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Sample records for resin removal system

  1. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  2. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  3. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  4. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  5. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  6. Assessment of alternate ion exchange resins for improved antimony removal from the primary heat transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burany, R.; Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics, Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation fields around the CANDU heat transport system are a major contributor to worker dose during inspection, maintenance and refurbishment activities. While Co-60 is typically the dominant contributor to radiation fields in CANDU reactors, Sb-124, an activation product of antimony, is also a significant contributor, accounting for 5-20% of the radiation fields. The goal of this research project was to investigate resins for improved removal of antimony under both oxidizing and reducing conditions.Several candidate resins were tested and short-listed through a sequence of iterative testing. The results of the laboratory testing have identified potential candidates for improved antimony removal. Further testing is required to ensure compatibility with existing station resin specifications. (author)

  7. CAREM 25: Design of resin bed for purification and boron removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Iglesias, Alberto M.; Jimenez Rebagliati, Raul; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; La Gamma, Ana M.

    2000-01-01

    The purification of the water the primary coolant of a water cooled nuclear reactor as well as the water of many auxiliary systems is controlled by the use of ion exchange resins. In the present paper, the resin beds for three different systems are specified: the purification and control volume system, the suppression pool water and the spent fuel pool water for the reactor CAREM-25. In all cases the dimensioning calculations have been done taking in consideration the amount of contaminants and corrosion products generated under normal operation or post-accident. Also, the results have been contrasted with the experience of the nuclear power plants in operation in Argentina, international design criteria and international standards. For the primary coolant, the boron-removal beds have been sized and an estimation of the maximum dose received by the resins have been calculated. It have been found that the result is well below the damaging threshold reported in the literature. (author)

  8. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  9. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  10. Sequestration Resins for Accelerating Removal of Radioactive Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattini, Paul-L.; Wells, Daniel-M.; Garcia, Susan-E.; Richard, Kohlmann; Asay, Roger; Yengoyan, Leon

    2012-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is developing sequestration resins that can be used in the treatment of nuclear plant water streams for the enhanced removal of ionic cobalt. EPRI is focusing on three key areas of success: 1. Plant safety. The resins that are synthesized must be fully tested to determine that no leachable species or decomposition products (in the event of a resin bed failure) would be introduced to the plant. 2. Acceptable system performance. The resins are currently being synthesized in a powdered form for use in the reactor water clean-up and fuel pool clean-up systems that utilize pre-coatable filter elements. The resins must have effective flocking behavior; uniform application over the underlay resin and efficient removal from the septa elements after use. Bead type resins are also under development. 3. Enhanced cobalt removal. The resins are expected to out-perform the currently used ion exchange resins in the removal of ionic cobalt. During nuclear plant maintenance or refueling outages, current ion exchange resins may require several days to reduce concentrations of cobalt (for example, radio-cobalt 60 Co and 58 Co) and other activated corrosion products to safe levels in reactor coolant streams. This performance limitation often delays key maintenance activities. EPRI's resins are expected to provide at least a three-fold increase in removal capacity in light water reactor coolants. These resins also offer the potential for higher overall removal efficiencies reducing occupational exposures and waste management costs. This paper addresses issues from the range of novel resin development for radio-cobalt removal from synthesis at the bench-top level through scale-up to demonstration of use in an actual operating nuclear power plant. (authors)

  11. Processing and removal of the Three Mile Island makeup and purification system resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.K.; McIntosh, T.W.; Northey, L.M.; GaTanto, J.J.; Osterhoudt, T.R.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 in March 1979 left the makeup and purification demineralizers inaccessible to workers. These demineralizers contained the highest concentrations of radioactive isotopes outside the Reactor Building. Additionally, unknown quantities of fuel were in the demineralizers. Other concerns centered on the unknown condition of the demineralizer resins, the possible loss of system integrity, and the presence of hydrogen due to the radiolytic breakdown of water contained in the demineralizers. GPU Nuclear, with the US Department of Energy and its contractors EG and G Idaho, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Westinghouse Hanford Company, remotely measured the fuel and fission product inventory of the demineralizers and demonstrated a practical chemical processing method using samples acquired from the demineralizers. Equipment was developed and installed to elute the radioactive cesium from the demineralizers. And elution, which began in September 1984 now nears completion

  12. Removal of radiocesium using cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Tachibana, Yoshitaka; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    Cation exchange resins (calcium polystyrene sulfonate, Ca-resin and sodium polystyrene sulfonate, Na-resin) have been used as agents to improve hyperkerlemia. For removing 137 Cs from the human body, the adsorption ability of the resin for 137 Cs was examined and evaluated. Resin (0.03 g) and 137 Cs (ca.1 kBq) were introduced into 3 mL of water, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 1st fluid for a dissolution test (pH 1.2) and 2nd fluid (pH 6.8), respectively, and shaken. After 1-3 hours, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was 99% in water, 60% in a pH 1.2 fluid and, 66% in a pH 6.8 fluid. By adding potassium, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Ca-resin was reduced. However, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was almost unchanged. These results show that both resins have adsorption ability for 137 Cs in the stomach and the intestines. Therefore, the proposed method will be an effective means in the case of a radiological emergency due to 137 Cs. (author)

  13. Development and application of high performance resins for crud removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Tatsuya; Izumi, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    The development of crud removal technology has started with the finding of the resin aging effect that an old ion exchange resin, aged by long year of use in the condensate demineralizer, had an enhanced crud removal capability. It was confirmed that some physical properties such as specific surface area and water retention capacity were increased due to degradation caused by long year of contact with active oxygens in the condensate water. So, it was speculated that those degradation in the resin matrix enhanced the adsorption of crud particulate onto the resin surface, hence the crud removal capability. Based on this, crud removal resin with greater surface area was first developed. This resin has shown an excellent crud removal efficiency in an actual power plant, and the crud iron concentration in the condensate effluent was drastically reduced by this application. However, the cross-linkage of the cation resin had to be lowered in a delicate manner for that specific purpose, and this has caused higher organic leachables from the resin, and the sulfate level in the reactor was raised accordingly. Our major goals, therefore, has been to develop a crud resin of as little organic leachables as possible with keeping the original crud removal efficiency. It was revealed through the evaluation of the first generation crud resin and its improved version installed in the actual condensate demineralizers that there was a good correlation between crud removal efficiency and organic leaching rate. The bast one among a number of developmental resins has shown the organic leaching rate of 1/10 of that of the original crud resin (ETR-C), and the crud removal efficiency of 90%. So far as we understand, the resin was considered to have the best overall balance between crud removal and leaching characteristics. The result of six month evaluation of this developmental resin, ETR-C3, in one vessel of condensate demineralizer of a power plant will be presented. (J.P.N.)

  14. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  16. Use of polymeric resins for removing contaminants from oily waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarisse, M.D.; Queiros, Y.G.C.; Mauro, A.C.; Lucas, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Barbosa, C.C.R. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barbosa, L.C.F.; Louvisse, A.M.T. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Polymeric resins are being tried as an alternative material for treating oily waters from the petroleum industry, which have already been treated by conventional methods. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the purification degree of synthetic oily waters when treated in fixed bed columns packed with polymeric resins made up of hydrophilic and lipophilic moieties. The analysis used for characterizing the total grease and oil content (TOG) was fluorimetry. Starting oily waters of average TOG 40 ppm were prepared. Data obtained from eluted waters did not outweigh 1% of the TOG values of starting solutions. The kinetic study showed that the contaminant removal efficiency depends on the system elution flow rate; optimum removal values were reached at a 7.0 mL/min flow rate. High efficiency and speed in the purification process were obtained at this optimum flow rate. The passage of a water volume 1,000 times the volume of the column bed was not sufficient to observe its saturation level. (author)

  17. Monoclonal antibody fragment removal mediated by mixed mode resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ellen; Aspelund, Matthew; Bartnik, Frank; Berge, Mark; Coughlin, Kelly; Kambarami, Mutsa; Spencer, David; Yan, Huiming; Wang, William

    2017-05-26

    Efforts to increase monoclonal antibody expression in cell culture can result in the presence of fragmented species requiring removal in downstream processing. Capto adhere, HEA Hypercel, and PPA Hypercel anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction mixed mode resins were evaluated for their fragment removal capabilities and found to separate large hinge IgG1 antibody fragment (LHF) from monomer. Removal of greater than 75% of LHF population occurred at pH 8 and low conductivity. The mechanism of fragment removal was investigated in two series of experiments. The first experimental series consisted of comparison to chromatographic behavior on corresponding single mode resins. Both single mode anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction resins failed to separate LHF. The second experimental series studied the impact of phase modifiers, ethylene glycol, urea, and arginine on the mixed mode mediated removal. The addition of ethylene glycol decreased LHF removal by half. Further decreases in LHF separation were seen upon incubation with urea and arginine. Therefore, it was discovered that the purification is the result of a mixed mode phenomena dominated by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding effects. The site of interaction between the LHF and mixed mode resin was determined by chemical labeling of lysine residues with sulfo-NHS acetate. The labeling identified the antibody hinge and light chain regions as mediating the fragment separation. Sequence analysis showed that under separation conditions, a hydrophobic proline patch and hydrogen bonding serine and threonine residues mediate the hinge interaction with the Capto adhere ligand. Additionally, a case study is presented detailing the optimization of fragment removal using Capto adhere resin to achieve purity and yield targets in a manufacturing facility. This study demonstrated that mixed mode resins can be readily integrated into commercial antibody platform processes when additional chromatographic abilities

  18. Determination of antimony by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in samples with high iron content using chelating resins as on-line removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolea, E.; Arroyo, D.; Laborda, F.; Castillo, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the removal of the interference caused by iron on electrochemical generation of stibine is proposed. It consists of a chelating resin Chelex 100 column integrated into a flow injection system and coupled to the electrochemical hydride generator quartz tube atomic absorption spectrometer (EcHG-QT-AAS). Iron, as Fe(II), is retained in the column with high efficiency, close to 99.9% under optimal conditions. No significant retention was observed for Sb(III) under same conditions and a 97 ± 5% signal recovery was achieved. An electrochemical hydride generator with a concentric configuration and a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode was employed. The system is able to determine antimony concentrations in the range of ng ml -1 in presence of iron concentrations up to 400 mg l -1 . The procedure was validated by analyzing PACS-2 marine sediments reference material with a 4% (w/w) iron content and a [Fe]:[Sb] ratio of 4000:1, which caused total antimony signal suppression on the electrochemical hydride generation system. A compost sample with high iron content (0.7%, w/w), was also analyzed. A good agreement was found on both samples with the certified value and the antimony concentration determined by ICP-MS, respectively

  19. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficiency of lead removal from drinking water using cationic resin Purolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashour Mohammad Merganpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, issues such as water shortage, difficulties and costs related to supplying safe water, and anomalous concentrations of heavy metals in groundwater and surface water resources, doubled the necessity of access to technical methods on removing these pollutants from water resources. Methods: In this lab study, cationic resin Purolite S-930 (with co-polymer styrene di-vinyl benzene structure was used for lead removal from drinking water containing up to 22 μg/L. Using statistical analysis and designing a full factorial experiment are the most important effective parameters on lead removal obtained through ion exchange process. Results: Analysis of response and interaction parameters of ion exchange showed that the resin column height has maximum and pH value has minimum effect on the efficiency of lead removal from aquatic environment. Trinary interaction of “effective size, flow rate, resin column high” has the most important for lead removal efficiency in this system. So the maximum efficiency was obtained at the mesh = 40, bed height =1.6 meter, and pH= 6.5. At the best operation conditions, ability to remove 95.42% of lead concentration can be achieved. Conclusion: Using the resin Purolite S-930 during 21-day service with 91.12% of mean lead removal ratio from drinking water is an economic and technical feasibility.

  1. Ion Exchange Column Tests Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morse, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-12-20

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed on site. There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important. Options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste, as well as to examine the volatility of 99Tc during the vitrification process. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. A conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. SuperLig® 639 is an elutable ion exchange resin. In the tank waste, 99Tc is predominantly found in the tank supernate as pertechnetate (TcO4-). Perrhenate (ReO4-) has been shown to be a good non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in laboratory testing for this ion exchange resin. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient and column resin maturation kinetics testing using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from simulated LAW. This revision includes results from testing to determine effective resin operating temperature range. Loading tests were performed at 45°C, and the computer modeling was updated to include the temperature effects. Equilibrium contact testing indicated that this batch of

  2. SHALLOW SHELL RESIN VERSUS TRADITIONAL RESIN: A CASE STUDY FOR Cu(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Arar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on Cu2+ removal by shallow shell resin (Purolite SST 60 and traditional strongly acidic cation exchange resin (Purolite PFC 100 was performed. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of  resin  dosage and  solution pH and contact time. Ion exchange reaction showed a pH depended feature.  Maximum removal of Cu2+ achieved  pH  from 2 to 5. Sorption isothermal data is well interpreted by the Langmuir equation. Additionally, kinetic experiments showed that the pseudo first-order model was suitable for such resins. The regeneration performance of shallow shell technology (SST resin is better than PFC 100.  A solution of 2M H2SO4 performed well in regenerationof SST 60 resin. On the other han maximum regeneration reached 80% for PFC 100 resin.Özet: Bu çalışmada, klasik iyon değiştirici reçine (Purolite PFC 100 ve  sığ kabuk  reçine (Purolite SST 60  ile Cu2+ giderilmesi incelenmiştir. Yapılan kesikli çalışmalarla Cu2+ giderilmesine, reçine miktarı, çözelti pH`ı ve temas süresinin etkisi incelenmiştir. Çözelti pH`ının 2 ile 5 arasında olduğu durumda Cu2+ iyonları tamamen giderilmiştir. Denge çalışmalarında elde edilen sonuçlar Langmuir izoterm modeline daha uygun olmuştur. Kinetik çalışmalarda elde edilen sonuçlar yalancı birinci mertebe kinetik modeline uygunluk göstermişir. SST 60 reçinesinin rejenerasyon verimi PFC 100 reçinesinden daha yüksektir. 2M H2SO4 ile SST 60 reçinesi tamamen rejenere edilmiştir.

  3. ION EXCHANGE MODELING FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM HANFORD WASTE USING SUPERLIG 644 RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L

    2004-01-01

    The expected performance of a proposed ion exchange column using SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin for the removal of cesium from Hanford high level radioactive alkaline waste is discussed. This report represents a final report on the ability and knowledge with regard to modeling the Cesium-SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin ion exchange system. Only the loading phase of the cycle process is addressed within this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests and batch equilibrium experiments are addressed. The methodology employed and sensitivity analyses are also included (i.e., existing methodology employed is referenced to prior developmental efforts while updated methodology is discussed). Pilot-scale testing is not assessed since no pilot-scale testing was available at the time of this report. Column performance predictions are made considering three selected feed compositions under nominal operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses provided help to identify key parameters that aid in resin procurement acceptance criteria. The methodology and application presented within this report reflect the expected behavior of SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin manufactured at the production-scale (i.e, 250 gallon batch size level). The primary objective of this work was, through modeling and verification based on experimental assessments, to predict the cesium removal performance of SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin for application in the RPP pretreatment facility

  4. Removal of Pb2+ from Water by Synthesized Tannin Resins from Invasive South African Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele J. Okoli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water by Pb 2 + and the threat of invasive vegetation affects the quality and quantity of water accessible to all life forms and has become a primary concern to South Africa and the world at large. This paper synthesized, characterized, and evaluated the resins from tannin-rich invasive Acacia species as an environmentally benign Pb 2 + adsorbent. The analysis of the pore volume and surface area of the resins reveals a small pore dimension of 9 × 10−3 cc/g and large surface area (2.31–8.65 m2/g, presenting suitable physical parameters for adsorption of Pb 2 + . Langmuir model offers the best correlation data at pH 6 with maximum monolayer coverage capacity of 189.30, 105.70 and 98.82 mg/g for silver, black and green wattle tannin resins in aqueous solutions, respectively. The kinetic data suitably fits into a pseudo-second-order model, with the Dubinin–Radushkevich adsorption energy (E ≤ 7.07 KJ/mol and intra-particle diffusion model confirming an associated physisorption process within the bio-sorption system. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR data of the resins were informative of the high thermal stability and chelating functionality such as -OH and -NH2 responsible for the removal of Pb 2 + . All the resins showed good adsorption characteristics while silver wattle tannin resin has the best adsorption capacity compared to black and green wattle tannin resins. This study provides a prototype adsorbent from invasive plants for the removal of Pb 2 + in water.

  5. Crud removal by ion exchange resin DIAION HPAN10 and its mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuhara, Ryosuke; Goda, Takashi; Tokumaru, Izuru; Yano, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The metal corrosion products generated in the water systems of nuclear power plants (crud) should be efficiently removed from the water in order to maintain the safety and reliability of the plants' constituent materials and reduce radiation exposure to workers. Recently, we developed a new highly porous type of anion exchange resin product, 'DIAION HPAN10', which has a high crud removal capability. HPAN10 has a highly-developed porous structure, and it is considered that the structure contributes to the efficient capture of curd. Furthermore, HPAN10 was designed specially for the capture of crud, including physical properties such as proper macro pore size, particle size and strength. Therefore, the model crud removal capability of HPAN10 is ten times greater than that of conventional gel types. In regards to the mechanisms of curd removal by resin, it is generally considered that there are three factors which affect the capture of curd: they are filter effect, electric potential and curd penetration into resin particles by partially dissolution. On this report, new experimental data and the consideration about crud removal mechanisms are introduced. (author)

  6. The impact of loading approach and biological activity on NOM removal by ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Joerg; Wray, Heather E; Schulz, Martin; Vortisch, Roman; Barbeau, Benoit; Bérubé, Pierre R

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated the impact of different loading approaches and microbial activity on the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) removal efficiency and capacity of ion exchange resins. Gaining further knowledge on the impact of loading approaches is of relevance because laboratory-scale multiple loading tests (MLTs) have been introduced as a simpler and faster alternative to column tests for predicting the performance of IEX, but only anecdotal evidence exists to support their ability to forecast contaminant removal and runtime until breakthrough of IEX systems. The overall trends observed for the removal and the time to breakthrough of organic material estimated using MLTs differed from those estimated using column tests. The results nonetheless suggest that MLTs could best be used as an effective tool to screen different ion exchange resins in terms of their ability to remove various contaminants of interest from different raw waters. The microbial activity was also observed to impact the removal and time to breakthrough. In the absence of regeneration, a microbial community rapidly established itself in ion exchange columns and contributed to the removal of organic material. Biological ion exchange (BIEX) removed more organic material and enabled operation beyond the point when the resin capacity would have otherwise been exhausted using conventional (i.e. in the absence of a microbial community) ion exchange. Furthermore, significantly greater removal of organic matter could be achieved with BIEX than biological activated carbon (BAC) (i.e. 56 ± 7% vs. 15 ± 5%, respectively) when operated at similar loading rates. The results suggest that for some raw waters, BIEX could replace BAC as the technology of choice for the removal of organic material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of one-step micro polishers for residual resin removal after debonding on fluorosed teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmalatha Challa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of one step micro polishers for residual resin removal on fluorosed teeth using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Methods and Material: 55 teeth with mild to moderate fluorosis were selected with five teeth as control. Metal brackets were bonded onto 50 teeth which were divided into 5 groups. The finishing and polishing methods which were tested include tungsten carbide burs (TCB, multistep finishing system (Sof-Lex, one step polishers (PoGo and combination of TCB with multistep and one step polishing systems. After resin removal, all the samples were examined under SEM for assessment of the enamel surface. Results: The enamel surface was closest to untouched enamel in samples finished with the PoGo one step polishers followed by Sof-Lex multistep finishing system. However, they took the longest time to finish. TCB required the shortest time for residual resin removal. Conclusions: All polishing systems produce a certain degree of damage to the enamel surface with the smoothest surface being produced by one step polishers on fluorosed teeth.

  8. An evaluation of organic substance fraction removal during ion exchange with Miex-DOC resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the usefulness of Miex-DOC resin in eliminating organic substances and their fractions from water sources for drinking water was evaluated. The objects of study were samples from three surface water sources and one infiltration water source taken at water treatment plants before treatment in technical conditions. In particular, the effectiveness of removing biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions as a function of resin dosages and water-resin contact times was evaluated. The ion exchange process with the Miex-DOC resin achieved a high effectiveness in removing aromatic non-biodegradable organic substances, and therefore a reduction in UV254 absorbance. The biodegradable fraction is much less susceptible to removal yet its removal effectiveness allows for a significant reduction in hazards connected with secondary microorganism development. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using ion exchange with the Miex-DOC resin for effective removal of disinfection by-product precursors.

  9. Characterization and adsorption mechanism of Zn2+ removal by PVA/EDTA resin in polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yun; Li Yanfeng; Yang Liuqing; Ma Xiaojie; Wang Liyuan; Ye Zhengfang

    2010-01-01

    Batch adsorption experiments were conducted using a PVA/EDTA resin as an adsorbent to adsorb Zn(II) ions from single component system in which experimental parameters were studied including solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial metal ions concentration. The equilibrium isotherms were determined at pH 6 under constant ionic strength and at different temperatures. The results showed that the maximum removal of Zn(II) (99.8%) with 1 g L -1 of sorbent was observed at 40 mg L -1 at an initial pH value of 6. Removals of about 60-70% occurred in 15 min, and equilibrium was attained at around 30 min. The equilibrium data for the adsorption of Zn(II) on PVA/EDTA resin was tested with various adsorption isotherm models among which three models were found to be suitable for the Zn(II) adsorption. In addition, the kinetic adsorption fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model and the corresponding rate constants were obtained. Thermodynamic aspects of the adsorption process were also investigated. Furthermore a higher desorption efficiency of Zn(II) from the PVA/EDTA resin using acid treatment was available by more than 95%.

  10. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings

  11. Arsenic Removal from Pinctada martensii Enzymatic Hydrolysate by Using Zr(Ⅳ)-Loaded Chelating Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoman; DAI Wenjin; SUN Huili; PAN Jianyu

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the removal of inorganic arsenic from Pinctada martensii enzymatic hydrolysate through unmodified resin (D296) and Zr(Ⅳ)-loaded chelating resin (Zr-D401).By loading Zr to macroporous chelating resin D401,the as exchange adsorption active sites are generated.This transforms D401 from a material that does not have the arsenic adsorption capacity into a material that has excellent arsenic exchange adsorption capacity.The static adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate the optimal removal condition for D296 and Zr-D401.The experimental results show that:the optimum condition for D296 is that T=25℃,pH=5,resin additive amount=1 g(50mL)-1,and contact time=10h,the corresponding arsenic removal rate being 65.7%,and protein loss being 2.33%; the optimum condition for Zr-D401 is that T=25 ℃,pH=8,resin additive amount=1 g (50 mL)-1,and contact time=10 h,the corresponding arsenic removal rate being 70.3%,and protein loss being 4.65%.These results show that both of the two resins are effective in arsenic removal for preserving useful substance.Our research provides scientific evidence and advances in the processing technology for heavy metal removal in shellfish.

  12. Methods for removal of resin remaining after debonding of orthodontic brackets: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of resin debris and/or resin cement from the enamel surface without causing iatrogenic is the main objective when removing the orthodontic brackets. Some factors such as the time required for removal, damage to the tooth structure, are essential factors for the clinician at the time of removal. Various techniques are used for the removal of orthodontic brackets after the treatment; it is known that the use of clinical procedures such as the use of diamond burs and some pliers removers can damage the structure of the enamel, often depending on the bond strength that should be taken into consideration at the time of removal. This literature review aims to gather the most relevant studies that can clarify the clinical technique, which may be more suitable for removal of the brackets.

  13. Selection of magnetic anion exchange resins for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongjie; Li, Aimin; Wang, Jinnan; Shuang, Chengdong

    2012-01-01

    Four magnetic anion exchange resins (MAERs) were used as adsorbents to purify drinking water. The effect of water quality (pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc.) on the performance of MAER for the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was also investigated. Among the four studied MAERs, the strong base resin named NDMP-1 with high water content and enhanced exchange capacity exhibited the highest removal rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (48.9% removal rate) and UV-absorbing substances (82.4% removal rate) with a resin dose of 10 mL/L after 30 min of contact time. The MAERs could also effectively remove inorganic matter such as sulfate, nitrate and fluoride. Because of the higher specific UV absorbance (SUVA) value, the DOM in the raw water was found to be removed more effectively than that in the clarified water by NDMP resin. The temperature showed a weak influence on the removal of DOC from 6 to 26 degrees C, while a relatively strong one at 36 degrees C. The removal of DOM by NDMP was also affected to some extent by the pH value. Moreover, increasing the sulfate concentration in the raw water could decrease the removal rates of DOC and UV-absorbing substances.

  14. Effect of pH and complementary ion concentration on nitrate removal using puroliteA400 Resin impregnated Cu in batch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turmuzi, M.; Tarigan, Z. N.; Nadapdap, L.; Batubara, F.

    2018-02-01

    The total nitrogen content in water bodies should be below 50 mg NO3 -/L (11.3 mgN/l) World Health Organization (WHO) 2006. The content of nitrogen exceeding the quality standard threshold will cause damage to the aquatic ecosystem and be carcinogenic to humans. The Purolite A-400 resin will be modified with Cu metal by batch method to see the adsorption allowance of nitrate in synthetic liquid waste with nitrate concentration of 50 mg/l. This study will evaluate the effect of pH and complementary ions on the adsorption process. From the result of the research, the second order pseudo model is the most suitable adsorption kinetics model. For the adsorption isotherms the most suitable model is the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The optimum pH conditions were at the range of 8.5. The addition of complementary ions sulfate and phosphate did not show any significant change, but sulfate is the most effective complementary ion with a content of 20 mg/l.

  15. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: Column sorption-elution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koese, T. Ennil; Oztuerk, Nese

    2008-01-01

    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5 M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well

  16. Synthesis of some Ferromagnetic Composite Resins and their Metal Removal Characteristics in Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheha, R.R.; EI-Zahhar, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a procedure for synthesis of new organic-inorganic magnetic composite resins was established. The procedure was based upon immobilization of magnetite as a ferromagnetic material within the polymeric (poly(acrylic acid acrylonitrile) and IRC-120) ion exchange resins. The produced magnetic resins were evaluated as sorbents for CI(VI). The factors influencing the sorption of Cr(Vl), e.g., ph, equilibrium time, initial concentration and temperature were studied. The sorption process was very fast initially and maximum sorption was achieved within 3 h at ph 5.1. Thc kinetics of the system have been evaluated with pseudo first order model, second order model, Elovich equation, intra-particle diffusion model and liquid film diffusion model. Chromium interaction with composite particles followed second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient extremely high and closer to unity and rate constant (k s ) has the values 1.68 x 10 -4 and 1.9 x 10 -4 g/mg min for IRC-120-P AN-magnetite and P(AA-AN)-magnetite composites, respectively. The values of equilibrium sorption capacity (q e ) are consistent with the modeled data and attain the range 893 - 951 mg/g. Kinetically, both pore diffusion and film diffusion are participating in ruling the diffusion of CI(VI) ions. The sorption data gave good fits with Temkin and Flory-Huggins isotherm models. The isotherm parameters related to the heat of sorption are in the range 8-16 kJ mol -1 which is the range of bonding energy for ion exchange interactions and so suggest an ion exchange mechanism for removal of CI(VI) by the composite sorbents. The adsorption process was exothermic with δH in the range of -73 to -97 kJ/mol. The negative values of Gibbs free energy confirm the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of removal of CI(VI) with these novel composites

  17. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part V: Nickel(II/H+/Dowex C400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Alguacil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cationic exchange resin Dowex C400 was used to remove nickel(II from aqueous solutions of different pH values and under various experimental conditions: stirring speed of the aqueous solution/resin system, temperature, resin dosage and aqueous ionic strength. The selectivity of the resin was investigated against the presence of various metals in the aqueous solution, and the removal of nickel(II from aqueous solutions was also compared with results obtained using multiwalled carbon nanotubes or functionalized (carboxylic groups multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents. According to batch experimental data, best fit of the results is obtained with the Freundlich model, whereas the ion exchange process is best explained by the pseudo-first order model. Experimental data fit well to the moving boundary controlled model. Elution of the nickel(II loaded onto Dowex C400 resin is fully possible using acidic solutions.

  18. Evaluation of new macroporous resins for the removal of uranium and plutonium from waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W.; Herald, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Organic ion exchange resins were evaluated for 238 Pu(IV), 238 Pu(VI), and 233 U(VI) removal from water. The capacity of the resins and equilibrium coefficients (Kd) were compared with each other and to bone char--an inorganic adsorbent consisting of hydroxyapatite (HAP) for which data is available. Bone char gave the best results for the removal of 238 Pu(IV), Amberlite XE279 (one of the new macroporous resins) gave the best results for 238 Pu(VI), and another macroporous resin, Dowex-MSA-1, gave good results for 233 U(VI). Kd values were shown to be a function of pH

  19. Load transfer characteristics of unilateral distal extension removable partial dentures with polyacetal resin supporting components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, T; Chang, T; Caputo, A A

    2009-03-01

    To photoelastically examine load transfer by unilateral distal extension removable partial dentures with supporting and retentive components made of the lower stiffness polyacetal resins. A mandibular photoelastic model, with edentulous space distal to the right second premolar and missing the left first molar, was constructed to determine the load transmission characteristics of a unilateral distal extension base removable partial denture. Individual simulants were used for tooth structure, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Three designs were fabricated: a major connector and clasps made from polyacetal resin, a metal framework as the major connector with polyacetal resin clasp and denture base, and a traditional metal framework I-bar removable partial denture. Simulated posterior bilateral and unilateral occlusal loads were applied to the removable partial dentures. Under bilateral and left side unilateral loading, the highest stress was observed adjacent to the left side posterior teeth with the polyacetal removable partial denture. The lowest stress was seen with the traditional metal framework. Unilateral loads on the right edentulous region produced similar distributed stress under the denture base with all three designs but a somewhat higher intensity with the polyacetal framework. The polyacetal resin removable partial denture concentrated the highest stresses to the abutment and the bone. The traditional metal framework I-bar removable partial denture most equitably distributed force. The hybrid design that combined a metal framework and polyacetal clasp and denture base may be a viable alternative when aesthetics are of primary concern.

  20. Resin regenerating device in condensate desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Hiroo; Oosumi, Katsumi; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Norikazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy in the separation of anionic and cationic exchange resins. Constitution: Resins transferred from a condensate desalting column are charged in a cationic exchange resin column. The temperature of water for separating and transferring the resins is measured by a temperature detector disposed in a purified water injection line, and water is adjusted to a suitable flow rate for the separation and transfer of the resins by an automatic flow rate control valve, and then is injected. The resins are separated into cationic exchange resins and anionic exchange resins, in which only the anionic exchange resins are transferred, through an anionic exchange transfer line, into an anionic exchange resin column. By controlling the flow rate depending on the temperature of the injected water, the developing rate of the resin layer is made constant to enable separation and transfer of the resins at high accuracy. (Seki, T.)

  1. Mathematical modelling for magnetite (crude removal from primary heat transfer loop by ion-exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Nawaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research focuses to develop mathematical model for the removal of iron (magnetite by ion-exchange resin from primary heat transfer loop of process industries. This mathematical model is based on operating capacities (that’s provide more effective design as compared to loading capacity from static laboratory tests. Results showed non-steady state distribution of external Fe2+ and limitations imposed on operating conditions, these conditions includes; loading and elution cycle time, flow rate, concentration of both loading and removal, volume of resin required. Number of generalized assumptions was made under shortcut modeling techniques to overcome the gap of theoretical and actual process design.

  2. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  3. Synthesis of a magnetic composite resin and its cobalt removal characteristics in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Kyun; Lee, Kun Jai

    2001-01-01

    A series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenolsulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. The ion exchange and sorption characteristics of the composite resin prepared by the above method at various conditions were experimentally disclosed. The composite resin prepared shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II) species in aqueous solution in a wide range of solution pH. The overall isotherm is qualitatively explained by the generalized adsorption isotherm concept proposed by McKinley. The standard enthalpy change derived from van't Hoff equation conforms to the typical range for chemisorption or ion exchange. The selectivity of the PSF-F (phenolsulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin to Co(II) species and other competing chemicals (i.e. Na 2 EDTA, Ca(II) and Na) was compared. It is anticipated that the composite resin can also be used for column-operation with process-control by applying external magnetic field, since the rigid bead-type composite resin shows magnetic-susceptibility due to its paramagnetic inorganic constituent (i.e. iron ferrite). (author)

  4. Comparison between two methods for resin removing after bracket debonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo De Marchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess - using scanning electron microscopy (SEM - the effectiveness of two abrasive discs, one made from silicon and one from aluminum oxide, in removing adhesive remnants (AR after debonding orthodontic brackets. METHODS: Ten randomly selected bovine teeth were used, i.e., 2 in the control group, and the other 8 divided into two groups, which had orthodontic brackets bonded to their surface with Concise Orthodontic Adhesive (3M. The following methods were employed - in one single step - to remove AR after debracketing: Group A, Optimize discs (TDV and Group B, Onegloss discs (Shofu, used at low speed. After removing the AR with the aforementioned methods, the teeth were prepared to undergo SEM analysis, and photographs were taken of the enamel surface with 50x magnification. Six examiners evaluated the photographs applying the Zachrisson and Årtun enamel surface index (ESI system (1979. RESULTS: Group A exhibited minor scratches on the enamel surface as well as some AR in some of the photographs, while Group B showed a smoother surface, little or no AR and some abrasion marks in the photographs. No statistically significant differences were found between the two methods and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The two abrasive discs were effective in removing the AR after bracket debonding in one single step.OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a eficácia de dois discos abrasivos de silicone e óxido de alumínio para a remoção da resina remanescente após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 10 dentes bovinos selecionados aleatoriamente, sendo 2 para o grupo controle e os demais divididos em dois grupos, os quais receberam colagem de braquetes ortodônticos com resina ortodôntica Concise (3M. Os métodos de remoção da resina após a descolagem dos acessórios ortodônticos em apenas uma etapa foram: Grupo A - disco

  5. Removal of aluminum(III)-based turbidity in water using hydrous titanium oxide dispersed in ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, B.; Karweer, S.B.; Iyer, R.K.; Phatak, G.M.; Iyer, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    An adsorber consisting of hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO) dispersed in a Dowex-type ion-exchange resin matrix (designated RT resins) has been developed which is capable of removing Al(III)-based colloidal dispersions in the neutral pH condition. The effect of resin crosslinking, particle size, HTiO loading, turbidity level, and flow rate on the turbidity removal efficiency of RT resins has been studied. It is demonstrated that a train of columns comprising RT resin, H + , and OH - form of resins could be used for large-scale purification operations at high flow rates. These columns, apart from removing turbidity and associated radioactivity, can effectively remove dissolved uranium present in ppb levels when used for water purification in nuclear reactors

  6. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resin systems, 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.; Huang, Joan Y. Z.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study on the changes of chemorheological properties has been conducted and analyzed on commercial Hercules 3501-6 resin system cured under several isothermal conditions between 375 and 435 K. For the cure temperatures equal to or greater than 385 K, the storage modulus curing curves, G prime (t), exhibited abrupt changes in slope which occurred at various times depending on the curing temperatures and were attributed to the onset of gelation reactions. The crossover points between G prime (t) and G double prime (t) curves were observed for curing temperatures equal to or greater than 400 K. The gelation and the crossover points obtained from the chemorheological measurements, therefore, defined two characteristic resin states during cure. Approximately the same value for the degree of cure was reached by the advancement of the reaction at each of these states. The temperature dependency of the viscosities for the characteristic resin states and the rate constants of increase in moduli at different stages of curing were analyzed. Various G prime (t) and G double prime (t) isothermal curing curves were also shown to be capable of being superimposed on one another by the principle of time-temperature superposition. The resultant shift factors a sub t(t) and a Eta(T) were shown to follow the Arrhenius type relationship. Values of the activation energy suggested that the reaction kinetics, instead of the diffusion mechanism, was the limiting step in the overall resin advancement for the cure at temperatures equal to or greater than 385 K.

  7. Epoxy resin systems for FGD units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brytus, V.; Puglisi, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research work which is directed towards epoxy resins and curing agents which are designed to withstand aggressive environments. This work includes not only a chemical description of the materials involved, but the application testing necessary to verify the usefulness of these systems. It demonstrates that new high performance epoxy systems are superior to those which traditionally come to mind when one thinks epoxy. Finally, it discusses the results of testing designed specifically to screen candidates for use in FGD units

  8. Comparison between two methods for resin removing after bracket debonding

    OpenAIRE

    Marchi, Rodrigo De; Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Terada, Hélio Hissashi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess - using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - the effectiveness of two abrasive discs, one made from silicon and one from aluminum oxide, in removing adhesive remnants (AR) after debonding orthodontic brackets. METHODS: Ten randomly selected bovine teeth were used, i.e., 2 in the control group, and the other 8 divided into two groups, which had orthodontic brackets bonded to their surface with Concise Orthodontic Adhesive (3M). The following metho...

  9. [Effects of different resin removal methods on shear bond strength of rebonded orthodontic brackets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hai-miao; Zhao, Bin-jiao; Chen, Dong

    2015-06-01

    To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of rebonded orthodontic metal brackets with different resin removal methods. Forty extracted premolars were chosen as samples and divided into 4 experimental groups. The teeth were bonded with brackets. The brackets from 3 groups were debonded while adhesive remnants were removed from bracket bases by methods of grinding, sandblasting, and direct flaming, respectively and then rebonded. The SBS values of all rebonded brackets were determined after pH cycling experiment for 30 days. Some rebonded bracket bases were selected and observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS 13.0 software package. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference of SBS values among the 4 experimental groups (Pbrackets after resin removal by grinding and sandblasting have a similar SBS compared to the initial brackets adhesive.

  10. Removal of cesium from aluminum decladding wastes generated in irradiated target processing using a fixed-bed column of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunson, R.R.; Williams, D.F.; Bond, W.D.; Benker, D.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, E.D.

    1994-09-01

    The removal of cesium (Cs) from a low-level liquid waste (LLLW) with a cation-exchange column was demonstrated using a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin. The RF resin was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and is highly specific for the removal of Cs from an alkaline waste of high sodium content. It was determined that the RF resin would be suitable for removing Cs, the largest gamma radiation contributor, from the LLLW generated at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presently, the disposal of the LLLW is limited due to the amount of Cs contained in the waste. Cesium removal from the waste solution offers immediate benefits by conserving valuable tank space and would allow cask shipments of the treated waste should the present Laboratory pipelines become unavailable in the future. Preliminary laboratory tests of the RF resins, supplied from two different sources, were used to design a full-scale cation-exchange column for the removal of Cs from a Mark 42 SRL fuel element dejacketing waste solution. The in-cell tests reproduced the preliminary bench-scale test results. The initial Cs breakthrough range was 85--92 column volumes (CV). The resin capacity for Cs was found to be ∼0.35 meq per gram of resin. A 1.5-liter resin bed loaded a combined ∼1,300 Ci of 134 Cs and 137 Cs. A distribution coefficient of ∼110 CV was determined, based on a 50% Cs breakthrough point. The kinetics of the system was studied by examining the rate parameters; however, it was decided that several more tests would be necessary to define the mass transfer characteristics of the system

  11. Retrofitting Trojan Nuclear Plant's spent resin transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The spent resin slurry transport system at the Trojan Nuclear Plant operated by Portland General Electric Company is one of the most advanced systems of its type in the nuclear industry today. The new system affords the plant's operators safe remote sonic indication for spent resin and cover water levels, manual remote dewatering and watering capability to establish desirable resin-to-water volumetric ratios, reliable non-mechanical resin agitation utilizing fixed spargers, and controllable process flow utilizing a variable speed recessed impeller pump

  12. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  13. Functionalized dithiocarbamate chelating resin for the removal of Co2+ from simulated wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuewei; Fu, Linwei; Wu, Yanyang; Zhao, Huiling; Zhao, Shuangliang; Xu, Shouhong

    2017-12-01

    Industrial wastewater that contains trace amounts of heavy metal ions is often seen in petrochemical industry. While this wastewater can not be directly discharged, it is difficult to treat due to the low concentration of metal ions. Introducing chelating reagents into this wastewater for selective ion adsorption, followed by a mechanical separation process, provides an appealing solution. Toward the success of this technology, the development of effective chelating resins is of key importance. In the present work, a chelating resin containing amino and dithiocarbamate groups was reported for the removal of Co(II) metal ions in trace concentrations from simulated wastewater. By investigating the adsorption performance of the chelating resin at different solution pH values, adsorbent dosages, contact time, initial ion concentrations, and adsorption temperatures, the maximum adsorption capacity of the resin for Co(II) was identified to be 24.89 mg g-1 for a 2 g L-1 adsorbent dosage and a pH value of 5. After four adsorption-desorption cycles, 97% of the adsorption capacity of the resin was maintained. The adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics were analyzed and discussed as well.

  14. Ion Exchange Modeling Of Cesium Removal From Hanford Waste Using Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2007-06-27

    This report discusses the expected performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline Hanford radioactive waste. Predictions of full scale column performance in a carousel mode are made for the Hot Commissioning, Envelope B, and Subsequent Operations waste compositions under nominal operating conditions and for perturbations from the nominal. Only the loading phase of the process cycle is addressed in this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests, kinetic experiments, and batch equilibrium experiments are used to estimate model parameters and to benchmark the ion-exchange model. The methodology and application presented in this report reflect the expected behavior of spherical RF resin manufactured at the intermediate-scale (i.e., approximately 100 gallon batch size; batch 5E-370/641). It is generally believed that scale-up to production-scale in resin manufacturing will result in similarly behaving resin batches whose chemical selectivity is unaffected while total capacity per gram of resin may vary some. As such, the full-scale facility predictions provided within this report should provide reasonable estimates of production-scale column performance.

  15. Removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by a high-efficiency resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hao; Ren, Yongzheng; Sun, Xueliang; Xu, Yadi; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Tiancheng; Kang, Jianxiong; Liu, Dongqi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of Pb 2+ from aqueous solution by 732 cation-exchange resin in sodium type (732-CR) has been studied in batch experiments at varying pH (2.0–8.0), Pb 2+ concentration (50–200 mg/L), contact time (5–300 min), temperature (288–308 K) and resin dose (0.125–0.75 g/L). The experimental data show that the ion-exchange process was dependent on pH and temperature, the optimal exchange capacity was found at pH 4.0, and higher temperature was beneficial to lead sorption. Kinetic data indicate that the ion-exchange process followed a pseudo-first order model. The equilibrium exchange capacity could be reached at approximately 4 h, and the maximum sorption capacity of Pb 2+ at pH 4.0 was 396.8 mg/g resin. The equilibrium data were evaluated with Langmuir and Freundlich model, and were best fitted with Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters for removal of Pb 2+ indicate that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic. Additionally, column tests were conducted by using both synthetic solution and effluents from lead battery industry. The regeneration of resin was performed for two sorption-regeneration cycles by 1 M NaOH, and the results show that effective regeneration was achieved by this method.

  16. Study of arsenic removal with ionic exchange resins in drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Moreno, F.; Prieto-Garcia, F.; Rojas-Hernandez, A.; Marmolejo-Santillan, Y.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Patino-Cardona, F.

    2006-01-01

    Anionic exchange resins were research with respect its capacity for removal arsenic content in water. Water of well V from Zimapan Hidalgo Mexico was used to make this research, because this water have a mean concentration of 480±11μg-L''-1 of arsenic and it is available as drinking water. The exchange resins employed were two strong anionic, one macroreticular (IRA-900) and other gel type (IRA-400), as soon as one third anionic weak macroreticular type (IRA-96). The experiments carried with this resins showing that IRA-900 has highest efficient in the process of arsenic removal from drinking water, because, it showed a treatment capacity of 700 V a gua. V r es''-1; while that capacities of IRA-400 e IRA-96 resins were 320 and 52 V a gua .V r es''-1 respectively. The mean concentration of arsenic residue in the treatise water was 24 μg.l''-1 and it is within the maximum level permissible by Mexican official norm for drinking water. (Author) 12 refs

  17. Adsorption and removal of clofibric acid and diclofenac from water with MIEX resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Chen, Juxiang; Zhang, Yansen; Wang, Qiongfang; Lu, Yuqi

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates the use of MIEX resin as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF). The adsorption performance of CA and DCF are investigated by a batch mode in single-component or bi-component adsorption system. Various factors influencing the adsorption of CA and DCF, including initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial solution pH, agitation speed, natural organic matter and coexistent anions are studied. The Langmuir model can well describe CA adsorption in single-component system, while the Freundlich model gives better fitting in bi-component system. The DCF adsorption can be well fitted by the Freundlich model in both systems. Thermodynamic analyses show that the adsorption of CA and DCF is an endothermic (ΔH(o) > 0), entropy driven (ΔS(o) > 0) process and more randomness exists in the DCF adsorption process. The values of Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o)  0) for CA adsorption. The kinetic data suggest the adsorption of CA and DCF follow the pseudo-first-order model in both systems and the intra-particle is not the unique rate-limiting step. The adsorption process is controlled simultaneously by external mass transfer and surface diffusion according to the surface diffusion modified Biot number (Bis) ranging from 1.06 to 26.15. Moreover, the possible removal mechanism for CA and DCF is respectively proposed based on the ion exchange stoichiometry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of groundwater for nitrate removal by portable ion exchange resin, OSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriburo, A.; Pessi, M.; Castagnino, G.; Garat, S.; Hackenbruch, R.; Laguardia, J.; Yelpo, L.; Amondarain, A.; Brunetto, C.

    2010-01-01

    The locations of Palmitas in the Province of Soriano is supplied with groundwater from a shallow and high nitrogen content in sedimentary aquifer (Asencio Formation). Due to lack of alternative sources, groundwater or surface water, it was decided to test the water treatment from a perforation whose tenors were of the order of 51-66 mg / L of nitrates. The methodology used for the removal of nitrate is ion exchange resins .The main issue raised in this case was the disposal of effluent from the washing of the resins, because there is no collective sanitation network Palmitas nor a sufficient stream flow for discharge . Several alternatives (installation of a transitional deposit, haulage trucks, dumping at distant points, etc.), which were ruled by their poor viability and / or high costs were studied. Finally it was decided to install a device that will have three cylinders with resins were transportable, for which should have a weight less than 75 kg and those which would be used alternately. Regeneration of the resins is carried out in the city of Mercedes, distant 40 km, where the necessary water for the discharge conditions exist with a high content of sodium chloride, resulting from ion exchange. This pilot project represents a first step in treatment for nitrate removal in groundwater using transportable resins which aims to supply the public . Due to the nature of the above location , the chosen methodology had to be adapted to fulfill their duties satisfactorily. The first results of this project to a year of commissioning implementation, which has been funded by SBI and developed by his staff, in order to be used in other places with similar problems are presented in this report

  19. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milly, Hussam; Andiappan, Manoharan; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  20. Bio-active glass air-abrasion has the potential to remove resin composite restorative material selectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milly, Hussam [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Andiappan, Manoharan [Unit of Dental Public Health, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Banerjee, Avijit, E-mail: avijit.banerjee@kcl.ac.uk [Biomaterials, Biomimetics and Biophotonics Research Group, Kings College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Unit of Conservative Dentistry, King' s College London Dental Institute at Guy' s Hospital, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess: (a) the chemistry, morphology and bioactivity of bio-active glass (BAG) air-abrasive powder, (b) the effect of three air-abrasion operating parameters: air pressure, powder flow rate (PFR) and the abrasive powder itself, on the selective removal of resin composite and (c) the required “time taken”. BAG abrasive particles were characterised using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Standardised resin composite restorations created within an enamel analogue block (Macor™) in vitro, were removed using air-abrasion undersimulated clinical conditions. 90 standardised cavities were scanned before and after resin composite removal using laser profilometry and the volume of the resulting 3D images calculated. Multilevel linear model was used to identify the significant factors affecting Macor™ removal. BAG powder removed resin composite more selectively than conventional air-abrasion alumina powder using the same operating parameters (p < 0.001) and the effect of altering the unit's operating parameters was significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BAG powder is more efficient than alumina in the selective removal of resin composite particularly under specific operating parameters, and therefore may be recommended clinically as a method of preserving sound enamel structure when repairing and removing defective resin composite restorations.

  1. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part IV: Chromium(III)/H+ /Lewatit SP112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation presented results on the removal of chromium(III), from aqueous solution in the 0-5 pH range, using Lewatit SP112 cationic exchange resin. Several aspects affecting the ion exchange process were evaluated, including: the influence of the stirring speed, temperature, pH of the solution, resin dosage and aqueous ionic strength. The selectivity of the system was tested against the presence of other metals in the aqueous solution, whereas the removal of chromium(III) from solutions was compared with results obtained using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents. From the batch experimental data, best fit of the results is obtained with the Langmuir model, whereas the ion exchange process is best explained by the pseudo-second order model, moreover, experimental data responded well to the film-diffusion controlled model. Elution of the chromium(III) loaded into the resin is well accomplished by the use of sodium hydroxide solutions. [es

  2. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  3. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-01-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO 4 /l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U 3 O 8 ) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  4. Comparison of clasp retention on enamel and composite resin-recontoured abutments following repeated removal in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrati, Simindokht; Sadighpour, Leyla; Jahanian, Ghasem

    2010-04-01

    Loss of prosthetic retention over time is a concern with removable prostheses. Use of composite resin to modify an abutment contour receiving a removable partial denture clasp may offer a reasonable, less invasive method of improving removable prosthesis retention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the removal force of clasps over composite resin-recontoured abutments during a simulated 4 years of service. Twenty first mandibular premolars were selected to form 2 groups of specimens (n=5) resembling a tooth-supported edentulous space. A packable composite resin (Filtek P60) was used to create a 0.25-mm undercut on the buccal abutment surfaces of the composite resin group. Teeth in the natural abutment group were mounted in angulation to produce 0.25-mm undercuts on the buccal surfaces. The chrome-cobalt framework consisted of 2 individually fabricated T-clasps. Both groups were subjected to 4500 cycles of repeated removal using a small shaker. Removal forces were recorded before the repeated removal test (T(0)), after 500 and 1000 cycles, and at 1000-cycle intervals thereafter. The mean values of forces between the 2 groups were compared at each stage using the Mann-Whitney test (alpha=.05). No debonding occurred during the test. At T(0), the highest and lowest force values were observed in the composite resin group (3.75 N and 17.5 N, respectively). There was a significant difference between the removal forces of the 2 groups after 500 cycles and at test completion (P=.008). Retention loss was 3 times greater in the composite resin group than in the natural abutments group (53.65% vs. 15.80%). Within the limitations of the study, removal forces of the composite resin-recontoured abutments were threefold less than those of natural abutments after 4 years of simulated service. Copyright 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Research and development for decontamination system of spent resin in Hanbit Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Gi Hong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    When reactor coolant leaks occur due to cracks of a steam generator tube, radioactive materials contained in the primary cooling water in nuclear power plant are forced out toward the secondary systems. At this time the secondary water purification resin in the ion exchange resin tower of the steam generator blowdown system is contaminated by the radioactivity of the leaked radioactive materials, so we pack this in special containers and store temporarily because we could not dispose it by ourselves. If steam generator tube leakage occurs, it produces contaminated spent resins annually about 5,000-7,000 liters. This may increase the amount of nuclear waste productions, a disposal working cost and a unit price of generating electricity in the plant. For this reasons, it is required to develop a decontamination process technique for reducing the radioactive level of these resins enough to handle by the self-disposal method. In this research, First, Investigated the structure and properties of the ion exchange resin used in a steam generator blowdown system. Second, Checked for a occurrence status of contaminated spent resin and a disposal technology. Third, identified the chemical characteristics of the waste radionuclides of the spent resin, and examined ionic bonding and separation mechanism of radioactive nuclear species and a spent resin. Finally, we carried out the decontamination experiment using chemicals, ultrasound, microbubbles, supercritical carbon dioxide to process these spent resin. In the case of the spent resin decontamination method using chemicals, the higher the concentration of the drug decontamination efficiency was higher. In the ultrasound method, foreign matter of the spent resin was removed and was found that the level of radioactivity is below of the MDA. In the microbubbles method, we found that the concentration of the radioactivity decreased after the experiment, so it can be used to the decontamination process of the spent resin. In

  6. Research and development for decontamination system of spent resin in Hanbit Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Gi Hong

    2015-01-01

    When reactor coolant leaks occur due to cracks of a steam generator tube, radioactive materials contained in the primary cooling water in nuclear power plant are forced out toward the secondary systems. At this time the secondary water purification resin in the ion exchange resin tower of the steam generator blowdown system is contaminated by the radioactivity of the leaked radioactive materials, so we pack this in special containers and store temporarily because we could not dispose it by ourselves. If steam generator tube leakage occurs, it produces contaminated spent resins annually about 5,000-7,000 liters. This may increase the amount of nuclear waste productions, a disposal working cost and a unit price of generating electricity in the plant. For this reasons, it is required to develop a decontamination process technique for reducing the radioactive level of these resins enough to handle by the self-disposal method. In this research, First, Investigated the structure and properties of the ion exchange resin used in a steam generator blowdown system. Second, Checked for a occurrence status of contaminated spent resin and a disposal technology. Third, identified the chemical characteristics of the waste radionuclides of the spent resin, and examined ionic bonding and separation mechanism of radioactive nuclear species and a spent resin. Finally, we carried out the decontamination experiment using chemicals, ultrasound, microbubbles, supercritical carbon dioxide to process these spent resin. In the case of the spent resin decontamination method using chemicals, the higher the concentration of the drug decontamination efficiency was higher. In the ultrasound method, foreign matter of the spent resin was removed and was found that the level of radioactivity is below of the MDA. In the microbubbles method, we found that the concentration of the radioactivity decreased after the experiment, so it can be used to the decontamination process of the spent resin. In

  7. The efficiency of macroporous polystyrene ion-exchange resins in natural organic matter removal from surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanowska Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural water sources used for water treatment contains various organic and inorganic compounds. Surface waters are commonly contaminated with natural organic matter (NOM. NOM removal from water is important e.g. due to lowering the risk of disinfection by-product formation during chlorination. Ion exchange with the use of synthetic ion-exchange resins is an alternative process to typical NOM removal approach (e.g. coagulation, adsorption or oxidation as most NOM compounds have anionic character. Moreover, neutral fraction could be removed from water due to its adsorption on resin surface. In this study, applicability of two macroporous, polystyrene ion exchange resins (BD400FD and A100 in NOM removal from water was assessed including comparison of treatment efficiency in various process set-ups and conditions. Moreover, resin regeneration effectivity was determined. Obtained results shown that examined resins could be applied in NOM removal and it should be noticed that column set-up yielded better results (contrary to batch set-up. Among the examined resins A100 one possessed better properties. It was determined that increase of solution pH resulted in a slight decrease in treatment efficiency while higher temperature improved it. It was also observed that regeneration efficiency was comparable in both tested methods but batch set-up required less reagents.

  8. Evaluating the Performance of Iron Nano-particle Resin in Removing Fluoride from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water pose serious health problems. It is, therefore, essential to remove it from drinking water by appropriate water treatment processes down to standard levels for preventing the health risks associated. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of a kind of hybrid sorbent resin in removing fluoride from water. Batch experiments were performed to investigate adsorption isotherms and the effects of experimental parameters such as contact time (5-120 min and pH (3-9. Results revealed that fluoride adsorption rate was initially rapid but continued at a slower rate before it reached equilibrium in 120 min. Optimum fluoride removal was observed at a pH range of 3-5.5. The data obtained from the experiments were fitted with Langmiur model.

  9. Evaluation of adsorbent and ion exchange resins for removal of organic matter from petroleum refinery wastewaters aiming to increase water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu Domingos, Rodrigo; da Fonseca, Fabiana Valéria

    2018-05-15

    The oil refinery industry seeks solutions to reduce its water uptake and consumption by encouraging the reuse of internal streams and wastewater from treatment systems. After conventional treatment the petroleum refinery wastewater still contains a considerable quantity of recalcitrant organics and the adsorption on activated carbon is currently used in Brazilian refineries, although it is still expensive due to the difficulty of its regeneration. This study evaluated the use of adsorbent and ion exchange resins for the removal of organic matter from refinery wastewater after conventional treatment in order to verify its feasibility, applying successive resin regenerations and comparing the results with those obtained for activated carbon process. Adsorption isotherms experiments were used to evaluate commercial resins, and the most efficient was subjected to column experiments, where absorbance (ABS) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal were measured. The adsorption isotherm of the best resin showed an adsorptive capacity that was 55% lower than that of activated carbon. On the other hand, the column experiments indicated good removal efficiency, and the amount of TOC in the treated wastewater was as good as has been reported in the literature for activated carbon. The regeneration efficiency of the retained organics ranged from 57 to 94%, while regenerant consumption ranged from 12 to 79% above the amount recommended by the resin supplier for the removal of organic material from natural sources, showing the great resistance of these recalcitrant compounds to desorption. Finally, an estimate of the service life of the resin using intermediate regeneration conditions found it to be seven times higher than that of activated carbon when the latter is not regenerated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of Chromium by Using of Adsorption onto Strong Base Anion Resin: Study of Equilibrium and Kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shirzad Siboni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromium is one of the heavy metals that is found in industrial effluents and is very toxic for human and environment. In this work the removal of hexavalent chromium by using of adsorption onto strongly basic anion was investigated. Various parameters such as pH, initial hexavalent chromium concentration, contact time and resin dosage were studied. Experimental data were expressed by Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and modified Pseudo-first order kinetic models. The results showed chromium removal was increased by increase of contact time and resin dosage, while decreased by increase of pH and initial hexavalent chromium concentration. At contact time equal 120 min, resin dosage 0.2 g/100 ml and initial hexavalent chromium concentration of 30 mg/l, by increasing pH from 3 to 11, removal efficiency was decreased from 93.56 % to 69.12 %. In addition, by increasing contact time from 5 min to 120 min, removal efficiency was increased from 39.51 % to 94.41 %. The results also showed hexavalent chromium sorption follows Langmiur isotherm model. Pseudo second order models best describe chromium removal by using of adsorption onto strongly basic anion resin. The results revealed that removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by using of adsorption onto stringly basic onion resins can be done quick and effective.

  11. Removal of both N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethanes precursors in a single treatment using ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-11-01

    Drinking water utilities are relying more than ever on water sources impacted by wastewater effluents. Disinfection/oxidation of these waters during water treatment may lead to the formation of several disinfection by-products, including the probable human carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and the regulated trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, the potential of ion exchange resins to control both NDMA and THMs precursors in a single treatment is presented. Two ion exchange resins were examined, a cation exchange resin (Plus) to target NDMA precursors and an anion exchange resin (MIEX) for THMs precursors control. We applied the resins, individually and combined, in the treatment of surface and wastewater effluent samples. The treatment with both resins removed simultaneously NDMA (43-85%) and THMs (39-65%) precursors. However, no removal of NDMA precursors was observed in the surface water with low initial NDMA FP (14 ng/L). The removals of NDMA FP and THMs FP with Plus and MIEX resins applied alone were (49-90%) and (41-69%), respectively. These results suggest no interaction between the resins, and thus the feasibility of effectively controlling NDMA and THMs precursors concomitantly. Additionally, the effects of the wastewater impact and the natural attenuation of precursors were studied. The results showed that neither the wastewater content nor the attenuation of the precursor affected the removals of NDMA and THMs precursors. Finally, experiments using a wastewater effluent sample showed that an increase in the calcium concentration resulted in a reduction in the removal of NDMA precursors of about 50%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g"−"1 does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  13. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A., E-mail: shaikh@kfupm.edu.sa

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g{sup −1} does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  14. New system applying image processor to automatically separate cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin for condensate demineralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tsuneyasu; Nagao, Nobuaki; Yoshimori, Yasuhide; Inoue, Takashi; Yoda, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    In PWR plant, condensate demineralizer is equipped to remove corrosive ion in condensate water. Mixed bed packing cation exchange resin (CER) and anion exchange resin (AER) is generally applied, and these are regenerated after separation to each layer periodically. Since the AER particle is slightly lighter than the CER particle, the AER layer is brought up onto the CER layer by feeding water upward from the bottom of column (backwashing). The separation performance is affected by flow rate and temperature of water for backwashing, so normally operators set the proper condition parameters regarding separation manually every time for regeneration. The authors have developed the new separation system applying CCD camera and image processor. The system is comprised of CCD camera, LED lamp, image processor, controller, flow control valves and background color panel. Blue color of the panel, which is corresponding to the complementary color against both ivory color of AER and brown color of CER, is key to secure the system precision. At first the color image of the CER via the CCD camera is digitized and memorized by the image processor. The color of CER in the field of vision of the camera is scanned by the image processor, and the position where the maximum difference of digitized color index is indicated is judged as the interface. The detected interface is able to make the accordance with the set point by adjusting the flow rate of backwashing. By adopting the blue background panel, it is also possible to draw the AER out of the column since detecting the interface of the CER clearly. The system has provided the reduction of instability factor concerning separation of resin during regeneration process. The system has been adopted in two PWR plants in Japan, it has been demonstrating its stable and precise performance. (author)

  15. Arsenic and fluoride removal from contaminated drinking water with Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Debra H; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Sen Gupta, Arup K

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the study was to carry-out batch tests to examine the effectiveness of Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads in the removal of As(III), As(V) and F - from groundwater with a similar geochemistry to a site where a community-based drinking water plant has been installed in West Bengal, India. The groundwater was spiked separately with ∼200 μg/L As(III) and As(V) and 5 mg/L F - . Haix-Zr resin beads were more effective than Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads in removing As(III) and As(V). Haix-Zr resin beads showed higher removal of As(V) compared to As(III). Haix-Zr resin beads removed As(V) below the WHO (10 μg/L) drinking water standards at 8.79 μg/L after 4 h of shaking, while As(III) was reduced to 7.72 μg/L after 8 h of shaking. Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads were more effective in removing F - from the spiked groundwater compared to Haix-Zr resin beads. Concentrations of F - decreased from 6.27 mg/L to 1.26 mg/L, which is below the WHO drinking water standards (1.5 mg/L) for F - , after 15 min of shaking with Haix-Fe-Zr resin beads. After 20 min of shaking in groundwater treated with Haix-Zr resin beads, F - concentrations decreased from 6.27 mg/L to 1.43 mg/L. In the removal of As(III), As(V), and F - from the groundwater, Haix-Fe-Zr and Haix-Zr resin beads fit the parabolic diffusion equation (PDE) suggesting that adsorption of these contaminants was consistent with inter-particle diffusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part VI: Manganese(II/H+/Lewatit K2621

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Alguacil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this sixth part of the series, Manganese(II was removed from aqueous solutions by the cationic exchange resin Lewatit K2621. The investigation was performed under various experimental conditions such as the stirring speed associated with the system, aqueous pH, temperature, resin dosage and the ionic strength of the solution. The performance of the resin against the loading of metals from metal-binary solutions as well as the removal of Manganese(II from the solutions using multiwalled carbon nanotubes and functionalized (carboxylic groups multiwalled carbon nanotubes, were also investigated. Experimental results fit well with the pseudo-first kinetic order model, whereas fit of the data show that at 20 °C the process responded well to the diffusion controlled model, and that at 60 °C, the system is controlled by the moving boundary model. Adsorption data is better related to the Freundlich isotherm. Elution of the Manganese(II loaded onto the resin was investigated using acidic (H2SO4 or HCl solutions.

  17. Ion exchange removal of cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates with SuperLigR 644 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; McCabe, D.J.; King, W.D.; Hamm, L.L.

    2002-01-01

    SuperLig R 644 ion exchange resin is currently being evaluated for cesium ( 137 Cs) removal from radioactive Hanford tank waste supernates as part of the River Protection Project. Testing was performed with actual Hanford tank wastes of widely different compositions using two identical ion exchange columns connected in series each containing approximately 5.5-6.5 ml of SuperLig R 644 resin. The ion exchange columns utilized the same resin material that was eluted between the column tests. This was done to demonstrate the performance of the SuperLig R 644 resin for cesium removal from waste samples of different compositions, determine the loading and elution profiles, and to validate design assumptions for full-scale column performances. Decontaminated product solutions generated at the same operating temperature and constant residence times (bed volumes per hour) exhibited the same chemical compositions as their feed samples. The compositions of eluate solutions were generally as expected with the exception of uranium and total organic carbon, which where concentrated by the resin. Development of a pretreatment method for the SuperLig R 644 resin has been critical to successful column operation with different waste solutions. (author)

  18. Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste

  19. CRBRP decay heat removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottel, R.E.; Louison, R.; Boardman, C.E.; Kiley, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The Decay Heat Removal Systems for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are designed to adequately remove sensible and decay heat from the reactor following normal shutdown, operational occurrences, and postulated accidents on both a short term and a long term basis. The Decay Heat Removal Systems are composed of the Main Heat Transport System, the Main Condenser and Feedwater System, the Steam Generator Auxiliary Heat Removal System (SGAHRS), and the Direct Heat Removal Service (DHRS). The overall design of the CRBRP Decay Heat Removal Systems and the operation under normal and off-normal conditions is examined. The redundancies of the system design, such as the four decay heat removal paths, the emergency diesel power supplies, and the auxiliary feedwater pumps, and the diversities of the design such as forced circulation/natural circulation and AC Power/DC Power are presented. In addition to overall design and system capabilities, the detailed designs for the Protected Air Cooled Condensers (PACC) and the Air Blast Heat Exchangers (ABHX) are presented

  20. Reducing resin use in floor drain processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, W.; Hobart, S.A.; Miller, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant utilizes two mixed bed demineralizers for processing floor drain wastes. These demineralizers were originally designed for stream generator blowdown treatment, but were not needed for that purpose. Effluent from the resin beds is monitored for radioactivity and released for discharge. Plant radwaste inleakage volumes and resin disposal volumes were low in comparison with industry averages, but decontamination factors through the treatment system were less than desirable. Release criteria for discharges always had been met, but plant personnel wished to decrease their already low discharges of radioactive species, reduce their resin disposal costs, and provide a margin of safety in the unlikely event that fuel damage would be experienced during an operating cycle. This paper describes the study initiated to address those issues, the findings of the study, and results of implementing some of the study recommendations

  1. In-office bleaching efficacy on stain removal from CAD/CAM and direct resin composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Amal; Ardu, Stefano; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Krejci, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of in-office bleaching on stain removal from stained resin composite and ceramic computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) blocks and direct resin composites. Forty disk-shaped samples were fabricated from each of nine materials: six CAD/CAM (VITABLOCS Mark II, Paradigm MZ100, Exp Vita Hybrid Ceramic, VITA ENAMIC, Exp Kerr, and LAVA Ultimate) and three direct resin composites (Filtek Supreme, Venus Diamond, and Filtek Silorane). Samples were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8), each stained with a particular staining solution. Using a calibrated spectrophotometer and a black background, L*a*b* values were assessed before and after 120 days of staining. Samples were subjected to in-office bleaching using 40% hydrogen peroxide gel for one hour. At subsequent assessment, color change (ΔE) was calculated as the difference between L*a*b* values. Both ANOVA and the Duncan test were used to identify differences between groups (α = 0.05). Bleaching resulted in significant differences in ΔE values for all materials (P Bleaching efficacy was highly influenced by material composition and staining solution. Residual color values after bleaching for ceramic and hybrid ceramics ranged from -0.49 to 2.35, within the clinically acceptable maximum of 3.3. Values after bleaching for resin-based CAD/CAM ranged from -0.7 to 7.08 while direct resin composites values ranged from -1.47 to 25.13. Coffee left the greatest residual color on all materials. Based on material nature, 40% hydrogen peroxide bleaching can remove staining. The new resin-based CAD/CAM blocks showed promising results in terms of color stability. Bleaching using 40% hydrogen peroxide can be an effective method to remove stains from dental restorations. In this way, restoration replacement as a result of discoloration may no longer be necessary. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Selective Removal of Toxic Metals like Copper and Arsenic from Drinking Water Using Phenol-Formaldehyde Type Chelating Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Mohanty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of different toxic metals has increased beyond environmentally and ecologically permissible levels due to the increase in industrial activity. More than 100 million people of Bangladesh and West Bengal in India are affected by drinking ground water contaminated with arsenic and some parts of India is also affected by poisoning effect of copper, cadmium and fluoride. Different methods have been evolved to reduce the arsenic concentration in drinking water to a maximum permissible level of 10 μg/L where as various methods are also available to separate copper from drinking water. Of the proven methods available today, removal of arsenic by polymeric ion exchangers has been most effective. While chelating ion exchange resins having specific chelating groups attached to a polymer have found extensive use in sorption and pre concentration of Cu2+ ions. Both the methods are coupled here to separate and preconcentrate toxic metal cation Cu2+ and metal anion arsenate(AsO4– at the same time. We have prepared a series of low-cost polymeric resins, which are very efficient in removing copper ion from drinking water and after coordinating with copper ion they act as polymeric ligand exchanger, which are efficiently removing arsenate from drinking water. For this purpose Schiff bases were prepared by condensing o-phenylenediamine with o-, m-, and p-hydroxybenzaldehydes. Condensing these phenolic Schiff bases with formaldehyde afforded the chelating resins in high yields. These resins are loaded with Cu2+, Ni2+ 2+, and Fe3+ ions. The resins and the polychelates are highly insoluble in water. In powdered form the metal ion-loaded resins are found to very efficiently remove arsenate ion from water at neutral pH. Resins loaded with optimum amount of Cu2+ ion is more effective in removing arsenate ions compared to those with Fe3+ ion, apparently because Cu2+ is a stronger Lewis acid than Fe3+. Various parameters influencing the removal of the

  3. Evaluation of methods for stain removal in acrylic resin denture teeth: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Balestrero CASSIANO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The staining of artificial teeth can be related to the acrylic resin abrasion caused by brushing, resulting in higher deposition of dyes from the beverage, and consequently higher aesthetic damage. Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate methods for removal of stains from acrylic denture teeth using spectrophotometric analysis. Material and method Artificial teeth were divided into twelve groups (n=10 according to the type of treatment (re-polishing - Re or immersion in Corega Tabs - Sp, staining solutions, coffee (Cf and Coca-Cola® (Cc or water (W and with/without toothbrushing (B. The Sp specimens were submitted to seven immersion cycles (5 min each. The Re specimens were polished with pumice stone followed by Spain white paste. Color differences (ΔE were captured by a spectrophotometer: T0 (baseline, T1 (after brushing/immersion in solutions and T2 (after Re or Sp. Result Statistically significant color change between T1 and T2 (paired T-test; α =.05 was observed for the group CfSp (p=.032; and for the groups BWRe (p=.000, BCfRe (p=.049 and CcRe (p=.042. Higher color changes were observed for the specimens submitted to toothbrushing (ANOVA two way; p<.001. Conclusion It could be concluded that the immersion in sodium perborate (Corega Tabs can be used for removal of coffee stains from denture teeth, and re-polishing for removal of Coca-Cola® stains. Still, toothbrushing produced greater color changes on denture teeth, regardless of the immersion solution.

  4. Expansive failure reactions and their prevention in the encapsulation of phenol formaldehyde type ion exchange resins in cement based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constable, M.; Howard, C.G.; Johnson, M.A.; Jolliffe, C.B. (AEA Decommissioning and Waste Management, Winfrith (United Kingdom)); Sellers, R.M. (Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    Lewatit DN is a phenol formaldehyde based ion exchange resin used to remove radioactive caesium from liquid waste streams such as fuel cooling ponds and effluents. This paper presents the results of a study of the encapsulation of the bead form of the resin in cement with particular reference to the mechanisms of its interaction with the encapsulant. When incorporated in pure ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at loadings in excess of 15 wt % an unstable product results due to expansion of the systems and at higher waste loadings failure results after only a few days. Evidence from differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy all indicate the cause of the expansive reaction to be the formation of crystals of calcium salts around and within the resin beads. Addition of BFS and sodium hydroxide prevent the formation of these salts by removal of calcium hydroxide from the system in other reactions. (author).

  5. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  6. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  7. A new resin system for the impregnation and bonding of large magnet coils

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS is an instrument which forms part of the Large Hadron Collider, a high energy physics experiment which is under construction at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. The properties of the candidate resin systems developed for the impregnation of the Atlas End Cap Toroid magnets are presented. The resin systems contain a blend of two resins; a low viscosity Bisphenol F resin, with a long chain aliphatic epoxide resin. An aromatic amine curing agent was used. It was found that increased additions of the long chain aliphatic epoxide resin resulted in longer useable life, lower glass transition temperature, lower modulus, higher toughness and higher bond strength at 4 K. (4 refs).

  8. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resin systems, part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity resin has been formulated. The model is developed by modifying the well established Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By introducing a relationship between the glass transition temperature (T sub g (t)) and the degree of cure alpha(t) of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature-dependent functions of the modified WLF theory parameters C sub 1 (T) and C sub 2 (T) were determined from the isothermal cure data. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data. This work represents a progress toward establishing a chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure.

  9. A thermodynamic and kinetic study of trace iron removal from aqueous cobalt sulfate solutions using Monophos resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangxin; Zhao, Yunchao; Yang, Bin; Song, Yongfa

    2018-01-01

    High purity cobalt has many important applications, such as magnetic recording media, magnetic recording heads, optoelectronic devices, magnetic sensors, and integrated circuits, etc. To produce 5N or higher purity cobalt in an electro-refining process, one of the challenges is to effectively reduce the Fe content of aqueous cobalt salt solution before electrolysis. This paper describes thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of the Fe adsorption process of a new sulfonated monophosphonic resin with the trade mark Monophos. Five cobalt sulfate solutions of different Co concentrations were prepared. Fe ions were removed from the solutions by ion exchange method using Monophos resin. Chemical analysis was carried out using a Perkin Elmer ICP-OES. The initial Fe concentrations of about 0.9-2.0 mg/L can be reduced to about 0.3-0.8 mg/L, which is equivalent to an Fe removal rate of 60-67%. The Langmuir isothermal adsorption model applies well to the Fe removal process. A second-order type based on McKay equation fits better with experimental data than other kinetic models. The kinetic curve can be divided into two sections. For t 30 min. Monophos resin is effective for the removal of trace Fe from cobalt sulfate solution. This ion exchange process obeys the Langmuir isothermal adsorption model and the McKay equation of second-order kinetics.

  10. Application of Some Synthesized Polymeric Composite Resins for Removal of Some Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhhar, A.A.; Abdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ion-exchange and sorption characteristic of new polymeric composite resins, prepared by gamma radiation were experimentally studied. The composite resins shows high uptake for Co(II) and Eu(III) ions in aqueous solutions in wide range of ph. The selectivity of the resins to Co (II) or Eu (III) species in the presence of some competing ions and complexing agents (as Na + , Fe 3+ , EDTA Na 2 , etc.) was compared. Various factors that could affect the sorption behaviors of metal ions (Co (II) and Eu (III)) on the prepared polymeric composite resins were studied such as ionic strength, Contact time, volume mass ratio

  11. Dissolved organic matter removal using magnetic anion exchange resin treatment on biological effluent of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Li, Haibo; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Wentao; Li, Aimin

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from real dyeing bio-treatment effluents (DBEs) with the use of a novel magnetic anion exchange resin (NDMP). DOMs in two typical DBEs were fractionized using DAX-8/XAD-4 resin and ultrafiltration membranes. The hydrophilic fractions and the low molecular weight (MW) (50%) of DOMs for the two effluents. The hydrophilic and low MW fractions of both effluents were the greatest contributors of specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254), and the SUVA254 of DOM fractions decreased with hydrophobicity and MW. Two DBEs exhibited acute and chronic biotoxicities. Both acute and chronic toxicities of DOM fractions increased linearly with the increase of SUVA254 value. Kinetics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal via NDMP treatment was performed by comparing it with that of particle active carbon (PAC). Results indicated that the removal of DOC from DBEs via NDMP was 60%, whereas DOC removals by PAC were lower than 15%. Acidic organics could be significantly removed with the use of NDMP. DOM with large MW in DBE could be removed significantly by using the same means. Removal efficiency of NDMP for DOM decreased with the decrease of MW. Compared with PAC, NDMP could significantly reduce the acute and chronic bio-toxicities of DBEs. NaCl/NaOH mixture regenerants, with selected concentrations of 10% NaCl (m/m)/1% NaOH (m/m), could improve desorption efficiency. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Containment heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, G.E.; Barbanti, G.; Gou, P.F.; Rao, A.S.; Hsu, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear system of a type including a containment having a nuclear reactor therein, the nuclear reactor including a pressure vessel and a core in the pressure vessel, the system. It comprises a gravity pool of coolant disposed at an elevation sufficient to permit a flow of coolant into the nuclear reactor pressure vessel against a predetermined pressure within the nuclear reactor pressure vessel; means for reducing a pressure of steam in the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a value less than the predetermined pressure in the event of a nuclear accident, the means including a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel, the means further including steam heat dissipating means such dissipating means including a suppression pool; a supply of water in the suppression pool, there being a headspace in the suppression pool above the water supply; a substantial amount of air in the head space; means for feeding pressurized steam from the nuclear reactor pressure vessel to a location under a surface of the supply of water, the supply of water being effective to absorb heat sufficient to reduce steam pressure below the predetermined pressure; and a check valve for communicating the headspace with the containment, the check valve being oriented to vent air in the headspace to the containment when a pressure in the headspace exceeds a pressure in the containment by a predetermined pressure differential

  13. Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions using collagen-tannin resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Xia; Huang Xin [Department of Biomass Chemistry and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Liao Xuepin, E-mail: xpliao@scu.edu.cn [Department of Biomass Chemistry and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Shi Bi, E-mail: shibi@scu.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology of Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2011-02-28

    The collagen-tannin resin (CTR), as a novel adsorbent, was prepared via a reaction of collagen with black wattle tannin and aldehyde, and its adsorption properties to Cu(II) were systematically investigated, including pH effect, adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics, and column adsorption. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) on CTR was pH-dependent, and it increased with the increase of solution pH. The adsorption isotherms were well described by Langmuir isotherm model with correlating constant (R{sup 2}) higher than 0.99. The adsorption capacity determined at 303 K was high up to 0.26 mmol/g, which was close to the value (0.266 mmol/g) estimated from Langmuir equation. The adsorption capacity was increased with the increase of temperature, and thermodynamic calculations suggested that the adsorption of Cu(II) on CTR is an endothermic process. The adsorption kinetics were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Further column studies suggested that CTR was effective for the removal of Cu(II) from solutions, and more than 99% of Cu(II) was desorbed from column using 0.1 mol/L HNO{sub 3} solution. The CTR column can be reused to adsorb Cu(II) without any loss of adsorption capacity.

  14. One pot synthesis of chitosan grafted quaternized resin for the removal of nitrate and phosphate from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, H Thagira; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2017-11-01

    The present study deals with the synthesis of chitosan quaternized resin for efficient removal of nitrate and phosphate from aqueous solution. The resin was characterized with FTIR, SEM with EDX and XRD. Batch method was carried out to optimize various parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of nitrate and phosphate, dosage, pH, co-anions and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. The adsorption process illustrated that the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order are the best fitted models for the sorption of both anions. The respective negative values of ΔH° and ΔG° revealed that the adsorption of both the anions were exothermic and spontaneous. The removal efficiency of nitrate and phosphate on chitosan quaternized resin were 78% and 90% respectively with 0.1g of adsorbent and the initial concentration as 100mg/L. Nitrate and phosphate anions adsorbed effectively on chitosan quaternized resin by replacing Cl - ions from quaternary site through electrostatic attraction as well as ion-exchange mechanism. Hydrogen bonding also played important role in adsorption process. Even after 7th regeneration cycle the adsorbent retained its adsorption capacity as 23.7mg/g and 30.4mg/g for both nitrate and phosphate respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of ion exchange resin in floating drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Abhijeet A; Ambike, Anshuman A; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the application of low-density ion exchange resin (IER) Tulsion(R) 344, for floating drug delivery system (FDDS), and study the effect of its particle size on rate of complexation, water uptake, drug release, and in situ complex formation. Batch method was used for the preparation of complexes, which were characterized by physical methods. Tablet containing resin with high degree of crosslinking showed buoyancy lag time (BLT) of 5-8 min. Decreasing the particle size of resin showed decrease in water uptake and drug release, with no significant effect on the rate of complexation and in situ complex formation for both preformed complexes (PCs) and physical mixtures (PMs). Thus, low-density and high degree of crosslinking of resin and water uptake may be the governing factor for controlling the initial release of tablet containing PMs but not in situ complex formation. However, further sustained release may be due to in situ complex formation.

  16. Sorptive Removal of Cesium and Cobalt Ions in a Fixed bed Column Using Lewatit S100 Cation Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, M.R.; Ibrahim, H.A.; El-Kamash, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The sorptive removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions in a fixed bed column packed with Lewatit S100® cation exchange resin has been investigated. A preliminary batch studies were performed to estimate the effect of pH and contact time on the sorption process. Results indicated that Cs + and Co 2+ could be efficiently removed using Lewatit S100® at a ph range of 4-7 with more affinity towards Cs than Co 2+ . Kinetic models have been applied to the sorption rate data and the relevant parameters were determined. The obtained results indicated that the sorption of both Cs + and Co 2+ on Lewatit S100 followed pseudo second-order rather than pseudo first-order or Morris-Webber model. Fixed bed experiments were conducted at a constant initial concentration of 100 mg/l whereas the effect of bed depth (3, 4.5 and 6 cm) and volumetric flow rate (3 and 5 ml/min.) on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed bed sorption systems were determined. The experimental sorption data were fitted to the well-established column models namely; Thomas and BDST models to compute the different model parameters. The higher column sorption capacities were obtained at bed depth of 3 cm with a flow rate of 3 ml/min., for both Cs + and Co 2+ . The BDST model appeared to describe experimental results better than Thomas model. Results indicate that Lewatit S100® is an efficient material for the removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions.

  17. The efficiency of Amberjet 4200 resin in removing nitrate in the presence of competitive anions from Shiraz drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, M; Haghighi, A Binaee; Zamanian, Z

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this research is to study the feasibility of removing nitrates from water by means of anion exchange. In the purposed work an attempt was made to utilize strong basic anion resin to remove nitrate in the presence of competitive anion. Amberjet Cl- 4200 ion exchange resin was used in a batch scale. The fixation rate of nitrate without the presences of any competitive anion was almost constant (94.60-96.43) when the nitrate concentrations are in the range of 100-150 mg L(-1). The fixation rate of nitrate in the presences of two competitive anions (sulphate and chloride) was reduced to 82% when the concentration of nitrate was 100 mg L(-1).

  18. Resin-based preparation of HTGR fuels: operation of an engineering-scale uranium loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The fuel particles for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared from uranium-loaded carboxylic acid ion exchange resins which are subsequently carbonized, converted, and refabricated. The development and operation of individual items of equipment and of an integrated system are described for the resin-loading part of the process. This engineering-scale system was full scale with respect to a hot demonstration facility, but was operated with natural uranium. The feed uranium, which consisted of uranyl nitrate solution containing excess nitric acid, was loaded by exchange with resin in the hydrogen form. In order to obtain high loadings, the uranyl nitrate must be acid deficient; therefore, nitric acid was extracted by a liquid organic amine which was regenerated to discharge a NaNO 3 or NH 4 NO 3 solution waste. Water was removed from the uranyl nitrate solution by an evaporator that yielded condensate containing less than 0.5 ppM of uranium. The uranium-loaded resin was washed with condensate and dried to a controlled water content via microwave heating. The loading process was controlled via in-line measurements of the pH and density of the uranyl nitrate. The demonstrated capacity was 1 kg of uranium per hour for either batch loading contractors or a continuous column as the resin loading contractor. Fifty-four batch loading runs were made without a single failure of the process outlined in the chemical flowsheet or any evidence of inability to control the conditions dictated by the flowsheet

  19. The Effects of Fabrication Techniques and Storage Methods on the Dimensional Stability of Removable Acrylic Resin Orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Bruxism : a report and a case report. J. Dent. Med., 9:189-199, 1954. 138. Super, S: A modified occlusal splint for segmental osteotomy fixation. J. Oral...minimize linear dimensional change prior to the clinical use of a removable acrylic resin orthosis. . .. . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS Title...distortion and clinical use of an orthosis having a precise and accurate fit. V % N II. LITERATURE REVIEW A. Terminology The therapeutic use of interocclusal

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) removal by an anion exchange resin and comparison with Dubinin-Astakhov isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Julien; Dodi, Alain

    2011-03-15

    The removal of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions from wastewaters by a macroporous ion-exchange resin is studied through the experimental results obtained for six ion exchange systems, OH(-)/Cl(-), OH(-)/NO3(-), OH(-)/SO4(2-), and HCO3(-)/Cl(-), Cl(-)/NO3(-), Cl(-)/SO4(2-). The results are described through thermodynamic modeling, considering either an ideal or a nonideal behavior of the ionic species in the liquid and solid phases. The nonidealities are determined by the Davies equation and Wilson equations in the liquid and solid phases, respectively. The results show that the resin has a strong affinity for all the target ions, and the order of affinity obtained is OH(-) < HCO3(-) < Cl(-) < NO3(-) < SO4(2-). The calculation of the changes in standard Gibbs free energies (ΔG(0)) shows that even though HCO3(-) has a lower affinity to the resin, it may affect the removal of Cl(-), and in the same way that Cl(-) may affect the removal of NO3(-) and SO4(2-). The application of nonidealities in the thermodynamic model leads to an improved fit of the model to the experimental data with average relative deviations below 1.5% except for the OH(-)/SO4(2-) system. On the other hand, considering ideal or nonideal behaviors has no significant impact on the determination of the selectivity coefficients. The thermodynamic modeling is also compared with the Dubinin-Astakhov adsorption isotherms obtained for the same ion exchange systems. Surprisingly, the latter performs significantly better than the ideal thermodynamic model and nearly as well as the nonideal thermodynamic model.

  1. Utilization of m-Phenylenediamine-Furfural Resin for Removal of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solution-A Thermodynamic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Najim, Tariq S.; Zainal, Israa G.; Ali, Dina A.

    2010-01-01

    m-Phenylenediamine was condensed with furfural in absence of catalyst at room temperature. The produced m-phenylenediamine-furfural resin was used for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The pH for the optimum removal of Cu(II) was 6. The negative values of Gibbs free energy at low concentration of Cu(II) (20, 30 ppm) indicative of the spontaneous adsorption process, while, at higher Cu(II) concentration (40,50 ppm) the positive and weak values of ∆G° indicate that the process is fea...

  2. Effect of pore structure on the removal of clofibric acid by magnetic anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Yunshu; Wang, Jun; Su, Yihong; Li, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    The effect of pore structure of resin on clofibric acid (CA) adsorption behavior was investigated by using magnetic anion exchange resins (ND-1, ND-2, ND-3) with increasing pore diameter by 11.68, 15.37, 24.94 nm. Resin with larger pores showed faster adsorption rates and a higher adsorption capacity because the more opened tunnels provided by larger pores benefit the CA diffusion into the resin matrix. The ion exchange by the electrostatic interactions between Cl-type resin and CA resulted in chloride releasing to the solution, and the ratio of released chloride to CA adsorption amount decreased from 0.90 to 0.65 for ND-1, ND-2 and ND-3, indicating that non-electrostatic interactions obtain a larger proportional part of the adsorption into the pores. Co-existing inorganic anions and organic acids reduced the CA adsorption amounts by the competition effect of electrostatic interaction, whereas resins with more opened pore structures weakened the negative influence on CA adsorption because of the existence of non-electrostatic interactions. 85.2% and 65.1% adsorption amounts decrease are calculated for resin ND-1 and ND-3 by the negative influence of 1 mmol L -1 NaCl. This weaken effect of organic acid is generally depends on its hydrophobicity (Log Kow) for carboxylic acid and its ionization degree (pKb) for sulfonic acid. The resins could be reused with the slightly decreases by 1.9%, 3.2% and 5.4% after 7 cycles of regeneration, respectively for ND-1, ND-2 and ND-3, suggesting the ion exchange resin with larger pores are against its reuse by the brine solution regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced resin systems and 3D textile preforms for low cost composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J. G.; Bayha, T. D.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced resin systems and 3D textile preforms are being evaluated at Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company (LASC) under NASA's Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program. This work is aimed towards the development of low-cost, damage-tolerant composite fuselage structures. Resin systems for resin transfer molding and powder epoxy towpreg materials are being evaluated for processability, performance and cost. Three developmental epoxy resin systems for resin transfer molding (RTM) and three resin systems for powder towpregging are being investigated. Various 3D textile preform architectures using advanced weaving and braiding processes are also being evaluated. Trials are being conducted with powdered towpreg, in 2D weaving and 3D braiding processes for their textile processability and their potential for fabrication in 'net shape' fuselage structures. The progress in advanced resin screening and textile preform development is reviewed here.

  4. ADHESIVE SYSTEM AFFECTS REPAIR BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür IRMAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of different adhesive systems on repair bond strength of aged resin composites. Materials and Methods: Ninety composite discs were built and half of them were subjected to thermal aging. Aged and non-aged specimens were repaired with resin composite using three different adhesive systems; a two-step self-etch adhesive, a two-step total-etch adhesive and a one-step self-etch adhesive; then they were subjected to shear forces. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: Adhesive type and aging significantly affected the repair bond strengths (p<0.0001. No statistical difference was found in aged composite groups repaired with two-step self- etch or two-step total-etch adhesive. One-step self-etch adhesive showed lower bond strength values in aged composite repair (p<0.0001. Conclusion: In the repair of aged resin composite, two-step self-etch and two-step total-etch adhesives exhibited higher shear bond strength values than that of one-step self-etch adhesive.

  5. Study on removing chlorin by conversion-aborption of chlorin resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yunbai; Zhao Jinfang; Tang Zhijuan; Huang Qijin; Deng Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Theon version of chlorin resin and the reclamation of acid and uranium in converting solution were investigated. The results indicated the residual chlorin can meet the requirement after converting, acid and uranium in converting solution can be reclaimed. (authors)

  6. Bond strength of adhesive resin cement with different adhesive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzoni e Silva, Fabrizio; Pamato, Saulo; Kuga, Milton-Carlos; S?, Marcus-Vinicius-Reis; Pereira, Jefferson-Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Background To assess the immediate bond strength of a dual-cure adhesive resin cement to the hybridized dentin with different bonding systems. Material and Methods Fifty-six healthy human molars were randomly divided into 7 groups (n=8). After 3 longitudinal sections, the central cuts were included in PVC matrix and were submitted to dentin hybridization according to the groups: G1 - etch & rinse system with 3-step (Apder? Scotchbond? Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE), G2 - etch & rinse system with 3-s...

  7. After-heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi; Mitani, Shinji.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent contamination of suppression pool water and intrusion of corrosion products into a nuclear reactor. Constitution: Upon stop of an after-heat removing system, reactor water contained in pipelines is drained out to a radioactive wastes processing facility at the time the cooling operation mode has been completed. At the same time, water is injected from a pure water supply system to the after-heat removing system to discharge corrosion product and activated materials while cleaning the inside of the pipelines. Then, pure water is held in the pipelines and it is discharged again and replaced with pure water before entering the cooling mode operation. Thereafter, the cooling mode operation upon reactor shutdown is performed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Development of new and improved polymer matrix resin systems, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Vinystilbazole (vinylstryrylpyridine) and vinylpolystyrulpyridine were prepared for the purpose of modifying bismaleimide composite resins. Cure studies of resins systems were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The vinylstyrylpyridine-modified bismaleimide composite resins were found to have lower cure and gel temperatures, and shorter cure times than the corresponding unmodified composite resins. The resin systems were reinforced with commercially avialable satin-weave carbon cloth. Prepregs were fabricated by solvent or hot melt techniques. Thermal stability, flammability, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties of the composites (such as flexural strength, modulus, tensile and short beam shear strength) were determined. Composite laminates showed substantial improvements in both processability and mechanical properties compared to he bismaleimide control systems. The vinylstyrylpyridine modified bismaleimide resins can be used as advanced matrix resins for graphite secondary structures where ease of processing, fireworthiness, and high temperature stability are required for aerospace applications.

  9. Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesham, Dean O.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Miller, Charles W.; Meyers, P.; Jaschke, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher

  10. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  11. VDTT removal system functional design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legare, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two Velocity Density Temperature Trees (H-2-815016) are to be removed from risers 14A and 1B of tank 241-SY-101. This document provides functional design criteria for the removal system. The removal system consists of a Liquid Removal Tool, Flexible Receiver (H-2-79216), Burial Container, Transport Trailers, and associated equipment

  12. Modeling and Optimization of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Sand Mould System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chate G. R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical bonded resin sand mould system has high dimensional accuracy, surface finish and sand mould properties compared to green sand mould system. The mould cavity prepared under chemical bonded sand mould system must produce sufficient permeability and hardness to withstand sand drop while pouring molten metal through ladle. The demand for improved values of permeability and mould hardness depends on systematic study and analysis of influencing variables namely grain fineness number, setting time, percent of resin and hardener. Try-error experiment methods and analysis were considered impractical in actual foundry practice due to the associated cost. Experimental matrices of central composite design allow conducting minimum experiments that provide complete insight of the process. Statistical significance of influencing variables and their interaction were determined to control the process. Analysis of variance (ANOVA test was conducted to validate the model statistically. Mathematical equation was derived separately for mould hardness and permeability, which are expressed as a non-linear function of input variables based on the collected experimental input-output data. The developed model prediction accuracy for practical usefulness was tested with 10 random experimental conditions. The decision variables for higher mould hardness and permeability were determined using desirability function approach. The prediction results were found to be consistent with experimental values.

  13. Improved crud iron removal efficiency for powder resin type condensate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Hiroshi; Ino, Takao

    1989-01-01

    In 1984, a precoat type condensate filtration system was delivered to The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. by Ebara and stable operation of the system is reported ever since. Originally, condensate filtration systems are used to remove crud iron in condensate water. However, it has become desirable to freely control the crud iron in the outlet flow of such filtration system. The main source of radioactivity in a BWR plant, is Cobalt 60, and it is necessary to optimally control the amount of crud iron released into the reactor to match the nickel and cobalt amounts in the reactor feed water for achieving an overall reduction of the concentration of radioactivity within the BWR plant. The method of such control, developed by the authors, is outlined in the following. By this method, the radioactive level within the overall plant is significantly decreased. Consequently, the risk of radioactive exposure of personnel at time of periodical checkup is greatly reduced. (author)

  14. The selection of adhesive systems for resin-based luting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carville, Rebecca; Quinn, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The use of resin-based luting agents is ever expanding with the development of adhesive dentistry. A multitude of different adhesive systems are used with resin-based luting agents, and new products are introduced to the market frequently. Traditional adhesives generally required a multiple step bonding procedure prior to cementing with active resin-based luting materials; however, combined agents offer a simple application procedure. Self-etching 'all-in-one' systems claim that there is no need for the use of a separate adhesive process. The following review addresses the advantages and disadvantages of the available adhesive systems used with resin-based luting agents.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Radionuclide for the Used Resin of the Primary Purification System in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun; Kim, Myong Seop; Park, Se Il; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Chil

    2005-01-01

    In HANARO, a 30 MW research reactor, the ion exchange resin has been used for the purification of the primary coolant system. The resin used in the primary coolant purification system is replaced with new one once every 3 months during 30 MW reactor operation. The extracted resin from the primary coolant purification system is temporarily stored in a shielding treatment of the reactor hall for radiation cooling. After the radiation level of resin decreases enough to be handled for the waste disposal, it is put into the waste drum, and delivered to the waste facility in KAERI. Recently, in this procedure, the quantitative analysis of radionuclide which is contained in resin is required to have more quantitative data for the disposal. Therefore, in this work, a preliminary study was performed to find a sampling method for the representation of the characteristics of radionuclide in the spent resin

  16. Study on Selective Removal of Impurity Iron from Leached Copper-Bearing Solution Using a Chelating Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubiao Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to selectively remove iron from copper laden solution after leaching but prior to electrowinning, equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies have been conducted on an a chelating resin of Rexp-501 at pH 1.0 and at various temperatures. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models were investigated, with the Langmuir model proving to be more suitable for fitting iron removal performance, with little influence from copper concentration. Compared with the pseudo first order kinetic model, the pseudo second order kinetic model fitted the dynamic adsorption process better, indicating a chemisorption mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results indicated that C=O from carbonyl group played a key role in combining with iron and can be regenerated and reused. However, the C=O of the acylamino group combining with iron was not able to be released after oxalic acid was applied.

  17. Method of removing alkyl iodides or mixtures of iodine and alkyl iodides from a gas phase and an aqueous solution phase by utilizing ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Mizuuchi, Noboru; Yokoyama, Fumio.

    1967-01-01

    Alkyl iodides and mixtures of iodine and alkyl iodides are removed from a gas phase and an aquous solution phase by using solely an anion exchange resin containing a tertiary amine or together with an anion exchange resin containing quarternary ammonium compound. The resin containing the quarternary ammonium compound is employed mainly to remove iodine, and the resin containing the tertiary amine serves mainly to remove alkyl iodides. The method can be applied to collecting a majority of the methyl iodide as well as the radioactive iodine produced in the atmosphere of a reactor in case of a fuel accident. In embodiments, it is desirable to maintain the sufficient moisture content of the anion exchange resins at a sufficient moisture level so as not to reduce the migration speed of the iodine and alkyl iodides. The iodine and alkyl iodide can be produced with high efficiency and stability independently of the relative humidity of the gas phase. In examples, a solution which consists of 20.5 mg/l of iodine and 42.2mg/l of methyl iodide flew through a column of Amberite IRA-93 alone or blended with IRA-900 at a speed of 15 /hr. respectively. The resins were able to treat 400 times their equivalent in water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  18. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin for the Removal of Cesium from Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, William

    2006-01-01

    This power-point presentation highlights that spherical RF continues to out-perform baseline technology (SuperLig(registered trademark)644) due to several factors: increased radiation stability from Cs Capacity perspective, outstanding hydraulic performance, and flammable gas generation being the same as the baseline technology. Actual waste testing at Pacific Northwest National Lab. is going well, and isotherm modeling is continuing at Savannah River National Lab. Regulatory analysis of spent resin is planned for early summer 2006

  19. Hot dewatering and resin encapsulation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, J.; Birch, D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the processes involved in the hot dewatering and encapsulation of alumino-ferric hydroxide floc in epoxide resin have been studied. Pretreatment of the floc to reduce resin attack and hydrolysis and to increase the dimensional stability of the solidified wasteform has been evaluated. It has been demonstrated that removal of ammonium nitrate from the floc and control of the residual water in the resin are important factors in ensuring dimensional stability of the solidified resin. Resin systems have been identified which, together with the appropriate waste pretreatment have successfully encapsulated a simulated magnox sludge producing a stable wasteform having mechanical and physical properties comparable with the basic resin. (author)

  20. Emission and Mechanical Evaluations of Vinyl-Ester Resin Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl-ester resins (VE) are frequently used in liquid molding of composite materials for several applications including naval and army structures, commercial boat manufacturing, and building construction...

  1. Multiwall carbon nanotube embedded phenolic resin-based carbon foam for the removal of As (V) from contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani Agrawal, Pinki; Singh, Nahar; Kumari, Saroj; Dhakate, Sanjay R.

    2018-03-01

    It is well proposed that micron or nano size filters requires to separate adsorbent from water after removal of adsorbate. However, even after filtration trace quantity of adsorbent remains in purified water, which deteriorates the quality of water for potability. To overcome these problems, multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) loaded Carbon Foam (CF) was fabricated by a sacrificial template process. In this process, multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and phenolic resin mixture was used for the impregnation of the polyurethane (PU) template. Impregnated PU Foam stabilized and carbonized to get MWCNTs embedded Carbon Foam (CF). The MWCNT loaded CF (MWCNTs-CF) was used for the removal of As (V) species from water. The proposed foam efficiently removes arsenic (As (V)) from water and it can be easily separated from water after purification without any sophisticated tools. The adsorption capacity of the proposed material was found to be 90.5 μg*g-1 at optimized condition of pH, time and concentration, which is excellent in comparison to several other materials utilized for removal of As (V). Kinetic and isotherm studies reveal that the multilayer adsorption over heterogeneous surface follows pseudo second order kinetics. The adsorption phenomena were further confirmed by several characterization techniques like scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  2. Method for removing cesium from aqueous liquid, method for purifying the reactor coolant in boiling water and pressurized water reactors and a mixed ion exchanged resin bed, useful in said purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, J.N.A.; Liebmann, D.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for removing cesium from an aqueous liquid, and to a resin bed containing a mixture of an anion exchange resin and cation exchange resin useful in said purification. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention is a method for purifying the reactor coolant of a presurized water or boiling water reactor. Said method, which is particularly advantageously employed in purifying the reactor coolant in the primary circuit of a pressurized reactor, comprises contacting at least a portion of the reactor coolant with a strong base anion exchange resin and the strong acid cation exchange resin derived from a highly cross-linked, macroporous copolymer of a monovinylidene aromatic and a cross-linking monomer copolymerizable therewith. Although the reactor coolant can sequentially be contacted with one resin type and thereafter with the second resin type, the contact is preferably conducted using a resin bed comprising a mixture of the cation and anion exchange resins. 1 fig., refs

  3. Evaluating Residence Time for Cesium Removal from Simulated Hanford Tank Wastes Using SuperLig(R) 644 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    Batch contact and column experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of residence time on cesium (Cs) removal from two simulated Hanford tank wastes using SuperLig(R) 644 resin. The two waste simulants mimic the compositions of tanks 241-AZ-102 and 241-AN-107 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. A single column made of glass tube (2.7-cm i.d.), which contained approximately 100 mL of H-form SuperLig(R) 644 resin was used in the column experiments. The experiments each consisted of loading, elution, and regeneration steps were performed at flow rates ranging from 0.64 to 8.2 BV/h for AZ-102 and from 1.5 to 18 BV/h for AN-107 simulant. The lowest flow rates of 0.64 and 1.5 BV/h were selected to evaluate less than optimal flow conditions in the plant. The range of the flow rates is consistent with the River Protection Project design for the waste treatment plant (WTP) columns, which will operate at a flow rate between 1.5 to 3 BV/h. Batch contact experiments were also performed for two batches of SuperLig(R) 644 to determine the equilibrium distribution coefficients (Kds) as a function of Cs concentration

  4. Ion Exchange Distribution Coefficient Tests and Computer Modeling at High Ionic Strength Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, Frank G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-19

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and poured into canisters for disposition. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the water solubility properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important to the overall success of the Hanford River Protection Project mission. To achieve the full target WTP throughput, additional LAW immobilization capacity is needed, and options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. To enable an informed decision regarding the viability of technetium removal, further maturation of available technologies is being performed. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient testing and computer modeling using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from high ionic strength simulated LAW. It is advantageous to operate at higher concentration in order to treat the waste

  5. Removing uranium from drinking water by metal hydroxides and anion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Results of bench-scale testing on uranium removal from a natural water that was chosen as a good representative of uranium-bearing waters indicated that conventional coagulant and lime softening treatment removes more than 85 percent of dissolved uranium (83 μg U/L) when an optimum pH and dosage were provided. A strong base anion-exchange column is a recommended option for the treatment of private well waters containing uranium at higher than desirable levels

  6. Antipollution system to remove nitrogen dioxide gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, A. J.; Slough, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Gas phase reaction system using anhydrous ammonia removes nitrogen dioxide. System consists of ammonia injection and mixing section, reaction section /reactor/, and scrubber section. All sections are contained in system ducting.

  7. Compatibility between dental adhesive systems and dual-polymerizing composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-Luc; MacKenzie, Alexandra

    2016-10-01

    Information is lacking about incompatibilities between certain types of adhesive systems and dual-polymerizing composite resins, and universal adhesives have yet to be tested with these resins. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the bonding outcome of dual-polymerizing foundation composite resins by using different categories of adhesive solutions and to determine whether incompatibilities were present. One hundred and eighty caries-free, extracted third molar teeth were allocated to 9 groups (n=20), in which 3 different bonding agents (Single Bond Plus [SB]), Scotchbond Multi-purpose [MP], and Scotchbond Universal [SU]) were used to bond 3 different composite resins (CompCore AF [CC], Core Paste XP [CP], and Filtek Supreme Ultra [FS]). After restorations had been fabricated using an Ultradent device, the specimens were stored in water at 37°C for 24 hours. The specimens were tested under shear force at a rate of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis tests and post hoc pairwise comparisons (α=.05). All 3 composite resins produced comparable shear bond strengths when used with MP (P=.076). However, when either SB or SU was used, the light-polymerized composite resin (FS) and 1 dual-polymerized foundation composite resin (CC) bonded significantly better than the other dual-polymerized foundation composite resin (CP) (Pincompatibilities exist between different products. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Process for removing a mixture containing iodine and alkyl iodine compounds from a gas phase or aqueous solution with ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H; Mizuuchi, A; Yokoyama, F

    1968-10-04

    Iodine and alkyl iodine compounds are removed from a gas phase or aqueous solution containing salts, iodine and iodine compounds, such as the ambient gas in a reactor, if an accident should occur. The process comprises contacting the phase or solution: (a) with a hydrogen type strongly acidic cationic exchange resin, (b) with an anionic exchange resin containing quarternary ammonium and (c) with an anionic exchange resin containing free basic type tertiary amine, in this order or by reversing the order of the two anionic exchange resins. Although no problems arise in the liquid phase reaction, the ion-exchange resins in the gas phase reaction are desired in the moist state in order to stable maintain the migration speed of the materials to be removed regardless of the relative humidity of the amibent gas. In example I, Amberlite IRA-900 of 200 mm thickness as the lowermost bed, Amberlite IRA93 of 200 mm thickness as the middle bed and Amberlite 200 of 200 mm thickness as the uppermost bed were filled respectively, in a methacrylate resin cylinder with an inner diameter of 25 mm. A solution containing 15.9 mg/1 of iodine, 41.2 mg/1 of methyl iodide and 550 mg/1 of sodium carbonate flows at a rate of 15 liter/hr downward through the beds. As a result of testing, no iodine, iodine ions, iodic acid ions and methyl iodine were detected. The amount of water the beds could treat was 60 times the total quantity of the filled resins.

  9. Ion Exchange Studies for Removal of Sulfate from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (241-AN-107) Using SuperLig 655 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, D.L.; Fiskum, S.K.; Rapko, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    BNFL Inc. is evaluating various pretreatment technologies to mitigate the impacts of sulfate on the LAW vitrification system. One pretreatment technology for separating sulfate from LAW solutions involves the use of SuperLig(reg. sign) 655 (SL-655), a proprietary ion exchange material developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report describes testing of SL-655 with diluted ([Na] approximately 5 M) waste from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division. Batch contact studies were conducted from 4 to 96 hours to determine the sulfate distribution coefficient and reaction kinetics. A small-scale ion exchange column test was conducted to evaluate sulfate removal, loading, breakthrough, and elution from the SL-655. In all of these tests, an archived 241-AN-107 tank waste sample (pretreated to remove Cs, Sr, and transuranics elements) was used. The experimental details and results are described in this report. Under the test conditions, SL-655 was found to have no significant ion exchange affinity for sulfate in this matrix. The batch contact study resulted in no measurable difference in the aqueous sulfate concentration following resin contact (K d ∼ 0). The column test also demonstrated SL-655 had no practical affinity for sulfate in the tested matrix. Within experimental error, the sulfate concentration in the column effluent was equal to the concentration in the feed after passing 3 bed volumes of sample through the columns. Furthermore, some, if not all, of the decreased sulfate concentration in these first three column volumes of effluent can be ascribed to mixing and dilution of the 241-AN-107 feed with the interstitial liquid present in the column at the start of the loading cycle. Finally, ICP-AES measurements on the eluate solutions showed the presence of barium as soon as contact with the feed solution is completed. Barium is a metal not detected in the feed solution. Should the loss of barium be

  10. Preparation of wheat straw based superabsorbent resins and their applications as adsorbents for ammonium and phosphate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Su, Yuan; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu

    2013-09-01

    A novel wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (WSC-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) superabsorbent resin (SAR) was prepared by graft copolymerization. The structure and performance of the WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR was studied and compared with those of wheat straw cellulose-g-poly (potassium acrylate) (WSC-g-PKA) SAR. The effects of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4(+) and PO4(3-) removal from solutions were investigated. Equilibrium isotherm data of adsorption of both NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were well fitted to the Freundlich model. Kinetic analysis showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was more suitable for describing the whole adsorption process of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) on SARs. Overall, WSC-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs SAR showed better properties in comparison with WSC-g-PKA SAR and it could be considered as one efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of m-Phenylenediamine-Furfural Resin for Removal of Cu(II from Aqueous Solution-A Thermodynamic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq S. Najim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available m-Phenylenediamine was condensed with furfural in absence of catalyst at room temperature. The produced m-phenylenediamine-furfural resin was used for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solution. The pH for the optimum removal of Cu(II was 6. The negative values of Gibbs free energy at low concentration of Cu(II (20, 30 ppm indicative of the spontaneous adsorption process, while, at higher Cu(II concentration (40,50 ppm the positive and weak values of ∆G° indicate that the process is feasible but non spontaneous. The values of ∆H° were positive indicating that the sorption process is endothermic. On the other hand, the values of activation energy (Ea were inconsistent with the values of ∆H° both are positive and lie in the range of physisorption. The entropy ∆S° of the process was positive indicative of the randomness of the Cu(II ions at the solid / liquid interface. The values of sticking probability S* were less than one which indicate a preferable adsorption process and the mechanism is physisorption.

  12. The application of PLC automatic control system for resin transfer in pulsed elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Maoxiong

    2001-01-01

    An application of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) in automatic control system for resin transfer in pulsed elution column is described. The design principle as well as hardware and software are also described in detail

  13. Development of volume-reduction system for ion exchange resin using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

    2002-01-01

    The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68 MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective. (author)

  14. Upgrade to Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Technetium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig® 639 Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2013-05-16

    This report documents the development and application of computer models to describe the sorption of pertechnetate [TcO₄⁻], and its surrogate perrhenate [ReO₄⁻], on SuperLig® 639 resin. Two models have been developed: 1) A thermodynamic isotherm model, based on experimental data, that predicts [TcO₄⁻] and [ReO₄⁻] sorption as a function of solution composition and temperature and 2) A column model that uses the isotherm calculated by the first model to simulate the performance of a full-scale sorption process. The isotherm model provides a synthesis of experimental data collected from many different sources to give a best estimate prediction of the behavior of the pertechnetate-SuperLig® 639 system and an estimate of the uncertainty in this prediction. The column model provides a prediction of the expected performance of the plant process by determining the volume of waste solution that can be processed based on process design parameters such as column size, flow rate and resin physical properties.

  15. Removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions by strongly basic polystyrene anion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzkiewicz, Monika; Hubicki, Zbigniew

    2009-05-30

    The removal of tartrazine from aqueous solutions onto the strongly basic polystyrene anion exchangers of type 1 (Amberlite IRA-900) and type 2 (Amberlite IRA-910) was investigated. The experimental data obtained at 100, 200, 300 and 500 mg/dm(3) initial concentrations at 20 degrees C were applied to the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Weber-Morris kinetic models. The calculated sorption capacities (q(e,cal)) and the rate constant of the first order adsorption (k(1)) were determined. The pseudo-second order kinetic constants (k(2)) and capacities were calculated from the plots of t/q(t) vs. t, 1/q(t) vs. 1/t, 1/t vs. 1/q(t) and q(t)/t vs. q(t) for type 1, type 2, type 3 and type 4 of the pseudo-second order expression, respectively. The influence of phase contact time, solution pH and temperature on tartrazine removal was also discussed. The FTIR spectra of pure anion exchangers and those loaded with tartrazine were recorded, too.

  16. Investigation of Resin Systems for Improved Ablative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-01

    condensed rings, Boron linear chain of rings Carboranes B-P Resins Polymers Containing Si-O Silicon Si -C Si -N Furan Derivatives Furfural Base Furfural ...8217 Adsorption Theory of Adhesion’ presented at the 144th American Chemical Society Meeting, held in Los Angeles, April 1963. 15. Freeman, J. H. , L. W

  17. Effect of resin system on the mechanical properties and water absorption of kenaf fibre reinforced laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassmann, S.; Paskaramoorthy, R.; Reid, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical and water absorption properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fibre reinforced laminates made of three different resin systems. The use of different resin systems is considered so that potentially complex and expensive fibre treatments are avoided. The resin systems used include a polyester, a vinyl ester and an epoxy. Laminates of 15%, 22.5% and 30% fibre volume fraction were manufactured by resin transfer moulding. The laminates were tested for strength and modulus under tensile and flexural loading. Additionally, tests were carried out on laminates to determine the impact energy, impact strength and water absorption. The results revealed that properties were affected in markedly different ways by the resin system and the fibre volume fraction. Polyester laminates showed good modulus and impact properties, epoxy laminates displayed good strength values and vinyl ester laminates exhibited good water absorption characteristics. Scanning electron microscope studies show that epoxy laminates fail by fibre fracture, polyester laminates by fibre pull-out and vinyl ester laminates by a combination of the two. A comparison between kenaf and glass laminates revealed that the specific tensile and flexural moduli of both laminates are comparable at the volume fraction of 15%. However, glass laminates have much better specific properties than the kenaf laminates at high fibre volume fractions for all three resins used.

  18. Ion exchange removal of chromium (iii) from tannery wastes by using a strong acid cation exchange resin amberlite ir-120 h+ and its hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.

    2014-01-01

    A strong acid cation exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 H+ and its hybrids with Mn(OH)/sub 2/, Cu(OH)/sub 2/ and Fe(OH)/sub 3/ are used for the removal of chromium (III) from spent tannery bath. The experimental data give good fits with the Langmuir sorption model. The thermodynamic parameters entropy (delta S), enthalpy (delta H) and free energy (delta G) changes are computed, which reveal that the chromium removal from tannery wastes by ion exchangers is an endothermic, physical sorption and entropically driven process. The rate of sorption is found to increase with the increase of resin dosage, stirring speed and temperature. Different kinetic models such as film diffusion, particle diffusion and Lagergren pseudo first order are used to evaluate the mechanism of the process. It is found that the hybrid ion exchange resins have better removal capacity as compared to the parent ion exchanger. The increase in the removal capacity is found to be in the order of the corresponding PZC values of the hybrid ion exchangers. Further, it is suggested that the higher exchange capacity is the result of Donnan effect and specific adsorption of chromium by the oxides / hydroxides present inside the matrix of the organic cation exchanger. (author)

  19. Use of strong anion exchange resins for the removal of perfluoroalkylated substances from contaminated drinking water in batch and continuous pilot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaggia, Alessandro; Conte, Lino; Falletti, Luigi; Fant, Massimo; Chiorboli, Andrea

    2016-03-15

    In recent years abnormally high levels of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been detected both in surface and underground water sampled in an area covering approximately 150 square kilometers in the Veneto region (Italy) indicating the presence of a pollution point source (fluorochemicals production plant). Adsorption on granular activated carbon is an emergency measure which is poorly effective requiring frequent replacement. This work focuses on the application of three strong anion exchange resins (Purolite® A520E, A600E and A532E) for the removal of traces of PFOA, PFOS, PFBA and PFBS (concentration of hundreds of ng L(-1)) from drinking water. This technology is attractive for the possibility of reusing resins after an in-situ regeneration step. A strong relationship between the hydrophobicity of the exchange functional group of the resin and its capacity in removing PFAS exists. A600E (non hydrophobic) and A520E (fairly hydrophobic) show a reduced sorption capacity compared to A532E (highly hydrophobic). While A600E and A520E can be regenerated with solvent-less dilute solutions of non-toxic NH4Cl and NH4OH, A532E requires concentrated solutions of methanol or ethanol and 1% NH4Cl and for the sake of this work it was regarded as non-regenerable. The volume of regeneration effluents requiring incineration can be efficiently reduced by more than 96.5% by using reverse osmosis coupled with under-vacuum evaporation. Transmission electron analysis on saturated resins showed that large molecular macro-aggregates of PFAS can form in the intraparticle pores of resin indicating that ion exchange is not the only mechanism involved in PFAS removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of SuperLig 639 Ion Exchange Resin for the Removal of Rhenium from Hanford Envelope A Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.D.

    2000-01-01

    Hanford Radioactive Waste materials have been categorized into four envelopes labeled A through D as specified in the Tank Waste Remediation Contract between BNFL and DOE. 1 Envelopes A, B and C contain only solubilized species and are specified as Low-Activity Waste (LAW). Each envelope is defined based on compositional maximums of chemical and radioactive constituents. Envelopes A and B contain low concentrations of organic species and the primary form of technetium is pertechnetate (TcO4-). Envelope C contains higher levels of organic species and technetium which is primarily in the nonpertechnetate form (presumably complexed TcO2). Envelope D is sludge which has been separated from the supernate and is referred to as High Activity Waste. The current plant design utilizes SuperLig ion exchange resins to remove cesium and technetium (the primary radioactive constituents) from the Hanford LAW. The process is designed to produce a decontaminated waste stream and a concentrated eluate waste stream for vitrification into low and high activity glasses, respectively

  1. Enhanced biocatalytic production of L-cysteine by Pseudomonas sp. B-3 with in situ product removal using ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; He, Jun-Yao; Yin, Jiang-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Bioconversion of DL-2-amino-Δ(2)-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (DL-ATC) catalyzed by whole cells of Pseudomonas sp. was successfully applied for the production of L-cysteine. It was found, however, like most whole-cell biocatalytic processes, the accumulated L-cysteine produced obvious inhibition to the activity of biocatalyst and reduced the yield. To improve L-cysteine productivity, an anion exchange-based in situ product removal (ISPR) approach was developed. Several anion-exchange resins were tested to select a suitable adsorbent used in the bioconversion of DL-ATC for the in situ removal of L-cysteine. The strong basic anion-exchange resin 201 × 7 exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for L-cysteine and low adsorption for DL-ATC, which is a favorable option. With in situ addition of 60 g L(-1) resin 201 × 7, the product inhibition can be reduced significantly and 200 mmol L(-1) of DL-ATC was converted to L-cysteine with 90.4 % of yield and 28.6 mmol L(-1 )h(-1) of volumetric productivity. Compared to the bioconversion without the addition of resin, the volumetric productivity of L-cysteine was improved by 2.27-fold using ISPR method.

  2. Shaping ability of two M-wire and two traditional nickel-titanium instrumentation systems in S-shaped resin canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhanli, K T; Kamaci, A; Taner, M; Erdilek, N; Celik, D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shaping effects of two M-wire and two traditional nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems in simulated S-shaped resin canals. Forty simulated S-shaped canals in resin blocks were instrumented with two traditional (ProTaper, Sendoline S5) and two M-wire (WaveOne, GT series X) NiTi systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. Ten resin blocks were used for each system. Pre- and post-instrumentation images were captured using a stereomicroscope and superimposed with an image program. Canal transportation, material removal, and aberrations were evaluated and recorded as numeric parameters. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests with a 95% confidence interval. There were significant differences between systems in terms of transportation and material removal (Pwire or traditional NiTi) and kinematics (rotary or reciprocating motion) did not affect the shaping abilities of the systems. The extended file designs of highly tapered NiTi systems (ProTaper, WaveOne) resulted in greater deviations from the original root canal trace and more material removal when compared to less tapered systems (Sendoline S5, GT series X).

  3. Radium removal for a small community water-supply system. Research report, 1 October 1985-30 September 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelson, K.A.

    1988-07-01

    In 1984, a radium-removal treatment plant was constructed for the small community of Redhill Forest located in the central mountains of Colorado. The treatment plant consists of a process for removing iron and manganese ahead of an ion-exchange process for the removal of radium. The raw water comes from deep wells and has naturally occurring radium and iron concentrations of about 30-40 pCi/L and 7-10 mg/L, respectively. Before the raw water enters the main treatment plant, the raw water is aerated to remove radon gas and carbon dioxide. The unique features of the Redhill Forest Treatment Plant are related to the ways in which the radium removed from the raw water is further treated and eventually disposed of as treatment plant waste. A separate system removes only radium from the backwash/regeneration water of the ion exchange process and the radium is permanently complexed on a Radium Selective Complexer (RSC) resin made by Dow Chemical. The RSC resin containing radium is replaced with virgin resin as needed and the resin waste transported to a permanent final disposal site in Beatty, NV. This report presents a detailed description of the Redhill Forest treatment system and the results of in-depth monitoring of the processes and other factors relating to the overall operation of the radium-removal system. Included are descriptions of modifications made in the plant operation to improve the overall system operation and of the procedures for final disposal of the RSC resin-containing radium

  4. Nuclear reactor auxiliary heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Pierce, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    An auxiliary heat removal system to remove residual heat from gas-cooled nuclear reactors is described. The reactor coolant is expanded through a turbine, cooled in a heat exchanger and compressed by a compressor before reentering the reactor coolant. The turbine powers both the compressor and the pump which pumps a second fluid through the heat exchanger to cool the reactor coolant. A pneumatic starter is utilized to start the turbine, thereby making the auxiliary heat removal system independent of external power sources

  5. Analysis of Ion-Exchange Resin Capability of the RSG-GAS Demineralized Water System (GCA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diyah Erlina Lestari; Setyo Budi Utomo; Harsono

    2012-01-01

    The Demineralized water system (GCA01) is a system which is function to process raw water to be demineralized water using ion exchange resin unit consisting of a column of cation exchange resins, anion exchange resin column and the column resin mix bed. After certain time the ion exchange resins to be saturated so that is needed regeneration. The RSG-GAS demineralized water system (GCA01) not operated continuously and indication of when does an ion exchange resin regeneration on The RSG-GAS demineralized water system (GCA01) is the water conductivity from anion exchange resin column output indicates ≥ 5μS/cm. Analysis of capability of the ion exchange resin demineralized water system (GCA01) line I has been performed. The analysis was done by comparing the time required in the system operating cycle of regeneration to the next regeneration during the period 2011 and 2012. From the results of the analysis showed the cycle regeneration time is varies. This shows that ion exchange resin capability of the RSG-GAS demineralized water system (GCA01) is varies depending on the raw water quality and success of the regeneration ion exchange resin. (author)

  6. Dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Ueda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y.; Seki, Y.; Ueda, S.; Aoki, I.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by the DC electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed by the three-phase AC electric field. Experimental investigation has been conducted to examine the characteristics of the system. Current research results indicate that the dust removal system using static electricity can be used for fusion experimental reactors

  7. Dust removal system for fusion experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Ueda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Seki, Y.; Ueda, S.; Aoki, I. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of a dust removal system using static electricity has been conducted. It is envisioned that the system can collect and transport dust under vacuum. In the system, the dust is charged by dielectric polarization and floated by an electrostatic attraction force that is generated by the DC electric field. The dust is then transported by the electric curtain formed by the three-phase AC electric field. Experimental investigation has been conducted to examine the characteristics of the system. Current research results indicate that the dust removal system using static electricity can be used for fusion experimental reactors.

  8. A One-Component, Fast-Cure, and Economical Epoxy Resin System Suitable for Liquid Molding of Automotive Composite Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiru Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Imidazole cured epoxy resin systems were evaluated for one-component, fast-curing resins for liquid molding of automotive composite parts according to industry requirements. It was demonstrated that an epoxy resin-1-(cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4-methylimidazol(EP-1C2E4MIM system would cure in a few minutes at 120 °C, while exhibiting acceptable pot life, viscosity profiles, and low water absorption. Moreover, this system yielded high Tg parts with mechanical properties similar to the amine-epoxy systems, which are the mainstream two-component epoxy resin systems for automobiles.

  9. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  10. Process and system for removing tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    A process and system for removing tritium, particularly from high temperature gas cooled atomic reactors (HTGR), is disclosed. Portions of the reactor coolant, which is permeated with the pervasive tritium atom, are processed to remove the tritium. Under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure, the reactor coolant is combined with gaseous oxygen, resulting in the formation of tritiated water vapor from the tritium in the reactor coolant and the gaseous oxygen. The tritiated water vapor and the remaining gaseous oxygen are then successively removed by fractional liquefaction steps. The reactor coolant is then recirculated to the reactor

  11. Clinical application of removable partial dentures using thermoplastic resin-part I: definition and indication of non-metal clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, Kenji; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Yatabe, Masaru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Arita, Masahiro; Ino, Satoshi; Kanamori, Toshikazu; Kawai, Yasuhiko; Kawara, Misao; Komiyama, Osamu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Hosoki, Maki; Masumi, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Mutsuo; Aita, Hideki; Ono, Takahiro; Kondo, Hisatomo; Tamaki, Katsushi; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Tsukasaki, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Masanori; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    This position paper proposes a definition and naming standard for removable partial dentures (RPDs) using thermoplastic resin, and presents a guideline for clinical application. A panel of 14 experts having broad experience with clinical application of RPDs using thermoplastic resin was selected from members of the Japan Prosthodontic Society. At a meeting of the panel, "non-metal clasp denture" was referred as the generic name of RPDs with retentive elements (resin clasps) made of thermoplastic resin. The panel classified non-metal clasp dentures into two types: one with a flexible structure that lacks a metal framework and the other having a rigid structure that includes a metal framework. According to current prosthetic principles, flexible non-metal clasp dentures are not recommended as definitive dentures, except for limited cases such as patients with a metal allergy. Rigid non-metal clasp dentures are recommended in cases where patients will not accept metal clasps for esthetic reasons. Non-metal clasp dentures should follow the same design principles as conventional RPDs using metal clasps. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  13. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas; Wilkes, Marty

    2012-01-01

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  14. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  15. Bond strength of a composite resin to glass ionomer cements using different adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Oliveira BECCI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Glass ionomer cements are often used as a base or cavity lining prior to restorative material. Objective To evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to different glass ionomer cements, when using a two-step conventional and self-etching adhesive systems. Material and method Three glass ionomer cements (Ketac Molar Easymix, Vitremer and Vitrebond, the composite resin Filtek Z350 XT and the adhesive systems Adper Single Bond 2, Clearfil SE Bond and Adper Easy One were used. As negative control, resin was bonded to cement without using an adhesive system. Holes (4 mm diameter, 2 mm deep prepared in acrilic bloks were filled with the glass ionomer cements (n=12/group. On the surface, an area of 1mm in diameter was delimited, the adhesive system was applied, and a specimen of composite resin with 1 mm height was made. After 24 hours storage (37 °C and 100% humidity, the microshear test was performed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for comparison between groups (α=0.05. Result The adhesive systems significantly improved the bond strenght of composite resin to glass ionomer cements (p≤0.001. There was no significant difference in bond strength when self-etching adhesive systems were compared with the simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive, except for Vitrebond where Clearfil SE Bond determined higher bond strength when compared to Adper Single Bond 2 (p=0.003. Conclusion Self-etching adhesive systems are a good option for establishing the bond between the composite resin and the glass ionomer cement.

  16. Novel chelating resin with cyanoguanidine group: Useful recyclable materials for Hg(II) removal in aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaojie; Li Yanfeng; Ye Zhengfang; Yang Liuqing; Zhou Lincheng; Wang Liyuan

    2011-01-01

    A novel chelating resin containing cyanoguanidine moiety has been successfully prepared by the functionalizing reaction of a macroporous bead based on chloromethylated copolymer of styrene-divinylbenzene (CMPS) with dicyandiamide (DCDA) in the presence of phase transfer catalyst. The Fourier transform-infrared spectra (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed in the characterization of the resulting chelating resin, meanwhile, the adsorption properties of the resin for Hg(II) were investigated by batch and column methods. The results indicated that the resin displayed a marked advantage in Hg(II) binding capacity, and the saturated adsorption capacity estimated from the Langmuir model was dramatically up to 1077 mg g -1 at 45 deg. C. Furthermore, it was found that the resin was able to selectively separate Hg(II) from multicomponent solutions with Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Mg(II). The desorption process of Hg(II) was tested with different eluents and the ratio of the highest recovery reached to 96% under eluting condition of 1 M HCl + 10% thiourea. Consequently, the resulting chelating resin would provide a potential application for treatment process of Hg(II) containing wastewater.

  17. 300 GPM Solids Removal System A True Replacement for Back Flushable Powdered Filter Systems - 13607

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Mark R.; Lewis, Mark [EnergySolutions, Suite 100, Center Point II, 100 Center Point Circle, Columbia, SC 29210 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The EnergySolutions Solids Removal System (SRS) utilizes stainless steel cross-flow ultra-filtration (XUF) technology which allows it to reliably remove suspended solids greater than one (1) micron from liquid radwaste streams. The SRS is designed as a pre-treatment step for solids separation prior to processing through other technologies such as Ion Exchange Resin (IER) and/or Reverse Osmosis (RO), etc. Utilizing this pre-treatment approach ensures successful production of reactor grade water while 1) decreasing the amount of radioactive water being discharged to the environment; and 2) decreasing the amount of radioactive waste that must ultimately be disposed of due to the elimination of spent powdered filter media. (authors)

  18. 300 GPM Solids Removal System A True Replacement for Back Flushable Powdered Filter Systems - 13607

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Mark R.; Lewis, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The EnergySolutions Solids Removal System (SRS) utilizes stainless steel cross-flow ultra-filtration (XUF) technology which allows it to reliably remove suspended solids greater than one (1) micron from liquid radwaste streams. The SRS is designed as a pre-treatment step for solids separation prior to processing through other technologies such as Ion Exchange Resin (IER) and/or Reverse Osmosis (RO), etc. Utilizing this pre-treatment approach ensures successful production of reactor grade water while 1) decreasing the amount of radioactive water being discharged to the environment; and 2) decreasing the amount of radioactive waste that must ultimately be disposed of due to the elimination of spent powdered filter media. (authors)

  19. USE OF STRONG ACID RESIN PUROLITE C100E FOR REMOVING PERMANENT HARDNESS OF WATER – FACTORS AFFECTING CATIONIC EXCHANGE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN BANDRABUR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates the performance and capacity of Purolite C100E commercial resin recommended for water softening applications in the food industry. The practical ion exchange capacity and the softening process efficiency are studied in batch mode as a function of the sorption specific process factors. Optimum operation conditions were determined as initial pH 7.1, resin dose 8 g dry resin•L-1, temperature 25 oC, contact time of 360 min, and in those conditions the retention capacity for the Ca2+ ions is 17.18 mg•g-1 that corresponds to a removal efficiency equal to 85.7%.

  20. Feasibility of passive heat removal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a review of decay heat removal systems (DHRSs) used in liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Advantages and the disadvantages of these DHRSs, extent of their passivity and prospects for their use in advanced fast reactor projects are analyzed. Methods of extending the limitations on the employment of individual systems, allowing enhancement in their effectiveness as safety systems and assuring their total passivity are described. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs.

  1. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  2. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the products' properties. (author)

  3. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1985-12-01

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation

  4. CAREM-25: Residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvia, Roberto P.; Coppari, Norberto R.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Ramilo, Lucia B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was the definition and consolidation of the residual heat removal system for the CAREM 25 reactor. The function of this system is cool down the primary circuit, removing the core decay heat from hot stand-by to cold shutdown and during refueling. In addition, this system heats the primary water from the cold shutdown condition to hot stand-by condition during the reactor start up previous to criticality. The system has been designed according to the requirements of the standards: ANSI/ANS 51.1 'Nuclear safety criteria for the design of stationary PWR plants'; ANSI/ANS 58.11 'Design criteria for safe shutdown following selected design basis events in light water reactors' and ANSI/ANS 58.9 'Single failure criteria for light water reactor safety-related fluid systems'. The suggested design fulfills the required functions and design criteria standards. (author)

  5. Removing radio-active wastes from nuclear power stations by the STEAG system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatz, H.

    1978-01-01

    The mobile STEAG System for conditioning radio-active wastes from nuclear power stations represents a particularly safe and economic method of removing them in present day conditions. Cementation by the FAFNIR System is used for the greater part of the waste, the liquid concentrate (evaporator concentrate and filter slurry). For the special case of the medium active resin balls from the primary circuits, embedding in plastic by the FAMA process has proved to be the only available successful process so far. The highly active solid waste from the reactor core is decomposed by the MOSAIK System, is packed in transportable and storable containers and is removed from the fuel element storage pond. The systems are so safe that faults or interruptions of power station operation due to faults in removing radio-active wastes can be excluded. (orig.) [de

  6. Development of metal catalyst impregnation technology for membrane-based oxygen removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mun Soo; Lee, Doo Ho; Kang, Duk Won

    2005-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen(DO) is a primary cause of PWSCC and its content in reactor coolant system in NPPs has been strictly controlled by various DO removal methods. There are several removal methods of DO, such as vacuum degasification, thermal deaeration, and reductive removal by oxygen scavengers. Although the operation principles of vacuum degasification and thermal deaeration are simple, these methods require a lot of energy for operation and show lower efficiency. And these methods have a few handicaps such as temperature, pH, toxicity, high cost of installation and so on. For the purpose of developing the best method for DO removal from make-up water storage tank, it is necessary to overcome the disadvantages of hydrazine treatment. From this point of view, membrane-based oxygen removal system (MORS) has many advantages than other methods for example, friendly environmental process, versatility of operation conditions with high temperature and low pressure, small space, low cost, etc. Recently de-gassing membrane is widely used in power plant's feed water system for DO removal. De-gassing membrane has some advantages; it removes other dissolved gases such as CO2, N2, as well as O2, and is more economical than Catalytic resin-based Oxygen Removal System. In this study, to obtain better efficiency of MORS, we modified the polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane by plasma treatment and ion beam irradiation supported platinum(Pt), palladium(Pd) as metal catalyst on the surface of the membrane

  7. Radiological/biological/aerosol removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Jeffery J

    2015-03-17

    An air filter replacement system for existing buildings, vehicles, arenas, and other enclosed airspaces includes a replacement air filter for replacing a standard air filter. The replacement air filter has dimensions and air flow specifications that allow it to replace the standard air filter. The replacement air filter includes a filter material that removes radiological or biological or aerosol particles.

  8. Development of high radiation-resistant glass fiber reinforced plastics with cyanate-based resin for superconducting magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idesaki, Akira, E-mail: idesaki.akira@qst.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Watanuki 1233, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nakamoto, Tatsushi [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshida, Makoto [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Shimada, Akihiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Watanuki 1233, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Iio, Masami; Sasaki, Kenichi; Sugano, Michinaka [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Makida, Yasuhiro [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Ogitsu, Toru [Cryogenic Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • GFRPs for superconducting magnet systems were developed. • Cyanate-based resins were used for GFRPs as matrices. • Radiation resistance was evaluated based on gas evolution and mechanical properties. • GFRP with bismaleimide-triazine resin exhibited excellent radiation resistance. - Abstract: Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) with cyanate ester resin/epoxy resin, bismaleimide resin/epoxy resin, and bismaleimide-triazine resin as matrices were developed for the superconducting magnet systems used in high intensity accelerators. The radiation resistance of these GFRPs was evaluated based on their gas evolution and changes in their mechanical properties after gamma-ray irradiation with dose of 100 MGy in vacuum at ambient temperature. After irradiation, a small amount of gas was evolved from all of the GFRPs, and a slight decrease in mechanical properties was observed compared with the conventional epoxy resin-GFRP, G10. Among the GFRPs, the smallest amount of gas (6 × 10{sup −5} mol/g) was evolved from the GFRP with the bismaleimide-triazine resin, which also retained more than 88% of its flexural strength after 100 MGy irradiation; this GFRP is thus considered the most promising material for superconducting magnet systems.

  9. [The influence of the chemo-mechanical removal of the smear-layer and the use of a dentin adhesive on microleakage of composite resin restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Macorra García, J C; Gómez Martínez, A; Gutiérrez Argumosa, B

    1989-02-01

    We present an "in vitro" study of microfiltration in composite resin restorations with a perimetral seal placed totally in cement. We compare the sealing capability of a dentin adhesive (ScotchBond I) used in two ways: habitual, without conditioning dentin and conditioning it by means of the Caridex system. This produced no increasing of sealing capability under the study conditions.

  10. Comparison of adsorption equilibrium models for the study of CL-, NO3- and SO4(2-) removal from aqueous solutions by an anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Julien; Dodi, Alain

    2011-06-15

    The removal of chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions from aqueous solutions by a macroporous resin is studied through the ion exchange systems OH(-)/Cl(-), OH(-)/NO(3)(-), OH(-)/SO(4)(2-), and HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-), Cl(-)/NO(3)(-), Cl(-)/SO(4)(2-). They are investigated by means of Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A) single-component adsorption isotherms. The sorption parameters and the fitting of the models are determined by nonlinear regression and discussed. The Langmuir model provides a fair estimation of the sorption capacity whatever the system under study, on the contrary to Freundlich and D-R models. The adsorption energies deduced from Dubinin and Langmuir isotherms are in good agreement, and the surface parameter of the D-A isotherm appears consistent. All models agree on the order of affinity OH(-)systems (HCO(3)(-)/Cl(-), Cl(-)/NO(3)(-)). The D-A and D-R models provide the best fit to the experimental points, indicating that the micropore volume filling theory is the best representation of the ion exchange processes under study among other adsorption isotherms. The nonlinear regression results are also compared with linear regressions. While the parameter values are not affected, the evaluation of the best fitting model is biased by linearization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermosetting epoxy resin/thermoplastic system with combined shape memory and self-healing properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yongtao; Wang, Jingjie; Lu, Haibao; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Xu, Ben; Fu, Yongqing

    2016-01-01

    A novel and facile strategy was proposed to construct a thermosetting/thermoplastic system with both shape memory and self-healing properties based on commercial epoxy resin and poly(ϵ-caprolactone)-PCL. Thermoplastic material is capable of re-structuring and changing the stiffness/modulus when the temperature is above melting temperature. PCL microfiber was used as a plasticizer in epoxy resin–based blends, and served as a ‘hard segment’ to fix a temporary shape of the composites during shape memory cycles. In this study, the electrospun PCL membrane with a porous network structure enabled a homogenous PCL fibrous distribution and optimized interaction between fiber and epoxy resin. The self-healing capability is achieved by phase transition during curing of the composites. The mechanism of the shape memory effect of the thermosetting (rubber)/thermoplastic composite is attributed to the structural design of the thermoplastic network inside the thermosetting resin/rubber matrix. (paper)

  12. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

  13. Comparative evaluation of the regional micro-push-out bond strength of custom-made resin post system with a prefabricated resin post: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ranjithkumar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion : Within the limitations of the study, amongst all the four groups tested, custom-made resin post luted with self-etch system (CMPR-SE showed higher micro-push-out bond strength values in all regions when compared to the other groups

  14. Pegasus International, Inc. coating removal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Pegasus Coating Removal System (PCRS) was demonstrated at Florida International University (FIU) where it was being evaluated for efficiency and cost. In conjunction with the FIU testing demonstration, a human factors assessment was conducted to assess the hazards and associated safety and health issues of concern for workers utilizing this technology. The PCRS is a chemical paste that is applied to the surface using a brush, roller, or airless sprayer. After the type of PCRS, thickness, and dwell time have been determined, a laminated backed material is placed on top of the chemical paste to slow down the drying process and to provide a mechanism to strip-off the chemical. After the dwell time is reached, the chemical substrate can be removed. Scrapers may be used to break-loose the layers as necessary or to break-loose the layers that are not removed when the laminated paper is picked up. Residue may also be cleaned off of the surface with a damp sponge with an agitating motion, absorbent sponges, or a vacuum, as needed. The paint and removal agent is then placed in drums for disposal at a later time. During the assessment sampling was conducted for organic vapors and general observational techniques were conducted for ergonomics. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during application and removal of the PCRS include: (1) work practices that reflect avoidance of exposure or reducing the risk of exposure; (2) assuring all PPE and equipment are compatible with the chemicals being used; (3) work practices that reduce the worker`s need to walk on the slippery surface caused by the chemical or the use of special anti-slip soles; (4) careful control of overspray (if a spray application is used); and (5) the use of ergonomically designed long-handled tools to apply and remove the chemical (to alleviate some of the ergonomic concerns).

  15. Evaluation of pre-impregnated resin-glass systems for insulating superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1975-01-01

    Superconducting magnets using adiabatically stable conductors may be fabricated using a resin-glass insulating system applied to the conductor before winding and cured after winding. Preliminary screening for strength and convenience of use has been performed on seven possible candidate systems. Results are presented for butt-tensile tests at 300 0 K and 77 0 K and a description is given of the physical handling characteristics for each system. (U.S.)

  16. West Valley waste removal system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank

  17. Comparative evaluation of effect of different polishing systems on surface roughness of composite resin: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chour, Rashmi G; Moda, Aman; Arora, Arpana; Arafath, Muhmmed Y; Shetty, Vikram K; Rishal, Yousef

    2016-08-01

    Satisfactory composite restoration depends upon its smooth finish, quality of polishing agents, type of composite material used, and its composition. The present study evaluated the effect of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resin. Forty discs of composite were prepared and equally subjected to different finishing and polishing procedures; (i) unpolished control group, (ii) sof-lex discs, (iii) diamond tips, and (iv) Astrobrush groups. Later, the surface roughness for the entire specimen was evaluated using Profilomotor. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test at significance level of 0.001. Composite surface roughness after polishing was statistically significant between the groups. Sof-lex group produced lesser surface roughness compared to control, Astrobrush, and diamond group. The present study indicated that diamond tips can be used to remove rough surface whereas sof-lex can be used for final finish and polish of the composite restoration.

  18. Uranium recovery and uranium remove from acid mine waters by ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina com resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao do Laborarorio; Fatibello Filho, Orlando [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of few processes capable of reducing contaminants in effluents to very low levels according to environmental legislation. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The presence of pyrite in the waste rock piles, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants. Including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by an anionic exchanger. Studies of uranium sorption without treatment, and with lime pretreatment of water to precipitate the iron and recovery uranium as commercial product, are presented. Uranium elution was done with NaCl solutions. Saline concentration and retention time were the parameters studied. the uranium decontaminations level in the effluents from acid mine water was 94%. (author) 10 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Preliminary extraction of tannins by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazole bromide and its subsequent removal from Galla chinensis extract using macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxia; Luo, Xiaoling; Lu, Liliang; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Xia; Ji, Yong

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids have become increasingly attractive as 'green solvents' used in the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural plant. However, the separation of ionic liquid from the target compounds was difficult, due to their low vapour pressure and high stabilities. In our study, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction was used to obtain the crude tannins, then the macroporous resin adsorption technology was further employed to purify the tannins and remove the ionic liquid from crude extract. The results showed that XDA-6 had higher separation efficiency than other tested resins, and the equilibrium experimental data were well fitted to Langmuir isotherms. Dynamic adsorption and desorption were performed on XDA-6 packed in glass columns to optimise the separation process. The optimum conditions as follows: the ratio of column height to diameter bed was 1:8, flow rate 1 BV/h (bed volume per hour), 85% ethanol was used as eluant while the elution volume was 2 BV. Under the optimised conditions, the adsorption and desoption rate of tannins in XDA-6 were 94.81 and 91.63%, respectively. The content of tannins was increased from 70.24% in Galla chinensis extract to 85.12% with a recovery of 99.06%. The result of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS analysis showed that [bmim]Br could be removed from extract. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Performance Variation of Spent Resin in Mixed Bed From Water Purifying System of Xi'an Pulse Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hua; Ma Yan; Xiao Yan; Liu Yueheng; Yang Yongqing

    2010-01-01

    Detailed physical and chemical characteristic analysis was performed on the spent cation and anion resins in the mixed bed from Xi'an Pulse Reactor water purifying system.The exchange performance variations of used resins and the contributions from different factors to the variation were discussed.Based on the obtained information of the impurities in the used resin, the contamination state of the water in the Xi'an Pulse Reactor water pool, the corrosion state of the structural material in the reactor was presented. The spent anion resin almost completely losses its exchange performance,while the remaining exchange capacity in the spent cation resin is still high.The radiation field from the reactor operation contributes little to the degradation of the performance of the resins. The exchange capacity loss of the spent anion resin is due to the exchange of its active groups into abundant carbonate and a certain amount of organics. The impurity amount in the anion and cation exchange resins is low,which suggests(that) the water in the Xi'an Pulse Reactor water pool is little contaminated. A certain extent of corrosion is occurred on the structural material in the swimming pool of the reactor. The results provide important referential data for the operational safety of the water purifying system of similar research reactor. (authors)

  1. Photobleachable Diazonium Salt-Phenolic Resin Two-Layer Resist System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Hashimoto, Michiaki

    1988-01-01

    This article describes a new negative two-layer photoresist system formed by a simple, successive spin-coating method. An aqueous acetic acid solution of diazonium salt and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) is deposited so as to contact a phenolic resin film spin-coated on a silicon wafer. The diazonium salt diffuses into the phenolic resin layer after standing for several minutes. The residual solution on the phenolic resin film doped with diazonium salt is spun to form the diazonium salt-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) top layer. This forms a uniform two-layer resist without phase separation or striation. Upon UV exposure, the diazonium salt in the top layer bleaches to act as a CEL dye, while the diazonium salt in the bottom layer decomposes to cause insolubilization. Half μm line-and-space patterns are obtained with an i-line stepper using 4-diazo-N,N-dimethylaniline chloride zinc chloride double salt as the diazonium salt and a cresol novolac resin for the bottom polymer layer. The resist formation processes, insolubilization mechanism, and the resolution capability of the new two-layer resist are discussed.

  2. TMI defueling project fuel debris removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdge, B.

    1992-01-01

    The three mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident on March 28, 1979, presented the nuclear community with many challenging remediation problems; most importantly, the removal of the fission products within the reactor containment vessel. To meet this removal problem, an air-lift system (ALS) can be used to employ compressed air to produce the motive force for transporting debris. Debris is separated from the transport stream by gravity separation. The entire method does not rely on any moving parts. Full-scale testing of the ALS at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has demonstrated the capability of transporting fuel debris from beneath the LCSA into a standard fuel debris bucket at a minimum rate of 230 kg/min

  3. Bracket bond strength and cariostatic potential of an experimental resin adhesive system containing Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masanori; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Kohda, Naohisa; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-09-01

    To determine if a new experimental resin-based material containing Portland cement (PC) can help prevent enamel caries while providing adequate shear bond strength (SBS). Brackets were bonded to human premolars with experimental resin-based adhesive pastes composed of three weight rations of resin and PC powder (PC 30, 7:3; PC 50, 5:5; PC 70, 3:7; n  =  7). Self-etching primer (SEP) adhesive (Transbond Plus) and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) adhesive (Fuji Ortho FC Automix) were used for comparison. All of the bonded teeth were subjected to alternating immersion in demineralizing (pH 4.55) and remineralizing (pH 6.8) solutions for 14 days. The SBS for each sample was examined, and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was calculated. The hardness and elastic modulus of the enamel were determined by a nanoindenter at 20 equidistant depths from the external surface at 100 µm from the bracket edge. Data were compared by one-way analysis of variance and a chi-square test. PC 50 and PC 70 showed significantly greater SBS than Fuji Ortho FC Automix, although Transbond Plus showed significantly greater SBS than other bonding systems. No significant difference in the ARI category was observed among the five groups. For specimens bonded with PC 50 and PC 70, the hardness and elastic modulus values in most locations were equivalent to those of Fuji Ortho FC Automix. Experimental resin-based bonding material containing PC provides adequate SBS and a caries-preventive effect equivalent to that of the RMGIC adhesive system.

  4. Innovative tank emptying system for the retrieval of salt, sludge and IX resins from storage tanks of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Froschauer; Holger Witing; Bernhard Christ

    2006-01-01

    RWE NUKEM recently developed a new Tank Emptying System (TESY) for the extraction of stored radioactive boric acid/borate salt blocks, sludge and IX resin from NPP stainless steel tanks of several hundred cubic meters content in Russia. RWE NUKEM has chosen the emptying concept consisting of a tracked submersible vehicle ('Crawler'), with jet nozzles for solution, agitation and fluidization, and a suction head to pick up the generated solution or suspension respectively. With the employment of RWE NUKEM's TESY system, spent radioactive salt deposits, ion-exchange resins and sludge, can be emptied and transferred out of the tank. The sediment, crystallized and settled during storage, will be agitated with increased temperature and suitable pH value and then picked up in form of a suspension or solution directly at the point of mobilization. This new Tank Emptying System concept enables efficiently to retrieve stored salt and other sediment waste, reduces operating time, safes cost for spare parts, increases the safety of operation and minimizes radiation exposure to personnel. All emptying tasks are performed remotely from a panel board and TV monitor located in a central control room. The TESY system consists of the following main components: glove box, crawler, submersible pump, heater, TV camera and spot light, control panel and monitor, water separation and feed unit, sodium hydroxide dosing unit. The system is specially requested for the removal of more than 2,500 cubic meter salt solution generated from the dissolution of some 300 cubic meter crystallized salt deposit per tank and per year. The TESY system is able to dissolve efficiently the salts and retrieve solutions and other liquefied suspensions. TESY is adaptable to all liquid waste storage facilities and especially deployable for tanks with limited access openings (<550 mm)

  5. The effects of water absorption on an ester vinyl resin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledjane Lima Sobrinho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Derakene is a vinyl ester resin largely employed as matrix for polymeric based composite systems. In this work, the performance of such polymeric system was evaluated considering the effect of hygrothermal aging. The mechanical and thermal properties were examined for the processed material before and after ageing in water at 60 ºC for a maximum period of 64 days. Both analyses indicated the occurrence of post cure of the system after 16 days due to exposition at 60 ºC in water, which was also confirmed by analyses in samples with post cure treatment. Moreover, it was observed plasticizing of resin after 36 and 64 days of ageing. Micro structural and fracture surface analyses were carried out in order to characterize the samples. The appearance of surface voids was also observed.

  6. System for removing contaminated surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kozo.

    1987-04-01

    The object of the present invention is to offer a new type of useful decontamination system, with which the contaminated surface layers can be removed effectively by injection of such solid microparticles. Liquid carbon dioxide is passed from a liquid carbon dioxide tank via the carbon dioxide supply line into the system for injecting solid carbon dioxide particles. Part of the liquid carbon dioxide introduced into the system is converted to solid carbon dioxide particles by the temperature drop resulting from adiabatic expansion in the carbon dioxide expansion space of the injection system. The solid carbon dioxide particles reach the injection nozzle, which is connected through the expansion space. The carbon dioxide microparticles are further cooled and accelerated by nitrogen gas injected from the nitrogen gas nozzle at the tip of the nitrogen gas supply line, which is connected to a liquid nitrogen tank. The cooled and accelerated solid carbon dioxide microparticles are injected from the injection nozzle for the solid carbon dioxide and directed against the contaminated surface to be cleaned, and, as a result, the surface contamination is removed

  7. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  8. Behavior of copper (II )and uranium ( VI) in precipitation chromatography in the system anion exchange resin - hexacyanoferrate (II )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneda, Jose Antonio

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is shown the efficiency of precipitation chromatography for separation and concentration of metallic elements by using a strong anionic-exchange resin saturated with hexacyanoferrate (II). Metallic cations, like Cu (II) and U (VI), are retained from highly diluted solutions and enriched into the resin, in the form of the correspondent insoluble hexacyanoferrate (II), precipitated inside the resin, which permitted the visual observation of a chromatographic zone on the top of the column. It will be discussed the conditions of sorption and elution of the cations uptake by the resin. This system permits the enrichment of the above mentioned cations onto the resin and offers the possibility of interesting separations as well. (author)

  9. Green Thermosetting Factory: Novel Star-Shaped Biobased Systems and Their Thermosetting Resins; Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandideh, Arash

    Increasing attentions toward sustainable development, economic and environmental issues have led to many attempts at replacing the petroleum-based materials with renewables. Substitution of petroleum-based platforms with green alternative technologies is beneficiary in different ways. Using bio-renewables reduces the dependency of the national plastic industry to the petroleum resources and substantially promotes the environmental profile and sustainability of the product. It is expected that the emergence of the corn-based thermosetting industry generates substantial profits for the corn production sector. Developments in the emerging biobased thermosets are spectacular from a technological point of view. However, there are still several disadvantages associated with the current biobased thermosetting resins, e.g. low processability, environmental issues, expensive sources and poor thermomechanical properties. Use of natural fibers not only contributes to the production of a more environmentally friendly product, but also has advantages such as low-weight product and low manufacturing costs. The results of this study show a possibility of production of biocomposites made from natural fibers and star-shaped resin, synthesized from corn-based materials (lactic acid and itaconic acid) and different multihydroxyl core molecules. These resins were synthesized via two-steps strategy: polycondensation of the monomers with the core molecules followed by end-functionalization of the branches by methacrylic anhydride or itaconic acid. The results have shown that these resin are capable of competing with or even surpassing fossil fuel based resins in terms of cost and eco-friendliness aspect. Inexpensive biobased raw material, better environmental profile, low viscosity, and better processability of the matrix along with better thermomechanical properties of the produced biocomposites are of advantages expected for these systems.

  10. The bonding effectiveness of five luting resin cements to the IPS Empress 2 all ceramic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhan, V; Essop, A R M; Du Preez, I C

    2005-04-01

    Variolink II is the only resin cement used for bonding IPS (Ivoclar Porcelain System) Empress 2 ceramic restorations. Alternative luting resin cements need to be investigated for their bonding effectiveness with the IPS Empress 2 ceramic. To determine the shear bond strength (SBS) and the effect of thermocycling, on the bonding effectiveness, of five resin cements to IPS Empress 2 ceramic. The projecting surfaces of one hundred ceramic discs were ground wet on silicone carbide paper. The specimens were divided into 5 groups of 20. The resin cements were bonded to the prepared ceramic surfaces, in the form of a stub. The specimens were stored under distilled water at 37 degrees C in an oven for 24 hours. Ten specimens in each group were thermocycled for 300 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C. All the specimens were stressed to failure in an Instron Materials Testing Machine. The results were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistically similar mean SBS values were grouped using the Bonferroni (Dunn) multiple comparison test. The means for the non-thermocycled group were: 26.21, 19.41, 17.69, 17.43, and 15.76. The means for the thermocycled group were: 22.90, 15.72, 14.34, 13.96 and 13.45. The differences between the means were highly significant (p Empress 2 ceramic was effective. Thermocycling had a significant effect on the mean SBS values of Calibra. Thermocycling had no significant effect on the mean SBS values of the other resin cements.

  11. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-01-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  12. Boron Removal in Seawater Reverse Osmosis System

    KAUST Repository

    Rahmawati, Karina

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis successfully proves to remove more than 99% of solute in seawater, providing fresh water supply with satisfied quality. Due to some operational constraints, however, some trace contaminants removal, such as boron, cannot be achieved in one pass system. The stringent criterion for boron from World Health Organization (WHO) and Saudi Arabia local standard (0.5 mg/l) is hardly fulfilled by single pass sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants. Some design processes have been proposed to deal with boron removal, but they are not economically efficient due to high energy and chemical consumption. The objective of this study was to study boron removal by different reverse osmosis membranes in two pH conditions, with and without antiscalant addition. Thus, it was expected to observe the possibility of operating single pass system and necessity to operate two pass system using low energy membrane. Five membrane samples were obtained from two different manufacturers. Three types of feed water pH were used, pH 8, pH 10, and pH 10 with antiscalant addition. Experiment was conducted in parallel to compare membrane performance from two manufacturers. Filtration was run with fully recycle mode for three days. Sample of permeate and feed were taken every 12 hours, and analyzed for their boron and TDS concentration. Membrane samples were also tested for their surface charge. The results showed that boron rejection increases as the feed pH increases. This was caused by dissociation of boric acid to negatively charged borate ion and more negatively charged membrane surface at elevated pH which enhance boron rejection. This study found that single pass reverse osmosis system, with and without elevating the pH, may not be possible to be applied because of two reasons. First, permeate quality in term of boron, does not fulfill WHO and local Saudi Arabia regulations. Second, severe scaling occurs due to operation in alkaline condition, since Ca and Mg concentration are

  13. Residual heat removal system diagnostic advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) Diagnostic Advisor which is an expert system designed to alert the operators to abnormal conditions that exits in the RHRS and offer advice about the cause of the abnormal conditions. The Advisor uses a combination of rule-based and model-based diagnostic techniques to perform its functions. This diagnostic approach leads to a deeper understanding of the RHRS by the Advisor and consequently makes it more robust to unexpected conditions. The main window of the interactive graphic display is a schematic diagram of the RHRS piping system. When a conclusion about a failed component can be reached, the operator can bring up windows that describe the failure mode of the component and a brief explanation about how the Advisor arrived at its conclusion

  14. Two-photon polymerization of an epoxy-acrylate resin material system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, R.J.; O'Brien, S.

    2011-01-01

    Improved material systems are of great interest in the development of two-photon polymerization techniques for the fabrication of three dimensional micro- and nano-structures. The properties of the photosensitive resin are important in the realisation of structures with submicron dimensions. In this study investigation of a custom organic resin, cross-linked by a two-photon induced process, using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, is described. A structural, optical and mechanical analysis of the optimised material is presented. The influence of both material system and laser processing parameters on achievable micro-structure and size is presented as are representative structures. Parameters include: laser power, photo-initiator concentration and material composition.

  15. Durability of a low shrinkage TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    with a mean age of 53 years (range 29-82). Each participant received at random two, as similar as possible, Class II restorations. In the first cavity of each pair the TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system was placed with its 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (cmf-els). In the second cavity a 1-step HEMA......Objective: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective trial was to evaluate the durability of a low shrinkage and TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in posterior restorations in a 6-year follow up. Material and methods: 139 Class II restorations were placed in 67 patients......-free self-etch adhesive was used (AdheSe One F). The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 6 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated. Results: Three molar teeth showed mild post-operative sensitivity...

  16. Recovery of reactor electrical assemblies using differential de-encapsulation to remove dielectric insulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubrig, J.G.; Hammerstone, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    State-of-the-art de-encapsulation technologies associated with the conventional dielectric insulation systems employed in the construction of electrical coils and power distribution systems do not allow for accurate fatigue/failure analysis or reliable recovery of costly assembly components. Differential de-encapsulation allows for the selective removal of contemporary thermoset resin based insulation systems to allow non-destructive penetration of insulation wall thicknesses to both examine critical areas and recover high performance metallic and non-metallic inserts for remanufacture; significantly reducing replacement costs and reactor downtime. The authors' analysis describes how the availability of engineering data from the selective and non-destructive removal of insulation materials will aid in the evaluation of original manufacture, materials and procedures; enabling redesign to enhance subsequent on line performance. They also discuss why the ability to recover coil and core assemblies for remanufacture will have a major economic impact on reactor management costs

  17. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH 2 BO 3 -H 3 BO 3 solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  18. Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of three resin systems for a Base Metal Alloy bonded to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlali H

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (F.P.D can be used for conservative treatment of partially edentulous"npatients. There are numerous studies regarding the strength of resin composite bond to base meta! alloys. Shear bond"nstrength of three resin systems were invistigated. In this study these systems consisted of: Panavia Ex, Mirage FLC and"nMarathon V. Thirty base metal specimens were prepared from rexillium III alloy and divided into three groups. Then each"ngroup was bonded to enamel of human extracted molar teeth with these systems. All of specimens were stored in water at"n37ac for 48 hours. A shear force was applied to each specimen by the instron universal testing machine. A statistical"nevaluation of the data using one-way analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant difference (P<0.01"nbetween the bond strengths of these three groups."nThe base metal specimens bonded with panavia Ex luting agent, exhibited the highest mean bond strength. Shear bond"nstrength of the specimens bonded to enamel with Mirage F1C showed lower bond strenght than panavia EX. However, the"nlowest bond strength was obtained by the specimens bonded with Marathon V.

  19. Evaluation of Surface Treatment Methods on the Bond Strength of Zirconia Ceramics Systems, Resin Cements and Tooth Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkuş Emek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the effects of airborne-particle abrasion (APA and tribochemical silica coating (TSC surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of zirconia ceramics systems, resin cements and tooth surface

  20. Removal of malathion from aqueous solution using De-Acidite FF-IP resin and determination by UPLC-MS/MS: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naushad, Mu; Alothman, Z A; Khan, M R

    2013-10-15

    In the present study, De-Acidite FF-IP resin was used to remove a highly toxic and persistent organophosphorus pesticide (malathion) from the aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed as a function of various experimental parameters such as effect of pH (2-10), contact time (10-120 min), resin dose (0.05-0.5 g), initial malathion concentration (0.5-2.5 µg mL(-1)) and temperature (25-65°C). The concentration of malathion was determined using a sensitive, selective and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The uptake rate of malathion on De-Acidite FF-IP resin was rapid and equilibrium established within 40 min. Kinetics studies showed better applicability for pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium data was fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and the isotherm constants were calculated for malathion. The values of thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0)) were computed from the Van't Hoff plot of lnKC vs. 1/T which showed that the adsorption of malathion was feasible, endothermic and spontaneous. The regeneration studies were carried out which demonstrated a decrease in the recovery of malathion from 95% to 68% after five consecutive cycles. Breakthrough and exhaustive capacities of malathion were found to be 1.25 mg g(-1) and 3.5 mg g(-1), respectively. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of chloride-release of nuclear grade resin in PWR primary system coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaoning; Li Yunde; Li Jinghong; Lin Fangliang

    1997-01-01

    A new preparation technique is developed for making the low-chloride nuclear-grade resin by commercial resin. The chloride remained in nuclear grade resin may release to PWR primary coolant. The amount of released chloride is depended on the concentration of boron, lithium, other anion impurities, and remained chloride concentration in resin

  2. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part lll:Copper(ll/Sulphate/Amberlite 200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II adsorption from aqueous sulphate media on Amberlite 200 was investigated. The influence of operating variables such as aqueous pH, temperature and copper concentration on the metal adsorption kinetics was measured. The copper{II uptake is best fitted to the film-diffusion controlled process. The resin has been used in minicolumns to investigate its performance under dynamics conditions. Copper(II desorption from the resin is accomplished using sulphuric acid solutions.

    Se estudia la adsorción de cobre(II, de disoluciones en medio sulfato, en la resina Amberlite 200. La cinética de adsorción del metal se ha estudiado en función de una serie de variables experimentales: pH de la fase acuosa, temperatura y concentración del metal en el medio acuoso. La adsorción de cobre(II se puede correlacionar como controlada por un proceso de difusión en capa límite. Se ha utilizado la resina en minicolumnas para estudiar su comportamiento bajo condiciones dinámicas. La desorción del cobre(II se lleva a cabo con disoluciones de ácido sulfúrico.

  3. Influence of Resin Cements on Color Stability of Different Ceramic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Renata Borges; Lima, Erick de; Roscoe, Marina Guimarães; Soares, Carlos José; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Novais, Veridiana Resende

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate color stability of two dental ceramics cemented with two resin cements, assessing the color difference (ΔE00) by the measurement of L*, a*, b*, c* and h* of transmittance. The combination of two ceramic system (feldspathic and lithium disilicate) and two resin cements - color A3 (RelyX ARC and Variolink II) resulted in 4 groups (n=5). Ten disks-shaped specimens were fabricated for each ceramic system (10x1.5 mm), etched with hydrofluoric acid (10%) and silanized prior to cementation. The color analysis was performed 24 h after cementation of the samples and after 6 months of storage in relative humidity by means of spectrophotometry. The ΔE00 values were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test (p<0.05). One-way ANOVA were calculated for the means of individual color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, c* and h*). Two-way ANOVA showed that only the ceramic factor was significant (p=0.003), but there was no difference for the cement factor (p=0.275) nor for the ceramic/cement interaction (p=0.161). The feldspathic ceramic showed the highest values of ΔE00. Variations in L*, a*, b*, c* and h* were more significant for feldspathic ceramic. In conclusion, storage alters similarly the optical properties of the resin cements and feldspathic porcelain was more susceptible to cement color change after aging.

  4. Surface roughness of novel resin composites polished with one-step systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergücü, Z; Türkün, L S

    2007-01-01

    This study: 1) analyzed the surface roughness of five novel resin composites that contain nanoparticles after polishing with three different one-step systems and 2) evaluated the effectiveness of these polishers and their possible surface damage using scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The resin composites evaluated in this study include CeramX, Filtek Supreme XT, Grandio, Premise and Tetric EvoCeram. A total of 100 discs (20/resin composites, 10 x 2 mm) were fabricated. Five specimens/resin composites cured under Mylar strips served as the control. The samples were polished for 30 seconds with PoGo, OptraPol and One Gloss discs at 15,000 rpm using a slow speed handpiece. The surfaces were tested for roughness (Ra) with a surface roughness tester and examined with SEM. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis (p = 0.05). For all the composites tested, differences between the polishing systems were found to be significant (p One Gloss applications. For Grandio, Mylar and PoGo created equally smooth surfaces, while OptraPol and One Gloss produced equally rougher surfaces. Tetric EvoCeram exhibited the roughest surface with OptraPol, while no significant differences were found between Premise and CeramX. According to SEM images, OptraPol and One Gloss scratched and plucked the particles away from the surface, while PoGo created a uniform finish, although the roughness values were not the same for each composite. Effectiveness of the polishers seems to be material dependent.

  5. Purification of degraded TBP solvent using macroreticular anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Janaradanan, C.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with a suitable diluent is commonly used for solvent extraction in Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuels. This solvent gets degraded due to various factors, the main degradation product being dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). A solvent cleanup step is generally incorporated in the process for removing the degradation products from the used solvent. A liquid-liquid cleanup system using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution is routinely used. Considering certain advantages, like the possibility of loading the resin almost to saturation capacity and the subsequent disposal of the spent resin by incineration and the feasibility of adopting it to the process, a liquid-solid system has been tried as an alternate method, employing various available macroreticular anion exchange resins in OH - form for the sorption of HDBP from TBP. After standardizing the various conditions for the satisfactory removal of HDBP from TBP using synthetic mixtures, resins were tested with process solvent in batch contacts. The parameters studied were (1) capacity of different resins for HDBP sorption (2) influence of acidity, uranium and HDBP on the sorption behaviour of the latter (3) removal of fission products from the solvent by the resin and (4) regeneration and recycling of the resin. (author). 2 figs., 13 tabs., 17 refs

  6. Color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on a discolored composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, P; Harorlı, O T; Ocal, I B; Ergin, Z; Barutcigil, C

    2017-10-01

    Discoloration of resin-based composites is a commonly encountered problem, and bleaching agents may be used for the therapy of the existing discoloration. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro color recovery effect of different bleaching systems on the heavily discolored composite resin. Fifty disk-shaped dental composite specimens were prepared using A2 shade nanohybrid universal composite resin (3M ESPE Filtek Z550, St. Paul, MN, USA). Composite samples were immersed in coffee and turnip juice for 1 week in each. One laser activated bleaching (LB) (Biolase Laserwhite*20) and three conventional bleaching systems (Ultradent Opalescence Boost 40% (OB), Ultradent Opalescence PF 15% home bleaching (HB), Crest 3D White [Whitening Mouthwash]) were tested in this study. Distilled water was used as control group. The color of the samples were measured using a spectrophotometer (VITA Easy shade Compact, VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany). Color changes (ΔE00) were calculated using the CIEDE2000 formula. Statistical analyses were conducted using paired samples test, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (α = 0.05). The staining beverages caused perceptible discoloration (ΔE00 > 2.25). The color recovery effect of all bleaching systems was statistically determined to be more effective than the control group (P OB group was found as the most effective bleaching system, there was no statistically significant difference among HB, OB, and LB groups (P > 0.05). Within the limitation of this in vitro study, the highest recovery effect was determined in office bleaching system among all bleaching systems. However, home and laser bleaching systems were determined as effective as office bleaching system.

  7. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: A potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Teng, E-mail: zhangteng@mail.iee.ac.cn; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Sulfonated magnetic microsphere was prepared as one strong acid cation-exchange resin. • Cd and Te can be removed directly from the highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. • Good chemical stability, fast adsorbing rate and quick magnetic separation in strong acidic media. • A potential path for recycling CdTe photovoltaic waste. - Abstract: Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste.

  8. Small Column Ion Exchange Analysis for Removal of Cesium from SRS Low Curie Salt Solutions Using Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALEMAN, SEBASTIAN

    2004-01-01

    Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) researchers modeled ion exchange removal of cesium from dissolved salt waste solutions. The results assist in evaluating proposed configurations for an ion exchange process to remove residual cesium from low curie waste streams. A process for polishing (i.e., removing small amounts) of cesium may prove useful should supernate draining fail to meet the Low Curie Salt (LCS) target limit of 0.1 Ci of Cs-137 per gallon of salt solution. Cesium loading isotherms and column breakthrough curves for Low Curie dissolved salt solutions were computed to provide performance predictions for various column designs

  9. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  10. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-01

    morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24-inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins

  11. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24-inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

  12. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24 inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

  13. The effect of different polishing systems on surface roughness and gloss of various resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Juliana; Ferracane, Jack; Paravina, Rade D; Mazur, Rui Fernando; Roeder, Leslie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the surface finish and gloss of five direct resin composites polished with six polishing systems. One hundred and fifty disk-shaped composite specimens (D=10.0 mm, 2-mm-thick, N=30 per material) were made. One side of each specimen was finished with a 16-fluted carbide finishing bur and then polished. Five specimens of each resin composite were randomly assigned to one of the six polishing systems. The surface roughness and gloss were measured with a surface profilometer and a glossmeter. The results were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's t-test (pgloss values between the composites and the polishing systems (p gloss value was recorded for Supreme + Pogo; the lowest was recorded for Z100 + Jiffy. Pogo showed the highest gloss values for all composites. The nanofill (Supreme) and minifill (Esthet-X) composites presented a surface roughness comparable to a microfill (Durafill), independent of the polishing system used, and a gloss comparable to a microfill, when polished with a one-step system (Pogo). As compared with the multiple-step systems, the smoothest surfaces and the highest gloss values were achieved using the one-step system (Pogo) for all the evaluated composites.

  14. Potential problems associated with ion-exchange resins used in the decontamination of light-water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Adams, J.W.; Kempf, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    During a typical decontamination event, ion-exchange resin beds are used to remove corrosion products (radioactive and nonradioactive) and excess decontamination reagents from waste streams. The spent resins may be solidified in a binder, such as cement, or sealed in a high-integrity container (HIC) in order to meet waste stability requirements specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Lack of stability of low-level waste in a shallow land burial trench may lead to trench subsidence, enhanced water infiltration and waste leaching, which would result in accelerated transport of radionuclides and the complexing agents used for decontamination. The current program is directed at investigating safety problems associated with the handling, solidification and containerization of decontamination resin wastes. The three tasks currently underway include freeze-thaw cycling of cementitious and vinyl ester-styrene forms to determine if mechanical integrity is compromised, a study of the corrosion of container materials by spent decontamination waste resins, and investigations of resin degradation mechanisms

  15. A basic study for the boron thermal regeneration system using anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantiesek, P.; Kotaka, Masahiro; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake.

    1979-01-01

    For the boron thermal regeneration system (BTRS), the basic characteristics of commercial anion exchange resin have been investigated on the swelling characteristics, absorption, desorption and temperature coefficient of exchange capacity for boric acid. The equilibrium capacity increases as decrease of temperature and depends strongly on the degrees of cross linking having a maximum point at about 7% of DVB. The temperature coefficient of equilibrium capacity of boric acid is also a function of the concentration of external solution and of the cross linking having a maximum point around 7% of DVB. (author)

  16. Comparison of different finishing/polishing systems on surface roughness and gloss of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonson, Sibel A; Yazici, A Rüya; Kilinc, Evren; Antonson, Donald E; Hardigan, Patrick C

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare four finishing/polishing systems (F/P) on surface roughness and gloss of different resin composites. A total of 40 disc samples (15 mm × 3 mm) were prepared from a nanofill - Filtek Supreme Plus (FS) and a micro-hybrid resin composite - Esthet-X (EX). Following 24h storage in 37°C water, the top surfaces of each sample were roughened using 120-grit sandpaper. Baseline measurements of surface roughness (Ra, μm) and gloss were recorded. Each composite group was divided into four F/P disk groups: Astropol[AP], Enhance/PoGo[EP], Sof-Lex[SL], and an experimental disk system, EXL-695[EXL] (n=5). The same operator finished/polished all samples. One sample from each group was evaluated under SEM. Another blinded-operator conducted postoperative measurements. Results were analysed by two-way ANOVA, two interactive MANOVA and Tukey's t-test (p0.01). In gloss, FS composite with the EXL-695 system provided a significantly higher gloss (pgloss (pgloss. SEM evaluations revealed that the EX surface contained more air pockets but F/P systems were compatible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immobilization of ion-exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions, can be achieved using organic ion-exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilized in cement-based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres, giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. 26 tabs., 22 figs., 29 refs

  18. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% Ordinary Portland Cement 84% gg Blast Furnace Slag, 6% Microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This information was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  19. Adsorption behaviour of uranium on immobilized tannin resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, Susana; Preval, Ivon; Santana, Jorge L.; Martinez, Francisco; Vargas, Luis M.

    1995-01-01

    The sorption of uranium by Eucalyptus Saligna Sm. tannin resin was investigated. This resin resulted a suitable adsorbent for the concentration of uranium from aqueous systems. The sorption of uranium is pH dependent. The presence of appreciable quantities of sodium chloride does not have any effect on uranium removal. Carbonate and calcium ions in concentrations similar to these found in seawater and other natural water do not decrease the uranium uptake. TANNsorb resin can be used several times without an appreciable decay of their sorption capacity. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Effects of leached components from a hybrid resin composite on the reproductive system of male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Akbari Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is concern that leached components from dental composites may cause adverse changes in the reproductive health. This study aimed to assess the effects of leached components from a hybrid resin composite on the reproductive system of male mice.Materials and Methods: In the present animal study, twenty adult Syrian male mice were divided into two groups of 10 mice each. In the test group, components which leached from samples made from Filtek Z250 resin composite into 75% ethanol were daily administered to the mice for 28 days. In the control group, the procedure was repeated in the same way as the test group but without placing composite samples in the solution. Then, the body weight, weights of paired testes, Gonado Somatic Index, sperm viability, sperm motility, epididymal sperm reserve and daily sperm production were recorded. Four male mice in each group were mated with untreated female mice for 10 days. After that, the number of pregnant females and number of infants were recorded. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square test and t-test.Results: There was a significant reduction in the sperm viability and sperm motility of male mice in the test group compared to the control group (P=0.001. There was no any significant differences in other parameters between two groups (P>0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that the leached components from resin composites cannot cause infertility but they could potentially cause some adverse effects on the reproductive system of male mice.

  1. Bench scale evaluation and economic assessment of ion exchange resins for the removal of radionuclides from uranium mill tailings effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmanan, V.I.; Itzkovitch, I.J.

    1981-07-01

    The removal of <0.45 m radium 226 (soluble) from acid and alkaline mill tailings effluents to meet the Canadian provincial (Ontario and Saskatchewan) objective of <3 pCi/L using ion exchange has been studied. Stirred tank tests were used to screen potential solid ion exchangers for detailed testing in columns. Column tests on selected exchangers were carried out to determine breakthrough curves as a function of column throughput. An economic assessment of the process was carried out. Results obtained indicate that removal of soluble radium 226 to <3 pCi/L by ion exchange is technically feasible. However, if the solid exchangers are to be used on a once through basis the process is prohibitively expensive

  2. The use of ionizing radiation and ion exchange resins in the removal of heavy metals from waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Taher, N.H.; El-Toony, M.M.; Dessouki, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The removal of heavy metal ions from waste water using gamma-radiation and a polymeric membrane prepared by radiation graft copolymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto low density polyethylene films was investigated for the cases of zinc and iron ions. These metal ions were reduced by the hydrated electrons and hydrogen atoms to lower or zero valence state and eventually precipitate out of solution. parameter analysis includes the effect metal ion concentration, Ph, degree of grafting and irradiation dose. The maximum precipitation of the unirradiated metal ions was achieved at Ph 10, while the least precipitation occurred at Ph 3. Irradiation at Ph 5.5 resulted in more precipitation of iron than zinc. Both elements were adsorbed by different adsorbents granular activated carbon (GAC), powdered activated carbon (PAC), amberlite IR-120 plus, dowex-1- exchangers and grafted membranes). The combined treatment by irradiation plus adsorption showed more removal percent, especially for powdered activated carbon (PAC). Also, the grafted membranes showed a removal percent of 98% at high degree of grafting

  3. Scoping Tests of Technetium and Iodine Removal from Tank Waste Using SuperLig® 639 Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-26

    The primary chemical form of 99Tc found in Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) is pertechnetate anion (TcO4 -), which is highly soluble in water, and is mobile if released to the environment. Pertechnetate will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford waste treatment plant, and the primary disposition path is immobilization in the LAW glass waste form, which will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate, and the potential for impact to the Performance Assessment (PA), effective management of 99Tc is important to the overall success of the River Protection Project mission. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow-sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. While 99Tc is the primary radionuclide of interest, 129I also contributes to the calculated future dose of disposed LAW, and it would be of interest to examine if removal is possible.

  4. Microshear bond strength of a flowable resin to enamel according to the different adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (uSBS of two total-etch and four self-etch adhesive systems and a flowable resin to enamel. Materials and Methods Enamels of sixty human molars were used. They were divided into one of six equal groups (n = 10 by adhesives used; OS group (One-Step Plus, SB group (Single Bond, CE group (Clearfil SE Bond, TY group (Tyrian SPE/One-Step Plus, AP group (Adper Prompt L-Pop and GB group (G-Bond. After enamel surfaces were treated with six adhesive systems, a flowable composite resin (Filek Z 350 was bonded to enamel surface using Tygon tubes. the bonded specimens were subjected to uSBS testing and the failure modes of each group were observed under FE-SEM. Results 1. The uSBS of SB group was statistically higher than that of all other groups, and the uSBS of OS, SE and AP group was statistically higher than that of TY and GB group (p < 0.05. 2. The uSBS for TY group was statistically higher than that for GB group (p < 0.05. 3. Adhesive failures in TY and GB group and mixed failures in SB group and SE group were often analysed. One cohesive failure was observed in OS, SB, SE and AP group, respectively. Conclusions Although adhesives using the same step were applied the enamel sur

  5. [In vitro study of marginal microleakage of Clearfil S3 BOND adhesive systems and Majesty composite resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Zhu, Ya-qin

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the microleakage of standard box-type cavity filled with Clearfil S3 BOND self-etch adhesive systems and Majesty composite resin. 40 permanent molars were randomly divided into experimental and control groups, 20 of each . The box-type cavities, 3mm in length and width and 2mm in depth, were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction on buccal surface of forty permanent extracted teeth. According to grouping, the experimental group was filled with Clearfil S(3) BOND self-adhesive systems and Majesty composite resin, and the control group was filled with 3M Adper Prompt self-adhesive and Filtek Z350 composite resin. After thermal circulation(2000 times, 5 degrees centigrade-55 degrees centigrade) and soaked for 24 hours in 2% methyl blue solution, the samples were cut through the midline of the restoration and the leakage depth was measured with vernier caliper. The microleakage degrees and microleakage depth of 2 groups were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package for Mann-Whitney U test and independent-samples t test. Microleakage was observed in both groups. But the microleakage degrees and microleakage depth of 2 groups had no significant difference (P>0.05). The marginal sealibility of Clearfil S(3) BOND self-adhesive systems and Majesty composite resin is as good as Adper Prompt self-adhesive and Filtek Z350 composite resin,it may be an ideal clinical restoration material.

  6. Residual Heat Removal System qualitative probabilistic safety analysis before and after auto closure interlock removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulicic, V.; Simic, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis evaluates the consequences of the removal of the auto closure interlock (ACI) on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) suction/isolation valves at the nuclear power plant. The deletion of the RHRS ACI is in part based on a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) which justifies the removal based on a criterion of increased availability and reliability. Three different areas to be examined in PSA: the likelihood of an interfacing system LOCA; RHRS availability and reliability; and low temperature overpressurization control. The paper emphasizes particularly the RHRS unavailability and reliability evaluation utilizing the current control circuitry configuration and then with the proposed modification to the control circuitry. (author)

  7. Clinical application of removable partial dentures using thermoplastic resin. Part II: Material properties and clinical features of non-metal clasp dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, Kenji; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Yatabe, Masaru; Arakawa, Ichiro; Arita, Masahiro; Ino, Satoshi; Kanamori, Toshikazu; Kawai, Yasuhiko; Kawara, Misao; Komiyama, Osamu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Hosoki, Maki; Masumi, Shin-ichi; Yamauchi, Mutsuo; Aita, Hideki; Ono, Takahiro; Kondo, Hisatomo; Tamaki, Katsushi; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Tsukasaki, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Masanori; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Koyano, Kiyoshi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-04-01

    This position paper reviews physical and mechanical properties of thermoplastic resin used for non-metal clasp dentures, and describes feature of each thermoplastic resin in clinical application of non-metal clasp dentures and complications based on clinical experience of expert panels. Since products of thermoplastic resin have great variability in physical and mechanical properties, clinicians should utilize them with careful consideration of the specific properties of each product. In general, thermoplastic resin has lower color-stability and higher risk for fracture than polymethyl methacrylate. Additionally, the surface of thermoplastic resin becomes roughened more easily than polymethyl methacrylate. Studies related to material properties of thermoplastic resin, treatment efficacy and follow-up are insufficient to provide definitive conclusions at this time. Therefore, this position paper should be revised based on future studies and a clinical guideline should be provided. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine)

  9. The effects of reactive diluents on the mechanical behaviour of an anhydride-cured epoxy resin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.T.; Lupton, A.W.

    1976-10-01

    A study was made of the tensile behaviour at room temperature, 75 0 C and 100 0 C, of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin systems modified by the introduction of (i) a linear mono-epoxide aliphatic glycidyl ether, (ii) a highly branched mono-epoxide glycidyl ester of a saturated tertiary mono-carboxylic acid, (iii) a mixture of the linear mono-glycidyl and diglycidyl ethers of butanediol and (iv) a low viscosity diepoxide and also an elastomer (Hycar CTBN). Resin systems showing relatively high elongation to failure without severe degradation of strength or stiffness at elevated temperatures were obtained. (author)

  10. Study of arsenic removal with ionic exchange resins in drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico; Estudio de eliminacion de arsenico con resinas de entercambio ionico en agua potable de Zimapan, Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Moreno, F.; Prieto-Garcia, F.; Rojas-Hernandez, A.; Marmolejo-Santillan, Y.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Patino-Cardona, F.

    2006-07-01

    Anionic exchange resins were research with respect its capacity for removal arsenic content in water. Water of well V from Zimapan Hidalgo Mexico was used to make this research, because this water have a mean concentration of 480{+-}11{mu}g-L''-1 of arsenic and it is available as drinking water. The exchange resins employed were two strong anionic, one macroreticular (IRA-900) and other gel type (IRA-400), as soon as one third anionic weak macroreticular type (IRA-96). The experiments carried with this resins showing that IRA-900 has highest efficient in the process of arsenic removal from drinking water, because, it showed a treatment capacity of 700 V{sub a}gua. V{sub r}es''-1; while that capacities of IRA-400 e IRA-96 resins were 320 and 52 V{sub a}gua .V{sub r}es''-1 respectively. The mean concentration of arsenic residue in the treatise water was 24 {mu}g.l''-1 and it is within the maximum level permissible by Mexican official norm for drinking water. (Author) 12 refs.

  11. The effects of material loading and flow rate on the disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms using cation resin-silver nanoparticle filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Mthombeni, N. H.; Onyango, M. S.; Momba, M. N. B.

    2017-08-01

    Waterborne diseases have a negative impact on public health in instances where the available drinking water is of a poor quality. Decentralised systems are needed to provide safe drinking water to rural communities. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop and investigate the point-of-use (POU) water treatment filter packed with resin-coated silver nanoparticles. The filter performance was evaluated by investigating the effects of various bed masses (10 g, 15 g, 20 g) and flow rates (2 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 10 mL/min) by means of breakthrough curves for the removal efficiency of presumptive Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae from spiked groundwater samples. The results revealed that, as the bed mass increases the breakthrough time also increases with regards to all targeted microorganisms. However, when the flow rate increases the breakthrough time decreased. These tests demonstrated that resin-coated silver nanoparticle can be an effective material in removing all targeted microorganisms at 100% removal efficiency before breakthrough points are achieved. Moreover the filter system demonstrated that it is capable of producing 15 L/day of treated water at an operating condition of 10 mL/min flow rate and 15 g bed mass, which is sufficient to provide for seven individuals in the household if they consume 2 L/person/day for drinking purpose. Therefore, the bed mass of the filter system should be increased in order for it to produce sufficient water that will conform to the daily needs of an individual.

  12. Barium ferrite/epoxy resin nanocomposite system: Fabrication, dielectric, magnetic and hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kanapitsas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite systems of epoxy resin and barium ferrite nanoparticles have been prepared, and studied varying the content of the inclusions. Morphology of prepared samples has been examined via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectra, while electrical and magnetic properties were investigated by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and magnetization tests respectively. Finally, water vapor sorption measurements were conducted in order to study the water sorption dynamics of the system. Electron microscopy images revealed the successful fabrication of nanocomposites. Dielectric permittivity increases with filler content, while three relaxation processes were detected in the relative spectra. These processes are attributed to interfacial polarization, glass to rubber transition of the matrix, and re-orientation of polar side groups of the polymer’s chain. Magnetization and magnetic saturation increase with magnetic nano-powder content. Nanocomposites absorb a small amount of water, not exceeding 1.7 wt%, regardless filler content, indicating their hydrophobic character.

  13. Biological Nutrient Removal in Compact Biofilm Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bassin, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from both domestic and industrial wastewaters is imperative since they potentially harm the environment. One of the main consequences of excessive availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems (freshwater, marine and estuarine) is the overgrowth of algae and other aquatic plants, a phenomenon designated as eutrophication. Algae and aquatic plants induce depletion of oxygen in water basins, resulting in massive death of e...

  14. Uptake of actinides by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin from acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaya Mohandas; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Vijayakumar, N.; Kumar, T.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of uranium and americium from nitric acid solutions by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin has been investigated. The capacity of the sulphonated resin exceeds the capacities of phosphinic acid resin and commercial cation exchange resin. Other advantages of the sulphonated resin for uranium and americium removal include reduced sensitivity to acidity and inert salt concentration. (author)

  15. Microshear bond strength of self-etching systems associated with a hydrophobic resin layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito Moraes, André Guaraci; Francci, Carlos; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Soares, Silvio Peixoto; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate in vitro the microshear bond strength of adhesive systems applied to dentin according to manufacturers' instructions, associated or not with a hydrophobic layer of unfilled resin. Six self-etching adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray Medical; AdheSE, Ivoclar Vivadent; Xeno III, Dentsply; I Bond, Heraeus-Kulzer; Bond Force, Tokuyama; Futurabond DC, Voco) were tested. The labial dentin of sixty bovine incisors was exposed, and the teeth were divided into two groups according to the application or not of an extra hydrophobic resin layer (Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus, bottle 3). Six composite cylinders (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were built up on each treated surface. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h and then subjected to the microshear bond strength test in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Microshear bond strength values were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. Failure mode was determined using a stereomicroscope under 20X magnification. The application of the hydrophobic resin layer did not affect bond strength, except for AdheSE. However, the bond strengths with the hydrophobic layer were similar among the six tested systems (Clearfil: 17.1 ± 7.9; AdheSE: 14.5 ± 7.1; Xeno lll: 12.8 ± 7.7; I Bond: 9.5 ± 5.8; Bond Force: 17.5 ± 4.1; Futurabond: 7.7 ± 2.3). When used as recommended by the manufacturers, Bond Force presented statistically higher bond strength than AdheSE and I Bond (p AdheSE 1.6 ± 1.6; Xeno lll: 9.0 ± 3.8; I Bond: 3.0 ± 1.5; Bond Force: 14 ± 3.9; Futurabond: 8.8 ± 3.8). Failure mode was predominantly adhesive. The bond strength of the self-etching systems tested was not significantly affected by the application of a hydrophobic layer, but a significant improvement was observed in AdheSE.

  16. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  17. Software Configuration Management Plan for the Sodium Removal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    This document establishers the Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) for the software associated with the control system of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) located in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM Cell) Facility of the FFTF Flux Test

  18. The selection and properties of epoxide resins used for the insulation of magnet systems in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.C.; Scott, J.M.; Goebel, K.; Schoenbacher, H.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory tests have been carried out on five types of epoxy resins - four based on bisphenol A, one on hydantoin-bisphenol A - applicable in the construction of large magnet coils. Two of the resin compositions have already been used in large quantities as insulating material for magnets at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN); the others were selected for comparison according to their good radiation resistance, good initial mechanical properties, and optimal properties for vacuum impregnation. Three types of tests are discussed in detail: creep, crack propagation (as a measure of toughness), and radiation resistance. The results show that the resin composition with hydantoin exhibits the best resistance to crack propagation but, on the other hand, the lowest resistance to ionizing radiation, and can therefore not be recommended for use in a radiation environment. Among the other materials based on biosphenol A, better toughness values were obtained with lower-cross-linked resin systems, whereas the radiation resistance is better for highly-cross-linked materials. It is concluded that a reasonable compromise combining good processing and operational properties with sufficiently high radiation resistance is obtained with a standard epoxy-resin-type bisphenol A with a specially formulated anhydride hardener and an amine-substituted phenol-type accelerator. (orig.)

  19. Ion exchange system design for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Sapkal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology used to determine the optimal ion-exchange column size to process all separate batchesof feeds from acid mine drainage wastewater.The optimal design ensures the best utilization of resin material and therefore results in a minimum amount of spent resins.Ion exchanger materials have been studied for removing heavy metals from a metal bearing wastes. For the current treatment,a facility has been designed for the removal of heavy metals from the acid mine drainage (AMD waste by the ion-exchange technology.

  20. IVO's nuclide removal system takes to the road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    The successful and routine use of IVO's treatment system for the removal of cesium from the evaporator concentrates at the Loviisa WER plant in Finland is described. The system uses a granular inorganic hexacyanoferate-based ion exchanger to separate cesium from liquid radioactive wastes. The compactness of the original systems at Loviisa suggested the development of a transportable unit. A combined nuclide removal system was created which included a highly efficient ultrafiltration unit to separate nearly all particulate material carrying radionuclides, as well as the cesium removal capability. A 20ft long container carrying the removal package was completed in 1994. This NUclide REmoval System (NURES) was used for the first time in January 1995 to purify liquid waste accumulating at training reactors in Estonia and has performed well. As an extension of nuclide removal, a process has been created to recover boron from liquid wastes. A system for boron recovery and nuclide removal has been designed for use at the Paks plant in Hungary. The removal process has been shown to improve the safety of final waste disposal compared with the alternative treatment by cementation because the cesium is very tightly bound into the ion exchange material. (UK)

  1. Effect of different polishing systems and drinks on the color stability of resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Asll; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Baseren, Meserret; Gurgan, Sevil

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resin composit using different finishing systems and drinks. Composit disks (5 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared for each nanofilled composite using a brass mold. The specimens were divided into 5 finishing system groups Mylar strip (Mylar, DuPont, Wilmington, Del., USA), Soft Lex (3M(™) ESPE(™) St. Paul, MN, USA), Enhance (Dentsply-DeTrey GmbHD Konstanz, Germany), Hiluster (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland), Opti Disc (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland) and each group was divided into 10 subgroups (n = 10) and stored for 24 hours at 37°C in different drinks water coffee, coffee with sugar, tea, tea with sugar, diet coke, coke, light sour cherry juice or sour cherry juice. Color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a spectrophotometer using CIE L*a*b* relative, and color changes (ΔE*) were then calculated. The data were analyzed with a twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA), and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). For the drinks, the lowest ΔE* values were observed in the water and highest ΔE* values were observed in sour cherry juice. When drinks with and without sugar were compared, all groups with sugar demonstrated a higher color difference than without sugar. For the different finishing systems, Mylar strip group demonstrated significantly highest color change; Enhance groups demonstrated significantly lowest color change. Finishing treatments and storage solutions significantly affect the color stability of resin composite. The presence of sugar in drinks increased the color difference compared to drinks without composit. Polishing techniques and drinking drinks with sugar may affect the color of esthetic restorations.

  2. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  3. Tailored benzoxazines as novel resin systems for printed circuit boards in high temperature e-mobility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeger, K.; Darka, R. Khanpour; Neumeyer, T.; Altstaedt, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of Bisphenol-F-benzoxazine resins blended with different ratios of a trifunctional epoxy resin suitable as matrix for substrates for high temperature printed circuit board (HT-PCB) applications. With the benzoxazine blends glass transition temperatures of more than 190 °C could be achieved in combination with a coefficient of thermal expansion in thickness direction (z-CTE) of less than 60 ppm/K without adding any fillers. This shows the high potential of the benzoxazine-epoxy blend systems as substrate materials for HT-PCBs. To understand the thermal behavior of the different formulations, the apparent crosslink density was calculated based on data from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Laminates in laboratory scale were prepared and characterized to demonstrate the transformation of the neat resin properties into real electronic substrate properties. The produced laminates exhibit a z-CTE below 40 ppm/K

  4. Tailored benzoxazines as novel resin systems for printed circuit boards in high temperature e-mobility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeger, K., E-mail: altstaedt@uni-bayreuth.de; Darka, R. Khanpour, E-mail: altstaedt@uni-bayreuth.de; Neumeyer, T., E-mail: altstaedt@uni-bayreuth.de; Altstaedt, V., E-mail: altstaedt@uni-bayreuth.de [Polymer Engineering, University of Bayreuth, Germany and Polymer Engineering, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    This study focuses on the development of Bisphenol-F-benzoxazine resins blended with different ratios of a trifunctional epoxy resin suitable as matrix for substrates for high temperature printed circuit board (HT-PCB) applications. With the benzoxazine blends glass transition temperatures of more than 190 °C could be achieved in combination with a coefficient of thermal expansion in thickness direction (z-CTE) of less than 60 ppm/K without adding any fillers. This shows the high potential of the benzoxazine-epoxy blend systems as substrate materials for HT-PCBs. To understand the thermal behavior of the different formulations, the apparent crosslink density was calculated based on data from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Laminates in laboratory scale were prepared and characterized to demonstrate the transformation of the neat resin properties into real electronic substrate properties. The produced laminates exhibit a z-CTE below 40 ppm/K.

  5. Resin Systems and Chemistry-Degradation Mechanisms and Durability in Long-Term Durability of Polymeric Matrix Composites. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Connell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    In choosing a polymer-matrix composite material for a particular application, a number of factors need to be weighed. Among these are mechanical requirements, fabrication method (e.g. press-molding, resin infusion, filament winding, tape layup), and use conditions. Primary among the environmental exposures encountered in aerospace structures are moisture and elevated temperatures, but certain applications may require resistance to other fluids and solvents, alkaline agents, thermal cycling, radiation, or rapid, localized heating (for example, lightning strike). In this chapter, the main classes of polymer resin systems found in aerospace composites will be discussed. Within each class, their responses to environmental factors and the associated degradation mechanisms will be reviewed.

  6. Impact of head and neck radiotherapy on the mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid Troconis, Cristhian Camilo; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; de Goes, Mario Fernando

    2017-11-01

    To analyze the evidence regarding the impact of head and neck radiotherapy (HNRT) on the mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems. Searches were conducted on PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases using "Radiotherapy", "Composite resins" and "Adhesive systems" as keywords. Selected studies were written in English and assessed the mechanical behavior of composite resins and/or adhesive systems when bonding procedure was conducted before and/or after a maximum radiation dose ≥50Gy, applied under in vitro or in vivo conditions. In total, 115 studies were found but only 16 were included, from which five evaluated the effect of in vitro HNRT on microhardness, wear resistance, diametral tensile and flexural strength of composite resins, showing no significant negative effect in most of reports. Regarding bond strength of adhesive systems, 11 studies were included from which five reported no meaningful negative effect when bonding procedure was conducted before simulated HNRT. Conversely, five studies showed that bond strength diminished when adhesive procedure was done after in vitro radiation therapy. Only two studies about dental adhesion were conducted after in vivo radiotherapy but the results were not conclusive. The mechanical behavior of composite resins and adhesive systems seems not to be affected when in vitro HNRT is applied after bonding procedure. However, bond strength of adhesive systems tends to decrease when simulated radiotherapy is used immediately before bonding procedure. Studies assessing dentin bond strength after in-vivo HNRT were limited and controversial. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Passivation process and the mechanism of packing particles in the Fe0/GAC system during the treatment of ABS resin wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Bo; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Juling; Zhang, Yunhong; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study provides mechanistic insights into the passivation of the packing particles during the treatment of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) resin wastewater by the Fe0/GAC system. The granular-activated carbon (GAC) and iron chippings (Fe0) were mixed together with a volumetric ratio of 1:1. GAC has a mean particle size of approximately 3-5 mm, a specific surface of 748 m2 g(-1), a total pore volume of 0.48 mL g(-1) and a bulk density of 0.49 g cm(-3). The iron chippings have a compact and non-porous surface morphology. The results show that the packing particles in the Fe0/GAC system would lose their activity because the removal of TOC and PO4(3-) for ABS resin wastewater could not carried out by the Fe0/GAC system after 40 days continuous running. Meanwhile, the availability of O2 and intrinsic reactivity of Fe0 play a key role on the form of passive film with different iron oxidation states. The passive film on the surface of iron chippings was formed by two phases: (a) local corrosion phase (0-20 d) and (b) co-precipitation phase (20-40 d), while that of GAC was mainly formed by the co-precipitation of corrosion products with SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) because SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) would not easily reach the Fe0 surface. Therefore, in order to avoid the occurrence of filler passivation, high concentrations of SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) in wastewater should be removed before the treatment process of the Fe/GAC system.

  8. Batch adsorptive removal of Fe(III), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in aqueous and aqueous organic–HCl media by Dowex HYRW2-Na Polisher resin as adsorbents

    OpenAIRE

    Aboul-Magd, Abdul-Aleem Soliman; Al-Husain, Salwa Al-Rashed; Al-Zahrani, Salma Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Of the metal ions in tap, Nile, waste and sea water samples and some ores were carried out. Removal of heavy metal ions such as Fe(III), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Mg(II), and Pb(II) from water and wastewater is obligatory in order to avoid water pollution. Batch shaking adsorption experiments to evaluate the performance of nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions in the removal of metal ions by cation exchange resin at the same conditions for both, such as the effect of initial metal ion ...

  9. Removal of Gutta-Percha/Zinc-Oxide-Eugenol Sealer or Gutta-Percha/Epoxy Resin Sealer from Severely Curved Canals: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhoshini Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the cleanliness of root canal walls after retreatment using two rotary retreatment files to hand instruments in severely curved canals obturated with gutta-percha and two different sealers. Single rooted mandibular premolars (n=90 with root curvatures were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and an epoxy resin (Group 1, n=45 or zinc oxide eugenol sealer (Group 2, n=45. Following retreatment of the specimens (n=15 ProTaper Universal Retreatment Files (Subgroup B or R-Endo retreatment files (Subgroup C after 1 month, split specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope and the percentage of remaining root filling material was statistically compared using one way ANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons (P=0.05. The R-Endo system performed significantly better than the other two file systems (P<0.05. None of the systems used in this study cleaned root canals thoroughly. The R-Endo system did provide cleaner walls when compared to the other instruments used. The type of root filling materials had an impact on the outcomes with all techniques.

  10. Effect of storage time, thermocycling and resin coating on durability of dentin bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Along with development of different dental adhesives, concerns about hydrolytic deg-radation of the adhesive components have arisen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro influence of thermocycling, water storage and resin coating on the microshear bond strength of total etch and self etch adhesive systems to dentin. Methods:The superficial coronal dentin of eighty intact third molars were exposed and divided into 5 equal groups. Dental adhesives including Scotch Bond Multi Purpose (SBMP, Single Bond (SB, Clearfil SE Bond (CSE, Prompt L-Pop (PLP, and Prompt L-Pop plus Margin bond (PLPM were applied according to the manufacturers′ instructions on prepared surfaces in the study groups, respectively. Then composite cylinders were bonded and specimens were divided into two subgroups. One subgroup was stored in water for 24 hours. The second subgroup was subjected to 3000 thermocycle shocks and then was stored in 37°C water for 3 months. Finally, all teeth were subjected to the mi-croshear bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen similar to each subgroup was also prepared for SEM evaluation. Results:After one-day storage, the SBMP showed the highest bond strength followed by CSE, PLPM, SB and PLP. After three months storage, the highest bond strength was observed in SBMP followed by PLPM, CSE, SB, and PLP. Conclusion: SBMP showed the best bond strength while CSE represented acceptable bond durabil-ity. Resin coating on PLP improved bond strength and durability.

  11. Experimental etch-and-rinse adhesive systems containing MMP-inhibitors: Physicochemical characterization and resin-dentin bonding stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; de Sá Rodrigues, Carolina Ullmann Fernandes; de Oliveira Matos, Marcos Paulo; de Carvalho, Thais Rodrigues; dos Santos, Glauco Botelho; Amaral, Cristiane Mariote

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC%), water sorption (WS), solubility (SO) and the resin-dentin bonding stability (μTBS) of experimental (EXP) etch-and-rinse adhesive systems containing MMP-inhibitors: Galardin-GAL, Batimastat-BAT, GM1489-GM1 and chlorhexidine diacetate-CHX. DC% was measured using FT-IR spectroscopy, while WS and SO were calculated based on ISO4049. Thirty-six human molars were wet ground until the occlusal dentin was exposed. The adhesive systems were applied and resin composite buildups were incrementally constructed. After 24 h immersion in distilled water at 37 °C, the specimens were cut into resin-dentin beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2). The μTBS was evaluated after 24 h, 6 months and 12 months of water storage at 37 °C. Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2) was used as a commercial control. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. SB2 presented the highest DC% (p0.05). SO was found to be not significant (p>0.05). All adhesive systems maintained μTBS stability after 6 months of water storage. Only BAT, GM1 and CHX maintained μTBs stability after 12 months of water storage. The experimental adhesive systems with GM1489 and chlorhexidine diacetate presented the best physicochemical properties and preserved resin-dentin bonding stability after 12 months of water storage. GM1489 could be suitable for inclusion as an MMP-inhibitor in etch-and-rinse adhesive systems to maintain resin-dentin bonding stability over time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Fast removal of oxygen from biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, D.L.; Michael, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to the fact that if radiation is given at a high enough dose rate, the biological effect of oxygen is less than at low dose rates. Examples are given of 'break-point' experiments showing the effect. It is stated that the rapid removal of a substance by radiation is not confined to oxygen: the only criterion required to demonstrate the effect is that the chemical causes a measurable sensitization or protection at a concentration small enough so that it can be depleted at a relatively low dose of radiation. Sufficient confidence is now placed in the effect that it can be used the other way round; that is, to measure the position of the break-point and from this measurement determine the oxygen concentration at the target site at the instant before irradiation. Examples are given of the use of the high dose rate technique for measuring the oxygen concentration inside mammalian cells (Chinese hamster cells). The effects of partial pressures of inert gases, and the effect of elevated gas pressures, are discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Controlled biomass removal - the key parameter to achieve enhanced biological phosphorus removal in biofilm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, E.

    1999-01-01

    the influence of the following processes on EBPR in biofilms was evaluated: (1) mass transfer limitation for oxygen (2) mass transfer limitation for organic substrate, (3) lack of controlled removal of biomass from the system. It was shown that mass transfer of soluble components (oxygen and organic substrate...

  14. Nanofiltration: ion exchange system for effective surfactant removal from water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kowalska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A system combining nanofiltration and ion exchange for highly effective separation of anionic surfactant from water solutions was proposed. The subjects of the study were nanofiltration polyethersulfone membranes and ion-exchange resins differing in type and structure. The quality of the treated solution was affected by numerous parameters, such as quality of the feed solution, membrane cut-off, resin type, dose and the solution contact time with the resin. A properly designed purification system made it possible to reduce the concentration of anionic surfactant below 1 mg L-1 from feed solutions containing surfactant in concentrations above the CMC value.

  15. Removal of mercury from sludge using ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory scale batch tests and fluidized bed column tests show that ES-465 cation exchange resin removes >90% of the mercury from formated simulated sludge and formated high-level radioactive sludge. Similar experiments using formated simulated sludge which has been steam stripped indicated that the resin is capable of removing about 75% of the mercury from that system in the same time 90% could be removed from sludge which has not been steam stripped. The percent removed can be improved by operating at higher temperatures. Early batch experiments showed that abrasion from vigorous stirring of the sludge/ES-465 mixture caused the resin to degrade into particles too small to separate from the slurry after reaction. To protect the resin from abrasion, a resin-in-sludge mode of operation was designed wherein the sludge slurry contacts the resin by flowing through a bed retained between two screens in a column. The process has been demonstrated using both a 0.5 in. internal 0.5 in. diameter upflow column containing two milliliters of resin and a 6.4 in. internal diameter stirred bed downflow column containing one liter of resin

  16. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina por resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-07-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO{sub 4}/l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  17. A Novel, Diazonium-Phenolic Resin Two-Layer Resist System Utilizing Photoinduced Interfacial Insolubilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Ueno, Takumi; Hashimoto, Michiaki; Nonogaki, Saburo

    1987-08-01

    This paper deals with a negative two-layer photoresist system utilizing a photoinduced insolubilization process at the interface. The bottom layer is a phenolic resin either with or without aromatic azide and the top layer is a photosensitive layer comprised of an aromatic diazonium compound and a water soluble polymer. Upon exposure to light, the diazo compound decomposes to cause insolubilization at the interface between the two layers. The system exhibits high contrast due to the combination of interfacial insolubilization and contrast enhancement by photobleaching of the diazonium compound. Patterns of 0.5 um lines and spaces are obtained using an i-line stepper and a resist system containing 4-diazo-N,N-dimethylaniline chloride zinc chloride in the top layer and 3-(4-azidostyry1)- 5,5-dimethyl- 2-cyclohexen-1-one in the bottom layer. Resists with varying spectral responses from mid-UV to g-line can be designed by selecting the kind of diazo compound used in the top layer.

  18. Passive Decay Heat Removal System for Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jangsik; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dry cooling system is applied as waste heat removal system therefore it is able to consider wide construction site. Schematic figure of the reactor is shown in Fig. 1. In safety features, the reactor has double containment and passive decay heat removal (PDHR) system. The double containment prevents leakage from reactor coolant system to be emitted into environment. The passive decay heat removal system copes with design basis accidents (DBAs). Micros Modular Reactor (MMR) which has been being developed in KAIST is S-CO{sub 2} gas cooled reactor and shows many advantages. The S-CO{sub 2} power cycle reduces size of compressor, and it makes small size of power plant enough to be transported by trailer.The passive residual heat removal system is designed and thermal hydraulic (TH) analysis on coolant system is accomplished. In this research, the design process and TH analysis results are presented. PDHR system is designed for MMR and coolant system with the PDHR system is analyzed by MARS-KS code. Conservative assumptions are applied and the results show that PDHR system keeps coolant system under the design limitation.

  19. Lawps ion exchange column gravity drain of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-28

    Experiments at several different scales were performed to understand the removal of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) ion exchange resin using a gravity drain system with a valve located above the resin screen in the ion exchange column (IXC). This is being considered as part of the design for the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to be constructed at the DOE Hanford Site.

  20. Properties of halloysite nanotube-epoxy resin hybrids and the interfacial reactions in the systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Du Mingliang; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2007-11-14

    A naturally occurred microtubullar silicate, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), was co-cured with epoxy/cyanate ester resin to form organic-inorganic hybrids. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the hybrids with low HNT concentration was found to be substantially lower than that of the plain cured resin. The moduli of the hybrids in the glassy state and rubbery state were significantly higher than those for the plain cured resin. The dispersion of HNTs in the resin matrix was very uniform as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The interfacial reactions between the HNTs and cyanate ester (CE) were revealed by the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The substantially increased properties of the hybrids were attributed to the covalent bonding between the nanotubes and the matrix.

  1. Properties of halloysite nanotube-epoxy resin hybrids and the interfacial reactions in the systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Mingxian; Guo Baochun; Du Mingliang; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin

    2007-01-01

    A naturally occurred microtubullar silicate, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), was co-cured with epoxy/cyanate ester resin to form organic-inorganic hybrids. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the hybrids with low HNT concentration was found to be substantially lower than that of the plain cured resin. The moduli of the hybrids in the glassy state and rubbery state were significantly higher than those for the plain cured resin. The dispersion of HNTs in the resin matrix was very uniform as revealed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The interfacial reactions between the HNTs and cyanate ester (CE) were revealed by the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The substantially increased properties of the hybrids were attributed to the covalent bonding between the nanotubes and the matrix

  2. System for processing ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onaka, Noriyuki; Tanno, Kazuo; Shoji, Saburo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To reduce the quantity of radioactive waste to be solidified by recovering and repeatedly using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide which constitute the ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid. Structure: Cation exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to an anion exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sulfuric acid through separation from impurity cations, while at the same time anion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to a cation exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sodium hydroxide through separation from impurity anions. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide thus recovered are condensed by a thermal condenser and then, after density adjustment, repeatedly used for the regeneration of the ion exchange resin. (Aizawa, K.)

  3. Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1997-10-01

    There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory's Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system's costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies

  4. Highly radiation-resistant vacuum impregnation resin systems for fusion magnet insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, P.E.; Munshi, N.A.; Denis, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Magnets built for fusion devices such as the newly proposed Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) need to be highly reliable, especially in a high radiation environment. Insulation materials are often the weak link in the design of superconducting magnets due to their sensitivity to high radiation doses, embrittlement at cryogenic temperatures, and the limitations on their fabricability. An insulation system capable of being vacuum impregnated with desirable properties such as a long pot-life, high strength, and excellent electrical integrity and which also provides high resistance to radiation would greatly improve magnet performance and reduce the manufacturing costs. A new class of insulation materials has been developed utilizing cyanate ester chemistries combined with other known radiation-resistant resins, such as bismaleimides and polyimides. These materials have been shown to meet the demanding requirements of the next generation of devices, such as FIRE. Post-irradiation testing to levels that exceed those required for FIRE showed no degradation in mechanical properties. In addition, the cyanate ester-based systems showed excellent performance at cryogenic temperatures and possess a wide range of processing variables, which will enable cost-effective fabrication of new magnets. This paper details the processing parameters, mechanical properties at 76 K and 4 K, as well as post-irradiation testing to dose levels surpassing 10 8 Gy

  5. Radiopacity of Methacrylate and Silorane Composite Resins Using a Digital Radiographic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozmand, Leily Macedo; Cordeiro, Mariana Gonçalves; Da Silva, Marcos André Dos Santos; De Jesus Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo; Matos Maia Filho, Etevaldo

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of silorane and methacrylate resin composites, comparing them to the enamel, dentin, and aluminum penetrometer using a digital image. From six resin composites (Filtek ™ P90, Filtek Z350, Filtek Z350 XT flow, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum, and SureFil SDR flow) cylindrical disks (5 × 1 mm) were made and radiographed by a digital method, together with a 15-step aluminum step-wedge and a 1 mm slice of human tooth. The degree of radiopacity of each image was quantified using digital image processing. The mean values of the shades of gray of the tested materials were measured and the equivalent width of aluminum was calculated for each resin. The results of our work yielded the following radiopacity values, given here in descending order: Tetric Ceram > TPH > SDR > Z350 > Z350 flow > P90 > enamel > dentin. The radiopacity of the materials was different both for the enamel and for the dentin, except for resin P90, which was no different than enamel. In conclusion, silorane-based resin exhibited a radiopacity higher than dentin and closest to the enamel; a large portion of the methacrylate-based flow and conventional resins demonstrated greater radiopacity in comparison to dentin and enamel.

  6. Radiopacity of Methacrylate and Silorane Composite Resins Using a Digital Radiographic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Macedo Firoozmand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of silorane and methacrylate resin composites, comparing them to the enamel, dentin, and aluminum penetrometer using a digital image. From six resin composites (Filtek™ P90, Filtek Z350, Filtek Z350 XT flow, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum, and SureFil SDR flow cylindrical disks (5 × 1 mm were made and radiographed by a digital method, together with a 15-step aluminum step-wedge and a 1 mm slice of human tooth. The degree of radiopacity of each image was quantified using digital image processing. The mean values of the shades of gray of the tested materials were measured and the equivalent width of aluminum was calculated for each resin. The results of our work yielded the following radiopacity values, given here in descending order: Tetric Ceram > TPH > SDR > Z350 > Z350 flow > P90 > enamel > dentin. The radiopacity of the materials was different both for the enamel and for the dentin, except for resin P90, which was no different than enamel. In conclusion, silorane-based resin exhibited a radiopacity higher than dentin and closest to the enamel; a large portion of the methacrylate-based flow and conventional resins demonstrated greater radiopacity in comparison to dentin and enamel.

  7. Operability test procedure [Tank] 241-SY-101 equipment removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The 241-SY-101 equipment removal system (ERS) consists of components, equipment, instrumentation and procedures that will provide the means to disconnect, retrieve, contain, load and transport the Mitigation Pump Assembly (MPA) from waste Tank 241-SY-101 to the Central Waste Complex (CWC). The Operability Test Procedure (OTP) will test the interfaces between ERS components and will rehearse the procedure for MPA removal and transportation to the extent they can be mocked-up at the CTF (Cold Test Facility). At the conclusion of the OTP, the ERS components and equipment will be removed from the CTF, entered into the Component Based Recall System (CBRS), and stored until needed for actual MPA removal and transportation

  8. Performance of the prism reactor's passive decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Hunsbedt, A.

    1989-01-01

    The PRISM modular reactor concept has a totally passive safety-grade decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection of air. The system is inherently reliable and is not subject to the failure modes commonly associated with active cooling systems. The thermal performance of RVACS exceeds requirements and significant thermal margins exist. RVACS has been shown to perform its function under many postulated accident conditions. The PRISM power plant is equipped with three methods for shutdown: condenser cooling in conjunction with intermediate sodium and steam generator systems, and auxiliary cooling system (ACS) which removes heat from the steam generator by natural convection of air and transport of heat from the core by natural convection in the primary and intermediate systems, and a safety- grade reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) which removes heat passively from the reactor containment vessel by natural convection of air. The combination of one active and two passive systems provides a highly reliable and economical shutdown heat removal system. This paper provides a summary of the RVACS thermal performance for expected operating conditions and postulated accident events. The supporting experimental work, which substantiates the performance predictions, is also summarized

  9. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U J; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C; Yap, W Y; Ong, S B

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the surface texture of two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) in the vertical and horizontal axis after treatment with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-flute tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finished/polished with (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Points (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. The mean surface roughness (microm) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Mean RaV ranged from 0.59-1.31 and 0.83-1.52, while mean RaH ranged from 0.80-1.43 and 0.85-1.58 for Fuji II LC and Photac-Fil, respectively. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Fuji II LC: RaV-RC, SSsystem (OG) for finishing/polishing of RMGICs is not recommended. Graded abrasive disk (SS) or two-step rubber abrasive (CS) systems should be used instead.

  10. Profilometric analysis of two composite resins' surface repolished after tooth brush abrasion with three polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Mudit; Ganesh, Arathi; Balagopal, Suresh; Kaur, Gurleen

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of three polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of two direct esthetic restorative materials. Specimens (n = 40) measuring 8 mm (length) × 5 mm (width) × 4 mm (height) were fabricated in an acrylic mold using two light-cured resin-based materials (microfilled composite and microhybrid composite). After photopolymerization, all specimens were finished and polished with one of three polishing protocols (Enhance, One Gloss, and Sof-Lex polishing systems). The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined using 3D optical profilometer. Next all specimens were brushed 60,000 times with nylon bristles at 7200 rpm using crosshead brushing device with equal parts of toothpaste and water used as abrasive medium. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing followed by repolishing with one of three polishing protocols, and then, the final surface roughness values were determined. The data were analyzed using one-way and two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD). Significant difference (P < 0.05) in surface roughness was observed. Simulated brushing following initial polishing procedure significantly roughened the surface of restorative material (P < 0.05). Polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth brushing.

  11. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, ion exchange resins are used for purification of aqueous streams. The major contaminants of the resins are usually the radioactive materials that are removed from the aqueous streams. The use of the ion exchange resins creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resin often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposal alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  12. Valve arrangement for a nuclear plant residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, G.L.; Hill, R.A.; Carrera, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved valve arrangement for a two-train Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) of a nuclear reactor plant which ensures operational integrity of the system under single failure circumstances including loss of one of two electrical power sources

  13. Control of the ASTRA decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelik, A.

    1982-11-01

    To ensure a minimum of core cooling even under severest accident conditions (loss of reactor pool water) a core spray system for decay heat removal has been installed at the ASTRA-reactor. The automatic and manual control of the system, its power supply and test procedures are shortly described. (Author)

  14. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, C.L.

    1993-02-01

    The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis', and D ampersand D plans' were prepared in 1991. Physical D ampersand D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D ampersand D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred

  15. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  16. An off-line automated preconcentration system with ethylenediaminetriacetate chelating resin for the determination of trace metals in seawater by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Tomoharu; Konagaya, Wataru; Zheng, Linjie; Takano, Shotaro; Sasaki, Masanobu; Murata, Rena; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Sohrin, Yoshiki

    2015-01-07

    A novel automated off-line preconcentration system for trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in seawater was developed by improving a commercially available solid-phase extraction system SPE-100 (Hiranuma Sangyo). The utilized chelating resin was NOBIAS Chelate-PA1 (Hitachi High-Technologies) with ethylenediaminetriacetic acid and iminodiacetic acid functional groups. Parts of the 8-way valve made of alumina and zirconia in the original SPE-100 system were replaced with parts made of polychlorotrifluoroethylene in order to reduce contamination of trace metals. The eluent pass was altered for the back flush elution of trace metals. We optimized the cleaning procedures for the chelating resin column and flow lines of the preconcentration system, and developed a preconcentration procedure, which required less labor and led to a superior performance compared to manual preconcentration (Sohrin et al.). The nine trace metals were simultaneously and quantitatively preconcentrated from ∼120 g of seawater, eluted with ∼15 g of 1M HNO3, and determined by HR-ICP-MS using the calibration curve method. The single-step preconcentration removed more than 99.998% of Na, K, Mg, Ca, and Sr from seawater. The procedural blanks and detection limits were lower than the lowest concentrations in seawater for Mn, Ni, Cu, and Pb, while they were as low as the lowest concentrations in seawater for Al, Fe, Co, Zn, and Cd. The accuracy and precision of this method were confirmed by the analysis of reference seawater samples (CASS-5, NASS-5, GEOTRACES GS, and GD) and seawater samples for vertical distribution in the western North Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system

  18. Thermotropic resin systems. Relationships between formulation parameters, material structure and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Katharina [Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Leoben (Austria); Wallner, Gernot M. [Univ. of Leoben (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    This paper focuses on a comprehensive characterization of various thermotropic resins under polymer physical aspects. Numerous thermotropic layers were produced under systematic variation of resin base, thermotropic additives and additive concentration. A detailed investigation of optical properties, switching temperature, switching process and residual transmittance was performed with a UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometer. Switching temperatures are compared with thermal transitions in the material determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Whereas the different film types show a direct solar transparency between 64 and 83% in the clear state, the direct solar transmittance decreases to values of about 27% to 80% above the switching temperature. In general the thermotropic resins are characterized by a steep and rapid switching process. The switching temperature can be adapted by varying the additives. The comparison of films thermal transitions with the switching performance reveals a good correlation. (orig.)

  19. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  20. The adhesive system and root canal region do not influence the degree of conversion of dual resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Cristoforides Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two adhesive systems and the post space region on the degree of conversion of dual resin cement and its bond strength to root dentin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One three-step etch-and-rinse (All-bond 2, Bisco and another one-step self-etch (Xeno III, Dentsply adhesive systems were applied on 20 (n=10 crownless bovine incisors, at 12-mm-deep post space preparation, and a fiber post (FRC Postec, Ivoclar was cemented using a dual cure resin cement (Duo-Link, Bisco. Three transverse sections (3 mm were obtained, being one from each study region (cervical, middle and apical. The degree of conversion of the dual cure resin cement was determined by a micro-Raman spectrometer. The data (% were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: For both groups, the degree of conversion means (% (All bond 2cervical = 69.3; All bond 2middle = 55.1; All bond 2apical= 56; Xeno III cervical = 68.7; Xeno IIImiddle = 68.8; Xeno III apical = 54.3 were not significantly different along the post space regions (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Neither the adhesive nor the post space region influenced the degree of conversion of the cement layer.

  1. Two years survival rate of class II composite resin restorations prepared by ART with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel in primary molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topaloglu-Ak, A.; Eden, E.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Oncag, O.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to test the null hypotheses that there is no difference: (1) in carious lesion development at the restoration margin between class II composite resin restorations in primary molars produced through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) with and without a chemomechanical caries

  2. After-heat removing system in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    The after-heat removing system of the present invention removes the after heat generated in a reactor core without using dynamic equipments such as pumps or blowers. There are disposed a first heat exchanger for heating a heat medium by the heat in a reactor container and a second heat exchanger situated above the first heat exchanger for spontaneously air-cooling the heat medium. Recycling pipeways connect the first and the second heat exchangers to form a recycling path for the heat medium. Then, since the second heat exchanger for spontaneously air-cooling the heat medium is disposed above the first heat exchanger and they are connected by the recycling pipeways, the heat medium can be circulated spontaneously. Accordingly, dynamic equipments such as pumps or blowers are no more necessary. As a result, the after-heat removing system of the FBR type reactor of excellent safety and reliability can be obtained. (I.S.)

  3. Water removal from a dry barrier cover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormont, J.C.; Ankeny, M.D.; Tansey, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the numerical simulations reveal that horizontal air flow through the coarse with reasonable pressure gradients can remove large quantities of water from the cover system. Initially, the water removal from the cover system is dominated by the evaporation and advection of water vapor out of the coarse layer. Once the coarse layer is dry, removal of water by evaporation near the fine/coarse layer interface reduces the local water content and water potential, and water moves toward the fine-coarse layer interface and becomes available for evaporation. This result is important in that it suggests the fine layer water content may be moderated by air flow in the coarse layer. Incorporating diffusion of water vapor from the fine layer into the coarse layer substantially increases the water movement out of the fine layer

  4. Large-scale treatment of high-salt, high-pH wastewater for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr removal, using crystalline silicotitanate resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.; Walker, J.F.; Lee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    A full-scale demonstration of cesium removal technology has been conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration utilized a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was selected on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, is highly selective for removing cesium from solutions containing high concentrations of other contaminants, such as sodium and potassium. Approximately 116,000 liters of supernate was processed during the demonstration with {approximately} 1,142 Ci of {sup 137}Cs removed from the supernate and loaded onto 266 liters of the CST sorbent. The supernate processed had a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO{sub 3} and a pH of 12 to 13. The CST also loaded Ba, Pb, Sr, U and Zn. Analysis of the spent sorbent has shown that it is not hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cesium breakthrough curves for the lab and full-scale columns agreed very well, suggesting that lab-scale tests can be used to predict the performance of larger systems. The cesium breakthrough curves for runs at different flowrates show that film diffusion is significant in controlling the mass transfer process. Operational factors that increase the effect of film diffusion include the small size and high porosity of the CST sorbent, and the relatively low liquid velocity through the sorbent.

  5. Large-scale treatment of high-salt, high-pH wastewater for 137Cs and 90Sr removal, using crystalline silicotitanate resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Walker, J.F.; Lee, D.D.

    1998-04-01

    A full-scale demonstration of cesium removal technology has been conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration utilized a modular, mobile ion-exchange system and existing facilities for the off-gas system, secondary containment, and utilities. The ion-exchange material, crystalline silicotitanate (CST), was selected on the basis of its effectiveness in laboratory tests. The CST, which was developed through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between DOE and private industry, is highly selective for removing cesium from solutions containing high concentrations of other contaminants, such as sodium and potassium. Approximately 116,000 liters of supernate was processed during the demonstration with ∼ 1,142 Ci of 137 Cs removed from the supernate and loaded onto 266 liters of the CST sorbent. The supernate processed had a high salt content, about 4 M NaNO 3 and a pH of 12 to 13. The CST also loaded Ba, Pb, Sr, U and Zn. Analysis of the spent sorbent has shown that it is not hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The cesium breakthrough curves for the lab and full-scale columns agreed very well, suggesting that lab-scale tests can be used to predict the performance of larger systems. The cesium breakthrough curves for runs at different flowrates show that film diffusion is significant in controlling the mass transfer process. Operational factors that increase the effect of film diffusion include the small size and high porosity of the CST sorbent, and the relatively low liquid velocity through the sorbent

  6. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  7. Excessive heat removal due to feedwater system malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beader, D.; Peterlin, G.

    1986-01-01

    Excessive heat removal transient of the Krsko Nuclear Power Plant, caused by steam generators feedwater system malfunctions was simulated by RELAP5/MOD1 computer code. The results are increase of power and reactor scram caused by high-high steam generator level. (author)

  8. ASBESTOS PIPE-INSULATION REMOVAL ROBOT SYSTEM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    This final topical report details the development, experimentation and field-testing activities for a robotic asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system developed for use within the DOE's weapon complex as part of their ER and WM program, as well as in industrial abatement. The engineering development, regulatory compliance, cost-benefit and field-trial experiences gathered through this program are summarized

  9. Designing Bioretention Systems to Improve Nitrogen Removal - poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain gardens, also referred to as bioretention systems, are designed primarily to infiltrate stormwater flow and reduce surface runoff and peak flows to receiving streams. Additionally, they are known to remove stressors from urban stormwater runoff, including oil and grease, pho...

  10. A removable optical sealing system for application to international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.E.

    1985-06-01

    A removable, optically verifiable sealing system for CANDU spent fuel storage facilities has been developed. The seal is based on the use of unique crystal patterns formed in a pure metal identity/integrity element and has been designed for easy installation and removal using simple tooling. Since the seal is optically verified, a wide range of commercial instruments, including those in use by the IAEA, can be used to verify it. Futhermore, optical verification allows the level of scrutiny to be matched with the degree of confidence required to be confident that spent fuel has not been diverted

  11. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Mutschler, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the BOA system, a mobile pipe-external crawler used to remotely strip and bag (possibly contaminated) asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations across the DOE weapons complex. The mechanical removal of ACLIM is very cost-effective due to the relatively low productivity and high cost involved in human removal scenarios. BOA, a mechanical system capable of removing most forms of lagging (paper, plaster, aluminum sheet, clamps, screws and chicken-wire), and insulation (paper, tar, asbestos fiber, mag-block) uses a circular cutter and compression paddles to cut and strip the insulation off the pipe through compression, while a HEPA-filter and encapsulant system maintain a certifiable vacuum and moisture content inside the system and on the pipe, respectively. The crawler system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. Key design parameters and performance parameters are developed and used in performance testing. Since the current system is a testbed, we also discuss future enhancements and outline two deployment scenarios (robotic and manual) for the final system to be designed and completed by the end of FY '95. An on-site demonstration is currently planned for Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  12. Development of a treatment process for the removal of heavy metals from raw water for drinking water supply using chelating ion exchange resins. Subproject 1. Final report; Entwicklung der Verfahrenstechnik zur Eliminierung von Schwermetallen aus Rohwaessern zur Trinkwassergewinnung mit chelatbildenden Kationenaustauscherharzen zur technischen Reife. Teilprojekt 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overath, H.; Stetter, D.; Doerdelmann, O.

    2002-07-01

    Chelating cation exchange resins with iminodiacetic acid group (Lewatit TP 207 and Amberlite IRC 748) were tested for the removal of heavy metals in a drinking water treatment plant. The pilot scale filtration experiments were conducted by varying the operating conditions, such as flow rate and feed concentrations. Heavy metal concentrations (nickel, lead, cadmium, zinc) in the feed were adjusted between 20 and 200 {mu}g/L. Different methods for regeneration and conditioning of the resins were developed and investigated. Finally the ion exchange resins were tested according to German health regulations for ion exchangers in drinking water treatment. (orig.)

  13. Can a safeguards accountancy system really detect an unauthorized removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.; Ellis, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Theoretical investigations and system studies indicate safeguards material balance data from reprocessing plants can be used to detect unauthorized removals. Plant systems have been modeled and simulated data used to demonstrate the techniques. But how sensitive are the techniques when used with actual plant data. What is the effect of safeguards applications on plant operability. Can safeguards be acceptable to plant operators, and are there any benefits to be derived. The Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) has been devoted to answering these and other questions over the past several years. A computerized system of near-real-time accounting and in-process inventory has been implemented and demonstrated during actual plant test runs. Measured inventories and hourly material balance closures have been made to assess safeguards in an operating plant application. The tests have culminated in actual removals of material from the operating plant to investigate the response and measure the sensitivity of the safeguards and data evaluation system

  14. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  15. Development of contaminated concrete removing system 'Clean cut method'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Takehiko; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Funakawa, Naoyoshi; Idemura, Hajime; Sakashita, Fumio; Tajitsu, Yoshiteru

    1989-01-01

    In the case of decommissioning nuclear facilities such as nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel facilities and RI handling facilities and carrying out reconstruction works, if there is radioactive contamination on the surfaces of concrete structures such as the floors and walls of the buildings for nuclear facilities, it must be removed. Since concrete is porous, contamination infiltrates into the inside of concrete, and the wiping of surfaces only or chemical decontamination cannot remove it, therefore in most cases, contaminated concrete must be removed. The removal of concrete surfaces has been carried out with chipping hammers, grinders and so on, but many problems arise due to it. In order to solve these problems, the mechanical cutting method was newly devised, and clean cut method (CCRS) was completed. The depth of cutting from concrete surface is set beforehand, and the part to be removed is accurately cut, at the same time, the concrete powder generated is collected nearly perfectly, and recovered into a drum. The outline of the method and the constitution of the system, the features of the clean cut method, the development of the technology for cutting concrete and the technology for recovering concrete powder, and the test of verifying decontamination are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Batch adsorptive removal of Fe(III, Cu(II and Zn(II ions in aqueous and aqueous organic–HCl media by Dowex HYRW2-Na Polisher resin as adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Aleem Soliman Aboul-Magd

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the metal ions in tap, Nile, waste and sea water samples and some ores were carried out. Removal of heavy metal ions such as Fe(III, Cd(II, Zn(II, Cu(II, Mn(II, Mg(II, and Pb(II from water and wastewater is obligatory in order to avoid water pollution. Batch shaking adsorption experiments to evaluate the performance of nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions in the removal of metal ions by cation exchange resin at the same conditions for both, such as the effect of initial metal ion concentration, different proportions of some organic solvents, H+-ion concentrations and reaction temperature on the partition coefficients. The metal adsorption for the cation exchanger was found to be significant in different media for both nitric and hydrochloric acids, i.e., the adsorption up take of metal ions presented in this work is very significant depending on the characteristics of ions and on the external concentrations of solute. The presence of low ionic strength or low concentration of acids does have a significant adsorption of metal ions on ion-exchange resin. The results show that the ion exchanger could be employed for the preconcentration, separation and the determination.

  17. A decay heat removal system requiring no external energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.; Fermandjian, J.

    1983-12-01

    A new Decay heat Removal System is described for PWR's with dry containment, i.e. a containment building which encloses no permanent reserve of cooling water. This new system is intended to provide a high level of safety since it uses no external energy, but only the thermodynamic energy of the air-steam-liquid water mixture generated in the containment after the failure of the primary circuit (''LOCA'') or of the secondary circuit. Thermodynamics of the system is evaluated first: after some design considerations, the use of the system for protecting actual PWR's is addressed

  18. Surface discoloration of composite resins: Effects of staining and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate surface discoloration of three microhybrid composite resins (Esthet•X HD, Clearfil AP-X, Gradia Direct) and five nanohybrid composite resins (Ceram•X, GC Kalore, G-aenial, Grandio, GrandioSO), after staining and bleaching procedures. The composite resins were polymerized with a curing light (Celalux II, Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) into 160 silicon molds (6,4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) to obtain identical specimens. Twenty samples for each composite resin were prepared. The specimens were polished using an automated polishing machine with the sequence of 600-, 800-, 1000-grit abrasive paper under water irrigation. The specimens were immersed in tea and distilled water: the specimens were dipped for 20 min, once a day (every 24 h), for 14 days into the drinks. The specimens were then bleached with carbamide peroxide at 17% (Perfect Bleach-Voco). The color of specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer according to the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) system after light-polymerization of composite resin specimens, after 7 days, after 14 days, and after bleaching. The color difference h index (DEab(*)) between each measurement was calculated. Statistical analysis was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA). All specimens showed a significant increase in staining with a similar trend and no significant differences between microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. After whitening procedures, materials tested showed both significant and unsignificant differences of the h index. Microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins had similar in vitro surface discoloration in tea. After bleaching, discoloration was removed from some composite resins tested.

  19. Gadolinium removal from the moderator system of TAPP - 3 using the three layer bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, V.S.; Balaji, V.; Venkateswaran, G.; Dash, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Nitric acid leaching from the weak base anion (WBA) exchanger had been evaluated and based on this a 5% mixture of nitric acid loaded weak base anion exchanger with fresh weak base anion exchanger (NLWBA) at the bottom of the ion exchange column has been devised to maintain an outlet pH in the range of 5.0 to 5.5 during Gd removal from the moderator system of TAPP - 3 and 4. A three layered bed had been constituted wherein strong acid cation (SAC) exchanger is placed as the top layer while a mixed bed of SAC and WBA or pure WBA is used as the middle layer and the 5% NLWBA was used as the bottom most layer. This bed configuration would result in an iso-pH regime in the moderator system during the Gd removal along with quantitative removal of Gd. Two three-layer bed columns were prepared at TAPS - 3 and 4 in July 07. The resin was loaded in batches and after preparing the column, the column was deuterated with heavy water (> 99.75 % w/w) at a steady flow rate of 280 ml/min. After achieving high-grade isotopic purity viz. > 99.75 % w/w., these columns were preserved for their use after SDS - 2 actuation in the plant. Biennial Shut Down (BSD) of Unit - 3 was taken on 04-05-08 by SDS-2 actuation resulting in 16.37 ppm Gd in the moderator system. Gd removal to the extent about 8 mg/kg as designed could be done on one three layer bed. The use of this bed has resulted in an iso-pH regime at the column inlet and outlet. Conductivity values observed in the system were within the specifications. The three layer bed of a configuration slightly modified from the one tested in this work is expected to improve the column efficiency to 100% from the presently observed 87% and 97% respectively for the IX-2 and IX-3. (author)

  20. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A chemoviscosity model, which describes viscosity rise profiles accurately under various cure cycles, and correlates viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with structural transformations of the thermosetting resin system during cure, was established. Work completed on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins is reported.

  1. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  2. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part II: cadmium(II/ sulphate/Lewatit TP260

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of cadmium (II, from aqueous sulphate solutions, on Lewatit TP260 resin has been investigated in batch equilibrium experiments. The influence of pH and temperature on metal adsorption capacity have also been examined. The kinetic performance of the resin has been assesed and the results have been correlated by the pore diffusion model. The resin has been used in mini-columns to study its performance under dynamics conditions. The desorption of metal ion is achieved using sulphuric acid (0.25M and 0.5M.

    Se estudia la adsorción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio sulfato, sobre la resina Lewatit TP260. La adsorción del metal se ha investigado en función del pH, la temperatura y el tiempo de contacto con la resina. Los estudios cinéticos permiten correlacionar el proceso de intercambio iónico con el modelo de difusión en poro. Se ha empleado el sistema en mini columnas para evaluar el comportamiento de la resina bajo condiciones dinámicas. La desorción del metal se lleva a cabo con disoluciones de ácido sulfúrico (0,25M y 0,5M.

  3. An innovative pool with a passive heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitale Di Maio, Damiano; Naviglio, Antonio; Giannetti, Fabio; Manni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Heat removal systems are of primary importance in several industrial processes. As heat sink, a water pool or atmospheric air may be selected. The first solution takes advantage of high heat transfer coefficient with water but it requires active systems to maintain a constant water level; the second solution takes benefit from the unlimited heat removal capacity by air, but it requires a larger heat exchanger to compensate the lower heat transfer coefficient. In NPPs (nuclear power plants) during a nuclear reactor shutdown, as well as in some chemical plants to control runaway reactions, it is possible to use an innovative heat sink that joins the advantages of the two previous solutions. This solution is based on a special heat exchanger submerged in a water pool designed so that when heat removal is requested, active systems are not required to maintain the water level; due to the special design, when the pool is empty, atmospheric air becomes the only heat sink. The special heat exchanger design allows to have a heat exchanger without being oversized and to have a system able to operate for unlimited period without external interventions. This innovative system provides an economic advantage as well as enhanced safety features.

  4. Removal of Shippingport Station primary system components and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.; Lipsett, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The dismantling workscope for the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project was divided into subtasks to permit the work to be subcontracted to the maximum extent practicable. Major subtasks were identified and described by Activity specifications which could then be grouped into logical work packages to be put out for bid. Two of the largest dismantling work packages, removal of piping and components, were grouped together and designated as Activity Specifications 4 and 5. TLG Services, Inc. and Cleveland Wrecking Company formed a Joint Venture to perform this work during a two-year period at a cost of approximately $7 million. The major portions of this dismantling workscope are described. The primary system components within this workscope consist of the stainless steel reactor coolant piping, check valves, reactor coolant pumps, steam generators, and reactor purification demineralizers and coolers. The work performed, the heavy rigging preparations and procedures, the cutting tools used, component draining/capping techniques to prevent spills, contamination containment, airborne control techniques, and lessons learned during the removal of these primary system components are described. Summaries of crew size and composition, labor hours, duration hours and radiation exposure to workers are provided and discussed briefly. The successful completion of this work is evidence of the engineering, planning, equipment, materials and labor pool available to remove large, radioactively contaminated components safely. This experience will help decommissioning planners to prepare for the removal of reactor components in future decommissioning

  5. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

  6. Bonding of composite resins to PEEK: the influence of adhesive systems and air-abrasion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Taufall, Simon; Roos, Malgorzata; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Lümkemann, Nina

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the tensile bond strength (TBS) to polyaryletheretherketone (PEEK) after different pretreatment and conditioning methods. Four hundred PEEK specimens were fabricated and allocated to the following air-abrasion methods (n 1  = 80/pretreatment): (i) 50 μm Al 2 O 3 (0.05 MPa); (ii) 50 μm Al 2 O 3 (0.35 MPa); (iii) 110 μm Al 2 O 3 (0.05 MPa); (iv) 110 μm Al 2 O 3 (0.35 MPa); and (v) Rocatec 110 μm (0.28 MPa). These pretreatments were combined with the following conditioning methods (n 2  = 20/pretreatment/conditioning): (a) visio.link (VL); (b) Monobond Plus/Heliobond (MH); (c) Scotchbond Universal (SU); and (d) dialog bonding fluid (DB). After veneering of all specimens with dialog occlusal and aging (28 days H 2 O, 37 °C + 20,000 thermal cycles, 5/55 °C), TBS was measured. Data was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with Breslow-Gehan test and Cox-regressions. The major impact on TBS showed the conditioning, followed by the air-abrasion-pressure, while the grain size of the air-abrasion powder did not show any effect. Specimens air-abraded at 0.35 MPa showed the highest survival rates. However, within VL groups, this observation was not statistically significant. Within MH groups, pretreatment using 110 μm Al 2 O 3 and 0.05 MPa resulted in higher survival rates compared to groups treated with 50 and 110 μm Al 2 O 3 using a pressure of 0.35 MPa. The use of VL showed the highest survival rates between the adhesive systems and the TBS values higher than 25 MPa independent of the pretreatment method. As an exception, only VL showed significantly higher survival rates when compared to MH. The adequate choice of the adhesive system and higher pressures improved the TBS between PEEK and veneering resin composite. The particle size had no major impact. According to this study, best veneering of PEEK with dialog occlusal can be achieved by conditioning with visio.link in combination with

  7. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  8. Comparative study to evaluate shear bond strength of RMGIC to composite resin using different adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Chandak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study is to compare and evaluate the role of new dental adhesives to bond composite to the resinmodified glass inomer cement (RMGIC. Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens were prepared on acrylic blocks, with wells prepared in it by drilling holes, to retain the RMGIC. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups of ten specimens each. In Group a thin layer of selfetch adhesive (3M ESPE was applied between the RMGIC and the composite resin FILTEK P60 (3M SPE. In Group II, total etch adhesive (Adeper Scotch bond 2, 3M ESPE was applied, and in Group III, there was no application of any adhesive between RMGIC and the composite resin. After curing all the specimens, the shear bond strength was measured using an Instron universal testing machine. Results: The results were drawn and tabulated using ANOVA-fishers and Dunnet D statistical tests.The maximum shear bond strength values were recorded in Group I specimens with self-etch adhesive showing a mean value of 2.74 when compared to the Group II adhesive (Total etch showing a mean shear strength of value 1.89, where no adhesive was used, showed a minimum mean shear bond strength of 1.42. There was a great and significant difference between Group I and Group II (P value 0.05 whereas, both Group I and Group II showed a vast and significant difference from Group III (P value = 0-001. Conclusion: Hence, this present study concludes that application of self-etch adhesive (3M ESPE, U.S.A in between RMGIC and composite resin increases the shear bond strength between RMGIC and the resin composites, as compared to the total-etch type adhesive (Adeper Scotch bond 2,3M ESPE, U.S.A as well as without application of the adhesive agent.

  9. Passive heat removal system with injector-condenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soplenkov, K I [All-Russian Inst. of Nuclear Power Plant Operation, Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Centre of Nuclear Power Safety (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The system described in this paper is a passive system for decay heat removal from WWERs. It operates off the secondary side of the steam generators (SG). Steam is taken from the SG to operate a passive injector pump which causes secondary fluid to be pumped through a heat exchanger. Variants pass either water or steam from the SG through the heat exchanger. There is a passive initiation scheme. The programme for experimental and theoretical validation of the system is described. (author). 8 figs.

  10. Waste removal systems and recycling participation in residential environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    Systems for the removal of waste are important although often overlooked elements of any residential environment. It is an old insight that when these systems are ineffective (and this is globally and historically the rule rather than the exception), human living conditions and often even human...... health are severely impaired (Pieters, 1989). More recently, resource waste and environmental hazards from waste have given rise to public and political concern as well, even when disposal systems are well managed. This concern has led to efforts to divert solid waste away from disposal and towards some...

  11. Preparation of a Bis-GMA-Free Dental Resin System with Synthesized Fluorinated Dimethacrylate Monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of reducing human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA derivatives in dentistry, a fluorinated dimethacrylate monomer was synthesized to replace 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloy-loxypropyl-phenyl]propane (Bis-GMA as the base monomer of dental resin. After mixing with reactive diluent triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, fluorinated dimethacrylate (FDMA/TEGDMA was prepared and compared with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA in physicochemical properties, such as double bond conversion (DC, volumetric shrinkage (VS, water sorption (WS and solubility (WSL, flexural strength (FS and modulus (FM. The results showed that, when compared with Bis-GMA based resin, FDMA-based resin had several advantages, such as higher DC, lower VS, lower WS, and higher FS after water immersion. All of these revealed that FDMA had potential to be used as a substitute for Bis-GMA. Of course, many more studies, such as biocompatibility testing, should be undertaken to prove whether FDMA could be applied in clinic.

  12. BOA II: pipe-asbestos insulation removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Mutschler; Boehmke, S.; Chemel, B.; Piepgras, C.

    1996-01-01

    BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal costly and inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  13. Kinetics of Waterborne Alkyd/Acrylic Hybrid Resin Free Radical Polymerization by Two Systems of Redox and Thermal Initiators

    OpenAIRE

    shirin Madadi; ali akbar Yousefi; elham Keshmirizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Kinetics of radical polymerizations of waterborne alkyd/acrylic hybrid resin via batch mini-emulsion technique was studied using redox initiators (TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/AsAc  and  TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/SFS) at relatively low temperatures and thermal initiators (BPO, KPS and AIBN) at higher temperatures to seek the most suitable initiator system. At the end of all reactions the unreacted monomer content was reduced using post-polymerization technique; consequently, leading to increased monomer conversion an...

  14. Chemical Analysis of the Resinous Exudate Isolated from Heliotropium taltalense and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of the Phenolics Components and the Resin in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available H. taltalense (Phil. Johnst. (Heliotropiaceae is an endemic species of the northern coast of Chile that produces a resinous exudate that covers its foliar surface and stems. Its chemical composition was analyzed for the first time, and two aromatic geranyl derivatives: filifolinol and filifolinyl senecionate and three flavonoids – naringenin, 3-O-methylgalangin and 7-O-methyleriodictiol – were isolated. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids and the resinous exudates was carried out by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH bleaching effect in ethanolic solution and in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS micelles. The influence of the reaction medium was analyzed. The initial velocity reactions for the pure compounds and for the extract were higher in SDS media than in ethanolic solution. The velocity of reaction observed was interpreted in terms of the reaction medium environment in the micelle.

  15. Chemical analysis of the resinous exudate isolated from Heliotropium taltalense and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolics components and the resin in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brenda; Rojas, Macarena; Torres, René

    2009-06-02

    H. taltalense (Phil.) Johnst. (Heliotropiaceae) is an endemic species of the northern coast of Chile that produces a resinous exudate that covers its foliar surface and stems. Its chemical composition was analyzed for the first time, and two aromatic geranyl derivatives: filifolinol and filifolinyl senecionate and three flavonoids - naringenin, 3-O-methylgalangin and 7-O-methyleriodictiol - were isolated. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids and the resinous exudates was carried out by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bleaching effect in ethanolic solution and in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. The influence of the reaction medium was analyzed. The initial velocity reactions for the pure compounds and for the extract were higher in SDS media than in ethanolic solution. The velocity of reaction observed was interpreted in terms of the reaction medium environment in the micelle.

  16. Recovery of uranium from seawater. 14. System arrangements for the recovery of uranium from seawater by spherical amidoxime chelating resins utilizing natural seawater motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Hiroaki; Kabay, Nalan; Shuto, Taketomi; Jyo, Akinori

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate performances of lightly cross-linked highly porous amidoxime resins in uranium-adsorption systems utilizing natural seawater motions, uranium uptake by the resins from seawater was studied by different approaches, such as simulated sea current exposure tests, towing trials, and/or mooring trials. In general, the efficiency of uranium uptake became higher with a decrease in the thickness of packing layers, indicating important roles of fluidization of the resin particles. On the basis of these fundamental data, mooring tests in the natural sea current were designed and conducted. By mooring flat adsorption beds (base area 260 cm 2 , height 3.0 cm) packed with 780 ml of the resin for 40 h, promising uranium uptake as high as 44 mg/kg of resin (9.9 mg/l of resin) was achieved under sea conditions in which the velocity of sea currents and the vertical velocity of waves were 5.5-49.7 cm/s and 3.4-27 cm/s, respectively

  17. High-efficiency SO2 removal in utility FGD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gray, S.; Dekraker, D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have contracted with Radian Corporation to conduct full-scale testing, process modeling, and economic evaluations of six existing utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project objective is to evaluate low capital cost upgrades for achieving up to 98% sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) removal efficiency in a variety of FGD system types. The systems include dual-loop, packed absorbers at Tampa Electric Company's Big Bend Station; cocurrent, packed absorbers at Hoosier Energy's Merom Station; dual-loop absorbers with perforated-plate trays at Southwestern Electric Power Company's Pirkey Station; horizontal spray absorbers at PSI Energy's Gibson Station; venturi scrubbers at Duquesne Light's Elrama Station; and open stray absorbers at New york State Electric and Gas Corporations's (NYSEG's) Kintigh Station. All operate in an inhibited-oxidation mode except the system at Big Bend (forced oxidation), and all use limestone reagent except the Elrama system (Mg-lime). The program was conducted to demonstrate that upgrades such as performance additives and/or mechanical modifications can increase system SO 2 removal at low cost. The cost effectiveness of each upgrade has been evaluated on the basis of test results and/or process model predictions for upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this upgraded performance and utility-specific operating and maintenance costs. Results from this program may lead some utilities to use SO 2 removal upgrades as an approach for compliance with phase 2 of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. This paper summarizes the results of testing, modeling, and economic evaluations that have been completed since July, 1994

  18. In vitro comparison rate of dental root canal transportation using two single file systems on the simulated resin blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Etesami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important stages in endodontic treatment. Single-file systems save time and reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens. This in vitro study was aimed to compare the rate of canal transportation after the preparation of the stimulated resin root canal with two single-file systems, namely Waveone and Reciproc. Materials and Methods: Thirty stimulated resin root canal blocks with size 8/0. 02 K file were randomly divided into two study groups. The preparation in Group A and Group B was performed using Reciproc and Waveone files, respectively. Pre and post- preparation photographs were taken and the images were superimposed to evaluate the inner and outer wall’s curvature tendency at three points (apical, middle and coronal using AutoCad pragram. Data were analyzed using T-test. Results: Based on the results, the degree of transportation in the inner and outer walls of the canal was less at the level of 3 millimeters (P0.05. Conclusion: Waveone showed better performance in the middle third of canal and this system maybe recommended.

  19. Containment hydrogen removal system for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, V.M.; Flynn, E.P.; Pokora, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    A hydrogen removal system (10) separates hydrogen from the containment atmosphere of a nuclear power plant using a hydrogen permeable membrane separator (30). Water vapor is removed by condenser (14) from a gas stream withdrawn from the containment atmosphere. The gas stream is then compressed by compressor (24) and cooled (28,34) to the operating temperature of the hydrogen permeable membrane separator (30). The separator (30) separates the gas stream into a first stream, rich in hydrogen permeate, and a second stream that is hydrogen depleted. The separated hydrogen is passed through a charcoal adsorber (48) to adsorb radioactive particles that have passed through the hydrogen permeable membrane (44). The hydrogen is then flared in gas burner (52) with atmospheric air and the combustion products vented to the plant vent. The hydrogen depleted stream is returned to containment through a regenerative heat exchanger (28) and expander (60). Energy is extracted from the expander (60) to drive the compressor (24) thereby reducing the energy input necessary to drive the compressor (24) and thus reducing the hydrogen removal system (10) power requirements

  20. Satellite refrigerator compressors with the oil and moisture removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    There are twenty-eight compressors installed around the Main Accelerator Ring in seven locations. Drawing 9140-ME-129720 shows the piping and the components schematic for four Mycom compressor skids per building with each having an independent oil and moisture removal system. The Mycom skids each consist of an oil injected screw compressor of 750 SCFM capacity with a 350 hp motor, oil pump, oil cooler, and oil separator. Helium gas returning from the heat exchanger train is compressed from 1 atm to 20 atm in the compressor. The compressed gas is then passed through the three coalescer de-mister where oil mist is separated from the helium gas. The helium gas then flows through the charcoal adsorber and molecular sieve where any residual oil vapor and water vapor are removed. The final stage of purification is the final filter which removes any remaining particulates from the compressed helium gas. The end product of this system is compressed and purified helium gas ready to be cooled down to cryogenic temperatures

  1. Removal of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution on Amberlite IRC 748 synthetic resin by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhihui; Qi Tao; Qu Jingkui; Wang Lina; Chu Jinglong

    2009-01-01

    Experimental measurements have been made on the batch ion exchange of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution using cation exchanger of Amberlite IRC 748 as K + form. The ion exchange behavior of two alkaline-earth metals on the resin, depending on contact time, pH, temperature and resin dosage was studied. The adsorption isotherms were described by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. For Ca(II) ion, the Langmuir model represented the adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. The maximum ion exchange capacity was found to be 47.21 mg g -1 for Ca(II) and 27.70 mg g -1 for Mg(II). The kinetic data were tested using Lagergren-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Kinetic data correlated well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. Various thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG o ), enthalpy (ΔH o ) and entropy (ΔS o ) were also calculated. These parameters showed that the ion exchange of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. The activation energy of ion-exchange (E a ) was determined as 12.34 kJ mol -1 for Ca(II) and 9.865 kJ mol -1 for Mg(II) according to the Arrhenius equation.

  2. Microshear bond strength of resin composite to teeth affected by molar hypomineralization using 2 adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Vanessa; Burrow, Michael F; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Louise B

    2006-01-01

    When restoring hypomineralized first permanent molars, placement of cavo-surface margins can be difficult to ascertain due to uncertainty of the bonding capability of the tooth surface. The purpose of this study was to investigate the adhesion of resin composite bonded to control and hypomineralized enamel with an all-etch single-bottle adhesive or self-etching primer adhesive. Specimens of control enamel (N=44) and hypomineralized enamel (N=45) had a 0.975-mm diameter composite rod (Filtek Supreme Universal Restorative) bonded with either 3M ESPE Single Bond or Clearfil SE Bond following manufacturers' instructions. Specimens were stressed in shear at 1 mm/min to failure (microshear bond strength). Etched enamel surfaces and enamel-adhesive interfaces were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The microshear bond strength (MPa) of resin composite bonded to hypomineralized enamel was significantly lower than for control enamel (3M ESPE Single Bond=7.08 +/- 4.90 vs 16.27 +/- 10.04; Clearfil SE Bond=10.39 +/- 7.56 vs 19.63 +/- 7.42; P=.001). Fractures were predominantly adhesive in control enamel and cohesive in hypomineralized enamel. Scotchbond etchant produced deep interprismatic and intercrystal porosity in control enamel and shallow etch patterns with minimal intercrystal porosity in hypomineralized enamel. Control enamel appeared almost unaffected by SE Primer; hypomineralized enamel showed shallow etching. The hypomineralized enamel-adhesive interface was porous with cracks in the enamel. The control enamel-adhesive interface displayed a hybrid layer of even thickness. The microshear bond strength of resin composite bonded to hypomineralized enamel was significantly lower than for control enamel. This was supported by differences seen in etch patterns and at the enamel-adhesive interface.

  3. Mathematical Modelling of Nitrate Removal from Water Using a Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid System with Four Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahatheva Kalaruban

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive concentrations of nitrate in ground water are known to cause human health hazards. A submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system that includes a microfilter membrane and four different adsorbents (Dowex 21K XLT ion exchange resin (Dowex, Fe-coated Dowex, amine-grafted (AG corn cob and AG coconut copra operated at four different fluxes was used to continuously remove nitrate. The experimental data obtained in this study was simulated mathematically with a homogeneous surface diffusion model that incorporated membrane packing density and membrane correlation coefficient, and applied the concept of continuous flow stirred tank reactor. The model fit with experimental data was good. The surface diffusion coefficient was constant for all adsorbents and for all fluxes. The mass transfer coefficient increased with flux for all adsorbents and generally increased with the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents.

  4. ENSURING SANITARY RELIABILITY OF TERRITORIES WHEN USING REMOVABLE SEWERAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found out that in most cases the system of removable water disposal is arranged with violations, i.e. cesspools that collect runoffs are either not designed at all — waste water merge into an open trench (ditch, and then water is filtered into the ground, or are designed against the rules (instead of a cesspool the user presupposes a simple hole dug in the ground. The authors witnessed the cases of ingress of wastewater into open waters, near which holiday villages are situated. This fact raises the question on the necessity of solving these problems which will prevent pollution of soil and surface waters, as well as the surrounding areas by sewages to prevent the development of infections and to prevent environmental disaster on a local scale. If you have a small rate of water flow in a summer cottage, it is feasible to design a sump for removal of faecal discharge (human physiological discharge, which are the most dangerous. It is advisable to install in the ground sealed (cumulative capacity, and build headroom on the top in the form of a toilet cabin (detached structure. This will allow completely getting rid of contamination with sewage effluents. The volume of the tank must be calculated individually depending on the water consumption on the site. Periodically it is needed to call out a cesspoolage truck after filling the reservoir, which would be then emptied of faecal material. In the last 20 years in our country a promising trend in removable sanitation began to develop — bio toilets. They became popular in country houses, as well as for persons with disabilities A composting toilet is a portable container, which is very compact and can be installed in any location of a country house. A more costly option, but an environmentally sound and convenient one to use is the construction of local water disposal systems with the use of not only mechanical, but also biological treatment. The choice of a particular scheme of

  5. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

    1995-02-01

    The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

  6. Centrifuge experiments for removal of aluminium turbidity from Dhruva heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetiya, R.S.; Unny, V.K.P.; Nayak, A.P.

    1989-01-01

    Aluminium turbidity and associated radioactivity was observed in the moderator cum coolant system of Dhruva during initial power operation. Ion exchange resin beds of the purification system were not able to remove aluminium turbidity and radioactivity of system heavy water. Centrifuge technique was used as a convenient alternative method to remove the turbidity and radioactivity. (author)

  7. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  8. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  9. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

  10. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-01-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  11. Efficient TEA CO2 laser based coating removal system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prinsloo, FJ

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Efficient TEA CO2 laser based... by keeping energy density below the damage threshold. The advantage of a pulsed TEA CO2 laser system is that a laser frequency and temporal profile can be chosen to maximize paint removal and concurrently minimize substrate damage. To achieve...

  12. Simultaneous biological nutrient removal: evaluation of autotrophic denitrification, heterotrophic nitrification, and biological phosphorus removal in full-scale systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Helen X; Daigger, Glen T; Strom, Peter F; Cowan, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous biological nutrient removal (SBNR) is the biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in excess of that required for biomass synthesis in a biological wastewater treatment system without defined anaerobic or anoxic zones. Evidence is growing that significant SBNR can occur in many systems, including the aerobic zone of systems already configured for biological nutrient removal. Although SBNR systems offer several potential advantages, they cannot be fully realized until the mechanisms responsible for SBNR are better understood. Consequently, a research program was initiated with the basic hypothesis that three mechanisms might be responsible for SBNR: the reactor macroenvironment, the floc microenvironment, and novel microorganisms. Previously, the nutrient removal capabilities of seven full-scale, staged, closed-loop bioreactors known as Orbal oxidation ditches were evaluated. Chemical analysis and microbiological observations suggested that SBNR occurred in these systems. Three of these plants were further examined in this research to evaluate the importance of novel microorganisms, especially for nitrogen removal. A screening tool was developed to determine the relative significance of the activities of microorganisms capable of autotrophic denitrification and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification in biological nutrient removal systems. The results indicated that novel microorganisms were not substantial contributors to SBNR in the plants studied. Phosphorus metabolism (anaerobic release, aerobic uptake) was also tested in one of the plants. Activity within the mixed liquor that was consistent with current theories for phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) was observed. Along with other observations, this suggests the presence of PAOs in the facilities studied.

  13. Processing ix spent resin waste for C-14 isotope recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F. H.; Woodall, K. B.; Sood, S. K.; Vogt, H. K.; Krochmainek, L. S.

    1991-01-01

    A process developed at Ontario Hydro for recovering carbon-14 (C-14) from spent ion exchange resin wastes is described. Carbon-14 is an undesirable by-product of CANDU 1 nuclear reactor operation. It has an extremely long (5730 years) half-life and can cause dosage to inhabitants by contact, inhalation, or through the food cycle via photosynthesis. Release of carbon-14 to the environment must be minimized. Presently, all the C-14 produced in the Moderator and Primary Heat Transport (PHT) systems of the reactor is effectively removed by the respective ion exchange columns, and the spent ion exchange resins are stored in suitably engineered concrete structures. Because of the large volumes of spent resin waste generated each year this method of disposal by long term storage tends to be uneconomical; and may also be unsatisfactory considering the long half-life of the C-14. However, purified C-14 is a valuable commercial product for medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and organic chemistry research. Currently, commercial C-14 is made artificially in research reactors by irradiating aluminum nitride targets for 4.5 years. If the C-14 containing resin waste can be used to reduce this unnecessary production of C-14, the total global build-up of this radioactive chemical can be reduced. There is much incentive in removing the C-14 from the resin waste to reduce the volume of C-14 waste, and also in purifying the recovered C-14 to supply the commercial market. The process developed by Ontario Hydro consists of three main steps: C-14 removal from spent resins, enrichment of recovered C-14, and preparation of final product. Components of the process have been successfully tested at Ontario Hydro's Research Division, but the integration of the process is yet to be demonstrated. A pilot scale plant capable of processing 4 m 3 of spent resins annually is being planned for demonstrating the technology. The measured C-14 activity levels on the spent resins ranged from 47

  14. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  15. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Resin Composite Bond Strength to Enamel and Dentin Using Different Adhesive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobaldo, J D; Catelan, A; Rodrigues-Filho, U; Marchi, G M; Lima, Danl; Aguiar, Fhb

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength of composite resin restorations in dental blocks with or without exposure to cigarette smoke. Eighty bovine dental blocks were divided into eight groups (n=10) according to the type of adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA [SBMP]; Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE [SB]; Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray Medical Inc, Okayama, Japan [CSEB]; Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE [SBU]) and exposure to smoke (no exposure; exposure for five days/20 cigarettes per day). The adhesive systems were applied to the tooth structure, and the blocks received a composite restoration made using a matrix of perforated pasta. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey test (αadhesive systems (padhesives, but no differences were noted in enamel.

  16. In vitro comparative analysis of resistance to compression of laboratory resin composites and a ceramic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenegro Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restorative materials must be capable not only of restoring the patient′s masticatory function, but also to rescue the self-esteem of those maculated by a disharmonious smile. Among the esthetic materials available on the market, the choice frequently lies between ceramic or indirect laboratory resin restorations. Aim: This study assessed the resistance to compression of two laboratory resins found on the market, namely Artglass ® and Targis ® , considering Omega 900 ® ceramic from Vita as control. Materials and Methods: With the aid of stainless steel matrices, with internal dimensions of 8.0 mm diameter at the base, 9.0 mm in the top portion and 4.0 mm height, 15 test specimens were made, being 5 of each material to be tested. The test specimens were kept in distilled water for 72 hours and submitted to an axial load by the action of a point with a rounded tip 2 mm in diameter, adapted to an EMIC 500 universal test machine. The compression speed was 0.5 mm/min, with a load cell capacity of 200 Kgf. Results: The means of the results were calculated in kilogram-force (Kgf. The results found were treated by analysis of variance (ANOVA and the differences found among the groups were identified by the Tukey test (5%. Conclusion: It was observed that the material Omega 900 ® offered significantly greater resistance to compression than the other two materials, which did not present statistically significant difference between them.

  17. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  18. System Study: Residual Heat Removal 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the residual heat removal (RHR) system in two modes of operation (low-pressure injection in response to a large loss-of-coolant accident and post-trip shutdown-cooling) at 104 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified in the RHR results. A highly statistically significant decreasing trend was observed for the RHR injection mode start-only unreliability. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for RHR shutdown cooling mode start-only unreliability and RHR shutdown cooling model 24-hour unreliability.

  19. Passive safety systems for decay heat removal of MRX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochiai, M; Iida, H; Hoshi, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Ship System Lab.

    1996-12-01

    The MRX (marine Reactor X) is an advanced marine reactor, its design has been studied in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. It is characterized by four features, integral type PWR, in-vessel type control rod drive mechanisms, water-filled containment vessel and passive decay heat removal system. A water-filled containment vessel is of great advantage since it ensures compactness of a reactor plant by realizing compact radiation shielding. The containment vessel also yields passive safety of MRX in the event of a LOCA by passively maintaining core flooding without any emergency water injection. Natural circulation of water in the vessels (reactor and containment vessels) is one of key factors of passive decay heat removal systems of MRX, since decay heat is transferred from fuel rods to atmosphere by natural circulation of the primary water, water in the containment vessel and thermal medium in heat pipe system for the containment vessel water cooling in case of long terms cooling after a LOCA as well as after reactor scram. Thus, the ideal of water-filled containment vessel is considered to be very profitable and significant in safety and economical point of view. This idea is, however, not so familiar for a conventional nuclear system, so experimental and analytical efforts are carried out for evaluation of hydrothermal behaviours in the reactor pressure vessel and in the containment vessel in the event of a LOCA. The results show the effectiveness of the new design concept. Additional work will also be conducted to investigate the practical maintenance of instruments in the containment vessel. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  20. Asbestos removal and disposal information system: a user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.S.; Eisenhower, B.M.

    1982-10-01

    Program ASBS01, written for the staff of the Department of Environmental Management (DEM) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is an on-line management information system that provides file maintenance and information retrievability for demolition and/or renovation operations involving friable (capable of becoming an airborne health hazard) asbestos material at the Laboratory. System 1022 is the data base management system used. The screen processor SCOPE provides the DEM staff with system prompts for ease of use and data integrity. Data for the system comes from two UCN forms: (1) Notice of Intention to Demolish or Renovate Friable Asbestos Material (UCN-13385) and (2) Request for the Disposal of Asbestos or Material Containing Asbestos (UCN-13386). Examples of the forms are in Appendix A. Data is entered into the system as requests are submitted to DEM. Total amounts of friable asbestos removed in demolition and/or renovation operations can be generated by the program upon user request. These totals are submitted in a quarterly report to the Environmental Protection Branch of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on a continuing basis (see Appendix B). This report describes the operation of the computer program ASBS01 from data entry to generation of totals. Each data attribute of the master file ASBSTO.DMS is described in detail, and a sample session is given for user reference

  1. Usefulness of a clinical scoring system to anticipate difficulty of Norplant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, P D; Remsburg, R E; Glew, G; McGrath, J A; Gaffikin, L

    1995-12-01

    Removal of contraceptive implants (e.g. Norplant) is an issue affecting its worldwide acceptability. Reports of difficult, painful removals have resulted in lawsuits and reduced demand. To improve quality of care, we developed a scoring system to anticipate difficult removals. We report on the usefulness of such a system and present client perspectives about the removal experience. A 9-point scoring system based on the visibility, arrangement, and position (VAP) of Norplant capsules was used to assess the anticipated difficulty of removal in 53 consecutive patients. The VAP score was then correlated with removal time and related parameters. Mean removal time was 14.74 min (range 4.75-47). In 20% of patients, the VAP score indicated a potentially difficult removal and the VAP score correlated significantly with removal time (r = 0.3, p = 0.05). Patients expected removal to be moderately difficult (mean visual analog score 4.7 out of a possible 10), but after removal they rated the actual removal experience as relatively easy (mean score 2.6/10). Before the removal, only 48% of patients said they would recommend Norplant to a friend but after removal, 70% said they would do so. A scoring system such as the VAP score can help identify potentially difficult removals so that an experienced remover can be present at the time of removal or an appropriate referral made. However, the VAP score cannot predict variables such as the density of the subcutaneous fibrous tissue "envelope". Although patient anxiety concerning removal may be high, the presence of a competent remover and an easy removal experience reduces this anxiety and encourages patients to be more positive about this method. The value of having properly trained, competent personnel available to perform removals cannot be over-emphasized.

  2. Relationship between removable prosthesis and some systemics disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Le Bars

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the dental literature concerning the potential impact of the removable prosthesis (RP on the health status of patients with certain systemic diseases. Literature was surveyed using Medline/PubMed database resources, as well as a manual search, up to 2015 to identify appropriate articles that addressed the aim of this review. The research used keywords about associations between RP and six pathologies: Human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary diseases, gastric-Helicobacter pylori, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Analysis of literature showed that in patients with dentures having one or more of the six general conditions listed, Candida albicans organism is more frequently found in the oral flora compared to healthy denture wearer. Although causality has not been established and pending further research on this topic, the hygienic practices necessary to minimize the risk of numerous pathologies should be strengthened in the case of these patients, all the more in the presence of physical or psychological disability. The relationship between the general diseases and increasing of oral candidiasis denture patients is not explained. Therefore, attention to oral hygiene and professional care for removing C. albicans may be beneficial in these medically compromised patients.

  3. Relationship between removable prosthesis and some systemics disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, Pierre; Kouadio, Alain Ayepa; N'goran, Justin Koffi; Badran, Zahi; Soueidan, Assem

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the dental literature concerning the potential impact of the removable prosthesis (RP) on the health status of patients with certain systemic diseases. Literature was surveyed using Medline/PubMed database resources, as well as a manual search, up to 2015 to identify appropriate articles that addressed the aim of this review. The research used keywords about associations between RP and six pathologies: Human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary diseases, gastric-Helicobacter pylori, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Analysis of literature showed that in patients with dentures having one or more of the six general conditions listed, Candida albicans organism is more frequently found in the oral flora compared to healthy denture wearer. Although causality has not been established and pending further research on this topic, the hygienic practices necessary to minimize the risk of numerous pathologies should be strengthened in the case of these patients, all the more in the presence of physical or psychological disability. The relationship between the general diseases and increasing of oral candidiasis denture patients is not explained. Therefore, attention to oral hygiene and professional care for removing C. albicans may be beneficial in these medically compromised patients.

  4. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part IV: Chromium(III)/H+ /Lewatit SP112; La eliminación de metales tóxicos presentes en efluentes líquidos mediante resinas de cambio iónico. Parte IV: cromo(III)/H+/Lewatit SP112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    2017-09-01

    This investigation presented results on the removal of chromium(III), from aqueous solution in the 0-5 pH range, using Lewatit SP112 cationic exchange resin. Several aspects affecting the ion exchange process were evaluated, including: the influence of the stirring speed, temperature, pH of the solution, resin dosage and aqueous ionic strength. The selectivity of the system was tested against the presence of other metals in the aqueous solution, whereas the removal of chromium(III) from solutions was compared with results obtained using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents. From the batch experimental data, best fit of the results is obtained with the Langmuir model, whereas the ion exchange process is best explained by the pseudo-second order model, moreover, experimental data responded well to the film-diffusion controlled model. Elution of the chromium(III) loaded into the resin is well accomplished by the use of sodium hydroxide solutions. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la eliminación de cromo(III) de disoluciones acuosas (pH 0-5) mediante la resina de intercambio catiónico Lewatit SP112. Se han investigado algunas variables que pueden afectar al sistema: influencia de la agitación, temperatura, pH y fuerza iónica del medio acuoso y cantidad de resina; también se ha investigado acerca de la selectividad del sistema cuando otros metales están presentes en el medio acuoso, comparándose los resultados de la eliminación del cromo(III) usando la resina con los resultados obtenidos cuando se emplea otro adsorbente como son los nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple. Los resultados experimentales indican que la carga del cromo(III) en la resina responde mejor al modelo de Langmuir, mientras que los modelos cinéticos indican que la carga del metal en la resina responde al modelo de pseudo-segundo orden y difusión en la capa límite. La elución del cromo(III) se realiza con disoluciones de hidróxid.

  5. Local lymph node assay (LLNA): comparison of different protocols by testing skin-sensitizing epoxy resin system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Armin O; Nies, Eberhard; Vohr, Hans-Werner

    2008-12-01

    Thirteen epoxy resin system components were tested in the LLNA with regard to their sensitizing potency. Lymph node stimulation was quantified not only by measuring the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into the ear lymph nodes but also the counts of cells recovered from these organs. Equivalent figures were obtained with both endpoints used for the evaluation of lymph node cell proliferation if the reference stimulation indices were adjusted. When dissolved in acetone, all test substances showed skin-sensitizing potential, mainly on the boundary between "strong" and "moderate" according to common potency evaluation schemes. Replacing acetone with acetone/olive oil (4:1) as a vehicle for four selected test items, resulted in considerably lower estimated concentrations for sensitization induction. The challenges in comparing the results obtained by different LLNA variations are discussed.

  6. Alternatives Generation Analysis Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Major pieces of Characterization sampling equipment are currently stored outdoors. This includes the Long Length Contaminated Equipment receiver trailer and transportation trailer. A decision is required to determine the preferred alternative for facilities to store and maintain this equipment. The Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS) consists of many tools, mechanisms, and controllers currently stored in various locations. Much of this equipment should be protected from the elements while being stored. Some of the LLCERS equipment should be protected with some kind of roof cover. This decision analysis is to determine the best alternative for weather protection for the large equipment requiring a cover. Additional details are included in Sections 2.0 and 5.0. Key assumptions used in this analysis are detailed in Section 3.2

  7. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O.; Rioboo, C.; Herrero, C.; Cid, A.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  8. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Rioboo, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, A. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: cid@udc.es

    2006-11-15

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides.

  9. Analysis of a space debris laser removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesvold, Evan; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    As long as man ventures into space, he will leave behind debris, and as long as he ventures into space, this debris will pose a threat to him and his projects. Space debris must be located and decommissioned. Lasers may prove to be the ideal method, as they can operate at a distance from the debris, have a theoretically infinite supply of energy from the sun, and are a seemingly readily available technology. This paper explores the requirements and reasoning for such a laser debris removal method. A case is made for the negligibility of eliminating rotational velocity from certain systems, while a design schematic is also presented for the implementation of a cube satellite proof of concept.

  10. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Jorge ALMILHATTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods: One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm were cast and subjected to polishing (P or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB or 250 mm (250SB Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP, Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP, Targis Link (TL, and one surface modification system Siloc (S, were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7. All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05, while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05. No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05. Conclusion: Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi.

  11. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  12. Epoxy resin/phosphonium ionic liquid/carbon nanofiller systems: Chemorheology and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy nanocomposites with commercial carbon nanotubes (CNT or graphene (GN have been prepared using phosphonium ionic liquid [trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinate, IL-f]. IL-f served simultaneously as nanofiller dispersing medium and epoxy resin catalytic curing agent. An influence of IL-f/epoxy weight ratio (3, 6 and 9/100, phr, carbon nanofiller type and content on viscosity of epoxy compositions during storage at ambient temperature was evaluated. Curing process was controlled for neat and CNT or GN modified epoxy compositions (0.25-1.0 wt.% load using differential scanning calorimetry and rheometry. Epoxy nanocomposites exhibited slightly increased glass transition temperature values (146 to 149°C whereas tan δ and storage modulus decreased (0.30 to 0.27 and 2087 to 1070 MPa, respectively as compared to reference material. Crosslink density regularly decreased for composites with increasing CNT content (11 094 to 7 020 mol/m3. Electrical volume resistivity of the nanocomposites was improved in case of CNT to 4•101 Ω•m and GN to 2•105 Ω•m (nanofiller content 1 wt.%. Flame retardancy was found for modified epoxy materials with as low GN and phosphorus content as 0.25 and 0.7 wt.%, respectively (increase of limiting oxygen index to 26.5%.

  13. Treatment modalities for caries management, including a new resin infiltration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Gerard; Arsenault, Peter; Papas, Athena

    2009-10-01

    Seemingly against all odds, dental caries still affects most people in the US. While fluoridated products, school-based screening and cleaning programs, better patient education, and professional and chemotherapeutic interventions have all impacted certain populations, caries is still the most prevalent chronic childhood disease and continues to affect a high percentage of adolescents, young and middle-aged adults, and seniors. Much research has proven that dental caries is not just an occasional cycle of cavitation but a complex and infectious disease process. Historically, addressing the caries challenge has relied on prevention and restoration, with no intermediary means to stop lesion progression. Recently, a technique called caries infiltration was introduced that fills the noncavitated pores of an incipient lesion with a low-viscosity resin by capillary action, creating a barrier that blocks further bacterial diffusion and lesion development. This microinvasive method for stabilizing early lesions requires no drilling or anesthesia and does not alter the tooth's anatomic shape. In cases of white spot lesions in the esthetic zone, it also eliminates opaqueness and blends with surrounding natural teeth. This article presents an overview of caries prevention initiatives and a case demonstrating the new caries infiltration technique. Combined with shifting the focus to caries risk assessment, this promising technology may prove to be a significant addition to the profession's caries treatment armamentarium.

  14. Performance of ALMR passive decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.E.; Hunsbedt, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) concept has a totally passive safety-grade decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the small (471 MWt) modular reactor to the environmental air by natural convection heat transfer. The system has no active components, requires no operator action to initiate, and is inherently reliable. The RVACS can perform its function under off-normal or degraded operating conditions without significant loss in performance. Several such events are described and the RVACS thermal performance for each is given and compared to the normal operation performance. The basic RVACS performance as well as the performance during several off-normal events have been updated to reflect design changes for recycled fuel with minor actinides for end of equilibrium cycle conditions. The performance results for several other off-normal events involving various degrees of RVACS air flow passage blockages are presented. The results demonstrated that the RVACS is unusually tolerant to a wide range of postulated faults. (author)

  15. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: Removal of piping and equipment and removal of primary system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report is a technical synopsis of the removal of contaminated and non-contaminated piping and equipment from the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document dismantling activities in support of reactor decommissioning. 5 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  16. The use of new modified poly(acrylamide chelating resin with pendent benzothiazole groups containing donor atoms in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semmedu Selvaraj Kalaivani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption studies of poly(6-(ethoxybenzothiazole acrylamide (PEBTA, for Cu(II and Zn(II metal ions removal from an aqueous solution have been investigated, as a function of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature. The chemical and structural characteristics of the adsorbent were determined by the FT-IR, 1H-NMR, TGA, SEM, and EDAX analysis. The maximum adsorption capacities of the adsorbent for Cu(II and Zn(II ions, as calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model, were 273.5 and 216.4 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetic studies show that the adsorption of Cu(II and Zn(II ions onto PEBTA follows the pseudo second order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were also evaluated, and it has been found that the adsorption process is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Desorption studies were carried out using 0.3 N HCl, and it revealed that the adsorbed Cu(II and Zn(II ions can be easily removed. The adsorption–desorption process is reversible, and this indicates that PEBTA is an effective adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from an aqueous medium.

  17. ROGER a potential orbital space debris removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Juergen; Bischof, Bernd; Foth, W.-O.; -J., J.; Günther

    The previous activities in the field of On Orbit Servicing studied in the 1990's included in partic-ular the capability of vehicles in GEO to capture and support satellites (mainly communication satellites) to enable repair and continuation of operations, and finally the controlled transfer the target into a permanent graveyard orbit. The specific capture tools for these applications were mostly based on robotic systems to capture and fix the target under specific dynamic constraints (e.g. slowly tumbling target) without damage, and to allow the stabilization, re-orientation and potential repair of the target and subsequent release or transport to the final disposal orbit. Due to the drastically increasing number of debris particularly in the Low Earth Orbits (SSO) the active debris removal is now necessary to counteract to the predicted debris production cascade (Kessler Syndrome), which means the pollution of the total sphere in low earth orbit and not only the SSO area. In most of the debris congresses it was recommended to start removal with the still integrated systems as soon as possible. In the case of large debris objects, the soft capture system can be replaced by a simpler and robust system able to operate from a safe distance to the target and flexible enough to capture and hold different types of targets such as deactivated and/or defective satellites, upper stages and big fragments. These nominally non -cooperative targets might be partially destroyed by the capture process, but the production of additional debris shall be avoided. A major argument for the commercial applications is a multi-target mission potential, which is possible at GEO because the transfer propellant requirement to the disposal orbit and the return to the orbit of the next potential target is relative low (orbits with similar inclination and altitude). The proposed ROGER system is designed as a spacecraft with rendezvous capabilities including inspection in the vicinity of the

  18. Iodine removal in containment filtered venting system during nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, Subrata; Deo, Anuj Kumar; Nagrale, D.B.; Paul, U.K.; Prasad, M.; Gaikwad, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Post Fukushima nuclear accident, containment filtered venting system is being introduced in Indian nuclear power plant to strengthen the defense in depth safety barrier by depressurizing the containment building along with minimization of radioactivity release to environment during a severe accident. Radioactive iodine is one of the major contributors to radiation dose during early release phase of a severe accident. Physical and Chemical form of iodine and iodine bearing compounds includes particulates, elemental and organic. In the most efficient design of CFVS, wet scrubbing mechanism has been employed through use of venture scrubber. The Iodine removal process in wet scrubber involves two processes: chemical reaction in highly alkaline aqueous solution and impingement of particulates with water droplets produced in the venturi nozzle. In this paper, venturi has been modeled using the Calvert model. The variation of efficiency has been estimated for the different particle sizes. The impact of the shape parameter of log-normal distribution on the amount of scrubbed iodine has also been assessed. Release phase wise the scrubbed amount of iodine in the venturi based CFVS system has been estimated for a typical BWR. (author)

  19. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  20. Kinetics of Waterborne Alkyd/Acrylic Hybrid Resin Free Radical Polymerization by Two Systems of Redox and Thermal Initiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shirin Madadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of radical polymerizations of waterborne alkyd/acrylic hybrid resin via batch mini-emulsion technique was studied using redox initiators (TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/AsAc  and  TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/SFS at relatively low temperatures and thermal initiators (BPO, KPS and AIBN at higher temperatures to seek the most suitable initiator system. At the end of all reactions the unreacted monomer content was reduced using post-polymerization technique; consequently, leading to increased monomer conversion and flm formation with improved properties. The kinetics of mini-emulsion polymerization showed that in all redox initiator systems (Fe2+ catalyst + EDTA chelating agent, the radials are produced at relatively low temperature with more effcient control of the reactor temperature. It was found that at 45°C TBHP/Fe2+/EDTA/SFS redox initiator system leads to 98% monomer conversion, a much higher rate than that of systems involved thermal initiators.

  1. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Ion-Exchange Resin - Effects of Oxygen Uptake and Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2009-01-01

    An ion-exchange process, using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site in Washington State. The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS)in South Carolina. Testing at ORNL will determine the impact of radiation exposure and oxygen uptake by the RF resin on the hydraulic permeability of the resin. Samples of the resin will be removed periodically to measure physical properties (bead size and compressibility) and cesium capacity. The proposed full-scale treatment system at Hanford, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), will use an ion-exchange column containing nominally 680 gal of resin, which will treat 30 gpm of waste solution. The ion-exchange column is designed for a typical pressure drop of 6 psig, with a maximum of 9.7 psig. The lab-scale column is 3-in. clear PVC pipe and is prototypic of the proposed Hanford column. The fluid velocity in the lab-scale test will be much higher than for the full-scale column, in order to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in that column (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity will produce similar forces on the resin in the lab-scale column as would be expected at the bottom of the full-scale column. The chemical changes in the resin caused by radiation exposure and oxygen uptake are expected to cause physical changes in the resin that could reduce the bed porosity and reduce the hydraulic permeability of the resin bed. These changes will be monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and by measuring the physical properties of samples of the resin. The test loop with the lab-scale column is currently being fabricated, and operation will start by late May. Testing will be completed by the

  2. Morphology of resin-dentin interfaces after Er,Cr:YSGG laser and acid etching preparation and application of different bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Franziska; Buchmair, Alfred; Körpert, Wolfram; Marvastian, Leila; Wernisch, Johann; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to show the modifications in the ultrastructure of the dentin surface morphology following different surface treatments. The stability of the adhesive compound with dentin after laser preparation compared with conventional preparation using different bonding agents was evaluated. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser and 36% phosphoric acid in combination with various bonding systems were used. A total of 100 caries-free human third molars were used in this study. Immediately after surgical removal teeth were cut using a band saw and 1-mm thick dentin slices were created starting at a distance of 4 mm from the cusp plane to ensure complete removal of the enamel. The discs were polished with silicon carbide paper into rectangular shapes to a size of 6 × 4 mm (±0,2 mm).The discs as well as the remaining teeth stumps were stored in 0.9% NaCl at room temperature. The specimens were divided into three main groups (group I laser group, group II etch group, group III laser and etch group) and each group was subdivided into three subgroups which were allocated to the different bonding systems (subgroup A Excite, subgroup B Scotchbond, subgroup C Syntac). Each disc and the corresponding tooth stump were treated in the same way. After preparation the bonding composite material was applied according to the manufacturers' guidelines in a hollow tube of 2 mm diameter to the disc as well as to the corresponding tooth stump. Shear bond strength testing and environmental scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the morphology and stability of the resin-dentin interface. The self-etching bonding system showed the highest and the most constant shear values in all three main groups, thus enabling etching with phosphoric acid after laser preparation to be avoided. Thus we conclude that laser preparation creates a surface texture that allows prediction of the quality of the restoration without the risk of negative influences during the following treatment steps. This

  3. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  4. Costs of Arsenic Removal Technologies for Small Water Systems: U.S. EPA Arsenic Removal Technology Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Arsenic Rule Implementation Research Program, between July 2003 and July 2011, the U.S. environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted 50 full-scale demonstration projects on treatment systems removing arsenic from drinking water in 26 states throughout the U.S. ...

  5. After heat removing system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takao; Yamada, Masao; Ohashi, Kazutaka.

    1994-01-01

    In a variable conductance heat pipe of an after heat removing system, an evaporation portion and a condensator are connected by a steam diffusing path for an operation fluid and a liquid condensate recycling path. Further, incondensible gases are sealed at the inside together with the operation fluid, and a gas reservoir for the incondensible gases is disposed at the downstream of a condensation portion. If heat input is applied to the evaporation portion of the heat pipe, the incondensible gases are separated to form a boundary between both of them. When the amount of heat applied is small, the incondensible gases partially seal the condensation portion to form a local condensation insensitive portion, so that a heat conductance can be suppressed low. On the other hand, as the amount of heat inputted is increased, the incondensible gases are compressed, the heat conduction area of the condensation portion is increased and a heat conductance is increased to conduct self-control so as to increase heat transfer performance of the heat pipe. Then, the liquid condensate is recycled to the evaporation portion by spontaneous dripping of the condensate itself without wick, thereby enabling to conduct automatic switching so as to increase the heat dissipation amount to maximum. (N.H.)

  6. 324 Building liquid waste handling and removal system project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-07-29

    This report evaluates the modification options for handling radiological liquid waste generated during decontamination and cleanout of the 324 Building. Recent discussions indicate that the Hanford site railroad system will be closed by the end of FY 1998 necessitating the need for an alternate transfer method. The issue of handling of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) from the 324 Building (assuming the 340 Facility is not available to accept the RLW) has been examined in at least two earlier engineering studies (Parsons 1997a and Hobart 1997). Each study identified a similar preferred alternative that included modifying the 324 Building RLWS to allow load-out of wastewater to a truck tanker, while making maximum use of existing piping, tanks, instrumentation, controls and other features to minimize costs and physical changes to the building. This alternative is accepted as the basis for further discussion presented in this study. The goal of this engineering study is to verify the path forward presented in the previous studies and assure that the selected alternative satisfies the 324 Building deactivation goals and objectives as currently described in the project management plan. This study will also evaluate options available to implement the preferred alternative and select the preferred option for implementation of the entire system. Items requiring further examination will also be identified. Finally, the study will provide a conceptual design, schedule and cost estimate for the required modifications to the 324 Building to allow removal of RLW. Attachment 5 is an excerpt from the project baseline schedule found in the Project Management Plan.

  7. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-five per cent of decentralized wastewater around the ... Organic pollutant and nitrogen removal performance of SWISs ... a rubber hose with flow rate control valves. .... the limitation of oxygen became more obvious, and resulted in. 4. 3.

  8. In vitro shear bond strength of Y-TZP ceramics to different core materials with the use of three primer/resin cement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Fahad A; Ayad, Neveen M; Khan, Zahid A; Mahrous, Amr A; Morgano, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Durability of the bond between different core materials and zirconia retainers is an important predictor of the success of a dental prosthesis. Nevertheless, because of its polycrystalline structure, zirconia cannot be etched and bonded to a conventional resin cement. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effects of 3 metal primer/resin cement systems on the shear bond strength (SBS) of 3 core materials bonded to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramic retainers. Zirconia ceramic (Cercon) disks (5×3 mm) were airborne-particle abraded, rinsed, and air-dried. Disk-shaped core specimens (7×7 mm) that were prepared of composite resin, Ni-Cr, and zirconia were bonded to the zirconia ceramic disks by using one of 3 metal primer/cement systems: (Z-Prime Plus/BisCem, Zirconia Primer/Multilink Automix, or Clearfil Ceramic Primer/Clearfil SA). SBS was tested in a universal testing machine. Stereomicroscopy was used to evaluate the failure mode of debonded specimens. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and post hoc analysis using the Scheffe procedure (α=.05). Clearfil SA/Clearfil Ceramic Primer system with an Ni-Cr core yielded the highest SBS value (19.03 MPa), whereas the lowest SBS value was obtained when Multilink Automix/Zirconia Primer system was used with the zirconia core group (4.09 MPa). Differences in mean SBS values among the cement/primer groups were statistically significant, except for Clearfil SA and BisCem with both composite resin and zirconia cores. Differences in mean SBS values among the core subgroups were not statistically significant, except for zirconia core with BisCem, Multilink, and Clearfil SA. The predominant failure mode was adhesive, except for Clearfil SA and BisCem luting agents with composite resin cores, which displayed cohesive failure, and Multilink Automix with a composite resin, core as well as Clearfil SA with Ni-Cr cores, where the debonded specimens of each group displayed a mixed

  9. Prótese parcial removível associada à prótese fixa adesiva através de encaixe extracoronário = Resin-bonded fixed dentures and extracoronal precision attachments in removable partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme, Dúcia Caldas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A prótese parcial removível é uma alternativa de reabilitação que tem como vantagem o pequeno desgaste dos dentes suportes, mas quando compromete os dentes anteriores apresenta um inconveniente estético que é o abraçamento de parte da face vestibular pelos retentores diretos. Para eliminar este efeito estético negativo indica-se o uso de prótese parcial fixa associada à removível através de encaixes, que apresenta a desvantagem biológica provocada pelo preparo dos dentes pilares. Desta forma, a associação de prótese parcial fixa adesiva à prótese parcial removível através de encaixes extracoronários confere uma combinação vantajosa sob os pontos de vista biológico, estético e biomecânico, uma vez que reúne os principais aspectos de ambos os tipos de reabilitação protética como mais uma alternativa de tratamento

  10. Condensate-polisher resin-leakage quantification and resin-transport studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, C.C.; Doss, P.L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this program were to: (1) determine the extent of resin leakage from current generation condensate polisher systems, both deep bed and powdered resin design, during cut-in, steady-state and flow transient operation, (2) analyze moisture separator drains and other secondary system samples for resin fragments and (3) document the level of organics in the secondary system. Resin leakage samples were obtained from nine-power stations that have either recirculating steam generators or once through steam generators. Secondary system samples were obtained from steam generator feedwater, recirculating steam generator blowdown and moisture separator drains. Analysis included ultraviolet light examination, SEM/EDX, resin quantification and infrared analysis. Data obtained from the various plants were compared and factors affecting resin leakage were summarized

  11. Flow injection preconcentration system using a new functionalized resin for determination of cadmium and nickel in tobacco samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo; Novaes, Cleber Galvao; Lima, Adriana da Silva; Vieira, Daniel Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method combined with flow injection (FI) on-line flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for the determination of cadmium and nickel in tobacco samples is presented. The 2-aminothiophenol functionalized Amberlite XAD-4 (AT-XAD) resin was synthesized by covalent coupling of the ligand with the copolymer through a methylene group. A minicolumn packed with AT-XAD was connected into the automated on-line preconcentration system. Elution of metal ions from minicolumn can be made with 0.50 mol L -1 hydrochloric acid solution. With a consumption of 21.0 mL of sample solution, detection limits (3 s) of 0.3 (Cd) and 0.8 μg L -1 (Ni) were achieved at a sample throughput of 18 h -1 . Enrichment factors (EF) of 99 (cadmium) and 43 (nickel) were obtained compared with the slope of the linear portion of the calibration curves before and after preconcentration. The contents of Cd and Ni in a certified reference material (NIST 1570a, spinach leaves) determined by the present method was in good agreement with the certified value. The developed procedure was also successfully applied to the determination of Cd and Ni in local tobacco samples

  12. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent reaction systems using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Lokhande

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well as in the resin phase. The K values calculated for uni-univalent and uni-divalent anion exchange reaction systems was observed to increase with rise in temperature, indicating the endothermic exchange reactions having enthalpy values of 13.7, 38.0, 23.9, 22.9 kJ/mol, respectively.

  13. Nuclear power plant equipped with hydrogen removing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Shin-ichi; Yamanari, Shozo; Okura, Minoru; Kamizuma, Nobuaki.

    1998-01-01

    A γ-shield and container spray pipelines are disposed to an upper dry well in a reactor container incorporating a reactor pressure vessel. A plurality of catalytic hydrogen removing devices are disposed close to a wall on the side of the pressure vessel in the dry well and a wall on the side of the outer wall of the reactor container. The plurality of catalytic hydrogen removing devices are disposed substantially equally in horizontal direction and circumferential direction of the side walls. If container spray water is sprayed, the atmospheric gases in the reactor are compulsory circulated. In addition, since the temperature of the γ-shield is higher than the atmospheric temperature, spontaneous circulation is caused. As a result, rising currents of gases are formed at regions in the vicinity of the γ-shield. The catalytic hydrogen removing devices are disposed to the places where the rising currents are formed. (I.N.)

  14. Bioremediation system on-line for removal radionuclides in radioactive waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinchon, J. A.; Garcia, A. M.; Ruibal, C.; Moreno, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies developed in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Valencia, Spain), has been observed that the microorganisms in the radioactive waters of the spent nuclear fuel pool are capable of colonizing the metallic surfaces of the walls and pipes and perform biofilm. These biofilm retain the nuclides contributing to decontaminate the water. In this project, carried out in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, a pilot plant has been designed for the bio decontamination of the radioactive water. At present, the radioactive water coming from the spent nuclear fuel pools, pass through ionic exchange resins. After, these resins are managed as radioactive waste. In this project, the water passes through a bioreactor with stainless steel balls capable of being colonized by the microorganisms in the water. Inside the bioreactor the water gets in contact with the material of the balls, and a biofilm, which retains the nuclides in the water, is developed. The biofilm is easily removed by any conventional procedure of radiochemical decontamination of materials and the nuclides can be collected in a small volume for recovery final disposition or containment. Later, the material of the bioreactor could be managed as not radioactive material. (Author) 9 refs.

  15. Enhancement of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone fermentation activity in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization (Ext-LSI) system by mixing anion-exchange resin microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinobu; Michihata, Sayumi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Horibe, Hideo; Kono, Akihiko; Ohashi, Shinichi

    2012-12-01

    The addition of anion-exchange resin microparticles into a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ballooned microsphere layer drastically enhanced the fermentative activity of Trichoderma atroviride AG2755-5NM398 in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization (Ext-LSI) system. The production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PP), a fungicidal secondary metabolite, was 1.92-fold higher than the control (PAN alone). Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bond Strength of Resin Composite to Dentin with Different Adhesive Systems: Influence of Relative Humidity and Application Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Fabienne; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the influence of relative humidity and application time on bond strength to dentin of different classes of adhesive systems. A total of 360 extracted human molars were ground to mid-coronal dentin. The dentin specimens were treated with one of six adhesive systems (Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, Clearfil SE Bond, AdheSE, Xeno Select, or Scotchbond Universal), and resin composite (Filtek Z250) was applied to the treated dentin surface under four experimental conditions (45% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 45% relative humidity/reduced application time; 85% relative humidity/application time according to manufacturers' instructions; 85% relative humidity/reduced application time). After storage (37°C, 100% humidity, 24 h), shear bond strength (SBS) was measured and data analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA followed by Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests with Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing (level of significance: α = 0.05). Increased relative humidity and reduced application time had no effect on SBS for Clearfil SE Bond and Scotchbond Universal (p = 1.00). For Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, AdheSE, and Xeno Select there was no effect on SBS of reduced application time of the adhesive system (p ≥ 0.403). However, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS for Syntac Classic, OptiBond FL, and Xeno Select irrespective of application time (p ≤ 0.003), whereas for AdheSE, increased relative humidity significantly reduced SBS at recommended application time only (p = 0.002). Generally, increased relative humidity had a detrimental effect on SBS to dentin, but reduced application time had no effect.

  17. Effect of At-home and In-office Bleaching on Marginal Microleakage in Composite Resin Restorations using Two Adhesive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Celso A; da Silva, Douglas; Reston, Eduardo G; Borghetti, Diana Lb; Zimmer, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess marginal microleakage of cervical cavities restored with composite resins and two different adhesive techniques subjected to at-home and in-office bleaching. In this randomized, blind laboratory experiment, 60 bovine teeth recently extracted were collected and divided into six groups (n = 10 each group). The teeth received cervical cavity preparations (2 mm × 3 mm × 1 mm) with enamel margins. Two different adhesive systems were used (Single Bond 2 and Clearfil SE Bond), in addition to composite resin (Z250). Restored teeth received two different bleaching gels (Opalescence PF and Opalescence Boost). Teeth were thermo-cycled and analyzed under confocal laser scanning microscopy. No significant differences were observed (p > 0.05) in microleakage scores between the two groups not subjected to bleaching nor between the four groups that received bleaching treatment (p > 0.05), regardless of the gel and adhesive system employed. However, when comparing nonbleached with bleached teeth, those not subjected to bleaching showed statistically lower marginal microleakage scores (p bleaching agents used both at-home and in-office, regardless of the adhesive system employed (total-etch or self-etch). Both at-home and in-office bleaching agents have an influence on the adhesive interface of resin restorations, producing changes and inducing marginal leakage.

  18. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  19. Mathematical simulation of equilibria in the Pr(3) chloride-iminodiacetic acid - cation exchange resin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanova, G.N.; Krivenko, S.V.; Martynenko, L.I.; Evseev, A.M.; Spitsyn, V.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    Multiresponse adequate mathematical model is constructed that describes the composition of phases in the complex ion exchange system r.e.e. (PrCl/sub 3/)-complexon (iminodiacetic acid)-cationite-H/sub 2/O-KOH. The model is constructed on the basis of the law of acting masses in combination with equations of material balance and electroneutrality equations. The considerable effect on the state of the sorption system of metal complexonates is proved. The account of absorption of praseodymium iminodiacetates is necessary for complete description of the system and control of chromatographic process.

  20. Development of High-Fidelity Material Response Modeling for Resin-Infused Woven Thermal Protection Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For future space exploration missions, it is essential for the thermal protection system (TPS) found on hypersonic vehicles or atmospheric entry probes to be...

  1. Cleaning efficacy of reciprocal and rotary systems in the removal of root canal filling material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of hand file, nickel titanium rotary instrument, and two reciprocating instruments for removing gutta-percha and sealer from the root canals. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight mandibular premolar teeth were used. The root canals were shaped and filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups according to the technique by which the root filling material was removed: Group 1 — Wave One; Group 2 — Reciproc; Group 3 — ProTaper; and Group 4 — Gates-Glidden burs and stainless steel hand file. Then teeth were split longitudinally and photographed. The images were transferred to a computer. The ratio of remaining filling material to the root canal periphery was calculated with the aid of ImageJ software. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: A significant difference was found among all groups (P hand file. Conclusion: The reciprocating files were found to be significantly more effective in removing the filling material from the canal walls compared to the rotational file and hand file. PMID:27099429

  2. Overview on resins available in microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, B.; Schue, F.; Montginoul, C.; Giral, L.

    1985-01-01

    Lithographic equipments using electrons and X radiation are developed. Velocity and resolution requirements fix the nature of the material to irradiate. Circuit making principles are recalled here; resists (organic polymers) are employed for it. The different types of resins and then needed characteristics are reviewed here. In the scope of electron sensitive resins methyl polymethacrylate and derivative and its copolymers (and copolymers of methacrylonitrile) and reticulated copolymers are studied. Polysulfones are also presented (poly(buten-1 sulfone), poly(styrene sulfone), poly(methyl-1 cyclopentene-1 sulfone). The interest in photosensitive resins (such as AZ) as electron sensitive resins is recalled. In the field of negative resins, the polyepoxyds, polystyrene and halogenated derivates from polystyrene (CMS and PCMS), the poly(vinyl-2 naphtalene) and its derivatives (PSTTF) are presented. The X radiation sensitive resins are also reviewed: the methyl polymethacrylate and its halogenated derivates, the acrylic homopolymers and copolymers (example of poly(acrylate of chlorinated alcoyls). The resins developable by plasma are mentioned. At last, for photosensitive resins, the diazide polydiene systems are presented together with systems diazo-2 2H-naphtalenone-1. The systems with salt photolysis are just recalled [fr

  3. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M.; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based systems for PPCP removal are still limited. The removal of PPCPs in CWs often involves a diverse and complex set of physical, chemical and biological processes, which can be affected by the design and operational parameters selected for treatment. This review summarizes the PPCP removal performance in different aquatic plant-based systems. We also review the recent progress made towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms and pathways of PPCP attenuation during such phytoremediation. Additionally, the effect of key CW design characteristics and their interaction with the physico-chemical parameters that may influence the removal of PPCPs in functioning aquatic plant-based systems is discussed. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the removal performance of PPCPs in CW systems. • Investigation of the mechanisms and pathways contributing to PPCP removal in CWs. • Investigation of the effect of CW design parameters on PPCP removal. • Investigation of the correlation between physico-chemical parameters and PPCP removal. -- This review gives an overview of the present state of research on the removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products by means of constructed wetlands

  4. Material characterization of a polyester resin system for the pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Akkerman, Remko; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the chemo-rheology of an industrial ‘‘orthophthalic’’ polyester system specifically prepared for a pultrusion process is characterized. The curing behaviour is first characterized using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal and dynamic scans are performed...

  5. Arsenic Removal from Water Using Various Adsorbents: Magnetic Ion Exchange Resins, Hydrous Ion Oxide Particles, Granular Ferric Hydroxide, Activated Alumina, Sulfur Modified Iron, and Iron Oxide-Coated Microsand

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Shahnawaz

    2011-09-30

    The equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of arsenic on six different adsorbents were investigated with one synthetic and four natural types (two surface and two ground) of water. The adsorbents tested included magnetic ion exchange resins (MIEX), hydrous ion oxide particles (HIOPs), granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), activated alumina (AA), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide-coated mic - rosand (IOC-M), which have different physicochemical properties (shape, charge, surface area, size, and metal content). The results showed that adsorption equilibriums were achieved within a contact period of 20 min. The optimal doses of adsorbents determined for a given equilibrium concentration of C eq = 10 μg/L were 500 mg/L for AA and GFH, 520–1,300 mg/L for MIEX, 1,200 mg/L for HIOPs, 2,500 mg/L for SMI, and 7,500 mg/L for IOC-M at a contact time of 60 min. At these optimal doses, the rate constants of the adsorbents were 3.9, 2.6, 2.5, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.6 1/hr for HIOPs, AA, GFH, MIEX, SMI, and IOC-M, respectively. The presence of silicate significantly reduced the arsenic removal efficiency of HIOPs, AA, and GFH, presumably due to the decrease in chemical binding affinity of arsenic in the presence of silicate. Additional experiments with natural types of water showed that, with the exception of IOC-M, the adsorbents had lower adsorption capacities in ground water than with surface and deionized water, in which the adsorption capacities decreased by approximately 60–95 % .

  6. Removal by irradiation of alcohols in micellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.J.; Mijata, T.; Arai, H.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of ortho-chloro phenol and butanol of 40 mg L -1 in aqueous solution in presence of the surfactant dodecyl sulfate of sodium (1 to 9 m mol L -1 ) were irradiated at 2 and 5 kGy of gamma radiation. The quantitative analysis of the irradiated and not irradiated samples carries out by gas chromatography. It was determined that the surfactant exercises a protection effect in the radiolytic removal of the studied alcohols. In general terms this it increases in function of the concentration of the surfactant. However, competition reactions exist among the substrate and some reactive species produced by the radiolysis of the water that in some moment exercise a positive catalytic effect in the removal of the substrate. (Author)

  7. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  8. Modification of Aliphatic Petroleum Resin by Peracetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bondaletov, Vladimir Grigoryevich; Bondaletova, Lyudmila Ivanovna; Hamlenko, A.; Bondaletov, Oleg Vladimirovich; Starovoit, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining modified aliphatic resin (PRC5) by means of petroleum resin oxidation by peracetic acid. We have experimentally determined oxidation conditions that lead to producing resin with maximum epoxy and acid numbers. Ratio of "oxidative system: PRC5" is 0.5:1, process duration is 2 hours. The modified resin structure is determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Evaluation of Heat Removal Performance of Passive Decay Heat Removal system for S-CO{sub 2} Cooled Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jangsik; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The modular systems is able to be transported by large trailer. Moreover, dry cooling system is applied for waste heat removal. The characteristics of MMR takes wide range of construction area from coast to desert, isolated area and disaster area. In MMR, Passive decay heat removal system (PDHRS) is necessary for taking the advantage on selection of construction area where external support cannot be offered. The PDHRS guarantees to protect MMR without external support. In this research, PDHRS of MMR is introduced and decay heat removal performance is analyzed. The PDHRS guarantees integrity of reactor coolant system. The high level of decay heat (2 MW) can be removed by PDHRS without offsite power.

  10. Anaerobic bacterial systems result in the removal of soluble uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, B.M.; Barton, L.L.; Steenhoudt, K.; Tucker, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria, nitrate-reducing bacteria and bacteria present in sewage sludge were examined for their ability to reduce the level of soluble U(VI) in enriched media. Cultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, D. gigas, and D. vulgaris were grown in sulfate-containing media while Pseudomonas putida and P. denitrificans were cultivated in nitrate media. The amount of U(VI) removed from solution was dependent on metabolism because greater levels of uranium were removed when U(VI) was added to a growing culture than when added to a culture in stationary phase. The presence of vanadate, arsenate, selenate or molybdate at 0.1 and 0.01 M levels in sulfate-reducing cultures, nitrate-respiring cultures or in sludge cultures did not have an effect on the amount of uranium removed. In all cultures the amount of uranium in solution was markedly reduced after 10 to 20 days and reduced uranium, as U(IV), was detected in several cultures. Present in the cultures of D. desulfuricans were crystals of uranium. Examination of these cultures by electron microscopy indicates that the uranium (IV) is deposited outside of the cell and these needle-like crystals are associated with cellular material. X-ray probe analysis with the electron microscope gave an image that was in close agreement with U(IV). With D. desulfuricans in a continuous stirred tank reactor, kinetic parameters have been calculated for uranium reduction. Over a period of 20 to 60 hours, the amount of soluble uranium removed from the bioreactor was proportional to residence time over a period of 20 to 60 hours

  11. After-heat removal system of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Masaya; Shibata, Yoji; Ikeda, Takashi; Iwashige, Kengo; Yoneda, Yoshiyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remove after-heat by natural convection without disposing a movable portion even in a large-scaled reactor. Constitution: The exit of a reactor wall air-cooling duct disposed to the outside of a safety vessel is connected to the secondary inlet of an air cooler that conducts heat exchange with sodium in a high temperature plenum. That is, after-heat is removed only through the natural convection by a structure in which the reactor wall air-cooling duct and the secondary side of the air cooler are connected in series. Air exhausted from the exit of the air-cooling duct by the air cooler is further heated with sodium in the high temperature plenum. The flow rate of air flowing through the air-cooling duct is increased as compared with the case where the air cooler is not present. Accordingly, the flow rate of air at low temperature flowing through the inlet of the air duct is increased to increase the heat conduction amount. In this way, after-heat can be removed only by means of natural convection without providing movable portions even in a large-scaled reactor with the thermal power in excess of 2,000 MW. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Effect of collagen fibrils removal on shear bond strength of total etch and self etch adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishevar L.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Sodium hypochlorite can remove the organic phase of the demineralized dentin and it produces direct resin bonding with hydroxyapatite crystals. Therefore, the hydrolytic degradation of collagen fibrils which might affect the bonding durability is removed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of collagen fibrils removal by 10% NaOCl on dentin shear bond strength of two total etch and self etch adhesive systems."nMaterials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolar teeth were used in this study. Buccal surface of teeth were grounded until dentin was exposed. Then teeth were divided into four groups. According to dentin surface treatment, experimental groups were as follows: Group I: Single Bond (3M according to manufacture instruction, Group II: 10% NaOCl+Single bond (3M, Group III: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray according to manufacture instruction, and Group IV: Clearfil SE Bond primer. After that, the specimens were immersed in 50% acetone solution for removing extra monomer. Then the specimens were rinsed and dried. 10% NaOCl was applied and finally adhesive was used. Then composite was bonded to the treated surfaces using a 4 2 mm cylindrical plastic mold. Specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5-55ºC. A shear load was employed by a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The data were analyzed for statistical significance with One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests."nResults: The mean shear bond strengths of groups were as follows: Single Bond=16.8±4.2, Clearfil SE Bond=23.7±4.07, Single Bond+NaOCl=10.5±4.34, Clearfil SE Bond+NaOCl=23.3±3.65 MPa. Statistical analysis revealed that using 10% NaOCl significantly decreased the shear bond strength in Single Bond group (P=0.00, but caused no significant difference in the shear bond strength in Clearfil SE Bond group (P=0.99."nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, NaOCl treatment did not improve the bond

  13. A laser-powered hydrokinetic system for caries removal and cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J; Young, D A; Eversole, L R; Gornbein, J A

    2000-06-01

    Laser systems have been developed for the cutting of dental hard tissues. The erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet, or Er,Cr:YSGG, laser system used in conjunction with an air-water spray has been shown to be efficacious in vitro for cavity preparation. The authors randomly selected subjects for cavity preparation with conventional air turbine/bur dental surgery or an Er,Cr:YSGG laser-powered system using a split-mouth design. They prepared Class I, III and V cavities, placed resin restorations and evaluated subjects on the day of the procedure and 30 days and six months postoperatively for pulp vitality, recurrent caries, pain and discomfort, and restoration retention. Sixty-seven subjects completed the study. There were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups for the parameters measured with one exception; there was a statistically significant decrease in discomfort levels for the laser system at the time of cavity preparation for subjects who declined to receive local anesthetic. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser system is effective for preparation of Class I, III and V cavities and resin restorations are retained by lased tooth surfaces. Hard-tissue cutting lasers are being introduced for use in operative dentistry. In this study, an Er,Cr:YSGG laser has been shown to be effective for cavity preparation and restoration replacement.

  14. Demonstration of Regenerable, Large-Scale Ion Exchange System Using WBA Resin in Rialto, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Milliequivalents NDMA – N-nitrosodimethylamine NPDES – National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System O&M – Operation and Maintenance ESTCP Project No. ER...0.10 ppb) using IC/MS/MS. Nitrosamines were analyzed using EPA Method 521. NDMA was 2.6 ppt with a detection limit of 2 ppt. All other...No. 001060 49 NDEA, NDMA , NDBA, NDPA, NMEA, NMOR, NPIP, and NPYR. The reportable limit for each of these analytes is 2 ng/L. NDEA and NPIP were

  15. Nitrogen removal and microbial communities in a three-stage system simulating a riparian environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Zhixin; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-06-01

    The riparian zone is an active interface for nitrogen removal, in which nitrogen transformations by microorganisms have not been valued. In this study, a three-stage system was constructed to simulate the riparian zone environments, and nitrogen removal as well as the microbial community was investigated in this 'engineered riparian system'. The results demonstrated that stage 1 of this system accounted for 41-51 % of total nitrogen removal. Initial ammonium loading and redox potential significantly impacted the nitrogen removal performances. Stages 1 and 2 were both composed of an anoxic/oxic (A/O) zone and an anaerobic column. The A/O zone removed most of the ammonium load (6.8 g/m(2)/day), while the anaerobic column showed a significant nitrate removal rate (11.1 g/m(2)/day). Molecular biological analysis demonstrated that bacterial diversity was high in the A/O zones, where ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria accounted for 8.42 and 3.32 % of the bacterial population, respectively. The denitrifying bacteria Acidovorax sp. and the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosospira/Nitrosomonas were the predominant microorganisms in this engineered riparian system. This three-stage system was established to achieve favorable nitrogen removal and the microbial community in the system was also retained. This investigation should deepen our understanding of biological nitrogen removal in engineered riparian zones.

  16. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, J.; Kraimer, M.; Lottes, P.; Pedersen, D.; Stewart, R.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance

  17. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineman, J.; Kraimer, M.; Lottes, P.; Pedersen, D.; Stewart, R.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance.

  18. System for removing sludges from a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.A.; Tolino, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for removing sludge from a steam generator comprising a tube plate at the bottom end of a cylinder and a cluster of heat exchange tubes fitted to this tube plate and extending upwards from it. The cylinder has an access opening above this tube plate. A liquid jet is applied at a tangent to the cylinder above the tube plate so as to form a cicumferential flow of liquid at the external end of this plate. This flow is taken up and sucked out of the cylinder by a suction appliance and, at the same time, a nozzle with holes for liquid jets is moved crosswise to these tubes above the tube plate whilst directing a liquid jet against the tubes and towards the cicumferential liquid flow so as to wash away any deposits detached from the lower ends of the tubes and located in this circular flow of liquid to be immediately removed by the suction appliance [fr

  19. Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, A. Micaela Ferro; Contreras, Edgardo M.; Zaritzky, Noemi E.

    2008-01-01

    The combined carbon-activated sludge process has been proposed as an alternative to protect the biomass against toxic substances in wastewaters; however, the information about the effect of powdered-activated carbon (PAC) addition in activated sludge reactors for the treatment of wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is limited. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the removal of hexavalent chromium by (i) activated sludge microorganisms in aerobic batch reactors, (ii) powdered-activated carbon, and (iii) the combined action of powdered-activated carbon and biomass; (b) to propose mathematical models that interpret the experimental results. Different Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: (S1) biomass (activated sludge), (S2) PAC, and (S3) the combined activated carbon-biomass system. A Monod-based mathematical model was used to describe the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal in the system S1. A first-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI) and PAC respectively, was proposed to model the removal of Cr(VI) in the system S2. Cr(VI) removal in the combined carbon-biomass system (S3) was faster than both Cr(VI) removal using PAC or activated sludge individually. Results showed that the removal of Cr(VI) using the activated carbon-biomass system (S3) was adequately described by combining the kinetic equations proposed for the systems S1 and S2

  20. BOA II: Asbestos Pipe-Insulation Removal Robot System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this task is to develop and demonstrate a mechanical, asbestos-removal system that can be remotely operated without a containment area. The technology, known as BOA, consists of a pipe-crawler removal head and a boom vehicle system with dual robots. BOA's removal head can be remotely placed on the outside of the pipe and can crawl along the pipe, removing lagging and insulation. The lagging and insulation is cut using a hybrid endmill water-jet cutter and then diced into 2-inch cube sections of ACM. These ACM sections are then removed from the pipe using a set of blasting fan- spray nozzles, vacuumed off through a vacuum hose, and bagged. Careful attention to vacuum and entrapment air flow ensures that the system can operate without a containment area while meeting local and federal standards for fiber count

  1. Reducing false positives of microcalcification detection systems by removal of breast arterial calcifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordang, Jan-Jurre; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; den Heeten, Gerard; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2016-04-01

    In the past decades, computer-aided detection (CADe) systems have been developed to aid screening radiologists in the detection of malignant microcalcifications. These systems are useful to avoid perceptual oversights and can increase the radiologists' detection rate. However, due to the high number of false positives marked by these CADe systems, they are not yet suitable as an independent reader. Breast arterial calcifications (BACs) are one of the most frequent false positives marked by CADe systems. In this study, a method is proposed for the elimination of BACs as positive findings. Removal of these false positives will increase the performance of the CADe system in finding malignant microcalcifications. A multistage method is proposed for the removal of BAC findings. The first stage consists of a microcalcification candidate selection, segmentation and grouping of the microcalcifications, and classification to remove obvious false positives. In the second stage, a case-based selection is applied where cases are selected which contain BACs. In the final stage, BACs are removed from the selected cases. The BACs removal stage consists of a GentleBoost classifier trained on microcalcification features describing their shape, topology, and texture. Additionally, novel features are introduced to discriminate BACs from other positive findings. The CADe system was evaluated with and without BACs removal. Here, both systems were applied on a validation set containing 1088 cases of which 95 cases contained malignant microcalcifications. After bootstrapping, free-response receiver operating characteristics and receiver operating characteristics analyses were carried out. Performance between the two systems was compared at 0.98 and 0.95 specificity. At a specificity of 0.98, the sensitivity increased from 37% to 52% and the sensitivity increased from 62% up to 76% at a specificity of 0.95. Partial areas under the curve in the specificity range of 0.8-1.0 were

  2. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system

  3. Numerical modeling analysis of VOC removal processes in different aerobic vertical flow systems for groundwater remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.; Carminati, A.; Oswald, S.E.; Thullner, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical flow systems filled with porous medium have been shown to efficiently remove volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. To apply this semi-natural remediation strategy it is however necessary to distinguish between removal due to biodegradation and due to volatile

  4. Novel ion exchange resin-based combination drug-delivery system for treatment of gastro esophageal reflux diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Ramesh Bhalekar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves preparation and characterization of a combination tablet of ranitidine in immediate release form and domperidone in sustained release form, using ion exchange resins. Ranitidine lowers acid secretion, while domperidone release over a prolonged period improves gastric motility thus justifying this combination in gastro esophageal reflux diseases (GERD and ensuring patient compliance. Drug loading was carried out by batch method & resinates were characterized using FTIR, XRPD. Resinates were formulated as a combination tablet and evaluated for tablet properties & in vitro drug release. Resinates provided sustained release of domperidone and immediate release of ranitidine. IR and X-ray studies indicate complexation of drug and resin along with monomolecular distribution of drugs in amorphous form in the resin matrix. The tablets of resinate combination showed good tablet properties. In-vitro drug release gave desired release profiles and ex-vivo drug absorption studies carried out by placing everted rat intestine in dissolution medium indicated statistically significant similarity in absorption from test and marketed formulation. The novelty of this study is that the retardation in release of domperidone from resinates is achieved by presence of weak resin in the formulation.O presente estudo envolve a preparação e a caracterização de associação do comprimido de ranitidina de liberação imediata e domperidona de liberação prolongada, utilizando resinas de troca iônica. A ranitidina diminui a secreção ácida, enquanto a liberação prolongada de domperidona melhora a motilidade gástica, justificando, dessa forma, a associação em doenças de refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE e garantindo a adesão do paciente. A carga de fármaco foi efetuada pelo método em batelada e os resinatos, caracterizados utilizando-se FTIR e XRPD. Os resinatos foram formulados como comprimido da associação e avaliados com rela

  5. Capital and Operating Cost of Small Arsenic Removal System and their Most Frequent Maintenance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will first summarize the capital and operating cost of treatment systems by type and size of the systems. The treatment systems include adsorptive media (AM) systems, iron removal (IR), coagulation/filtration (CF), ion exchange (IX) systems, and point-of-use rev...

  6. Improvements in iodine and ruthenium removal from advanced liquid processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skibo, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-27

    SRNL has considerable experience in designing, engineering, and operating systems for removing iodine-129 (I-129) and ruthenium-106 (Ru-106) from waste streams that are directly analogous to the Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) waste streams. SRNL proposes to provide the technical background and design and engineering support for an improved I-129 and Ru-106 removal system for application to ALPS on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS).

  7. After-heat removing system in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tadashi; Inoue, Kotaro; Yamakawa, Masanori; Ikeda, Takashi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To promote more positive forcive circulation of primary circuit fluids thereby increase the heat removing amount. Constitution: The primary side of an electromagnetic flow coupler type heat exchanger is opened to the primary fluid of a reactor, while the secondary side is connected with the secondary circuit comprising an air cooler and an electromagnetic pump. Since the secondary circuit stands-by during normal operation, the electromagnetic flow coupler does not operate and does not generate force for flowing primary circuit fluid. If flow due to the external force to the primary circuit fluid should occur in the electromagnetic flow coupler type heat exchanger, an electromagnetic force tending to flow the secondary circuit fluid is exerted oppositely. However the coupler undergoes reaction inertia of the fluid or flowing resistance, to exert in the direction of suppressing the flow, thereby prevent the heat loss. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Ontario Hydro Research Division's program for treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.; Dodd, D.J.R.

    1981-09-01

    A brief review of the evolution of work programmes for chemical treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in Ontario Hydro's Research Division is presented. Attention has been focussed on pre-treatment processes for the treatment of the spent resins prior to encapsulation of the products in solid matrices. Spent Resin Regeneration and Acid Stripping processes were considered in some detail. Particular attention was paid to carbon-14 on spent resins, its determination in and removal from the spent resins (with the acid stripping technique). The use of separate cation and anion resin beds instead of mixed bed resins was examined with a view to reducing the volume of resin usage and consequently the volume of waste radioactive ion-exchange resin generated. (author)

  9. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.

  10. Retrofitting of activated charcoal filters in the iodine removal system of Cirus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, M.K.; Thomas, Shibu; Ullas, O.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Singh, Kapil Deo S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The emergency exhaust system for removal of iodine in the 40 MWt Cirus reactor consisted of a caustic scrubber followed by a bank of silver-coated copper mesh filters. The latter filter elements are no longer commercially available, and moreover, there is need to upgrade the system to meet the current safety norms. An iodine removal system based on activated charcoal adsorbers has been selected for this purpose. The design of the system ensures high iodine removal efficiency and thermal safety of the filters for a postulated accident condition beyond design basis accident. The new iodine removal system has been retrofitted during the current refurbishing programme of Cirus and it has been commissioned and tested satisfactorily

  11. Mathematical modeling based evaluation and simulation of boron removal in bioelectrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ping, Qingyun [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); He, Zhen, E-mail: zhenhe@vt.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Boron removal is an arising issue in desalination plants due to boron's toxicity. As an emerging treatment concept, bioelectrochemical systems (BES) can achieve potentially cost-effective boron removal by taking advantage of cathodic-produced alkali. Prior studies have demonstrated successful removal of boron in microbial desalination cells (MDCs) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs), both of which are representative BES. Herein, mathematical models were developed to further evaluate boron removal by different BES and understand the key operating factors. The models delivered very good prediction of the boron concentration in the MDC integrated with Donnan Dialysis (DD) system with the lowest relative root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.00%; the predication of the MFC performance generated the highest RMSE of 18.55%. The model results of salt concentration, solution pH, and current generation were well fitted with experimental data for RMSE values mostly below 10%. The long term simulation of the MDC-DD system suggests that the accumulation of salt in the catholyte/stripping solution could have a positive impact on the removal of boron due to osmosis-driven convection. The current generation in the MDC may have little influence on the boron removal, while in the MFC the current-driven electromigration can contribute up to 40% of boron removal. Osmosis-induced convection transport of boron could be the major driving force for boron removal to a low level < 2 mg L{sup −} {sup 1}. The ratio between the anolyte and the catholyte flow rates should be kept > 22.2 in order to avoid boron accumulation in the anolyte effluent. - Highlights: • Mathematical models are developed to understand boron removal in BES. • Boron removal can be driven by electromigration induced by current generation. • Diffusion induced by a salt concentration gradient also contributes to boron removal. • Osmosis and current driven convection transport play diverse roles in different BES.

  12. Experimental investigation on improving the removal effect of WFGD system on fine particles by heterogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Jingjing; Yang, Linjun; Yan, Jinpei; Xiong, Guilong; Shen, Xianglin [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Heterogeneous condensation of water vapor as a preconditioning technique for the removal of fine particles from flue gas was investigated experimentally in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. A supersaturated vapor phase, necessary for condensational growth of fine particles, was achieved in the SO{sub 2} absorption zone and at the top of the wet FGD scrubber by adding steam in the gas inlet and above the scrubbing liquid inlet of the scrubber, respectively. The condensational grown droplets were then removed by the scrubbing liquid and a high-efficiency demister. The results show that the effectiveness of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles is related to the SO{sub 2} absorbent and the types of scrubber employed. Despite a little better effectiveness for the removal of fine particles in the rotating-stream-tray scrubber at the same liquid-to-gas ratio, The similar trends are obtained between the spray scrubber and rotating-stream-tray scrubber. Due to the formation of aerosol particles in the limestone and ammonia-based FGD processes, the fine particle removal efficiencies are lower than those for Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and water. The performance of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles can be significantly improved for both steam addition cases, for which the removal efficiency increases with increasing amount of added steam. A high liquid to gas ratio is beneficial for efficient removal of fine particles by heterogeneous condensation of water vapor.

  13. Removal of fine particles in wet flue gas desulfurization system by heterogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.J.; Bao, J.J.; Yan, J.P.; Liu, J.H.; Song, S.J.; Fan, F.X. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2010-01-01

    A novel process to remove fine particles with high efficiency by heterogeneous condensation in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system is presented. A supersaturated vapor phase, necessary for condensational growth of fine particles, was achieved in the SO{sub 2} absorption zone and at the top of the wet FGD scrubber by adding steam in the gas inlet and above the scrubbing liquid inlet of the scrubber, respectively. The condensational grown droplets were then removed by the scrubbing liquid and a high-efficiency demister. The results show that the effectiveness of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles is related to the SO{sub 2} absorbent employed. When using CaCO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas, the fine particle removal efficiencies are lower than those for Na2CO{sub 3} and water, and the morphology and elemental composition of fine particles are changed. This effect can be attributed to the formation of aerosol particles in the limestone and ammonia-based FGD processes. The performance of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles can be significantly improved for both steam addition cases, for which the removal efficiency increases with increasing amount of added steam. A high liquid to gas ratio is beneficial for efficient removal of fine particles by heterogeneous condensation of water vapor.

  14. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  15. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  16. Method for detecting resin leakage in LWR coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    Resin leakage from condensate polishing units can result in steam generator corrosion. This report describes the development of a resin leakage detection method based in analyzing the organic breakdown products released from resin on heating. The breakdown products are analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Some of the organic products formed have been identified. A design for a resin monitoring unit, suitable for incorporation into the IONTRAC system, is presented. Theoretically, detection of ppB levels of resin by processing about one liter of water, is possible

  17. Development of a new decay heat removal system for a high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Park, Rae Young; Kim, Seyun

    2007-01-01

    The heat removal capacity of a RCCS is one of the major parameters limiting the capacity of a HTGR based on a passive safety system. To improve the plant economy of a HTGR, the decay heat removal capacity needs to be improved. For this, a new analysis system of an algebraic method for the performance of various RCCS designs was set up and the heat transfer characteristics and performance of the designs were analyzed. Based on the analysis results, a new passive decay heat removal system with a substantially improved performance, LFDRS was developed. With the new system, one can have an expectation that the heat removal capacity of a HTGR could be doubled

  18. Highly Efficient Closed-Loop CO2 Removal System for Deep-Space ECLSS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research Inc.(TDA) in collaboration with University of Puerto Rico ? Mayaguez (UPRM is proposing to develop a highly efficient CO2 removal system based on UPRM...

  19. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER - PALL CORPORATION MICROZA. MICROFILTRATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Pall Corporation Microza. Microfiltration System for arsenic removal was conducted at the Oakland County Drain Commissioner (OCDC) Plum Creek Development well station located in Oakland County, Michigan from August 19 through October 8, 2004. The sourc...

  20. Advanced Product Water Removal and Management (APWR) Fuel Cell System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a passive, self-regulating, gravity-independent Advanced Product Water Removal and management (APWR) system for incorporation into Polymer...

  1. Advanced Product Water Removal and Management (APWR) Fuel Cell System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a passive, self-regulating, gravity-independent Advanced Product Water Removal (APWR) system for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)...

  2. Removal of heavy-metal ions from dilute waste streams using membrane-based hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, D.T.; Edlund, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    At Bend research, the authors have developed hybrid systems that couple a process that removes solvent (water) and a process that removes solute (metal ions) such that toxic heavy-metal ions can be efficiently and selectively removed to very low levels while simultaneously concentrating the heavy-metal ions in relatively pure form. Although this technology is broadly applicable, the authors are focusing on the development of a system to treat groundwater that is contaminated with heavy-metal ions. The process utilizes coupled transport and reverse osmosis to reduce chromium and uranium concentration down to parts-per-billion levels

  3. Shutdown risk analysis for a BWR plant (residual heat removal systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo Garcia, C.; Merino Teillet, A.; Cerezo, L.

    1994-01-01

    This report analyses the different risk situations which may arise during refuelling outage at Cofrentes NPP. The most critical situations are determined in terms of the small amount of coolant available and the lowest number of heat removal and water make-up systems available. The available times before the boiling point of the coolant is reached and the subsequent moment when the fuel elements are left uncovered in the event of the failure of the normal heat removal functions are determined. The analysis identifies the alternative systems which can be used besides those required by the technical specification and their capacity for residual heat removal and coolant make-up functions. (Author)

  4. Organic Removal Efficiency of the Nanofiltration and Adsorption Hybrid System in High Strength Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hessam Hassani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface and groundwater resources are increasingly jeopardized by discharges from pharmaceutical, chemical, and detergent plants. The high pollutant load of the effluents from these industries requires specific treatments. The objective of this research was to study and compare the nanofiltration and adsorption hybrid system with the plain nanofiltration system in wastewater treatment.For this purpose, a pilot nanofiltration system with a capacity of 7.6 m3/d using 1 and 5 micron filters and a FILMTEC NF90-4040 membrane was used in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, granular activated carbon cartridges were used. Inluent and effluent discharges as well as the COD removal were measured in both systems under variable times and organic load conditions. The results showed that COD removal efficiency was higher in the hybrid system than in the plain naonofiltration one. In the hybrid system, the Maximum in the hybrid system, the COD removal efficiencies achieved for organic loads of 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/L were 99%, 95.86%, and 92.93%, respectively. The same values for the plain nanofiltration system were 87.34%, 50%, and 29.41%, respectively. It was found that polarization and membrane fouling decreased both the effluent flow and the COD removal efficiency with time. Fouling of the membrane was, however, lower in the hybrid system compared to the plain nanofiltration; thus, the hybrid system was associated with higher values of COD removal and delayed membrane fouling.

  5. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  6. Summary report for Group X6: Heat removal system and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, W

    2005-12-15

    This report is a summary of the activities of the X6 design support for the Heat Removal System (HRS) of MEGAPIE. It can be divided into two main parts: The first part is about the design and manufacturing of he cooling loop (the first 3 chapters), and the second part is dealing with the thermal hydraulic analysis of the overall HRS. This also reflects the change of the X6 activities from design to operation support. The activities of this group are more or less driven by the needs rather than a complete set of tasks given at the start of the project. The first part chronicles the system development. Some of the arguments are probably outdated but are kept in the original form to illustrate the evolution of concepts. The main objective is, of course, to design a heat removal system that can cool the liquid metal spallation target for a 1 MW proton beam i.e. 1.74 mA in 575 MeV). It is also reckoned that the liquid metal, BE (lead-bismuth-eutectic), must be kept liquid even when the proton beam was switched off. This requires either that the cooling system can be shut down or the operating temperature of the coolant be higher than the freezing point of LBE. As for safety concerns, the HRS system must not exert a pressure that exceeds the design pressure of the target beam window in case of a break at the target heat exchanger (THX); this limits the cover gas pressure to about 4 bar(a). These are the basic design principles that carry through the conceptual and engineering design of he system. The organic coolant Diphyl THT was then chosen, because of its wide range of operating temperature (i.e. from 0 to 340 degC) and high boiling point, and a proven record in industrial applications. (author)

  7. Summary report for Group X6: Heat removal system and system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, W.

    2005-12-01

    This report is a summary of the activities of the X6 design support for the Heat Removal System (HRS) of MEGAPIE. It can be divided into two main parts: The first part is about the design and manufacturing of he cooling loop (the first 3 chapters), and the second part is dealing with the thermal hydraulic analysis of the overall HRS. This also reflects the change of the X6 activities from design to operation support. The activities of this group are more or less driven by the needs rather than a complete set of tasks given at the start of the project. The first part chronicles the system development. Some of the arguments are probably outdated but are kept in the original form to illustrate the evolution of concepts. The main objective is, of course, to design a heat removal system that can cool the liquid metal spallation target for a 1 MW proton beam i.e. 1.74 mA in 575 MeV). It is also reckoned that the liquid metal, BE (lead-bismuth-eutectic), must be kept liquid even when the proton beam was switched off. This requires either that the cooling system can be shut down or the operating temperature of the coolant be higher than the freezing point of LBE. As for safety concerns, the HRS system must not exert a pressure that exceeds the design pressure of the target beam window in case of a break at the target heat exchanger (THX); this limits the cover gas pressure to about 4 bar(a). These are the basic design principles that carry through the conceptual and engineering design of he system. The organic coolant Diphyl THT was then chosen, because of its wide range of operating temperature (i.e. from 0 to 340 degC) and high boiling point, and a proven record in industrial applications. (author)

  8. Research on deeply purifying effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy to remove uranium by ion exchange. Pt.2: Elution uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the intense fractionation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Chen Shaoqiang; Qi Jing

    2002-01-01

    Developing macroporous resin for purifying uranium effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy is presented. The Intense Fractionation Process is employed to elute uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the eluent of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. The result is indicated that the uranium concentration in the rich elutriant is greatly increased, and the rich liquor is only one bed column volume, uranium concentration in the elutriant is increased two times which concentration is 10.1 g/L. The eluent is saved about 50% compared with the conventional fixed bed elution operation. And also the acidity in the rich elutriant is of benefit to the later precipitation process in uranium recovery

  9. Simplified analysis of passive residual heat removal systems for small size PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    The function and general objectives of a passive residual heat removal system for small size PWR's are defined. The characteristic configuration, the components and the operation modes of this system are concisely described. A preliminary conceptual specification of this system, for a small size PWR of 400 MW thermal, is made analogous to the decay heat removal system of the AP-600 reactor. It is shown by analytic models that such passive systems can dissipate 2% of nominal power within the thermal limits allowed to the reactor fuel elements. (author)

  10. Cesium Isotherm Testing with Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin at High Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing a Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to provide low-activity waste (LAW) directly to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste Facility for immobilization. The pretreatment that will be conducted on tank waste supernate at the LAWPS facility entails filtration to remove entrained solids and cesium (Cs) ion exchange to remove Cs from the product sent to the WTP. Currently, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin (Microbeads AS, Skedsmokorset, Norway) is the Cs ion exchange resin of choice. Most work on Cs ion exchange efficacy in Hanford tank waste has been conducted at nominally 5 M sodium (Na). WRPS is examining the possibility of processing supernatant at high Na concentrations—up to 8 M Na—to maximize processing efficiency through the LAWPS. Minimal Cs ion exchange work has been conducted at 6 M and 8 M Na concentrations..

  11. Conceptual system for removal of plutonium from soils and scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated conceptual scheme for processing TRU wastes and sediments retrieved from a typical TRU-burial ground is presented. This scheme features (a) use of a High Gradient Magnetic System to separate a TRU (e.g., Pu and Am) fraction containing materials from inert soil particles, (b) leaching of the TRU fraction with HNO 3 -HF and (c) operation of a TOPO-CCl 4 reflux-type solvent extraction system to concentrate actinides into a very small volume of product solution

  12. Biological removal of algae in an integrated pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meiring, PGJ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of oxidation ponds in series with a biological trickling filter is described. It was known that this arrangement was incapable of reducing effectively the levels of algae present in the pond liquid even though nitrification was effected...

  13. Removal of micro-organisms in a small-scale hydroponics wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoson, J; Norström, A; Dalhammar, G

    2005-01-01

    To measure the microbial removal capacity of a small-scale hydroponics wastewater treatment plant. Paired samples were taken from untreated, partly-treated and treated wastewater and analysed for faecal microbial indicators, i.e. coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens spores and somatic coliphages, by culture based methods. Escherichia coli was never detected in effluent water after >5.8-log removal. Enterococci, coliforms, spores and coliphages were removed by 4.5, 4.1, 2.3 and 2.5 log respectively. Most of the removal (60-87%) took place in the latter part of the system because of settling, normal inactivation (retention time 12.7 d) and sand filtration. Time-dependent log-linear removal was shown for spores (k = -0.17 log d(-1), r(2) = 0.99). Hydroponics wastewater treatment removed micro-organisms satisfactorily. Investigations on the microbial removal capacity of hydroponics have only been performed for bacterial indicators. In this study it has been shown that virus and (oo)cyst process indicators were removed and that hydroponics can be an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment.

  14. Method of burning ion-exchange resin contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To process spent ion exchange resins to reduce their volume, without increasing the load on a off-gas system and in a stable state and at the same time not leaving any uncombusted portions. Method: The water slurries of the ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive materials is dehydrated or dry combusted to reduce the water content. A binder is then added to solidify the ion exchange resin. The solidified ion exchange resins are then combusted in a furnace. This prevents the ion exchange resin from being dispersed by air and combustion gases. Furthermore, the solidified ion exchange resins in the form of small pellets burn from the surface inwards. Moreover the binder is carbonized by the combustion heat and promotes combustion to convert the ion exchange resins into a solid mass, making sure that no uncombusted portion is left. (Takahashi, M.)

  15. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper

  16. Experiences with on line fault detection system for protection system logic and decay heat removal system logic in Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, N.; Dutta, P.K.; Darbhe, M.D.; Bharadwaj, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dhruva is a 100 MW (Thermal) natural uranium fuelled, vertical core, tank type multi purpose research reactor with heavy water acting as moderator, coolant and reflector. Helium is used as cover gas for heavy water system. Reactor Protection System and Decay Heat Removal System (DHRS) have triplicated instrumented channels. The logic for these systems are hybrid in nature with a mixture of relay logic and solid state logic. Fine Impulse Technique(FIT) is employed for On-line fault detection in the solid state logics of these systems. The FIT systems were designed in the early eighties. Operating experiences over the past 15 years has revealed certain deficiencies. In view of this, a microcomputer based state of the art FIT systems for logics of Reactor Protection System and DHRS are being implemented with improved functionalities built into them. This paper describes the operating experience of old FIT systems and improved features of the proposed new FIT systems. (author)

  17. Debris removal system for a nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, F.W. Jr.; Dailey, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    A system is described for working on an elongated nuclear fuel assembly suspended vertically and submerged in a spent fuel pool having fuel assembly racks at the bottom. The system comprises a work platform disposable in the pool and adapted to be supported on the fuel assembly racks. The platform has an opening disposed in registry with a selected one of the underlying racks; guide means carried by the platform for guiding the suspended fuel assembly into the opening and the selected rack to accommodate vertical movement of the fuel assembly into and out of the rack to make different portions of the fuel assembly accessible from the platform; and tool manipulating apparatus disposable on the platform adjacent to the opening, the tool manipulating apparatus including a tool carriage. Tool holders for respectively holding associated tools. Each of the tool holders is mounted on the tool carriage for reciprocating movement with respect along a predetermined axis between extended and retracted conditions

  18. Sealing of adhesive systems in ferric sulfate-contaminated dentinal margins in class V composite resin restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Shadman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hemostatic agents are applied to prepare an isolated bleeding-free condition during dental treatments and can influence adhesive restorations. This study evaluated the effect of a hemostatic agent (ViscoStat on microleakage of contaminated dentinal margin of class V composite resin restorations with three adhesives. Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human molars were selected and class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed below the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were divided into six groups randomly. The adhesives were Excite, AdheSE and AdheSE One. In three groups, the gingival walls of the cavities were contaminated with ViscoStat and then rinsed. The cavities were restored with composite resin and light-cured. After storage in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours and polishing, the samples were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then they were stored in 1% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, rinsed and mounted in self-cured acryl resin, followed by sectioning buccolingually. Dye penetration was observed under a stereomicroscope and scored. Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. P 0.05. In the contaminated groups, Excite had significantly less microleakage than the others (P = 0.003. AdheSE and AdheSE One did not exhibit significant difference in microleakage (P > 0.05. Conclusion. ViscoStat hemostatic agent increased dentinal microleakage in AdheSE and AdheSE One adhesives with no effect on Excite.

  19. Filtration system for the removal of depleted uranium from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlett, P.T.; Wolfe, S.

    1989-01-01

    Previous depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing has resulted in 2 132 cubic meters (500 to 35,000 gallons) of wastewater containing: DU concentrations from 2.5 x 10 -5 to 9 x 10 -8 microcuries/mL DU particles equal to and greater than 0.1 micron in size. Personnel reasoned that if particles could be filtered from the wastewater down to a 0.1 micron size, the wastewater could be disposed of on-site and comply with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standard of 35 pCi/g of soil. This paper compares the effectiveness of three cross-flow membrane modules using a pilot-scale microfiltration (MF) system that was designed to process the wastewater described and designed to allow direct scale-up to a system that is capable of processing 132 m 3 (35,000 gals) of wastewater that can then be disposed of on-site within applicable standards. A cross-flow MF system was designed, assembled, and tested using replicated wastewater

  20. Fermilab satellite refrigerator compressors with the oil- and moisture-removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.A.; Andrews, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    We have designed and tested a helium purification system for the Energy Doubler and the experimental areas. A purification system is installed after each screw compressor in the satellite refrigerators. The purification system removes oil mist, oil vapor, water vapor, and particulate from the compressed helium. The units were designed with consideration of modularity and necessary redundancy (i.e., guard purification). Test results which led to the final configuration are presented, along with achieved performance of the oil removal in the operating system

  1. Investigating the mechanism of clofibric acid removal in Fe(0)/H2O systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauch, Antoine; Abou Assi, Hala; Tuqan, Almuthanna

    2010-04-15

    Since the introduction of iron wall technology, the inherent relationship between contaminant removal and iron corrosion has been mostly attributed to electron transfer from the metal body (direct reduction). This thermodynamically founded premise has failed to explain several experimental facts. Recently, a new concept considering adsorption and co-precipitation as fundamental contaminant removal mechanisms was introduced. This consistent concept has faced very skeptic views and necessarily needs experimental validation. The present work was the first independent attempt to validate the new concept using clofibric acid (CLO) as model compound. For this purpose, a powdered Fe(0) material (Fe(0)) was used in CLO removal experiments under various experimental conditions. Additional experiments were performed with plated Fe(0) (mFe(0): Fe(0)/Pd(0), Fe(0)/Ni(0)) to support the discussion of removal mechanism. Main investigated experimental variables included: abundance of O(2), abundance of iron corrosion products (ICPs) and shaking operations. Results corroborated the concept that quantitative contaminant removal in Fe(0)/H(2)O systems occurs within the oxide-film in the vicinity of Fe(0). Additionally, mixing type and shaking intensity significantly influenced the extent of CLO removal. More importantly, HPLC/MS revealed that the identity of reaction products depends on the extent of iron corrosion or the abundance of ICPs. The investigation of the CLO/Fe(0)/H(2)O system disproved the popular view that direct reduction mediates contaminant removal in the presence of Fe(0). 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating the mechanism of clofibric acid removal in Fe0/H2O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauch, Antoine; Abou Assi, Hala; Tuqan, Almuthanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of iron wall technology, the inherent relationship between contaminant removal and iron corrosion has been mostly attributed to electron transfer from the metal body (direct reduction). This thermodynamically founded premise has failed to explain several experimental facts. Recently, a new concept considering adsorption and co-precipitation as fundamental contaminant removal mechanisms was introduced. This consistent concept has faced very skeptic views and necessarily needs experimental validation. The present work was the first independent attempt to validate the new concept using clofibric acid (CLO) as model compound. For this purpose, a powdered Fe 0 material (Fe 0 ) was used in CLO removal experiments under various experimental conditions. Additional experiments were performed with plated Fe 0 (mFe 0 : Fe 0 /Pd 0 , Fe 0 /Ni 0 ) to support the discussion of removal mechanism. Main investigated experimental variables included: abundance of O 2 , abundance of iron corrosion products (ICPs) and shaking operations. Results corroborated the concept that quantitative contaminant removal in Fe 0 /H 2 O systems occurs within the oxide-film in the vicinity of Fe 0 . Additionally, mixing type and shaking intensity significantly influenced the extent of CLO removal. More importantly, HPLC/MS revealed that the identity of reaction products depends on the extent of iron corrosion or the abundance of ICPs. The investigation of the CLO/Fe 0 /H 2 O system disproved the popular view that direct reduction mediates contaminant removal in the presence of Fe 0 .

  3. Design and analysis of a new passive residual heat removal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xing [Key Subject Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Peng, Minjun, E-mail: heupmj@163.com [Key Subject Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Yuan, Xiao [Guangxi Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (China); Xia, Genglei [Key Subject Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • An air cooling passive residual heat removal System (PRHRs) is designed. • Using RELAP5/MOD3.4 code to analyze the operation characteristics of the PRHRs. • Noncondensable gas is used to simulate the hydrodynamic behavior in the air cooling tower. • The natural circulations could respectively establish in the primary circuit and the PRHRs circuit. • The PRHRs could remove the residual heat effectively. - Abstract: The inherent safety functions will mitigate the consequences of the accidents, and it can be accomplished through the passive safety systems which employed in the typical pressurized water reactor (PWR). In this paper, a new passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) is designed for a typical nuclear power plant. PRHRS consists of a steam generator (SG), a cooling tank with two groups of cooling pipes, an air-cooling heat exchanger (AHX), an air-cooling tower, corresponding pipes and valves. The cooling tank which works as an intermediate buffer device is used to transfer the core decay heat to the AHX, and then the core decay heat will be removed to the atmosphere finally. The RELAP5/MOD3.4 code is used to analyze the operation characteristics of PRHRS and the primary loop system. It shows PRHRS could remove the decay heat from the primary loop effectively, and the natural circulations can be established in the primary circuit and the PRHRS circuit respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity study has also been done to research the effect of various factors on the heat removal capacity.

  4. The effect of four different irrigation systems in the removal of a root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grischke, J; Müller-Heine, A; Hülsmann, M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of sonic, ultrasonic, and hydrodynamic devices in the removal of a root canal sealer from the surface and from simulated irregularities of root canals. Fifty-three root canals with two standardized grooves in the apical and coronal parts of longitudinally split roots were covered with AH Plus root canal sealer. Compared were the effects of (control) syringe irrigation, (1) CanalBrush, (2) passive ultrasonic irrigation, (3) EndoActivator, and (4) RinsEndo on the removal of the sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups (N = 12) and one control group (N = 5) via randomization. The amount of remaining sealer in the root canal irregularities was evaluated under a microscope using a 4-grade scoring system, whereas the remaining sealer on the root canal surface was evaluated with a 7-grade scoring system. Passive ultrasonic irrigation is more effective than the other tested irrigation systems or syringe irrigation in removing sealer from root canal walls (p irrigation shows a superior effect on sealer removal from the root canal surface during endodontic retreatment. Cleaning of lateral grooves seems not to be possible with one of the techniques investigated. Incomplete removal of root canal sealer during re-treatment may cause treatment failure. Passive Ultrasonic irrigation seems to be the most effective system to remove sealer from a root canal.

  5. Biofilms and Oxidizing Biocides; Evaluation of Disinfection and Removal Effects by Using Established Microbial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilms and their disinfection and removal have been important subjects in the maintenance of water quality in areas such as public spas, swimming pools, food processing lines, industrial water systems, and in the hygienic control of medical devices, hospital procedures, etc. Presented here is an outline of biofilm formation, as well as studies on the disinfection and removal of biofilms by oxidizing biocides using established biofilms. These studies using established biofilms may increase the understanding of the variable response of biofilms to planktonic bacteria, and the unique aspects of oxidizing biocides in the disinfection and removal of biofilms.

  6. Study of efficiency of particles removal by different filtration systems in a municipal wastewater tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu, P. S.; Lardin Mifsut, C.; Farinas Iglesias, M.; Sanchez-Arevalo Serrano, J.; Perez Sanchez, P.; Rancano Perez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The disinfection of municipal wastewater using ultraviolet radiation depends greatly on the presence within the water of particles in suspension. This work determines how the level of elimination of particles varies depending on the technique of filtration used (open, closed sand filters, with continuous washing of the sand, cloth, disk and ring filters). all systems are very effective in the removal of particles more than 25 microns and for removing helminth eggs. The membrane bio-reactors with ultrafiltration membranes were superior in terms of particle removal when compared to conventional filters. (Author) 11 refs.

  7. Removal of an acid fume system contaminated with perchlorates located within hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Vroman, W.R.; Krsul, J.R.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Knighton, G.C.

    1992-09-01

    An add scrubbing system located within the confines of a highly radioactive hot cell at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was remotely removed. The acid scrubbing system was routinely used for the dissolution of irradiated reactor fuel samples and structural materials. Perchloric acid was one of the acids used in the dissolution process and remained in the system with its inherent risks. Personnel could not enter the hot cell to perform the dismantling of the acid scabbing system due to the high radiation field and the explosion potential associated with the perchlorates. A robot was designed and built at ANL-W and used to dismantle the system without the need for personnel entry into the hot cell. The robot was also used for size reduction of removed components and loading of the removed components into waste containers

  8. Comparative efficiency of final endodontic cleansing procedures in removing a radioactive albumin from root canal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecic, P.A.; Peters, D.D.; Grower, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-six teeth were initially instrumented, with the use of seven irrigants or irrigant combinations, and filled with radioactive albumin. The study then showed the relative ability of three final endodontic procedures (copious reirrigation with saline solution, drying with paper points, and reassuring patency of the canal with the final instrument) to remove the albumin. Even after copious irrigation, each additional procedure removed statistically significant amounts of albumin. Alternating an organic solvent and an inorganic solvent did appear to leave the canal system in the optimal condition for final cleansing procedures. The study then correlated the relative efficiency of irrigation alone versus instrumentation plus irrigation in removing the remaining albumin from the canal systems. Reinstrumentation plus copious irrigation removed significantly more albumin than copious irrigation alone

  9. Nitrogen removal and nitrate leaching for two perennial, sod-based forage systems receiving dairy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth R; French, Edwin C; Sweat, Lewin A; Graetz, Donald A; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Macoon, Bisoondat; Portier, Kenneth M; Rymph, Stuart J; Wade, Brett L; Prine, Gordon M; Van Horn, Harold H

    2003-01-01

    In northern Florida, year-round forage systems are used in dairy effluent sprayfields to reduce nitrate leaching. Our purpose was to quantify forage N removal and monitor nitrate N (NO3(-)-N) concentration below the rooting zone for two perennial, sod-based, triple-cropping systems over four 12-mo cycles (1996-2000). The soil is an excessively drained Kershaw sand (thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzip-samment). Effluent N rates were 500, 690, and 910 kg ha(-1) per cycle. Differences in N removal between a corn (Zea mays L.)-bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)-rye (Secale cereale L.) system (CBR) and corn-perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.)-rye system (CPR) were primarily related to the performance of the perennial forages. Nitrogen removal of corn (125-170 kg ha(-1)) and rye (62-90 kg ha(-1)) was relatively stable between systems and among cycles. The greatest N removal was measured for CBR in the first cycle (408 kg ha(-1)), with the bermudagrass removing an average of 191 kg N ha(-1). In later cycles, N removal for bermudagrass declined because dry matter (DM) yield declined. Yield and N removal of perennial peanut increased over the four cycles. Nitrate N concentrations below the rooting zone were lower for CBR than CPR in the first two cycles, but differences were inconsistent in the latter two. The CBR system maintained low NO3(-)-N leaching in the first cycle when the bermudagrass was the most productive; however, it was not a sustainable system for long-term prevention of NO3(-)-N leaching due to declining bermudagrass yield in subsequent cycles. For CPR, effluent N rates > or = 500 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) have the potential to negatively affect ground water quality.

  10. Impulse noise estimation and removal for OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2014-03-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a modulation scheme that is widely used in wired and wireless communication systems. While OFDM is ideally suited to deal with frequency selective channels and AWGN, its performance may be dramatically impacted by the presence of impulse noise. In fact, very strong noise impulses in the time domain might result in the erasure of whole OFDM blocks of symbols at the receiver. Impulse noise can be mitigated by considering it as a sparse signal in time, and using recently developed algorithms for sparse signal reconstruction. We propose an algorithm that utilizes the guard band subcarriers for the impulse noise estimation and cancellation. Instead of relying on ℓ1 minimization as done in some popular general-purpose compressive sensing schemes, the proposed method jointly exploits the specific structure of this problem and the available a priori information for sparse signal recovery. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is very competitive with respect to sparse signal reconstruction schemes based on ℓ1 minimization. The proposed method is compared with respect to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of achievable rates for an OFDM system with impulse noise and AWGN. © 2014 IEEE.

  11. Impulse noise estimation and removal for OFDM systems

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Quadeer, Ahmed Abdul; Caire, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a modulation scheme that is widely used in wired and wireless communication systems. While OFDM is ideally suited to deal with frequency selective channels and AWGN, its performance may be dramatically impacted by the presence of impulse noise. In fact, very strong noise impulses in the time domain might result in the erasure of whole OFDM blocks of symbols at the receiver. Impulse noise can be mitigated by considering it as a sparse signal in time, and using recently developed algorithms for sparse signal reconstruction. We propose an algorithm that utilizes the guard band subcarriers for the impulse noise estimation and cancellation. Instead of relying on ℓ1 minimization as done in some popular general-purpose compressive sensing schemes, the proposed method jointly exploits the specific structure of this problem and the available a priori information for sparse signal recovery. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is very competitive with respect to sparse signal reconstruction schemes based on ℓ1 minimization. The proposed method is compared with respect to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of achievable rates for an OFDM system with impulse noise and AWGN. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. Removal of contaminated asphalt layers by using heat generating powder metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.S.; Karlina, O.K.; Ojovan, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    Heat generating systems on the base of powder metallic fuel were used for the removal of contaminated asphalt layers. Decontamination of spots which had complex geometric form was performed. Asphalt layers with deep contamination were removed essentially all radionuclides being retained in asphalt residue. Only a small part (1 - 2 %) of radionuclides could pass to combustion slag. No radionuclides were detected in aerosol-gas phase during decontamination process

  13. Development of a High-Throughput Ion-Exchange Resin Characterization Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Dermody, Daniel; Harris, Keith; Boomgaard, Thomas; Sweeney, Jeff; Gisch, Daryl; Goltz, Bob

    2017-06-12

    A novel high-throughout (HTR) ion-exchange (IEX) resin workflow has been developed for characterizing ion exchange equilibrium of commercial and experimental IEX resins against a range of different applications where water environment differs from site to site. Because of its much higher throughput, design of experiment (DOE) methodology can be easily applied for studying the effects of multiple factors on resin performance. Two case studies will be presented to illustrate the efficacy of the combined HTR workflow and DOE method. In case study one, a series of anion exchange resins have been screened for selective removal of NO 3 - and NO 2 - in water environments consisting of multiple other anions, varied pH, and ionic strength. The response surface model (RSM) is developed to statistically correlate the resin performance with the water composition and predict the best resin candidate. In case study two, the same HTR workflow and DOE method have been applied for screening different cation exchange resins in terms of the selective removal of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ from high total dissolved salt (TDS) water. A master DOE model including all of the cation exchange resins is created to predict divalent cation removal by different IEX resins under specific conditions, from which the best resin candidates can be identified. The successful adoption of HTR workflow and DOE method for studying the ion exchange of IEX resins can significantly reduce the resources and time to address industry and application needs.

  14. Nuclear reactor cavity floor passive heat removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tyler A.; Neeley, Gary W.; Inman, James B.

    2018-03-06

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor core disposed in a reactor pressure vessel. A radiological containment contains the nuclear reactor and includes a concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor. An ex vessel corium retention system includes flow channels embedded in the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor, an inlet in fluid communication with first ends of the flow channels, and an outlet in fluid communication with second ends of the flow channels. In some embodiments the inlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a first elevation and the outlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a second elevation higher than the first elevation. The radiological containment may include a reactor cavity containing a lower portion of the pressure vessel, wherein the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor is the reactor cavity floor.

  15. Removal performance of toluene, p-xylene and ethylene using a plasma-pretreated biotrickling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.J.; Han, B.; Kim, S.J.; Kim, Y.J. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The use of biological systems for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from gaseous emissions was discussed. The systems rely on microorganism activity and do not produce any secondary pollution. Recently, the integration of biofiltration and UV photooxidation has been performed to remove VOCs in air. The systems using both UV photooxidation and biofiltration removed recalcitrant and VOCs more effectively than a stand-alone process using only biofiltration, because the UV pre-treatment not only removes the gases, but also changes them to easily biodegradable and water soluble byproducts such as acids and aldehydes. The biotrickling filter in this study was exposed to toluene gas only for over one month to cultivate specific microorganisms. The non-thermal plasma was a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The performance for removing toluene, p-xylene, and ethylene by the biotrickling filter, the plasma reactor and the plasma-pretreated bio-trickling system was investigated at a variety of flow rates and inlet concentrations of the test gases. The experimental results showed that the removal efficiencies of the integrated system of non-thermal plasma and biotrickling filter for p-xylene and ethylene were enhanced by 28.0 and 29.7 percent respectively, and increased by only 5.3 percent for toluene, as compared to those of the stand-alone biotrickling filtration. It was concluded that the plasma-pretreated biofiltration system could enhance the performance of the biotrickling filter for removing VOC gases, particularly for reducing low biodegradable pollutants with high loading which are chemically different from the cultivated gases. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications

  17. A coupled system of half-nitritation and ANAMMOX for mature landfill leachate nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Li, Jun; Zhao, Baihang; Wang, Xiujie; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Wei, Jia; Bian, Wei

    2017-09-01

    A coupled system of membrane bioreactor-nitritation (MBR-nitritation) and up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (UASB-ANAMMOX) was employed to treat mature landfill leachate containing high ammonia nitrogen and low C/N. MBR-nitritation was successfully realized for undiluted mature landfill leachate with initial concentrations of 900-1500 mg/L [Formula: see text] and 2000-4000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand. The effluent [Formula: see text] concentration and the [Formula: see text] accumulation efficiency were 889 mg/L and 97% at 125 d, respectively. Half-nitritation was quickly realized by adjustment of hydraulic retention time and dissolved oxygen (DO), and a low DO control strategy could allow long-term stable operation. The UASB-ANAMMOX system showed high effective nitrogen removal at a low concentration of mature landfill leachate. The nitrogen removal efficiency was inhibited at excessive influent substrate concentration and the nitrogen removal efficiency of the system decreased as the concentration of mature landfill leachate increased. The MBR-nitritation and UASB-ANAMMOX processes were coupled for mature landfill leachate treatment and together resulted in high effective nitrogen removal. The effluent average total nitrogen concentration and removal efficiency values were 176 mg/L and 83%, respectively. However, the average nitrogen removal load decreased from 2.16 to 0.77 g/(L d) at higher concentrations of mature landfill leachate.

  18. Application of two-stage biofilter system for the removal of odorous compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee; Lee, Gwang-Yeon; Cha, Jin-Myeong

    2006-01-01

    Biofiltration is a biological process which is considered to be one of the more successful examples of biotechnological applications to environmental engineering, and is most commonly used in the removal of odoriferous compounds. In this study, we have attempted to assess the efficiency with which both single and complex odoriferous compounds could be removed, using one- or two-stage biofiltration systems. The tested single odor gases, limonene, alpha-pinene, and iso-butyl alcohol, were separately evaluated in the biofilters. Both limonene and alpha-pinene were removed by 90% or more EC (elimination capacity), 364 g/m3/h and 321 g/m3/h, respectively, at an input concentration of 50 ppm and a retention time of 30 s. The iso-butyl alcohol was maintained with an effective removal yield of more than 90% (EC 375 g/m3/h) at an input concentration of 100 ppm. The complex gas removal scheme was applied with a 200 ppm inlet concentration of ethanol, 70 ppm of acetaldehyde, and 70 ppm of toluene with residence time of 45 s in a one- or two-stage biofiltration system. The removal yield of toluene was determined to be lower than that of the other gases in the one-stage biofilter. Otherwise, the complex gases were sufficiently eliminated by the two-stage biofiltration system.

  19. Efficacy of Hydrophobic Layer On Sealing Ability of Dentin Adhesive Systems in Class V Composite Resin Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Maleknejad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Adhesive permeability is hindered by application of an additional layer of hydrophobic resin, which increases its concentration within the hydrophilic layer, reduces its affinity to water, and enhances its physical properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a hydrophobic layer on the microleakage of class V composite restorations using different adhesives. Materials and methods. The adhesives including total-etch Scotchbond MP and Single Bond, and the self-etch Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond were applied to 80 class V cavities in vitro on the buccal surface in CEJ and then were followed by hydrophobic resin (Margin Bond in half of the cavities in each group (n=10. After restoration with microhybrid composite, Z100 and immersion in fuchsine, the degree of microleakage was assessed. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Man-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Results. The hydrophobic layer significantly reduced the microleakage of Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond only in dentin (p0.05. Conclusion. Within the limitation of this study, only Clearfil S3 Bond could demonstrate the identical values of microleakage in enamel and dentinal margins.

  20. A new chemical system solution for acid gas removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, M.; Rolker, J.; Witthaut, D.; Schulze, S. [Evonik Industries AG, Hanau (Germany); Buchholz, S. [Evonik Industries AG, Marl (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    An energy-efficient absorbent formulation fors eparating acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2}, H2S) from gas streams such as natural gas, syngas or flue gas is important for a number of industrial applications. In many cases, a substantial share of their costs is driven by the operational expenditure (OPEX) of the CO{sub 2} separation unit. One possible strategy for reducing OPEX is the improvement of the absorbent performance. Although a number of absorbents for the separation of CO{sub 2} from gas streams exist, there is still a need to develop CO{sub 2} absorbents with an improved absorption performance, less corrosion and foaming, no nitrosamine formation, lower energy requirement and therefore less OPEX. This contribution aims at giving a brief state-of-the-art overview followed by an introduction and performance characterization of a new family of amine-based CO{sub 2} absorbents. High cyclic capacities in the range of 2.9 to 3.2 mol CO{sub 2} kg{sup -1} absorbent and low absorption enthalpies of about -30 kJ mol{sup -1} allow for significant savings in the regeneration energy of the new absorbent system. Calculations with the modified Kremser model indicate a reduction in the specific reboiler heat duty of 45 %. Moreover, the high-performance absorbents developed show much lower corrosion rates than state-of-the-art solutions that are currently employed. (orig.)

  1. Construction of an integrated enzyme system consisting azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase for dye removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyi; Wei, Buqing; Zhao, Yuhua; Wang, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Azo dyes are toxic and carcinogenic and are often present in industrial effluents. In this research, azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase were coupled for both continuous generation of the cofactor NADH and azo dye removal. The results show that 85% maximum relative activity of azoreductase in an integrated enzyme system was obtained at the conditions: 1U azoreductase:10U glucose 1-dehydrogenase, 250mM glucose, 1.0mM NAD(+) and 150μM methyl red. Sensitivity analysis of the factors in the enzyme system affecting dye removal examined by an artificial neural network model shows that the relative importance of enzyme ratio between azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase was 22%, followed by dye concentration (27%), NAD(+) concentration (23%) and glucose concentration (22%), indicating none of the variables could be ignored in the enzyme system. Batch results show that the enzyme system has application potential for dye removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Removal of Escherichia coli via low frequency electromagnetic field in riverbank filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Rossitah; Abustan, Ismail; Rizal Arshad, Mohd; Mokhtar Kamal, Nurul Hana

    2018-04-01

    The removal of Escherichia coli (E. coli) via low frequency of electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) with different magnetic field was studied. LF-EMF is known as a high magnetic susceptibility method, which could affect E. coli growth without the usage of chemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of E. coli by using LF-EMF in water abstraction for the riverbank filtration (RBF) application. The effect of LF-EMF with the intensity of 2 to 10mT and 50Hz on coiled column of 1mm copper wire at 1 to 6 hours was assessed. The removal of E. coli after exposing to LF-EMF on the column model was measured using most probable number (MPN/100mL) and colonies forming unit (CFU/100mL) methods. Water flows into the column were varied up to 6 hours and with flowrate of 100 mL/min. Experimental results demonstrate that 100% of E. coli was removed at 8mT after 6 hours exposure. The magnetic field at 10mT removed 100% of E. coli after 4 hours exposure. The results obtained in this study proved that the LF-EMF was efficient in E. coli removal from RBF system. These finding indicated that the LF-EMF intensities and time of exposure can affect the removal of E. coli.

  3. Nitrogen and phosphorus removed from a subsurface flow multi-stage filtration system purifying agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqi; Huang, Lei; Chen, Yucheng

    2018-07-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The main causes were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides. A multi-stage filtration system was built to test the purification efficiencies and removal characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus when treating agricultural runoff. Simulated runoff pollution was prepared by using river water as source water based on the monitoring of local agricultural runoff. Experimental study had been performed from September to November 2013, adopting 12 h for flooding and 12 h for drying. The results showed that the system was made adaptive to variation of inflow quality and quantity, and had good removal for dissolved total nitrogen, total nitrogen, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total phosphorus, and the average removal rate was 27%, 36%, 32%, and 48%, respectively. Except nitrate ([Formula: see text]), other forms of nitrogen and phosphorus all decreased with the increase of stages. Nitrogen was removed mainly in particle form the first stage, and mostly removed in dissolved form the second and third stage. Phosphorus was removed mainly in particulate during the first two stages, but the removal of particulate phosphorus and DTP were almost the same in the last stage. An approximate logarithmic relationship between removal loading and influent loading to nitrogen and phosphorus was noted in the experimental system, and the correlation coefficient was 0.78-0.94. [Formula: see text]: ammonium; [Formula: see text]: nitrite; [Formula: see text]: nitrate; DTN: dissolved total nitrogen; TN: total nitrogen; DTP: dissolved total phosphorus; TP: total phosphorus; PN: particulate nitrogen; PP: particulate phosphorus.

  4. Mathematical modeling based evaluation and simulation of boron removal in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Qingyun; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Boron removal is an arising issue in desalination plants due to boron's toxicity. As an emerging treatment concept, bioelectrochemical systems (BES) can achieve potentially cost-effective boron removal by taking advantage of cathodic-produced alkali. Prior studies have demonstrated successful removal of boron in microbial desalination cells (MDCs) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs), both of which are representative BES. Herein, mathematical models were developed to further evaluate boron removal by different BES and understand the key operating factors. The models delivered very good prediction of the boron concentration in the MDC integrated with Donnan Dialysis (DD) system with the lowest relative root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.00%; the predication of the MFC performance generated the highest RMSE of 18.55%. The model results of salt concentration, solution pH, and current generation were well fitted with experimental data for RMSE values mostly below 10%. The long term simulation of the MDC-DD system suggests that the accumulation of salt in the catholyte/stripping solution could have a positive impact on the removal of boron due to osmosis-driven convection. The current generation in the MDC may have little influence on the boron removal, while in the MFC the current-driven electromigration can contribute up to 40% of boron removal. Osmosis-induced convection transport of boron could be the major driving force for boron removal to a low level 22.2 in order to avoid boron accumulation in the anolyte effluent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  6. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corletti, Michael M.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  7. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures

  8. A passive decay heat removal system for LWRs based on air cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Hiroyasu, E-mail: mochizki@u-fukui.ac.jp [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, 1-2-4 Kanawa-cho, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0055 (Japan); Yano, Takahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 1-2-4 Kanawa-cho, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0055 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A passive decay heat removal system for LWRs is discussed. • An air cooler model which condenses steam is developed. • The decay heat can be removed by air coolers with forced convection. • The dimensions of the air cooler are proposed. - Abstract: The present paper describes the capability of an air cooling system (ACS) to remove decay heat from a core of LWR such as an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) and a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The motivation of the present research is the Fukushima severe accident (SA) on 11 March 2011. Since emergency cooling systems using electricity were not available due to station blackout (SBO) and malfunctions, many engineers might understand that water cooling was not completely reliable. Therefore, a passive decay heat removal (DHR) system would be proposed in order to prevent such an SA under the conditions of an SBO event. The plant behaviors during the SBO are calculated using the system code NETFLOW++ for the ABWR and PWR with the ACS. Two types of air coolers (ACs) are applied for the ABWR, i.e., a steam condensing air cooler (SCAC) of which intake for heat transfer tubes is provided in the steam region, and single-phase type of which intake is provided in the water region. The DHR characteristics are calculated under the conditions of the forced air circulation and also the natural air convection. As a result of the calculations, the decay heat can be removed safely by the reasonably sized ACS when heat transfer tubes are cooled with the forced air circulation. The heat removal rate per one finned heat transfer tube is evaluated as a function of air flow rate. The heat removal rate increases as a function of the air flow rate.

  9. Design alternatives report for the cesium removal demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Cesium Removal Demonstration (CRD) project will use liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks to demonstrate cesium removal from sodium nitrate-based supernates. This report presents the results of a conceptual design study to scope the alternatives for conducting the demonstration at ORNL. Factors considered included (1) sorbent alternatives, (2) facility alternatives, (3) process alternatives, (4) process disposal alternatives, and (5) relative cost comparisons. Recommendations included (1) that design of the CRD system move forward based on information obtained to date from tests with Savannah River Resin, (2) that the CRD system be designed so it could use crystalline silicotitanates (CST) if an engineered form of CST becomes available prior to the CRD, (3) that the system be designed without the capability for resin regeneration, (4) that the LLLW solidification facility be used for the demonstration (5) that vitrification of the loaded resins from the CRD be demonstrated at the Savannah River Site, and (6) that permanent disposal of the loaded and/or vitrified resin at the Nevada Test Site be pursued.

  10. Design alternatives report for the cesium removal demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Cesium Removal Demonstration (CRD) project will use liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stored in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Melton Valley Storage Tanks to demonstrate cesium removal from sodium nitrate-based supernates. This report presents the results of a conceptual design study to scope the alternatives for conducting the demonstration at ORNL. Factors considered included (1) sorbent alternatives, (2) facility alternatives, (3) process alternatives, (4) process disposal alternatives, and (5) relative cost comparisons. Recommendations included (1) that design of the CRD system move forward based on information obtained to date from tests with Savannah River Resin, (2) that the CRD system be designed so it could use crystalline silicotitanates (CST) if an engineered form of CST becomes available prior to the CRD, (3) that the system be designed without the capability for resin regeneration, (4) that the LLLW solidification facility be used for the demonstration (5) that vitrification of the loaded resins from the CRD be demonstrated at the Savannah River Site, and (6) that permanent disposal of the loaded and/or vitrified resin at the Nevada Test Site be pursued

  11. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.; Coker, Robert; Huff, Timothy L.; Gatens, Robyn; Miller, Lee A.; Stanley, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A long-term goal for NASA is to enable crewed missions to Mars: first to the vicinity of Mars, and then to the Mars surface. These missions present new challenges for all aspects of spacecraft design in comparison with the International Space Station, as resupply is unavailable in the transit phase, and early return is not possible. Additionally, mass, power, and volume must be minimized for all phases to reduce propulsion needs. Mass reduction is particularly crucial for Mars surface landing and liftoff due to the challenges inherent in these operations for even much smaller payloads. In this paper we describe current and planned developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support future crewed Mars missions. Activities are also described that apply to both the resolution of anomalies observed in the ISS CDRA and the design of life support systems for future missions.

  12. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James; Coker, Robert; Huff, Tim; Miller, Lee

    2016-01-01

    A long-term goal for NASA is to enable crewed missions to Mars: first to the vicinity of Mars, and then to the Mars surface. These missions present new challenges for all aspects of spacecraft design in comparison with the International Space Station, as resupply is unavailable in the transit phase, and early return is not possible. Additionally, mass, power, and volume must be minimized for all phases to reduce propulsion needs. Mass reduction is particularly crucial for Mars surface landing and liftoff due to the challenges inherent in these operations for even much smaller payloads. In this paper we describe current and planned developments in the area of carbon dioxide removal to support future crewed Mars missions. Activities are also described that apply to both the resolution of anomalies observed in the ISS CDRA and the design of life support systems for future missions.

  13. Reducing false positives of microcalcification detection systems by removal of breast arterial calcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordang, Jan-Jurre; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Karssemeijer, Nico; Heeten, Gerard den

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the past decades, computer-aided detection (CADe) systems have been developed to aid screening radiologists in the detection of malignant microcalcifications. These systems are useful to avoid perceptual oversights and can increase the radiologists’ detection rate. However, due to the high number of false positives marked by these CADe systems, they are not yet suitable as an independent reader. Breast arterial calcifications (BACs) are one of the most frequent false positives marked by CADe systems. In this study, a method is proposed for the elimination of BACs as positive findings. Removal of these false positives will increase the performance of the CADe system in finding malignant microcalcifications. Methods: A multistage method is proposed for the removal of BAC findings. The first stage consists of a microcalcification candidate selection, segmentation and grouping of the microcalcifications, and classification to remove obvious false positives. In the second stage, a case-based selection is applied where cases are selected which contain BACs. In the final stage, BACs are removed from the selected cases. The BACs removal stage consists of a GentleBoost classifier trained on microcalcification features describing their shape, topology, and texture. Additionally, novel features are introduced to discriminate BACs from other positive findings. Results: The CADe system was evaluated with and without BACs removal. Here, both systems were applied on a validation set containing 1088 cases of which 95 cases contained malignant microcalcifications. After bootstrapping, free-response receiver operating characteristics and receiver operating characteristics analyses were carried out. Performance between the two systems was compared at 0.98 and 0.95 specificity. At a specificity of 0.98, the sensitivity increased from 37% to 52% and the sensitivity increased from 62% up to 76% at a specificity of 0.95. Partial areas under the curve in the specificity

  14. Reducing false positives of microcalcification detection systems by removal of breast arterial calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordang, Jan-Jurre, E-mail: Jan-Jurre.Mordang@radboudumc.nl; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Karssemeijer, Nico [Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Heeten, Gerard den [The National Training Centre for Breast Cancer Screening, Nijmegen 6503 GJ, The Netherlands and Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Medical Center, Amsterdam 1100 DD (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: In the past decades, computer-aided detection (CADe) systems have been developed to aid screening radiologists in the detection of malignant microcalcifications. These systems are useful to avoid perceptual oversights and can increase the radiologists’ detection rate. However, due to the high number of false positives marked by these CADe systems, they are not yet suitable as an independent reader. Breast arterial calcifications (BACs) are one of the most frequent false positives marked by CADe systems. In this study, a method is proposed for the elimination of BACs as positive findings. Removal of these false positives will increase the performance of the CADe system in finding malignant microcalcifications. Methods: A multistage method is proposed for the removal of BAC findings. The first stage consists of a microcalcification candidate selection, segmentation and grouping of the microcalcifications, and classification to remove obvious false positives. In the second stage, a case-based selection is applied where cases are selected which contain BACs. In the final stage, BACs are removed from the selected cases. The BACs removal stage consists of a GentleBoost classifier trained on microcalcification features describing their shape, topology, and texture. Additionally, novel features are introduced to discriminate BACs from other positive findings. Results: The CADe system was evaluated with and without BACs removal. Here, both systems were applied on a validation set containing 1088 cases of which 95 cases contained malignant microcalcifications. After bootstrapping, free-response receiver operating characteristics and receiver operating characteristics analyses were carried out. Performance between the two systems was compared at 0.98 and 0.95 specificity. At a specificity of 0.98, the sensitivity increased from 37% to 52% and the sensitivity increased from 62% up to 76% at a specificity of 0.95. Partial areas under the curve in the specificity

  15. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  16. Integrating Porous Resins In Enzymatic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Haque, Naweed

    . Screening resins for moderately hydrophobic multi-component systems is challenging. Often it is found that the capacity of the resin is inversely related with product selectivity. Therefore a tradeoff has to be made between these parameters which can be crucial from an economic point of view. A low resin...... procedure. The screening therefore becomes a multi-objective task that has to be solved simultaneously. Such an approach has been applied in the method formulated in this framework. To overcome these challenges, different process strategies are required to obtain high yields. A number of different...... inhibition, has gained considerable recognition. The resins act as a reservoir for the inhibitory substrate and a sink for the inhibitory product and simultaneously attain the required high substrate loading to make the process economically feasible. In this way the potential benefit of the enzyme can...

  17. [Treatment of removable partial dentures. 2. Causes and consequences of a reduced occlusal system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Barel, J.C.; Baat, C. de; Keltjens, H.M.A.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The occlusal system is part of the orofacial system and consists of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridge and teeth which are occluding or not or the removable denture teeth. The most prevalent causes of loss of teeth are insufficient oral self care or inadequate professional oral healthcare

  18. Regenerating an Arsenic Removal Iron-Based Adsorptive Media System, Part 2: Performance and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    The replacement of exhausted, adsorptive media used to remove arsenic from drinking water accounts for approximately 80% of the total operational and maintenance (O/M) costs of this commonly used small system technology. The results of three, full scale system studies of an on-s...

  19. Reliability evaluation of power supply and distribution for special heat removal systems in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazbec, D.

    1982-01-01

    An example of the power supply and distribution of a Special Emergency Heat Removal System (SEHR) shows how an engineering organization may, with the aid of the analytical method of min-cut sets optimize the system reliability. Herein are given the necessary simple calculation methods. (Auth.)

  20. A passive decay-heat removal system for an ABWR based on air cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Hiroyasu, E-mail: mochizki@u-fukui.ac.jp [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, 1-2-4 Kanawa-cho, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0055 (Japan); Yano, Takahiro [School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 1-2-4 Kanawa-cho, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0055 (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A passive decay heat removal system for an ABWR is discussed using combined system of the reactor and an air cooler. • Effect of number of pass of the finned heat transfer tubes on heat removal is investigated. • The decay heat can be removed by air coolers with natural convection. • Two types of air cooler are evaluated, i.e., steam condensing and water cooling types. • Measures how to improve the heat removal rate and to make compact air cooler are discussed. - Abstract: This paper describes the capability of an air cooling system (ACS) operated under natural convection conditions to remove decay heat from the core of an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The motivation of the present research is the Fukushima Severe Accident (SA). The plant suffered damages due to the tsunami and entered a state of Station Blackout (SBO) during which seawater cooling was not available. To prevent this kind of situation, we proposed a passive decay heat removal system (DHRS) in the previous study. The plant behavior during the SBO was calculated using the system code NETFLOW++ assuming an ABWR with the ACS. However, decay heat removal under an air natural convection was difficult. In the present study, a countermeasure to increase heat removal rate is proposed and plant transients with the ACS are calculated under natural convection conditions. The key issue is decreasing pressure drop over the tube banks in order to increase air flow rate. The results of the calculations indicate that the decay heat can be removed by the air natural convection after safety relief valves are actuated many times during a day. Duct height and heat transfer tube arrangement of the AC are discussed in order to design a compact and efficient AC for the natural convection mode. As a result, a 4-pass heat transfer tubes with 2-row staggered arrangement is the candidate of the AC for the DHRS under the air natural convection conditions. The heat removal rate is re-evaluated as

  1. Evaluation of microshear bond strength of resin composites to enamel of dental adhesive systems associated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimiro-Silva, Patricia F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Monteiro, Gabriela Q. d. M.; Benetti, Carolina; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of resin composite to enamel etching by Er,Cr:YSGG laser with the use of two differents adhesives systems. Fifty freshly extracted human molars halves were embedded in acrylic resin before preparation for the study, making a total of up to 100 available samples. The specimens were randomly assigned into six groups (η=10) according to substrate pre-treatment and adhesive system on the enamel. A two-step self-etching primer system (Clearfil SE Bond) and a universal adhesive used as an etch-andrinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond Universal) were applied to the nonirradiated enamel surface according to manufacturer's instructions, as control groups (Control CF and Control SB, respectively). For the other groups, enamel surfaces were previously irradiated with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with 0.5 W, 75 mJ and 66 J/cm2 (CF 5 Hz and SB 5 Hz) and 1.25 W, 50 mJ and 44 J/cm2 (CF 15 Hz and SB 15 Hz). Irradiation was performed under air (50%) and water (50%) cooling. An independent t-test was performed to compare the adhesive systems. Mean μSBS ± sd (MPa) for each group was 16.857 +/- 2.61, 17.87 +/- 5.83, 12.23 +/- 2.02, 9.88 +/- 2.26, 15.94 +/- 1.98, 17.62 +/- 2.10, respectively. The control groups and the 50 mJ laser groups showed no statistically significant differences, regardless of the adhesive system used. The results obtained lead us to affirm that the bonding interaction of adhesives to enamel depends not only on the morphological aspects of the dental surface, but also on the characteristics of the adhesive employed and the parameters of the laser.

  2. Reliability assessment on decay heat removal system of a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, Kazumasa

    1991-01-01

    The reliability of a decay heat removal system (DHRS) is influenced by the success criteria, the components which constitute the system, the support systems configuration, and the mission time. Assessments were performed to investigate quantitatively the effects of these items. Failure probabilities of DHRS under forced or natural circulation modes were calculated and then components and systems of large importance for each mode were identified. (author)

  3. Technology for meat-grinding systems to improve removal of hard particles from ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Sebranek, J G

    1997-03-01

    With increased consumption of ground meat, especially ground beef, quality issues for these products have become more important to industry and consumers alike. Ground meats are usually obtained from relatively low-value cuts and trimmings, and may on occasion contain undesirable hard particles. Hard particles in coarse-ground meat products may include bone chips or fragments, cartilage and dense connective tissue; all of which are considered undesirable defects and which can be reduced by utilizing hard-particle removal systems during grinding operations. This review discusses the principles of hard-particle separation from ground meat, the factors which influence performance of particle separation and some commercially available particle removal systems. Product and processing parameters such as initial bone and connective tissue content, fat content, temperature, pre-grinding size and grinder knife design are considered important for removing hard particles effectively. Pressure gradient on the grinder knife/plate interface was found to play a significant role in particle separation from soft (fat and lean) tissue. Various commercial systems, which are classified as central removal and periphery removal systems, are also discussed. Finally, the authors suggest some processing considerations for meat grinding to help achieve the best quality ground meat for consumers' satisfaction.

  4. Applicability of Zeolite Based Systems for Ammonia Removal and Recovery From Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pallabi; Prasad, Bably; Singh, Krishna Kant Kumar

    2017-09-01

      Ammonia discharged in industrial effluents bears deleterious effects and necessitates remediation. Integrated systems devoted to recovery of ammonia in a useful form and remediation of the same addresses the challenges of waste management and its utilization. A comparative performance evaluation study was undertaken to access the suitability of different zeolite based systems (commercial zeolites and zeolites synthesized from fly ash) for removal of ammonia followed by its subsequent release. Four main parameters which were studied to evaluate the applicability of such systems for large scale usage are cost-effectiveness, ammonia removal efficiency, performance on regeneration, and ammonia release percentage. The results indicated that synthetic zeolites outperformed zeolites synthesized from fly ash, although the later proved to be more efficient in terms of total cost incurred. Process technology development in this direction will be a trade-of between cost and ammonia removal and release efficiencies.

  5. Effect of operational cycle time length on nitrogen removal in an alternating oxidation ditch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziaras, I D; Stamou, A; Katsiri, A

    2011-06-01

    This paper refers to nitrogen removal optimization of an alternating oxidation ditch system through the use of a mathematical model and pilot testing. The pilot system where measurements have been made has a total volume of 120 m(3) and consists of two ditches operating in four phases during one cycle and performs carbon oxidation, nitrification, denitrification and settling. The mathematical model consists of one-dimensional mass balance (convection-dispersion) equations based on the IAWPRC ASM 1 model. After the calibration and verification of the model, simulation system performance was made. Optimization is achieved by testing operational cycles and phases with different time lengths. The limits of EU directive 91/271 for nitrogen removal have been used for comparison. The findings show that operational cycles with smaller time lengths can achieve higher nitrogen removals and that an "equilibrium" between phase time percentages in the whole cycle, for a given inflow, must be achieved.

  6. Nitrogen removal and nitrate leaching for forage systems receiving dairy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth R; French, Edwin C; Sweat, Lewin A; Graetz, Donald A; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Macoon, Bisoondat; Portier, Kenneth M; Wade, Brett L; Rymph, Stuart J; Prine, Gordon M; Van Horn, Harold H

    2002-01-01

    Florida dairies need year-round forage systems that prevent loss of N to ground water from waste effluent sprayfields. Our purpose was to quantify forage N removal and monitor nitrate N (NO3(-)-N) concentrations in soil water below the rooting zone for two forage systems during four 12-mo cycles (1996-2000). Soil in the sprayfield is an excessively drained Kershaw sand (thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamment). Over four cycles, average loading rates of effluent N were 500, 690, and 910 kg ha(-1) per cycle. Nitrogen removed by the bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.)-rye (Secale cereale L.) system (BR) during the first three cycles was 465 kg ha(-1) per cycle for the low loading rate, 528 kg ha(-1) for the medium rate, and 585 kg ha(-1) for the high. For the corn (Zea mays L.)-forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]-rye system (CSR), N removals were 320 kg ha(-1) per cycle for the low rate, 327 kg ha(-1) for the medium, and 378 kg ha(-1) for the high. The higher N removals for BR were attributed to higher N concentration in bermudagrass (18.1-24.2 g kg(-1)) than in corn and forage sorghum (10.3-14.7 g kg(-1)). Dry matter yield declined in the fourth cycle for bermudagrass but N removal continued to be higher for BR than CSR. The BR system was much more effective at preventing NO3(-)-N leaching. For CSR, NO3(-)-N levels in soil water (1.5 m below surface) increased steeply during the period between the harvest of one forage and canopy dosure of the next. Overall, the BR system was better than CSR at removing N from the soil and maintaining low NO3(-)-N concentrations below the rooting zone.

  7. Necessity and opportunity of building a mobile facility for conditioning the spent ionic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2002-01-01

    The ionic resins utilized in nuclear industry for purification of different working fluids become contaminated by important amounts of radionuclides incorporated in their structure. Thus, these resins become intermediate-level radioactive wastes, containing radioisotopes of rather long lifetimes, and so their conditioning is required to ensure binding and isolation of the radionuclides over a period long enough, until their decay. Binding the radionuclides in stable matrices and their isolation by means of engineered barriers ensures protection of environment against contamination. In the frame of Radioactive Waste Management Program related to Cernavoda NPP, optimal technologies for processing the radioactive waste generated during the NPP operation were developed and also a site for final disposal of the low and intermediate level waste was selected. The last one is a modern, ground repository with multiple engineered barriers based on the natural properties of the host geological formation. The final disposal concept implies building a conditioning facility to ensure: a super-compacting stage of the already compacted wastes; cementing the uncompactable wastes; cementing spent filters; cementing the pellets resulted from the super-compacting stage and drums with conditioned wastes in concrete modules; cementing the organic wastes; cementing the spent ionic resins by means of a mobile facility. The spent ionic resins removed from the technologic purification systems of the station are discharged by means of demineralized water and transferred, corresponding to source, to one of the 3 storage 200 m 3 basins from the basement of the CANDU 6 NPP servicing building. To avoid the danger of spent resins being cemented at basin's bottom the basins should be emptied at every 10-15 years. To comply with IAEA requirements concerning the radioactive waste final disposal, a procedure for establishing the quantitative concentration of solidification agents and additives

  8. Study on decay heat removal capability of reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Y.; Kinoshita, I.

    1991-01-01

    The reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) is a simple, Passive decay heat removal system for an LMFBR. However, the heat removal capacity of this system is small compared to that of an immersed type of decay heat exchanger. In this study, a high-porosity porous body is proposed to enhance the RVACS's heat transfer performance to improve its applicability. The objectives of this study are to propose a new method which is able to use thermal radiation effectively, to confirm its heat removal capability and to estimate its applicability limit of RVACS for an LMFBR. Heat transfer tests were conducted in an experimental facility with a 3.5 m heat transfer height to evaluate the heat transfer performance of the high-porosity porous body. Using the experimental results, plant transient analyses were performed for a 300 MWe pool type LMFBR under a Total Black Out (TBO) condition to confirm the heat removal capability. Furthermore, the relationship between heat removal capability and thermal output of a reactor were evaluated using a simple parameter model

  9. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    To improve phytoremediation processes, multiple techniques that comprise different aspects of contaminant removal from soils have been combined. Using creosote as a test contaminant, a multi-process phytoremediation system composed of physical (volatilization), photochemical (photooxidation) and microbial remediation, and phytoremediation (plant-assisted remediation) processes was developed. The techniques applied to realize these processes were land-farming (aeration and light exposure), introduction of contaminant degrading bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), and plant growth of contaminant-tolerant tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Over a 4-month period, the average efficiency of removal of 16 priority PAHs by the multi-process remediation system was twice that of land-farming, 50% more than bioremediation alone, and 45% more than phytoremediation by itself. Importantly, the multi-process system was capable of removing most of the highly hydrophobic, soil-bound PAHs from soil. The key elements for successful phytoremediation were the use of plant species that have the ability to proliferate in the presence of high levels of contaminants and strains of PGPR that increase plant tolerance to contaminants and accelerate plant growth in heavily contaminated soils. The synergistic use of these approaches resulted in rapid and massive biomass accumulation of plant tissue in contaminated soil, putatively providing more active metabolic processes, leading to more rapid and more complete removal of PAHs. - Persistent PAH contaminants in soils can be removed more completely and rapidly by using multiple remediation processes

  10. Natural Organic Matter Removal and Fouling in a Low Pressure Hybrid Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Uyak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate powdered activated carbon (PAC contribution to natural organic matter (NOM removal by a submerged MF and UF hybrid systems. It was found that filtration of surface waters by a bare MF and UF membranes removed negligible TOC; by contrast, significant amounts of TOC were removed when daily added PAC particles were predeposited on the membrane surfaces. These results support the assumption that the membranes surface properties and PAC layer structure might have considerably influential factor on NOM removal. Moreover, it was concluded that the dominant removal mechanism of hybrid membrane system is adsorption of NOM within PAC layer rather than size exclusion of NOM by both of membrane pores. Transmembrane pressure (TMP increases with PAC membrane systems support the view that PAC adsorption pretreatment will not prevent the development of membrane pressure; on the contrary, PAC particles themselves caused membrane fouling by blocking the entrance of pores of MF and UF membranes. Although all three source waters have similar HPI content, it appears that the PAC interaction with the entrance of membrane pores was responsible for offsetting the NOM fractional effects on membrane fouling for these source waters.

  11. Heavy metal removal in an UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Varga, D; Díaz, M A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate for the first time the long-term removal of heavy metals (HMs) in a combined UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater. The research was carried out in a field pilot plant constituted for an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) digester as a pretreatment, followed by a surface flow constructed wetland (CW) and finally by a subsurface flow CW. While the UASB showed (pseudo) steady state operational conditions and generated a periodical purge of sludge, CWs were characterised by the progressive accumulation and mineralisation of retained solids. This paper analyses the evolution of HM removal from the water stream over time (over a period of 4.7 year of operation) and the accumulation of HMs in UASB sludge and CW sediments at two horizons of 2.7 and 4.0 year of operation. High removal efficiencies were found for some metals in the following order: Sn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn > Fe (63-94%). Medium removal efficiencies were registered for Ni (49%), Hg (42%), and Ag (40%), and finally Mn and As showed negative percentage removals. Removal efficiencies of total HMs were higher in UASB and SF units and lower in the last SSF unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial metabolism and activity in terms of nitrate removal in bioelectrochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Baocheng; Feng, Huajun; Ding, Yangcheng; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Meizhen; Li, Na; Shen, Dongsheng; Zhang, Haiyang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of current on biofilm formation in BES was investigated. • Biofilm formation activity supplying with organic differed with inorganic. • Discussed the influence of signaling molecule and EPS on biofilm formation. -- Abstract: Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a promising technology for generating energy while treating wastewater. By utilizing the electron transfer between the anode and cathode, nitrate can be effectively removed from the BES. Our previous studies show that the carbon source and C/N ratio influences nitrate removal performance. The study presented here investigates how biofilm formation, nitrate removal and signaling molecule release are related in the BESs fed with glucose, starch and HCO 3 − . The results indicate that increasing the current can benefit signaling molecule (DSF) release and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excretion, which improves biofilm formation. However, when the current exceeds the optimum value, the influence becomes adverse. Nitrate removal was also improved with increased current, though different carbon sources showed different trends. The highest nitrate removal efficiency of 1.23 ± 0.27, 1.38 ± 0.09, 1.80 ± 0.02 mmol L −1 d −1 for the BESs fed with glucose, starch and HCO 3 − were achieved, respectively. This paper studied the bacterial habits in a BES to better acquire and regulate the reaction process, with the aim of achieving good pollutant removal performance

  13. Organic resin anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; McGinnes, D.F.

    1988-07-01

    Organic anion exchange resins are evaluated for 99-TcO 4 - (pertechnate) removed from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal and radiation stabilities were studied. Selected resins were examined in detail for their selectivities in the presence of I - , NO 3 - , SO 4 = , CO 3 = , Cl - and OH - . Ion exchange equilibria and kinetic mechanisms were determined. Preliminary investigations of cement encapsulation in polymer modified form were made and some leach studies carried out. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Phosphate and Nitrate Removal Capacity of Anodonta cygnea (Unionidae in Open and Closed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Javanshir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of agricultural and industrial effluents into surface water resources cause water quality degradation. The swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea is one of the most important fresh water suspension feeders that can be used for the purpose of pollutant reduction. In order to evaluate the capability of A. cygnea in the reduction of nitrates and phosphates in municipal wastewater, several breeds & Rhyter culture medium were investigated. The results obtained from the open system showed that the growing fresh algae were capable of removing a considerable portion of the dissolved materials. The combined system of mussels and algae had an average nitrate removal efficiency of 76.3% and a phosphate removal efficiency of 75.3%. Based on our results, this breed of mussels may be recommended as a crucial organism in biological wastewater treatment.

  15. Effect of photoactivation on the reduction of composite resin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Natalia A; Girotto, Luiza P S; Leite, Françoise H S; Mario, Débora N

    2017-06-01

    Composite resins are predominantly marketed in developing countries in tube form, and the contents of the tube may be used in numerous procedures for different patients. This represents a problem because of the risk of cross-contamination. This study aimed to evaluate contamination in vitro of the internal contents of composite resin tubes in the dental clinics of a higher-education institution, as well as the effect of photoactivation on the level of contamination. Twenty-five tubes containing composite resin were randomly chosen (by lottery). From each tube, two samples of approximately 2 mm of composite resin were removed, and then one sample, but not the other, was photoactivated. These samples were plated on Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI), Sabouraud and MacConkey agars, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h. Colony counting and Gram staining were performed for subsequent microscopic identification of fungi and bacteria. The non-photoactivated composite resin group presented significantly higher microbial contamination in relation to the photoactivated composite resin group. The photoactivation of camphorquinone present in composite resin produces reactive oxygen species, which might promote cell death of contaminant microorganisms. Thus, although the same tube of composite resin may be used for a number of different patients in the dental clinics of developing countries, the photoactivation process potentially reduces the risk of cross-contamination. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. Method of heat decomposition for chemical decontaminating resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To make resin wastes into non-deleterious state, discharge them into a resin waste storage tank of existent radioactive waste processing facility and store and dispose them. Constitution: In the processing of chemical decontaminating resin wastes, iron exchange resins adsorbing chemical decontaminating agents comprising a solution of citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and EDTA alone or as a mixture of them are heated to dry, thermally decomposed and then separated from the ion exchange resins. That is, the main ingredients of the chemical decontaminating agents are heat-decomposed when heated and dried at about 250 deg C in air and converted into non-toxic gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 or H 2 O. Further, since combustion or carbonization of the basic materials for the resin is not caused at such a level of temperature, the resin wastes removed with organic acid and chelating agents are transferred to an existent resin waste storage tank and stored therein. In this way, facility cost and radiation exposure can remarkably be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed.

  18. An in vitro study: Evaluation of intracanal calcium hydroxide removal with different file systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 is the most commonly used intracanal material; it needs to be removed in entirety before obturation. Several techniques have been used for the same including use of various hand and rotary files. Aim: This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Hand K files and single and multiple rotary file system in removal of Ca(OH2. Methodology: Distobuccal root of 45 maxillary molars were selected on the basis of specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were divided into three groups - Group 1 (H and K file, Group 2 (HERO Shaper, and Group 3 (One Shape. Biomechanical preparation (BMP was carried out as per the manufacturer's instructions; 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was used as the irrigant and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as the penultimate irrigant. Ca(OH2powder was mixed with normal saline to obtain a paste; canals were filled with this paste using a Lentulo spiral and were sealed. After 7 days, Ca(OH2was removed, using the same file system as that used for BMP. Samples were sectioned longitudinally and evaluated under a stereomicro