increasing water content the compression strength of the final products decreases sharply. Hardness of the final products follows nearly the same trend of compression strength. Increasing gamma irradiation doses, up to 7.77x10 7 rad, PMMA shows increase in compression strength and hardness for small doses and then decreases with increasing irradiation dose due to the increase in polymerization process and the degradation of the incorporation medium

  10. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Natalia Carolina Camargos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  11. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.

    2003-01-01

    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  12. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means pistachio...

  13. Thin-shell wormholes in dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    In this work we construct charged thin-shell Lorentzian wormholes in dilaton gravity. The exotic matter required for the construction is localized in the shell and the energy conditions are satisfied outside the shell. The total amount of exotic matter is calculated and its dependence with the parameters of the model is analyzed

  14. Shell film- and video catalogue 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An overview is given of films and videos that are available through 'Shell Nederland Filmcentrale' (Shell Netherlands Film Center), subdivided into the subjects (1) About Shell; (2) Health, Safety and Environment; (3) Science and Technology; (4) The History of Car(racing); and (5) Historical Overview. 5 ills

  15. A finite element for plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.; Feijoo, R.A.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1981-08-01

    A simple triangular finite element for plates and shells, is presented. Since the rotation fields are assumed independent of the displacement fields, the element allows one to solve thick shells problems. In the limit for thin shell, the Kirchoff-Love hypothesis is automatically satisfied, thus enlarging its range of application. (Author) [pt

  16. Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  17. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds after...

  18. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.

  19. Evaluation of the resin oxidation process using Fenton's reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Leandro G.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2013-01-01

    The ion exchange resin is considered radioactive waste after its final useful life in nuclear reactors. Usually, this type of waste is treated with the immobilization in cement Portland, in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, reducing the possibility of radionuclides release in to environment. Because of the characteristic of expansion and contraction of the resins in presence of water, its incorporation in the common Portland cement is limited in 10% in direct immobilization, causing high costs in the final product. A pre-treatment would be able to reduce the volume, degrading the resins and increasing the load capacity of this material. This paper is about a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Fenton's reagent. The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic and anionic resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25 to 80 mM), with and without external heat. The time of reaction was two hours. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%. The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of CaCO 3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ca(OH) 2 and the CO 2 from the resin degradation. It was possible to degrade the resins without external heating. The calcium carbonates showed no correlation with the residual resin mass. (author)

  20. 4-META opaque resin--a new resin strongly adhesive to nickel-chromium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Nagata, K; Takeyama, M; Atsuta, M; Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E

    1981-09-01

    1) A new adhesive opaque resin containing a reactive monomer, 4-methacryloxy-ethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), was prepared, and its application to thermosetting acrylic resin veneer crowns was studied. 2) The 4-META opaque resin was applied to a variety of nickel-chromium dental alloy specimens which had undergone different treatment, and endurance tests were conducted to evaluate the durability of adhesion. 3) Stable adhesion against water penetration was achieved with metal surfaces first etched with HCl and then oxidized with HNO3. A bond strength of 250 kg/cm2 was maintained even after immersion in water at 37 degrees C for 30 wk or at 80 degrees C for ten wk. Furthermore, this value did not decrease even after the specimens were subjected to 500 thermal cycles. 4) The 4-META opaque resin studied can eliminate the necessity for retention devices on metal castings. 5) The smooth 4-META opaque resin should have no adverse effects on gingivae.

  1. Extensions to a nonlinear finite-element axisymmetric shell model based on Reissner's shell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Extensions to shell analysis not usually associated with shell theory are described in this paper. These extensions involve thick shells, nonlinear materials, a linear normal stress approximation, and a changing shell thickness. A finite element shell-of-revolution model has been developed to analyze nuclear material shipping containers under severe impact conditions. To establish the limits for this shell model, the basic assumptions used in its development were studied; these are listed in this paper. Several extensions were evident from the study of these limits: a thick shell, a plastic hinge, and a linear normal stress

  2. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resin systems, 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.; Huang, Joan Y. Z.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study on the changes of chemorheological properties has been conducted and analyzed on commercial Hercules 3501-6 resin system cured under several isothermal conditions between 375 and 435 K. For the cure temperatures equal to or greater than 385 K, the storage modulus curing curves, G prime (t), exhibited abrupt changes in slope which occurred at various times depending on the curing temperatures and were attributed to the onset of gelation reactions. The crossover points between G prime (t) and G double prime (t) curves were observed for curing temperatures equal to or greater than 400 K. The gelation and the crossover points obtained from the chemorheological measurements, therefore, defined two characteristic resin states during cure. Approximately the same value for the degree of cure was reached by the advancement of the reaction at each of these states. The temperature dependency of the viscosities for the characteristic resin states and the rate constants of increase in moduli at different stages of curing were analyzed. Various G prime (t) and G double prime (t) isothermal curing curves were also shown to be capable of being superimposed on one another by the principle of time-temperature superposition. The resultant shift factors a sub t(t) and a Eta(T) were shown to follow the Arrhenius type relationship. Values of the activation energy suggested that the reaction kinetics, instead of the diffusion mechanism, was the limiting step in the overall resin advancement for the cure at temperatures equal to or greater than 385 K.

  3. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  4. Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

    2013-10-01

    Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

  5. Sequestration Resins for Accelerating Removal of Radioactive Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattini, Paul-L.; Wells, Daniel-M.; Garcia, Susan-E.; Richard, Kohlmann; Asay, Roger; Yengoyan, Leon

    2012-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is developing sequestration resins that can be used in the treatment of nuclear plant water streams for the enhanced removal of ionic cobalt. EPRI is focusing on three key areas of success: 1. Plant safety. The resins that are synthesized must be fully tested to determine that no leachable species or decomposition products (in the event of a resin bed failure) would be introduced to the plant. 2. Acceptable system performance. The resins are currently being synthesized in a powdered form for use in the reactor water clean-up and fuel pool clean-up systems that utilize pre-coatable filter elements. The resins must have effective flocking behavior; uniform application over the underlay resin and efficient removal from the septa elements after use. Bead type resins are also under development. 3. Enhanced cobalt removal. The resins are expected to out-perform the currently used ion exchange resins in the removal of ionic cobalt. During nuclear plant maintenance or refueling outages, current ion exchange resins may require several days to reduce concentrations of cobalt (for example, radio-cobalt 60 Co and 58 Co) and other activated corrosion products to safe levels in reactor coolant streams. This performance limitation often delays key maintenance activities. EPRI's resins are expected to provide at least a three-fold increase in removal capacity in light water reactor coolants. These resins also offer the potential for higher overall removal efficiencies reducing occupational exposures and waste management costs. This paper addresses issues from the range of novel resin development for radio-cobalt removal from synthesis at the bench-top level through scale-up to demonstration of use in an actual operating nuclear power plant. (authors)

  6. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor oil with melamine resin, has been studied by DSC method with programmed heating and in isothermal mode. The results determined from dynamic DSC curves were mathematically transformed using the Ozawa isoconversional method for obtaining the isothermal data. These results, degree of curing versus time, are in good agreement with those determined by the isothermal DSC experiments. By applying the Ozawa method it is possible to calculate the isothermal kinetic parameters for the alkyd/melamine resin mixtures curing using only calorimetric data obtained by dynamic DSC runs. Depending on the alkyd resin type and ratio in mixtures the values of activation energies of curing process of resin mixtures are from 51.3 to 114 kJ mol-1. The rate constant of curing increases with increasing the content of melamine resin in the mixture and with curing temperature. The reaction order varies from 1.12 to 1.37 for alkyd based on dehydrated castor oil/melamine resin mixtures and from 1.74 to 2.03 for mixtures with alkyd based on castor oil. Based on the results obtained, we propose that dehydrated castor oil alkyd/melamine resin mixtures can be used in practice (curing temperatures from 120 to 160°C.

  7. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  8. Method of processing spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhide; Tamada, Shin; Kikuchi, Makoto; Matsuda, Masami; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of radioactive spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants, etc and process them into stable inorganic compounds through heat decomposition. Method: Spent ion exchange resins are heat-decomposed in an inert atmosphere to selectively decompose only ion exchange groups in the preceeding step while high molecular skeltons are completely heat-decomposed in an oxidizing atmosphere in the succeeding step. In this way, gaseous sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are generated in the preceeding step, while gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen requiring no discharge gas procession are generated in the succeeding step. Accordingly, the amount of discharged gases requiring procession can significantly be reduced, as well as the residues can be converted into stable inorganic compounds. Further, if transition metals are ionically adsorbed as the catalyst to the ion exchange resins, the ion exchange groups are decomposed at 130 - 300 0 C, while the high molecular skeltons are thermally decomposed at 240 - 300 0 C. Thus, the temperature for the heat decomposition can be lowered to prevent the degradation of the reactor materials. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  10. Large-scale synthesis of onion-like carbon nanoparticles by carbonization of phenolic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mu; Song Huaihe; Chen Xiaohong; Lian Wentao

    2007-01-01

    Onion-like carbon nanoparticles have been synthesized on a large scale by carbonization of phenolic-formaldehyde resin at 1000 o C with the aid of ferric nitrate (FN). The effects of FN loading content on the yield, morphology and structure of carbonized products were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the onion-like carbon nanoparticles, which had a narrow size distribution ranging from 30 to 50 nm, were composed mainly of quasi-spherically concentric shells of well-aligned graphene layers with interlayer spacing of 0.336 nm. Based on the results of the investigation, the formation mechanism of onion-like carbon nanoparticles was also discussed

  11. Correlations of norbornenyl crosslinked polyimide resin structures with resin thermo-oxidative stability, resin glass transition temperature and composite initial mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.

    1988-01-01

    PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare 70 different polyimide oligomeric resins and 30 different unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide composites. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on resin thermo-oxidative stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. A linear correlation of decreasing 316 C resin weight loss/surface area versus (1) decreasing aliphatic content, or (2) increasing benzylic/aliphatic content stoichiometry ratio over a wide range of resin compositions was observed. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was also observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial composite mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength). However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining a clear correlation. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at 25, 288, and 316 C. Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the correlation study was (1) the PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins containing a wide variety of monomer modifications, (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins formulated exhibited satisfactory processing flow, and (3) that PMR resins exhibited predictable rates of 316 C weight loss/surface area based on their benzylic/aliphatic stoichiometery ratio.

  12. Resin Poliester Tak Jenuh Untuk Imobilisasi Resin Bekas Pengolahan Simulasi Limbah Radioaktif Cair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlan Martono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang imobilisasi resin bekas pengolah limbah trans-uranium denganresin poliester tak jenuh untuk mengetahui kualitas blok polimer-limbah sebagai fungsi kandunganlimbah. Polimerisasi dilakukan dengan mencampurkan resin poliester tak jenuh dengan katalisdengan perbandingan katalis 1% dari jumlah resin poliester tak jenuh yang digunakan, kemudianditambahkan limbah cair transuranium simulasi. blok polimer-limbah yang terjadi diukur densitas,kuat tekan dengan alat Paul Weber, dan laju pelindihan dengan alat soxhlet pada 100 0C dan 1 atmselama 6 jam. Blok polimer dibuat dengan kandungan limbah 10, 20, 30, 40, dan 50 % berat. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar kandungan limbah maka kuat tekan blok polimerlimbahsemakin kecil, sedangkan laju pelindihannya semakin besar. Berdasarkan kuat tekan dan lajupelindihan, maka hasil terbaik diperoleh untuk blok-polimer dengan kandungan limbah 20 % dan 30%.

  13. Effects of layering technique on the shade of resin overlays and the microhardness of dual cure resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Sang Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the color of layered resin overlays and to test the early microhardness of dual cure resin cement (DCRC light cured through the layered resin overlays. Resin overlays of 1.5 mm thickness were fabricated with the A3 shade of Z350 (Group 1L, the A3B and A3E shades of Supreme XT (Group 2L, and the A3, E3, and T1 shades of Sinfony (Group 3L using one, two, and three layers, respectively (n = 7. Each layer of the resin overlays was set in equal thickness. The color of the resin overlays was measured with a colorimeter and compared with an A3 shade resin denture tooth. DCRC was light cured through the resin overlays, and the early microhardness of the DCRC was measured. The ΔE value between the denture tooth and the resin overlays and the Vickers hardness number (VHN of the DCRC were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test. The color differences were 8.9 ± 0.5, 5.3 ± 1.0, and 7.3 ± 0.5 and the VHNs were 19.4 ± 1.1, 21.1 ± 0.9, and 29.3 ± 0.6 for Groups 1L, 2L, and 3L, respectively. Therefore, to match the designated tooth color of resin inlays and to increase the early microhardness of DCRC, layered resin inlays are more appropriate than single-dentin-layer resin inlays. However, the translucent layer should be used cautiously because the color difference of resin inlays with a translucent layer was affected more than those without a translucent layer.

  14. Uptake of actinides by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin from acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaya Mohandas; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Vijayakumar, N.; Kumar, T.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of uranium and americium from nitric acid solutions by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin has been investigated. The capacity of the sulphonated resin exceeds the capacities of phosphinic acid resin and commercial cation exchange resin. Other advantages of the sulphonated resin for uranium and americium removal include reduced sensitivity to acidity and inert salt concentration. (author)

  15. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  16. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables

  17. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  18. Design aids for stiffened composite shells with cutouts

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sarmila

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the free vibrations of graphite-epoxy laminated composite stiffened shells with cutout both in terms of the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The dynamic analysis of shell structures, which may have complex geometry and arbitrary loading and boundary conditions, is solved efficiently by the finite element method, even including cutouts in shells. The results may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite shells with cutouts. Several shell forms viz. cylindrical shell, hypar shell, conoidal shell, spherical shell, saddle shell, hyperbolic paraboloidal shell and elliptic paraboloidal shell are considered in the book. The dynamic characteristics of stiffened composite shells with cutout are described in terms of the natural frequency and mode shapes. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge constraints of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite shells. The effects of these parametric variat...

  19. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  20. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  1. Double containment shell for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.

    1977-01-01

    A double containment shell is proposed for nuclear power plants, especially those equipped with pressurized water reactors. The shell offers increased environmental protection from primary circuit accidents. The inner shell is built of steel or concrete while the outer shell is always built of concrete. The space between the two shells is filled with water and is provided with several manholes and with stiffeners designed for compensation for load due to the water hydrostatic pressure. Water serves the airtight separation of the containment shell inside from the environment and the absorption of heat released in a primary circuit accident. In case the inner shell is made of concrete, it is provided with heat-removal tubes in-built in its walls ensuring rapid heat transfer from the inside of the containment to the water in the interwall space. (Z.M.)

  2. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  3. Analytical applications of resins containing amide and polyamine functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orf, G.M.

    1977-12-01

    A dibutyl amide resin is used for the separation of uranium(VI), thorium(IV), and zirconium(IV) from each other and several other metal ions. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) are determined in the presence of large excesses of foreign metal ions and anions. A practical application of the amide resin is studied by determining uranium in low grade uranium ores. The amide resin is also used for the selective concentration of gold(III) from sea water

  4. Analytical applications of resins containing amide and polyamine functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orf, Gene Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1977-12-01

    A dibutyl amide resin is used for the separation of uranium(VI), thorium(IV), and zirconium(IV) from each other and several other metal ions. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) are determined in the presence of large excesses of foreign metal ions and anions. A practical application of the amide resin is studied by determining uranium in low grade uranium ores. The amide resin is also used for the selective concentration of gold(III) from sea water.

  5. Analytical applications of resins containing amide and polyamine functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orf, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    Resins are prepared by chemically bonding N,N-dialkylamides and polyamine functional groups to Amberlite XAD-4. These resins are applied to the concentration of metal ions from dilute aqueous solution and the rapid separation of metal ions by high-speed liquid chromatography with continuous on-line detection of the eluent stream. A dibutyl amide resin is used for the separation of uranium(VI), thorium(IV), and zirconium(IV) from each other and several other metal ions. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) are determined in the presence of large excesses of foreign metal ions and anions. A practical application of the amide resin is studied by determining uranium in low grade uranium ores. The amide resin is also used for the selective concentration of gold(III) from seawater. A triethylenetetramine resin is used for the separation of copper(II) from equal molar amounts and large excesses of nickel(II), cobalt(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), iron(III) and aluminum(III). Copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cobalt(II) and cadmium(II) are determined in the presence of large excesses of calcium(II) and magnesium(II). The resin was found to be selective for silver(I) and mercury(II) at low pH values and a rapid separation of equal molar amounts of copper(II) and silver(I) was performed. The resin was also found to have an affinity for anionic metal complexes such as iron(III)-tartrate when the resin is in the hydrogen form. A study of the retention of the anions chromium(III)-tartrate and dichromate at various pH values was performed to better understand the anion exchange properties of the resin. Triethylenetetramine resins were also prepared from polystyrene gel to make a resin with higher capacities for copper

  6. Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed.

  7. Atomic inner-shell physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses: relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects on atomic inner shells; relativistic calculation of atomic transition probabilities; many-body effects in energetic atomic transitions; Auger Electron spectrometry of core levels of atoms; experimental evaluation of inner-vacancy level energies for comparison with theory; mechanisms for energy shifts of atomic K-X rays; atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation; investigations of inner-shell states by the electron energy-loss technique at high resolution; coherence effects in electron emission by atoms; inelastic X-ray scattering including resonance phenomena; Rayleigh scattering: elastic photon scattering by bound electrons; electron-atom bremsstrahlung; X-ray and bremsstrahlung production in nuclear reactions; positron production in heavy-ion collisions, and X-ray processes in heavy-ion collisions

  8. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Putun, Ersan; Putun, Ayse E [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  10. Læren fra Shell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Hvad kan afsløringerne om Shells mere end 25 år gamle viden om klimaforandringer lære virksomheder om disruption og strategi? Først og fremmest at undgå at se disruption som en mulig trussel, men i stedet som en fremtidig realitet og chance for vækst......Hvad kan afsløringerne om Shells mere end 25 år gamle viden om klimaforandringer lære virksomheder om disruption og strategi? Først og fremmest at undgå at se disruption som en mulig trussel, men i stedet som en fremtidig realitet og chance for vækst...

  11. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  12. Nested shell superconducting magnet designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, L.; Williams, J.E.C.; Titus, P.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept for manufacturing the toroidal field coil is described in this paper. Instead of structural plates, the magnet is wound in interlocking shells. The magnet configuration is described and the advantages explored. Structural analysis of the concept is performed using the ARIES tokamak reactor parameters. The effectiveness of a structural cap, placed above and below the toroidal field coils and used only to balance opposing torques generated in different places of the coil, is quantified

  13. Shell Models of Superfluid Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacks, Daniel H; Barenghi, Carlo F

    2011-01-01

    Superfluid helium consists of two inter-penetrating fluids, a viscous normal fluid and an inviscid superfluid, coupled by a mutual friction. We develop a two-fluid shell model to study superfluid turbulence and investigate the energy spectra and the balance of fluxes between the two fluids in a steady state. At sufficiently low temperatures a 'bottle-neck' develops at high wavenumbers suggesting the need for a further dissipative effect, such as the Kelvin wave cascade.

  14. PEG-related polymer resins as synthetic supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial chemistry has become a significant part of the discovery and optimization process for novel drugs,affinity ligands,and catalysts.The polymeric supports play a key role in combinatory chemistry.Therefore,various kinds of functional polymer resins have been exploited as supports,reagents,and catalysts in organic synthesis.In comparison to the conventional Merrifield resins,the poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-related polymer resins have advantages including good compatibilities with polar solvents,good solvent absorbency and swelling properties.This review focuses primarily on the more recent work in the field of developing PEG-related polymer resins as supports for organic synthesis.

  15. Maleimido substituted cyclotriphosphazene resins for fire and heat resistant composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A new class of fire- and heat-resistant matrix resins have been synthesized by the thermal polymerization of maleimido substituted phenoxycyclotriphosphazenes. The resins have exhibited a char yield of 82 percent at 800 C in nitrogen and 81 percent at 700 C in air. Graphite-fabric laminates based on a resin of this class have shown a limiting oxygen index of 100 percent even at 300 C. Details of the fabrication of the resins and the composites and testing procedures are discussed.

  16. Low activity resin processing and disposal options review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, F.

    1996-01-01

    New processing options for low activity resin processing and disposal are available. This presentation reviews the economics and technical requirements associated with the following low activity resin processing options. (1) Bulk release resin. (2) Direct disposal. (3) Decontamination and bulk release of cleaned resin. New processing and disposal options have been developed during 1995. Commercial experience with each of these options will be reviewed and the economics associated with the processing method described in detail. Technical requirements for each option will be identified specifying the activity limits and operational requirements for implementation

  17. Spherical powder for retaining thermosetting acrylic resin veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Atsuta, M; Uchiyama, Y; Nakabayashi, N; Masuhara, E

    1978-03-01

    1. Nine different sizes of spherical powder were prepared, and their effectiveness as retentive devices was evaluated against those available commercially. 2. Smaller-diameter spherical powder (No. 5) gave the best results of all retaining devices tested. 3. The physical properties of the resins play an important role in the retentive strength with No. 5 retention beads. The retentive strength was reduced when brittle resin was used. 4. The retentive strength of the resin veneer was greatly affected by the angle of stress at the incisal resin. The retentive strength increased as the angle between the longitudinal axis of the specimen and the direction of stress decreased.

  18. Retrofitting Trojan Nuclear Plant's spent resin transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The spent resin slurry transport system at the Trojan Nuclear Plant operated by Portland General Electric Company is one of the most advanced systems of its type in the nuclear industry today. The new system affords the plant's operators safe remote sonic indication for spent resin and cover water levels, manual remote dewatering and watering capability to establish desirable resin-to-water volumetric ratios, reliable non-mechanical resin agitation utilizing fixed spargers, and controllable process flow utilizing a variable speed recessed impeller pump

  19. Resins characterization strategy at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenoy, A.; González, R.; Molleda, P.; Sánchez, L.; Herrera, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Consortium ENSA- Gas Natural Fenosa Engineering has a contract with Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) for the retrieval and conditioning of the resins. Before that, the project deals with resins characterization to verify the fulfillment the Bulgarian authorities’ requirements. The project includes all the resins generated during the operation of the BACKGROUND Resins characterization strategy at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant units 1, 2, 3 and 4, which were stored into six big dimensions tanks: four low tanks and two intermediate tanks. They only have a manhole above for tanks access. The methodology and the progress of the work are presented

  20. Treatment method for stabilization of radioactive exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideo, Oni; Takashi, Miyake; Hitoshi, Miyamoto; Toshio, Funakoshi; Yuzo, Inagaki.

    1988-01-01

    This is a method for eluting radioactive nuclides from a radioactive ion exchange resin in which it has been absorbed. First, the Cs in this resin is extracted using a neutral salt solution which contains Na + . The Cs that has been transferred to the neutral salt solution is absorbed and expelled by inorganic ion exchangers. Then the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr in said resin are eluted using an acidic solution; the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr that have been transferred to the acidic solution are separated from that solution by means of a diffusion dialysis vat. This process is a unique characteristic of this ion exchange resin treatment method. 1 fig

  1. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.)

  2. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.).

  3. Electro regeneration of iodide loaded resin. Contributed Paper RD-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Kumar, T.; Sree Kumar, B.; Seshadri, K.S.; Paul, Biplob

    2014-01-01

    Spent resins generated in the nuclear reactor contain essentially cationic activities due to Cesium, Strontium, Cobalt, and anionic activities due to Iodide, Iodate etc with activity loading to the extent of 0.1 Cim -3 and a surface dose of the order of 5 R. It is necessary to convert the spent resin into innocuous, reusable forms. An attempt has been made to regenerate Iodide containing spent resin into OH - electrolytically by using the OH - produced at the cathode compartment of an electrolytic cell. Results show that the regeneration of the spent resin containing Iodide could be completely accomplished electrolytically more efficiently than by addition of alkali. (author)

  4. Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.; Kaszuwara, W.

    2002-01-01

    Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets were processed. Basic magnetic parameters as well as compressive strength were evaluated versus annealing temperature and volume fraction of the bonding agent. For the zinc bonded magnets phase composition was investigated. The additional NdZn 5 phase was found in the Zn bonded magnets after annealing. Comparison of the Zn and resin bonded magnets reveals higher remanence for the former and higher coercivity for the latter. For the Zn and resin bonded magnets, 15 wt.% Zn / 370 o C and 7-10 wt.% resin were chosen as the optimal processing parameters. (author)

  5. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modified ion exchange resins - synthesis and properties. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, F.; Klein, J.; Pohl, F.; Widdecke, H.

    1982-01-22

    Sulfomethylated resins are prepared by polymer analogous reactions, starting from macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrices. Different reaction paths are discussed and used in the synthesis. Sulfomethylation can be achieved by reaction of a chloromethylated resin with dimethyl sulfide and sodium sulfonate or alternatively by oxidation of polymer-bound thiol groups. Both methods give high conversions as shown by IR spectra and titration of the sulfonic acid groups. Poly(1-(4-hydroxysulfomethylphenyl)ethylene) (3) is obtained by reaction of poly(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene) (2) resin with formaldehyde/sodium sulfonate. The thermal stability, catalytic activity, and ion exchange equilibria of the sulfomethylated resin are investigated.

  7. Emission and Mechanical Evaluations of Vinyl-Ester Resin Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl-ester resins (VE) are frequently used in liquid molding of composite materials for several applications including naval and army structures, commercial boat manufacturing, and building construction...

  8. Development of amino resins for emulsion paint formulation: effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Mirmohseni and Hassanzadeh, 2000). The resins were ... of absorption, slight changes occurred. ..... Urethane-Modified Alumina – Filled Polyesteramide Anticorrosive ... of Polyurethanes Using Ammonium Polyphosphate. J. Appl.

  9. Plastic buckling of cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Xu, J.; Shteyngart, S.; Eckert, H.

    1994-01-01

    Cylindrical shells exhibit buckling under axial loads at stresses much less than the respective theoretical critical stresses. This is due primarily to the presence of geometrical imperfections even though such imperfections could be very small (e.g., comparable to thickness). Under internal pressure, the shell regains some of its buckling strength. For a relatively large radius-to-thickness ratio and low internal pressure, the effect can be reasonably estimated by an elastic analysis. However, for low radius-to-thickness ratios and greater pressures, the elastic-plastic collapse controls the failure load. in order to quantify the elastic-plastic buckling capacity of cylindrical shells, an analysis program was carried out by use of the computer code BOSOR5 developed by Bushnell of Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The analysis was performed for various radius-to-thickness ratios and imperfection amplitudes. The purpose of the analytical program was to compute the buckling strength of underground cylindrical tanks, that are used for storage of nuclear wastes, for realistic geometric imperfections and internal pressure loads. This paper presents the results of the elastic-plastic analyses and compares them with other available information for various pressure loads

  10. Buckling shells are also swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliet, Catherine; Dyfcom Bubbleboost Team

    We present an experimental and numerical study on the displacement of shells undergoing deformations in a fluid. When submitted to cycles of pressure difference between outside and inside, a shell buckles and debuckles, showing a succession of shapes and a dynamics that are different during the two phases. Hence such objects are likely to swim, including at low Reynolds (microscopic scale). We studied the swimming of buckling/debuckling shells at macroscopic scale using different approaches (force quantization, shape recording, displacement along a frictionless rail, study of external flow using PIV), and showed that inertia plays a role in propulsion, even in situations where dimensionless numbers correspond also to microswimmers in water. Different fluid viscosities were explored, showing an optimum for the displacement. Interestingly, the most favorable cases lead to displacements in the same direction and sense during both motor stroke (buckling phase) and recovery stroke (de-buckling phase). This work opens the route for the synthesis with high throughput of abusively simple synthetic swimmers, possibly gathered into nanorobots, actuated by a scalar field such as the pressure in echographic devices. Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, European Research Council.

  11. Effect of repair resin type and surface treatment on the repair strength of polyamide denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Mustafa; Yanikoglu, Nuran; Bayindir, Funda; Ciftci, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different repair resins and surface treatments on the repair strength of a polyamide denture base material. Polyamide resin specimens were prepared and divided into nine groups according to the surface treatments and repair materials. The flexural strengths were measured with a 3-point bending test. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the post-hoc Tukey test (α=0.05). The effects of the surface treatments on the surface of the polyamide resin were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The repair resins and surface treatments significantly affected the repair strength of the polyamide denture base material (p0.05). The flexural strength of the specimens repaired with the polyamide resin was significantly higher than that of those repaired with the heat-polymerized and autopolymerizing acrylic resins.

  12. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  13. Epoxy-resin adhesive and method for bonding using such an epoxy resin adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Poulis, J.A.; Benedictus, R.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an epoxy resin adhesive comprising a dotation of nano-substances, wherein the nano- substances are selected from the group comprising carbon-fibre nanotubes, carbon nano-fibres, silicate nano powders, and wherein the nano-substances are dispersed in the adhesive with a

  14. Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mello de Andrade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350 and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE] on the microtensile (μTBS and microshear bond strength (μSBS tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for μTBS and the other one for μSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37(0C/24 h specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/min. Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (α =0.05. For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (p<0.05. The correlation test detected a positive (r=0.91 and significant (p=0.01 correlation between the tests. CONCLUSIONS: The results were more influenced by the resin type than by the adhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions.

  15. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-01-01

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit

  16. Polymerization shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements – What do we need to know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José SOARES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymerization shrinkage stress of resin-based materials have been related to several unwanted clinical consequences, such as enamel crack propagation, cusp deflection, marginal and internal gaps, and decreased bond strength. Despite the absence of strong evidence relating polymerization shrinkage to secondary caries or fracture of posterior teeth, shrinkage stress has been associated with post-operative sensitivity and marginal stain. The latter is often erroneously used as a criterion for replacement of composite restorations. Therefore, an indirect correlation can emerge between shrinkage stress and the longevity of composite restorations or resin-bonded ceramic restorations. The relationship between shrinkage and stress can be best studied in laboratory experiments and a combination of various methodologies. The objective of this review article is to discuss the concept and consequences of polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements. Literature relating to polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress generation, research methodologies, and contributing factors are selected and reviewed. Clinical techniques that could reduce shrinkage stress and new developments on low-shrink dental materials are also discussed.

  17. Polymerization shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements - What do we need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Rodrigues, Monise de Paula; Vilela, Andomar Bruno Fernandes; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2017-08-28

    Polymerization shrinkage stress of resin-based materials have been related to several unwanted clinical consequences, such as enamel crack propagation, cusp deflection, marginal and internal gaps, and decreased bond strength. Despite the absence of strong evidence relating polymerization shrinkage to secondary caries or fracture of posterior teeth, shrinkage stress has been associated with post-operative sensitivity and marginal stain. The latter is often erroneously used as a criterion for replacement of composite restorations. Therefore, an indirect correlation can emerge between shrinkage stress and the longevity of composite restorations or resin-bonded ceramic restorations. The relationship between shrinkage and stress can be best studied in laboratory experiments and a combination of various methodologies. The objective of this review article is to discuss the concept and consequences of polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements. Literature relating to polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress generation, research methodologies, and contributing factors are selected and reviewed. Clinical techniques that could reduce shrinkage stress and new developments on low-shrink dental materials are also discussed.

  18. Microwave Assisted Regioselective Bromomethoxylation of Alkenes Using Polymer Supported Bromine Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Kasinath, Viswanathan; Singh, N. D. Pradeep; Krishnan, V. P. Santhana; Solomon, K. Anand; Rajan, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    A facile regio- and chemoselective bromomethoxylation of alkenes under microwave irradiation conditions employing a new polymer supported brominechloride resin is reported. The resin is prepared from the commercially available chloride resin by a simple one step procedure.

  19. Microwave Assisted Regioselective Bromomethoxylation of Alkenes Using Polymer Supported Bromine Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Rajan

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile regio- and chemoselective bromomethoxylation of alkenes under microwave irradiation conditions employing a new polymer supported brominechloride resin is reported. The resin is prepared from the commercially available chloride resin by a simple one step procedure.

  20. Electroactive polymer gels based on epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, A. B.; Jayakumar, S.; Jayalakshmi, C. G.; Pandey, K.; Sivaraman, P.

    2007-04-01

    Five types of epoxy gels have been synthesized from common epoxy resins and hardeners. Fumed silica and nanoclay, respectively, were used as fillers and butyl methacrylate/acrylamide were used as monomer(s) for making interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) in three compositions. Swelling study, tensile property evaluation, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electroactive property evaluation were done. The gels have sufficient mechanical strength and the time taken for bending to 20° was found to be 22 min for forward bias whereas it was just 12 min for reverse bias.

  1. Epoxy resin-inspired reconfigurable supramolecular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Balkenende Diederik; Olson Rebecca; Balog Sandor; Weder Christoph; Montero de Espinosa Lucas

    2016-01-01

    With the goal to push the mechanical properties of reconfigurable supramolecular polymers toward those of thermoset resins we prepared and investigated a new family of hydrogen bonded polymer networks that are assembled from isophthalic acid terminated oligo(bisphenol A co epichlorohydrin) and different bipyridines. These materials display high storage moduli of up to 3.9 GPa can be disassembled upon heating to form melts with a viscosity of as low as 2.1 Pa·s and fully reassemble upon coolin...

  2. Isothermal aging effects on PMR-15 resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of PMR-15 polyimide neat resin were aged in air at temperatures of 288, 316, and 343 C. Weight losses and dimensional changes were monitored during the course of the exposure time. Physical changes were also observed by optical and electron microscopy. It was found that polyimide polymer degradation occurred within a thin surface layer that developed and grew during thermal aging. The cores of the polymer specimens were protected from oxidative degradation, and they were relatively unchanged by the thermal treatment. Surface cracking was observed at 343 C and was probably due to an interaction between voids and stresses that developed in the surface layer.

  3. Epoxy resin systems for FGD units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brytus, V.; Puglisi, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research work which is directed towards epoxy resins and curing agents which are designed to withstand aggressive environments. This work includes not only a chemical description of the materials involved, but the application testing necessary to verify the usefulness of these systems. It demonstrates that new high performance epoxy systems are superior to those which traditionally come to mind when one thinks epoxy. Finally, it discusses the results of testing designed specifically to screen candidates for use in FGD units

  4. Solidification of radioactive wastes with thermosetting resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Okamoto, O.; Kagawa, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Irie, H.; Matsuura, H.; Yasumura, K.; Nakayama, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Dried simulated radioactive wastes were solidified with thermosetting resin and their properties were investigated with laboratory scale and real scale products through extensive testings, such as mechanical resistance, resistance to leaching and swelling in water, radiation resistance, fire resistance and resistance to temperature cycling. The typical results were as follows: over 600 kg/cm 2 of compressive strength, diffusion constant of approx. 10 - 5 cm 2 /day for 137 Cs leaching from solidified waste products, no significant change was found for up to 5 x 10 8 RAD irradiation, and damages were limited to the surface of the products after the thermal test and dropping impact test. 7 figures, 4 tables

  5. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  6. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ∼336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin

  7. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  8. Mussel Shell Impaction in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmin Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mussels are commonly used in cooking around the world. The mussel shell breaks more easily than other shells, and the edge of the broken mussel shell is sharp. Impaction can ultimately cause erosion, perforation and fistula. Aside from these complications, the pain can be very intense. Therefore, it is essential to verify and remove the shell as soon as possible. In this report we describe the process of diagnosing and treating mussel shell impaction in the esophagus. Physicians can overlook this unusual foreign body impaction due to lack of experience. When physicians encounter a patient with severe chest pain after a meal with mussels, mussel shell impaction should be considered when diagnosing and treating the patient.

  9. Vibration of liquid-filled thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of free and forced vibration of a thin, axisymmetric shell, which contains some liquid. The axis of symmetry is vertical. Only such vibration is considered which can be produced by a horizontal movement of the base of shell. The objective of this paper is to examine the response of the coupled shell-liquid system for a frequency range lying between zero and the lowest natural sloshing frequency of the liquid. The mass of the liquid is modeled by a stationary and one or more sloshing masses. It is shown how the stationary mass can be incorporated in the vibration analysis of the shell and how to natural frequency of the coupled shell-liquid system can be obtained from a simple formula, if the lowest natural frequency of the shell, plus the stationary mass of the liquid, can be determined. A numerical example is given. (orig.)

  10. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60??ppm range of solid-state 13C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000??cm- 1) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH2) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both 13C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition in the soil for as little as 1000??years. The Morwell

  11. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Paul C. [Lyons and Associates Consultants, 206 Amber Road, Middleboro, MA 02346 (United States); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60 ppm range of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH{sub 2}) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The {sup 13}C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition

  12. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 12,000, as determined by gel permeation chromatography in comparison with polystyrene standards, and... calorimetry. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic resins identified in paragraph (a) may contain... percent by weight as a residual solvent in the finished basic resin. (c) Extractive limitations. The...

  13. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornavoi, Denise Cremonezzi; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes; Panzeri, Heitor; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the color change of composite resins used in dentistry. Three composite resins were evaluated: Two microhybrids and one hybrid of higher viscosity, with different amounts and sizes of filler particles, shades C2 and B2. A total of 54 specimens were obtained (18 for each composite resin), made of a Teflon matrix (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height). The color measurements were obtained with a Spectrophotometer, (PCB 6807 BYK Gardner) before and after AAA. Data were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α >0.05), ANOVA and Tukey test (α 3). Considering the variable ∆E, it was observed that the color tone C2 was already statistically different for the microhybrid composite resin prior to AAA (P aging the composite resin hybrid of higher viscosity B2 showed the highest color variation rate and microhybrid with zirconium/silica C2 showed the lowest. All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2) and after (B2). It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  14. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents a preliminary study on obtaining and characterization of phenolic resin-based com- posites modified with nanometric silicon carbide. The nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating nanometric silicon carbide (nSiC) into phenolic resin at 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% contents using ultrasonication to ...

  15. Chemical tools: epoxic resins; Herramientas quimicas: resinas epoxidicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, S.; Pazos, M.; Prendes, P.

    1998-10-01

    Epoxy resins are very useful products for different applications in different fields. Due to the fact that they are a highly versatile products they can be considered as chemical tools. However the epoxy resins must be correctly formulated in order to obtain the final properties. In this article an easy and reliable method to optimise the energy formulation is presented. (Author)

  16. 21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., distilled water and 10 percent ethanol, when, following washing and pretreatment of the resin in accordance... paragraph (a)(18) of this section is used to treat aqueous sugar solutions subject to the condition that the temperature of the sugar solution passing through the resin bed is maintained at 82 °C (179.6 °F) or less and...

  17. Oligosilylarylnitrile: The Thermoresistant Thermosetting Resin with High Comprehensive Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingcun; Ning, Yi

    2018-04-11

    One of the highest thermoresistant thermosetting resins ever studied so far, oligosilylarylnitrile resin, was investigated first in this study. Oligosilylarylnitrile was synthesized by lithium-reduced Wurtz-Fittig condensation reaction, and the prepared viscous resin exhibited moderate rheological behaviors while heated purely or together with 20% polysilazane as a cross-linking agent. The thermal curing temperatures were found by differential scanning calorimetry at 268 °C (pure) and 158 °C (with the polysilazane cross-linking agent), which is comparably close to that of polysilylarylacetylene resin (normally at 220-250 °C) but much lower than those of polyimide and phthalonitrile resins (normally >300 °C), indicating the admirable material processability of oligosilylnitrile. The cured oligosilylarylnitrile resins have extremely high thermal resistance, indicated by the results of thermogravimetric analysis (the mass residue at 800 °C is >90% under N 2 ) and dynamic mechanical analysis (the glass-transition temperature is >420 °C). The mechanical property of the oligosilylarylnitrile-matrixed silica-cloth reinforced laminate is comparably close to those of polyimide and phthalonitrile but much higher than that of polysilylarylacetylene, indicating the enviable thermal and mechanical properties of oligosilylnitrile. Thus, among the high-temperature resins ever studied so far, the oligosilylarylnitrile resin was found to have the almost best comprehensive characteristics of processability and properties.

  18. Mercuric iodide semiconductor detectors encapsulated in polymeric resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao F. Trencher; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Oliveira, Adriano S.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disch, Christian; Fiederle, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg - UniFreibrug, Freiburg Materials Research Center - FMF, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The development of new semiconductor radiation detectors always finds many setback factors, such as: high concentration of impurities in the start materials, poor long term stability, the surface oxidation and other difficulties discussed extensively in the literature, that limit their use. In this work was studied, the application of a coating resin on HgI2 detectors, in order to protect the semiconductor crystal reactions from atmospheric gases and to isolate electrically the surface of the crystals. Four polymeric resins were analyzed: Resin 1: 50% - 100%Heptane, 10% - 25% methylcyclohexane, <1% cyclohexane; Resin 2: 25% - 50% ethanol, 25% - 50% acetone, <2,5% ethylacetate; Resin 3: 50% - 100% methylacetate, 5% - 10% n-butylacetate; Resin 4: 50% - 100% ethyl-2-cyanacrylat. The influence of the polymeric resin type used on the spectroscopic performance of the HgI{sub 2} semiconductor detector is, clearly, demonstrated. The better result was found for the detector encapsulated with Resin 3. An increase of up to 26 times at the stability time was observed for the detectors encapsulated compared to that non-encapsulated detector. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 177.2450 - Polyamide-imide resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2450 Polyamide-imide resins. Polyamide-imide resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as components of articles intended for... Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College...

  20. Branched polymeric media: Perchlorate-selective resins from hyperbranched polyethyleneimine

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Dennis P.; Yu, Changjun; Chang, ChingYu; Wan, Yanjian; Frechet, Jean; Goddard, William A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2012-01-01

    prohibitive when treating groundwater with higher concentration of ClO4 - (e.g., 100-1000 ppb). In this article, we describe a new perchlorate-selective resin with high exchange capacity. This new resin was prepared by alkylation of branched polyethyleneimine

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Dracaena cinnabari resin from Soqotra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few studies showed that Dracaena cinnabari resin, collected from Soqotra Island, Yemen, has antimicrobial activity. This study is the first to investigate antimicrobial activity of the resin on both antibiotic multi-resistant human pathogens and on poly-microbial culture. Material and Methods: Antimicrobial activity ...

  2. Resin-Bonded Bridges in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Johannes Hilbrandt van der

    1988-01-01

    In this thesis in vitro and in vivo studies on the clinical application of resin-bonded bridges are described and discussed. The development of different types of resin-bonded bridges is described in chapter 1. The bridges are often made by boding a cast metal retainer fitted with and artificial

  3. Effect of photoactivation on the reduction of composite resin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Natalia A; Girotto, Luiza P S; Leite, Françoise H S; Mario, Débora N

    2017-06-01

    Composite resins are predominantly marketed in developing countries in tube form, and the contents of the tube may be used in numerous procedures for different patients. This represents a problem because of the risk of cross-contamination. This study aimed to evaluate contamination in vitro of the internal contents of composite resin tubes in the dental clinics of a higher-education institution, as well as the effect of photoactivation on the level of contamination. Twenty-five tubes containing composite resin were randomly chosen (by lottery). From each tube, two samples of approximately 2 mm of composite resin were removed, and then one sample, but not the other, was photoactivated. These samples were plated on Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI), Sabouraud and MacConkey agars, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h. Colony counting and Gram staining were performed for subsequent microscopic identification of fungi and bacteria. The non-photoactivated composite resin group presented significantly higher microbial contamination in relation to the photoactivated composite resin group. The photoactivation of camphorquinone present in composite resin produces reactive oxygen species, which might promote cell death of contaminant microorganisms. Thus, although the same tube of composite resin may be used for a number of different patients in the dental clinics of developing countries, the photoactivation process potentially reduces the risk of cross-contamination. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  4. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically

  5. Determination of degradation conditions of exchange resins containing technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera S, A.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.

    2014-10-01

    The quantification of Tc-99 in spent exchange resins, coming from nuclear power plants, is indispensable to define their administration. The Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter of 210000 years of half-life, volatile and of a high mobility in water and soil. For this reason, the objective of this work is to establish a digestion method of ionic exchange resins containing technetium that retains more than 95% of this radioisotope. Mineralization tests were carried out of a resin Amberlite IRN-150 by means of an oxidation heat, in acid medium, varying the resin mass, the medium volume, the media type, the temperature and the digestion time. The digested samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to estimate the grade of their degradation. The 99m Tc was used as tracer to determine the technetium percentage recovered after mineralizing the resin. The digestion process depends on the temperature and the resin mass. At higher temperature better mineralization of samples and to greater resin mass to a constant temperature, less degradation of the resin. The spectra beta of the 99m Tc and 99 Tc are presented. (Author)

  6. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  7. Method of heat decomposition for chemical decontaminating resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To make resin wastes into non-deleterious state, discharge them into a resin waste storage tank of existent radioactive waste processing facility and store and dispose them. Constitution: In the processing of chemical decontaminating resin wastes, iron exchange resins adsorbing chemical decontaminating agents comprising a solution of citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and EDTA alone or as a mixture of them are heated to dry, thermally decomposed and then separated from the ion exchange resins. That is, the main ingredients of the chemical decontaminating agents are heat-decomposed when heated and dried at about 250 deg C in air and converted into non-toxic gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 or H 2 O. Further, since combustion or carbonization of the basic materials for the resin is not caused at such a level of temperature, the resin wastes removed with organic acid and chelating agents are transferred to an existent resin waste storage tank and stored therein. In this way, facility cost and radiation exposure can remarkably be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Prosthesis to Restore Missing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fiber-reinforced composite inlay-onlay FPD was used for a single posterior tooth replacement in a patient refusing implant for psychological reasons. The FRC-FPD was made of pre-impregnated E-glass fibers (everStick, StickTeck, Turku, Finland) embedded in a resin matrix (Stick Resin, StickTeck, Turku, Finland).

  9. Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

    Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

  10. Embedding of radioactive wastes by thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, A.; Traxler, A.; Limongi, A.; Thiery, D.

    The process for embedding radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins perfected and applied at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Center and its application to the treatment of radioactive wastes from Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants (PWR and BWR) are presented. The various types of wastes are enumerated and their activities and quantities are estimated: evaporator concentrates, ion exchange resins, filtration sludges, filters, various solid wastes, etc. The authors review the orientations of the research performed and indicate, for each type of waste considered, the cycle of treatment operations from rendering the radioelements insoluble to drying the concentrates to final embedding. The operational safety of the process and the safety of transport and storage of the embedded wastes are investigated. The essential technical features concerning the safety of the installation and of the final product obtained are presented. In particular, results are presented from tests of resistance to fire, irradiation, leaching, etc., these being characteristics which represent safety criteria. The economic aspects of the process are considered by presenting the influences of the reduction of volume and weight of wastes to be stored, simplicity of installations and cost of primary materials

  11. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolitetrademark NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900trademark, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material

  12. Ancient shell industry at Bet Dwarka island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Patankar, V.

    for the manufacture of beads, bangles, etc. 12 . Shell species found at the sites include T. pyrum (cha nk), Chicoreus ramosus , Fasciolaria trapezium , Cypraea (cowries), Arabica arabica (cowries), Babylonia spirata , dentalium, mussel and Arca... muscles are attached. Average length of a shell can be up to 15 to 20 cm and width 10 ? 15 cm 8 . It provides a unique structure for the manufacture of several bangles from a single shell. The organ ism living inside is also edible...

  13. Integrable structure in discrete shell membrane theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schief, W K

    2014-05-08

    We present natural discrete analogues of two integrable classes of shell membranes. By construction, these discrete shell membranes are in equilibrium with respect to suitably chosen internal stresses and external forces. The integrability of the underlying equilibrium equations is proved by relating the geometry of the discrete shell membranes to discrete O surface theory. We establish connections with generalized barycentric coordinates and nine-point centres and identify a discrete version of the classical Gauss equation of surface theory.

  14. Local shell-to-shell energy transfer via nonlocal interactions in fluid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the shell-to-shell energy transfer rate is found to be local and forward. .... interaction was strong, but the energy exchange occurred predominantly between ..... The wave-number range considered is in the inverse cascade regime.

  15. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  16. Statistics and the shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Starting with N. Bohr's paper on compound-nucleus reactions, we confront regular dynamical features and chaotic motion in nuclei. The shell-model and, more generally, mean-field theories describe average nuclear properties which are thus identified as regular features. The fluctuations about the average show chaotic behaviour of the same type as found in classical chaotic systems upon quantisation. These features are therefore generic and quite independent of the specific dynamics of the nucleus. A novel method to calculate fluctuations is discussed, and the results of this method are described. (orig.)

  17. Electron Shell as a Resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2002-01-01

    Main principles of the resonance effect arising in the electron shells in interaction of the nuclei with electromagnetic radiation are analyzed and presented in the historical aspect. Principles of NEET are considered from a more general position, as compared to how this is usually presented. Characteristic features of NEET and its reverse, TEEN, as internal conversion processes are analyzed, and ways are offered of inducing them by laser radiation. The ambivalent role of the Pauli exclusion principles in NEET and TEEN processes is investigated.

  18. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  19. Impregnation of soft biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hagens, G

    1979-06-01

    A new method for impregnation of biological specimens with thermosetting resins and elastomers is described. The method has the advantage that the original relief of the surface is retained. The impregnation is carried out by utilizing the difference between the high vapor tension of the intermedium (e.g., methylene chloride) and the low vapor tension of the solution to be polymerized. After impregnation, the specimen is subject to polymerization conditions without surrounding embedding material. The optical and mechanical properties can be selected by proper choice from various kinds of resins and different procedures, for example, by complete or incomplete impregnation. Acrylic resins, polyester resins, epoxy resins, polyurethanes and silicone rubber have been found suitable for the method. Excellent results have been obtained using transparent silicone rubber since after treatment the specimens are still flexible and resilient, and have retained their natural appearance.

  20. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... separation of the asphaltene constituents as a separate phase. Indeed, the absence of the resin fraction (produced by a variety of methods) from the maltenes influences the ability of the de-resined maltenes to accommodate the asphaltenes either in solution or as a stable part of a colloidal system. In spite....... Suggestions are also made regarding current thoughts of the role of these constituents on the structure and stability of petroleum....

  1. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial orthodontic resin containing silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Min; Lee, Donghyun; Han, Seungheui; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Lim, Ho-Nam; Kwon, Il Keun

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we developed a hybrid dental resin containing silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) to eliminate periodontal disease causing bacteria such as streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus). The silver nanoparticles enables the resin to prevent oral pathogen growth during orthodontic therapy. First, AgNPs were directly synthesized in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent with a capping agent. Second, pure orthodontic primer was mixed with the synthesized AgNPs solvent-slurry followed by photocuring. The resultant material was characterized by physicochemical characterization. Finally, an in vitro antimicrobial test was carried out. The results showed that the AgNPs were fully synthesized and clearly embedded in dental resin. In the bacterial test, the dental resin containing AgNPs showed potent antimicrobial activity against two kinds of bacteria. In conclusion, our methodology may allow for the generation of a wide range of dental resin and composite products which inhibit periodontitis causing bacteria.

  2. Bio-phenolic resin from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zuhaili; Zakaria, Sarani; Roslan, Rasidi; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Amran, Umar Adli

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) in the production of bio-phenolic resin is an alternative way to reduce the dependency of petroleum-based phenol. In this study, resol type bio-phenolic resin (BPR) was synthesized from EFB fibers using sulfuric acid as the catalyst to produce liquefied empty fruit bunches (LEFB) followed by resinification reaction with formaldehyde in alkaline condition. The SEM image of LEFB residue showed separation of fiber bundles into individual fibers. This indicate that lignin was destroyed during the liquefaction process. The increased of formaldehyde/LEFB molar ratio has resulted an increase of viscosity, solid content and pH of the resin. The obtained FTIR spectra confirmed that functional groups of BPR resins was almost similar with commercial resin.

  3. Resin bleed improvement on surface mount semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoo, Indra Kumar; Tahir, Suraya Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Resin bleed is a transparent layer of epoxy compound which occurs during molding process but is difficult to be detected after the molding process. Resin bleed on the lead on the unit from the focused package, SOD123, can cause solderability failure at end customer. This failed unit from the customer will be considered as a customer complaint. Generally, the semiconductor company has to perform visual inspection after the plating process to detect resin bleed. Mold chase with excess hole, split cavity & stepped design ejector pin hole have been found to be the major root cause of resin bleed in this company. The modifications of the mold chase, changing of split cavity to solid cavity and re-design of the ejector pin proposed were derived after a detailed study & analysis conducted to arrive at these solutions. The solutions proposed have yield good results during the pilot run with zero (0) occurrence of resin bleed for 3 consecutive months.

  4. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  5. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  6. A design chart for long vacuum pipes and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempetz, K.; Grimson, J.; Kelly, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a design chart to aid designers in the selection of a wall thickness for long cylindrical shells having atmospheric pressure outside the shell and a pressure less than atmospheric inside the shell. The chart indicates a conservative value for the minimum wall thickness for a given shell diameter and material when the shell is completely evacuated

  7. A randomized controlled three year evaluation of "bulk-filled" posterior resin restorations based on stress decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    -hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono) layer. In the second cavity, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 3 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated...

  8. Composted oyster shell as lime fertilizer is more effective than fresh oyster shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Hong, Sun Joo; Cho, Kye Man; Math, Renukaradhya K; Heo, Jae Young; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

    2010-01-01

    Physio-chemical changes in oyster shell were examined, and fresh and composted oyster shell meals were compared as lime fertilizers in soybean cultivation. Structural changes in oyster shell were observed by AFM and FE-SEM. We found that grains of the oyster shell surface became smoother and smaller over time. FT-IR analysis indicated the degradation of a chitin-like compound of oyster shell. In chemical analysis, pH (12.3+/-0.24), electrical conductivity (4.1+/-0.24 dS m(-1)), and alkaline powder (53.3+/-1.12%) were highest in commercial lime. Besides, pH was higher in composted oyster shell meal (9.9+/-0.53) than in fresh oyster shell meal (8.4+/-0.32). The highest organic matter (1.1+/-0.08%), NaCl (0.54+/-0.03%), and moisture (15.1+/-1.95%) contents were found in fresh oyster shell meal. A significant higher yield of soybean (1.33 t ha(-1)) was obtained by applying composted oyster shell meal (a 21% higher yield than with fresh oyster shell meal). Thus composting of oyster shell increases the utility of oyster shell as a liming material for crop cultivation.

  9. Variable solar control using thermotropic core/shell particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehling, Olaf; Seeboth, Arno; Ruhmann, Ralf; Potechius, Elvira; Vetter, Renate [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research (IAP), Department of Chromogenic Polymers, Volmerstr. 7B, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Haeusler, Tobias [Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU Cottbus), Chair of Applied Physics/Thermophysics, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Subject of our recent investigations is the utilization of a reversible thermotropic material for a self-regulating sun protection glazing that controls the solar energy input in order to avoid overheating. Based on the well-established UV curing technology for laminated glass a superior thermotropic material with tunable switching characteristics and of low material costs was developed. The polymer layer contains core/shell particles homogeneously dispersed in a UV-cured resin. The particle core in turn consists of an n-alkane mixture that is responsible for the temperature-induced clear/opaque switching. To obtain particles of well-defined size and with a narrow size distribution, the miniemulsion polymerization technique was used. The visible and solar optical properties (normal-normal, normal-hemispherical, and normal-diffuse transmittance) in the off (clear) and in the on state (opaque) were determined by UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. Samples containing particles of high median diameter (>800 nm) primarily scatter in the forward direction. However, with smaller particles (300-600 nm) a higher backscattering (reflection) efficiency was achieved. The largest difference in the normal-hemispherical transmittance could be found with a particle amount of 6% and a median scattering domain diameter of {proportional_to}380 nm. (author)

  10. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs+ ions and their regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Chung, Won Yang

    2008-01-01

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs + ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs + ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs + ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs + ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe 2+ ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K + ion

  11. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, India and Present Address: Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  12. Development, design, and preliminary operation of a resin-feed processing facility for resin-based HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Drago, J.P.; Million, D.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel kernels for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. Resin-feed processing was developed and a facility was designed, installed, and operated to control the kernel size, shape, and composition by processing the resin before adding uranium. The starting materials are commercial cation exchange resins in the sodium form. The size separations are made by vibratory screening of resin slurries in water. After drying in a fluidized bed, the nonspherical particles are separated from spherical particles on vibratory plates of special design. The sized, shape-separated spheres are then rewetted and converted to the hydrogen form. The processing capacity of the equipment tested is equivalent to about 1 kg of uranium per hour and could meet commercial recycle plant requirements without scale-up of the principal process components

  13. An high order Mixed Interpolation Tensorial Components (MITC) shell element approach for modeling the buckling behavior of delaminated composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiotti, Marco; Rizzo, Cesare M.; Branner, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and numerical studies carried out on delaminated fiberglass epoxy resin laminates made-up by different fabrication methods, namely by vacuum infusion and prepreg. While the tested specimens were originally intended for the assessment of buckling behavior...... of composite laminates of wind turbine blades, results were found valuable for the marine industry as well, because similar laminates are used for the hull shell and stiffeners. Systematic calculations were carried out to assess the effects of an embedded delamination on the buckling load, varying the size...

  14. Use of Almond Shells and Rice Husk as Fillers of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Alessandra; Lanari, Silvia; Santulli, Carlo; Pettinari, Claudio

    2017-07-28

    In recent years, wood fibres have often been applied as the reinforcement of thermoplastic materials, such as polypropylene, whereas their use in combination with thermosetting resin has been less widespread. This study concerns the production of PMMA-based composites by partly replacing alumina trihydrate (ATH) with wood waste fillers, namely rice husks and almond shells, which would otherwise be disposed by incineration. The amount of filler introduced was limited to 10% as regards rice husks and 10 or 15% almond shells, since indications provided by reactivity tests and viscosity measurements did not suggest the feasibility of total replacement of ATH. As a matter of fact, the introduction of these contents of wood waste filler in PMMA-based composite did not result in any significant deterioration of its mechanical properties (Charpy impact, Rockwell M hardness and flexural performance). Some reduction of these properties was only observed in the case of introduction of 15% almond shells. A further issue concerned the yellowing of the organic filler under exposure to UV light. On the other hand, a very limited amount of water was absorbed, never exceeding values around 0.6%, despite the significant porosity revealed by the filler's microscopic evaluation. These results are particularly interesting in view of the application envisaged for these composites, i.e., wood replacement boards.

  15. Potential of Waste Oyster Shells as a Novel Biofiller for Hot-Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Nciri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of waste oyster shells as a novel biofiller for hot-mix asphalt (HMA pavement applications. The effects of different fractions (e.g., 0, 5, 10, 15 wt % of oyster shell powder (OSP on the bitumen performance were investigated. The chemical properties of unfilled and OSP-filled asphalts were characterized by means of thin layer chromatography-ionization detection (TLC-FID, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal characteristics were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Physical and rheological properties were assessed through penetration, softening point, ductility, and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR tests. Results showed that OSP addition increased the resins content, as well as the stiffness of blends. No obvious reactions have occurred between the filler and the asphalt. A higher dose of OSP altered the morphology of the binder, whereas lower and intermediate doses improved its thermal stability and enhanced its low-temperature, rutting, and fatigue performances with respect to the plain asphalt. Overall, the waste oyster shells could be used as filler substitute, not only to improve the quality of road pavements but also to reduce the cost of their construction and solve the waste disposal problems.

  16. Environmentally Compliant Vinyl Ester Resin (VER) Composite Matrix Resin Derived from Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    polycar- bonate and polyacrylate thermoplastic resins. Annual production of phenol in the United States (Dow) exceeds 650 million pounds with virtually...second method reacted glycidol with methyl methacrylate in the presence of 2, 4- dimethyl-6-tert.butyl phenol and potassium cyanide [24]. The mixture...presence of DCC and the second reacted glycidol with methyl methacrylate in the presence of potassium cyanide and 2, 4-dimethyl-6-tert.butyl phenol

  17. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  18. Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de ANDRADE, Andrea Mello; MOURA, Sandra Kiss; REIS, Alessandra; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; GARCIA, Eugenio Jose; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350) and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO) and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE)] on the microtensile (µTBS) and microshear bond strength (µSBS) tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. Material and methods Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for µTBS and the other one for µSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37ºC/24 h) specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/ min). Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (α =0.05). For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (padhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions. PMID:21308290

  19. Evolution of shell gaps with neutron richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Moumita Ray; Ray, I.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sarkar, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to coordinate the recent data available over the periodic table, specially near the shell gaps and studied the evolution of the shell gaps as function of neutron numbers and/or other related quantities

  20. Microsoft Exchange Server PowerShell cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This book is for messaging professionals who want to build real-world scripts with Windows PowerShell 5 and the Exchange Management Shell. If you are a network or systems administrator responsible for managing and maintaining Exchange Server 2013, you will find this highly useful.

  1. Shell effects in the nuclear deformation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C.K.

    1973-01-01

    A new approach to shell effects in the Strutinsky method for calculating nuclear deformation energy is evaluated and the suggestion of non-conservation of angular momentum in the same method is resolved. Shell effects on the deformation energy in rotational bands of deformed nuclei are discussed. (B.F.G.)

  2. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  3. Strength Calculation of Locally Loaded Orthotropic Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Vinogradov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies laminated orthotropic cylindrical, conic, spherical, and toroidal shells, which are often locally loaded in the aircraft designs over small areas of their surfaces.The aim of this work is to determine stress concentration in shells versus structure of orthotropic composite material, shell form and parameters, forms of loading areas, which borders do not coincide with lines of main curvatures of shells. For this purpose, an analytical computing algorithm to estimate strength of shells in terms of stress is developed. It enables us to have solution results of the boundary value problem with a controlled error. To solve differential equations an analytical method is used. An algorithm of the boundary value problem solution is multiplicative.The main results of researches are graphs of stress concentration in the orthotropic shells versus their parameters and areas of loading lineated by circles and ellipses.Among the other works aimed at determination of stress concentration in shells, the place of this one is defined by the analytical solution of applied problems for strength estimation in terms of shell stresses of classical forms.The developed effective analytical algorithm to solve the boundary value problem and received results are useful in research and development.

  4. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K

    1973-02-01

    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  5. Statistical Mechanics of Thin Spherical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košmrlj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore how thermal fluctuations affect the mechanics of thin amorphous spherical shells. In flat membranes with a shear modulus, thermal fluctuations increase the bending rigidity and reduce the in-plane elastic moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. This is still true for spherical shells. However, the additional coupling between the shell curvature, the local in-plane stretching modes, and the local out-of-plane undulations leads to novel phenomena. In spherical shells, thermal fluctuations produce a radius-dependent negative effective surface tension, equivalent to applying an inward external pressure. By adapting renormalization group calculations to allow for a spherical background curvature, we show that while small spherical shells are stable, sufficiently large shells are crushed by this thermally generated “pressure.” Such shells can be stabilized by an outward osmotic pressure, but the effective shell size grows nonlinearly with increasing outward pressure, with the same universal power-law exponent that characterizes the response of fluctuating flat membranes to a uniform tension.

  6. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  7. Fabrication of Foam Shells for ICF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowicz, D. G.; Acenas, O.; Flowers, J. S.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R. R.; Schroen, D. G.; Streit, J.; Takagi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The General Atomics/Schafer team has developed processes to fabricate foam shells targets suitable for ICF experiments. The two most common chemical systems used to produce foam shells have been resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) aerogel and divinylbenzene (DVB). Spherical targets have been made in the form of shells and beads having diameters ranging from approximately 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm, and having densities from approximately 100 mg/cc to 250 mg/cc. The work on R/F foam shells has been concentrated on 1) shell fabrication process improvement to obtain high yields ( ˜25%) and 2) depositing a reliable permeation barrier to provide shells for ongoing direct drive experiments at LLE. Development of divinylbenzene foam shells has been mainly directed towards Inertial Fusion Energy applications (at densities as low as 30 mg/cc) and recently for shells for experiments at LLE. Details of the relevant metrology and properties of these foams as well as the range of targets currently available will be discussed.

  8. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  9. Statistical mechanics of microscopically thin thermalized shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Recent explosion in fabrication of microscopically thin free standing structures made from graphene and other two-dimensional materials has led to a renewed interest in the mechanics of such structures in presence of thermal fluctuations. Since late 1980s it has been known that for flat solid sheets thermal fluctuations effectively increase the bending rigidity and reduce the bulk and shear moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. However, much is still unknown about the mechanics of thermalized flat sheets of complex geometries and about the mechanics of thermalized shells with non-zero background curvature. In this talk I will present recent development in the mechanics of thermalized ribbons, spherical shells and cylindrical tubes. Long ribbons are found to behave like hybrids between flat sheets with renormalized elastic constants and semi-flexible polymers, and these results can be used to predict the mechanics of graphene kirigami structures. Contrary to the anticipated behavior for ribbons, the non-zero background curvature of shells leads to remarkable novel phenomena. In shells, thermal fluctuations effectively generate negative surface tension, which can significantly reduce the critical buckling pressure for spherical shells and the critical axial load for cylindrical tubes. For large shells this thermally generated load becomes big enough to spontaneously crush spherical shells and cylindrical tubes even in the absence of external loads. I will comment on the relevance for crushing of microscopic shells (viral capsids, bacteria, microcapsules) due to osmotic shocks and for crushing of nanotubes.

  10. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of monolith block of spent resin cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Endro-Kismolo; Isman MT

    1996-01-01

    Spent resin immobilization process with cement was done to prevent release of radionuclide in the ultimate storage or disposal. The varied Composition of water/cement ratio in the cementation process were 0.3; 0.4; 0.5 and the various weight of resin waste are 25 g, 37.5 g and 50 gram. The compressive strength of the various water/cement ratio without spent resin was bigger than 0.3. This investigation proved that the compressive strength of Tiga Roda cement was bigger than those of Gresik cement or Nusantara cement. The compressive of the cement block of were the spent resin cementation was influenced by the water/cement ratio and the total spent resin addition. The best condition reached at the water/cement ratio of 0.3 and 25 gram spent resin, was compressive strength of 17.86 N/mm 2 . Leaching rate of the various weight composition of spent resin cementation for 91 days were between 10 -2 - 10 -4 gram.cm -2 .day -1

  12. Phosphorus-containing imide resins - Modification by elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    The syntheses and general features of addition-type maleimide resins based on bis(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide and tris(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide have been reported previously. These resins have been used to fabricate graphite cloth laminates having excellent flame resistance. These composites did not burn even in pure oxygen. However, these resins were somewhat brittle. This paper reports the modification of these phosphorus-containing resins by an amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) and a perfluoroalkylene diaromatic amine elastomer (3F). An approximately two-fold increase in short beam shear strength and flexural strength was observed at 7 percent ATBN concentration. The tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were reduced when 18 percent ATBN was used. Anaerobic char yields of the resins at 800 C and the limiting oxygen indexes of the laminates decreased with increasing ATBN concentration. The perfluorodiamine (3F) was used with both imide resins at 6.4 percent concentration. The shear strength was doubled in the case of the bisimide with no loss of flammability characteristics. The modified trisimide laminate also had improved properties over the unmodified one. The dynamic mechanical analysis of a four-ply laminate indicated a glass transition temperature above 300 C. Scanning electron micrographs of the ATBN modified imide resins were also recorded.

  13. Purification of degraded TBP solvent using macroreticular anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Janaradanan, C.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with a suitable diluent is commonly used for solvent extraction in Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuels. This solvent gets degraded due to various factors, the main degradation product being dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). A solvent cleanup step is generally incorporated in the process for removing the degradation products from the used solvent. A liquid-liquid cleanup system using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution is routinely used. Considering certain advantages, like the possibility of loading the resin almost to saturation capacity and the subsequent disposal of the spent resin by incineration and the feasibility of adopting it to the process, a liquid-solid system has been tried as an alternate method, employing various available macroreticular anion exchange resins in OH - form for the sorption of HDBP from TBP. After standardizing the various conditions for the satisfactory removal of HDBP from TBP using synthetic mixtures, resins were tested with process solvent in batch contacts. The parameters studied were (1) capacity of different resins for HDBP sorption (2) influence of acidity, uranium and HDBP on the sorption behaviour of the latter (3) removal of fission products from the solvent by the resin and (4) regeneration and recycling of the resin. (author). 2 figs., 13 tabs., 17 refs

  14. Resin infusion of large composite structures modeling and manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, A.C. [Michigan State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The resin infusion processes resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI) and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are cost effective techniques for the fabrication of complex shaped composite structures. The dry fibrous preform is placed in the mold, consolidated, resin impregnated and cured in a single step process. The fibrous performs are often constructed near net shape using highly automated textile processes such as knitting, weaving and braiding. In this paper, the infusion processes RTM, RFI and VARTM are discussed along with the advantages of each technique compared with traditional composite fabrication methods such as prepreg tape lay up and autoclave cure. The large number of processing variables and the complex material behavior during infiltration and cure make experimental optimization of the infusion processes costly and inefficient. Numerical models have been developed which can be used to simulate the resin infusion processes. The model formulation and solution procedures for the VARTM process are presented. A VARTM process simulation of a carbon fiber preform was presented to demonstrate the type of information that can be generated by the model and to compare the model predictions with experimental measurements. Overall, the predicted flow front positions, resin pressures and preform thicknesses agree well with the measured values. The results of the simulation show the potential cost and performance benefits that can be realized by using a simulation model as part of the development process. (au)

  15. Application of THOR-Technology on resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Lindberg, M.

    2003-01-01

    The THermal Organic Reduction (THOR) process, developed and patented by studsvik utilises pyrolysis / steam reforming technology. The THOR-process provides a reliable and safe method for treating a wide variety of LLW in a unique, fluidised bed treatment system at moderate temperature. This technology is suitable for processing hazardous, mixed and dry active LLW with appropriate waste feed modifications. Both solid and liquid LLRW and ILRW streams including ion exchange resins, activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 4 Sv/hr can be processed. Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its facility at Erwin, Tennessee, USA. During this period studsvik has processed more than 1,5 thousand tons of radioactive ion exchange bead resins. powdered filter media and active carbon, with a cumulative total radioactivity of about 7 (E+8) MBq. Operations have demonstrated consistent, reliable, robust operating characteristics. Due to the widely varying characteristics of the incoming waste streams various efficiencies and volume reductions have been experienced. Input waste has varied in total inorganic content from 90%. A substantial element of this variability has been the ''soluble salt'' content of the input waste streams. Final reformed residue comprises a non-dispersible, granular solid which is suitable for long-term storage or direct burial in a qualified container. Special containers, THOR-liners, are available from studsvik for the transport of waste from the customer to the Erwin facility and HICs (high integrity containers) for transport of the residues to Barnwell. The paper will give an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing LLRW from commercial nuclear power plans. (orig.)

  16. Obtainment of calcium carbonate from mussels shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamester, M.R.R.; Becker, D.

    2010-01-01

    The mussels and oyster shell are discarded at environment, and this accumulation is causing negative consequences to ecosystem. Calcium carbonate is main constituent of the shell chemical composition. Aiming to reduce environmental aggression and generate income to shellfish producer, there was the possibility of using these shells as an alternative to commercial calcium carbonate. For this physics, chemicals and thermal properties were evaluated, using X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis, size distribution, abrasiveness and scanning electronic microscopy. The results indicate that mussels shells have an initial degradation temperature higher than commercial calcium carbonate e same lost weight behavior and 95% of shell chemical composition is calcium carbonate. The sample size distribution was influenced by grinding condition and time as well as its abrasiveness. (author)

  17. Structural shell analysis understanding and application

    CERN Document Server

    Blaauwendraad, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical description of the properties of a shell is much more elaborate than those of beam and plate structures. Therefore many engineers and architects are unacquainted with aspects of shell behaviour and design, and are not familiar with sufficiently reliable shell theories for the different shell types as derived in the middle of the 20th century. Rather than contributing to theory development, this university textbook focuses on architectural and civil engineering schools. Of course, practising professionals will profit from it as well. The book deals with thin elastic shells, in particular with cylindrical, conical and spherical types, and with elliptic and hyperbolic paraboloids. The focus is on roofs, chimneys, pressure vessels and storage tanks. Special attention is paid to edge bending disturbance zones, which is indispensable knowledge in FE meshing. A substantial part of the book results from research efforts in the mid 20th century at Delft University of Technology. As such, it is a valua...

  18. Semiclassical shell structure in rotating Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magner, A. G.; Sitdikov, A. S.; Khamzin, A. A.; Bartel, J.

    2010-01-01

    The collective moment of inertia is derived analytically within the cranking model for any rotational frequency of the harmonic-oscillator potential well and at a finite temperature. Semiclassical shell-structure components of the collective moment of inertia are obtained for any potential by using the periodic-orbit theory. We found semiclassically their relation to the free-energy shell corrections through the shell-structure components of the rigid-body moment of inertia of the statistically equilibrium rotation in terms of short periodic orbits. The shell effects in the moment of inertia exponentially disappear with increasing temperature. For the case of the harmonic-oscillator potential, one observes a perfect agreement of the semiclassical and quantum shell-structure components of the free energy and the moment of inertia for several critical bifurcation deformations and several temperatures.

  19. Biocompatibility of acrylic resin after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijatini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylic resin as basic material for denture will stay on oral mucosa for a very long time. The polymerization of acrylic resin can be performed by conventional method and microwave, both produce different residual monomer at different toxicity. Acrylic resin can absorb solution, porous and possibly absorb disinfectantt as well, that may have toxic reaction with the tissue. Sodium Hypochlorite as removable denture disinfectant can be expected to be biocompatible to human body. The problem is how biocompatible acrylic resin which has been processed by conventional method and microwave method after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite solution. Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand in vitro biocompatibility of acrylic resin which has polimerated by conventional method and microwave after being soaked in sodium hypochlorite using tissue culture. Methods: Four groups of acrylic resin plate were produced, the first group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration and soaked in sodium hypochlorite, the second group was acrylic resin plate with microwave polymeration but not soaked, the thirdwas one with conventional method and soaked and the last group was one with conventional method but not soaked, and in 1 control group. Each group consists of 7 plates. Biocompatibility test was performed in-vitro on each material using fibroblast tissue culture (BHK-21 cell-line. Result: The percentage between living cells and dead cells from materials which was given acrylic plate was wounted. The data was analyzed statistically with T test. Conclusion: The average value of living cells is higher in acrylic resin poimerization using microwave method compared to conventional method, in both soaked and non soaked (by sodium hypochlorite group. This means that sodium hypochlorite 0.5% was biocompatible to the mouth mucosa as removable denture disinfectant for 10 minutes soaking and washing afterwards.

  20. Preparation of extractive resins for producing terbium-161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz B, C. C.; Monroy G, F.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a methodology for extractive resins preparation to base of HDEHP, which allows to separation of Tb from Gd generating an own technology of preparation of these resins. The study included the extractive resins preparation from 6 different supports: kieselguhr Dg, alumina, red volcanic rock, chiluca, quarry and fluorite; two treatment types of of supports and varied concentrations of HDEHP extractant (di(2-etil hexyl) orthophosphoric acid), in order to determine which resin has improved efficiency of Gd and Tb separation, and radionuclide purity of 161 Tb. Resins were prepared to base of kieselguhr to determine the most appropriate silicon deposition process. Two silicon deposition treatments were realized: treatment I , by contact with silicon deposition solution (dimethyldichlorosilane / heptane 1:30) and treatment II by contact with vapors of dimethyldichlorosilane in vacuum. The extractant retention was carried out to different concentrations of HDEHP / acetone: 1:4, 1:8, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40. According to the results, there is not direct relation of HDEHP concentration used in extractive resins preparation to base of kieselguhr over the efficiency of Gd and Tb separation and of radionuclide purity of 161 Tb. The effect of support in the efficiency of Gd and Tb separation was studied to prepare resins with the supports kieselguhr, alumina, quarry, chiluca, volcanic rock and fluorite, using the silicon deposition treatment II for the supports and a concentration of HDEHP / acetone 1:20, for extractant retention. Only resins based on kieselguhr could separate to Gd from Tb quantitatively, the resin at a concentration of HDEHP / Acetone 1:20 was the best results obtained in Gd and Tb separation, achieving a separation efficiency greater than 90% and a radionuclide purity higher than 99%. (Author)

  1. Optical properties of core-shell and multi-shell nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Shehata, Nader

    2018-05-01

    We report a first-principles time dependent density functional theory study of the optical response modulations in bimetallic core-shell (Na@Al and Al@Na) and multi-shell (Al@Na@Al@Na and Na@Al@Na@Al: concentric shells of Al and Na alternate) nanorods. All of the core-shell and multi-shell configurations display highly enhanced absorption intensity with respect to the pure Al and Na nanorods, showing sensitivity to both composition and chemical ordering. Remarkably large spectral intensity enhancements were found in a couple of core-shell configurations, indicative that optical response averaging based on the individual components can not be considered as true as always in the case of bimetallic core-shell nanorods. We believe that our theoretical results would be useful in promising applications depending on Aluminum-based plasmonic materials such as solar cells and sensors.

  2. On the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for shell-burning stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Saint Andrews Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Core-mass-shell-luminosity relations for several types of shell-burning star have been calculated using simultaneous differential equations derived from simple homology approximations. The principal objective of obtaining a mass-luminosity relation for helium giants was achieved. This relation gives substantially higher luminosities than the equivalent relation for H-shell stars with core masses greater than 1 solar mass. The algorithm for calculating mass-luminosity relations in this fashion was investigated in detail. Most of the assumptions regarding the physics in the shell do not play a critical role in determining the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation. The behaviour of the core-mass-core-radius relation for a growing degenerate core as a single unique function of mass and growth rate needs to be defined before a single core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for all H-shell stars can be obtained directly from the homology approximations. (author)

  3. Faraday Wave Turbulence on a Spherical Liquid Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R. Glynn; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1996-01-01

    Millimeter-radius liquid shells are acoustically levitated in an ultrasonic field. Capillary waves are observed on the shells. At low energies (minimal acoustic amplitude, thick shell) a resonance is observed between the symmetric and antisymmetric thin film oscillation modes. At high energies (high acoustic pressure, thin shell) the shell becomes fully covered with high-amplitude waves. Temporal spectra of scattered light from the shell in this regime exhibit a power-law decay indicative of turbulence.

  4. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Enrico [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Trnka, Jaroslav [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of supersymmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only dlog-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for N=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2015)202.

  5. Stability of accelerated metal shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahsiri, H.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic treatment has been developed for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an accelerated liner. It is applicable to one-dimensional models either compressible or incompressible. With this model several points have been clarified. For an incompressible liner model, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability will have about five e-folding periods and the usual growth rate is independent of the current distribution or current rise time. Adequate stability will therefore depend on the magnitude of the initial perturbations or the precision of the initial liner and the thickness over which the shell is accelerated. However, for a compressible model, theory predicts that the current rise time is important and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is suppressed if the current rise time is less than the shock transit time

  6. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  7. EB curable wetting resins for magnetic media coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, L.; Ansel, R.E.; Murray, K.P.; Schmid, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic media industry is studying means to improve the recording density, durability, product uniformity and production efficiency and to reduce wetting agent migration in the magnetic film. The use of electron beam curable resin binders for magnetic coatings is one of the approaches being studied for this. This paper compares the wetting efficiencies of several electron beam curable systems with a conventional resin and a conventional wetting agent. In this study it has been demonstrated that EB resins can be designed to effect proper magnetic pigment dispersion

  8. Immobilization of ion-exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions, can be achieved using organic ion-exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilized in cement-based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres, giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. 26 tabs., 22 figs., 29 refs

  9. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% Ordinary Portland Cement 84% gg Blast Furnace Slag, 6% Microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This information was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  10. Adsorption behaviour of uranium on immobilized tannin resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, Susana; Preval, Ivon; Santana, Jorge L.; Martinez, Francisco; Vargas, Luis M.

    1995-01-01

    The sorption of uranium by Eucalyptus Saligna Sm. tannin resin was investigated. This resin resulted a suitable adsorbent for the concentration of uranium from aqueous systems. The sorption of uranium is pH dependent. The presence of appreciable quantities of sodium chloride does not have any effect on uranium removal. Carbonate and calcium ions in concentrations similar to these found in seawater and other natural water do not decrease the uranium uptake. TANNsorb resin can be used several times without an appreciable decay of their sorption capacity. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Uranium extraction from sulfuric acid solution using anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheta, M. E.; Abdel Aal, M. M.; Kandil, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium is currently recovered from sulfuric acid leach liquor using anion exchange resin as Amberlite IRA 402 (CT). This technology is based on fact that, uranium exists as anionic complexes. This takes place by controlling the pH of the solution, agitation time, temperature and resin to solution ratio (R/S). In this work, batch stirrer tank used for uranium extraction from sulfate medium and after extraction, elution process was done using 1M NaCl solution. After extraction and elution process, the resin was separated from the system and uranium was determined in the solution. (Author)

  12. The kinetics of fossil resin extraction from a flotation concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; Yu, Q.; Miller, J.D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The kinetics of fossil resin extraction from a flotation concentrate by heptane were investigated as a function of process variables using monosize particles. Experimental results provide for a better understanding of the refining process and the basis for subsequent design and construction of a continuous resin refining circuit. Based on the effect of process variables (particle size, stirring speed, and temperature) the resin extraction rate appears to be controlled by surface solvation phenomena. The initial extraction rate was found to be inversely proportional to the initial particle size and a kinetic model is being developed to describe the experimental results.

  13. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, B.; Tsuzuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  14. Separation of boron isotopes using NMG type anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Takaharu; Kosuge, Masao; Fukuda, Junji; Fujii, Yasuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    Ion exchange separation of boron isotopes (B-10 and B-11) has been studied by using a special boron selective ion exchange resin; NMG (n-methyl glucamine)-type anion exchange resin. The resin has shown a large isotope separation coefficient of 1.02 at the experimental conditions of temperature, 80degC, and boric acid concentration, 0.2 M (mole/dm 3 ). Enriched B-10 (92%) was obtained after the migration of 1149 m by a recyclic operation of ion exchange columns in a merry-go-round method. (author)

  15. Pengaruh Minuman Kopi terhadap Perubahan Warna pada Resin Komposit

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilia Aprilia; Linda Rochyani; Erry Rahardianto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of coffee beverage on hybrid composite resin discoloration. Material and method: This study used hybrid composite resin with A3 color, and was done by soaking composite resin plates in coffee solution for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days, corresponding to equivalent coffee usage for 6 months, 1, 1.5, and 2 years. The same measurements of reflectance were done before and after soaking into coffee solution. In the measurement, a beam from ...

  16. Differential scanning calorimetry of the effects of temperature and humidity on phenol-formaldehyde resin cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.-M. Wang; B. Riedl; A.W. Christiansen; R.L. Geimer

    1994-01-01

    Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin is a widely used adhesive in the manufacture of wood composites. However, curing behaviour of the resin under various environmental conditions is not well known. A differential scanning calorimeter was employed to characterize the degree of resin cure in this study. Resin-impregnated glass cloth samples with varied moisture contents (0,31...

  17. Investigation of chloride-release of nuclear grade resin in PWR primary system coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaoning; Li Yunde; Li Jinghong; Lin Fangliang

    1997-01-01

    A new preparation technique is developed for making the low-chloride nuclear-grade resin by commercial resin. The chloride remained in nuclear grade resin may release to PWR primary coolant. The amount of released chloride is depended on the concentration of boron, lithium, other anion impurities, and remained chloride concentration in resin

  18. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... Cooling Tower PEPO--Polyether Polyols PET--Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) Resin PM--Particulate Matter POM...., fixed roofs on storage vessels and oil water separators; covers on surface impoundments, containers and... category: Solid-state resins (PET bottle grade resins), polyester film and engineering resins. They are all...

  19. Change of color in resins by adding layers of color 'enamel'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuente Marin, David; Arce Navarro, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    The quantification of the color change is proposed at the time of employing enamel resin over dentine resin. Six resins color dentin and two color enamel were used. Five discs of resin were built of each resin, with a deameter of 10 mm and a thicjness of 2 mm. The reflectance spectrophotometer Color-Eye ® 7000-A were used, to obtain the values L*, a*, b* of the dentin resin disks and transposition of these with enamel. The conclusion has been that in the color have produced changes clinically detectable when put layers of enamel. The Resin Helio Fill Transparent has been which has produced major changes. Given the two enamel resins, dentin resin Helio Molar 310/B3 has been which has suffered major changes and Helio Fill A2 which has introduced fewer changes. Most resins have decreased the chroma, less the value. (author) [es

  20. Facile Synthesis of Yolk/Core-Shell Structured TS-1@Mesosilica Composites for Enhanced Hydroxylation of Phenol

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Houbing

    2015-12-14

    © 2015 by the authors. In the current work, we developed a facile synthesis of yolk/core-shell structured TS-1@mesosilica composites and studied their catalytic performances in the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 as the oxidant. The core-shell TS-1@mesosilica composites were prepared via a uniform coating process, while the yolk-shell TS-1@mesosilica composite was prepared using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (RF) middle-layer as the sacrificial template. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption, Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR) UV-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results showed that these samples possessed highly uniform yolk/core-shell structures, high surface area (560–700 m2 g−1) and hierarchical pore structures from oriented mesochannels to zeolite micropores. Importantly, owing to their unique structural properties, these composites exhibited enhanced activity, and also selectivity in the phenol hydroxylation reaction.

  1. Effect of repair resin type and surface treatment on the repair strength of heat-polymerized denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurt, Murat; Yeşil Duymuş, Zeynep; Gundogdu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Acrylic resin denture fracture is common in prosthodontic practice. When fractured denture bases are repaired, recurrent fractures frequently occur at the repair surface interface or adjacent areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural strength of the acrylic resin denture base repaired with heat-polymerized acrylic resin, autopolymerizing resin, and light-polymerized acrylic resin. Ninety-six specimens of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were prepared according to the American Dental Association Specification No. 12 (65.0 × 10.0 × 2.5 mm) and sectioned into halves to create a repair gap (3.0 × 10 × 2.5 mm). The sectioned specimens were divided into 3 groups according to their repair materials. The specimens from each group were divided into 4 subgroups according to their surface treatments: a control group without any surface treatment; an experimental group treated with methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA group); an experimental group treated with airborne-particle abrasion with aluminum oxide particles of 250-μm particle size (abrasion group); and an experimental group treated with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (laser group). After the surface treatments, the 3 materials were placed into the repair gaps and then polymerized. After all of the specimens had been ground and polished, they were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 1 week and subjected to a 3-point bend test. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the Tukey honestly significant difference test was performed to identify significant differences (α=.05). The effects of the surface treatments and repair resins on the surface of the denture base resin were examined with scanning electron microscopy. Significant differences were found among the groups in terms of repair resin type (P<.001). All surface-treated specimens had higher flexural strength than controls, except the surface treated with the methyl

  2. Fracture frequency and longevity of fractured resin composite, polyacid-modified resin composite, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement class IV restorations: an up to 14 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture frequency and longevity of fractured class IV resin composite (RC), polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer; PMRC), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) restorations in a longitudinal long-term follow-up. Eighty-five class IV RC (43...

  3. Axisymmetric vibrations of thick shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells of revolution are used for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aircrafts, structures and so on, and the elucidation of their free vibration is important for the design. In this study, the axisymmetric vibration of a barrel-shaped shell was analyzed by the modified thick shell theory. The Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined, and from its stopping condition, the vibration equations and the boundary conditions were derived. The vibration equations were analyzed strictly by using the series solution. Moreover, the basic equations for the strain of a shell and others were based on those of Love. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. By comparing the results of this study with the results by thin shell theory, the effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency and vibration mode were clarified. The theoretical analysis and the numerical calculation are described. The effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency became larger in the higher order vibration. The vibration mode did not much change in both theories. (Kako, I.)

  4. Study of mechanical and physicochemical properties of cementated spent ion-exchange-resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patek, P.

    1981-09-01

    As first part of a study on the possibilities, to immobilize spent ion exchange resins, for final disposal, the dependence of compressive strength from the composition of cement - resin mixtures was detected. Powdered resins, bead resins and ashes from the incinerator plant and several cement brands were examinated. As result an area was defined in the three-phase diagram of cement, resins and water, in which the following leach tests will be performed. (author)

  5. Importance-truncated shell model for multi-shell valence spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Christina; Vobig, Klaus; Roth, Robert [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The valence-space shell model is one of the work horses in nuclear structure theory. In traditional applications, shell-model calculations are carried out using effective interactions constructed in a phenomenological framework for rather small valence spaces, typically spanned by one major shell. We improve on this traditional approach addressing two main aspects. First, we use new effective interactions derived in an ab initio approach and, thus, establish a connection to the underlying nuclear interaction providing access to single- and multi-shell valence spaces. Second, we extend the shell model to larger valence spaces by applying an importance-truncation scheme based on a perturbative importance measure. In this way, we reduce the model space to the relevant basis states for the description of a few target eigenstates and solve the eigenvalue problem in this physics-driven truncated model space. In particular multi-shell valence spaces are not tractable otherwise. We combine the importance-truncated shell model with refined extrapolation schemes to approximately recover the exact result. We present first results obtained in the importance-truncated shell model with the newly derived ab initio effective interactions for multi-shell valence spaces, e.g., the sdpf shell.

  6. Free vibration analysis of delaminated composite shells using different shell theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Namita; Sahu, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Free vibration response of laminated composite shells with delamination is presented using the finite element method based on first order shear deformation theory. The shell theory used is the extension of dynamic, shear deformable theory according to the Sanders' first approximation for doubly curved shells, which can be reduced to Love's and Donnell's theories by means of tracers. An eight-noded C 0 continuity, isoparametric quadrilateral element with five degrees of freedom per node is used in the formulation. For modeling the delamination, multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated in the finite element code. The natural frequencies of the delaminated cylindrical (CYL), spherical (SPH) and hyperbolic paraboloid (HYP) shells are determined by using the above mentioned shell theories, namely Sanders', Love's, and Donnell's. The validity of the present approach is established by comparing the authors' results with those available in the literature. Additional studies on free vibration response of CYL, SPH and HYP shells are conducted to assess the effects of delamination size and number of layers considering all three shell theories. It is shown that shell theories according to Sanders and Love always predict practically identical frequencies. Donnell's theory gives reliable results only for shallow shells. Moreover, the natural frequency is found to be very sensitive to delamination size and number of layers in the shell.

  7. Thermal behaviour of used resin during conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsene, C.

    2016-01-01

    In the nuclear power plants using light water and heavy water as coolant, as well as in most waste treatment installations, the ion-exchange resins are used to purify water circuits. Since the resins retain both radionuclide and chemical impurities, it represents a low- and intermediate- radioactive waste that requires special management for storage and disposal. From experimental studies it was found that the conditioning of the used resin in bitumen has several advantages. But there are some disadvantages, too, one being the significant amount of gas produced during the bituminization process because of the high temperature (1200C). Besides water vapours, the condensable gas mixture (formed by a liquid fraction and an oil fraction) contains products generated from the partial decomposition of the resin and release of degradation products of bitumen: dimethyl and trimethylamine, methanol - compounds resulting from the destruction of functional groups and hydrocarbon fraction formed by n-paraffins (C6-C32), iso-paraffins and aromatics. (authors)

  8. Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Song, Lifu; Lin, Shan; Zhang, Zhaobin; Deng, Zixin; Xu, Ping

    2007-03-01

    High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen to adsorb vanillin in situ during the bioconversion. Resin DM11 was found to be the best, which adsorbed the most vanillin and the least ferulic acid. When 8% resin DM11 (wet w/v) was added to the biotransformation system, 45 g l(-1) ferulic acid could be added continually and 19.2 g l(-1) vanillin was obtained within 55 h, which was the highest vanillin yield by bioconversion until now. This yield was remarkable for exceeding the crystallization concentration of vanillin and therefore had far-reaching consequence in its downstream processing.

  9. Bond strength of resin composite to light activated bleached enamel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-02

    Sep 2, 2015 ... After setting of the cement, a composite resin (Variolink II) block was .... do not completely duplicate the physical and chemical properties of the oral ... peroxide concentrations on the corrosion behavior and surface topography.

  10. The Translucency Effect of Different Colored Resin Cements used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... color of resin cements and zirconia cores on the translucency parameter (TP) of the restoration that ... physical, mechanical, and esthetic properties. One of the ..... Raptis NV, Michalakis KX, Hirayama H. Optical behavior of.

  11. Radiation-induced decomposition of anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baidak, Aliaksandr; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced degradation of the strongly basic anion exchange resin Amberlite TM IRA400 in NO 3 - , Cl - and OH - forms has been studied. The research focused on the formation of molecular hydrogen in the gamma-radiolysis of water slurries of these quaternary ammonium resins with varying water content. Extended studies with various electron scavengers (NO 3 - , N 2 O and O 2 ) prove an important role of e solv - in the formation of H 2 from these resins. An excess production of H 2 in these systems at about 85% water weight fraction was found to be due to trimethylamine, dimethylamine and other compounds that leach from the resin to the aqueous phase. Irradiations with 5 MeV 4 He ions were performed to simulate the effects of α-particles.

  12. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-01-01

    resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary

  13. Influence of the molecular structure on hydrolyzability of epoxy resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pays, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    EDF has decided to use glass reinforced composites for certain pipework in Pressurized Water Reactors (service water, emergency-supplied service water, fine pipe works, etc...) as a replacement for traditional materials. In practice, steel is prone to rapid corrosion in these circuits; introducing composites could prove economically viable if their long term behaviour can be demonstrated. However, composite materials can undergo deterioration in service through hydrolysis of the resin or the fibre-matrix interface. Different resins can be chosen depending on the programmed use. A first study has covered the hydrolyzability of polyester and vinyl ester resins. The present document undertakes the resistance to hydrolysis of epoxy resins, concentrating on those reputed to withstand high temperatures. This research uses model monomer, linking the molecular structure of the materials to their resistance to hydrolysis. (author)

  14. Method of pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Masami; Kawamura, Fumio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the generation of noxious sulfur oxide and ammonia on the pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins discharged from nuclear power plants. Method: In the case where the pyrolysis is made for the cationic exchange resins having sulfonic acids as the ion-exchange group, alkali metals or alkaline earth metals capable of reacting with sulfonic acid groups to form solid sulfates are previously deposited by way of ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. In another case of the anionic exchange resins having quarternary ammonium groups as the ion-exchange groups, halogenic elements capable of reacting with the ammonium groups to form solid ammonium salts are deposited to the ion-exchange resins through ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. As a result, the amount of the binders used can be reduced, and this method can be used in a relatively simple processing facility. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel concept utilizing resin infusion to rigidize inflatable structures was developed at JSC ES. This ICA project intends to complete manufacturing of a prototype...

  16. Behaviour of E-glass fibre reinforced vinylester resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700 032, India. Abstract. ... Impact fatigue; static fatigue; residual stress; E-glass fibre; vinylester resin. 1. ... The present work ..... American Society for Testing and Materials) 497 p. 311.

  17. Overview of technologies to reprocess ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, V.M.; Chernikova, N.P.; Ivanets, V.G.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with overview of technologies for reprocessing of ion-exchange resins and determining the most optimal solutions for Ukraine. The technologies for cementations, thermal reprocessing, bituminization and deep decontamination are considered.

  18. Radiation processed composite materials of wood and elastic polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapolcai, I.; Czvikovszky, T.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation polymerization of multifunctional unsaturated polyester-monomer mixtures in wood forms interpenetrating network system. The mechanical resistance (compression, abrasion, hardness, etc.) of these composite materials are generally well over the original wood, however the impact strength is almost the same or even reduced, in comparison to the wood itself. An attempt is made using elastic polyester resins to produced wood-polyester composite materials with improved modulus of elasticity and impact properties. For the impregnation of European beech wood two types of elastic unsaturated polyester resins were used. The exothermic effect of radiation copolymerization of these resins in wood has been measured and the dose rate effects as well as hardening dose was determined. Felxural strength and impact properties were examined. Elastic unsaturated polyester resins improved the impact strength of wood composite materials. (author)

  19. Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins with Macroporous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming Liu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46 mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91 mg/mL resin. The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing.

  20. A genetic-neural artificial intelligence approach to resins optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Denise C.; Barros, Marcio P.; Lapa, Celso M.F.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a preliminary study about the viability and adequacy of a new methodology for the definition of one of the main properties of ion exchange resins used for isotopic separation. Basically, the main problem is the definition of pelicule diameter in case of pelicular ion exchange resins, in order to achieve the best performance in the shortest time. In order to achieve this, a methodology was developed, based in two classic techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI). At first, an artificial neural network (NN) was trained to map the existing relations between the nucleus radius and the resin's efficiency associated with the exchange time. Later on, a genetic algorithm (GA) was developed in order to find the best pelicule dimension. Preliminary results seem to confirm the potential of the method, and this can be used in any chemical process employing ion exchange resins. (author)

  1. Rheological characterization of geopolymer binder modified by organic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekalová, M.; Kovárík, T.; Rieger, D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is going to investigate properties of alkali-activated powder (calcined kaoilinitic clay and granulated blast furnace slag) prepared as a geopolymer paste and modified by various amount of organic resin. Hybrid organic-inorganic binders were prepared as a mix of organic resin and geopolymer inorganic paste under vacuum conditions. The process of solidification was investigated by measurements of storage (G’) and loss modulus ( G’) in torsion. The measurement was conducted in oscillatory mode by constant strain of 0.01 %. This strain is set in linear visco-elastic region for minimization influence of paste structure. The effect of organic resin is presented and determined by changes of viscosity (‘n*), modules in torsion and tangent of loss angle (tan 8). Results indicate that addition of organic resin significantly affects the initial viscosity and hardening kinetics.

  2. Effect of organoclay incorporation on dental resin morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Nadja M.S.; Reis, Romulo P.B.; Leite, Itamara F.; Morais, Crislene R.S.; Silva, Suedina M.L.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to incorporate nanosilicates in commercial dental resins in order to prepare dental nanocomposites competitive as commercial nanoparticulates dental resins. Thus, a silicate, Cloisite 20A (C20A), was incorporated in a microhybrid dental resin (Z100) and morphological properties of the nanocomposites evaluated as a function of the incorporation method and the amount of filler employed. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results evidence that nanocomposites have been obtained and according to SEM results, the morphology of microhybrid resin was modified when C20A nanoparticulate was incorporated improve the size distribution and reduce the agglomeration of the particles. (author)

  3. Matrix resin effects in composite delamination - Mode I fracture aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunston, Donald L.; Moulton, Richard J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    A number of thermoset, toughened thermoset, and thermoplastic resin matrix systems were characterized for Mode I critical strain energy release rates, and their composites were tested for interlaminar critical strain energy release rates using the double cantilever beam method. A clear correlation is found between the two sets of data. With brittle resins, the interlaminar critical strain energy release rates are somewhat larger than the neat resin values due to a full transfer of the neat resin toughness to the composite and toughening mechanisms associated with crack growth. With tougher matrices, the higher critical strain energy release rates are only partially transferred to the composites, presumably because the fibers restrict the crack-tip deformation zones.

  4. Adsorption behavior of proteins on temperature-responsive resins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poplewska, I.; Muca, R.; Strachota, Adam; Piatkowski, W.; Antos, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1324, 10 January (2014), s. 181-189 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : bioseparations * N-isopropylacrylamide * thermo-responsible resins Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  5. Urea-formaldehyde resins: production, application, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, A.; Risnasari, I.; Sucipto, T.; Heri Iswanto, A.; Rosmala Dewi, R.

    2017-07-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, one of the most important formaldehyde resin adhesives, is a polymeric condensation product of formaldehyde with urea, and being widely used for the manufacture of wood-based composite panels, such as plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard. In spite of its benefits such as fast curing, good performance in the panels (colorless), and lower cost; formaldehyde emission (FE) originated from either UF resin itself or composite products bonded by UF resins is considered a critical drawback as it affects human health particularly in indoor environment. In order to reduce the FE, lowering formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio in the synthesis of the UF resin was done. In this study, synthesis of UF resins was carried out following the conventional alkaline-acid two-step reaction with a second addition of urea, resulting in F/U mole ratio around 1.0, namely 0.95; 1.05, and 1.15. The UF resins produced were used as binder for particleboard making. The board was manufactured in the laboratory using shaving type particle of Gmelina wood, 8% UF resin based on oven dry particle, and 1% NH4Cl (20%wt) as hardener for the resin. The target of the thickness was 10 mm and the dimension was 25 cm x 25 cm. The resulted particleboard then was evaluated the physical and the mechanical properties by Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Further, the resulted particleboard also was used for the mice cage’s wall in order to mimic the real living environment. After four weeks exposure in the cages, the mice then were evaluated their mucous organs as well as their blood. The experiment results were as follows: 1) It was possible to synthesis UF resins with low F/U mole ratio; 2) However, the particleboard bonded UF resins with low F/U mole ratio showed poor properties, particularly on the thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity; 3) There was no significant differences among the mucous organs of the mice after a month exposure FE originated from

  6. Study and application on lean resin converting in uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shaoxi; Huang Qijin; Zhu Shuguang; Yi Faqing; Du Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    The field test about sulphuric acid used to convert lean resin was finished. The results indicated sulphuric acid could replace chlorin in lean resin and could be reclaimed to desorption procedure. The consumption of NaCl decreased, the chlorin concentration of tailing decreased too. Both of uranium loss and waste water volume were reduced. The uranium concentration of tailing decreased and energy saving and emission reduction can be achieved. (authors)

  7. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Moessbauer Study of Discoloration of Synthetic Resin Covered Electric Switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Muzsay, I.; Homonnay, Z.; Vertes, A.

    2002-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used to investigate brown discoloration and sediments formed on the surface of synthetic resin product covered electronic switches. The Moessbauer measurement revealed that alloyed steels and iron-containing corrosion products are associated with the discolored layers. Iron, and iron corrosion products were shown by both MS and XRD in the sediments formed eventually during the finishing of the synthetic resin products after machining and washing with water solution.

  9. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge - engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation

  10. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  11. Resin flow/fiber deformation model for composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutowski, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a resin flow/fiber deformation model that can be used to predict the behavior of composites during the molding cycle. The model can take into account time varying pressure and viscosity and output the time history of the fiber volume fraction. With this known, the composite thickness, resin pressure, and fiber pressure can all be determined as a function of time. The results of this model are in good agreement with experimentally measured values. 10 references, 9 figures

  12. Organic resin anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; McGinnes, D.F.

    1988-07-01

    Organic anion exchange resins are evaluated for 99-TcO 4 - (pertechnate) removed from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal and radiation stabilities were studied. Selected resins were examined in detail for their selectivities in the presence of I - , NO 3 - , SO 4 = , CO 3 = , Cl - and OH - . Ion exchange equilibria and kinetic mechanisms were determined. Preliminary investigations of cement encapsulation in polymer modified form were made and some leach studies carried out. (author)

  13. Branched polymeric media: Perchlorate-selective resins from hyperbranched polyethyleneimine

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Dennis P.

    2012-10-02

    Perchlorate (ClO4 -) is a persistent contaminant found in drinking groundwater sources in the United States. Ion exchange (IX) with selective and disposable resins based on cross-linked styrene divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads is currently the most commonly utilized process for removing low concentrations of ClO4 - (10-100 ppb) from contaminated drinking water sources. However, due to the low exchange capacity of perchlorate-selective STY-DVB resins (∼0.5-0.8 eq/L), the overall cost becomes prohibitive when treating groundwater with higher concentration of ClO4 - (e.g., 100-1000 ppb). In this article, we describe a new perchlorate-selective resin with high exchange capacity. This new resin was prepared by alkylation of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension polymerization process. Batch and column studies show that our new PEI resin with mixed hexyl/ethyl quaternary ammonium chloride exchange sites can selectively extract trace amounts of ClO4 - from a makeup groundwater (to below detection limit) in the presence of competing ions. In addition, this resin has a strong-base exchange capacity of 1.4 eq/L, which is 1.75-2.33 times larger than those of commercial perchlorate-selective STY-DVB resins. The overall results of our studies suggest that branched PEI beads provide versatile and promising building blocks for the preparation of perchlorate-selective resins with high exchange capacity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Surface discoloration of composite resins: Effects of staining and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate surface discoloration of three microhybrid composite resins (Esthet•X HD, Clearfil AP-X, Gradia Direct) and five nanohybrid composite resins (Ceram•X, GC Kalore, G-aenial, Grandio, GrandioSO), after staining and bleaching procedures. The composite resins were polymerized with a curing light (Celalux II, Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) into 160 silicon molds (6,4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) to obtain identical specimens. Twenty samples for each composite resin were prepared. The specimens were polished using an automated polishing machine with the sequence of 600-, 800-, 1000-grit abrasive paper under water irrigation. The specimens were immersed in tea and distilled water: the specimens were dipped for 20 min, once a day (every 24 h), for 14 days into the drinks. The specimens were then bleached with carbamide peroxide at 17% (Perfect Bleach-Voco). The color of specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer according to the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) system after light-polymerization of composite resin specimens, after 7 days, after 14 days, and after bleaching. The color difference h index (DEab(*)) between each measurement was calculated. Statistical analysis was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA). All specimens showed a significant increase in staining with a similar trend and no significant differences between microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. After whitening procedures, materials tested showed both significant and unsignificant differences of the h index. Microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins had similar in vitro surface discoloration in tea. After bleaching, discoloration was removed from some composite resins tested.

  15. SuperLig Ion Exchange Resin Swelling and Buoyancy Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to achieve a fundamental understanding of SuperLig resin swelling and shrinking characteristics, which lead to channeling and early breakthrough during loading cycles. The density of salt solution that causes resin floating was also determined to establish a limit for operation. Specific tests performed include (a) pH dependence, (b) ionic strength dependence and (c) buoyancy effect vs. simulant composition

  16. Clinical performance of a hybrid resin composite with and without an intermediate layer of flowable resin composite: a 7-year evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical follow up was to evaluate the long term clinical performance of a hybrid resin composite in Class II restorations with and without intermediate layer of flowable resin composite....

  17. Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions...

  18. Strontium and fluorine in tuatua shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompetter, W.J.; Coote, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the research to date on the elemental distributions of strontium, calcium, and fluorine in a collection of 24 tuatua shells (courtesy of National Museum). Variations in elemental concentrations were measured in the shell cross-sections using a scanning proton microprobe (PIXE and PIGME). In this paper we report the findings to date, and present 2-D measurement scans as illustrative grey-scale pictures. Our results support the hypothesis that increased strontium concentrations are deposited in the shells during spawning, and that fluorine concentration is proportional to growth rate. (author). 15 refs.; 13 figs.; 1 appendix

  19. Gross shell structure of moments of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.

    2002-01-01

    Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits

  20. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rubin de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, IFIBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters. (orig.)