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Sample records for resin regeneration waste

  1. System for processing ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onaka, Noriyuki; Tanno, Kazuo; Shoji, Saburo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To reduce the quantity of radioactive waste to be solidified by recovering and repeatedly using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide which constitute the ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid. Structure: Cation exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to an anion exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sulfuric acid through separation from impurity cations, while at the same time anion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to a cation exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sodium hydroxide through separation from impurity anions. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide thus recovered are condensed by a thermal condenser and then, after density adjustment, repeatedly used for the regeneration of the ion exchange resin. (Aizawa, K.)

  2. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  3. Evaluation of Resin Regeneration Using HCl and H2SO4 for the Ion Exchanger of Copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Djoko Sardjono

    2002-01-01

    The experimental investigation on the regeneration of resin using HCl and H 2 SO 4 with its varian concentration of 1; 2.5; 2; 2.5 and 3 N and the stirring time was 5; 10; 15; 20; and 25 minutes. For evaluating their effectiveness on the separation of ion copper in the waste with concentration 500 ppm. Experimentally this investigation is the first step of resin results of regeneration process usage as an alternative resin for the treatment of liquid waste containing especially copper. The experimental resulted by mixing the feed copper waste with resin after regeneration. Therefore it could be concluded that the most effective regeneration was obtained with HCl as the regeneration of concentration 2 N and the stirring time 15 minutes with the percentage of separation used of 85.1 %. (author)

  4. Device for processing regenerative wastes of ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Osamu; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Sankichi

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the operation and maintenance of a processing device by dividing radioactive wastes produced in the regenerative process of ion exchange resin into a regenerated usable recovery liquid and wastes. Constitution: Sulfuric acid is recovered by a diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing sulfuric acid that are generated in the regenerative process of cation-exchange resin and also caustic soda is recovered by the diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing caustic soda that are generated in the regenerative process of anion-exchange resin. The sulfuric acid and caustic soda thus recovered are used for the regeneration of ion-exchange resin. A concentrator is provided for concentrating the sulfuric acid and caustic soda water solution to concentration suitable for the regeneration of these ion-exchange resins. Also provided is a recovery device for recovering water generated from the concentrator. This device is of so simple a constitution that its operation and maintenance can be performed very easily, thereby greatly reducing the quantity of waste liquid required to be stored in drums. (Takahashi, M.)

  5. Electro regeneration of iodide loaded resin. Contributed Paper RD-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Kumar, T.; Sree Kumar, B.; Seshadri, K.S.; Paul, Biplob

    2014-01-01

    Spent resins generated in the nuclear reactor contain essentially cationic activities due to Cesium, Strontium, Cobalt, and anionic activities due to Iodide, Iodate etc with activity loading to the extent of 0.1 Cim -3 and a surface dose of the order of 5 R. It is necessary to convert the spent resin into innocuous, reusable forms. An attempt has been made to regenerate Iodide containing spent resin into OH - electrolytically by using the OH - produced at the cathode compartment of an electrolytic cell. Results show that the regeneration of the spent resin containing Iodide could be completely accomplished electrolytically more efficiently than by addition of alkali. (author)

  6. Resin regenerating device in condensate desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Hiroo; Oosumi, Katsumi; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Norikazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy in the separation of anionic and cationic exchange resins. Constitution: Resins transferred from a condensate desalting column are charged in a cationic exchange resin column. The temperature of water for separating and transferring the resins is measured by a temperature detector disposed in a purified water injection line, and water is adjusted to a suitable flow rate for the separation and transfer of the resins by an automatic flow rate control valve, and then is injected. The resins are separated into cationic exchange resins and anionic exchange resins, in which only the anionic exchange resins are transferred, through an anionic exchange transfer line, into an anionic exchange resin column. By controlling the flow rate depending on the temperature of the injected water, the developing rate of the resin layer is made constant to enable separation and transfer of the resins at high accuracy. (Seki, T.)

  7. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  8. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  9. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  10. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies on regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography where the hydroxyl form of an anion exchange resin is equilibrated with boric acid solution containing mannitol as a complexing reagent. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. (author)

  11. The regeneration test of the secondary loop condensate polishing mixed bed resin in Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Meijing; Dong Liming

    1995-12-01

    There are four condensate polishing mixed beds in the water chemical treatment plant of Qinshan NPP. 2125 kg of D001-TR type cation exchange resin, 2000 kg of D201-TR type anion exchange resin, and 375 kg of S-TR type inert resin are filled into each mixed bed. The bed height of resin is 1.2 m and the volume is about 2.7 m 3 . In order to regenerate the exhausted resin out of the bed, the pre-designed condensate polishing mixed bed regeneration process was used to regenerate the first exhausted resin. After the resin was scrubbed and separated, cation resin and anion resin were respectively regenerated, rinsed to resume the exchange capability of the resin. The regenerated mixed bed is able to keep higher efficiency for condensate polishing. The outlet water quality and the resin service-life are able to meet the design requirements or more favorable than that. During the test, some main cations and anions in the blow-off water at each procedure were analyzed. The analyzed results were used to make pre-designed regeneration process better. The test results proved that pre-designed process is reasonable and effective. (6 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.)

  12. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs+ ions and their regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Chung, Won Yang

    2008-01-01

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs + ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs + ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs + ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs + ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe 2+ ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K + ion

  13. Embedding of radioactive wastes by thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, A.; Traxler, A.; Limongi, A.; Thiery, D.

    The process for embedding radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins perfected and applied at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Center and its application to the treatment of radioactive wastes from Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants (PWR and BWR) are presented. The various types of wastes are enumerated and their activities and quantities are estimated: evaporator concentrates, ion exchange resins, filtration sludges, filters, various solid wastes, etc. The authors review the orientations of the research performed and indicate, for each type of waste considered, the cycle of treatment operations from rendering the radioelements insoluble to drying the concentrates to final embedding. The operational safety of the process and the safety of transport and storage of the embedded wastes are investigated. The essential technical features concerning the safety of the installation and of the final product obtained are presented. In particular, results are presented from tests of resistance to fire, irradiation, leaching, etc., these being characteristics which represent safety criteria. The economic aspects of the process are considered by presenting the influences of the reduction of volume and weight of wastes to be stored, simplicity of installations and cost of primary materials

  14. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables

  15. Solidification of radioactive wastes with thermosetting resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Okamoto, O.; Kagawa, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Irie, H.; Matsuura, H.; Yasumura, K.; Nakayama, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Dried simulated radioactive wastes were solidified with thermosetting resin and their properties were investigated with laboratory scale and real scale products through extensive testings, such as mechanical resistance, resistance to leaching and swelling in water, radiation resistance, fire resistance and resistance to temperature cycling. The typical results were as follows: over 600 kg/cm 2 of compressive strength, diffusion constant of approx. 10 - 5 cm 2 /day for 137 Cs leaching from solidified waste products, no significant change was found for up to 5 x 10 8 RAD irradiation, and damages were limited to the surface of the products after the thermal test and dropping impact test. 7 figures, 4 tables

  16. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  17. Hot dewatering and resin encapsulation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, J.; Birch, D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the processes involved in the hot dewatering and encapsulation of alumino-ferric hydroxide floc in epoxide resin have been studied. Pretreatment of the floc to reduce resin attack and hydrolysis and to increase the dimensional stability of the solidified wasteform has been evaluated. It has been demonstrated that removal of ammonium nitrate from the floc and control of the residual water in the resin are important factors in ensuring dimensional stability of the solidified resin. Resin systems have been identified which, together with the appropriate waste pretreatment have successfully encapsulated a simulated magnox sludge producing a stable wasteform having mechanical and physical properties comparable with the basic resin. (author)

  18. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  19. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected

  20. Method of heat decomposition for chemical decontaminating resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To make resin wastes into non-deleterious state, discharge them into a resin waste storage tank of existent radioactive waste processing facility and store and dispose them. Constitution: In the processing of chemical decontaminating resin wastes, iron exchange resins adsorbing chemical decontaminating agents comprising a solution of citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and EDTA alone or as a mixture of them are heated to dry, thermally decomposed and then separated from the ion exchange resins. That is, the main ingredients of the chemical decontaminating agents are heat-decomposed when heated and dried at about 250 deg C in air and converted into non-toxic gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 or H 2 O. Further, since combustion or carbonization of the basic materials for the resin is not caused at such a level of temperature, the resin wastes removed with organic acid and chelating agents are transferred to an existent resin waste storage tank and stored therein. In this way, facility cost and radiation exposure can remarkably be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Saturated Resin Ectopic Regeneration by Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Hao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes are some of the most refractory organic compounds in the environment due to their complex and various structure. An integrated resin adsorption/Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma regeneration was proposed to treat the indigo carmine solution. It is the first time to report ectopic regeneration of the saturated resins by non-thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The adsorption/desorption efficiency, surface functional groups, structural properties, regeneration efficiency, and the intermediate products between gas and liquid phase before and after treatment were investigated. The results showed that DBD plasma could maintain the efficient adsorption performance of resins while degrading the indigo carmine adsorbed by resins. The degradation rate of indigo carmine reached 88% and the regeneration efficiency (RE can be maintained above 85% after multi-successive regeneration cycles. The indigo carmine contaminants were decomposed by a variety of reactive radicals leading to fracture of exocyclic C=C bond, which could cause decoloration of dye solution. Based on above results, a possible degradation pathway for the indigo carmine by resin adsorption/DBD plasma treatment was proposed.

  2. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu; Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.)

  3. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro

    1995-11-07

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.).

  4. Organic resin anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; McGinnes, D.F.

    1988-07-01

    Organic anion exchange resins are evaluated for 99-TcO 4 - (pertechnate) removed from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal and radiation stabilities were studied. Selected resins were examined in detail for their selectivities in the presence of I - , NO 3 - , SO 4 = , CO 3 = , Cl - and OH - . Ion exchange equilibria and kinetic mechanisms were determined. Preliminary investigations of cement encapsulation in polymer modified form were made and some leach studies carried out. (author)

  5. Dilute chemical decontamination resins and the mixed waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denault, R.P.; Hallman, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The decontamination of reactor primary systems, sub-systems and components is an important method used to reduce the occupational radiation exposure of nuclear plant personnel. The waste produced by the application of this technology is mainly solid in the form of ion exchange resins. As a result of a recent agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), all radioactive waste must meet EPA burial criteria. The chemicals used in a decontamination and certain metals dissolved during the process, primarily chromium, could render the waste hazardous as well as radioactive or more commonly called a mixed waste. This paper defines mixed waste as described in the EPA directive 9432.00-2, and examine the criteria by which waste is categorized as hazardous. The decontamination waste resin generated by two processes, the CAN-DEREM and the LOMI process, is described in detail. Waste data obtained from decontaminations performed by LN Technologies Corporation including chemical, metal and radionuclide loadings on resins from both PWR and BWR applications are presented

  6. Conditioning radioactive wastes by means of thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auboing, G.; Limongi, A.; Thiery, D.

    1976-01-01

    The principle of the conditioning process of low and medium activity wastes by means of thermosetting resins is described. The two major phases of its application, viz: pre-treatment and coating are analysed. Finally as an example, the plant where this conditioning process is put into application (currently in operation at the Nuclear Study Center of Grenoble) is described [fr

  7. Encapsulation pilot plant of radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The thermosetting resins (polyesters, epoxides) are used to encapsulate the low and intermediate - level radioactive wastes. The testing program concerning the drums produced by the pilot plant of the Chooz nuclear power plant is described. The installation operating is examined while thinking of the industrial application. The production costs are then evaluated

  8. Processing ix spent resin waste for C-14 isotope recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F. H.; Woodall, K. B.; Sood, S. K.; Vogt, H. K.; Krochmainek, L. S.

    1991-01-01

    A process developed at Ontario Hydro for recovering carbon-14 (C-14) from spent ion exchange resin wastes is described. Carbon-14 is an undesirable by-product of CANDU 1 nuclear reactor operation. It has an extremely long (5730 years) half-life and can cause dosage to inhabitants by contact, inhalation, or through the food cycle via photosynthesis. Release of carbon-14 to the environment must be minimized. Presently, all the C-14 produced in the Moderator and Primary Heat Transport (PHT) systems of the reactor is effectively removed by the respective ion exchange columns, and the spent ion exchange resins are stored in suitably engineered concrete structures. Because of the large volumes of spent resin waste generated each year this method of disposal by long term storage tends to be uneconomical; and may also be unsatisfactory considering the long half-life of the C-14. However, purified C-14 is a valuable commercial product for medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and organic chemistry research. Currently, commercial C-14 is made artificially in research reactors by irradiating aluminum nitride targets for 4.5 years. If the C-14 containing resin waste can be used to reduce this unnecessary production of C-14, the total global build-up of this radioactive chemical can be reduced. There is much incentive in removing the C-14 from the resin waste to reduce the volume of C-14 waste, and also in purifying the recovered C-14 to supply the commercial market. The process developed by Ontario Hydro consists of three main steps: C-14 removal from spent resins, enrichment of recovered C-14, and preparation of final product. Components of the process have been successfully tested at Ontario Hydro's Research Division, but the integration of the process is yet to be demonstrated. A pilot scale plant capable of processing 4 m 3 of spent resins annually is being planned for demonstrating the technology. The measured C-14 activity levels on the spent resins ranged from 47

  9. New ion exchange resin designs and regeneration procedures yield improved performance for various condensate polishing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmy, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    Condensate polishing is an application with many different design and operational aspects. The past decade has brought new challenges for improved water quality with respect to both soluble and insoluble contaminants. Nonetheless, the endeavors to understand the compositional complexities of the ion exchange resin bead and the convoluted dynamics of ion exchange chemistry and chemical engineering mechanisms occurring within the mixed bed condensate polisher have brought new ideas and expectations for ion exchange resin in deep-bed condensate polishers than ever before. The new products and procedures presented here are a collaboration of a great deal of effort on the part of researchers, consultants, system engineers, station chemists, lab technicians and others. The studies discussed in this paper unequivocally demonstrate the merits of: 1. A specially designed cation resin to achieve greater than 95% insoluble iron removal efficiency, 2. A less-separable mixed resin for improved control of reactor water sulfate in BWR primary cycles, 3. Applying increased levels of regeneration chemicals and retrofitting the service vessels with re-mixing capability to improve the operation of deep-bed condensate polishers in PWR secondary cycles. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs{sup +} ions and their regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Won Yang [Kangwon University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs{sup +} ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs{sup +} ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs{sup +} ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs{sup +} ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe{sup 2+} ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K{sup +} ion.

  11. A basic study for the boron thermal regeneration system using anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantiesek, P.; Kotaka, Masahiro; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake.

    1979-01-01

    For the boron thermal regeneration system (BTRS), the basic characteristics of commercial anion exchange resin have been investigated on the swelling characteristics, absorption, desorption and temperature coefficient of exchange capacity for boric acid. The equilibrium capacity increases as decrease of temperature and depends strongly on the degrees of cross linking having a maximum point at about 7% of DVB. The temperature coefficient of equilibrium capacity of boric acid is also a function of the concentration of external solution and of the cross linking having a maximum point around 7% of DVB. (author)

  12. Application of nanoemulsions in the regeneration of adsorbent polymeric resins; Emprego de nanoemulsoes na regeneracao de resinas polimericas adsorvedoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Josane A.; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Vieira, Helida V.P.; Lucas, Elizabete F.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas. Lab. de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo], e-mails: josaneacosta@yahoo.com.br, yuregomes@ima.ufrj.br, elucas@ima.ufrj.br, celias@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the solbrax/water/polyoxyethylene nanoemulsions were produced under high pressure homogenizer (HPH). These systems presented droplets diameter ranging between 7 to 30 nm. The nanoemulsions were used in regeneration of a polymeric resin, which has been used in treatment of oily water. This resin was contaminated with different kinds of oils. The nanoemulsions presented high cleaning efficiency, above of 90% and its performance was higher than equivalent micellar systems. (author)

  13. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELsourougy, M R; Zaki, A A; Aly, H F [Atomic energy authority, hot laboratory center, Cairo, (Egypt); Khalil, M Y [Nuclear engineering department, Alexandria university. Alexandria, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELsourougy, M.R.; Zaki, A.A.; Aly, H.F.; Khalil, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins

  16. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laili, Zalina, E-mail: liena@nm.gov.my [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Wahab, Mohd Abdul [Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  17. Column adsorption of perchlorate by amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin and its biological, chemical regeneration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Xu, Xing; Tan, Xin; Wang, Yan; Ling, Jianya; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-01-22

    Column adsorption of perchlorate by amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin was investigated by considering the bed depth, stream flow rate and influent pH. The empty bed contact time (EBCT) increased with the growth of bed depths, meanwhile rising flow rate at constant bed depth (3.4 cm) decreased the breakthrough time. It was observed that perchlorate adsorption capacity was optimum at neutral condition (pH: 6.0, 170.4 mg/g), and decreased at acidic (pH: 3.0, 96.4 mg/g) or alkalic (pH: 12.0, 72.8 mg/g) influents. The predominant strains of the acclimated sludge for resin biological regeneration were the β-subclass of Proteobacteria. Biological regeneration of the saturated amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin with mixed bacteria have shown its merit with regeneration and biological perchlorate destruction simultaneously, although its regeneration efficiency was only 61.2-84.1% by contrast to chemical regeneration with efficiency more than 95%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 'Like new': plastic wastes regeneration by radiation induced grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Gaussens, G.; Lemaire, F.

    1978-01-01

    The reclaiming and the recycling of plastic wastes is made especially difficult when those wastes are a mixture of various plastics; this is due to the incompatibility of the polymers. The radiation induced grafting allows to overcome this incompatibility. Results are given which shows that, for various mixtures of reclaimed polyethylene, PVC and polystyrene, an improvement of the properties of the processed blends is obtained by grafting the mixtures of wastes by a suitable polymer; the obtained properties of those regenerated plastic blends are enough attractive from the technical point of view to open a market to those products with a reasonable economical value [fr

  19. Fixing of various simulated radioactive wastes in urea-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Dahai; Wei Peng

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of the fixing of a variety of simulated radioactive wastes in the urea-formaldehyde resin. The radioactive waste materials fixed include spent ion exchange resin, concentrates of NaNO 3 -NaBO 2 as well as NaBO 2 and sludge. The performance of the fixed products has been improved by means of selecting the synthetic conditions of resin, a suitable hardener and an inorganic additive

  20. Leaching test of bituminized waste and waste solidified by epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaka, Kazuyuki; Sugaya, Atsushi; Onizawa, Toshikazu; Takano, Yugo; Kimura, Yukihiko

    2008-10-01

    About 30,000 bituminized waste drums and about 1800 drums of waste solidified by epoxy resin, generated from Tokai Reprocessing Plant, were stored in storage facilities. And study for disposal of these waste is performed. It was considered that radioactive nuclides and chemical components were released from these waste by contact of underground water, when disposed there waste. This paper is reported that result of leaching tests for these waste, done from 2003 to 2006. We've get precious knowledge and data, as follows. (1) In leaching tests for bituminized waste, it has detected iodine-129 peak, considered difficult too low energy gamma to detect. We've get data and knowledge of iodine-129 behavior first. Leached radioactivity for 50 days calculated by peak area was equal for about 40% and 100% of including radioactivity in bituminized waste sample. And we've get data of behavior of nitric acid ion and so on, important to study for disposal, in various condition of sample shape or leaching liquid temperature. (2) In leaching test for waste solidified by epoxy resin, we've get data of behavior of TBP, radionuclides and so on, important to study for disposal. Leached TBP was equal about 1% of including of sample. And we've get data of iodine-129 behavior, too. It was confirmed that leached iodine-129 was equal for about 60% and 100% of including sample, for 90 days. (author)

  1. Treatment of Simulated Soil Decontamination Waste Solution by Ferrocyanide-Anion Exchange Resin Beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Min Gil; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Park, Jin Ho; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Preparation of ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin and adsorption test of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion were performed. Adsorption capability of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion in the simulated citric acid based soil decontamination waste solution was 4 times greater than that of the commercial cation exchange resin. Adsorption equilibrium of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion reached within 360 minutes. Adsorption capability on the Cs{sup -} ion became to decrease above the necessary Co{sup 2-} ion concentration in the experimental range. Recycling test of the spent ion exchange resin by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine was also performed. It was found that desorption of Cs{sup -} ion from the resin occurred to satisfy the electroneutrality condition without any degradation of the resin.

  2. Study on dehydrochlorination of waste poly (vinyl chloride) resins by microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Saburo; Qian, Qingrong; Sunohara, Satoshi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    Waste poly (vinyl chloride: PVC) resins are experimentally dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation. The following unique results are obtained: (1) plasticizer in PVC resin absorbs microwave power more effectively than PVC polymer. The higher the plasticizer content in PVC resin, the higher is the dehydrochlorination reaction (2) low PVC polymer content materials such as cushion floor require high microwave irradiation power to secure a high dehydrochlorination yield, (3) calcium carbonate in PVC resin reacts with released hydrochloric acid gas and results calcium chloride during microwave irradiation, (4) additives in PVC resin strongly influence dehydrochlorination yield, (5) it is evidenced that the PVC copolymer is also dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation.

  3. Destruction of organic wastes by ammonium peroxydisulfate with electrolytic regeneration of the oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, J.F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.

    1997-01-01

    Research is reported concerning a new aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes. This process uses acidified ammonium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at 80- to 100 degrees C. The oxidant may be efficiently regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by-product at Pt anodes, even in the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants expected to be entrained in the cycle. Integral rate constants were determined for the oxidation of 25 diverse organic compounds at low (50 ppm) concentrations through fixed-time experiments with excess oxidant and a Pt wire catalyst. For high initial concentrations, uncatalyzed mineralization rates were measured for waste surrogates including kerosene, triethylamine, ion exchange resin, oxalic acid, trinitrotoluene, and cellulose. A packed bed reactor was tested with ethylene glycol, with offgas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Rate data extrapolate to throughputs of approximately 200 kg/m 3 -day. The process may benefit the destruction of highly toxic or specialized industrial wastes as well as the organic fraction of mixed wastes

  4. Evaluating Residence Time for Cesium Removal from Simulated Hanford Tank Wastes Using SuperLig(R) 644 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    Batch contact and column experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of residence time on cesium (Cs) removal from two simulated Hanford tank wastes using SuperLig(R) 644 resin. The two waste simulants mimic the compositions of tanks 241-AZ-102 and 241-AN-107 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. A single column made of glass tube (2.7-cm i.d.), which contained approximately 100 mL of H-form SuperLig(R) 644 resin was used in the column experiments. The experiments each consisted of loading, elution, and regeneration steps were performed at flow rates ranging from 0.64 to 8.2 BV/h for AZ-102 and from 1.5 to 18 BV/h for AN-107 simulant. The lowest flow rates of 0.64 and 1.5 BV/h were selected to evaluate less than optimal flow conditions in the plant. The range of the flow rates is consistent with the River Protection Project design for the waste treatment plant (WTP) columns, which will operate at a flow rate between 1.5 to 3 BV/h. Batch contact experiments were also performed for two batches of SuperLig(R) 644 to determine the equilibrium distribution coefficients (Kds) as a function of Cs concentration

  5. Effect of ingredients in waste water on property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Junshu; Mu Tao; Zhang Wei; Yang Shengya

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ingredients in waste water on the property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment was studied by the method of static ad- sorption combined with dynamic experiment. The experimental result shows that the efficiency or breackthrough volume of resin is reduced if there are other general anions, triethanolamine and oil in the solution. When the concentrations of CO 3 2- , HCO 3 - , SO 3 2- , Cl - in the solution are more than 0.24, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.09 mol/L, respectively, the concentrations of uranium in the outlet waste water will exceed 20 μg/L. The maximal allowable concentration of triethanolamine through the resin is no more than 250 mg/L. When the content of oil in the resin exceeds 1%(by quality), the breackthrough volume reduces by 16%, and when it exceeds 11%, the breackthrough volume almost loses at all. (authors)

  6. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author) [pt

  7. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the study of simulated radwaste, spent ion-exchange resins, borates/evaporator-concentrates and animal ashes, in bituminized form, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidized bitumen were used for characterizing the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weight composition 30, 40, 50, 60% by weight the dry waste material. The asphaltine and parafin contents in the bitumens were determined. Some additives and clays were used aiming best characteristics of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were loaded with Cs 134 and mixtures of resins-bitumens were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. It was used a conventional screw-extruder, used in plastic industry, to determine operational conditions and process difficulties. Mixtures resins-bitumen and concentrate-bitumen in differents operational condition were prepared and analysed. (Author) [pt

  8. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Artificial Stone with Marble Calcite Waste and Epoxy Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fernanda Souza; Ribeiro, Carlos Eduardo Gomes; Rodriguez, Rubén Jesus Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    The incorporation of calcite marble waste in epoxy resin for the production of artificial stone can represent a technical-economical method and environmentally viable, reducing the amount of discarded residue in the environment, and adding economic value to marble waste and enabling the generation of jobs. The production of natural stone in Brazil recorded an exorbitant amount of waste generated in marble processing. Only 75% of marble taken from the deposits it becomes the finished product t...

  9. Experience with the incorporation of low and medium-level wastes in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubouin, G.; Hallier, P.; Bruand, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the experience gained in the packaging of low and medium-level radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins. A prototype workshop has been functioning in the Nuclear Research Centre at Grenoble since 1975. The wastes processed are evaporator concentrates and ion exchange resins. A pilot plant which has been built at the PWR power station in Chooz enables evaporator concentrates, ion-exchange resins and filter cartridges to be processed. In each case, the solidifying agent is based on a polyester or epoxy resin. The properties of the cured product (leaching rate, irradiation and fire resistance, and mechanical strength) are given. In order to widen the application of thermosetting resins, the containment of soluble radioactive salts has been studied. The use of this process for wastes arising from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations seems feasible. The coefficients of diffusion of radioactive elements through the thermosetting resins have been measured. Using them, the amounts of radioactivity released as a function of time have been calculated

  10. Literature search on the use of resins for treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMahamid, I.; Smith, B.M.

    1997-10-01

    Over 100 commercial providers with mixed-waste treatability capabilities exist in the US. The maturity level of these technologies varies from a bench scale to a pilot or a commercial scale. The techniques include deactivation, chemical oxidation, recovery of metals, stabilization, vitrification, incineration, biodegradation, and chemical extraction. This report focuses on the use of resins to remove actinides and heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Only the literature that described resins with high removing efficiency are presented here. The majority of the literature reviewed are proceedings and national or international reports ordered through the Berkeley Lab Library. Some of the reports that the authors requested have not yet arrived. Only a few papers were found in the open literature (journals or magazines). Although this report does not include all existing references, it provides an accurate assessment of efficient resins to be considered for waste minimization procedures. 70 refs

  11. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE's mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies

  12. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-07-07

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

  13. The management of spent resins at rad waste installation (RWI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan, Bahdir

    2002-01-01

    During years 2000 RWI has been managed 1.596 liters the spent resins from MPR, multipurpose reactor G.A. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS). The spent resins containing 6 0 C o, 1 37 C s and 8 9 S r. The immobilization of spent resins using Portland cement type I and sand in shell 950 liter has been carried out. The immobilization product quality was characterized by measurement of surface exposure, density, compression strength and leaching rate. The samples each being 3000 g are made by taking cement slurry from the 950 liter shell. The samples are molded in the form of cylinder of 50 mm diameter and height 50 mm. The density was determined by weighing and measuring sample's volume. The compression strength was determinate using P aul Weber a pparatus. The leaching rate by immerse of the samples in the demineralized water and the rate the contact surface dose measures using survey meter. The results show that the density ρ= (1,72 ± 0,01) s/d 1,73 ± 0,03) g.cm - 3 , the compression strength Γ= (20,10 ± 0,02 s/d 20,18 ± 0,02) N.mm - 2 , the leaching rate R n = (1,32x10 - 2 s /d 2,0x10 - 3 ) g.cm - 2 . h - 1 , the contact surface rate D 0 = (0,374 s/d 0,79) mrem.jam - 1 a nd 1m distance from the surface D 1 = (0,18 s/d 0,19) mrem.jam - 1 h ave been in compliance with the criteria recommended by IAEA the quality of spent resins concrete in shell 950 liters (number 22C to 27C) is qualified for ultimate disposal

  14. Leaching studies of radionuclides from solidified wastes with thermosetting resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Kuribayashi, H.; Morimitsu, W.; Ono, I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports on studies of the leachability of Co-60 and Cs-137 from simulated LWR radwastes solidified with thermosetting resin and evaluates the effects of chemical fixation on leachability. It is concluded that insolubilization by a nickel-ferrocyanide compound offers an effective chemical fixation of these radionuclides and is a recommended pretreating method for radwastes that are to be solidified. 2 figures

  15. Ion Exchange Modeling Of Cesium Removal From Hanford Waste Using Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2007-06-27

    This report discusses the expected performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline Hanford radioactive waste. Predictions of full scale column performance in a carousel mode are made for the Hot Commissioning, Envelope B, and Subsequent Operations waste compositions under nominal operating conditions and for perturbations from the nominal. Only the loading phase of the process cycle is addressed in this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests, kinetic experiments, and batch equilibrium experiments are used to estimate model parameters and to benchmark the ion-exchange model. The methodology and application presented in this report reflect the expected behavior of spherical RF resin manufactured at the intermediate-scale (i.e., approximately 100 gallon batch size; batch 5E-370/641). It is generally believed that scale-up to production-scale in resin manufacturing will result in similarly behaving resin batches whose chemical selectivity is unaffected while total capacity per gram of resin may vary some. As such, the full-scale facility predictions provided within this report should provide reasonable estimates of production-scale column performance.

  16. Solidification of radioactive liquid wastes. A comparison of treatment options for spent resins and concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.; Willmann, F.; Ebata, M.; Wendt, S.

    2008-01-01

    Ion exchange is one of the most common and effective treatment methods for liquid radioactive waste. However, spent ion exchange resins are considered to be problematic waste that in many cases require special approaches and pre-conditioning during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. Because of the function that they fulfill, spent ion exchange resins often contain high concentrations of radioactivity and pose special handling and treatment problems. Another very common method of liquid radioactive waste treatment and water cleaning is the evaporation or diaphragm filtration. Both treatment options offer a high volume reduction of the total volume of liquids treated but generate concentrates which contain high concentrations of radioactivity. Both mentioned waste streams, spent resins as well as concentrates, resulting from first step liquid radioactive waste treatment systems have to be conditioned in a suitable manner to achieve stable waste products for final disposal. The most common method of treatment of such waste streams is the solidification in a solid matrix with additional inactive material like cement, polymer etc. In the past good results have been achieved and the high concentration of radioactivity can be reduced by adding the inactive material. On the other hand, under the environment of limited space for interim storage and the absence of a final repository site, the built-up of additional volume has to be considered as very critical. Moreover, corrosive effects on cemented drums during long-term interim storage at the surface have raised doubts about the long-term stability of such waste products. In order to avoid such disadvantages solidification methods have been improved in order to get a well-defined product with a better load factor of wastes in the matrix. In a complete different approach, other technologies solidify the liquid radioactive wastes without adding of any inactive material by means of drying

  17. Towards reinforcement solutions for urban fibre/fabric waste using bio-based biodegradable resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pramod; Hermes, Alina; Bapeer, Solaf; Luiken, Anton; Bouwhuis, Gerrit; Brinks, Ger

    2017-10-01

    The main research question is how to systematically define and characterize urban textile waste and how to effectively utilise it to produce reinforcement(s) with selected bio-based biodegradable resin(s). Several composite samples have been produced utilising predominantly natural and predominantly synthetic fibres by combining loose fibres with PLA, nonwoven fabric with PLA, woven fabric with PLA, two-layer composite & four-layer composite samples. Physio-chemical characterisations according to the established standards have been conducted. The present work is a step toward the circular economy and closing the loop in textile value chain.

  18. OPG Western waste management facility resin overpacking project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, G.A.; Van de Bospoort, P.; Pearson, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Liners containing radioactive resins are stored in in-ground containers. Over time, degradation of the liners has occurred and there is potential for eventual leakage. The liners require overpacking in more robust packages to allow for extended storage and final placement in the Deep Geologic Repository. This paper will discuss the equipment design for safe venting, weather protection, radiation shielding, and remote handling of the liners. Alternative considerations and reasoning for final equipment design will be addressed. It will present issues encountered and how they were overcome as well as the logistical overview of the project, including milestones and time tables. (author)

  19. Design and manufacturing concrete cells for shielding and storing radioactive semi liquid waste (resin) from MPR-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudjijanto-MS; Bahdir-Johan

    2003-01-01

    Semi liquid or quasi solid waste on Multipurpose Reactor G.A. Siwabessy (MPR-GAS) produced from operating resin rinsing systems and resin disposal systems during changes insert trap resin. Volume of the disposal resin waste in the filter mixed-bed per operation rinsing period are approx. 1.00 m 3 (in the Primary Cooling Water Treatment System) with activity ∼ 18.6 Ci/m 3 (0.688 TBq/m 3 ), 0.50 m 3 (in the Radioisotope Storage Pool Water Treatment System) with activity approx ∼ 0.162 Ci/m 3 (5.99 x 10 3 MBq/m 3 ) and 0.50 m 3 (in the Interim Spent Fuel Storage Pool Water Treatment System) with activity ∼ 0.162 Ci/m 3 (5.99 x 10 3 MBq/m 3 ) respectively. On the discharging and unloading, the gross radioactivity concentration of the resin waste loaded in the disposal resin waste tank are approx. 10 Ci/m 3 (0.37 TBq/m 3 ). After 6 months delayed, this activity is still 0.32 Ci/m 3 (11.84 GBq/m 3 ). Based on this data, some concrete cells to storage resin waste as semi liquid or quasi solid waste produced continuously by MPR-GAS installation has been designed and manufactured eternally

  20. Carbon-14 behavior in a cement-dominated environment: Implications for spent CANDU resin waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Reardon, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    Cement based waste forms and concrete engineered barriers are expected to play a key role in providing 14 C waste containment and control 14 C migration for time periods commensurate with its hazardous life of about 50,000 years. The main thrust of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the performance of cement based waste forms with regard to 14 C containment. Of particular importance are the geochemical processes controlling 14 C solubility and release under anticipated cement dominated low and intermediate level waste repository conditions. Immobilization of carbonate-form exchange resin in grout involves transfer of sorbed 14 CO 3 2- ions, through exchange for hydroxyl ions from the grout slurry, followed by localized precipitation of solid calcium carbonate at the cement/resin interface in the grout matrix. Carbon-14 release behavior can be attributed to the dissolution characteristics and solubility of calcite present in the cement based waste form. The groundwater flow regime can exert a pronounced effect both on the near-field chemistry and the leaching behavior of 14 C. For a cement dominated repository, at relatively low-flow or stagnant groundwater conditions, the alkaline near-field chemical environments inhibits the release of 14 C from the cemented waste form. Under high flow conditions, the near-field environment is characterized by relatively neutral pH conditions which promote calcite dissolution, thus resulting in 14 C release from the waste form

  1. Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Wayne D. Shepperd; John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    There are basically two approaches to regenerating aspen stands-sexual reproduction using seed, or vegetative regeneration by root suckering. In the West, root suckering is the most practical method. The advantage of having an existing, well established root system capable of producing numerous root suckers easily outweighs natural or artificial reforestation in the...

  2. Casting granular ion exchange resins with medium-active waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beijer, O.

    1980-01-01

    Medium active waste from nuclear power stations in Sweden is trapped in granular ion exchange resins. The resin is mixed with cement paste and cast in a concrete shell which is cubic and has an edge dimension of 1.2 m. In some cases the ion exchange cement mortar has cracked. The report presents laboratory sutdies of the properties of the ion exchange resin and the mortar. Also the leaching of the moulds has been investigated. It was shown that a mixture with a water cement ratio higher than about 0.5 swells considerably during the first weeks after casting. The diffusion constant for cesium 137 has been determined at 3.10 -4 cm 2 /24-hour period in conjunction with exposure of the mould and mortar to sea water. The Swedish language report has 400 pages with 90 figures and 30 tables. (author)

  3. Research on Recycling Mixed Wastes Based on Fiberglass and Organic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platon, M. A.; Ştef, M.; Popa, C.; Tiuc, A. E.; Nemeş, O.

    2018-06-01

    In recycling, according to principles of Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on waste, research is upheld for achieving innovative technologies for reuse and keep as long it is possible, in economic chain, a waste. The aim of this research is to study and test a new composite material based on fiberglass waste mixed with organic resins with large application in the industry but not limited to this. Fiberglass is a material widely used for reinforcement of composite materials. As waste, fiberglass was less studied for ways to be reused. Filling fiberglass mixed with organic resins as PMMA and epoxy resins possess proper physical features for thermoforming. Three mixes are studied: fiberglass with PMMA, fiberglass with PMMA and rubber granules or sawdust. Samples will be tested for to define the mechanical and chemical behavior to have a complete description of the material. Analyzing the results can be concluded that mixes are suitable for board production, with improved features, compared with equivalent products on the market.

  4. Study of phosphorous based resins for the uptake of plutonium from H2SO4 based analytical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, H.; Mohandas, Jaya; Srinivasan, S.; Kumar, T.; Rajan, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    This study indicates that phosphorous based resins can be conveniently employed for the uptake of plutonium from analytical wastes even in strong acid media and also in the presence of diverse ions like silver and chromium. It is also evident that phosphorous based resins have proved to be efficient even in sulphuric acid medium

  5. Viscosity calculations of simulated ion-exchange resin waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheon Woo; Park, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyung Ho; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae; BRUNELOT, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    An induction cold crucible melter (CCM) located in the NETEC-KEPCO has been used to vitrify simulated ion-exchange resin. During vitrification, the CCM operations were tightly constrained by glass viscosity as an important process parameter. Understanding the role of viscosity and quantifying viscosity is highly required in the determination of optimized feed formulations and in the selection of the processing temperature. Therefore, existing process models of glass viscosity based on a relationship between the glass composition, its structure polymerization, and the temperature were searched and adapted to our borosilicate glass systems. Calculated data using a viscosity model based on calculation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) were in good agreement with the measured viscosity data of benchmark glasses

  6. Use of a phenolic-carboxylic acid cation resin in the treatment of low-level liquid waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    The loading capacity of CS-100 resin, using plant waste as feed, was found to be significantly reduced after 20 loading-elution cycles; one-fourth or less of the original capacity was retained after 30 cycles. No important differences were noted between an untreated column and a column that had been reconverted to the sodium form in the regeneration step. Omission of the sodium regeneration could not be adopted as a routine procedure because it produced a packing effect in the plant beds; however, reconversion to the sodium form is now achieved by using a stoichiometric amount of caustic rather than a 100% excess, as was previous practice. Since the distribution coefficients for calcium and strontium are about six times greater than that for cesium, no loss of 90 Sr would be expected while 137 Cs is loading. Laboratory results obtained by using plant conditions and feed indicate that a typical bed would remove 96% of 90 Sr in the feed. Cobalt-60 is generally the greatest contributor to the radioactivity of the plant effluent. Laboratory tests indicate that this 60 Co is present as a mixture of a soluble anionic complex and insoluble colloids. The anionic complex could be removed by placing an anion exchange column in the effluent from the CS-100 resin bed. In studies of the dynamics of loading on CS-100 resin, the contact time in plant operation (3 to 4 min per column volume) was found to be more than adequate to obtain the desired results. Effects of flow velocity were not investigated. Data from a series of laboratory experiments show that CS-100 resin can be eluted satisfactorily with 0.5 to 1.0 M formic or acetic acid, although a larger volume is required than for elution with 0.5 M nitric acid

  7. ION EXCHANGE MODELING FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM HANFORD WASTE USING SUPERLIG 644 RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L

    2004-01-01

    The expected performance of a proposed ion exchange column using SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin for the removal of cesium from Hanford high level radioactive alkaline waste is discussed. This report represents a final report on the ability and knowledge with regard to modeling the Cesium-SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin ion exchange system. Only the loading phase of the cycle process is addressed within this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests and batch equilibrium experiments are addressed. The methodology employed and sensitivity analyses are also included (i.e., existing methodology employed is referenced to prior developmental efforts while updated methodology is discussed). Pilot-scale testing is not assessed since no pilot-scale testing was available at the time of this report. Column performance predictions are made considering three selected feed compositions under nominal operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses provided help to identify key parameters that aid in resin procurement acceptance criteria. The methodology and application presented within this report reflect the expected behavior of SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin manufactured at the production-scale (i.e, 250 gallon batch size level). The primary objective of this work was, through modeling and verification based on experimental assessments, to predict the cesium removal performance of SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin for application in the RPP pretreatment facility

  8. Solidification of radioactive liquid wastes, Treatment options for spent resins and concentrates - 16405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Ion exchange is one of the most common and effective treatment methods for liquid radioactive waste. However, spent ion exchange resins are considered to be problematic waste that in many cases require special approaches and pre-conditioning during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. Because of the function that they fulfill, spent ion exchange resins often contain high concentrations of radioactivity and pose special handling and treatment problems. Another very common method of liquid radioactive waste treatment and water cleaning is the evaporation or diaphragm filtration. Both treatment options offer a high volume reduction of the total volume of liquids treated but generate concentrates which contain high concentrations of radioactivity. Both mentioned waste streams, spent resins as well as concentrates, resulting from first step liquid radioactive waste treatment systems have to be conditioned in a suitable manner to achieve stable waste products for final disposal. Spent resin and concentrate treatment often appear as a specific task in decommissioning projects, because in the past those waste streams typically had been stored in tanks for the lifetime of the plant and needs to be retrieved, conditioned and packed prior to dismantling activities. Additionally a large amount of contaminated liquids will be generated by utilizing decontamination processes and needs to be processed further on. Such treatment options need to achieve waste products acceptable for final disposal, because due to the closure of the site no interim storage can be envisaged. The most common method of treatment of such waste streams is the solidification in a solid matrix with additional inactive material like cement, polymer etc. In the past good results have been achieved and the high concentration of radioactivity can be reduced by adding the inactive material. On the other hand, under the environment of limited space for interim storage and the absence

  9. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin for the Removal of Cesium from Hanford Tank Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, William

    2006-01-01

    This power-point presentation highlights that spherical RF continues to out-perform baseline technology (SuperLig(registered trademark)644) due to several factors: increased radiation stability from Cs Capacity perspective, outstanding hydraulic performance, and flammable gas generation being the same as the baseline technology. Actual waste testing at Pacific Northwest National Lab. is going well, and isotherm modeling is continuing at Savannah River National Lab. Regulatory analysis of spent resin is planned for early summer 2006

  10. Pre design processing of waste of ex-resin without materials matrix from nuclear power plant type PWR 1000 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerdas Tarigan

    2010-01-01

    Have been done pre design processing of waste ex-resin without capacities matrix materials from nuclear power plant type PWR 1000 MW During the time radioactive waste of ex-resin processed to use process of immobilization use matrix materials like mixture cement and epoxy resin and then conditioning. This process is not effective and efficient because end result volume of end product bigger than volume early operation system and maintenance of its installation more difficult. To overcome this created a design of technology processing of waste of ex- resin without matrix materials through process of strainer, drying and conditioning represent technological innovation newly processing of radioactive waste of ex-resin. Besides this process more effective and efficient, volume of end product waste much more small from volume early and operation system and maintenance of its easier installation. Pre design is expected to be used as a basis to make conceptual of pre design installation of strainer, drying and conditioning for the processing of waste of ex-resin from nuclear power plant type PWR 1000 MW. (author)

  11. Free Moisture in GT-73 Resin Waste Generated from the Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    Solid Waste Division is presently evaluating whether to transfer spent resin generated from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). One of the criteria for the waste to be accepted at the NTS is that the waste must not contain more than 1 vol-percent free liquid. This criterion reduces the amount of liquid, a primary vector for subsurface contaminant migration (along with colloids), introduced into the repository. This criterion also serves to reduce the chance of an accidental spill during transport of the waste to the NTS. On December 15, 1997, a shipment from Fernald to the NTS leaked some liquid waste onto a highway in Kingman, Arizona, resulting in a Type B Accident Investigation. The direct cause of the leak was attributed to broken welds related to the use of substandard containers. The overall objective of this study was to provide guidance as to whether the spent GT-73 resin would meet the free moisture WAC set by the NTS

  12. Cement matrix solidification of decontamination ion-exchange resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, N. S.; Hebditch, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Crossflow membrane separation has been evaluated as an alternative to more conventional separation methods for the removal of oil from nuclear power station aqueous effluents and liquid wastes. Three commercially available membranes were investigated at small pilot scale; sintered metal power and metal fibre membranes, both of tubular geometries, and hollow fibre polypropylene. The sintered powder membrane gave by far the best oil water separation performance. Less than 10 ppm oil in the aqueous permeate was readily achieved and the oil was concentrated up to 75% by volume from feed concentrations in the range 1000 ppm to 10%. The presence of solids was found to have a profound influence on permeation rates. On the basis of the data presented, a single stage scheme for the treatment of oily effluents is proposed

  13. Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerroui, Abdelhamid; Belhocine, Lydia; Ferroudj, Sonia

    2017-08-21

    A spent bleaching earth (SBE) from an edible oil refinery has been regenerated by thermal processing in oven, followed by washing with a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (1M). Optimal regeneration conditions have been controlled by decolorization tests of degummed and neutralized soybean oil. Optimal values of treatment (temperature 350°C, carbonization time 01 h, and HCl concentration 1M) gave a very efficient material. After bleaching oil by regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE), the chlorophyll-a and β-carotenes contained in crude edible oil and observed respectively at 430, 454, and 483 nm, value of λ max , are very much decreased. The results obtained after decolorization of edible oil by RSBE material indicate, that, during the process, the bleaching oil did not undergo any changes in the free fatty acid content. The peroxide value (PV) was reduced from 4.2 to 1.8 meq O 2 /kg, and the color has been improved (Lovibond color yellow/red: from 50/0.5 to 2.7/0.3, respectively). The RSBE material obtained was characterized by several techniques (FTIR, SEM). The results show that the heat treatment did not affect the mineral structure of RSBE, and the regenerated material recovered its porous structure.

  14. Development and testing of a method for coating metallic wastes by thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassigny, C. de

    1985-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear installations produces large-sized metallic components difficult to be compacted or to be inserted in the usual containers. The purpose of this study was to develop a coating procedure for low and medium activity wastes, in order to: - fix the contamination of the waste by a first appropriate layer; - protect this layer from mechanical shocks by a second thick layer; - reduce the diffusion of radionuclides. The study has proven the feasibility of depositing epoxy resins by electrostatic spraying in a nuclear environment on steel sub-strata with an efficiency higher than 95%; showing that it is possible to work in closed ventilated rooms without risk of clogging the filters. Two layers of epoxy resin are sufficient to fix contamination with a factor of 8600; their thickness (about 30 μm) nevertheless limits their use to this application. To reduce diffusion of radionuclides (Co-60 and Cs-137), polyurethane resins were chosen with which it is possible to obtain a thick coating in only a short time. Their properties of fixing the contamination, retaining of radionuclides and resistance to impact, have been assessed. First application of the procedure on a contaminated metallic bellow coming from dismantling of nuclear reactor, has been carried out

  15. Composting of waste paint sludge containing melamine resin as affected by nutrients and gypsum addition and microbial inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yongqiang; Chen Liming; Gao Lihong; Michel, Frederick C.; Wan Caixia; Li Yebo; Dick, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resins have hard and durable properties and are found in many products, including automobile paints. These resins contain high concentrations of nitrogen and, if properly composted, can yield valuable products. We evaluated the effects of starter compost, nutrients, gypsum and microbial inoculation on composting of paint sludge containing melamine resin. A bench-scale composting experiment was conducted at 55 °C for 91 days and then at 30 °C for an additional 56 days. After 91 days, the composts were inoculated with a mixed population of melamine-degrading microorganisms. Melamine resin degradation after the entire 147 days of composting varied between 73 and 95% for the treatments with inoculation of microorganisms compared to 55–74% for the treatments without inoculation. Degradation was also enhanced by nutrients and gypsum additions. Our results infer that large scale composting of melamine resins in paint sludge is possible. - Highlights: ► Melamine resin in waste paint sludges could be efficiently composted at bench scale. ► Melamine resin degradation after 147 days of composting was 73–95% complete. ► Nutrients, gypsum and melamine-degrading microorganisms increased composting rate. ► Melamine degradation products first increased and then decreased in the compost. ► Final compost was enriched in nitrogen and other essential plant nutrients. - Melamine resin in waste paint sludges was efficiently composted at bench scale, with finished composts having low levels of heavy metals and enriched in plant nutrients.

  16. Eichrom's ABEC trademark resins: Alkaline radioactive waste treatment, radiopharmaceutical, and potential hydrometallurgical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, A.H.; Gula, M.J.; Chang, F.; Rogers, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Eichrom's ABEC trademark resins selectivity extract certain anions from high ionic strength acidic, neutral, or strongly alkaline media, and solute stripping can be accomplished by eluting with water. ABEC resins are stable to pH extreme and radiolysis and operate in high ionic strength and/or alkaline solutions where anion-exchange is often ineffective. Potential applications of the ABEC materials include heavy metal and ReO 4 - separations in hydrometallurgy and purification of perrhenate iodide, and iodate in radiopharmaceutical production. Separation of 99m TcO 4 - from its 99 MoO 4 2- parent and stripping with water or physiological saline solution have been demonstrated for radiopharmaceutical applications. Removal of 99 TcO 4 - and 129 I - from alkaline tank wastes has also been successfully demonstrated. The authors will discuss the scale-up studies, process-scale testing, and market development of this new extraction material

  17. Ion exchange removal of cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates with SuperLigR 644 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; McCabe, D.J.; King, W.D.; Hamm, L.L.

    2002-01-01

    SuperLig R 644 ion exchange resin is currently being evaluated for cesium ( 137 Cs) removal from radioactive Hanford tank waste supernates as part of the River Protection Project. Testing was performed with actual Hanford tank wastes of widely different compositions using two identical ion exchange columns connected in series each containing approximately 5.5-6.5 ml of SuperLig R 644 resin. The ion exchange columns utilized the same resin material that was eluted between the column tests. This was done to demonstrate the performance of the SuperLig R 644 resin for cesium removal from waste samples of different compositions, determine the loading and elution profiles, and to validate design assumptions for full-scale column performances. Decontaminated product solutions generated at the same operating temperature and constant residence times (bed volumes per hour) exhibited the same chemical compositions as their feed samples. The compositions of eluate solutions were generally as expected with the exception of uranium and total organic carbon, which where concentrated by the resin. Development of a pretreatment method for the SuperLig R 644 resin has been critical to successful column operation with different waste solutions. (author)

  18. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Schulz, F. M.

    2013-07-01

    Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums. The corrosion rate of the steel in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins in the absence of contaminants or in the presence of 2.3 wt.% sulphate content remains low (less than 0.1 μm/year) during the whole period of the study (900 days). The presence of chloride ions increases the corrosion rate of the steel at the beginning of the exposure but, after 1 year, the corrosion rate drops abruptly reaching a value close to 0.1 μm/year. This is probably due to the lack of water to sustain the corrosion process. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years, it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. Cementation of ion-exchange resins does not seem to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums that contained them; even in the case the matrix is highly contaminated with chloride ions.

  19. Ontario Hydro Research Division's program for treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.; Dodd, D.J.R.

    1981-09-01

    A brief review of the evolution of work programmes for chemical treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in Ontario Hydro's Research Division is presented. Attention has been focussed on pre-treatment processes for the treatment of the spent resins prior to encapsulation of the products in solid matrices. Spent Resin Regeneration and Acid Stripping processes were considered in some detail. Particular attention was paid to carbon-14 on spent resins, its determination in and removal from the spent resins (with the acid stripping technique). The use of separate cation and anion resin beds instead of mixed bed resins was examined with a view to reducing the volume of resin usage and consequently the volume of waste radioactive ion-exchange resin generated. (author)

  20. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghattas, N K; Eskander, S B [Radioisotope dept., atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Cementation of secondary wastes generated from carbonisation of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-07-01

    The spent IX resins containing radioactive fission and activation products from power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Process for carbonization of IX resins to achieve weight and volume reduction has been optimized on 50 dm 3 /batch pilot test rig. The process generates carbonaceous residue, organic liquid condensates (predominantly styrene) and aqueous alkaline scrubber solutions as secondary wastes. The report discusses laboratory tests on leaching of 137 Cs from cement matrix incorporating carbonaceous residues and extrapolation of results to 200 liter matrix block. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from 200 liter cement matrix was estimated to be 0.0021 in 200 days and 0.0418 over a period of 30 years. Incorporation of organic liquid condensates into cement matrix has been tried out successfully. Thus two types of secondary wastes generated during carbonization of spent IX resins can be immobilized in cement matrix. (author)

  3. Separation of 99Tc from low level radioactive liquid waste using anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonar, N.L.; Mittal, V.K.; Dhara, Amrita; Thakur, D.A.; Valsala, T.P.; Vishwaraj, I.

    2016-01-01

    Technetium-99 is one of the fission products with very high yield (∼6%) in thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U. 99 Tc exists as pertechnate ( 99 TcO 4 ) ion in reprocessing streams. The high solubility in water and high mobility of pertechnate ions, coupled with very high half life of 99 Tc (t1/2 = 2 × 105 y, âmax = 290 KeV) makes it a potential candidate for long term hazard to the environment. Major radionuclides present in the intermediate level waste (ILW) generated at reprocessing plant is conventionally treated by ion exchange method for removal of 137 Cs. The Low level effluent waste (LLW) from the IX column contains 99 Tc as a major isotope. Though the concentration of 99 Tc in the waste is in ppm level, the presence of molar level of competing nitrates makes its separation very difficult. Many efforts have been reported on selective separation of 99 Tc from various waste streams. In this paper, separation of 99 Tc from ion exchange column effluent waste stream using selected commercially available anion exchange resins has been detailed

  4. Bio nitrate Project: a new technology for water nitrate elimination by means of ionic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano Ortiz, J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of ion exchange resins for nitrate elimination from water generates a waste containing a sodium chloride mixture plus the retained nitrates. this waste must be correctly disposed. In this project, the resin ionic form is modified to be regenerated with other compounds, different from the common salt, which are interesting because of the presence of mineral nutrition. So, with Bio nitrate Project, nitrates are recovered and the regeneration waste is apt to be use as fertilizer, for agricultural uses, or as complementary contribution of nutrients in biological water treatment. (Author) 27 refs.

  5. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-01-01

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit

  6. Cement waste form development for ion-exchange resins and fine particles ILW of AREVA La Hague Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.; Sanchez-Canet, J.; Avril, D.; Roussel, C.; Pineau, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Wastes have been temporarily stored in dedicated silos in La Hague reprocessing plant. These wastes are to be retrieved in the near future and to be conditioned for final disposal. Some of these wastes are supposed to be encapsulated in cement matrix and, depending on the chemical composition of the waste streams, several projects are presently ongoing. The present article aims to focus on one amongst these cement encapsulation relevant projects, namely the conditioning of a mix of spent ion-exchange resins (from filtration of pool) and fine particles (insoluble fission products from spent fuel dissolution and Zircaloy and stainless steel fines from cladding shearing). The project, aims to retrieve these wastes from a silo, separate the resins and fine particles from the other waste (hulls and end pieces), in order to encapsulate the intermediate-level fines and resins in a cement matrix. The waste forms will be produced in AREVA's La Hague reprocessing plant, prior to being sent as intermediate-level waste to a long-term repository. The cement formulation developments were initially carried out at a small scale at C.E.A. Marcoule on surrogate wastes. One of the main issues that were considered was the chemical compatibility between waste and cement matrix. Indeed, swelling phenomena are sometimes reported when ion exchange resins are embedded in cement matrixes such as Portland cement. This kind of destructive phenomenon has been prevented by the use of cement containing a high amount of ground granulated blast furnace slag. The impact of the variability of ionic charge of the resins on the waste form's properties has also been addressed in order to comfort the results obtained on the reference ionic charge of resins NaNO 3 . Once the results obtained were satisfactory, intermediate scale and full scale tests were performed by AREVA. These tests have focused on adjusting the mixing process and controlling the thermal properties of the mix during setting

  7. A metabolic link to skeletal muscle wasting and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René eKoopman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to its essential role in movement, insulating the internal organs, generating heat to maintain core body temperature, and acting as a major energy storage depot, any impairment to skeletal muscle structure and function may lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality. In the context of skeletal muscle, altered metabolism is directly associated with numerous pathologies and disorders, including diabetes, and obesity, while many skeletal muscle pathologies have secondary changes in metabolism, including cancer cachexia, sarcopenia and the muscular dystrophies. Furthermore, the importance of cellular metabolism in the regulation of skeletal muscle stem cells is beginning to receive significant attention. Thus, it is clear that skeletal muscle metabolism is intricately linked to the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and regeneration. The aim of this review is to discuss some of the recent findings linking a change in metabolism to changes in skeletal muscle mass, as well as describing some of the recent studies in developmental, cancer and stem-cell biology that have identified a role for cellular metabolism in the regulation of stem cell function, a process termed ‘metabolic reprogramming’.

  8. Utilization of cotton waste for regenerated cellulose fibres: Influence of degree of polymerization on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Rasike; Byrne, Nolene

    2017-10-15

    Cotton accounts for 30% of total fibre production worldwide with over 50% of cotton being used for apparel. In the process from cotton bud to finished textile product many steps are required, and significant cotton waste is generated. Typically only 30% of pre consumer cotton is recycled. Here we use cotton waste lint to produce regenerated cellulose fibres (RCF). We find the RCF from waste cotton lint had increased mechanical properties compared to RCF produced from wood pulp. We show that this is likely linked to the higher degree of polymerization (DP) of waste cotton lint. An ionic liquid is used to dissolve the cotton lint and the rheology of the spinning is measured. The properties of the RCF are characterized and compared to wood pulp RCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective recovery of a pyridine derivative from an aqueous waste stream containing acetic acid and succinonitrile with solvent impregnated resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, J.; Visser, T.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Solvent impregnated resins (SIRs) were evaluated for the recovery of pyridine derivatives from an aqueous waste-stream containing also acetic acid and succinonitrile. For this purpose, a new solvent was developed, synthesized and impregnated in Amberlite XAD4. Sorption studies were used to determine

  10. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  11. A new technology for separation and recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by dissolving bromine epoxy resins using ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.Y.; Qian, G.Y.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► WPCBs were heated in [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] for recovering solider at 240 °C. ► The bromine epoxy resins in WPCBs were all dissolved in [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] at 260 °C. ► Used [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] is treated by water to obtain regeneration. - Abstract: Recovery of valuable materials from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is quite difficult because WPCBs is a heterogeneous mixture of polymer materials, glass fibers, and metals. In this study, WPCBs was treated using ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ]). Experimental results showed that the separation of the solders went to completion, and electronic components (ECs) were removed in WPCBs when [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] solution containing WPCBs was heated to 240 °C. Meanwhile, metallographic observations verified that the WPCBs had an initial delamination. When the temperature increased to 260 °C, the separation of the WPCBs went to completion, and coppers and glass fibers were obtained. The used [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] was treated by water to generate a solid–liquid suspension, which was separated completely to obtain solid residues by filtration. Thermal analyses combined with infrared ray spectra (IR) observed that the solid residues were bromine epoxy resins. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) showed that hydrogen bond played an important role for [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] dissolving bromine epoxy resins. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to recycle valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent environmental pollution from WPCBs effectively.

  12. Structure, mechanical and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin and dental ceramic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Rodríguez, G.; Martínez Maldonado, L.; Dulce Moreno, H. J.

    2016-02-01

    The tensile strength and bending strength, structure and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin (P-2000) and powders (ASTM sieve 200, dental ceramic wastes (dentals impressions, alginate and gypsum) was reported. The samples consisted of mixtures with percentage weights of 50-50%, 60-40%, 70-30%, 80-20%, 90-10%, where the resin was the majority phase, the Mekc (4% wt) was used as catalyst. The structure was studied using SEM and XRD, the thermal behaviour using DSC, TGA and DMA, while the mechanical strength was tested using standards ASTM D790 and D638. Irregular morphology and presence of small agglomerations was observed, with particle sizes between 29.63 and 38.67μm, the presence of different phases of calcium sulphate was found, and that to the increasing the concentration of the powder, the materials becomes more crystalline, increasing its density. An average service temperature of 69.15±4.60°C was found. Vickers hardness values are reported in ranges from 18.65 to 27.96. Considering the elastic modules was established that the materials become more rigid by having more powder concentration.

  13. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of phenolic resin containing waste streams to sequentially recover monomers and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.

    1992-08-04

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a waste phenolic resin containing feedstreams in a manner such that pyrolysis of said resins and a given high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolyses of the resins in other monomeric components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said resin and a given high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other monomeric components; selecting, if desired, a catalyst and a support and treating said feedstreams with said catalyst to effect acid or basic catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said first temperature program range to utilize reactive gases such as oxygen and steam in the pyrolysis process to drive the production of specific products; differentially heating said feedstreams at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantity of said high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other monomeric components therein; separating said high value monomeric constituent; selecting a second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said phenolic resins waste and differentially heating said feedstreams at said higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said different high value monomeric constituent; and separating said different high value monomeric constituent. 11 figs.

  14. French processes for waste embedding. The use of epoxy resin for waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, X.; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The low- and medium-level wastes generated by nuclear facilities when operating as well as during their decommissioning (dismantling, decontamination, etc.) are embedded for the purpose of obtaining a product suitable for disposal. Due to the varieties of waste produced, it was necessary to resort to multi-purpose techniques to solve problems relating to their embedding. The process for waste embedding in thermosetting polymer (polyester, epoxy) developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and its subsidiary TECHNICATOME is easy to operate and yields excellent results having regard to volume reduction and containment of radioisotopes (particularly caesium). The industrial development of this process has led to the design of small, flexible, fixed or mobile, embedding stations. Examples illustrating the increasing use of this process during facility dismantling are described

  15. Regeneration and localization of radioactive waste in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, N.N.; Kudryavtsev, E.G.; Nikipelov, B.V.; Polyakov, A.S.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Mamaev, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Normal functioning of the nuclear-power industry is only possible with a closed fuel cycle, including regeneration of the spent fuel from atomic power plants, the production and recycling of the secondary fuel, and localization of the radioactive waste. Despite the diversity of contemporary attitudes toward the structure of the nuclear fuel cycle around the world, the closure of the fuel cycle has been fundamental to the atomic-power industry in the USSR since the very beginning, and has taken on even greater significance in Russia today. From the beginning, the idea of a closed fuel cycle has been based essentially on one fundamental criterion: the concept of expanded productivity on the basis of fuel regeneration, i.e., the economic factor. Important as economic factors are, safety issues have taken on great significance in recent years: not only power-station reactors but all the ancillary stages of the fuel cycle must meet fundamentally new reliability, safety, and environmental hazards. The RT-1 plant is a versatile operation, regenerating spent fuel from VVER-440, BN-350, and BN-600 reactors, nuclear icebreakers and submarines, research reactors, and other power units. The plant can reprocess 400 ton/year of basic VVER-440 fuel. World-class modern processes have been introduced at the plant, meeting the necessary quality standards: zonal planning, remote operation to eliminate direct contact of the staff with radioactive material, extensive monitoring and control systems, multistage gas-purification systems, and new waste-treatment methods

  16. Physico-Chemical Studies Involving Incorporation of Radioactive and Industrial Waste In Cement-Epoxy Resin Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M.S.; Hafez, N.

    1999-01-01

    Cement and epoxy resin as chemical additives are proposed to incorporate different types of wastes. The study was extended to prepare different mixtures of cement and epoxy resin in presence of some toxic ions. The studied ions were Cd II, Ni II, Cu II, Fe III, Ce IV, 154+152 Eu, phenol and toluene. The physical, mechanical and leaching properties of the mixtures were studied. The thermal analysis and infrared spectra were also investigated. It was observed that all the studied properties of the epoxy modified cement as a disposal matrix was improved

  17. Chemical derivatization to enhance chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this task is to develop modified resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to improve the chemical/oxidative stability of the resin. R-F resin is a regenerable organic ion-exchange resin that is selective for cesium ion in highly alkaline, high ionic-strength solutions. R-F resin tends to undergo chemical degradation, reducing its ability to remove cesium ion from waste solutions; the mechanistic details of these decomposition reactions are currently unknown. The approach used for this task is chemical modification of the resin structure, particularly the resorcinol ring unit of the polymer resin. This approach is based on prior characterization studies conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that indicated the facile chemical degradation of the resin is oxidation of the resorcinol ring to the para-quinone structure, with subsequent loss of ion-exchange sites for cesium ion. R-F resin represents an important alternative to current radiocesium remediation technology for tank wastes at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites, particularly if regenerable resins are needed.

  18. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange for separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penwell, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. The flowsheet also discusses process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs associated with the ion exchange process. It is expected that this flowsheet will evolve as open issues are resolved and progress is made on development needs. This is part of the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. 26 refs, 6 figs, 25 tabs

  19. Management of regenerant effluent waste at reprocessing plant, Tarapur- a new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Munish; Bajpai, D D; Mudaiya, Avinash; Varadarajan, N [Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant, Tarapur (India)

    1994-06-01

    Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing (PREFRE) Plant, Tarapur has been processing zircaloy clad spent fuel arising from PHWR namely RAPS and MAPS. The plant has been provided with a water pool to receive and store the irradiated fuel assemblies from the reactor site for an interim period before they are taken up for chop-leach and further reprocessing by PUREX process. This paper highlights the important and innovative modifications like introduction of a cation exchanger for water polishing and using nitric acid as regenerant. The regenerant effluent (nitric acid) is recycled to the main process cells where it is mixed and further treated along with process waste stream. This is a step towards minimising effluent generation. The paper describes the advantages of modified system like operational simplification, manpower, man-rem saving and minimising release of activity to environment. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Deactivation and regeneration of ZSM-5 zeolite in catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, A.; Marco, I. de; Caballero, B.M.; Adrados, A.; Laresgoiti, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pyrolysis transforms plastic wastes in valuable liquids and gases useful as fuels or source of chemicals. → The use of ZSM-5 zeolite in pyrolysis favours the production of gases and of lighter and more aromatic liquids. → ZSM-5 zeolite is almost completely deactivated after one plastics pyrolysis experiment. → ZSM-5 zeolite used in plastic wastes pyrolysis can be regenerated by burning the deposited coke in an air stream. → Regenerated ZSM-5 recovers its activity and produces liquids and gases equivalent to those obtained with fresh catalyst. - Abstract: In this work, a study of the regeneration and reuse of ZSM-5 zeolite in the pyrolysis of a plastic mixture has been carried out in a semi-batch reactor at 440 deg. C. The results have been compared with those obtained with fresh-catalyst and in non-catalytic experiments with the same conditions. The use of fresh catalyst produces a significant change in both the pyrolysis yields and the properties of the liquids and gases obtained. Gases more rich in C3-C4 and H 2 are produced, as well as lower quantities of aromatic liquids if compared with those obtained in thermal decomposition. The authors have proved that after one pyrolysis experiment the zeolite loses quite a lot of its activity, which is reflected in both the yields and the products quality; however, this deactivation was found to be reversible since after regeneration heating at 550 deg. C in oxygen atmosphere, this catalyst recovered its initial activity, generating similar products and in equivalent proportions as those obtained with fresh catalyst.

  1. Merger of waste of lead in polyester resin for application of protection barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla; Paredes, Ramon Siguifredo Cortes

    2010-01-01

    This paper's main objective is the use of powdered lead waste obtained from the recycling of batteries embedded in polyester resin to be used as a protective barrier in environments subject to radiation. The aim is to enable a more economical procedure which is faster and more practical for use in walls where it is necessary to use protective barrier. This justification is reinforced having in sight the use of byproducts generated by industries, recycling them and using them as components in the development of barriers against ionizing radiation. In this study, we observed the morphological and physical-chemical properties of isolated and associated materials and performance analysis of the composite with respect to the attenuation properties for gamma rays, by means of experimental tests. For mixtures with 40% of waste lead, value referenced in mass, we obtained satisfactory results on the screen. Thus, we were able to combine the good performance of the composite with the reduction of environmental liabilities, in view of the recycling process of lead. (author)

  2. Plastic solidification method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshihide; Inakuma, Masahiko.

    1992-01-01

    Condensed liquid wastes in radioactive wastes are formed by mixing and condensing several kinds of liquid wastes such as liquid wastes upon regeneration of ion exchange resins, floor draining liquid wastes and equipment draining liquid wastes. Accordingly, various materials are contained, and it is found that polymerization reaction of plastics is inhibited especially when reductive material, such as sodium nitrite is present. Then, in the present invention, upon mixing thermosetting resins to radioactive wastes containing reducing materials, an alkaline material is admixed to an unstaturated polyester resin. This can inactivate the terminal groups of unsaturated polyester chain, to prevent the dissociation of the reducing agent such as sodium nitrite. Further, if an unsaturated polyester resin of low acid value and a polymerization initiator for high temperature are used in addition to the alkaline material, the effect is further enhanced, thereby enabling to obtain a strong plastic solidification products. (T.M.)

  3. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Severe deactivation was observed for industrially aged catalysts used in waste incineration plants and tested in lab-scale. Possible compounds that cause deactivation of these Pt-based CO oxidation catalysts have been studied. Kinetic observations of industrial and model catalysts showed...... that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H-2/N-2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore...... the activity of the deactivated catalysts. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Destruction of Ion-Exchange Resin In Waste From the HFIR, T1 and T2 Tanks Using Fenton's Reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The use of Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous iron catalyst) has been tested as a method for destroying ion-exchange resin in radioactive waste from three underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The resin in these wastes must be destroyed before they can be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) prior to solidification and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The reaction with ion-exchange resin requires a dilute acidic solution (pH = 3 to 5) and moderate temperatures (T = 60 to 100 C). Laboratory-scale tests of the process have been successfully completed using both simulants and actual waste samples. The ion-exchange resin is oxidized to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts. The reaction rate is quite slow for temperatures below 70 C but increases almost linearly as the temperature of the slurry increases from 70 to 90 C. Pilot-scale tests have demonstrated the process using larger samples of actual waste slurries. A sample from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) tank, containing 500 mL of settled solids (resin and inorganic sludge) in a total volume of 1800 mL, was successfully treated to meet MVST waste acceptance requirements in 9 h of processing time, using 1650 mL of 50 wt% hydrogen peroxide. A composite sample from the T1 and T2 tanks, which contained 1000 mL of settled solids in a total volume of 2000 mL required 8 h of treatment, using 1540 mL of 50 wt% peroxide, to meet waste acceptance requirements. Hydrogen peroxide reaction rates were 0.71 to 0.74 g H 2 O 2 /L/min, with very low (<2000 mg/L) concentrations of peroxide in the slurry. The reaction produces mostly carbon dioxide gas during the early part of the treatment, when organic carbon concentrations in the slurry are high, and then produces increasing amounts of oxygen as the organic carbon concentration drops. Small amounts (<3 vol%) of carbon monoxide are also generated. The off-gas from the pilot-scale tests, which was 81 vol

  5. Regeneration of Waste Edible Oil by the Use of Virgin and Calcined Magnesium Hydroxide as Adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared virgin (S, L) and calcined (S-380, S-1000, L-380, L-1000) magnesium hydroxide for regeneration of waste edible oil. Deterioration of soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and olive oil was achieved by heat and aeration treatment. The properties of the different adsorbents were investigated using specific surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and surface pH measurement. Moreover, the relationship between the changes in acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) and the adsorbent properties were evaluated. The specific surface areas of S-380 and L-380 were greater than that of other adsorbents. In addition, the XRD results show that S-380 and L-380 contain both magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide structures. The decreases in AV and CV using S-380 and L-380 were greater than achieved using other adsorbents. The correlation coefficients between the decrease in AV and CV and specific surface area were 0.947 for soybean oil, 0.649 for rapeseed oil, and 0.773 for olive oil, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that a physical property of the adsorbent, namely specific surface area, was primarily responsible for the observed decreases in AV and CV. Overall, the results suggest that S-380 and L-380 are useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  6. Experience in industrial operation of the plant for immobilizing radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins at the Ardennes Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.; Romestain, P.; Bruant, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has developed, at the Grenoble Centre for Nuclear Studies, a procedure for immobilizing low- and intermediate-level wastes in thermosetting resins of the polyester or epoxy types. To demonstrate feasibility on an industrial scale, a pilot plant has been set up at the effluent treatment station of the Ardennes Franco-Belgium Nuclear Power Station (SENA), which is a 305 MW(e) PWR type. Assembly work began in January 1979. After a period devoted to final adjustments and operation with inactive products, conditioning of active products began in January 1981. In the paper, the methods of conditioning the three types of waste (evaporation concentrates, ion exchange resins and filter cartridges) are described, experience of the start-up and operation of the plant is reported and the principal results of coating characterization tests are given. The results of tests on active and inactive products show that the characteristics of the materials obtained on an industrial scale match those of laboratory products and confirm their high quality with regard to mechanical behaviour, fire resistance, homogeneity and low-leachability. Industrial experience and economic comparisons show that the process of immobilizing waste from nuclear power stations in thermosetting resins offers an extremely interesting alternative to classical methods of conditioning. (author)

  7. Regeneration of pilot-scale ion exchange columns for hexavalent chromium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korak, Julie A; Huggins, Richard; Arias-Paic, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    Due to stricter regulations, some drinking water utilities must implement additional treatment processes to meet potable water standards for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), such as the California limit of 10 μg/L. Strong base anion exchange is effective for Cr(VI) removal, but efficient resin regeneration and waste minimization are important for operational, economic and environmental considerations. This study compared multiple regeneration methods on pilot-scale columns on the basis of regeneration efficiency, waste production and salt usage. A conventional 1-Stage regeneration using 2 N sodium chloride (NaCl) was compared to 1) a 2-Stage process with 0.2 N NaCl followed by 2 N NaCl and 2) a mixed regenerant solution with 2 N NaCl and 0.2 N sodium bicarbonate. All methods eluted similar cumulative amounts of chromium with 2 N NaCl. The 2-Stage process eluted an additional 20-30% of chromium in the 0.2 N fraction, but total resin capacity is unaffected if this fraction is recycled to the ion exchange headworks. The 2-Stage approach selectively eluted bicarbonate and sulfate with 0.2 N NaCl before regeneration using 2 N NaCl. Regeneration approach impacted the elution efficiency of both uranium and vanadium. Regeneration without co-eluting sulfate and bicarbonate led to incomplete uranium elution and potential formation of insoluble uranium hydroxides that could lead to long-term resin fouling, decreased capacity and render the resin a low-level radioactive solid waste. Partial vanadium elution occurred during regeneration due to co-eluting sulfate suppressing vanadium release. Waste production and salt usage were comparable for the 1- and 2-Stage regeneration processes with similar operational setpoints with respect to chromium or nitrate elution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. On-site Destruction of Radioactive Oily Wastes Using Adsorption Coupled with Electrochemical Regeneration - 12221

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.W. [Arvia Technology Ltd, Daresbury Innovation Centre, Daresbury, WA4 4FS (United Kingdom); Wickenden, D.A. [Magnox Ltd, Berkeley Centre, Gloucestershire, GL13 9PB (United Kingdom); Roberts, E.P.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Arvia{sup R}, working with Magnox Ltd, has developed the technology of adsorption coupled with electrochemical regeneration for the degradation of orphan radioactive oil wastes. The process results in the complete destruction of the organic phase where the radioactivity is transferred to liquid and solid secondary wastes that can then be processed using existing authorised on-site waste-treatment facilities.. Following on from successful laboratory and pilot scale trials, a full scale, site based demonstrator unit was commissioned at the Magnox Trawsfynydd decommissioning site to destroy 10 l of LLW and ILW radioactive oils. Over 99% of the emulsified oil was removed and destroyed with the majority of activity (80 - 90%) being transferred to the aqueous phase. Secondary wastes were disposed of via existing routes with the majority being disposed of via the sites active effluent treatment plant. The regeneration energy required to destroy a litre of oil was 42.5 kWh/l oil. This on-site treatment approach eliminates the risks and cost associated with transporting the active waste oils off site for incineration or other treatment. The Arvia{sup R} process of adsorption coupled with electrochemical regeneration has successfully demonstrated the removal and destruction of LLW and ILW radioactive oils on a nuclear site. Over 99.9% of the emulsified oil was removed, with the majority of the radioactive species transferred to the aqueous, supernate, phase (typically 80 - 90 %). The exception to this is Cs-137 which appears to be more evenly distributed, with 43% associated with the liquid phase and 33 % with the Nyex, the remainder associated with the electrode bed. The situation with Plutonium may be similar, but this requires confirmation, hence further work is underway to understand the full nature of the electrode bed radioactive burden and its distribution within the body of the electrodes. - Tritium gaseous discharges were negligible; hence no off-gas treatment

  9. Application of titanates, niobates, and tantalates to neutralized defense waste decontamination: materials properties, physical forms, and regeneration techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the application of sodium titanate (ST) to the decontamination of neutralized defense waste has been completed. The work was directed at Sr removal from dissolved salt cake, simulated in this work with a 6.0 N NaNO 3 - 0.6 N NaOH solution. Three physical forms of the titanates were developed including powder, pellets, and titanate-loaded resin beads and all were found to be superior to conventional organic ion exchange in this application. When spent, the titanate materials can be calcined to an oxide from which is a stable waste form in itself or can be added directly to a glass melter to become part of a vitrified waste form. Radiation stability of titanate powder and resin forms was assessed in tests in which these materials were exposed to 60 Co radiation. The strontium exchange capacity of the powder remained constant through a dose of 3 x 10 7 rads and retained 50% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The primary mechanism involved in loss of capacity was believed to be heating associated with the irradiation. The resin forms were unchanged through a dose of 5 x 10 8 rads and retained 30% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The latter dose resulted in visible degradation of the resin matrix. Anion exchange resins loaded with sodium niobate and sodium tantalate were also prepared by similar methods and evaluated for this application. These materials had Sr sorption properties comparable to the titanate material; however, they would have to provide a significant improvement to justify their higher cost

  10. Removal of cesium from aluminum decladding wastes generated in irradiated target processing using a fixed-bed column of resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunson, R.R.; Williams, D.F.; Bond, W.D.; Benker, D.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, E.D.

    1994-09-01

    The removal of cesium (Cs) from a low-level liquid waste (LLLW) with a cation-exchange column was demonstrated using a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin. The RF resin was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and is highly specific for the removal of Cs from an alkaline waste of high sodium content. It was determined that the RF resin would be suitable for removing Cs, the largest gamma radiation contributor, from the LLLW generated at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presently, the disposal of the LLLW is limited due to the amount of Cs contained in the waste. Cesium removal from the waste solution offers immediate benefits by conserving valuable tank space and would allow cask shipments of the treated waste should the present Laboratory pipelines become unavailable in the future. Preliminary laboratory tests of the RF resins, supplied from two different sources, were used to design a full-scale cation-exchange column for the removal of Cs from a Mark 42 SRL fuel element dejacketing waste solution. The in-cell tests reproduced the preliminary bench-scale test results. The initial Cs breakthrough range was 85--92 column volumes (CV). The resin capacity for Cs was found to be ∼0.35 meq per gram of resin. A 1.5-liter resin bed loaded a combined ∼1,300 Ci of 134 Cs and 137 Cs. A distribution coefficient of ∼110 CV was determined, based on a 50% Cs breakthrough point. The kinetics of the system was studied by examining the rate parameters; however, it was decided that several more tests would be necessary to define the mass transfer characteristics of the system

  11. Preparation of titanates and zeolites and their uses in radioactive waste management, particularly in the treatment of spent resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Airola, C.; Forsberg, S.; Faelt, L.

    1983-05-01

    Work on the preparation of titanates and zeolites was started and their possible uses in the management of radioactive wastes proposed in the first years of the 1970's by the Department of Nuclear Chemistry at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the Chemical Center of the University of Lund, respectively. The major part of these efforts was sponsored by the National Council for Radioactive Waste (Prav), while the concluding phase including an over-all system design study adapted to the Swedish nuclear power programme for an economic evaluation was sponsored by the KBS Division of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Co. The preparation work resulted in processes ready for industrial scale production of sorbents of qualities adequate for applications in radioactive waste treatment. The essential effort was devoted to the treatment of spent resins from nuclear power plants by transfer to their radioactive contents to titanates and zeolites, which can then be sintered to stabel ceramic bodies (the PILO process). The economic evaluation indicated a significant economic incentive for the introduction of the PILO process if an incineration step is included for all types of spent resins. The essential efforts and results from this programme are summarized in this report. (Authors)

  12. Evaluation of new macroporous resins for the removal of uranium and plutonium from waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenst, J.W.; Herald, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Organic ion exchange resins were evaluated for 238 Pu(IV), 238 Pu(VI), and 233 U(VI) removal from water. The capacity of the resins and equilibrium coefficients (Kd) were compared with each other and to bone char--an inorganic adsorbent consisting of hydroxyapatite (HAP) for which data is available. Bone char gave the best results for the removal of 238 Pu(IV), Amberlite XE279 (one of the new macroporous resins) gave the best results for 238 Pu(VI), and another macroporous resin, Dowex-MSA-1, gave good results for 233 U(VI). Kd values were shown to be a function of pH

  13. Solvent impregnated resin for isolation of U(VI) from industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karve, M.; Rajgor, R.V.

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method based upon impregnation of Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl)mono-thio-phosphinic acid) on Amberlite XAD-2 resin is proposed for isolation of U(VI) from uranmicrolite ore tailing samples and industrial effluent samples. U(VI) was sorbed from nitric acid media on the solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) and was recovered completely with 1.0 M HCl. Based upon sorption behavior of U(VI) with Cyanex 302, it was quantitatively sorbed on the SIR in a dynamic method, while the other metal ions were not sorbed by the modified resin. The preparation of impregnated resin is simple, based upon physical interaction of the extractant and solid support, has good sorption capacity for U(VI), and is also reliable for detection of traces of U(VI). (authors)

  14. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii

    Municipal waste flue gas was previously found to deactivate the Pt-based CO oxidation catalyst severely. In the specific case studied, siloxanes were found to cause the deactivation. An on-site method for complete regeneration of the catalyst activity was found without shutdown of the flue gas...... stream, i.e. by in situ treatment of the Pt-catalyst by reductive H2-gas. However, introduction of H2 gas in the gas stream could also affect other units in the tail pipe gas cleaning system. Of special interest here, is the effect of hydrogen gas on the performance of the deNOx + SCR catalytic process...

  15. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Brik; Kustov, Arkady

    The deactivation performance of Pt-catalysts for CO oxidation has been studied in relation to use in sewage sludge municipal waste burners, where HMDS was found to poison the industrial catalyst in a similar way to the model Pt/TiO2 catalyst. A promising regeneration procedure was developed based...... on reduction with hydrogen. This procedure had negligible effect on the performance of the SCR catalyst. After treatment with 2% H2, 8% O2 in N2 for one hour, a slight better NO SCR activity was observed due to increase in the concentration V4+ sites. However, after exposure in normal NO SCR gases the activity...

  16. Leach testing of simulated ion-exchange resin waste solidified in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.K.; Uotila, P.I.; Ovaskainen, R.M.

    Leach tests were carried out on ion-exchange resins solidified in cement. Three product mixtures, two isotopes and four leachants at two temperatures, were tested. The increase of resin content increased the leaching of Cs-137; the effect of silix admixture was negligible. The type of the leachant has a stronger influence on Co-60 than on Cs-137. The increase of temperature usually also increased leaching. (author)

  17. Analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) of the gamma radiation effect on epoxy resin, used as solidification agent of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.H.; Riella, H.G.; Guedes, S.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on Epoxy resin, used as solidification agent of radioactive wastes, were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The spectra showed no significant modifications on Epoxy resin functional groups (irradiated with dose from 0 to 1 MGy). Up to 1 MGy Epoxy resin did not oxidize, confirming the Epoxy good radiation strength. The presence of aromatic chain and amine group, mainly tertiary amine, give good radiolytic stability to the Epoxy, increasing the interest to use this material in nuclear facilities. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs

  18. Preparation and Characterization of UPR/ LNR/ Glass Fiber Composite by using Unsaturated Polyester Resin (PET) from PET Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Farhana Hisham; Ishak Ahmad; Rusli Daik

    2011-01-01

    UPR/ LNR/ glass fibre composite had been prepared by using unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) based from recycled PET product. PET waste was recycled by glycolysis process and the glycides product was then reacted with maleic anhydride to produce unsaturated polyester resin. The preparation of UPR/ LNR blends were conducted by varying the amount of LNR addition to the resin ranging from 0-7.5 % (wt). The composition of UPR/LNR blend with good mechanical properties had been selected as a matrix of the glass fiber reinforced composite. Glass fibre was also treated by (3-Amino propil)triethoxysilane as a coupling agent. From the result, the addition of 2.5 % LNR in UPR had showed the optimum mechanical and morphological properties where the elastomer particle's were well dispersed in the matrix with smaller size. The silane treatment on the glass fiber increased the tensile and impact strength values of the UPR/ LNR/ GF composite compared to untreated fiber reinforcement. (author)

  19. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bituminization of simulated PWR type reactor wastes, boric evaporator bottons and ion exchange resins, carried out in CNEN/SP using commercial bitumen available in the Brazilian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    The first results of the study of bituminization of simulated PWR wastes, boric evaporator bottons and spent ion-exclange resins (OH - , H + ) and incinerated ash-wates are presented and discussed. The study consisted of characterization of the commercial bitumen, locally available and bitumen wastes products of varying whight compositions. The characterization was carried out using standard analysis methods of ABNT and ASTM, and included measurement of, penetration, softening point and flash point. In addition, the bitumen samples were analized for their resin and asphaltene contents. For leaching studies, wastes products of bitumen and resin loaded with 134 Cs were utilized. The method used was according to the ISO norms. The simulation of the industrial process was carried out using an extruder-evaporator typically used in the plastic industries offered by Industria de Maquinas Miotto Ltda., Sao Bernardo do Campo - SP. (Author) [pt

  1. Bio nitrate Project: a new technology for water nitrate elimination by means of ionic exchange resins; Proyecto Bionitrate: una nueva tecnologia para la eliminacion de nitratos en aguas mediante resinas de intercambio ionico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano Ortiz, J.

    2009-07-01

    The use of ion exchange resins for nitrate elimination from water generates a waste containing a sodium chloride mixture plus the retained nitrates. this waste must be correctly disposed. In this project, the resin ionic form is modified to be regenerated with other compounds, different from the common salt, which are interesting because of the presence of mineral nutrition. So, with Bio nitrate Project, nitrates are recovered and the regeneration waste is apt to be use as fertilizer, for agricultural uses, or as complementary contribution of nutrients in biological water treatment. (Author) 27 refs.

  2. Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste

  3. Gamma irradiation-induced modifications of resins found in nuclear waste embedding processes; Modifications induites par irradiation gamma dans les differentes resines rencontrees dans le traitement des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allali, H [Faculte des Science et Techniques, Settat (Morocco); Debre, O; Lambert, M; Nsouli, B; Thomas, J P [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Collaboration: IPN-Lyon, Laboratoire d` Etude des Materiaux Plastiques et des Biomateriaux, URA 507, UCBL, Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radiactifs

    1999-12-31

    The various resins involved in nuclear waste disposal are subject to gamma irradiation-induced modifications. From Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry of Secondary ions emitted under High Energy Projectiles bombardment (HSF-SIMS) of such materials the following results are obtained: the embedding epoxy resin DGEBA-DDM does not exhibit significant bulk changes in chemical structure, whatever the dose rate and irradiation medium (air or water), at least up to 2 MGy. However, oxidation processes are well observed at the very surface. Under the same conditions Ion exchange resins to be embedded are subjected to scissions of their functional sites, leading to fixed ion release. Dehydration under irradiation is observed pointing out the crucial role of water in ion transport outside of the material. (authors)

  4. Regeneration of cello-oligomers via selective depolymerization of cellulose fibers derived from printed paper wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Lee Ken; Pang, Suh Cem; Chin, Suk Fun

    2016-05-20

    Cellulose extracted from printed paper wastes were selectively depolymerized under controlled conditions into cello-oligomers of controllable chain lengths via dissolution in an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl), and in the presence of an acid catalyst, Amberlyst 15DRY. The depolymerization process was optimized against reaction temperature, concentration of acid catalyst, and reaction time. Despite rapid initial depolymerization process, the rate of cellulose depolymerization slowed down gradually upon prolonged reaction time, with 75.0 wt% yield of regenerated cello-oligomers (mean Viscosimetric Degree of Polymerization value of 81) obtained after 40 min. The depolymerization of cellulose fibers at 80 °C appeared to proceed via a second-order kinetic reaction with respect to the catalyst concentration of 0.23 mmol H3O(+). As such, the cellulose depolymerization process could afford some degree of control on the degree of polymerization or chain lengths of cello-oligomers formed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regeneration of 98Mo enriched from waste 99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Mirzaeva, N.A.; Ashrapov, U.T.; Berdieva, M.; Nushtaeva, L.B.

    2002-01-01

    Radioisotope generator of technetium-99m have found widespread application in nuclear medicine for production of sodium pertechnetate solution ( 99m Tc). In technology of radioisotope generator making, which developed in Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science the parent radioisotopes of molybdenum-90 are produced with neutron capture reaction of the enriched isotope of molybdenum-98 in nuclear reactor of WWR-SM. The specific activity of 99 Mo is reached to 5.0 Ci/g after activation process of original material ( 98 Mo). The basic mass of the original materials ( 98 Mo) which took for the irradiation is remained inactive. The high cost of enriched 97 Mo to make up necessity of development of method of 98 Mo regeneration with end in view of its recurring in manufacture. In general, the chromatographic type generator are produced in manufacture with aluminium oxide as sorbent for the parent radionuclides. So we studied the description conditions of molybdenum from aluminium oxide phase, its purification from possible accompanying admixtures and production of molybdenum in goods state. The systems: sulphur acid, ammonium and ammonium with hydrogen peroxide have been considered for molybdenum desorption from aluminium oxide phase. The sulphur oxid solution is most optimal medium for molybdenum desorption with concentration 0.5 M and elution rate for this makes up 2.0-2.05 ml/min. The 98 Mo yield makes up not over 87 %. The subsequent purification of the desorption of molybdenum-98 from the possible admixture are realized by using column with tetra-phosphonium alkali. At first , 98 Mo sorption is realized by anion exchange resin, after that sorbate is washing and dispiriting by solution with composition: 1.0 M NH 4 NO 3 +8.0 % NH 4 OH+10 -2 % H 2 O 2 . The 98 Mo yield makes up under 80 %. Further from obtained solution is realized by precipitation of molybdenum-98 in acid medium and separation of sediments from liquid phase, drying if sediments and

  6. Evaluation of extractants and chelating resins in polishing actinide-contaminated waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used for recovering plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, the trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remaining in the effluent require additional processing. We are doing research to develop a secondary unit operation that can directly polish the effluent so that actinide levels are reduced to below the maximum allowed for facility discharge. We selected solvent extraction, the only unit operation that can meet the stringent process requirements imposed; several carbonyl and phosphoryl extractants were evaluated and their performance characterized. We also investigated various engineering approaches for solvent extraction; the most promising was a chelating resin loaded with extractant. Our research now focuses on the synthesis of malonamides, and our goal is to bond these extractants to a resin matrix. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  7. Esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oils (WCO): Role of ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalan Ozbay; Nuray Oktar; N. Alper Tapan [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Although WCO plays a crucial role for the economical production of biodiesel, free fatty acid (FFA) level in the nature of WCO cause saponification problems during transesterification. Acidic ion-exchange resins can be used to decrease WCO free fatty acid level. In this study, activities of resins (Amberlyst-15 (A-15), Amberlyst-35 (A-35), Amberlyst-16 (A-16) and Dowex HCR-W2) in direct FFA esterification were examined in the temperature range of 50-60{sup o}C and the effect of catalyst amount (1-2 wt%) on FFA conversion was also analyzed. FFA conversion increased with increasing reaction temperature and catalyst amount. Order of catalytic activities was found as A-15 > A-35 > A-16 > Dowex HCR-W2. This was related to the size of average pore diameters and magnitude of BET surface area. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Upgrade to Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Technetium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig® 639 Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2013-05-16

    This report documents the development and application of computer models to describe the sorption of pertechnetate [TcO₄⁻], and its surrogate perrhenate [ReO₄⁻], on SuperLig® 639 resin. Two models have been developed: 1) A thermodynamic isotherm model, based on experimental data, that predicts [TcO₄⁻] and [ReO₄⁻] sorption as a function of solution composition and temperature and 2) A column model that uses the isotherm calculated by the first model to simulate the performance of a full-scale sorption process. The isotherm model provides a synthesis of experimental data collected from many different sources to give a best estimate prediction of the behavior of the pertechnetate-SuperLig® 639 system and an estimate of the uncertainty in this prediction. The column model provides a prediction of the expected performance of the plant process by determining the volume of waste solution that can be processed based on process design parameters such as column size, flow rate and resin physical properties.

  9. A complete process for the treatment of low level radioactive wastes using composite ion exchange resins based on polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Mani, A.G.S.; Lakshmi, R.; Sinha, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    The CFC-PU foam and HMO-PU foams have been employed for the removal of radioactive cesium and strontium respectively from actual Cat. III radioactive liquid waste received from reprocessing plant. Batch studies have been carried out in order to optimize the loading of above chemicals. The results of column and batch studies have indicated that there is a good agreement between them. After passing about 1000 bed volumes, the average DF and volume reduction factor obtained were 20 and 200 respectively. A method has been developed for the wet digestion of spent resins in alkaline KMnO 4 medium. The digested foam has been immobilized in cement matrix and the matrices were characterized with respect to compressive strength and leach resistance. (author)

  10. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III

  11. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  12. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  13. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  14. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  15. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Vigreux, B.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alphaβgamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alphaβgamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process. 11 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  17. Separation of palladium from high-level waste using metal ferro cyanide loaded resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsala, T.P.; Joseph, Annie; Yeotikar, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    High-level waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent fuel. HLW contains corrosion products, unextracted actinides, process chemicals and fission products. A recent trend is there to consider waste as a source of wealth. Among the fission products separation and recovery of platinum group metals have gained great attention. HLW is a good source of palladium of the platinum group metal. The present study shows the feasibility of ion exchange separation of Pd from HLW. (author)

  18. Fully-differential spectrophotometry determination of trace thorium in uranium-containing waste water separated by CL-TBP levextrel resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Jiannan

    2000-01-01

    A method for separation by CL-TBP levextrel resin and determination of trace thorium in uranium-containing waste water by fully-differential spectrophotometry is developed. In 4 mol/L HNO 3 medium, in presence of tartaric acid, CL-TBP levextrel resin is used for adsorption of thorium and separating from other elements. The thorium on the resin is stripped by 4 mol/L HCl, with oxalic acid and urea as screening agent, thorium forms red complex with arsenazo III. The maximum absorption of the complex is at 668 nm, and the molar absorptivity is 1.27 x 10 5 L/(mol·cm) . The complex can be steady for 2.5 h. By regulating micro-current of differential spectrophotometry, the method can realize determination with high precision. Sensitivity of this method increase 10 times than usual spectrophotometry. The relative standard deviation is better than +- 5% and recovery of thorium is 99%-107%

  19. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  1. Feasibility study of solidification for low-level liquid waste generated by sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tooru; Higuchi, Natsuko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Low-level liquid waste with relatively high levels of radioactivity is generated by the sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin used in water purification systems of nuclear power plants. We studied cement-like solidification process for this type waste that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. For this type waste, it is important that the sulfate ion should not dissolve from the solid waste because it forms ettringite on reaction with minerals in the concrete, and this leads to cracking during repository storage. It is also preferable that the pH of pore water of the solid waste be low, because the bentonite of the repository changes in quality on exposure to alkaline solution. Our solidification process has two procedures: conversion into insoluble sulfate from sodium sulfate (CIS) and formation of low pH cement-like solid (FLS). In the CIS procedure, BaSO 4 precipitation occurs with addition of Ba(OH) 2 ·8H 2 O to the liquid waste when the Ba/SO 4 molar ratio > 1. In the FLS procedure, silica fume and blast furnace slag are added to the liquid wastes containing Ba S O 4 precipitate. The CIS reaction yield is over 98% and the pH of pore water of the solid waste is 11.5 or less. Therefore, we think that our solidification process is one of the best methods for treating liquid waste that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. (author)

  2. Waste water treatment of CO2+O2 in-situ leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Liu Naizhong; Du Zhiming; Wang Hongying

    2012-01-01

    An in-situ leaching uranium mine located in Northern China uses CO 2 +O 2 leaching process to leach uranium. The consumption of industrial reagent and water, and generation and discharge of waste water are minimized by comprehensive waste water treatment technology with process water recycle, reverse osmosis and natural evaporation. The process water of the mine that can be recycled and reused includes barren fluid, solution washing loaded resin, precipitating mother solution and filtered liquor of yellow cake. Solution regenerating barren resin is treated by reverse osmosis. Concentrated water from reverse osmosis and solution washing barren resin are naturally evaporated. (authors)

  3. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  4. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, ion exchange resins are used for purification of aqueous streams. The major contaminants of the resins are usually the radioactive materials that are removed from the aqueous streams. The use of the ion exchange resins creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resin often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposal alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  5. Adsorption, regeneration and reuse of activated carbon for elimination of COD from municipal waste water. Final report. Untersuchungen zur Aktivkohle-Adsorption, -Regeneration und Wiederverwendung beim Einsatz zur Elimination des CSB aus kommunalem Abwasser. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekoulov, I.; Holst, H.J.

    1994-02-01

    One practicability to reduce COD-loadings of secondary effluents is the activated carbon fixed bed-process. In this project activated carbons (GAC) of different raw products (peat, wood, coal) were loaded with filtrated municipal waste water (mean COD-concentration: 60 mg CSB/L). After the break-through of adsorption-colums, the carbon was regenerated by means of superheated steam (optimal conditions: [theta]=300 C, pressure=2 bar, thermal energie=10 KW). Regeneration experiments demonstrated, that the results of steam-treatment of GAC is independent in respects to the preloading of activated carbons and the raw products. The mass of COD, detected in the condensed (liquid) steam-phase, always was in quantity about 10% of the further COD adsorbed to the GAC. Gaseous reaction products could not evaluated by means of the experimental design. But former perculation cycles of steam-treated carbons and measurments of the specific area (BET-method) indicated, that the adsorption-capacity of regenerated GAC seams to be in the same quantity, than unloaded carbons. Measurements (GC/MS) of single organic components showed, that humic-substances are catalysed at steam temperatures about 300 C. It seams, that chlorinated hydrocarbons could formed by means of this regeneration method. BOD experiments demonstrated, that substances of the steam-treatment could be biological degraded about 50% to 60%. (orig.)

  6. ACTIVITY TEST AND REGENERATION OF NiMo/Z CATALYST FOR HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE PLASTIC FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity test and regeneration of NiMo/active natural zeolite catalyst for hydrocracking of waste plastic fraction of polyprophylene (PP type have been carried out. The catalysts was prepared by loading Mo followed by Ni Metals onto the natural zeolite (Z sample, then calcined at 500oC, oxidized and reduced at 400oC under nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stream, respectively. The characterization of catalysts including spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume were performed by gas sorption analyzer, amount of total acid sites was determined by gas sorption method, and acid site strength was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The hydrocracking process was carried out in a semi-flow reactor system at 360 oC and catalyst:feed ratio 0.5 under hydrogen stream (150 mL/hour. The feed was vaporized from the pyrolisis reactor into the hydrocracking reactor. A liquid product was collected and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The characterization results showed that spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume of the Z sample decreased after loading of the Ni and Mo metals. Amount of total acid sites of the NiMo/Z catalyst was higher than that of the Z sample. The activity of NiMo/Z catalyst decreased after several continously runs. Its regeneration produced the NiMo/Z reg catalyst with similar activity and selectivity to the fresh catalyst (NiMo/Z. The activity of catalysts at the optimum condition followed the order of NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (conversion of hydrocarbon C>12 and NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (total yield of gasoline fraction. The selectivity of catalysts for C7-C8 product followed the order of Z>NiMo/Z>NiMo/Z reg. Keywords: activity, polyprophylene, catalyst, gasoline fraction.

  7. Ion exchange removal of chromium (iii) from tannery wastes by using a strong acid cation exchange resin amberlite ir-120 h+ and its hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.

    2014-01-01

    A strong acid cation exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 H+ and its hybrids with Mn(OH)/sub 2/, Cu(OH)/sub 2/ and Fe(OH)/sub 3/ are used for the removal of chromium (III) from spent tannery bath. The experimental data give good fits with the Langmuir sorption model. The thermodynamic parameters entropy (delta S), enthalpy (delta H) and free energy (delta G) changes are computed, which reveal that the chromium removal from tannery wastes by ion exchangers is an endothermic, physical sorption and entropically driven process. The rate of sorption is found to increase with the increase of resin dosage, stirring speed and temperature. Different kinetic models such as film diffusion, particle diffusion and Lagergren pseudo first order are used to evaluate the mechanism of the process. It is found that the hybrid ion exchange resins have better removal capacity as compared to the parent ion exchanger. The increase in the removal capacity is found to be in the order of the corresponding PZC values of the hybrid ion exchangers. Further, it is suggested that the higher exchange capacity is the result of Donnan effect and specific adsorption of chromium by the oxides / hydroxides present inside the matrix of the organic cation exchanger. (author)

  8. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  9. Comparison of solvent extraction and extraction chromatography resin techniques for uranium isotopic characterization in high-level radioactive waste and barrier materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Bermúdez, Santiago; Villa-Alfageme, María; Mas, José Luis; Alba, María Dolores

    2018-07-01

    The development of Deep Geological Repositories (DGP) to the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) is mainly focused in systems of multiple barriers based on the use of clays, and particularly bentonites, as natural and engineered barriers in nuclear waste isolation due to their remarkable properties. Due to the fact that uranium is the major component of HLRW, it is required to go in depth in the analysis of the chemistry of the reaction of this element within bentonites. The determination of uranium under the conditions of HLRW, including the analysis of silicate matrices before and after the uranium-bentonite reaction, was investigated. The performances of a state-of-the-art and widespread radiochemical method based on chromatographic UTEVA resins, and a well-known and traditional method based on solvent extraction with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), for the analysis of uranium and thorium isotopes in solid matrices with high concentrations of uranium were analysed in detail. In the development of this comparison, both radiochemical approaches have an overall excellent performance in order to analyse uranium concentration in HLRW samples. However, due to the high uranium concentration in the samples, the chromatographic resin is not able to avoid completely the uranium contamination in the thorium fraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research advances in adsorption treatment of cesium and cobalt in waste liquid of nuclear power plants by ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dan; Wang Xin; Liu Jiean; Zhu Laiye; Chen Bin; Weng Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Liquid radwaste is unavoidably produced during the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). With the development of China's nuclear power, much more attention will be paid to the impact of NPP construction on water environment. Radionuclides are the main targets for adsorption treatment of NPP liquid radwaste. Thereinto, cesium and cobalt are typical cationic ones. Currently, ion exchange process is widely used in liquid radwaste treatment system (WLS) of NPP, wherein resin plays a key role. The paper reviewed the research progress on adsorption of cesium and cobalt existed in NPP liquid radwaste using ion exchange resin. (authors)

  11. Organic diagenesis in commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry currently faces numerous challenges. Large volumes of already existing wastes must be permanently disposed using environmentally acceptable technologies. Numerous criteria must be addressed before wastes can be permanently disposed. Waste characterization is certainly one of the key criteria for proper waste management. some wastes are complex melting pots of inorganics, radiochemicals, and, occasionally, organics. It is clear, for example, that organics have been used extensively in nuclear operations, such as waste reprocessing, and continue to be used widely as solvents, decontamination agents, etc. The authors have analyzed the organic content of many kinds of nuclear wastes, ranging from commercial to defense wastes. In this paper, the finale analyses are described of three commercial wastes: one waste from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and two wastes from a boiling water reactor (BWR). The PWR waste is a boric acid concentrate waste. The two BWR wastes, BWR wastes Nos. 1 and 2, are evaporator concentrates of liquid wastes produced during the regeneration of ion-exchange resins used to purify reactor process water. In preliminary analyses, which were reported previously, a few know organics and myriad unknowns were detected. Recent reexamination of mass-spectral data, coupled with reanalysis of the wastes, has resulted in the firm identification of the unknowns. Most of the compounds, over thirty distinct organics, are derived from the degradation, or diagenesis, of source-term organics, revealing, for the first time, that organic diagenesis in commercial wastes is both vigorous and varied

  12. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of used sands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determined dimensions and strength parameters.

  13. Ion-exchange-resin-catalyzed adamantylation of phenol derivatives with adamantanols: Developing a clean process for synthesis of 2-(1-adamantyl-4-bromophenol, a key intermediate of adapalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A clean process has been developed for the synthesis of 2-adamantylphenol derivatives through adamantylation of substituted phenols with adamantanols catalyzed by commercially available and recyclable ion-exchange sulfonic acid resin in acetic acid. The sole byproduct of the adamantylation reaction, namely water, could be converted into the solvent acetic acid by addition of a slight excess of acetic anhydride during the work-up procedure, making the process waste-free except for regeneration of the ion-exchange resin, and facilitating the recycling of the resin catalyst. The ion-exchange sulfonic acid resin catalyst could be readily recycled by filtration and directly reused at least ten times without a significant loss of activity. The key intermediate of adapalene, 2-(1-adamantyl-4-bromophenol, could be produced by means of this waste-free process.

  14. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  15. Conceptual design for a food production, water and waste processing, and gas regeneration module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, O. W.

    1986-01-01

    During the first six month period, the RECON (Regenerative Concepts Group) team collected reference material, made visits to consult with other researchers, and invited distinguished visitors to speak on the status of closed life support activities. A decision was made to develop the data base and modeling such that artificial intelligence (AI) methods could be used to manipulate data and examine concept alternatives. Six discrete tasks and a project schedule were outlined for the first year. The first two tasks have been essentially completed and have resulted in a sample set of assumptions for general use in defining candidate systems and for the specification of closed system characteristics. To model a closed environment, decisions were necessary to establish the amounts of food, air, water and waste products. Although recognized that data would eventually be normalized on the basis of a single human, the amount of data in existence for four person crews led to the decision to use this as a baseline. Information on existing concepts was collected from NASA sources, from industry, and libraries. Concept modeling was begun, hardware and software obtained, technical tasks identified and experimental work initiated.

  16. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins; Karboxylatjonbytarmassans egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Boren, Hans [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden); Torstenfelt, Boerje [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  17. Performances and improvement of copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenfen; Zhang Hao; Sun Haijun; Liu Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin is tested to examine its performances including effluent water quality and capacity of deoxidisation. By the means of changing the resin type and regeneration, the deoxidising capacity of the resin can be improved to 13 times more than before. At the same time, physical performances of the resin are also greatly improved while maintaining its velocity of deoxidisation and effluent quality. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of support matrices for immobilization of anaerobic consortia for efficient carbon cycling in waste regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashvini; Ogram, Andrew

    2005-02-18

    Efficient metabolism of fatty acids during anaerobic waste digestion requires development of consortia that include "fatty acid consuming H(2) producing bacteria" and methanogenic bacteria. The objective of this research was to optimize methanogenesis from fatty acids by evaluating a variety of support matrices for use in maintaining efficient syntrophic-methanogenic consortia. Tested matrices included clays (montmorillonite and bentonite), glass beads (106 and 425-600mum), microcarriers (cytopore, cytodex, cytoline, and cultispher; conventionally employed for cultivation of mammalian cell lines), BioSep beads (powdered activated carbon), and membranes (hydrophilic; nylon, polysulfone, and hydrophobic; teflon, polypropylene). Data obtained from headspace methane (CH(4)) analyses as an indicator of anaerobic carbon cycling efficiency indicated that material surface properties were important in maintenance and functioning of the anaerobic consortia. Cytoline yielded significantly higher CH(4) than other matrices as early as in the first week of incubation. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis from crushed cytoline matrix showed the presence of Syntrophomonas spp. (butyrate oxidizing syntrophs) and Syntrophobacter spp. (propionate oxidizing syntrophs), with Methanosaeta spp. (acetate utilizing methanogen), and Methanospirillum spp. (hydrogen utilizing methanogen) cells. It is likely that the more hydrophobic surfaces provided a suitable surface for adherence of cells of syntrophic-methanogenic consortia. Cytoline also appeared to protect entrapped consortia from air, resulting in rapid methanogenesis after aerial exposure. Our study suggests that support matrices can be used in anaerobic digestors, pre-seeded with immobilized or entrapped consortia on support matrices, and may be of value as inoculant-adsorbents to rapidly initiate or recover proper system functioning following perturbation.

  19. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid wastes using composite ion-exchange resins based on polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lekshmi, R.; Mani, A.G.S.; Sinha, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Composite ion-exchange resins were prepared by coating copper-ferrocyanide (CFC) and hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) powders on polyurethane (PU) foam. Polyvinyl acetate/Acetone was used as a binder. The foam was loaded with about five times its weight with CFC and HMO powders. The distribution coefficients of CFC-PU foam and HMO-PU foam for cesium and strontium respectively were estimated. Under similar conditions the HMO-PU foam showed higher capacity as well as better kinetics for removal of strontium than CFC-PU foam for Cs. The pilot plant scale studies were conducted using a mixed composite ion-exchange resin bed. About 1000 bed volumes could be passed before attaining a DF of 10 from an initial value of 60-80. The spent resin was digested in alkaline KMnO 4 and the digested liquid was fixed in cement matrix. The matrices were characterized with respect to compressive strength and leach resistance. (author)

  20. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  1. Ion Exchange Studies for Removal of Sulfate from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (241-AN-107) Using SuperLig 655 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, D.L.; Fiskum, S.K.; Rapko, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    BNFL Inc. is evaluating various pretreatment technologies to mitigate the impacts of sulfate on the LAW vitrification system. One pretreatment technology for separating sulfate from LAW solutions involves the use of SuperLig(reg. sign) 655 (SL-655), a proprietary ion exchange material developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report describes testing of SL-655 with diluted ([Na] approximately 5 M) waste from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division. Batch contact studies were conducted from 4 to 96 hours to determine the sulfate distribution coefficient and reaction kinetics. A small-scale ion exchange column test was conducted to evaluate sulfate removal, loading, breakthrough, and elution from the SL-655. In all of these tests, an archived 241-AN-107 tank waste sample (pretreated to remove Cs, Sr, and transuranics elements) was used. The experimental details and results are described in this report. Under the test conditions, SL-655 was found to have no significant ion exchange affinity for sulfate in this matrix. The batch contact study resulted in no measurable difference in the aqueous sulfate concentration following resin contact (K d ∼ 0). The column test also demonstrated SL-655 had no practical affinity for sulfate in the tested matrix. Within experimental error, the sulfate concentration in the column effluent was equal to the concentration in the feed after passing 3 bed volumes of sample through the columns. Furthermore, some, if not all, of the decreased sulfate concentration in these first three column volumes of effluent can be ascribed to mixing and dilution of the 241-AN-107 feed with the interstitial liquid present in the column at the start of the loading cycle. Finally, ICP-AES measurements on the eluate solutions showed the presence of barium as soon as contact with the feed solution is completed. Barium is a metal not detected in the feed solution. Should the loss of barium be

  2. Statistical Analysis of 3-Point Bending Properties of Polymer Concretes Made From Marble Powder Waste, Sand Grains, and Polyester Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzannache, N.; Bezazi, A.; Bouchelaghem, H.; Boumaaza, M.; Amziane, S.; Scarpa, F.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical performance of concrete polymer beams subjected to 3-point bending was investigated. The polymer concrete incorporates marble powder waste and quarry sand. The results obtained showed that the type of sand, and amount of marble powder and sand aggregate affected the resistance of the polymer concrete beams significantly. The marble waste increased their bending strength by reducing the porosity of polymer concrete.

  3. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: A potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Teng, E-mail: zhangteng@mail.iee.ac.cn; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Sulfonated magnetic microsphere was prepared as one strong acid cation-exchange resin. • Cd and Te can be removed directly from the highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. • Good chemical stability, fast adsorbing rate and quick magnetic separation in strong acidic media. • A potential path for recycling CdTe photovoltaic waste. - Abstract: Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste.

  4. Radioactive liquid waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Yoshikawa, Jun; Noda, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Fumio.

    1995-01-01

    Floor drainages are mixed with low electroconductive liquid wastes, and after filtering the mixed liquid wastes by a hollow thread membrane filters, they are subjected to a desalting treatment by a desalter. The mixing ratio of the floor drainages to the lower electroconductive liquid wastes is determined to not more than 50wt%. With such procedures, since ionic ingredients are further diluted by mixing the floor drainages to the low electroconductive liquid wastes, sufficient margin can be provided up to the saturation of the ion exchange resins of the desalter, to maintain the ion exchange performance for a long period of time. Further, the recovery of the amount of permeation water and a differential pressure of filtration upon back washing of the hollow thread membrane filters is facilitated, thereby enabling to perform regeneration easily at high efficiency. (T.M.)

  5. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  6. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamińska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

  7. Scoping Tests of Technetium and Iodine Removal from Tank Waste Using SuperLig® 639 Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-26

    The primary chemical form of 99Tc found in Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) is pertechnetate anion (TcO4 -), which is highly soluble in water, and is mobile if released to the environment. Pertechnetate will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford waste treatment plant, and the primary disposition path is immobilization in the LAW glass waste form, which will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate, and the potential for impact to the Performance Assessment (PA), effective management of 99Tc is important to the overall success of the River Protection Project mission. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow-sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. While 99Tc is the primary radionuclide of interest, 129I also contributes to the calculated future dose of disposed LAW, and it would be of interest to examine if removal is possible.

  8. Development of radioactive waste treatment system for nuclear power stations by Toshiba (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, H.; Takahara, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, H.; Yasumura, K.; Nakayama, Y.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a solidification process with thermosetting resin to satisfy both requirements of volume reduction and quality of solidified products. Volumes of solidified products in drums generated from spent resins and concentrated wastes were reduced respectively to 1/4 and less than 1/6 of those in the conventional cement solidification process. In plants using a simple demineralizing system for condensate polishing, a large amount of waste water with regenerant chemicals is generated from the condensate demineralizer. In general, radioactivity concentration of wastes from this type of nuclear power plant is comparatively high, so the dose rate at the surface of drums containing solidified wastes exceeds 200mR/h. A pelletizing system for radioactive wastes was developed to reduce their volumes and allow their interim storage until the radioactivity decays down to a level at which they can be handled easily

  9. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  10. Thermally Regenerable Ion Exchange Resins, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Exploration Initiative missions will require substantial reductions in ESM for water processing hardware. Significant reductions can be achieved using water...

  11. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  12. Embedding in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de

    1985-01-01

    Medium activity waste coming either from nuclear power plants in operation such as evaporator concentrates, spent resins, filter cartridges or the dismantling of installations are embedded in order to obtain a product suitable for long term disposal. Embedding in thermosetting resins (polyester or epoxy) is one among currently used techniques; it is being developed by the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and Technicatome (subsidiary of CEA and EDF). The process is easy to operate and yields excellent results particularly as far as volume reduction and radioelement containment (cesium particularly) are concerned. The process has already been in operation in four stationary plants for several years. Extension of the process to mobile units has been completed by Technicatome in collaboration with the CEA [fr

  13. Environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA: migration to the water table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Jacobsen, Eric; Kraemer, Thomas F; Parsa, Bahman

    2010-01-01

    Fate of radium (Ra) in liquid regeneration brine wastes from water softeners disposed to septic tanks in the New Jersey Coastal Plain was studied. Before treatment, combined Ra ((226)Ra plus (228)Ra) concentrations (maximum, 1.54 Bq L(-1)) exceeded the 0.185 Bq L(-1) Maximum Contaminant Level in 4 of 10 studied domestic-well waters (median pH, 4.90). At the water table downgradient from leachfields, combined Ra concentrations were low (commonly 5.3, indicating sequestration; when pH was septic-tank effluents (maximum, 0.243 Bq L(-1))), indicating Ra mobilization from leachfield sediments. Confidence in quantification of Ra mass balance was reduced by study design limitations, including synoptic sampling of effluents and ground waters, and large uncertainties associated with analytical methods. The trend of Ra mobilization in acidic environments does match observations from regional water-quality assessments.

  14. Cryogenic regenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kush, P.; Joshi, S.C.; Thirumaleshwar, M.

    1986-01-01

    Importance of regenerators in cryogenic refrigerators is highlighted. Design aspects of regenerator are reviewed and the factors involved in the selection of regenerator material are enumerated. Various methods used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and regenerator effectiveness are mentioned. Variation of effectiveness with various parameters is calculated by a computer programme using the ideal, Ackermann and Tipler formulae. Results are presented in graphical form. Listing of the computer programme is given in the Appendix. (author)

  15. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  16. The use of ionizing radiation and ion exchange resins in the removal of heavy metals from waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Taher, N.H.; El-Toony, M.M.; Dessouki, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The removal of heavy metal ions from waste water using gamma-radiation and a polymeric membrane prepared by radiation graft copolymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) onto low density polyethylene films was investigated for the cases of zinc and iron ions. These metal ions were reduced by the hydrated electrons and hydrogen atoms to lower or zero valence state and eventually precipitate out of solution. parameter analysis includes the effect metal ion concentration, Ph, degree of grafting and irradiation dose. The maximum precipitation of the unirradiated metal ions was achieved at Ph 10, while the least precipitation occurred at Ph 3. Irradiation at Ph 5.5 resulted in more precipitation of iron than zinc. Both elements were adsorbed by different adsorbents granular activated carbon (GAC), powdered activated carbon (PAC), amberlite IR-120 plus, dowex-1- exchangers and grafted membranes). The combined treatment by irradiation plus adsorption showed more removal percent, especially for powdered activated carbon (PAC). Also, the grafted membranes showed a removal percent of 98% at high degree of grafting

  17. Retention of phosphorous ions on natural and engineered waste pumice: Characterization, equilibrium, competing ions, regeneration, kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimaian, Kamal Aldin [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sannandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amrane, Abdeltif [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, Université Rennes 1, CNRS, UMR 6226, Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Kazemian, Hossein [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London, ON, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Panahi, Reza [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarrabi, Mansur, E-mail: mansor62@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Natural and Mg{sup 2+} modified pumice were used for the removal of phosphorous. The adsorbents were characterized using XRF, XRD, SEM and FTIR instrumental techniques. In the optimal conditions, namely at equilibrium time (30 min), for a phosphorus concentration of 15 mg/L and pH 6, 69 and 97% phosphorus removals were achieved using 10 g/L of natural and modified pumice adsorbents, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacities were 11.88 and 17.71 mg/g by natural and modified pumice, respectively. Pseudo-second order kinetic model was the most relevant to describe the kinetic of phosphorus adsorption. External mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing phosphorous concentration and film diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step. Only a very low dissolution of the adsorbent was observed, leading to a low increase in conductivity and turbidity. Removal efficiency decreased for increasing ionic strength. It also decreased in the presence of competing ions; however modified pumice remained effective, since 67% of phosphorus was removed, versus only 17% for the natural pumice. The efficiency of the modified pumice was confirmed during the regeneration tests, since 96% regeneration yield was obtained after 510 min experiment, while only 22% was observed for the raw pumice.

  18. Pyrolysis of Spent Ion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, Georg; Slametschka, Rainer

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchangers (IEX in international language) are used to remove radionuclides from the primary coolant in all nuclear power stations with a water cooling circuit. This is done by continuously removing a volume of coolant from the primary circuit and passing it through coolers, filters and the ion exchange beds. Cation and anion exchangers, in the form of coarse-grained resin beads in pressurized-water reactors and as finely ground powdered resins in boiling water reactors, are used. The trend for new power stations is to exploit all the possibilities for avoiding the generation of contaminated liquids and then to clean, as far as possible, the solutions that are nevertheless generated using ion exchange for it to be possible to dispose of them as non-radioactive waste. This relieves the burden on evaporator facilities, or means that these can even be dispensed with entirely. Regeneration is possible in principle, but little use is made of it. As the regeneration usual in conventional technologies is not employed in nuclear power stations, it is necessary to dispose of this material as radioactive waste. On the international level, a great number of processes are offered that are intended to meet the relevant national regulations, and these will be discussed in brief with their advantages and disadvantages. The aim is then to find a process which reduces the volume, yields an inert or mineralized product, works at temperatures of no more than approximately 600 deg. C and can be run in a simple facility. Originally, the pyrolysis process was developed to treat liquid organic waste from reprocessing. A typical application is the decomposition of spent solvent (TBP, tributyl phosphate, mixed with kerosene). In this process TBP is pyrolyzed together with calcium hydroxide in a fluidized bed facility at temperatures of around 500 deg. C, the calcium hydroxide reacts with the phosphate groups directly to form calcium pyrophosphate which contains all the radioactivity

  19. Technology Maturation Plan For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Guillot, S.

    2011-01-01

    This Technology Maturation Plan schedules the development process that will bring the Lithium Hydrotalcite waste pretreatment process from its current estimated Technology Readiness Level of 3, to a level of 6. This maturation approach involves chemical and engineering research and development work, from laboratory scale to pilot scale testing, to incrementally make the process progress towards its integration in a fully qualified industrial system.

  20. Analysis of Ion-Exchange Resin Capability of the RSG-GAS Demineralized Water System (GCA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diyah Erlina Lestari; Setyo Budi Utomo; Harsono

    2012-01-01

    The Demineralized water system (GCA01) is a system which is function to process raw water to be demineralized water using ion exchange resin unit consisting of a column of cation exchange resins, anion exchange resin column and the column resin mix bed. After certain time the ion exchange resins to be saturated so that is needed regeneration. The RSG-GAS demineralized water system (GCA01) not operated continuously and indication of when does an ion exchange resin regeneration on The RSG-GAS demineralized water system (GCA01) is the water conductivity from anion exchange resin column output indicates ≥ 5μS/cm. Analysis of capability of the ion exchange resin demineralized water system (GCA01) line I has been performed. The analysis was done by comparing the time required in the system operating cycle of regeneration to the next regeneration during the period 2011 and 2012. From the results of the analysis showed the cycle regeneration time is varies. This shows that ion exchange resin capability of the RSG-GAS demineralized water system (GCA01) is varies depending on the raw water quality and success of the regeneration ion exchange resin. (author)

  1. Efficiencies and Optimization of Weak Base Anion Ion-Exchange Resin for Groundwater Hexavalent Chromium Removal at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesham, Dean O.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Hanson, James P.; Miller, Charles W.; Meyers, P.; Jaschke, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) contractor, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, has successfully converted a series of groundwater treatment facilities to use a new treatment resin that is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiency in treating groundwater contamination at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. During the production era, the nuclear reactors at the Hanford Site required a continuous supply of high-quality cooling water during operations. Cooling water consumption ranged from about 151,417 to 378,541 L/min (40,000 to 100,000 gal/min) per reactor, depending on specific operating conditions. Water from the Columbia River was filtered and treated chemically prior to use as cooling water, including the addition of sodium dichromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Hexavalent chromium was the primary component of the sodium dichromate and was introduced into the groundwater at the Hanford Site as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from the reactors starting in 1944. Groundwater contamination by hexavalent chromium and other contaminants related to nuclear reactor operations resulted in the need for groundwater remedial actions within the Hanford Site reactor areas. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated, leading to the use of pump-and-treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21K, a regenerable, strong-base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which was performed offsite. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion for the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. As a result, CH2M HILL performed testing at the Hanford Site in 2009 and 2010 to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at different waste sites. The testing demonstrated that a weak-base anion, single-use resin, specifically ResinTech SIR-700 ®, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher

  2. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters. Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1990-01-01

    In the recent years, efforts have been made in order to reduce the amount of alpha emitters essentially plutonium isotopes present in the solid wastes produced during research experiments on fuel reprocessing. Leaching processes using electrogenerated Ag (II(a very agressive agent for PuO 2 )) in nitric acid solutions, were developed and several facilities were designed and built to operate the processes: (1) ELISE and PROLIXE facilities, for the treatment of α and α, β, γ solid wastes (CEA, FONTENAY-AUX-ROSES) (2) PILOT ASHES FACILITY for delete, the treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes (COGEMA, MARCOULE). A brief description of the process and of the different facilities is presented; the main results obtained in ELISE and PROLIXE are also summarized

  3. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  4. Liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  5. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  6. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  7. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  8. Method of solidifying radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masahiko; Kira, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naotoshi; Nagaoka, Takeshi; Akane, Junta.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidification products of radioactive wastes having sufficient monoaxial compression strength and excellent in water durability upon ocean disposal of the wastes. Method: Solidification products having sufficient strength and filled with a great amount of radioactive wastes are obtained by filling and solidifying 100 parts by weight of chlorinated polyethylene resin and 100 - 500 parts by weight of particular or powderous spent ion exchange resin as radioactive wastes. The chlorinated polyethylene resin preferably used herein is prepared by chlorinating powderous or particulate polyethylene resin in an aqueous suspending medium or by chlorinating polyethylene resin dissolved in an organic solvent capable of dissolving the polyethylene resin, and it is crystalline or non-crystalline chlorinated polyethylene resin comprising 20 - 50% by weight of chlorine, non-crystalline resin with 25 - 40% by weight of chlorine being particularly preferred. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Resin-based preparation of HTGR fuels: operation of an engineering-scale uranium loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The fuel particles for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared from uranium-loaded carboxylic acid ion exchange resins which are subsequently carbonized, converted, and refabricated. The development and operation of individual items of equipment and of an integrated system are described for the resin-loading part of the process. This engineering-scale system was full scale with respect to a hot demonstration facility, but was operated with natural uranium. The feed uranium, which consisted of uranyl nitrate solution containing excess nitric acid, was loaded by exchange with resin in the hydrogen form. In order to obtain high loadings, the uranyl nitrate must be acid deficient; therefore, nitric acid was extracted by a liquid organic amine which was regenerated to discharge a NaNO 3 or NH 4 NO 3 solution waste. Water was removed from the uranyl nitrate solution by an evaporator that yielded condensate containing less than 0.5 ppM of uranium. The uranium-loaded resin was washed with condensate and dried to a controlled water content via microwave heating. The loading process was controlled via in-line measurements of the pH and density of the uranyl nitrate. The demonstrated capacity was 1 kg of uranium per hour for either batch loading contractors or a continuous column as the resin loading contractor. Fifty-four batch loading runs were made without a single failure of the process outlined in the chemical flowsheet or any evidence of inability to control the conditions dictated by the flowsheet

  10. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1985-12-01

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation

  11. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Method of controlling radioactive waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Sato, Takao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the pellet production amount, maximize the working life of a solidifying device and maintaining the mechanical strength of pellets to a predetermined value irrespective of the type and the cycle of occurrence of the secondary waste in the secondary waste solidifying device for radioactive waste processing systems in nuclear power plants. Method: Forecasting periods for the type, production amount and radioactivity level of the secondary wastes are determined in input/output devices connected to a control system and resulted signals are sent to computing elements. The computing elements forecast the production amount of regenerated liquid wastes after predetermined days based on the running conditions of a condensate desalter and the production amounts of filter sludges and liquid resin wastes after predetermined days based on the liquid waste processing amount or the like in a processing device respectively. Then, the mass balance between the type and the amount of the secondary wastes presently stored in a tank are calculated and the composition and concentration for the processing liquid are set so as to obtain predetermined values for the strength of pellets that can be dried to solidify, the working life of the solidifying device itself and the radioactivity level of the pellets. Thereafter, the running conditions for the solidifying device are determined so as to maximize the working life of the solidifying device. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Encapsulation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.L.; Boyle, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Toxic waste materials are encapsulated by the method wherein the waste material in liquid or finely divided solid form is uniformly dispersed in a vinyl ester resin or an unsaturated polyester and the resin cured under conditions that the exotherm does not rise above the temperature at which the integrity of the encapsulating material is destroyed

  14. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper

  15. "We Was Regenerated Out": Regeneration, Recycling and Devaluing Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Glucksberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at well documented processes of urban regeneration and community displacement in the inner-city through an innovative anthropological perspective focused on concepts of waste and value. Using the notion of symbolic devaluation of the working classes developed by Skeggs (1997; 2004, it traces their exclusion from recycling practices while at the same time the estates they live on are being regenerated. Raising questions about the parallels and contradictions between regeneration and recycling, it shows how symbolic devaluation of specifi c areas and their inhabitants are necessary precursors of the physical demolition and removal that characterize regeneration processes. Through an ethnographic approach, the deep connections between people and their waste, and people as waste, are exposed and questioned, showing how valuable middle class selves are produced through appropriate waste management procedures, i.e. individualized recycling, while inner-city, estate dwellers are remade into uncaring, unworthy citizens who cannot take part in this value-producing circuit.

  16. Evaluation of the resin oxidation process using Fenton's reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Leandro G.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2013-01-01

    The ion exchange resin is considered radioactive waste after its final useful life in nuclear reactors. Usually, this type of waste is treated with the immobilization in cement Portland, in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, reducing the possibility of radionuclides release in to environment. Because of the characteristic of expansion and contraction of the resins in presence of water, its incorporation in the common Portland cement is limited in 10% in direct immobilization, causing high costs in the final product. A pre-treatment would be able to reduce the volume, degrading the resins and increasing the load capacity of this material. This paper is about a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Fenton's reagent. The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic and anionic resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25 to 80 mM), with and without external heat. The time of reaction was two hours. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%. The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of CaCO 3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ca(OH) 2 and the CO 2 from the resin degradation. It was possible to degrade the resins without external heating. The calcium carbonates showed no correlation with the residual resin mass. (author)

  17. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from wasted ionic exchange resins kept at Area de Gestion Ezeiza belonging to RA-3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera Rodriguez, Leon; Pizarro, Ramon A.

    2009-01-01

    A spent ionic exchange resin kept at Area de Gannet's Ezeiza (Age), belonging to RA-3 Reactor, was treated with sterile water. Microorganisms suspended in the aqueous sample were isolated by several methods, broadening as much as possible cell recovery conditions. Bacteria were subject to purity controls and re-isolation when necessary. Characterization of the strains found in the sample included morphological, physiological and biochemical tests as well as stains. Being the spent resins volume reduction at Age the main purpose, a screening experiment is proposed based on bacteria capability to take carbon from the sediment present in the liquid sample. Recovered bacteria are at least the following: Method I: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas sp. Method II: Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Flavimonas sp., Agrobacterium sp. Method III: Bacillus circulans, Bacillus sphaericus, Kocuria rosea, Kytococcus sedentarius, Pseudomonas acidovorans. Microorganisms present in the sample are characteristic of those having low microbiological-contamination levels. Way III is an isolation method whose design would lead to find bacteria having the desired properties in order to diminish the volume of RA-3 Reactor spent resins. (author)

  18. Low-level waste management - suggested solutions for problem wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechin, W.H.; Armstrong, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Problem wastes are those wastes which are difficult or require unusual expense to place into a waste form acceptable under the requirements of 10 CFR 61 or the disposal site operators. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been investigating the use of various solidification agents as part of the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for several years. Two of the leading problem wastes are ion exchange resins and organic liquids. Ion exchange resins can be solidified in Portland cement up to about 25 wt % resin, but waste forms loaded to this degree exhibit significantly reduced compressive strength and may disintegrate when immersed in water. Ion exchange resins can also be incorporated into organic agents. Mound Laboratory has been investigating the use of a joule-heated glass melter as a means of disposing of ion exchange resins and organic liquids in addition to other combustible wastes

  19. Storage process of large solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno; Thiery, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Process for the storage of large size solid radioactive waste, consisting of contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal swarf, tools, etc, whereby such waste is incorporated in a thermohardening resin at room temperature, after prior addition of at least one inert charge to the resin. Cross-linking of the resin is then brought about [fr

  20. My Regeneration:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    and cultural referents shows that it offers an index to the album. Using its frontier setting and a variety of sacred and secular myths, symbols and icons, ‘Heroes and Villains,’ like Smile as a whole, offers historically-informed visions of national decline, crisis and regeneration that are at once critical...

  1. Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Dudenstr. 44, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Aign, Joerg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global D and D and Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D-22419 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process has demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)

  2. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  3. Sustainable nitrate-contaminated water treatment using multi cycle ion-exchange/bioregeneration of nitrate selective resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Roberts, Deborah J

    2013-11-15

    The sustainability of ion-exchange treatment processes using high capacity single use resins to remove nitrate from contaminated drinking water can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin and reusing it multiple times. In this study, multi cycle loading and bioregeneration of tributylamine strong base anion (SBA) exchange resin was studied. After each cycle of exhaustion, biological regeneration of the resin was performed using a salt-tolerant, nitrate-perchlorate-reducing culture for 48 h. The resin was enclosed in a membrane to avoid direct contact of the resin with the culture. The results show that the culture was capable of regenerating the resin and allowing the resin to be used in multiple cycles. The concentrations of nitrate in the samples reached a peak in first 0.5-1h after placing the resin in medium because of desorption of nitrate from resin with desorption rate of 0.099 ± 0.003 hr(-1). After this time, since microorganisms began to degrade the nitrate in the aqueous phase, the nitrate concentration was generally non-detectable after 10h. The average of calculated specific degradation rate of nitrate was -0.015 mg NO3(-)/mg VSS h. Applying 6 cycles of resin exhaustion/regeneration shows resin can be used for 4 cycles without a loss of capacity, after 6 cycles only 6% of the capacity was lost. This is the first published research to examine the direct regeneration of a resin enclosed in a membrane, to allow reuse without any disinfection or cleaning procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility study of solidification for low-level liquid waste generated by sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tooru; Higuchi, Natsuko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    We studied cement-like solidification process for low-level liquid waste with relatively high levels of radioactivity that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. For this type waste, it is important that the sulfate ion should not dissolve from the solid waste because it forms ettringite on reaction with minerals in the concrete of the planned repository, and this leads to cracking during repository storage. It is also preferable that the pH of the pore water of the solid waste be low, because the bentonite of the repository changes in quality on exposure to alkaline solution. Therefore, the present solidification process has two procedures: conversion into insoluble sulfate from sodium sulfate (CIS) and formation of low pH cement-like solid (FLS). In the CIS procedure, BaSO 4 precipitation occurs with addition of Ba(OH) 2 ·8H 2 O to the liquid waste. In the FLS procedure, silica fume and blast furnace slag are added to the liquid waste containing BaSO 4 precipitate. We show the range of appropriate Ba/SO 4 molar ratio is from 1.1 to 1.5 in the present solidification process by leaching tests for some kinds of solid waste samples. The CIS reaction yield is over 98% at a typical CIS condition, i.e. Ba/SO 4 molar ratio=1.3, reaction temperature=60 deg C, and time=3 hr. (author)

  5. Monitoring for 99Tc in borehole waters using an extraction chromatographic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, T.M.; Nelson, D.M.; Thompson, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    A technique using an extraction chromatographic resin for the analysis of 99 Tc in borehole waters is presented. The method involves one pass of the sample through two resins, a rinse of the resins, then counting of one of the resins by liquid scintillation counting. The technique is intended to be used as a screening method of 99 Tc. The procedure employs commercially available materials, generates little waste and requires very little operator time

  6. Waste management implications of irradiated nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel is stored underwater in large recirculating basins prior to reprocessing in chemical separations plants. A small number of the fuel rods contain minor defects which allow fission products to seep into the basin water. The predominant radionuclides leached into the water are dependent upon the decay time after removal from the reactor. Freshly discharged fuel releases short half-lived radioiodine which presents exposure and airborne release problems on a short-term basis but does not impose significant long-term waste management problems. After a reasonable decay period, the major radionuclides present are 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 90 Sr, 3 H, and 239 / 240 Pu. Each of the radionuclides imposes specific waste management problems which require individual consideration in their control, packaging and shipment, and permanent disposal. These considerations are reviewed in this paper for general industry practices and specific illustrative examples are presented. Control of radionuclide concentrations and water purity are normally achieved by filtration and ion exchange treatment. Cartridge-type filters are the most common but improved filtration techniques that minimize personnel exposure, particularly during filter replacements, are now being adopted. Mixed bed ion exchange resins are most commonly utilized for soluble radionuclide removal, particularly for basins filled with demineralized water. Cesium-specific exchange media are employed at basins where demineralized water is not employed; these media operate for very long periods of time since they are not depleted by the normal dissolved non-radioactive water impurities. The resins are either buried when depleted or regenerated and the regeneration solutions concentrated for burial. Resin run lengths are usually determined by ionic or radiochemical depletion of the resin or in some cases by limiting radionuclide concentrations specified by shipping regulations or established ion column dose rates

  7. Periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, S

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the tissues destroyed as a result of periodontal disease. Currently, two clinical techniques, based on the principles of "guided tissue regeneration" (GTR) or utilization of the biologically active agent "enamel matrix derivative" (EMD), can be used for the regeneration of intrabony and Class II mandibular furcation periodontal defects. In cases where additional support and space-making requirements are necessary, both of these procedures can be combined with a bone replacement graft. There is no evidence that the combined use of GTR and EMD results in superior clinical results compared to the use of each material in isolation. Great variability in clinical outcomes has been reported in relation to the use of both EMD and GTR, and these procedures can be generally considered to be unpredictable. Careful case selection and treatment planning, including consideration of patient, tooth, site and surgical factors, is required in order to optimize the outcomes of treatment. There are limited data available for the clinical effectiveness of other biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and platelet concentrates, and although promising results have been reported, further clinical trials are required in order to confirm their effectiveness. Current active areas of research are centred on tissue engineering and gene therapy strategies which may result in more predictable regenerative outcomes in the future.

  8. Uso de resíduo industrial a base de resina fenólica como carga para o polipropileno Use of industrial waste based on phenolic resin as filler for polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P. Cavalcante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a viabilidade técnica do uso de resíduo industrial composto de resina fenólica, lignocelulose, carbonato de cálcio, talco, mica e negro de fumo como carga para o polipropileno (PP. Compósitos de PP com 10, 15 e 20% em massa do resíduo foram processados em extrusora de rosca dupla e moldados por injeção. Os compósitos moldados foram caracterizados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, análises térmicas (DSC e TGA, ensaios mecânicos (tração, flexão e impacto e ensaio termo-mecânico (HDT. Os compósitos moldados apresentaram partículas do resíduo com tamanhos inferiores a 500 µm dispersas na matriz de polipropileno. As partículas do resíduo atuaram como agentes de nucleação da cristalização do PP. Os compósitos apresentaram maior resistência à degradação térmica, balanço de rigidez e resistência com aumento do módulo sob flexão e diminuição da resistência à tração, manutenção da resistência ao impacto sob entalhe, e aumento da temperatura de distorção ao calor (HDT. O desempenho dos compósitos demonstrou que o resíduo industrial de resina fenólica pode ser empregado como carga funcional para o PP. Além disso, os compósitos desenvolvidos representam uma alternativa para a reciclagem do resíduo industrial de resina fenólica.The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using industrial waste composed of phenolic resin, lignocellulose, calcium carbonate, talc, mica and carbon black as filler for polypropylene (PP. Composites of PP with 10, 15 and 20 wt% of the waste were processed in a twin-screw extruder followed by injection molding. Molded composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal analyses (DSC and TGA, mechanical tests (tensile, flexural and impact and thermo-mechanical test (HDT. The composites showed residue particles with sizes less than 500 µm dispersed in the PP matrix. The residue particles

  9. Leaching of 60 Co and 137 Cs from spent ion exchange resins in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cement; radioactive waste; composite; waste management. Abstract. The leaching rate of 60Co and 137Cs from the spent cation exchange resins in cement–bentonite matrix has been studied. The solidification matrix was a standard Portland cement mixed with 290–350 (kg/m3) spent cation exchange resins, with or ...

  10. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: Column sorption-elution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koese, T. Ennil; Oztuerk, Nese

    2008-01-01

    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5 M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well

  11. Method of solidifying powderous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Akira; Miyake, Takashi; Sato, Shuichi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the properties of solidification products, in the case of solidifying powderous wastes with thermosetting resins. Method. A solvent for the solution of the thermosetting resin is admixed with the powderous wastes into a paste-like form prior to adding the resin to the wastes, which are then mixed with the resin solution. As the result, those solidification products having the specific gravity and the compression strength more excellent than those of the conventional ones, and much higher than the reference values can be obtained. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Laboratory studies on enhancing the throughput of demineraliser units by proper selection of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S V; Unny, V K.P.; Shetiya, R S [Reactor Services and Maintenance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    In water treatment plants of nuclear reactors, type I strong base anion resins are extensively used in anion units along with strong acid cation resins in cation units for demineralisation of water. There is another kind of strong base anion resin called type II resin which is chemically slightly different from type I resin. Type II resins differ from the type I in that one of the methyl groups in the quaternary ammonium functional group of the latter, is replaced by an ethanol group. This results in lower basicity of the resin and hence, higher regeneration efficiency. However, the resin is not like a weak base resin in its properties since it is capable of removing silica from water, though not with the same efficiency as that of the type I strong base resin. Studies were carried out to compare the performance of presently used type I resins with that of type II resins supplied by local manufacturers to assess the suitability of the latter for use in the DM plants of Trombay reactors. This paper discusses the results of the studies. (author). 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Sequestration Resins for Accelerating Removal of Radioactive Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattini, Paul-L.; Wells, Daniel-M.; Garcia, Susan-E.; Richard, Kohlmann; Asay, Roger; Yengoyan, Leon

    2012-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is developing sequestration resins that can be used in the treatment of nuclear plant water streams for the enhanced removal of ionic cobalt. EPRI is focusing on three key areas of success: 1. Plant safety. The resins that are synthesized must be fully tested to determine that no leachable species or decomposition products (in the event of a resin bed failure) would be introduced to the plant. 2. Acceptable system performance. The resins are currently being synthesized in a powdered form for use in the reactor water clean-up and fuel pool clean-up systems that utilize pre-coatable filter elements. The resins must have effective flocking behavior; uniform application over the underlay resin and efficient removal from the septa elements after use. Bead type resins are also under development. 3. Enhanced cobalt removal. The resins are expected to out-perform the currently used ion exchange resins in the removal of ionic cobalt. During nuclear plant maintenance or refueling outages, current ion exchange resins may require several days to reduce concentrations of cobalt (for example, radio-cobalt 60 Co and 58 Co) and other activated corrosion products to safe levels in reactor coolant streams. This performance limitation often delays key maintenance activities. EPRI's resins are expected to provide at least a three-fold increase in removal capacity in light water reactor coolants. These resins also offer the potential for higher overall removal efficiencies reducing occupational exposures and waste management costs. This paper addresses issues from the range of novel resin development for radio-cobalt removal from synthesis at the bench-top level through scale-up to demonstration of use in an actual operating nuclear power plant. (authors)

  14. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  15. Method of solidifying radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshihide; Minami, Yuji; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Kageyama, Hisashi; Kobori, Junzo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To perform the curing sufficiently even when copper hydroxide that interferes the curing reaction is contained in radioactive wastes. Method: Solidification of radioactive wastes containing copper hydroxide using thermoset resins is carried out under the presence of an alkaline material. The thermoset resin used herein is an polyester resin comprising unsaturated polyester and a polymerizable monomer. The alkaline substance usable herein can include powder or an aqueous solution of hydroxides or oxides of sodium, magnesium, calcium or the like. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. The use of regeneration profiles as a tool to optimise the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-10-04

    Oct 4, 2003 ... change in the structure of the solid. At the start of a service cycle the predominant ionic ..... The reason for these changes was to remove as many of the hardness salts exchanged by the WAC resin as ... higher average top acid strength for the 2nd regeneration of 0.6%, against 0.5% for the 1st regeneration.

  17. Application of a weak base anion exchange resin for recovery of uranium at Uravan, Colorado, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, N.E.; Kunin, R.

    1976-01-01

    Resin ion-exchange technology has been used to recover uranium at the Uravan, Colorado plant for over 18 years; however, since the end of U.S. Atomic Energy Commission purchase of U 3 O 8 concentrate in 1970, it has become necessary to develop techniques for upgrading the product to meet the more stringent specifications of private sales. The standard gel type quaternary ammonium anion exchange resin had been used previously. The development of the tertiary amine anion exchange resin, Amberlite XE-299, led to an experimental program of laboratory and pilot plant work to evaluate the resin on actual plant solutions. General information on ion-exchange resin structure and chemistry is discussed. Summary data of specific test work on loading the resin, various elution schemes, resin regeneration and product purity from the pilot plant tests and comments on actual plant operation using Amberlite XE-299 resin are presented. (author)

  18. Effect of the chemical structure of anion exchange resin on the adsorption of humic acid: behavior and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Jun; Li, Haibo; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrenic (PS) anion-exchange resin and polyacrylic (PA) anion-exchange resin were used to investigate the effect of resin chemical structure on the adsorption of humic acid (HA). Due to the rearrangement of HA to form layers that function as barricades to further HA diffusion, PS resin exhibited 12.4 times slower kinetics for the initial adsorption rate and 8.4 times for the diffusion constant in comparison to that of the PA resin. An HA layer and a spherical cluster of HA can be observed on the surface of the PS and PA resins after adsorption, respectively. The considerable difference in HA adsorption between the PS and PA resins was due to the difference in molecule shape for interaction with different resin structures, which can essentially be explained by the hydrophobicity and various interactions of the PS resin. A given amount of HA occupies more positively charged sites and hydrophobic sites on the PS resin than were occupied by the same amount of HA on the PA resin. Increased pH resulted in an increase of HA adsorption onto the PA resin but a decrease in adsorption onto PS resin, as the non-electrostatic adsorption led to electrostatic repulsion between the HA attached to the resin and the HA dissolved in solution. These results suggest higher rates of adsorption and higher regeneration efficiency for interaction of HA with more hydrophilic anion exchange materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Method of solidifying radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Mihara, Shigeru; Yamashita, Koji; Sauda, Kenzo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain satisfactory plastic solidification products rapidly and more conveniently from radioactive wastes. Method: liquid wastes contain, in addition to sodium sulfate as the main ingredient, nitrates hindering the polymerizing curing reactions and various other unknown ingredients, while spent resins contain residual cationic exchange groups hindering the polymerizing reaction. Generally, as the acid value of unsaturated liquid polyester resins is lower, the number of terminal alkyd resins is small, formation of nitrates is reduced and the polymerizing curing reaction is taken place more smoothly. In view of the above, radioactive wastes obtained by dry powderization or dehydration of radioactive liquid wastes or spent resins are polymerized with unsaturated liquid polyester resins with the acid value of less than 13 to obtain plastic solidification. Thus, if the radioactive wastes contain a great amount of polymerization hindering material such as NaNO 2 , they can be solidified rapidly and conveniently with no requirement for pre-treatment. (Kamimura, Y.)

  20. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Radionuclide for the Used Resin of the Primary Purification System in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun; Kim, Myong Seop; Park, Se Il; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Chil

    2005-01-01

    In HANARO, a 30 MW research reactor, the ion exchange resin has been used for the purification of the primary coolant system. The resin used in the primary coolant purification system is replaced with new one once every 3 months during 30 MW reactor operation. The extracted resin from the primary coolant purification system is temporarily stored in a shielding treatment of the reactor hall for radiation cooling. After the radiation level of resin decreases enough to be handled for the waste disposal, it is put into the waste drum, and delivered to the waste facility in KAERI. Recently, in this procedure, the quantitative analysis of radionuclide which is contained in resin is required to have more quantitative data for the disposal. Therefore, in this work, a preliminary study was performed to find a sampling method for the representation of the characteristics of radionuclide in the spent resin

  2. Purification of degraded TBP solvent using macroreticular anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Janaradanan, C.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with a suitable diluent is commonly used for solvent extraction in Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuels. This solvent gets degraded due to various factors, the main degradation product being dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). A solvent cleanup step is generally incorporated in the process for removing the degradation products from the used solvent. A liquid-liquid cleanup system using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution is routinely used. Considering certain advantages, like the possibility of loading the resin almost to saturation capacity and the subsequent disposal of the spent resin by incineration and the feasibility of adopting it to the process, a liquid-solid system has been tried as an alternate method, employing various available macroreticular anion exchange resins in OH - form for the sorption of HDBP from TBP. After standardizing the various conditions for the satisfactory removal of HDBP from TBP using synthetic mixtures, resins were tested with process solvent in batch contacts. The parameters studied were (1) capacity of different resins for HDBP sorption (2) influence of acidity, uranium and HDBP on the sorption behaviour of the latter (3) removal of fission products from the solvent by the resin and (4) regeneration and recycling of the resin. (author). 2 figs., 13 tabs., 17 refs

  3. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  4. Cardiomyocyte Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Nakanishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The heart was initially believed to be a terminally differentiated organ; once the cardiomyocytes died, no recovery could be made to replace the dead cells. However, around a decade ago, the concept of cardiac stem cells (CSCs in adult hearts was proposed. CSCs differentiate into cardiomyocytes, keeping the heart functioning. Studies have proved the existence of stem cells in the heart. These somatic stem cells have been studied for use in cardiac regeneration. Moreover, recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were invented, and methodologies have now been developed to induce stable cardiomyocyte differentiation and purification of mature cardiomyocytes. A reprogramming method has also been applied to direct reprogramming using cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. Here, we address cardiomyocyte differentiation of CSCs and iPSCs. Furthermore, we describe the potential of CSCs in regenerative biology and regenerative medicine.

  5. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development Of An Approach To Modeling Loading And Elution Of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Ion-Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman, S.; Hamm, L.; Smith, F.

    2011-01-01

    The current strategy for removal of cesium from the Hanford waste stream is ion-exchange using spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The original resin of choice was granular SuperLig 644 resin and during testing of this resin several operational issues were identified. For example, the granular material had a high angle of internal friction resulting in fragmentation of resin particles along its edges during cycling and adverse hydraulic performance. Efforts to replace SuperLig 644 were undertaken and one candidate was the granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin where experience with this cation exchanger dates back to the late 1940's. To minimize hydraulic concerns a spherical version of RF was developed and several different chemically produced batches were created. The 5E-370/641 batch of sRF was selected and for the last decade numerous studies have been performed (e.g., batch contact tests, column loading and elution tests). The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) flowsheet shows that the aqueous phase waste stream will have a wide range of ionic concentrations (e.g., during the loading step 0-3 M free OH, 5+ M Na, 0-1 M K, 0-3 M NO 3 ). Several steps are required in the ion-exchange process to achieve the required Cs separation factors: loading, displacement, washing, elution, and regeneration. The sRF resin will be operated over a wide range in pH (i.e., pH of 12-14 during the loading step and pH of 0.01-1 during the elution step). During some of these steps very high levels of counter-ions and co-ions will be present within the aqueous phase. Alternative process feeds are under consideration as well (e.g., sodium levels as high as 8 M and column operation up to 45 C during loading, reduced and recycled HNO 3 during elution). In order to model the performance of sRF resin through an entire ion-exchange cycle, a more robust isotherm model is required. To achieve this more robust isotherm model requires knowledge of the numbers and kinds of fixed

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROACH TO MODELING LOADING AND ELUTION OF SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION-EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S.; Hamm, L.; Smith, F.

    2011-10-03

    The current strategy for removal of cesium from the Hanford waste stream is ion-exchange using spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The original resin of choice was granular SuperLig 644 resin and during testing of this resin several operational issues were identified. For example, the granular material had a high angle of internal friction resulting in fragmentation of resin particles along its edges during cycling and adverse hydraulic performance. Efforts to replace SuperLig 644 were undertaken and one candidate was the granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin where experience with this cation exchanger dates back to the late 1940's. To minimize hydraulic concerns a spherical version of RF was developed and several different chemically produced batches were created. The 5E-370/641 batch of sRF was selected and for the last decade numerous studies have been performed (e.g., batch contact tests, column loading and elution tests). The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) flowsheet shows that the aqueous phase waste stream will have a wide range of ionic concentrations (e.g., during the loading step 0-3 M free OH, 5+ M Na, 0-1 M K, 0-3 M NO{sub 3}). Several steps are required in the ion-exchange process to achieve the required Cs separation factors: loading, displacement, washing, elution, and regeneration. The sRF resin will be operated over a wide range in pH (i.e., pH of 12-14 during the loading step and pH of 0.01-1 during the elution step). During some of these steps very high levels of counter-ions and co-ions will be present within the aqueous phase. Alternative process feeds are under consideration as well (e.g., sodium levels as high as 8 M and column operation up to 45 C during loading, reduced and recycled HNO{sub 3} during elution). In order to model the performance of sRF resin through an entire ion-exchange cycle, a more robust isotherm model is required. To achieve this more robust isotherm model requires knowledge of the numbers and kinds of

  8. Immobilisation Of Spent Ion Exchange Resins Using Portland Cement Blending With Organic Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Mohd Abdul Wahab; Nur Azna Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    Immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins (spent resins) using Portland cement blending with organic material for example bio char was investigated. The performance of cement-bio char matrix for immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins was evaluated based on their compression strength and leachability under different experimental conditions. The results showed that the amount of bio char and spent resins loading effect the compressive strength of the waste form. Several factors affecting the leaching behaviour of immobilised spent resins in cement-bio char matrix. (author)

  9. Thermal behaviour of used resin during conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsene, C.

    2016-01-01

    In the nuclear power plants using light water and heavy water as coolant, as well as in most waste treatment installations, the ion-exchange resins are used to purify water circuits. Since the resins retain both radionuclide and chemical impurities, it represents a low- and intermediate- radioactive waste that requires special management for storage and disposal. From experimental studies it was found that the conditioning of the used resin in bitumen has several advantages. But there are some disadvantages, too, one being the significant amount of gas produced during the bituminization process because of the high temperature (1200C). Besides water vapours, the condensable gas mixture (formed by a liquid fraction and an oil fraction) contains products generated from the partial decomposition of the resin and release of degradation products of bitumen: dimethyl and trimethylamine, methanol - compounds resulting from the destruction of functional groups and hydrocarbon fraction formed by n-paraffins (C6-C32), iso-paraffins and aromatics. (authors)

  10. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.

    1983-07-01

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m 3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  11. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  12. Method of processing decontaminating liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Ken-ichi

    1989-01-01

    When decontaminating liquid wastes are processed by ion exchange resins, radioactive nuclides, metals, decontaminating agents in the liquid wastes are captured in the ion exchange resins. When the exchange resins are oxidatively deomposed, most of the ingredients are decomposed into water and gaseous carbonic acid and discharged, while sulfur ingredient in the resins is converted into sulfuric acid. In this case, even less oxidizable ingredients in the decontaminating agent made easily decomposable by oxidative decomposition together with the resins. The radioactive nuclides and a great amount of iron dissolved upon decontamination in the liquid wastes are dissolved in sulfuric acid formed. When the sulfuric acid wastes are nuetralized with sodium hydroxide, since they are formed into sodium sulfate, which is most popular as wastes from nuclear facilities, they can be condensated and solidified by existent waste processing systms to thereby facilitate the waste processing. (K.M.)

  13. Study and application on lean resin converting in uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shaoxi; Huang Qijin; Zhu Shuguang; Yi Faqing; Du Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    The field test about sulphuric acid used to convert lean resin was finished. The results indicated sulphuric acid could replace chlorin in lean resin and could be reclaimed to desorption procedure. The consumption of NaCl decreased, the chlorin concentration of tailing decreased too. Both of uranium loss and waste water volume were reduced. The uranium concentration of tailing decreased and energy saving and emission reduction can be achieved. (authors)

  14. The ChemChar process for hazardous-waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowin, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The ChemChar Reverse-Burn Gasification Process has been studied for application to the thermal destruction of radioactive waste organic ion exchange resins. The resulting char was mixed with cement to form a dry, leach-resistant final disposal product. Successful regeneration of spent granular activated carbons was achieved with reverse-burn gasification. Regeneration parameters such as moisture content and supplemental fuel addition were investigated. The performance of regenerated carbon was evaluated by batch equilibrium and breakthrough assay and was comparable to that of the original. Surface areas were determined by the BET method. The fate of mercury during reverse-burn gasification was investigated. TRB Char adsorbent was used to remove mercury vapor emission from the process. The use of petroleum coke as a substrate for gasification of wastes was studied. Petroleum coke was activated by reverse-burn gasification to produce a highly porous, low surface area solid. Destruction efficiency for hexachlorobenzene on activated coke was considerably lower than on coal char, however, the addition of iron appeared to catalyze hexachlorobenzene gasification

  15. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins From Commercial Nuclear Power... Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors. DATES: Please submit... Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial...

  16. Feasible modifications for the low-level waste treatment plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Aqueous, low-level, radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain small amounts of 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides. These wastes are processed by passage through beds of a strong-acid cation exchange resin, and the treated water is then discharged to the environment. Studies show that pretreatment of the waste with a weak-acid cation exchange resin would result in a significant decrease in regeneration reagents and a saving of manpower. This can be accomplished in the present plant by piping changes on the existing columns. The effluent from the cation treatment process contains all of the radionuclides that are present in anionic form. Routinely, this consists only of approximately one-half of the 60 Co. Under certain conditions, other anions (such as 131 I) could be present. Studies show that these can be removed by use of an anion exchange resin bed at the end of the process. This would require the construction of an additional column, if the head-end treatment described above is also installed. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Guillot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  18. SHALLOW SHELL RESIN VERSUS TRADITIONAL RESIN: A CASE STUDY FOR Cu(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Arar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on Cu2+ removal by shallow shell resin (Purolite SST 60 and traditional strongly acidic cation exchange resin (Purolite PFC 100 was performed. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of  resin  dosage and  solution pH and contact time. Ion exchange reaction showed a pH depended feature.  Maximum removal of Cu2+ achieved  pH  from 2 to 5. Sorption isothermal data is well interpreted by the Langmuir equation. Additionally, kinetic experiments showed that the pseudo first-order model was suitable for such resins. The regeneration performance of shallow shell technology (SST resin is better than PFC 100.  A solution of 2M H2SO4 performed well in regenerationof SST 60 resin. On the other han maximum regeneration reached 80% for PFC 100 resin.Özet: Bu çalışmada, klasik iyon değiştirici reçine (Purolite PFC 100 ve  sığ kabuk  reçine (Purolite SST 60  ile Cu2+ giderilmesi incelenmiştir. Yapılan kesikli çalışmalarla Cu2+ giderilmesine, reçine miktarı, çözelti pH`ı ve temas süresinin etkisi incelenmiştir. Çözelti pH`ının 2 ile 5 arasında olduğu durumda Cu2+ iyonları tamamen giderilmiştir. Denge çalışmalarında elde edilen sonuçlar Langmuir izoterm modeline daha uygun olmuştur. Kinetik çalışmalarda elde edilen sonuçlar yalancı birinci mertebe kinetik modeline uygunluk göstermişir. SST 60 reçinesinin rejenerasyon verimi PFC 100 reçinesinden daha yüksektir. 2M H2SO4 ile SST 60 reçinesi tamamen rejenere edilmiştir.

  19. Advances in the disposal of radioactive ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    During the last several years, more stringent regulations have been imposed on the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, the disposal of high-activity ion exchange resins has been affected by the recent requirements intended to enhance waste stability. High-activity resins must now be either solidified or placed in a ''high-integrity'' container. The allowable levels of free liquids in the containers have also been reduced. Solidification of resins has long been applied at nuclear power stations, but new designs in high-integrity containers and dewatering techniques to enhance the waste stability and ensure regulatory compliance have been developed and are being introduced for use at power stations

  20. Physical and chemical durability of cement impregnated epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro

    1997-01-01

    Immobilization of simulation radioactive waste contains Cs and Sr with cement impregnated epoxy resin has been done. Low level liquid waste in 30% weight mixed cement homogeneously and then set in its curing time about 28 days. Waste from was impregnated with epoxy resin (Bisphenol-A-diglycidylether) and use Triethylenteramin as catalyst. the sample of cement impregnated epoxy resin 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm in diameter and length was tested by Paul Weber. The compressive strength was obtained of 4.08 kN.cm - 2. The sochxlet apparatus was run on flow rate of 300 ml/hour at 100 o C and during 24 hours. The leaching rate of Cs was round on 5.5 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 and Sr was 6.1 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 (author)

  1. Regeneration performance of CO2-rich solvents by using membrane vacuum regeneration technology: Relationships between absorbent structure and regeneration efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shuiping; Fang, Mengxiang; Wang, Zhen; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► MVR may be viable to successfully use less valuable heat to replace high grade steam. ► Increasing OH and amine groups will increase the regeneration efficiency. ► Absorbents with a four carbon chain length will be more attractive to MVR. ► Amino acid salts will be more appropriate for MVR. ► HRM conducted at ambient pressure and low temperature is inferior to MVR. -- Abstract: In order to give a better understanding for the selection of suitable absorbents for the novel membrane vacuum regeneration technology (MVR) which has the potential to reduce CO 2 energy requirement by utilizing the waste heat or low-grade energy, an experimental study to determine the relationships between chemical structure and vacuum regeneration behavior of CO 2 absorbents at 70 °C and 10 kPa was performed. Eleven typical absorbents with different functional groups in their chemical structures were investigated in terms of vacuum regeneration efficiencies. Results showed that the regeneration efficiency decreased with an increase of number of activated hydrogen atom in amine group and decreased with the number of hydroxyl group. Especially, more attention should be paid to these alkanolamines with one hydrogen atom in amine group and two or more hydroxyl groups in the structures due to their better comprehensive performance in regeneration, absorbent loss and CO 2 absorption aspects. Increasing the carbon chain length and amine groups in the absorbent structure contributed to the improvement of regeneration performance and reduction of absorbent volatile loss. These absorbents with a four carbon chain length bonded at amine group might be more attractive to MVR. Furthermore, polyamines were superior to monoamines in terms of higher regeneration efficiencies and lower absorbent losses. Additionally, the individual effects of the potassium carboxylate group and hydroxymethylene group were also compared in this study. Results showed that amino acid salts were more

  2. The measurement of 129I for the cement and the paraffin solidified low and intermediate level wastes (LILWs), spent resin or evaporated bottom from the pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S D; Kim, J S; Han, S H; Ha, Y K; Song, K S; Jee, K Y

    2009-09-01

    In this paper a relatively simple and low cost analysis procedure to apply to a routine analysis of (129)I in low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILWs), cement and paraffin solidified evaporated bottom and spent resin, which are produced from nuclear power plants (NPPs), pressurized water reactors (PWR), is presented. The (129)I is separated from other nuclides in LILWs using an anion exchange adsorption and solvent extraction by controlling the oxidation and reduction state and is then precipitated as silver iodide for counting the beta activity with a low background gas proportional counter (GPC). The counting efficiency of GPC was varied from 4% to 8% and it was reversely proportional to the weight of AgI by a self absorption of the beta activity. Compared to a higher pH, the chemical recovery of iodide as AgI was lowered at pH 4. It was found that the chemical recovery of iodide for the cement powder showed a lower trend by increasing the cement powder weight, but it was not affected for the paraffin sample. In this experiment, the overall chemical recovery yield of the cement and paraffin solidified LILW samples and the average weight of them were 67+/-3% and 5.43+/-0.53 g, 70+/-7% and 10.40+/-1.60 g, respectively. And the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of (129)I for the cement and paraffin solidified LILW samples was calculated as 0.070 and 0.036 Bq/g, respectively. Among the analyzed cement solidified LILW samples, (129)I activity concentration of four samples was slightly higher than the MDA and their ranges were 0.076-0.114 Bq/g. Also of the analyzed paraffin solidified LILW samples, five samples contained a little higher (129)I activity concentration than the MDA and their ranges were 0.036-0.107 Bq/g.

  3. The measurement of 129I for the cement and the paraffin solidified low and intermediate level wastes (LILWs), spent resin or evaporated bottom from the pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.D.; Kim, J.S.; Han, S.H.; Ha, Y.K.; Song, K.S.; Jee, K.Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a relatively simple and low cost analysis procedure to apply to a routine analysis of 129 I in low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILWs), cement and paraffin solidified evaporated bottom and spent resin, which are produced from nuclear power plants (NPPs), pressurized water reactors (PWR), is presented. The 129 I is separated from other nuclides in LILWs using an anion exchange adsorption and solvent extraction by controlling the oxidation and reduction state and is then precipitated as silver iodide for counting the beta activity with a low background gas proportional counter (GPC). The counting efficiency of GPC was varied from 4% to 8% and it was reversely proportional to the weight of AgI by a self absorption of the beta activity. Compared to a higher pH, the chemical recovery of iodide as AgI was lowered at pH 4. It was found that the chemical recovery of iodide for the cement powder showed a lower trend by increasing the cement powder weight, but it was not affected for the paraffin sample. In this experiment, the overall chemical recovery yield of the cement and paraffin solidified LILW samples and the average weight of them were 67±3% and 5.43±0.53 g, 70±7% and 10.40±1.60 g, respectively. And the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of 129 I for the cement and paraffin solidified LILW samples was calculated as 0.070 and 0.036 Bq/g, respectively. Among the analyzed cement solidified LILW samples, 129 I activity concentration of four samples was slightly higher than the MDA and their ranges were 0.076-0.114 Bq/g. Also of the analyzed paraffin solidified LILW samples, five samples contained a little higher 129 I activity concentration than the MDA and their ranges were 0.036-0.107 Bq/g.

  4. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ∼336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin

  5. Removal of Legacy Low-Level Waste Reactor Moderator De-ionizer Resins Highly Contaminated with Carbon-14 from the 'Waste with no Path to Disposal List' Through Innovative Technical Analysis and Performance Assessment Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, W.T.; Hiergesell, R.A.; Kaplan, D.I.; Pope, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors used de-ionizers to control the chemistry of the reactor moderator during their operation to produce nuclear materials primarily for the weapons program. These de-ionizers were removed from the reactors and stored as a legacy waste and due to the relatively high carbon-14 (C-14) contamination (i.e., on the order of 740 giga becquerel (GBq) (20 curies) per de-ionizer) were considered a legacy 'waste with no path to disposal'. Considerable progress has been made in consideration of a disposal path for the legacy reactor de-ionizers. Presently, 48 - 50 de-ionizers being stored at SRS have 'no path to disposal' because the disposal limit for C-14 in the SRS's low-level waste disposal facility's Intermediate Level Vault (ILV) is only 160 GBq (4.2 curies) per vault. The current C-14 ILV disposal limit is based on a very conservative analysis of the air pathway. The paper will describe the alternatives that were investigated that resulted in the selection of a route to pursue. This paper will then describe SRS's efforts to reduce the conservatism in the analysis, which resulted in a significantly larger C-14 disposal limit. The work consisted of refining the gas-phase analysis to simulate the migration of C-14 from the waste to the ground surface and evaluated the efficacy of carbonate chemistry in cementitious environment of the ILV for suppressing the volatilization of C-14. During the past year, a Special Analysis was prepared for Department of Energy approval to incorporate the results of these activities that increased the C-14 disposal limits for the ILV, thus allowing for disposal of the Reactor Moderator De-ionizers. Once the Special Analysis is approved by DOE, the actual disposal would be dependent on priority and funding, but the de-ionizers will be removed from the 'waste with no path to disposal list'. (authors)

  6. Tests of the use of cation exchange organic resins for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdrez, Jean; Girault, Jacques; Wormser, Gerald

    1962-01-01

    The authors report tests performed in laboratory and results obtained during an investigation of the use of synthetic ion exchangers for the decontamination of radioactive effluents of moderate activity level and with a non neglectable salt loading. Resins are used under sodium form and regenerated after each fixing operation. Once decontaminated and free of its disturbing ions, the regenerating agent (NaCl) is used for several operations. The authors present the used resins, the treated effluents, describe the tests, and discuss the obtained results [fr

  7. Diffusion in composite materials made of thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno.

    1981-03-01

    The embedding process of low and medium level radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins allows their containment in a solid matrix. During storage the risk of circulation of water is possible. The aim of this containment process is to prevent radionuclide migration in environment. Ion migration through membranes of thermosetting resins alone or filler added were measured to evaluate released radioactivity by embedded blocks with time and to compare the different embedding formulas. Water influence on diffusion was taken into account considering that radioactive wastes dispersion is faster in a wet medium than in a dry one [fr

  8. Treatment of spent ion exchange resins IAEA research coordination programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.; Wattal, P.K.; Chanana, N.

    1981-09-01

    Spent ion-exchange resins arising from steam condensate systems, reactor coolant clean-up systems and rad-waste procession, are considered as a specific solid waste management problem. This is the second report on the product characterisation with respect to thermal properties, flammability, bio-organic degradation and leaching behaviours. All these studies are based on polyester-styrene polymer as a matrix for fixation of these spent Ix-resins. Choice of this matrix was dealt with in the first report. (author)

  9. Anoxic selectors with regeneration in activated sludge waste water treatment processes; Selectores anoxicos con regeneracion en procesos de depuracion de aguas residuales por fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho Seuma, L.; Lopetigue Garnica, J.; Paredes, J.A.; Alonso, E.; Plaza, F.I.; Diaz chozas, M.

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a reduction in the concentration of filamentous bulking or foaming related microorganisms, such as usually appear in connection with nutrient elimination processes, where sludge retention times are high and loads are small. The Research Institute Centa has established, annexed to the sewage treatment plant Norte I. Seville, a pilot plant with the classical DN layout, and an anoxic selector, as well as a regeneration tank . This tank is meant to eliminate the remaining substratum associated with the cells after being settled in a high-concentration environment the selector. We endeavor therefore to select by kinetic and metabolic procedures the flock formers microorganisms to the expense of the filamentous microorganisms. (Author)

  10. Study of the behavior of high activity waste produced during the regeneration of fast reactor fuel elements by the gaseous fluoride method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriolovich, A.P.; Dem'yanovich, M.A.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.; Skiba, O.V.; Gazizov, R.K.; Vorobey, M.P.

    The composition and certain physicochemical and radiation properties of waste obtained from reprocessing BOR-60 fuel by the gaseous fluoride method were studied on an experimental stand. It was found that from 80 to 85 percent of the total activity is concentrated in the fluorination cakes. From thermographic analysis, measurement of radiation-induced gas evolution and composition of the gaseous phase, it is concluded that the waste must be canned. Compatibility of carbon steel, austenitic steel, and nickel with low-activity fluoride cakes was studied. It is shown that the corrosion of these materials increases with temperature and moisture content of the medium. In the first stage of waste disposal, hermetic storage in special containers of stainless steel or nickel is recommended. From their corrosion resistance in low-activity fluoride cakes, the wall temperatures of containers made of St. 3 should not exceed 100 0 C, Kh18N10T 230 0 C, and nickel 300 0 C. Later, after cooling and a decrease in the γ activity of the waste (10 to 15 years), they can be reprocessed to recover valuable components (Am, Cm, etc.) and then buried. 5 tables

  11. Impact of high soot-loaded and regenerated diesel particulate filters on the emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine fueled with waste cooking oil-based biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Yang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Young, Li-Hao; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Mwangi, John Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WCO-based biodiesel blends cannot stimulate POPs formation in uncatalyzed DPF. • Formation mechanism of POPs in diesel engines is homogeneous gas-phase formation. • The gas-phase POPs are highly dominant in the raw exhausts of diesel engines. • The regeneration of the DPF can drastically reduce the formation potential of POPs in the DPFs. - Abstract: This study evaluated the impact on persistent organic pollutant (POP) emissions from a diesel engine when deploying a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) combined with an uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF), as well as fueling with conventional diesel (B2) and waste cooking oil-based (WCO-based) biodiesel blends (B10 and B20). When the engine was fueled with WCO-based biodiesel blends (B10 and B20) in combination with deploying DOC+A-DPF, their levels of the chlorine and potassium contents could not stimulate the formation of chlorinated POPs (PCDD/Fs and PCBs), although previous studies had warned that happened on diesel engines fueled with biodiesel and deployed with iron-catalyzed DPFs. In contrast, the WCO-based biodiesel with a lower aromatic content reduced the precursors for POP formation, and its higher oxygen content compared to diesel promoted more complete combustion, and thus using WCO-based biodiesel could reduce both PM_2_._5 and POP emissions from diesel engines. This study also evaluated the impact of DPF conditions on the POP emissions from a diesel engine; that is, the difference in POP emissions before and just after the regeneration of the DPF. In comparison to the high soot-loaded DPF scenario, the regeneration of the DPF can drastically reduce the formation potential of POPs in the DPFs. An approach was developed to correct the effects of sampling artifacts on the partitioning of gas- and particle-phase POPs in the exhaust. The gas-phase POPs are highly dominant (89.7–100%) in the raw exhausts of diesel engines, indicating that the formation mechanism of POPs in diesel

  12. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.; Shirsat, A.N.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2005-08-01

    The spent IX resins from nuclear power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of these resins can lead to high volume reduction of these wastes. Low temperature pyrolysis of transition metal ion loaded IX resins in presence of nitrogen was carried out in order to optimize catalyst composition to achieve maximum weight reduction. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis residues was carried out in presence of air in order to compare the oxidative characteristics of transition metal oxide catalysts. Copper along with iron, chromium and nickel present in the spent IX resins gave the most efficient catalyst combination for catalytic and oxidative pyrolysis of the residues. During low temperature catalytic pyrolysis, 137 Cesium volatility was estimated to be around 0.01% from cationic resins and around 0.1% from anionic resins. During oxidative pyrolysis at 700 degC, nearly 10 to 40% of 137 Cesium was found to be released to off gases depending upon type of resin and catalyst loaded on to it. The oxidation of pyrolytic residues at 700 degC gave weight reduction of 15% for cationic resins and 93% for anionic resins. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis is attractive for reducing weight and volume of spent cationic resins from PHWRs and VVERs. (author)

  13. Study on Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregates Immersed in Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Suraya Hani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, engineers have sought a more sustainable method to dispose of concrete construction and demolition waste. One solution is to crush this waste concrete into a usable gradation for new concrete mixes. This not only reduces the amount of waste entering landfills but also alleviates the burden on existing sources of quality natural concrete aggregates. There are too many kinds of waste but here constructions waste will be the priority target that should be solved. It could be managed by several ways such as recycling and reusing the concrete components, and the best choice of these components is the aggregate, because of the ease process of recycle it. In addition, recycled aggregates and normal aggregates were immersed in epoxy resin and put in concrete mixtures with 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% which affected the concrete mixtures properties. The strength of the concrete for both normal and recycled aggregates has increased after immersed the aggregates in epoxy resin. The percentage of water absorption and the coefficient of water permeability decreased with the increasing of the normal and the recycled aggregates immersed in epoxy resin. Generally the tests which have been conducted to the concrete mixtures have a significant results after using the epoxy resin with both normal and recycled aggregates.

  14. Column chromatographic separation of Y3+ from Sr2+ by polymeric ionizable crown ether resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.J.; Elshani, S.; Wai, C.M.; Bartsch, R.A.; Huntley, M.; Hartenstein, S.

    1993-01-01

    Condensation polymers containing subunits of crown ether carboxylic acid monomers are effective stationary phases for the chromatographic separation of Y 3+ and Sr 2+ . The pH range and metal loading capacities for the resins have been determined under equilibrium conditions. The resin can be regenerated for repeated use without losing its separation capability. Altering the molecular structure of the monomer (sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyacetic acid) by an alkyl substitution on the macrocyclic cavity decreases the loading capacity of the resin

  15. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date

  16. Concentrations and environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks and accumulation in sludge, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Z.; Jacobsen, E.; Kraemer, T.F.; Parsa, B.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of Ra in liquid and solid wastes generated from 15 softeners treating domestic well waters from New Jersey Coastal Plain aquifers (where combined Ra (226Ra plus 228Ra) concentrations commonly exceed 0.185 Bq L-1) were determined. Softeners, when maintained, reduced combined Ra about 10-fold (septic-tank effluents receiving brine waste were less than in the untreated ground waters. The maximum combined Ra concentration in aquifer sands (40.7 Bq kg-1 dry weight) was less than that in sludge from the septic tanks (range, 84-363 Bq kg-1), indicating Ra accumulation in sludge from effluent. The combined Ra concentration in sludge from the homeowners' septic systems falls within the range reported for sludge samples from publicly owned treatment works within the region.

  17. Characterization of monolith block of spent resin cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Endro-Kismolo; Isman MT

    1996-01-01

    Spent resin immobilization process with cement was done to prevent release of radionuclide in the ultimate storage or disposal. The varied Composition of water/cement ratio in the cementation process were 0.3; 0.4; 0.5 and the various weight of resin waste are 25 g, 37.5 g and 50 gram. The compressive strength of the various water/cement ratio without spent resin was bigger than 0.3. This investigation proved that the compressive strength of Tiga Roda cement was bigger than those of Gresik cement or Nusantara cement. The compressive of the cement block of were the spent resin cementation was influenced by the water/cement ratio and the total spent resin addition. The best condition reached at the water/cement ratio of 0.3 and 25 gram spent resin, was compressive strength of 17.86 N/mm 2 . Leaching rate of the various weight composition of spent resin cementation for 91 days were between 10 -2 - 10 -4 gram.cm -2 .day -1

  18. Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan in Support of BNFL Part B: Studies of Ion Exchange Resin Integrity under Flowsheet Extremes: Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    This task will address four items related to ion exchange stability: (1) process upset evaluation of resin in contact with 1 molar sodium permanganate at 25 and 40 degrees C, (2) accelerated aging with nitric acid solution used during normal regeneration operations, (3) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with 5 molar nitric acid at room temperature, and (4) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with deionized water at 60 plus/minus 5 degrees C

  19. Method of continuously regenerating decontaminating electrolytic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Wada, Koichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To continuously recover radioactive metal ions from the electrolytic solution used for the electrolytic decontamination of radioactive equipment and increased with the radioactive dose, as well as regenerate the electrolytic solution to a high concentration acid. Method: A liquid in an auxiliary tank is recycled to a cathode chamber containing water of an electro depositing regeneration tank to render pH = 2 by way of a pH controller and a pH electrode. The electrolytic solution in an electrolytic decontaminating tank is introduced by way of an injection pump to an auxiliary tank and, interlocking therewith, a regenerating solution is introduced from a regenerating solution extracting pump by way of a extraction pipeway to an electrolytic decontaminating tank. Meanwhile, electric current is supplied to the electrode to deposit radioactive metal ions dissolved in the cathode chamber on the capturing electrode. While on the other hand, anions are transferred by way of a partition wall to an anode chamber to regenerate the electrolytic solution to high concentration acid solution. While on the other hand, water is supplied by way of an electromagnetic valve interlocking with the level meter to maintain the level meter constant. This can decrease the generation of the liquid wastes and also reduce the amount of the radioactive secondary wastes. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  1. Future perspectives of resin-based dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Klaus D; Sigusch, Bernd W

    2009-08-01

    This concise review and outlook paper gives a view of selected potential future developments in the area of resin-based biomaterials with an emphasis on dental composites. A selection of key publications (1 book, 35 scientific original publications and 1 website source) covering the areas nanotechnology, antimicrobial materials, stimuli responsive materials, self-repairing materials and materials for tissue engineering with direct or indirect relations and/or implications to resin-based dental materials is critically reviewed and discussed. Connections between these fields and their potential for resin-based dental materials are highlighted and put in perspective. The need to improve shrinkage properties and wear resistance is obvious for dental composites, and a vast number of attempts have been made to accomplish these aims. Future resin-based materials may be further improved in this respect if, for example nanotechnology is applied. Dental composites may, however, reach a completely new quality by utilizing new trends from materials science, such as introducing nanostructures, antimicrobial properties, stimuli responsive capabilities, the ability to promote tissue regeneration or repair of dental tissues if the composites were able to repair themselves. This paper shows selected potential future developments in the area of resin-based dental materials, gives basic and industrial researchers in dental materials science, and dental practitioners a glance into the potential future of these materials, and should stimulate discussion about needs and future developments in the area.

  2. Recovery of soil properties after seedlings Inoculation with AM fungi and addition of composted olive mill waste in the regeneration of a heavy metal polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldan, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) on the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal polluted soil. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96% and 60% respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soils properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided G-mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs; because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy-metal contaminated soils derived from mining process, and also can be a good way for olive mill wastes disposal.

  3. Radiation curable epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najvar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    A carboxyl containing polymer is either prepared in the presence of a polyepoxide or reacted with a polyepoxide. The polymer has sufficient acid groups to react with only about 1 to 10 percent of the epoxide (oxirane) groups. The remaining epoxide groups are reacted with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid such as acrylic or methacrylic acid to form a radiation curable resin

  4. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  5. Ion Exchange Column Tests Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morse, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-12-20

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed on site. There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important. Options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste, as well as to examine the volatility of 99Tc during the vitrification process. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. A conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. SuperLig® 639 is an elutable ion exchange resin. In the tank waste, 99Tc is predominantly found in the tank supernate as pertechnetate (TcO4-). Perrhenate (ReO4-) has been shown to be a good non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in laboratory testing for this ion exchange resin. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient and column resin maturation kinetics testing using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from simulated LAW. This revision includes results from testing to determine effective resin operating temperature range. Loading tests were performed at 45°C, and the computer modeling was updated to include the temperature effects. Equilibrium contact testing indicated that this batch of

  6. A STUDY ON ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIORS OF 14C FROM A MIXED BED RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEUNG-CHUL PARK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spent resin waste containing a high concentration of 14C radionuclide cannot be disposed of directly. A fundamental study on selective 14C stripping, especially from the IRN-150 mixed bed resin, was carried out. In single ion-exchange equilibrium isotherm experiments, the ion adsorption capacity of the fresh resin for non-radioactive HCO3− ion, as the chemical form of 14C, was evaluated as 11mg-C/g-resin. Adsorption affinity of anions to the resin was derived in order of NO3− > HCO3− ≥ H2PO4−. Thus the competitive adsorption affinity of NO3− ion in binary systems appeared far higher than that of HCO3− or H2PO4−, and the selective desorption of HCO3− from the resin was very effective. On one hand, the affinity of Co2+ and Cs+ for the resin remained relatively higher than that of other cations in the same stripping solution. Desorption of Cs+ was minimized when the summation of the metal ions in the spent resin and the other cations in solution was near saturation and the pH value was maintained above 4.5. Among the various solutions tested, from the view-point of the simple second waste process, NH4H2PO4 solution was preferable for the stripping of 14C from the spent resin.

  7. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebra, Martha A.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  8. Effective identification of (NH4)2CO3 and NH4HCO3 concentrations in NaHCO3 regeneration process from desulfurized waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Muthuraman; Karunakaran, Kannan; Nallasamy, Palanisami; Moon, Il Shik

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the quantitative analysis of (NH4)2CO3 and NH4HCO3 using a simple solution phase titration method. Back titration results at various (NH4)2CO3-NH4HCO3 ratios demonstrated that 6:4 ratio caused a 3% error in their differentiation, but very high errors were found at other ratios. A similar trend was observed for the double indicator method, especially when strong acid HCl was used as a titrant, where still less errors (2.5%) at a middle ratio of (NH4)2CO3-NH4HCO3 was found. Remaining ratios with low (NH4)2CO3 (2:8, 4:6) show high +ve error (found concentration is less) and high (NH4)2CO3 (7:3, 8:2, and 9:1) show high -ve error (found concentration is higher) and vice versa for NH4HCO3. In replacement titration using Na2SO4, at both higher end ratios of (NH4)2CO3-NH4HCO3 (2:8 and 9:1), both -ve and +ve errors were minimized to 75% by partial equilibrium arrest between (NH4)2CO3 and NH2COONH4, instead of more than 100% observed in back titration and only double indicator methods. In the presence of (NH4)2SO4 both -ve and +ve error% are completely reduced to 3±1 at ratios 2:8, 4:6, and 6:4 of (NH4)2CO3-NH4HCO3, which demonstrates that the equilibrium transformation between NH2COONH4 and (NH4)2CO3 is completely controlled. The titration conducted at lower temperature (5 °C) in the presence of (NH4)2SO4 at higher ratios of (NH4)2CO3-NH4HCO3 (7:3, 8:2,and 9:1) shows complete minimization of both -ve and +ve errors to 2±1%, which explains the complete arresting of equilibrium transformation. Finally, the developed method shows 2±1% error in differentiation of CO3(2-) and HCO3(-) in the regeneration process of NaHCO3 from crude desulfurized sample. The developed method is more promising to differentiate CO3(2-) and HCO3(-) in industrial applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The dissolution of organic ion exchange resins using iron-catalysed hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkings, N.; Horton, K.D.; Snelling, K.W.

    1980-10-01

    Feasibility studies have been made of the dissolution/partial decomposition of radioactive waste resins by means of iron-catalysed hydrogen peroxide. They have shown that the procedure is limited in its application and successfully treats only polystyrene/divinylbenzene-based resins. Evaporation of the final solution produces a solid residue which is difficult to handle and results in only a relatively small reduction in volume. It is concluded that the method could be used to dissolve specific waste resins for easier handling and disposal, but is not of general applicability. (author)

  10. Accurate determination of 129I concentrations and 129I/137Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-01-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 129 I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 129 I in spent resins using accelerator mass spectrometry. • The treatment procedure included microwave acid digestion of samples, iodine extraction by CL resins and AgI precipitation. • Developed first on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g of dry resin. • Results are in agreement with previous measurements and support reference values currently used for nuclear resin management

  11. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  12. Effect of pore structure on the removal of clofibric acid by magnetic anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Yunshu; Wang, Jun; Su, Yihong; Li, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    The effect of pore structure of resin on clofibric acid (CA) adsorption behavior was investigated by using magnetic anion exchange resins (ND-1, ND-2, ND-3) with increasing pore diameter by 11.68, 15.37, 24.94 nm. Resin with larger pores showed faster adsorption rates and a higher adsorption capacity because the more opened tunnels provided by larger pores benefit the CA diffusion into the resin matrix. The ion exchange by the electrostatic interactions between Cl-type resin and CA resulted in chloride releasing to the solution, and the ratio of released chloride to CA adsorption amount decreased from 0.90 to 0.65 for ND-1, ND-2 and ND-3, indicating that non-electrostatic interactions obtain a larger proportional part of the adsorption into the pores. Co-existing inorganic anions and organic acids reduced the CA adsorption amounts by the competition effect of electrostatic interaction, whereas resins with more opened pore structures weakened the negative influence on CA adsorption because of the existence of non-electrostatic interactions. 85.2% and 65.1% adsorption amounts decrease are calculated for resin ND-1 and ND-3 by the negative influence of 1 mmol L -1 NaCl. This weaken effect of organic acid is generally depends on its hydrophobicity (Log Kow) for carboxylic acid and its ionization degree (pKb) for sulfonic acid. The resins could be reused with the slightly decreases by 1.9%, 3.2% and 5.4% after 7 cycles of regeneration, respectively for ND-1, ND-2 and ND-3, suggesting the ion exchange resin with larger pores are against its reuse by the brine solution regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of THOR-Technology on resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Lindberg, M.

    2003-01-01

    The THermal Organic Reduction (THOR) process, developed and patented by studsvik utilises pyrolysis / steam reforming technology. The THOR-process provides a reliable and safe method for treating a wide variety of LLW in a unique, fluidised bed treatment system at moderate temperature. This technology is suitable for processing hazardous, mixed and dry active LLW with appropriate waste feed modifications. Both solid and liquid LLRW and ILRW streams including ion exchange resins, activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 4 Sv/hr can be processed. Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its facility at Erwin, Tennessee, USA. During this period studsvik has processed more than 1,5 thousand tons of radioactive ion exchange bead resins. powdered filter media and active carbon, with a cumulative total radioactivity of about 7 (E+8) MBq. Operations have demonstrated consistent, reliable, robust operating characteristics. Due to the widely varying characteristics of the incoming waste streams various efficiencies and volume reductions have been experienced. Input waste has varied in total inorganic content from 90%. A substantial element of this variability has been the ''soluble salt'' content of the input waste streams. Final reformed residue comprises a non-dispersible, granular solid which is suitable for long-term storage or direct burial in a qualified container. Special containers, THOR-liners, are available from studsvik for the transport of waste from the customer to the Erwin facility and HICs (high integrity containers) for transport of the residues to Barnwell. The paper will give an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing LLRW from commercial nuclear power plans. (orig.)

  14. Diphonix trademark Resin: A review of its properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The recently developed Diphonix trademark resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. It has potential applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. Influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results studies on the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions

  15. Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1997-10-01

    There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory's Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system's costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies

  16. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis experiments with organization exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ung Kyung

    1997-01-01

    Pyrolysis may be an important pretreatment step before vitrification in a cold crucible melter (CCM). During vitrification of organic resin the carbon or other remaining residues may harm the performance of the cold crucible melter of the eventual stability of the final glass product. Hence, it is important to reduce or prevent such harmful waste from entry into the cold crucible melter. Pretreatment with pyrolysis will generally provide volume reduction resulting in less amount of solid waste that needs to be handled by the CCM; in addition, the pyrolytic processes may breakdown much of the complex organics causing release through volatilization resulting in less carbon and other harmful substances. Hence, KEPRI has undertaken studies on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis were examined with TGA and a tube furnace. TGA results for pyrolysis with the flow of nitrogen indicate that even after pyrolyzing from room temperature to about 900 deg C, a significant mass fraction of the original cationic resin remains, approximately 46 %. The anionic resin when pyrolytically heated in a flow of nitrogen only, from room temperature to about 900 deg C, produced a final residue mass fraction of about 8 percent. Oxidation at a ratio of air to nitrogen, 1:2, reduced the cationic resin to 5.3% when heated at 5 C/min. Oxidation of anionic resin at the same ratio and same heating rate left almost no solid residue. Pyrolysis (e.g. nitrogen-only environment) in the tube furnace of larger samples relative to the TGA produced very similar results to the TGA. The differences may be attributed to the scale effects such as surface area exposure to the gas stream, temperature distributions throughout the resin, etc. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs

  17. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis experiments with organization exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ung Kyung [Korea Electric Power Research Insititute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Pyrolysis may be an important pretreatment step before vitrification in a cold crucible melter (CCM). During vitrification of organic resin the carbon or other remaining residues may harm the performance of the cold crucible melter of the eventual stability of the final glass product. Hence, it is important to reduce or prevent such harmful waste from entry into the cold crucible melter. Pretreatment with pyrolysis will generally provide volume reduction resulting in less amount of solid waste that needs to be handled by the CCM; in addition, the pyrolytic processes may breakdown much of the complex organics causing release through volatilization resulting in less carbon and other harmful substances. Hence, KEPRI has undertaken studies on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis were examined with TGA and a tube furnace. TGA results for pyrolysis with the flow of nitrogen indicate that even after pyrolyzing from room temperature to about 900 deg C, a significant mass fraction of the original cationic resin remains, approximately 46 %. The anionic resin when pyrolytically heated in a flow of nitrogen only, from room temperature to about 900 deg C, produced a final residue mass fraction of about 8 percent. Oxidation at a ratio of air to nitrogen, 1:2, reduced the cationic resin to 5.3% when heated at 5 C/min. Oxidation of anionic resin at the same ratio and same heating rate left almost no solid residue. Pyrolysis (e.g. nitrogen-only environment) in the tube furnace of larger samples relative to the TGA produced very similar results to the TGA. The differences may be attributed to the scale effects such as surface area exposure to the gas stream, temperature distributions throughout the resin, etc. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Leaching of nuclear power reactor wastes forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, L.S.; Villalobos, J.P.; Miyamoto, H.

    1986-01-01

    The leaching tests for power reactor wastes carried out at IPEN/CNEN-SP are described. These waste forms consist mainly of spent resins and boric acid concentrates solidified in ordinary Portland cement. All tests were conducted according to the ISO and IAEA recommendations. 3 years leaching results are reported, determining cesium and strontium diffusivity coefficients for boric acid waste form and ion-exchange resins. (Author) [pt

  19. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  20. Improvement of incineration efficiency of spent ion exchange resins on the incinerator at nuclear power plants. Manufacturing the solids of the resins mixed with paraffin wax and their incinerating test results on actual incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Takeshi; Ohtsu, Takashi; Inagawa, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Takashi; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Ino, Takao; Ishiyama, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, ion exchange resins are used at water purification systems such as condensate demineralizers. After usage, used ion exchange resins are stored at plants as low level radioactive wastes. Ion exchange resins contain water and so, those are flame resistant materials. At present, ion exchange resins are incinerated with other inflammable materials at incinerators. Furthermore, ion exchange resins are fine particle beads and are easy to be scattered in all directions, so operators must pay attentions for treatment. Then, we have developed the new solidification system of ion exchange resins with paraffin wax. Ion exchange resins are mixed and extruded with paraffin wax and these solids are enabled to incinerate at existing incinerators. In order to demonstrate this new method, we made the large amount of solids and incinerated them at actual incinerator. From these results, we have estimated to be able to incinerate the solids only at actual incinerator. (author)

  1. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  2. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings

  3. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin

  4. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE`s Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin.

  5. Integrated bicarbonate-form ion exchange treatment and regeneration for DOC removal: Model development and pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Boyer, Treavor H

    2017-05-15

    The application of bicarbonate-form anion exchange resin and sodium bicarbonate salt for resin regeneration was investigated in this research is to reduce chloride ion release during treatment and the disposal burden of sodium chloride regeneration solution when using traditional chloride-form ion exchange (IX). The target contaminant in this research was dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The performance evaluation was conducted in a completely mixed flow reactor (CMFR) IX configuration. A process model that integrated treatment and regeneration was investigated based on the characteristics of configuration. The kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed to obtain required parameters for the process model. The pilot plant tests were conducted to validate the model as well as provide practical understanding on operation. The DOC concentration predicted by the process model responded to the change of salt concentration in the solution, and showed a good agreement with pilot plant data with less than 10% difference in terms of percentage removal. Both model predictions and pilot plant tests showed over 60% DOC removal by bicarbonate-form resin for treatment and sodium bicarbonate for regeneration, which was comparable to chloride-form resin for treatment and sodium chloride for regeneration. Lastly, the DOC removal was improved by using higher salt concentration for regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On marginal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    On applying the marginal regeneration concept to the drainage of free liquid films, problems are encountered: the films do not show a "neck" of minimum thickness at the film/border transition; and the causes of the direction dependence of the marginal regeneration are unclear. Both problems can be

  7. Sorption of Uranium Ions from Their Aqueous Solution by Resins Containing Nanomagnetite Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud O. Abd El-Magied

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic amine resins composed of nanomagnetite (Fe3O4 core and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA/N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA shell were prepared by suspension polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate with N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of nanomagnetite particles and immobilized with different amine ligands. These resins showed good magnetic properties and could be easily retrieved from their suspensions using an external magnetic field. Adsorption behaviors of uranium ions on the prepared resins were studied. Maximum sorption capacities of uranium ions on R-1 and R-2 were found to be 92 and 158 mg/g. Uranium was extracted successfully from three granite samples collected from Gabal Gattar pluton, North Eastern Desert, Egypt. The studied resins showed good durability and regeneration using HNO3.

  8. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  9. Preparation of novel polyamine-type chelating resin with hyperbranched structures and its adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Li, Yuhong; Li, Chenxi

    2018-01-01

    This paper explored the method of combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technology and hyperbranched polymer principle to prepare the high capacity chelating resin. First, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on chloromethylated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin, and then the novel polyamine chelating resin with a kind of hyperbranched structure was prepared through the amination reaction between amino group of (2-aminoethyl) triamine and epoxy group in GMA. This resin had a selective effect on As(V) and Cr(VI) at a relatively low pH and can be used for the disposal of waste water containing As(V) and Cr(VI). It had a relatively strong adsorption effect on Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) and can be used for the disposal of heavy metal ion waste water. The finding was that, the adsorption capacity of resin on the studied heavy metal ions was higher than that of the chelating resin synthesized by traditional technology and also higher than that of the resin modified by ATRP technology and bifunctional chelator, indicating that the combination of ATRP and hyperbranched polymer concept is an effective method to prepare chelating resin with high capacity. PMID:29515875

  10. Preparation of novel polyamine-type chelating resin with hyperbranched structures and its adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youning; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Li, Yuhong; Li, Chenxi

    2018-02-01

    This paper explored the method of combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technology and hyperbranched polymer principle to prepare the high capacity chelating resin. First, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on chloromethylated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin, and then the novel polyamine chelating resin with a kind of hyperbranched structure was prepared through the amination reaction between amino group of (2-aminoethyl) triamine and epoxy group in GMA. This resin had a selective effect on As(V) and Cr(VI) at a relatively low pH and can be used for the disposal of waste water containing As(V) and Cr(VI). It had a relatively strong adsorption effect on Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) and can be used for the disposal of heavy metal ion waste water. The finding was that, the adsorption capacity of resin on the studied heavy metal ions was higher than that of the chelating resin synthesized by traditional technology and also higher than that of the resin modified by ATRP technology and bifunctional chelator, indicating that the combination of ATRP and hyperbranched polymer concept is an effective method to prepare chelating resin with high capacity.

  11. Calpain 3 is important for muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerslev, Simon; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Duno, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene and complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe muscle wasting. Calpain 3 is suggested to be involved in maturation of contractile elements after muscle degeneration. The aim of this study...... was to investigate how mutations in the four functional domains of calpain 3 affect muscle regeneration....

  12. Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC's efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds

  13. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date. An unusual aspect of this investigation is the use of commercial grade, ion exchange resins that have been loaded with over five times the radioactivity normally seen in a commercial application. That dramatically increases the total radiation dose to the resins. The objective of the resin solidification task is to determine the adequacy of test procedures specified by NRC for ion exchange resins having high radionuclide loadings

  14. Method of solidifying radioactive laundry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to solidify radioactive laundry wastes containing non-ionic liquid detergents less solidifiable by plastic solidification process in liquid laundry wastes for cloths or the likes discharged from a nuclear power plant. Method: Radioactive laundry wastes are solidified by using plastic solidifying agent comprising, as a main ingredient, unsaturated polyester resins and methylmethacrylate monomers. The plastic solidifying agents usable herein include, for example, unsaturated polyester resins prepared by condensating maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride with propylene glycol and incorporated with methylmethacrylate monomers. The mixing ratio of the methylmethacrylate monomers is preferably 30 % by weight based on the unsaturated polyester resins. (Aizawa, K.)

  15. Long-term properties of TVO's bituminized resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Vuorinen, U.

    1989-06-01

    Long-term properties of bituminized spent ion-exchange resins from Olkiluoto power plant have been studied since 1981. This report summarizes the results on water uptake and leaching obtained up till now. It is observed that water uptake in excess of rewetting of the ion-exchange resins is taking place. Leach test in water equilibrated with cement have been performed for about five years. Separation of granular resin particles caused by density differences observed in former experiments was further studied and confirmed in this work. Anaerobic corrosion of a steel drum has been studied in laboratory conditions generally giving corrosion rates below l μm/a. Radiolytic gases will accumulate and be trapped in the waste product. The rate of swelling is estimated by a specially constructed device based on ultrasonic distance meter observing changes in level of the product surface in the drum

  16. Reducing resin use in floor drain processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, W.; Hobart, S.A.; Miller, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant utilizes two mixed bed demineralizers for processing floor drain wastes. These demineralizers were originally designed for stream generator blowdown treatment, but were not needed for that purpose. Effluent from the resin beds is monitored for radioactivity and released for discharge. Plant radwaste inleakage volumes and resin disposal volumes were low in comparison with industry averages, but decontamination factors through the treatment system were less than desirable. Release criteria for discharges always had been met, but plant personnel wished to decrease their already low discharges of radioactive species, reduce their resin disposal costs, and provide a margin of safety in the unlikely event that fuel damage would be experienced during an operating cycle. This paper describes the study initiated to address those issues, the findings of the study, and results of implementing some of the study recommendations

  17. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitumen matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Many samples of bitumen mixed with ion exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared to study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms. The resins used in tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/aniocic bead resins. Different bitumen types were assayed: two distilled and two oxidized bitumens. Leached fractions were collected accordingly to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli beckers were used to improve counting efficiency in a Ge(Li) detector. The diffusion coefficients for samples prepared with distilled and oxidized bitumens were obtained. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry was employed to fit experimental data aiming to explain leaching mechanism and predict the long time behavior of immobilized radionuclides. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Treatment of radioactive waste - Routine or challenge? Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The seminar had the following topics: Proposal for new legislation covering radioactive waste management in the EU, new requirements preparations for the later repository, efficient and cost effective treatment of radioactive waste water, intermediate level waste cementation, incineration of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic mixture, application of THOR-technology on resins, new development for transportation and storage of reactor vessel parts, and conditioning of nuclear fuel containing wastes. (uke)

  19. Removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by a high-efficiency resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hao; Ren, Yongzheng; Sun, Xueliang; Xu, Yadi; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Tiancheng; Kang, Jianxiong; Liu, Dongqi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of Pb 2+ from aqueous solution by 732 cation-exchange resin in sodium type (732-CR) has been studied in batch experiments at varying pH (2.0–8.0), Pb 2+ concentration (50–200 mg/L), contact time (5–300 min), temperature (288–308 K) and resin dose (0.125–0.75 g/L). The experimental data show that the ion-exchange process was dependent on pH and temperature, the optimal exchange capacity was found at pH 4.0, and higher temperature was beneficial to lead sorption. Kinetic data indicate that the ion-exchange process followed a pseudo-first order model. The equilibrium exchange capacity could be reached at approximately 4 h, and the maximum sorption capacity of Pb 2+ at pH 4.0 was 396.8 mg/g resin. The equilibrium data were evaluated with Langmuir and Freundlich model, and were best fitted with Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters for removal of Pb 2+ indicate that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic. Additionally, column tests were conducted by using both synthetic solution and effluents from lead battery industry. The regeneration of resin was performed for two sorption-regeneration cycles by 1 M NaOH, and the results show that effective regeneration was achieved by this method.

  20. Treatment of liquids of exchange resins washing from RA6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, F.L.; Menghini, J.; Rodriguez, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work nanometric magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrochemical co-precipitation method to achieve the adsorption and extraction of the contaminant species present in the water coming from the regeneration of exchange resins in Research Reactor RA6. It has been possible to obtain a mean nanoparticle size of 16 nm, necessary to increase the specific surface area of the material and thus, its adsorbent capability. The synthesis parameters and adsorption conditions made it possible to achieve a treatment efficiency superior to 80% for Cs-137 (author)

  1. Pilot Plant for treating of spent exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Alberto M.; Raffo Calderon, Maria del C.; Varani, Jose L.

    2004-01-01

    Spent exchange resins that have been accumulating during the last operational 30 years in Atucha I nuclear power plant (NPP) are a 'problematic' waste. These spent resins conform an intermediate level waste due to the total content of alpha, beta and gamma emitters (some samples of spent resins were analyzed in 2003). For this reason its treatment is more expensive since it is necessary to add more safety barriers for its final disposition and also for the radioprotection actions that are involved. Using sulfuric acid solutions it is possible to elute from the spent resins the ions that are retained. In the same operation are eluted Cobalt, Cesium and alpha emitters since that all these elements react as cations in aqueous solution. Decontamination by electrochemical methods was analyzed as an interesting method to apply after elution operation to these spent resins since that with the decontamination process it is possible to obtain a solid without activity and concentrate the activity in cells that are small in volume and its manipulation doesn't present any extra complication. Experiments made with active samples taken from the deposit were successful. Because of these results it was built a small plant to treat a batch of 100 dm 3 of wet spent exchange resins. Some problems with the material that was in the deposit together with spent resins caused that we had to plan a more complex strategy to obtain a complete decontamination of the spent resins (in this stage we used the cobalt retention cell that was described in other paper to retain Cobalt and alpha emitters and a sample of zeolites from Argentina ores to retain Cesium). Due to alpha emitters act electrochemically like cations it was possible to retain altogether with ionic Cobalt on the copper amalgam electrode. Working in the non-active lab with alcoholic solutions it was possible to retain ionic Cesium on a copper electrode (copper is covered by mercury fine film which forms a solid amalgam) with a

  2. Perchlorate adsorption and desorption on activated carbon and anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, In-Ho; Meng, Xiaoguang; Wang, Chao; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Bang, Sunbaek; Choe, Eunyoung; Lippincott, Lee

    2009-05-15

    The mechanisms of perchlorate adsorption on activated carbon (AC) and anion exchange resin (SR-7 resin) were investigated using Raman, FTIR, and zeta potential analyses. Batch adsorption and desorption results demonstrated that the adsorption of perchlorate by AC and SR-7 resin was reversible. The reversibility of perchlorate adsorption by the resin was also proved by column regeneration test. Solution pH significantly affected perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of AC, while it did not influence perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of resin. Zeta potential measurements showed that perchlorate was adsorbed on the negatively charged AC surface. Raman spectra indicated the adsorption resulted in an obvious position shift of the perchlorate peak, suggesting that perchlorate was associated with functional groups on AC at neutral pH through interactions stronger than electrostatic interaction. The adsorbed perchlorate on the resin exhibited a Raman peak at similar position as the aqueous perchlorate, indicating that perchlorate was adsorbed on the resin through electrostatic attraction between the anion and positively charged surface sites.

  3. Characterization and disposal of ion exchange resins used in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Olguin G, M.T.; Emeterio H, M.; Garcia M, H.

    2006-01-01

    To dispose of an appropriate way the used ion exchange resins so much in the pool water purification systems of the TRIGA Mark III reactor like in the JS6500 gamma irradiator, of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, were carried out a series of analytic nuclear techniques and complementary conventional to those recommended by the ASTM, with the object of to control and to manage 14 lots of worn out resins appropriately. For its were identified the radioactive isotopes, the resins type, the grade of chemical pollution and the physicochemical degradation of the same ones. The lots of resins that didn't contain radioactive isotopes its were regenerated in an usual way, as long as those that if they controlled them they selected options for its final disposition. The first selected option was the extraction method of ion radioactive isotopes, concentrating the elution product by evaporation. As second option it was carried out the resins stabilization damaged by micro-encapsulation by forged to ambient temperature, using an organic polymer. Previous to the immobilization the resins were pretreated by vacuum drying, pulverization and thermal drying, however before carrying out this last, it was carried out a thermal gravimetric analysis to determine the drying conditions of the resins avoiding its chemical decomposition. (Author)

  4. Microwave Regenerable Air Purification Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Holtsnider, John T.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of using microwave power to thermally regenerate sorbents loaded with water vapor, CO2, and organic contaminants has been rigorously demonstrated. Sorbents challenged with air containing 0.5% CO2, 300 ppm acetone, 50 ppm trichloroethylene, and saturated with water vapor have been regenerated, singly and in combination. Microwave transmission, reflection, and phase shift has also been determined for a variety of sorbents over the frequency range between 1.3-2.7 GHz. This innovative technology offers the potential for significant energy savings in comparison to current resistive heating methods because energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated. Conductive, convective and radiative losses are minimized. Extremely rapid heating is also possible, i.e., 1400 C in less than 60 seconds. Microwave powered thermal desorption is directly applicable to the needs of Advance Life Support in general, and of EVA in particular. Additionally, the applicability of two specific commercial applications arising from this technology have been demonstrated: the recovery for re-use of acetone (and similar solvents) from industrial waste streams using a carbon based molecular sieve; and the separation and destruction of trichloroethylene using ZSM-5 synthetic zeolite catalyst, a predominant halocarbon environmental contaminant. Based upon these results, Phase II development is strongly recommended.

  5. Process for preparing wastes for non-pollutant disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debus, A.A.G.; Rosenstiel, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    In disposing of wastes, especially those containing radioactive or toxic substances, wherein the liquid or finely divided solid waste is mixed with water and a hydraulic binder and allowed to set, the binder used comprises a mixture of calcium sulphate hemihydrate, a water-dispersible melamine formaldehyde resin which when cured is hydrophobic and sufficient cross-linking agent to cure the resin. (author)

  6. New system applying image processor to automatically separate cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin for condensate demineralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tsuneyasu; Nagao, Nobuaki; Yoshimori, Yasuhide; Inoue, Takashi; Yoda, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    In PWR plant, condensate demineralizer is equipped to remove corrosive ion in condensate water. Mixed bed packing cation exchange resin (CER) and anion exchange resin (AER) is generally applied, and these are regenerated after separation to each layer periodically. Since the AER particle is slightly lighter than the CER particle, the AER layer is brought up onto the CER layer by feeding water upward from the bottom of column (backwashing). The separation performance is affected by flow rate and temperature of water for backwashing, so normally operators set the proper condition parameters regarding separation manually every time for regeneration. The authors have developed the new separation system applying CCD camera and image processor. The system is comprised of CCD camera, LED lamp, image processor, controller, flow control valves and background color panel. Blue color of the panel, which is corresponding to the complementary color against both ivory color of AER and brown color of CER, is key to secure the system precision. At first the color image of the CER via the CCD camera is digitized and memorized by the image processor. The color of CER in the field of vision of the camera is scanned by the image processor, and the position where the maximum difference of digitized color index is indicated is judged as the interface. The detected interface is able to make the accordance with the set point by adjusting the flow rate of backwashing. By adopting the blue background panel, it is also possible to draw the AER out of the column since detecting the interface of the CER clearly. The system has provided the reduction of instability factor concerning separation of resin during regeneration process. The system has been adopted in two PWR plants in Japan, it has been demonstrating its stable and precise performance. (author)

  7. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  8. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  9. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A chemoviscosity model, which describes viscosity rise profiles accurately under various cure cycles, and correlates viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with structural transformations of the thermosetting resin system during cure, was established. Work completed on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins is reported.

  10. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  11. Study PWA8 resin for chromatographic uranium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coceancigh, Herman; Ramella, J. L.; Marrero, Julieta; Jiménez Rebagliati, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    For many years nuclear industry have been using resins as filler of chromatographic columns. These methods are specific and give reliable results in different applications, for those reasons are extremely useful as separation process. Currently the nuclear industry is growing and this brings new issues such as the need of reduction of the amount of waste, the optimization of the production process and others that the chromatography could solve with great results. AMBERLITETM PWA8 resin is an anion exchange resin which can be used for the removal of uranium from drinking water. In addition to high exchange capacity, this resin has excellent physical stability and a wide range of pH in which is operational. With the idea of concentrating uranium from wastes solution as main goal we made different experiments to understand the AMBERLITETM PWA8 and obtain the most important characteristics like; pH working range; capacity; activation and elution procedures. These procedures were developed and optimized the capacity was determined using a batch experiment and we obtain that the maximum capacity is 882,5 U ug /resin gr at a pH of 4,2. Following on from these results chromatographic experiments were performed in which both were obtained the percentage of recovery and the concentration factor. The percent recovery (% R) calculated as the percentage ratio between the total mass and the load mass eluted (% R = eluted mass / total mass * 100) was 94% with a concentration factor of 5 times From these results it is intended to concentrate wastes solutions from the fuel cycle processes with two main goals: decreasing volume for storage and for future reusing of the uranium coming from production. (author)

  12. Helping the Retina Regenerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the retina News Brief 03/30/17 A new report gives recommendations for regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), crucial neurons in the back of the eye that carry visual information to the brain. Authored ...

  13. Degradation of resins in EPICOR-II prefilters from Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Johnson, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development--EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is investigating the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins contained in several EPICOR-Il prefilters. Those prefilters were used during cleanup of contaminated water from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station after the March 1979 accident. This paper summarizes results and analyses of the third sampling of resins from prefilters PF-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated resins supplied by Epicor, Inc. to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose. Results also are compared with results from tests performed on resins obtained from the first and second samplings of those two prefilters. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Degradation of resins in EPICOR-II prefilters from Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development--EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is investigating the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins contained in several EPICOR-II prefilters. Those prefilters were used during cleanup of contaminated water from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station after the March 1979 accident. This paper summarizes results and analyses of the second sampling of resins from prefilters PF-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated resins supplied by Epicor, Inc. to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose. Results also are compared with results from tests performed on resins obtained from the first sampling of those two prefilters

  15. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  16. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  17. Chemical derivation to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, T.L.; Shaw, W.J.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.; Franz, J.A.; Hart, T.R.; Hogan, M.O.

    1996-09-01

    Tank wastes at Hanford and SRS contain highly alkaline supernate solutions of conc. Na, K nitrates with large amounts of 137 Cs. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction for vitrification. One candidate ion exchange material for removing the radiocesium is R-F resin. This report summarizes studies into synthesis and characterization of 4-derivatized R-F resins prepared in pursuit of more chemically/oxidatively robust resin. 85% 4-fluororesorcinol/15% phenol formaldehyde resin appears to have good stability in alkaline solution, although there may be some nucleophilic displacement reaction during synthesis; further studies are needed

  18. Radiation effects on resins and zeolites at Three Mile Island Unit II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.K.; Grant, P.J.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Quinn, G.J.; Runion, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island created certain waste forms that are not routinely encountered in normal light water reactor plants and were the subject of a research and development program. Fifty EPICOR II organic resin containers were loaded to as much as 2200 Ci (of predominantly cesium plus strontium) in the course of processing contaminated water. Resin samples were taken from two of the EPICOR II vessels and examined. Nineteen zeolite containers loaded with radioactive cesium plus strontium to as much as 55,000 Ci have been analyzed. The makeup and purification system demineralizer resins, highly contaminated by the letdown of reactor coolant, have been radiation surveyed, and gas, liquid, and resin samples have been obtained. On-site sampling and analysis of these wastes indicated that combustible gases (hydrogen and oxygen) were being generated as a result of radiolysis. The results of this work are discussed, compared, and presented

  19. Isotopic analysis of radioactive waste packages (an inexpensive approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, D.A.; Richmond, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer printout of the isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages containing resins, or other aqueous filter media is now required at the disposal sites at Barnwell, South Carolina, and Beatty, Nevada. Richland, Washington requires an isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages. The NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission), through 10 CFR 61, will require shippers of radioactive waste to classify and label for disposal all radioactive waste forms. These forms include resins, filters, sludges, and dry active waste (trash). The waste classification is to be based upon 10 CFR 61 (Section 1-7). The isotopes upon which waste classification is to be based are tabulated. 7 references, 8 tables

  20. Cesium Isotherm Testing with Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin at High Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing a Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to provide low-activity waste (LAW) directly to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste Facility for immobilization. The pretreatment that will be conducted on tank waste supernate at the LAWPS facility entails filtration to remove entrained solids and cesium (Cs) ion exchange to remove Cs from the product sent to the WTP. Currently, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin (Microbeads AS, Skedsmokorset, Norway) is the Cs ion exchange resin of choice. Most work on Cs ion exchange efficacy in Hanford tank waste has been conducted at nominally 5 M sodium (Na). WRPS is examining the possibility of processing supernatant at high Na concentrations—up to 8 M Na—to maximize processing efficiency through the LAWPS. Minimal Cs ion exchange work has been conducted at 6 M and 8 M Na concentrations..

  1. Vitrification of ion-exchange (IEX) resins: Advantages and technical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the commercial sector to convert low-level radioactive ion exchange (IEX) resin wastes from the nuclear utilities to solid stabilized waste forms for permanent disposal. One of the alternative waste stabilization technologies is vitrification of the resin into glass. Wastes can be vitrified at elevated temperatures by thermal treatment. One alternative thermal treatment is conventional Joule heated melting. Vitrification of wastes into glass is an attractive option because it atomistically bonds both hazardous and radioactive species in the glass structure, and volume reduces the wastes by 70-80%. The large volume reductions allow for large associated savings in disposal and/or long term storage costs

  2. Liquid waste processing at Comanche Peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes-Edwards, L.M.; Edwards, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the radioactive waste processing at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Topics covered are the following: Reduction of liquid radioactive discharges (system leakage, outage planning); reduction of waste resin generation (waste stream segregation, processing methodology); reduction of activity released and off-site dose. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  4. Design of Ion-Exchange Resins Through EDTA and DTPA Modified Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Catechol, resorcinol, and their admixtures with EDTA and DTPA moieties were converted into polymeric resins by alkaline polycondensation with formaldehyde. The resins were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, ion-exchange capacity, and distribution coefficient (D for heavy metal and radionuclide such as Cs and Sr. 137Cs and 90Sr constitutes a major source of heat in nuclear waste streams and in regards to recent nuclear event their remediation in complex solution – sea water - represent an important issue.

  5. Lawps ion exchange column gravity drain of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-28

    Experiments at several different scales were performed to understand the removal of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) ion exchange resin using a gravity drain system with a valve located above the resin screen in the ion exchange column (IXC). This is being considered as part of the design for the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to be constructed at the DOE Hanford Site.

  6. SETH 200: new mobile unit for spent ion-exchange resins embedding in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Buzonniere, A.; Raibaud, J.; Augustin, X.

    1985-01-01

    The CEA embedding process for low- and medium-activity waste in thermosetting resins (polyester or epoxy) has been used industrially. Recent developments (elimination of chemical pretreatment thanks to a new epoxy formulation and technological breakthroughs in the operating techniques) have greatly increased the potential of the process and have allowed with Technicatome's industrial experience, the elaboration of a new mobile unit easily operated and very competitive, particularly in spent resin processing

  7. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  8. Electromagnetic mixed-waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The first phase of a program to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective, integrated process for remediation of asbestos-containing material that is contaminated with organics, heavy metals, and radioactive compounds was successfully completed. Laboratory scale tests were performed to demonstrate initial process viability for asbestos conversion, organics removal, and radionuclide and heavy metal removal. All success criteria for the laboratory tests were met. (1) Ohio DSI demonstrated greater than 99% asbestos conversion to amorphous solids using their commercial process. (2) KAI demonstrated 90% removal of organics from the asbestos suspension. (3) Westinghouse STC achieved the required metals removal criteria on a laboratory scale (e.g., 92% removal of uranium from solution, resin loadings of 0.6 equivalents per liter, and greater than 50% regeneration of resin in a batch test.) Using the information gained in the laboratory tests, the process was reconfigured to provide the basis for the mixed waste remediation system. An integrated process is conceptually developed, and a Phase 2 program plan is proposed to provide the bench-scale development needed in order to refine the design basis for a pilot processing system

  9. Synthesis of hemicellulose-acrylic acid graft copolymer super water absorbent resin by ultrasonic irradiation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hemicellulose super water absorbent resin is prepared by using ultrasonic irradiation technology, with the waste liquid produced during the preparation of viscose fiber which contains a large amount of hemicellulose as raw material, acrylic acid as graft monomer, N,N’-methylene bis acrylamide (NMBA as cross linking agent, and (NH42S2O8-NaHSO3 as the redox initiation system. The synthesis conditions, structure and water absorption ability of resin are discussed. The results indicate that water absorbency of the resin is 311 g/g, the tap water absorbency is 102 g/g, the normal saline absorbency is 55 g/g, and the artificial urine absorbency is 31 g/g under the optimal synthesis conditions, so the resin has great water absorption rate and water retaining capacity. The FT-IR and SEM analysis shows that the resin with honeycomb network structure is prepared. The successfully synthesized of the resin means that the hemicellulose waste liquid can be highly effectively recycled, and it provides a kind of new raw material for the synthesis of super water absorbent resin.

  10. Inclusion of radioactive ion-exchange resins into inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epimakhov, V.N.; Olejnik, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is devoted to inclusion of the radioactive ion-exchange resins into the portland, slag-portland and alumina cements. The degree of filling the solidified products achieves 7-10, 12 and 18.9-19.7% correspondingly under conservation of sufficient strength (not less 5 MPa). The coefficient of waste volume increasing during solidification does not exceed 1.5 under consideration of addition of 10 mass % of clay into aluminia cement [ru

  11. Effects of blood contamination on resin-resin bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksson, Sigurdur O; Pereira, Patricia N R; Swift, Edward J; Heymann, Harald O; Sigurdsson, Asgeir

    2004-02-01

    Incremental placement and curing of resin composites has been recommended. However, this requires longer operating time, and therefore, increased risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination on microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) between resin interfaces and to determine the best decontamination method to re-establish the original resin-resin bond strength. The top surfaces of 64, 4-mm composite blocks (Z-250, Renew, APX, Pertac II) were untreated as the control, or were treated as follows: blood applied and dried on the surface (Treatment 1), blood applied, rinsed, dried (Treatment 2), blood applied, rinsed, and an adhesive applied (Single Bond, One-Step, Clearfil SE, Prompt L-Pop) (Treatment 3). Fresh composite was applied and light-cured in 2-mm increments. After 24 h storage in water, the specimens were sectioned into 0.7-mm thick slabs, trimmed to a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2), and loaded to failure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min using an Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (pcontamination resulted in resin-resin bond strengths of only 1.0-13.1 MPa. Rinsing raised bond strengths to over 40 MPa for each material. Use of an adhesive further increased bond strengths except for Pertac II. Rinsing blood from contaminated surfaces increases the resin-resin bond strength significantly and the application of an appropriate adhesive increases the bond strength to control levels.

  12. Apparatus for waste disposal of radioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burack, R.D.; Stenger, W.J.; Wolfe, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for concentrating dissolved and solid radioactive materials carried in a waste water solution containing a hazardous chelating agent used for cleaning nuclear equipment. It comprises oxidizing chamber means, separator means coupled to the oxidizing chamber means; ion exchange means containing an ion exchange resin; dryer means for receiving the radioactive solids from the separator means and for producing dry solids; and packaging means for receiving the dry solids and spent ion exchange resins containing the removed dissolved radioactive materials and for packaging the dry solids and spent resins in solid form

  13. Wet oxidative destruction of spent ion-exchange resins using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Spent organic ion exchange resins are generated in large quantities during the operation of nuclear facilities. Wet oxidation as a mode of treatment of these gel-type ion exchange resins was investigated using H 2 O 2 as oxidant in the presence of CuSO 4 as catalyst. Experiments using commercial samples were conducted at 95-100 deg C under reflux conditions at atmospheric pressure. It was found that the reaction of cation resin with H 2 O 2 was instantaneous whereas with anion resin, there was a lag time. For efficient utilization of the oxidant, low rate of addition of H 2 O 2 , 0.01M concentration of CuSO 4 and neutral pH in mixed resin reactions, were found to be useful. Foaming was noted during reactions involving anion resins. This could be controlled by silicone-based agents. The residual solution left after resin oxidation is aqueous in nature and is expected to contain all the radioactivity originally present in the resin. Preliminary experiments showed that it could be efficiently trapped using available inorganic sorbents. Wet oxidation system offers a simple method of converting organic waste into environmentally acceptable inorganic products. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Immobilization in cement of ion exchange resins from Spanish nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebra, A.G. de la; Murillo, R.; Ortiz, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange materials used at nuclear power plants can be immobilized in cements less expensive than polymer matrices. Cement solidification of spent ion exchange resins shows swelling and cracking troubles (during setting time, or of storage). The objective of this study was to select the types of cement that produce the best quality on immobilization of three kinds of resins and to set up cement formulations containing the maximum possible loading of resin. Four cements were selected to carried out the study. After a study of hydration-dehydration phenomena of ion exchange resins, a systematic work has been carried out on immobilization. Tests were performed to study compressive strength and underwater stability by changing water/cement ratio and resin/cement ratio. Mixtures made with water, cement and resin only were loaded with 10% by weight dry resin. Mixtures with higher loadings show poor workability. Tests were carried out by adding organic plasticizers and silica products to improve waste loading. Plasticizers reduced water demand and silica products permit the use of more water. Leaching tests have been performed at 40 O C. In conclusion Blast Furnace Slag is the best cement for immobilization of ion exchange resin both bead and powdered form for mechanical strength, stability and leaching

  15. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  16. Electrodialysis Treatment of Industrial Waste Waters That Generaters Little Sludge; Tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales por electrodialisis, tecnica que genera pocos lodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savastoma Mariel, C. [Universidad de Cantabria. Santander (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes is reviewed as a separation technique and details are shown. The method is used in several process applications but its adoption looks particularly attractive in the treatment of waste water streams consisting primarily of diluted residual salts and electrolytes. It is argued that the main advantage shown by the technology compared to the classical treatment consisting of adding lime to neutralize the waste waters resides in tis avoiding the generation of voluminous sludges thus permitting savings in the management and disposal of the mud. Other interesting applications are those operations where generating acidity and/or alkalinity with addition of no extra chemicals is desirable, such as the regeneration of ion exchange resins. (Author) 34 refs.

  17. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  18. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Kamiya, Kunio.

    1975-01-01

    Object: In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant, to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Structure: Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  20. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Kamiya, K

    1975-01-16

    In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant the objectives is to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use.

  1. The efficiency of macroporous polystyrene ion-exchange resins in natural organic matter removal from surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanowska Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural water sources used for water treatment contains various organic and inorganic compounds. Surface waters are commonly contaminated with natural organic matter (NOM. NOM removal from water is important e.g. due to lowering the risk of disinfection by-product formation during chlorination. Ion exchange with the use of synthetic ion-exchange resins is an alternative process to typical NOM removal approach (e.g. coagulation, adsorption or oxidation as most NOM compounds have anionic character. Moreover, neutral fraction could be removed from water due to its adsorption on resin surface. In this study, applicability of two macroporous, polystyrene ion exchange resins (BD400FD and A100 in NOM removal from water was assessed including comparison of treatment efficiency in various process set-ups and conditions. Moreover, resin regeneration effectivity was determined. Obtained results shown that examined resins could be applied in NOM removal and it should be noticed that column set-up yielded better results (contrary to batch set-up. Among the examined resins A100 one possessed better properties. It was determined that increase of solution pH resulted in a slight decrease in treatment efficiency while higher temperature improved it. It was also observed that regeneration efficiency was comparable in both tested methods but batch set-up required less reagents.

  2. Evaluation of adsorbent and ion exchange resins for removal of organic matter from petroleum refinery wastewaters aiming to increase water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu Domingos, Rodrigo; da Fonseca, Fabiana Valéria

    2018-05-15

    The oil refinery industry seeks solutions to reduce its water uptake and consumption by encouraging the reuse of internal streams and wastewater from treatment systems. After conventional treatment the petroleum refinery wastewater still contains a considerable quantity of recalcitrant organics and the adsorption on activated carbon is currently used in Brazilian refineries, although it is still expensive due to the difficulty of its regeneration. This study evaluated the use of adsorbent and ion exchange resins for the removal of organic matter from refinery wastewater after conventional treatment in order to verify its feasibility, applying successive resin regenerations and comparing the results with those obtained for activated carbon process. Adsorption isotherms experiments were used to evaluate commercial resins, and the most efficient was subjected to column experiments, where absorbance (ABS) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal were measured. The adsorption isotherm of the best resin showed an adsorptive capacity that was 55% lower than that of activated carbon. On the other hand, the column experiments indicated good removal efficiency, and the amount of TOC in the treated wastewater was as good as has been reported in the literature for activated carbon. The regeneration efficiency of the retained organics ranged from 57 to 94%, while regenerant consumption ranged from 12 to 79% above the amount recommended by the resin supplier for the removal of organic material from natural sources, showing the great resistance of these recalcitrant compounds to desorption. Finally, an estimate of the service life of the resin using intermediate regeneration conditions found it to be seven times higher than that of activated carbon when the latter is not regenerated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recovery of plutonium from nitric acid containing oxalate and fluoride by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Godbole, A.G.; Swarup, R.; Vaidya, V.N.; Venugopal, V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    The sorption of Pu from nitric acid solutions containing oxalate/fluoride was studied using an indigenously available macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid (MPBPA) resin. Batch experiments were carried out to obtain the distribution data of Pu(IV) with a view to optimize conditions for its recovery from nitric acid waste solutions containing oxalate or fluoride ions. The measurements showed high distribution ratio (D) values even in the presence of strong complexing ions, like oxalate and fluoride, indicating the possibility of recovery of Pu from these types of waste solution. Column studies were carried out using this resin to recover Pu from the oxalate supernatant waste solution, which showed that up to 99% of Pu could be adsorbed on the resin. Elution of Pu loaded on the resin was studied using different eluting agents. (author)

  4. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  5. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  6. Leaching of nuclear power reactor waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, L.S.; Villalobos, J.P.; Miyamoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    The leaching tests for immobilized power reactor wastes carried out at IPEN are described. These wastes forms consist mainly of spent resins and boric acid concentrates solidified in ordinary Portland cement. All tests were conducted according to the ISO and IAEA recommendations. Three years leaching results are reported. The cesium diffuvity coefficients determined out of these results are about 1 x 10 -8 cm 2 /s for boric acid waste form and 9 x 10 -9 cm 2 /s for ion-exchange resin waste. Strontium diffusivity coefficients found are about 3 x 10 -11 cm 2 /s and 9 x 10 -11 cm 2 /s respectively. (Author) [pt

  7. Research and development for decontamination system of spent resin in Hanbit Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Gi Hong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    When reactor coolant leaks occur due to cracks of a steam generator tube, radioactive materials contained in the primary cooling water in nuclear power plant are forced out toward the secondary systems. At this time the secondary water purification resin in the ion exchange resin tower of the steam generator blowdown system is contaminated by the radioactivity of the leaked radioactive materials, so we pack this in special containers and store temporarily because we could not dispose it by ourselves. If steam generator tube leakage occurs, it produces contaminated spent resins annually about 5,000-7,000 liters. This may increase the amount of nuclear waste productions, a disposal working cost and a unit price of generating electricity in the plant. For this reasons, it is required to develop a decontamination process technique for reducing the radioactive level of these resins enough to handle by the self-disposal method. In this research, First, Investigated the structure and properties of the ion exchange resin used in a steam generator blowdown system. Second, Checked for a occurrence status of contaminated spent resin and a disposal technology. Third, identified the chemical characteristics of the waste radionuclides of the spent resin, and examined ionic bonding and separation mechanism of radioactive nuclear species and a spent resin. Finally, we carried out the decontamination experiment using chemicals, ultrasound, microbubbles, supercritical carbon dioxide to process these spent resin. In the case of the spent resin decontamination method using chemicals, the higher the concentration of the drug decontamination efficiency was higher. In the ultrasound method, foreign matter of the spent resin was removed and was found that the level of radioactivity is below of the MDA. In the microbubbles method, we found that the concentration of the radioactivity decreased after the experiment, so it can be used to the decontamination process of the spent resin. In

  8. Research and development for decontamination system of spent resin in Hanbit Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Gi Hong

    2015-01-01

    When reactor coolant leaks occur due to cracks of a steam generator tube, radioactive materials contained in the primary cooling water in nuclear power plant are forced out toward the secondary systems. At this time the secondary water purification resin in the ion exchange resin tower of the steam generator blowdown system is contaminated by the radioactivity of the leaked radioactive materials, so we pack this in special containers and store temporarily because we could not dispose it by ourselves. If steam generator tube leakage occurs, it produces contaminated spent resins annually about 5,000-7,000 liters. This may increase the amount of nuclear waste productions, a disposal working cost and a unit price of generating electricity in the plant. For this reasons, it is required to develop a decontamination process technique for reducing the radioactive level of these resins enough to handle by the self-disposal method. In this research, First, Investigated the structure and properties of the ion exchange resin used in a steam generator blowdown system. Second, Checked for a occurrence status of contaminated spent resin and a disposal technology. Third, identified the chemical characteristics of the waste radionuclides of the spent resin, and examined ionic bonding and separation mechanism of radioactive nuclear species and a spent resin. Finally, we carried out the decontamination experiment using chemicals, ultrasound, microbubbles, supercritical carbon dioxide to process these spent resin. In the case of the spent resin decontamination method using chemicals, the higher the concentration of the drug decontamination efficiency was higher. In the ultrasound method, foreign matter of the spent resin was removed and was found that the level of radioactivity is below of the MDA. In the microbubbles method, we found that the concentration of the radioactivity decreased after the experiment, so it can be used to the decontamination process of the spent resin. In

  9. Experience with intermediate strong base anion resins at three mile island nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federick, K.H.; Reed, J.G.; Glass, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    A-104 resin appears to have been an excellent replacement for upflow regenerated Stratabeds at Three Mile Island. It has resulted in a 50% increase in operating throughputs, lower maintenance and greater ease of operation for the makeup trains. It should be stressed that differences in raw water characteristics or equipment design might render this experience not applicable to any given specific installation. A thorough evaluation of all aspects of such a conversion is recommended before any changes are attempted. 1 ref

  10. Surface Engineering of PAMAM-SDB Chelating Resin with Diglycolamic Acid (DGA) Functional Group for Efficient Sorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) from Aqueous Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaiyaraja, P.; Venkatraman, B., E-mail: chemila07@gmail.com [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Deb, A.K. Singha [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ponraju, D. [Safety Engineering Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Ali, Sk. Musharaf [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A new DGA-PAMAM-SDB chelating resin has been synthesized for actinide sorption. • Maximum sorption capacities of resin are 682 and 544.2 mg g{sup −1}for U(VI) and Th(IV). • DGA-PAMAM-SDB chelating resin could be regenerated and reused. • DFT calculation of actinides interaction with resin corroborates the experimental. • Resin is effective for sorption of actinides from both aqueous and HNO{sub 3} medium. - Abstract: A novel chelating resin obtained via growth of PAMAM dendron on surface of styrene divinyl benzene resin beads, followed by diglycolamic acid functionalization of the dendrimer terminal. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, nitric acid concentration, amount of adsorbent, shaking time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption efficiency. Diglycolamic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimer functionalized styrene divinylbenzene chelating resin (DGA-PAMAM-SDB) is found to be an efficient candidate for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions from aqueous (pH > 4) and nitric acid media (> 3 M). The sorption equilibrium could be reached within 60 min, and the experimental data fits with pseudo-second-order model. Langmuir sorption isotherm model correlates well with sorption equilibrium data. The maximum U(VI) and Th(IV) sorption capacity onto DGA-PAMAMG{sub 5}-SDB was estimated to be about 682 and 544.2 mg g{sup −1} respectively at 25 °C. The interaction of actinides and chelating resin is reversible and hence, the resin can be regenerated and reused. DFT calculation on the interaction of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions with chelating resin validates the experimental findings.

  11. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshihiko; Maruko, Morihisa; Takamura, Yoshiyuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively separate radioactive claddings from the slurry of wasted ion exchange resins containing radioactive claddings. Method: Wasted ion exchange resins having radioactive claddings (fine particles of iron oxides or hydroxide adhered with radioactive cobalt) are introduced into a clad separation tank. Sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide is introduced to the separation tank to adjust the pH value to 3 - 6. Then, sodium lauryl sulfate is added for capturing claddings and airs are blown from an air supply nozzle to generate air bubbles. The claddings are detached from the ion exchange resins and adhered to the air bubbles. The air bubbles adhered with the claddings float up to the surface of the liquid wastes and then forced out of the separation tank. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Method of processing liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi; Oohashi, Takeshi; Kawakatsu, Ryu; Kuribayashi, Kotaro.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To process radioactive liquid wastes with safety by distillating radioactive liquid wastes while passing gases, properly treating the distillation fractions, adding combustible and liquid synthetic resin material to the distillation residues, polymerizing to solidify and then burning them. Method: Radioactive substance - containing liquid wastes are distillated while passing gases and the distillation fractions containing no substantial radioactive substances are treated in an adequate method. Synthetic resin material, which may be a mixture of polymer and monomer, is added together with a catalyst to the distillation residues containing almost of the radioactive substances to polymerize and solidify. Water or solvent in such an extent as not hindering the solidification may be allowed if remained. The solidification products are burnt for facilitating the treatment of the radioactive substances. The resin material can be selected suitably, methacrylate syrup (mainly solution of polymethylmethacrylate and methylmethacrylate) being preferred. (Seki, T.)

  13. Necessity and opportunity of building a mobile facility for conditioning the spent ionic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2002-01-01

    The ionic resins utilized in nuclear industry for purification of different working fluids become contaminated by important amounts of radionuclides incorporated in their structure. Thus, these resins become intermediate-level radioactive wastes, containing radioisotopes of rather long lifetimes, and so their conditioning is required to ensure binding and isolation of the radionuclides over a period long enough, until their decay. Binding the radionuclides in stable matrices and their isolation by means of engineered barriers ensures protection of environment against contamination. In the frame of Radioactive Waste Management Program related to Cernavoda NPP, optimal technologies for processing the radioactive waste generated during the NPP operation were developed and also a site for final disposal of the low and intermediate level waste was selected. The last one is a modern, ground repository with multiple engineered barriers based on the natural properties of the host geological formation. The final disposal concept implies building a conditioning facility to ensure: a super-compacting stage of the already compacted wastes; cementing the uncompactable wastes; cementing spent filters; cementing the pellets resulted from the super-compacting stage and drums with conditioned wastes in concrete modules; cementing the organic wastes; cementing the spent ionic resins by means of a mobile facility. The spent ionic resins removed from the technologic purification systems of the station are discharged by means of demineralized water and transferred, corresponding to source, to one of the 3 storage 200 m 3 basins from the basement of the CANDU 6 NPP servicing building. To avoid the danger of spent resins being cemented at basin's bottom the basins should be emptied at every 10-15 years. To comply with IAEA requirements concerning the radioactive waste final disposal, a procedure for establishing the quantitative concentration of solidification agents and additives

  14. Supercritical fluid regeneration of adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippi, R. P.; Robey, R. J.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a program to perform studies supercritical (fluid) carbon dioxide (SCF CO2) regeneration of adsorbents, using samples of industrial wastewaters from manufacturing pesticides and synthetic solution, and to estimate the economics of the specific wastewater treatment regenerations, based on test data are given. Processing costs for regenerating granular activated carbon GAC) for treating industrial wastewaters depend on stream properties and regeneration throughput.

  15. Receipt and processing of RBOF/RRF liquid waste in H-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Receiving Basin for Off-Site Fuels/Resin Regeneration Facility (RBOF/RRF) currently generates approximately 50,000 gallons of wastewater per month. This waste is sent to the 211-H General Purpose (GP) evaporator and/or the 241-H Tank Farm (HTF). The primary criteria for selecting the destination of the waste are solids content and radioactively.The waste is typically sent to the GP evaporator if it has low solids content and low activity. Currently, approximately 70% of the waste water produced at RBOF/RRF meets the criteria for acceptance by the GP evaporator. In June 1993, High Level Waste Engineering opened a Technical Issue (TI) related to processing of RBOF/RRF directly through the 1H Cesium Removal Column (CRC) to the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). In March 1994, additional emphasis was placed on this effort after it was determined that the 1H evaporator had a failed tube bundle. As a result, The TI was expanded to include evaluations of methods to increase the acceptance rate of wastewater at the GP (i.e., to ensure that the 70% of RBOF/RRF wastewater that currently meets the GP acceptance criteria is actually processed at the GP). Since March 1994, waste receipts from RBOF/RRF have averaged less than the 30,000 gallons/month allotted in the HLW System Plan. In addition, the RBOF/RRF waste sent to HTF has successfully been processed through the 2H evaporator. Based on this progress, no additional effort should be expended to reduce the amount of RBOF/RRF sent to HTF, either by increasing the criteria for acceptance of RBOF/RRF waste at the GP evaporator or by evaluating alternate treatment options (such as processing through the 1H CRC or installing treatment equipment in the RBOF/RRF)

  16. Radioactive spent resins conditioning by the hot super-compaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Andreas; Centner, Baudouin; Lemmens, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Spent ion exchanger media are considered to be problematic waste that, in many cases, requires special approaches and precautions during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. The waste acceptance criteria define, among others, the quality of waste forms for disposal, and therefore will sometimes define appropriate treatment options. The selection of treatment options for spent ion exchange materials must consider their physical and chemical characteristics. Basically, the main methods for the treatment of spent organic ion exchange materials, following to pretreatment methods are: - Direct immobilization, producing a stable end product by using Cement, Bitumen, Polymer or High Integrity Containers, - The destruction of the organic compounds by using Thermochemical processes or Oxidation to produce an inorganic intermediate product that may or may not be further conditioned for storage and/or disposal, - The complete removal of the resin inner structural water by a thermal process. After a thorough technical economical analysis, Tractebel Engineering selected the Resin Hot Compaction Process to be installed at Tihange Nuclear Power Plant. The Resin Hot Compaction Process is used to make dense homogenous organic blocks from a wide range of particulate waste. In this process spent resins are first dewatered and dried to remove the inner structural water content. The drying takes place in a drying vessel that holds the contents of two 200 L drums (Figure). In the oil heated drying and mixing unit, the resins are heated to the necessary process temperature for the hot pressing step and then placed into special metal drums, which are automatically lidded and immediately transferred to a high force compactor. After high force compaction the pellets are transferred to a measuring unit, where the dose rate, height and weight are automatically measured and recorded. A volume reduction factor of approximately up to four (depending on the type of

  17. An active magnetic regenerator device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) device comprising two or more regenerator beds, a magnet arrangement and a valve arrangement. The valve arrangement comprises a plurality of valve elements arranged substantially immovably with respect to the regenerator beds along a rotational direction...

  18. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  19. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Ichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reduction effect, as well as enable simultaneous procession for the wastes such as burnable solid wastes, resin wastes or sludges, and further convert the processed materials into glass-solidified products which are much less burnable and stable chemically and thermally. Method: Auxiliaries mainly composed of SiO 2 such as clays, and wastes such as burnable solid wastes, waste resins and sludges are charged through a waste hopper into an incinerating melting furnace comprising an incinerating and a melting furnace, while radioactive concentrated liquid wastes are sprayed from a spray nozzle. The wastes are burnt by the heat from the melting furnace and combustion air, and the sprayed concentrated wastes are dried by the hot air after the combustion into solid components. The solid matters from the concentrated liquid wastes and the incinerating ashes of the wastes are melted together with the auxiliaries in the melting furnace and converted into glass-like matters. The glass-like matters thus formed are caused to flow into a vessel and gradually cooled to solidify. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Process for affixing radioactive contamination on contaminated materials or wastes. Its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubouin, Guy; Aude, Georges; Tassigny, Christian de.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for affixing radioactive contamination on materials or waste matter in order to ensure that the materials are transferred in complete safety or to package them when their activity is low. Under this process at least one coat of a resin polymerizable at ambient temperature, for example an epoxy resin, a polyester resin, a vinyl resin or a mixture of thermohardening resin and thermoplastic resin, is sprayed on to the contaminated material part by means of an electrostatic gun [fr

  1. Accurate determination of 41Ca concentrations in spent resins from the nuclear industry by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bourlès, Didier; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2013-01-01

    The radiological characterisation of nuclear waste is essential for managing storage sites. Determining the concentration of Long‐Lived RadioNuclides (LLRN) is fundamental for their long-term management. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 41 Ca concentrations in ions exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). 41 Ca concentrations were successfully measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) after the acid digestion of resin samples, followed by radioactive decontamination and isobaric suppression through successive hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate and final CaF 2 precipitations. Measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 ng/g, i.e. from 0.06 to 0.09 Bq/g. The 41 Ca/ 60 Co activity ratios obtained were remarkably reproducible and in good agreement with the current ratio used for resins management. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 41 Ca in spent resins using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. • A chemical treatment procedure was developed to quantitatively recover calcium in solution and selectively extract it. • Developed firstly on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • Accelerator mass spectrometry allowed measuring concentrations of 41 Ca in spent resins as low as 0.02 ng/g of dry resin. • Final results are in agreement with current data used for spent resins management

  2. Degradation of ion spent resin using the Fenton's reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Leandro Goulart de

    2013-01-01

    The most common method for spent radioactive ion exchange resin treatment is its immobilization in cement, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. Although this method is efficient, it increases considerably the final volume of the waste due to the low incorporation capacity. The objective of this work was to develop a degradation method of spent resins arising from the nuclear research reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagents. This method would allow a higher incorporation in cement. Three different resins were evaluated: cationic, anionic and a mixture of both resins. The reactions were conducted varying the catalyst concentration (25, 50, 100 and 150 mM), the volume of hydrogen peroxide (320 to 460 mL), and three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg C. Degradation of about 98% was achieved using a 50 mM catalyst solution and 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution. The most efficient temperature was 60 deg C. (author)

  3. Ion Exchange Resin and Clay Vitrification by Plasma Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, Laura V.; Pacheco S, Joel O.; Pacheco P, Marquidia; Monroy G, Fabiola; Emeterio H, Miguel; Ramos F, Fidel

    2006-01-01

    The lack of treatment of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) lead us to propose a vitrification process based on a plasma discharge; this technique incorporates LILRW into a matrix glass composed of ceramic clays material. The Mexican Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), uses an ion exchange resin IRN 150 (styrene-divinilbence copolymer) in the TRIGA MARK III nuclear reactor. The principal objective of this resin is to absorb particles containing heavy metals and low-level radioactive particles. Once the IRN 150 resin filter capacity has been exceeded, it should be replaced and treated as LILRW. In this work, a transferred plasma system was realized to vitrify this resin taking advantage of its high power density, enthalpy and chemical reactivity as well as its rapid quenching and high operation temperatures. In order to characterize the morphological structure of these clay samples, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were applied before and after the plasma treatment

  4. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitument matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    To study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms, many samples of bitumen mixed with ion-exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared. The resins used in the tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/anionic bead resins. Different bittumen types were assayed: two destilled and to oxidized bitumens. Laboratory to scale samples, with surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 1, were molded to 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height. The composition of the mixtures were: 30, 40, 50 and 60% by weight of dried resin with bitumen. The leachant was deionized water with a leachant volume to sample surface rario of about 8 cm. Leached fractions were collected according to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant beckers after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli were used for counting in a Ge(Li) detector. Up to now, results of 250 days have been accumulated. Samples prepared with distilled bitumen have shown a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -14 cm 2 /sec and those prepared with oxidized bitumen yielded a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -12 cm 2 /sec. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry were employed to fit experimental data. (Author) [pt

  5. Supercritical water oxidation of ion exchange resins: Degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A. [CEA Marcoule, DEN DTCD SPDE LFSM, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Guichardon, P. [Ecole Cent Marseille, F-13451 Marseille 20 (France); Boutin, O. [Aix Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS 6181, F-13545 Aix En Provence 4 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Spent ion exchange resins are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation could offer a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins and contain radioactivity. IER degradation experiments were carried out in a continuous supercritical water reactor. Total organic carbon degradation rates in the range of 95-98% were obtained depending on operating conditions. GC-MS chromatography analyses were carried out to determine intermediate products formed during the reaction. Around 50 species were identified for cationic and anionic resins. Degradation of poly-styrenic structure leads to the formation of low molecular weight compounds. Benzoic acid, phenol and acetic acid are the main compounds. However, other products are detected in appreciable yields such as phenolic species or heterocycles, for anionic IERs degradation. Intermediates produced by intramolecular rearrangements are also obtained. A radical degradation mechanism is proposed for each resin. In this overall mechanism, several hypotheses are foreseen, according to HOO center dot radical attack sites. (authors)

  6. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  7. Potential problems associated with ion-exchange resins used in the decontamination of light-water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Adams, J.W.; Kempf, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    During a typical decontamination event, ion-exchange resin beds are used to remove corrosion products (radioactive and nonradioactive) and excess decontamination reagents from waste streams. The spent resins may be solidified in a binder, such as cement, or sealed in a high-integrity container (HIC) in order to meet waste stability requirements specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Lack of stability of low-level waste in a shallow land burial trench may lead to trench subsidence, enhanced water infiltration and waste leaching, which would result in accelerated transport of radionuclides and the complexing agents used for decontamination. The current program is directed at investigating safety problems associated with the handling, solidification and containerization of decontamination resin wastes. The three tasks currently underway include freeze-thaw cycling of cementitious and vinyl ester-styrene forms to determine if mechanical integrity is compromised, a study of the corrosion of container materials by spent decontamination waste resins, and investigations of resin degradation mechanisms

  8. Immobilization of Ion Exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Martinez, H.

    1999-01-01

    In the last decades many countries in the world have taken interest in the use, availability, and final disposal of dangerous wastes in the environment, within these, those dangerous wastes that contain radioactive material. That is why studies have been made on materials used as immobilization agent of radioactive waste that may guarantee its storage for long periods of time under drastic conditions of humidity, temperature change and biodegradation. In mexico, the development of different applications of radioactive material in the industry, medicine and investigation, have generated radioactive waste, sealed and open sources, whose require a special technological development for its management and final disposal. The present work has as a finality to develop the process and define the agglutinating material, bitumen, cement and polyester resin that permits immobilization of resins of Ionic Exchange contaminated by Barium 153, Cesium 137, Europium 152, Cobalt 60 and Manganese 54 generated from the nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark III. Ionic interchange contaminated resin must be immobilized and is analysed under different established tests by the Mexican Official Standard NOM-019-NUCL-1995 L ow level radioactive wastes package requirements for its near-surface final disposal. Immobilization of ionic interchange contaminated resins must count with the International Standards applicable in this process; in these standards, the following test must be taken in prototype examples: Free-standing water, leachability, compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, thermal stability and burning rate. (Author)

  9. Studies of Vitrification of Ion-Exchange Resins. A Joint USA-Argentina Collaborative Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Herman, C.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Sundaram, S.K.; Perez, J.M.; Hoeffner, S.L.; Russo, D.O.; Sterba, M.

    2003-01-01

    Under the Science and Technology Implementing Arrangement for Cooperation on Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management (JCCRM), the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) is helping to transfer waste treatment technology to international atomic energy commissions.As part of the JCCRM, DOE has established a collaborative research agreement with the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Cnea).The Cnea is investigating treatment and disposal options for organic ion exchange resins currently stored at two nuclear power plants in the Republic of Argentina.The major hazards of the ion exchange resins are their organic composition and the contaminants that are present on the resins after purification processes.The principal contaminants are usually the radioactive species that are removed.For these studies, actual non-radioactive resins from Argentina's Embalse and Atucha plants were tested.The glass produced during the runs was durable was measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT).The product had a predictable, mostly amorphous composition throughout the demonstrations; though there was some evidence of the formation of clinopyroxene crystals.The immobilized product represented an approximately 70% volume reduction from the simulated Argentine ion exchange resin (i.e., a reduction from the volume of as-stored wet resin to the volume of the ultimate borosilicate glass product).For all runs, the radioactive surrogate retention was near 100%

  10. The PILO process: zeolites and titanates in the treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.; Forberg, S.; Westermark, T.; Faelt, L.

    1981-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins from power reactor operation contain more than 95% of the total radioactivity of wet reactor wastes. Cementation and bituminization are the two methods applied in Sweden up to now for the immobilization of spent resins. Over the last years, however, research and development work has resulted in a proposed process (PILO), where > 99.9 % of cesium and strontium and around 90 % of other radioactive nuclides are eluted from the spent resins and sorbed in zeolites and titanates in a chromatographic process. The inorganic sorbents are dried after loading and sintered to yield long-term stable products, while the treated resins may be incinerated to give ash residues of fairly short-lived activity. The development work has included production, characterization and testing of different zeolites and titanates, bench-scale optimization of the chromatographic process using actual spent resins, heat treatment of the loaded inorganic sorbents, and resin incineration. Over-all system design studies including transport requirements, integrated process flowsheets, and cost estimates are now in progress. The aim is to have a sufficient basis during spring 1982 to decide on the merits of a PILO plant at the planned repository for low and medium level waste (SFR), to be commissioned in 1988. (Auth.)

  11. Image resolution influence on determination of resin injection rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Hakami, Eva

    2006-01-01

    In the context of nuclear waste repositories, an important approach to understanding brittle rock mass behavior to integrate new and powerful observational and numerical methods with multi-functional 3-D imaging and visualization techniques. Since 1994, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) have identified the need for a better understanding of radionuclide transport and retention processes in fractured rock. As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, we sampled a number of rock specimens for analyze rock fracture network by optical image technique. The samples are resin injected, in which way; opened fractures can be seen clearly by means of UV (Ultraviolet) light illumination. In the study period, we used different optical focuses to obtain the images from the same samples; we found that Image resolution influences on porosity determination of resin injected rock mass. This paper presents and discusses the six issues based on our research results: (1) Fracture porosity increases as camera focus distance decreases; (2) Porosity increases as illumination increases in resin injected fracture images; (3) To roughly estimate the porosity, the low resolution image can be used; (4) To collect more details of fracture information, the high resolution image is needed; (5) The resolution of image should be determined based on the aim of fracture analysis; (6) To acquire high resolution image, constructing a special illumination (standard) box maybe helpful to avoid light reflection and diffusion.

  12. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Ion-Exchange Resin - Effects of Oxygen Uptake and Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2009-01-01

    An ion-exchange process, using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site in Washington State. The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS)in South Carolina. Testing at ORNL will determine the impact of radiation exposure and oxygen uptake by the RF resin on the hydraulic permeability of the resin. Samples of the resin will be removed periodically to measure physical properties (bead size and compressibility) and cesium capacity. The proposed full-scale treatment system at Hanford, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), will use an ion-exchange column containing nominally 680 gal of resin, which will treat 30 gpm of waste solution. The ion-exchange column is designed for a typical pressure drop of 6 psig, with a maximum of 9.7 psig. The lab-scale column is 3-in. clear PVC pipe and is prototypic of the proposed Hanford column. The fluid velocity in the lab-scale test will be much higher than for the full-scale column, in order to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in that column (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity will produce similar forces on the resin in the lab-scale column as would be expected at the bottom of the full-scale column. The chemical changes in the resin caused by radiation exposure and oxygen uptake are expected to cause physical changes in the resin that could reduce the bed porosity and reduce the hydraulic permeability of the resin bed. These changes will be monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and by measuring the physical properties of samples of the resin. The test loop with the lab-scale column is currently being fabricated, and operation will start by late May. Testing will be completed by the

  13. Flowsheet Validation For The Permanganate Digestion Of REILLEX(trademark) HPQ Anion Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.

    2009-01-01

    The flowsheet for the digestion of Reillex(trademark) HPQ was validated both under the traditional alkaline conditions and under strongly acidic conditions. Due to difficulty in performing a pH adjustment in the large tank where this flowsheet must be performed, the recommended digestion conditions were changed from pH 8-10 to 8 M HNO 3 . Thus, no pH adjustment of the solution is required prior to performing the permanganate addition and digestion and the need to sample the digestion tank to confirm appropriate pH range for digestion may be avoided. Neutralization of the acidic digestion solution will be performed after completion of the resin digestion cycle. The amount of permanganate required for this type of resin (Reillex(trademark) HPQ) was increased from 1 kg/L resin to 4 kg/L resin to reduce the amount of residual resin solids to a minimal amount ( 2 ) solids (1.71 kg/L resin) and involves the generation of a significant liquid volume due to the low solubility of permanganate. However, since only two batches of resin (40 L each) are expected to be digested, the total waste generated is limited.

  14. Formulation study on immobilization of spent ion exchange resins in polymer cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lili; Lin Meiqiong; Bao Liangjin; Fan Xianhua

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a formulation of cement-solidified spent radioactive ion exchange resin form. The solidified form consists of a sort of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion, and spent ion exchange resins. The composite cement is made up of quick-setting sulphoaluminate cement, silica powder, zeolite, and fly ash in the proportion 1:0.05:0.10:0.05. Sixteen combinations of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion and mixed anion-cation exchange resins are selected according to a three-factors-four-levels normal design table with the compression strength as the evaluation criterion. The resulted formulation is as follows: the mass ratio of polymer emulsion to composite cement is 0.55:1, the loading of mixed anion-cation exchange resins is 0.3, and the anionic-to-cationic exchange resins ratio is 2:1. The polymer cement solidified forms were tested after 28 d curing for Cs + and Sr 2+ leaching rates, pH and conductivity of the leaching water, and radiation-resistant property in addition to their compressive strength. The measurement results indicate that the performance of thus prepared solidified forms can meet the requirements of the National Standard GB14569.1-93 for near earth's surface disposal of low radioactive waste. (authors)

  15. Simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions using an extractive scintillating resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, J E; DeVol, T A

    2002-11-01

    An extractive scintillating resin was evaluated for the simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions. The transuranic extractive scintillating (TRU-ES) resin is composed of an inert macroporous polystyrene core impregnated with organic fluors (diphenyloxazole and 1,4-bis-(4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene) and an extractant (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tributyl phosphate). The TRU-ES resin was packed into FEP Teflon tubing to produce a flow cell (0.2-mL free column volume), which is placed into a scintillation detection system to obtain pulse height spectra and time series data during loading and elution of actinides onto/from the resin. The alpha-particle absolute detection efficiencies ranged from 77% to 96.5%, depending on the alpha energy and quench. In addition to the on-line analyses, off-line analyses of the effluent can be conducted using conventional detection methods. The TRU-ES resin was applied to the quantification of a mixed radionuclide solution and two actual waste samples. The on-line characterization of the mixed radionuclide solution was within 10% of the reported activities whereas the agreement with the waste samples was not as good due to sorption onto the sample container walls and the oxidation state of plutonium. Agreement between the on-line and off-line analyses was within 35% of one another for both waste samples.

  16. Development of volume-reduction system for ion exchange resin using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

    2002-01-01

    The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68 MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective. (author)

  17. Estimation of tritium trapped in the used ion exchange column resins using water as scavenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaravel, S.; Ramakrishna, V.; Nair, B.S.K.; Ganesh, G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Estimation of Tritium trapped in the used resins of Ion exchange (IX) columns apart from the gross beta activity in heavy water systems of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) is mandatory before their disposal as radioactive waste. The gross beta activity is estimated by Gieger- Muller (GM) counter and by using gamma spectrometer. Accurate estimation of tritium activity of the resin without compromising the counting efficiency is a challenging task because, if a fixed quantity of the resin is directly added to the scintillation solution and counted on a liquid scintillation analyser (LSA), it is prone to interfere with counting efficiency drastically and results in unquantifiable errors and other practical difficulties. In this study a standard technique using light water as scavenger medium to precisely quantify the total activity of tritium trapped in the resin by a systematic approach was carried out

  18. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  19. Treatment of radioactive laboratory waste for mercury removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteen, A.B.; Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Routine analyses of Savannah River Laboratory wastes at the Savannah River Site occasionally reveal mercury concentrations in the waste in excess of the 0.200 μg/L RCRA limit. An ion exchange resin has been demonstrated to be effective for the removal of dissolved mercury from laboratory waste in a special permitted project. The ion exchange material is Duolite trademark GT-73, a polystyrene/divinylbenzene resin with thiol functional groups. As a result of the decontamination demonstration, the resin is in use or under consideration for use with several other SRS radwaste streams as a reliable medium for mercury removal

  20. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  1. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  2. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  3. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  4. Study on uranium adsorption ability of tannix resin from solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thi Kim Dung; Le Quang Thai; Nguyen Lanh; Le Ngoc Thuy

    2004-01-01

    During past years, generated liquid waste from uranium ore processing has been treated by co-precipitation method in ITRRE. In this liquid waste treatment process, mixing liquid waste and lime, decantation, filtration of precipitate were implemented. The treated fluid has underlimited toxic concentration and ensures for moving into environment. Residue was dried and packed into drums as low level radioactive waste. Next to the advantages of this method such as simplest technology, cheapest cost, easy operation. Some amount of secondary radioactive waste as noncombustible materials must be stored with complicated technologies a highly cost. We have been researching a new liquid waste treatment system replaceable precipitation system. In the new process, insoluble tannin is utilized as adsorbent of uranium liquid waste. Advantage of insoluble tannin is expected to be possible to reduce its volume incineration as well as its adsorption ability. Those are the reasons why tannix resin is used this research subject. In this subject, we have studied adsorption capacity of uranium in Tannix, relation of adsorption rate and pH, the change of adsorption ability of column system, the pyrolysis curve of dried Tannix (author)

  5. Sampling and characterization of spent exchange resins of Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, Jose L.; Cernadas, D.; Iglesias, Alberto M.; Raffo Calderon, Maria del C.

    2004-01-01

    The present storage facilities for spent resins in Atucha I NPP would be full within the next 5 years, accordingly some tasks are being planned to conditioning these waste and so generate enough storage capacity for the remaining life of the plant. Among this tasks is the characterization of spent resins that has several objectives: to know their chemical and radiochemical composition; the homogeneity of these parameters in the total volume of spent resins; the existence or not of compact zones; the proportion of 'crud'; the breakage degree of the micro-spheres; etc. The first step was to analyse the criterion to follow for sampling resins in the storage deposit of 40 m 3 . In order to take some samples from different points, a special device was required. It had to be introduced closed in the resin bed, opened to take the sample and then closed again to return to the surface. A device used in cereal industry for sampling silos to different depths was modified in its internal capacity for reducing operator dose and increasing the length of rod in order to reaching the bottom of the pit. The device was tested in cold mock up before to taking actual samples. Active resins samples, five in total up to now, were taken from deposit to different depths and kept in lead containers. After analysing the samples, the following average results were extracted: 1.7 x 10 5 Bq/g of Co-60, 9.7 x 10 5 Bq/g of Cs-137 and 774 Bq/g of total alpha, which corresponds to intermediate activity waste. The differences between the values of activity of the different samples are of up to 310 % for Co-60 and of up to 788 % for the Cs-137 what indicates a great inhomogeneity. The direct observation of resin grains, placed in a transparent glass burette, did not demonstrate an important proportion of broken or divided resins. (author)

  6. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  7. Use of an Italian pozzolanic cement for the solidification of bead ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.

    1988-05-01

    Granular ion-exchange resins represent a large portion of the medium-active wastes generated at nuclear power stations. The most common practice for their confinement is to mix them with cement paste and cast the mixture in a concrete shell. Such a procedure however does not prove successful in many cases, because of the extreme swelling to which the embedded resin can give rise. This phenomenon has been investigated carefully. In particular, measurements of the swelling pressure have been made together with evaluation of the volume changes of the resin beads due to ion exchange and of the weight increase as a function of relative humidity. The ion exchange capacity, which continues even after incorporation in the cement matrix has also been put into evidence. The conclusion was drawn that a three component diagram (water - dry resin- cement) has to be prepared every time in order to identify the region corresponding to the better formulations. With this in mind the optimum waste loading of 11.5 wt% of dry resin was chosen to incorporate a mixed bed resin (Amberlite IR 120 Na + and IRA 400 Cl - in the weight ratio of 1:1) into an Italian pozzolanic cement (425 type). Several properties of the final waste form have been investigated, ranging from mechanical (crushing strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, elastic modulus and Poisson ratio), to thermal stability, radiation stability, permeability, leachability and resistance to bacterial attack. Dimensional stability was also measured with the aim of examining the expansion phenomena which can take place in the presence of resin beads. The data obtained are encouraging for future application of the type 425 cement tested in the field of radwastes. An attempt to explain the performance of this binder, based on its intrinsic properties, was also made. (author)

  8. Spray-type drying unit for spent ion exchange resins, sludges and radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raibaud, J.

    1986-01-01

    The process for drying radwaste in the liquid form or in aqueous suspension is a very attractive solution from the standpoint of volume reduction. Most of the existing drying facilities are not well adapted for drying the varieties of aqueous waste produced by the nuclear research centres and nuclear power plants, such as: - ion exchange resins, bead type or powdered resins, - centrifuge sludges, - settling sludges, - evaporator bottoms. Technicatome has selected the LEAFLASH process developed by Rhone Poulenc Recherches for drying the nuclear aqueous waste. This process has been well tried at full scale in a large number of industrial branches. The advantages of the process have been confirmed by the results obtained in operating a pilot facility. They include: - high flexibility in operation: - quick start-up and stoppage procedures, - adaptation to a wide spectrum of liquid waste without significant changes in the adjustment of the device. - compactness, - low power consumption, - complete drying of the waste for any initial concentration [fr

  9. Performance testing of high specific activity waste forms per 10 CFR Part 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1987-03-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste by means of NRC-prescribed tests in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program and includes the current test status and results. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  10. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of the...

  11. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  12. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  13. Cement solidification of spent ion exchange resins produced by the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Vigreux, B.

    1988-01-01

    Cement solidification technology has been applied to spent ion exchange resins for many years in countries throughout the world (at reactors, research centers and spent fuel reprocessing plants). Changing specifications for storage of radioactive waste have, however, confronted the operators of such facilities with a number of problems. Problems related both to the cement solidification process (water/cement/resin interactions and chemical interactions) and to its utilization (mixing, process control, variable feed composition, etc.) have often led waste producers to prefer other, polymer-based processes, which are very expensive and virtually incompatible with water. This paper discusses research on cement solidification of ion exchange resins since 1983 and the development of application technologies adapted to nuclear service conditions and stringent finished product quality requirements

  14. Incineration of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic mixture at Belgoprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.

    2003-01-01

    Up to 1998, spent ion exchange resins have been fed to the incinerator in combination with various other solid combustible wastes at Belgoprocess. However, thanks to sustained efforts to reduce radioactive waste production in all nuclear facilities in Belgium, the annual production of solid combustible waste is now much too small to allow this practice to be continued. Since the incinerator at Belgoprocess is not capable of treating spent ion exchange resins as such, it was decided to adopt the use of foam as a carrier to feed the resins to the incinerator. The mixture is a pseudohomogeneous charged foam, ensuring easy handling and allowing incineration in the existing furance, while a number of additives may be included, such as oil to increase the calorific value of the mixture and accelerate combustion. The first incineration campaign of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic foam mixture, in conjunction with other liquid and solid combustible wastes, will be started in January 2000. The foam, comprising 70% by weight of resins, 29% by weight of water and 1% by weight of surfactant will be pulverized in the incinerator through an injection lance, at a feed rate of 40 to 100 kg/h. The incinerator and associated off-gas treatment system can be operated at standard conditions. Belgoprocess is the subsidiary of the Belgian national agency for the management of radioactive waste, known by its Dutch and French acronyms, NIRAS and ONDRAF respectively. The company ensures the treatment, conditioning and interim storage of nearly all radioactive waste produced in Belgium. (orig.)

  15. Recycling the construction and demolition waste to produce polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mohammad T.; Hameed, Awham M., Dr.

    2018-05-01

    The sustainable management for solid wastes of the construction and demolition waste stimulates searching for safety applications for these wastes. The aim of this research is recycling of construction and demolition waste with some different types of polymeric resins to be used in manufacturing process of polymer mortar or polymer concrete, and studying their mechanical and physical properties, and also Specify how the values of compressive strength and the density are affected via the different parameters. In this research two types of construction and demolition waste were used as aggregates replacement (i.e. waste cement/concrete debris, and the waste blocks) while the two types of polymer resins (i.e. Unsaturated polyester and Epoxy) as cement replacements. The used weight percentages of the resins were changed within (1°, 20, 25 and 30) % to manufacture this polymer concrete.

  16. Effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Xuelei; Song, Dawei; Miao, Yanli; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2018-06-01

    Recycling high-valuable metal elements (such as Li, Ni, Co, Al and Cu elements) from scrapped lithium ion batteries can bring significant economic benefits. However, recycling and reusing anode material has not yet attracted wide attention up to now, due to the lower added-value than the above valuable metal materials and the difficulties in regenerating process. In this paper, a novel regeneration process with significant green advance is proposed to regenerate anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries for the first time. After regenerated, most acetylene black (AB) and all the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) in recycled anode material are removed, and the surface of anode material is coated with pyrolytic carbon from phenolic resin again. Finally, the regenerated anode material (graphite with coating layer, residual AB and a little CMC pyrolysis product) is obtained. As expected, all the technical indexs of regenerated anode material exceed that of a midrange graphite with the same type, and partial technical indexs are even closed to that of the unused graphite. The results indicate the effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries is really achieved.

  17. Use of Anion Exchange Resins for One-Step Processing of Algae from Harvest to Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Poenie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Some microalgae are particularly attractive as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production due to their rapid growth, high content of triacylglycerols, and ability to be grown on non-arable land. Unfortunately, obtaining oil from algae is currently cost prohibitive in part due to the need to pump and process large volumes of dilute algal suspensions. In an effort to circumvent this problem, we have explored the use of anion exchange resins for simplifying the processing of algae to biofuel. Anion exchange resins can bind and accumulate the algal cells out of suspension to form a dewatered concentrate. Treatment of the resin-bound algae with sulfuric acid/methanol elutes the algae and regenerates the resin while converting algal lipids to biodiesel. Hydrophobic polymers can remove biodiesel from the sulfuric acid/methanol, allowing the transesterification reagent to be reused. We show that in situ transesterification of algal lipids can efficiently convert algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters while allowing the resin and transesterification reagent to be recycled numerous times without loss of effectiveness.

  18. Phosphorus recovery as struvite from eutropic waters by XDA-7 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanwen; Ye, Zhiping; Lin, Ying; Wang, Fengying

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus releases into aquatic environment and its subsequent contribution to eutrophication have resulted in a widespread global pollution issue. However, phosphorus is a non-renewable source. The potential supplies of phosphorus are decreasing worldwide. Therefore, removal and recovery of phosphorus from the eutropic waters is important, emergent and necessary. In this research, experiments for recovering phosphate from eutropic waters by anion exchange combined with struvite precipitation were conducted. The results indicated that the prepared XDA-7 resin was an effective adsorbent for phosphate. The adsorption isotherm of XDA-7 resin was found to be a modified Freundlich type. The maximum phosphate adsorption (20.9 mg/g) occurred in the pH range of 6.0-8.0. Phosphate adsorbed on the XDA-7 resin was effectively desorbed with 8% NaCl solution, and the resin was able to be regenerated with 3% NaClO and 4% NaOH solutions. Phosphate desorbed from the resin was recovered as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). The obtained struvite was analyzed by acid dissolution method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The struvite precipitate was found to be 75.8% in purity, a high-value fertilizer.

  19. Produced water treatment using polymeric resins; Resinas polimericas para tratamento da agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Freire, Norma de Oliveira [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Queiros, Yure Gomes de Carvalho; Silva, Carla Michele Frota da; Barros, Cintia Chagas; Lucas, Elizabeth Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    2008-07-01

    The treatment and disposal of oily waters from oil production and refining processes represent an important technological pass for attendance of the ambient legislation and to the politics of the Cia of search of the environmental excellence. The reuse or reinjection of the co-produced water has been considered an interesting strategical alternative, however, the water quality requirement for these processes demands a pretreatment step, considering the exit effluent from primary and secondary treatment processes currently used. This work presents resulted of the polymeric resin development for tertiary treatment of oily waters with low oil and grasses content and fine solids, including the dissolved fraction. These resins can adsorb, in reversible form, organic components. Its high adsorption capacity is determined by the polarity, superficial area, range of porosity and a wide distribution of particle size and pore. Another important characteristic is the possibility of its use in some cycles of work due to its weak forces of interaction between the contaminants and the surface of the resin. Regeneration can be carried through of diverse forms, including the use of solvent, with or without the variation of temperature and/or pH. The gotten results indicated a high resin adsorption capacity, with concentrated oily water treatment volume 10,000 times the volume of resin used. (author)

  20. Resins production: batch plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banti, M.; Mauri, G.

    1996-01-01

    Companies that look for automation in their plants without external resources, have at their disposal flexible, custom and easy to use DCS, open towards PLC. In this article it is explained why Hoechts has followed this way of new plants for resins production automation

  1. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  2. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  3. Acid decomposition processing system for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomine, Toshimitsu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To perform plutonium recovery at a low energy consumption irrespective of the plutonium density within the wastes. Method: In a decomposing and volume-reducing device for combustible or less combustible wastes containing transuranic elements using an acid, the wastes are in contact with nitric acid before feeding to a reactor. Then, the transuranic elements are transferred into the nitric acid, which is then in contact with ion exchange resins. After adsorbing the transuranic elements to the ion exchange resins, the nitric acid removed with the transuranic elements is caused to flow into a reaction vessel or heating vessel and used as a decomposing and oxidizing agent. (Seki, T.)

  4. Development of new waste form for treatment and disposal of concentrated liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Kyung Kil; Ji, Young Yong

    2010-12-01

    The radioactive waste form should be meet the waste acceptance criteria of national regulation and disposal site specification. We carried out a characterization of rad waste form, especially the characteristics of radioactivity, mechanical and physical-chemical properties in various rad waste forms. But asphalt products is not acceptable waste form at disposal site. Thus we are change the product materials. We select the development of the new process or new materials. The asphalt process is treatment of concentrated liquid and spent-resin and that we decide the Development of new waste form for treatment and disposal of concentrated liquid radioactive waste

  5. Influence of Coating with Some Natural Based Materials on the Erosion Wear Behavior of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Aseel Basim Abdul Hussein; Emad Saadi AL-Hassani; Reem Alaa Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, composites were prepared by Hand lay-up molding. The composites constituents were epoxy resin as a matrix, 6% volume fractions of glass fibers (G.F) as reinforcement and 3%, 6% volume fractions of preparation natural material (Rice Husk Ash, Carrot Powder, and Sawdust) as filler. Studied the erosion wear behavior and coating by natural wastes (Rice Husk Ash) with epoxy resin after erosion. The results showed the non – reinforced epoxy have lower resistance erosion than n...

  6. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  7. Engineering study for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin resulting from nuclear process applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1990-09-01

    This document is an engineering study of spent ion exchange resin treatment processes with the purpose of identifying one or more suitable treatment technologies. Classifications of waste considered include all classes of low-level waste (LLW), mixed LLW, transuranic (TRU) waste, and mixed TRU waste. A total of 29 process alternatives have been evaluated. Evaluation parameters have included economic parameters (both total life-cycle costs and capital costs), demonstrated operability, environmental permitting, operational availability, waste volume reduction, programmatic consistency, and multiple utilization. The results of this study suggest that there are a number of alternative process configurations that are suitable for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin. The determinative evaluation parameters were economic variables (total life-cycle cost or capital cost) and waste volume reduction. Immobilization processes are generally poor in volume reduction. Thermal volume reduction processes tend to have high capital costs. There are immobilization processes and thermal volume reduction processes that can treat all classifications of spent ion exchange resin likely to be encountered. 40 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  9. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  10. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  11. Characterization of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomine, J.C.; Tassigny, C. de; Billon, J.

    1983-11-01

    Leaching tests on real wastes embedded in cement, bitumens or resins are realized to study leachability of alpha-emitters or fission products and anion-cation exchange between leachate and embedded materials. Radionuclide distribution is examined by spectrogammametry on cores taken from cemented wastes. Qualitative results concerning degradation of waste blocks embedded in bitumens by bacteria in the ground are given [fr

  12. Development of an ion-exchange process for removing cesium from high-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgarten, P.K.; Wallace, R.M.; Whitehurst, D.A.; Steed, J.M.

    1979-11-01

    Methods to determine resin characteristics, i.e., cesium equilibria and diffusion rates, were developed. These parameters can now guide resin selection and aid in interpreting column performance. The K/sub D/ cesium ion concentration relation gives evidence of three different types of ion exchange sites. The countercurrent load/elution/regeneration cycle for the removal of cesium by ion exchange repeatedly reached the goal decontamination factor (DF) of 10,000 at throughputs up to 60 column volumes. Resin backwashing appears feasible, but further development of column geometry will be required. The proposed ammonium elutriant is satisfactory. Regeneration end-point can be controlled by electrical conductivity monitoring

  13. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  14. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  15. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  16. Corrosion of steel drums containing immobilized ion exchange-resins and incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotta, F.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.M.; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The intermediate radioactive waste consists mostly in spent ionic exchange resins and filters from the nuclear power plants, research reactors and radioisotopes production facilities. The spent resins, as well as the incineration ashes, have to be immobilized before being stored to improve leach resistance of waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability for safety requirements. Generally, cementation processes have been used as immobilization techniques for economical reasons as well as for being a simple operation. The immobilized resins and incineration ashes are thus contained in steel drums that, in turn, can undergo corrosion depending on the ionic content of the matrix. This work is a part of a systematic study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with immobilized cemented exchange-resins with different types and contents of aggressive species and incineration ashes. To this purpose, a special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix are being monitored along time. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species present in nature) and sulphate ions (produced during the radiolysis process of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). Preliminary results show the strong effect of chloride on the corrosion susceptibility of the steel. Monitoring will continue for

  17. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.H.; Kuan, Y.-C.; Chern, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 deg. C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results

  18. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results

  19. Regeneration of desiccants with solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, S.R.; Butts, C.L.; Lown, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Saturated silica gel was regenerated with solar energy. This paper describes the experimental set-up for silica gel regeneration and data collection. The regenerated silica gel can be used to dry high moisture in-shell pecans.

  20. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  1. Extraction of Co ions from ion-exchange resin by supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Min Su; Koh, Moon Sung; Yang, Sung Woo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Hak Won; Kim, Hong Doo

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of liquid treatment processes for eliminating radioactive ionic contaminants in nuclear facilities. One of the most common treatment methods for aqueous streams is the use of ion exchange, which is a well-developed technique that has been employed for many years in the nuclear industry. More specifically speaking, systems that ion exchange method is applied to in nuclear power plants are liquid radioactive waste treatment system, chemical and volume control system, steam generator blowdown treatment system, and service water supply system. During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive contaminants such as Co-60, Mn-54, Fe-59 and Cs-137 are contained in liquid radioactive wastes. And the wastes containing small amount of uranium are generated in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. To treat the liquid radioactive waste, we usually install ion exchangers rather than evaporators due to their simplicity and effectiveness, and this trend is increasing. However, the ion exchange process produces large volume of spent organic resin, and has some problems of radiation damage and thermal instability. And the reuse of the resin is limited due to the degradation of ion-exchanging ability. For this reason, were should consider a better method to expand the lifetime of the resin or to reduce the volume of radioactive resin wastes by extracting radioactive contaminants located in the resin. Supercritical fluid CO 2 has many good points as a process solvent that include low viscosity, negligible surface tension, and variable selectivity. And supercritical fluids have physical properties of both liquid and gas such as good penetration with a high dissolution capability. Supercritical fluids have been widely used in extraction, purification, and recovery processes. A number of workers applied supercritical CO 2 solvent for cleaning of precision devices and waste treatments. Since supercritical CO 2 has its mild critical point at 31 and 73.8bar as .deg. C

  2. Campuran kitosan dengan resin akrilik sebagai bahan gigi tiruan penghambat Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Ismiyati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of acrylic resin and chitosan as denture material to inhibit Candida albicans. The inhibition of Candida albicans in denture resin has an important role to prevent the development of denture stomatitis. Chitosan is a natural polymer compound derived from shrimp waste which can function as an antifungal Acrylik resin cannot be mixed with chitosan. To obtain a homogeneous mixture, the mixture was added a coupling agen acrylic acid and acetone. The research objective was to study the mixture of acrylic resin and chitosan with solvent acrylic acid and acetone as a denture that can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Methods: The samples used discs in 10 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness, made from heat cured acrylic resin mixed with chitosan dissolved in acrylat acid and acetone. They were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was acrylic resin without chitosan as a control, group 2, 3 and 4 were the mixture of acrylic resin and 5 ml chitosan in 0.5%, 1%, and 2% concentration respectively. The fourier transform irfrared spectroscopy (FTIR and the digital optical microscope were used to synthesize and analyze. The Kruskal Wallis was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the mixture of acrylic resin with chitosan significantly inhibited the growth of Candida albicans. Conclusion: a mixture of acrylic resins and chitosan can be fungistatic, so it can be developed as an antifungal denture material.   ABSTRAK Penghambatan Candida albicans pada gigi tiruan resin akrilik dapat memainkan peran penting dalam mencegah perkembangan denture stomatitis. Kitosan adalah senyawa polimer alam yang berasal dari limbah udang yang dapat berfungsi sebagai antijamur. Resin akrilik tidak dapat bercampur dengan kitosan. Untuk mendapatkan campuran yang homogen, campuran tersebut ditambah coupling agent asam akrilat dan aseton. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji campuran resin akrilik dan kitosan dan asam akrilat pelarut aseton sebagai bahan gigi

  3. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g"−"1 does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  4. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A., E-mail: shaikh@kfupm.edu.sa

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g{sup −1} does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  5. HTGR fuel development: loading of uranium on carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins using solvent extraction of nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1975-09-01

    The reference fuel kernel for recycle of 233 U to HTGR's (High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) is prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. The purified 233 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solution from a fuel reprocessing plant contains excess HNO 3 (NO 3 - /U ratio of approximately 2.2). The reference flowsheet for a 233 U recycle fuel facility at Oak Ridge uses solvent extraction of nitrate by a 0.3 M secondary amine in a hydrocarbon diluent to prepare acid-deficient uranyl nitrate. This nitrate extraction, along with resin loading and amine regeneration steps, was demonstrated in 14 runs. No significant operating difficulties were encountered. The process is controlled via in-line pH measurements for the acid-deficient uranyl nitrate solutions. Information was developed on pH values for uranyl nitrate solution vs NO 3 - /U mole ratios, resin loading kinetics, resin drying requirements, and other resin loading process parameters. Calculations made to estimate the capacities of equipment that is geometrically safe with respect to control of nuclear criticality indicate 100 kg/day or more of uranium for single nitrate extraction lines with one continuous resin loading contactor or four batch loading contactors. (auth)

  6. Diffusion through composite materials made with thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno.

    1981-08-01

    Medium and low-level radioactive wastes may be coated in a solid matrix mainly made with thermosetting resins: the study of water and cesium migration through composite materials made with thermosetting resins is usefull to compare the water tightness of different coatings. Disks with a thickness of two millimeters were used to measure the water absorption. Diffusion cells including a plane membrane the thickness of which was at least 70μ were used to measure the diffusion of cesium 137. The diffusion coefficient of water in pure thermosetting resins, polyester or epoxyde, is about 10 -9 cm 2 .s -1 ; the diffusion coefficients of cesium in the same materials are about 10 -12 cm 2 .s -1 ; the introduction of solid particles in these polymers generally induces an acceleration of the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficient may reach 10 -8 cm 2 .s -1 . This lost of water-tightness may be reduced either by rendering insoluble the filler mixed to the polymer, or by diminushing the porosity of the interfacial zones by improving the bonding between the polymer and the filler [fr

  7. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.; Bates, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation. 8 claims

  8. The effects of gamma radiation on polymer matrix waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.I.; Burnay, S.G.; Phillips, D.C.

    1986-06-01

    A study has been made of the volume and weight changes, mechanical properties, and radiolytic gas production of polymer matrix waste forms during γ irradiation in open containers. The work has been commissioned by the Department of the Environment as part of its radioactive waste management research programme. The materials included polyester, vinyl ester, epoxide and polystyrene resins containing ion exchangers; and polyester and epoxide resins containing a PWR evaporator concentrate. (author)

  9. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  10. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Dayal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Major tasks in this NRC-sponsored program include: (1) an evaluation of the acceptability of low-level solidified wastes with respect to minimizing radionuclide releases after burial; and (2) an assessment of the influence of pertinent environmental stresses on the performance of high-integrity radwaste container (HIC) materials. The waste form performance task involves studies on small-scale laboratory specimens to predict and extrapolate: (1) leachability for extended time periods; (2) leach behavior of full-size forms; (3) performance of waste forms under realistic leaching conditions; and (4) leachability of solidified reactor wastes. The results show that leach data derived from testing of small-scale specimens can be extrapolated to estimate leachability of a full-scale specimen and that radionuclide release data derived from testing of simulants can be employed to predict the release behavior of reactor wastes. Leaching under partially saturated conditions exhibits lower releases of radionuclides than those observed under the conventional IAEA-type or ANS 16.1 leach tests. The HIC assessment task includes the characterization of mechanical properties of Marlex CL-100, a candidate radwaste high density polyethylene material. Tensile strength and creep rupture tests have been carried out to determine the influence of specific waste constituents as well as gamma irradiation on material performance. Emphasis in ongoing tests is being placed on studying creep rupture while the specimens are in contact with a variety of chemicals including radiolytic by-products of irradiated resin wastes. 12 references 6 figures, 2 tables

  11. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  12. Waste management at the Ardennes power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    In 1976, the SENA (with the participation of EDF, CEA and CEC in the framework of a research program on the management and storage of radioactive wastes) has developed an industrial pilot plant for the encapsulation of wastes in thermosetting polyester resins. The industrial putting in operation of the plant will enable most of the wastes from the nuclear station to be processed. The quality of products will be improved and the volume and processing cost reduced

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)

  14. Tests of the use of cation exchange organic resins for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluents; Essais d'emploi des resines organiques echangeuses de cations pour la decontamination des effluents aqueux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdrez, Jean; Girault, Jacques; Wormser, Gerald

    1962-12-14

    The authors report tests performed in laboratory and results obtained during an investigation of the use of synthetic ion exchangers for the decontamination of radioactive effluents of moderate activity level and with a non neglectable salt loading. Resins are used under sodium form and regenerated after each fixing operation. Once decontaminated and free of its disturbing ions, the regenerating agent (NaCl) is used for several operations. The authors present the used resins, the treated effluents, describe the tests, and discuss the obtained results [French] Dans ce rapport nous faisons le point des essais et resultats obtenus au laboratoire au cours d'une etude concernant l'utilisation des echangeurs d'ions synthetiques pour la decontamination des effluents radioactifs de niveau d'activite moyenne et de charge en sels non negligeable. Les resines sont employees sous forme sodique et regenerees apres chaque operation de fixation. Le regenerant decontamine et debarrasse de ses ions genants est utilise pour plusieurs operations d'elution. Les seuls residus a stocker proviennent d'une part eventuellement d'un pretraitement de l'effluent, d'autre part, dans tous les cas des precipites consecutifs a la purification de l'eluant dont le traitement chimique est plus aise et donne lieu a des boues beaucoup moins volumineuses qu'une coprecipitation effectuee sur la totalite de l'effluent. (auteurs)

  15. Environmental Factors Affecting the Strength Characteristics of Modified Resin Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debska, Bernardeta; Licholai, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Resin concretes are composites in which a cement binder has been completely replaced by a synthetic resin. These materials are a good choice for the construction industry, especially in solutions requiring high strength, fast curing and durability. Polymer mortars are mainly used for the manufacture of industrial floors and prefabricated products such as tanks for aggressive chemicals, sewage pipes, or road and bridge drainage systems, as well as for the repair of damaged concrete structures. In all these applications, the strength and high chemical resistance of the applied material solutions are of key importance. It is particularly crucial to obtain information on how resin composites behave when exposed to aggressive agents over extended periods of time. It is also very important to use waste materials in order to obtain resin composites, as these activities are very well inscribed in the idea of environmental protection and meet the criteria of sustainable construction. The mortars described in this article meet the above principles. The article presents how the compressive strength of glycolyzate-modified epoxy mortars, obtained with the use of poly(ethylene terephthalate), changes after they are immersed in 10% sodium chloride solution. Sodium chloride solution was chosen due to the prospective applicability of the tested composites as repair materials used for e.g. bridges or overpasses that are exposed to this salt solution in wintertime. Changes in the properties of the composite samples were monitored over the period of one year. Statistical analysis of the test results was carried out with the use of Statistica programme. The module available in the mentioned program called Nonparametric Statistics - Comparing multiple independent samples made it possible to check the monitoring times during which the compressive strength values differed significantly. The obtained results allowed for determining the equation of the function approximating the course of

  16. Studies on the incorporation of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants into bitumen and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevie-Svendsen, M.; Tallberg, K.; Aittola, P.; Tollbaeck, H.

    1976-01-01

    The joint Nordic incorporation experiments should provide technical data needed for the assessment of solidification techniques for wastes from nuclear reactors in the Nordic countries. Spent ion exchange resins are a main fraction of such wastes, and more knowledge about their incorporation is wanted. The effects of simulated and real ion exchange wastes on the quality of bitumen and cement incorporation products were studied. Blown and distilled bitumen and three Portland cement qualities were used. Product characterizations were based on properties relevant for safe waste management, storage, transport and disposal. The applicability and relevance of established and suggested tests is discussed. Up to 40-60% dry resin could be incorporated into bitumen without impairing product qualities. Products with higher resin contents were found to swell in contact with water. The products had a high leach resistance. Their form stability was improved by incorporated resins. Product qualities appeared to be less affected by physico-chemical variables than by mechanical process parameters. Pure resin-cement products tend to decompose in water. Product qualities were strongly affected by a variety of physico-chemical process parameters, and integer products were only obtained within narrow tolerance limits. Caesium was rapidly leached out. To attain integer products and improved leach resistance within technically acceptable tolerance limits it was necessary to utilize stabilizing and caesium-retaining additives such as Silix and vermiculite. Under the present conditions the water content of the resins limited the amounts that could be incorporated in 40-50wt% or about 70vol.% water-saturated (containing 20-40% dry) resin. (author)

  17. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  18. Powder wastes confinement block and manufacturing process of this block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagot, L.; Brunel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This invention concerns a powder wastes containment block and a manufacturing process of this block. In this block, the waste powder is encapsulated in a thermo hardening polymer as for example an epoxy resin, the encapsulated resin being spread into cement. This block can contain between 45 and 55% in mass of wastes, between 18 and 36% in mass of polymer and between 14 and 32% in mass of cement. Such a containment block can be used for the radioactive wastes storage. (O.M.). 4 refs

  19. Results from neutral kaon regeneration at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental neutral kaon regeneration results at Serpukhov energies up to 50 GeV are presented, including the coherent regeneration on hydrogen, deuterium and carbon regenerators and elastic regeneration on deuterium and carbon regenerators. (author)

  20. Removal of radiocesium using cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Tachibana, Yoshitaka; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    Cation exchange resins (calcium polystyrene sulfonate, Ca-resin and sodium polystyrene sulfonate, Na-resin) have been used as agents to improve hyperkerlemia. For removing 137 Cs from the human body, the adsorption ability of the resin for 137 Cs was examined and evaluated. Resin (0.03 g) and 137 Cs (ca.1 kBq) were introduced into 3 mL of water, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 1st fluid for a dissolution test (pH 1.2) and 2nd fluid (pH 6.8), respectively, and shaken. After 1-3 hours, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was 99% in water, 60% in a pH 1.2 fluid and, 66% in a pH 6.8 fluid. By adding potassium, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Ca-resin was reduced. However, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was almost unchanged. These results show that both resins have adsorption ability for 137 Cs in the stomach and the intestines. Therefore, the proposed method will be an effective means in the case of a radiological emergency due to 137 Cs. (author)

  1. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  2. Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations

  3. Plasma arc pyrolysis of radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, C.A.; Toguri, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on two ion exchange resins (IRN 77 and IRN 78) which were pyrolysed in a plasma-arc furnace. Both continuous and batch tests were performed. Volume reduction ratios of 10 to 1 and 10 to 3.5 were achieved for IRN 78 and IRN 77 respectively. The product of the resin pyrolysis was a char which contained the radioactive elements such as cobalt. The off-gases consisted of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There was a relatively small amount of dust in the off-gases. At the present time radioactive ion exchange resign is being kept in storage. The volume of this waste is increasing and it is important that the volume be reduce. The volume reduction ratio should be of the order of ten-to-one. Also, it is required that the radioactive elements can be collected or fixed in a form which could easily be disposed of. Plasma arc treatment offers considerable potential for the processing of the waste

  4. Method of solidifying radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshihide; Minami, Yuji; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable complete curing even when radioactive wastes contain those materials hindering the curing reaction, for example, copper hydroxide. Method: After admixing an alkaline substance to radioactive concentrated liquid wastes containing copper hydroxide or other amphoteric substances, they are dried, powderized and then cured with thermosetting resins. The thermosetting resins usable herein include, for example, those prepared by mixing an unsaturated polyester with a monomer such as styrene. When a polymerization initiator such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and a polymerization promotor are added to the mixture, it takes places curing reaction at normal temperature. Suitable alkaline substances usable herein are those which are insoluble to the liquid wastes and do not change the chemical form under heating and drying. (Yoshihara, H.)

  5. Method of processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Kikuchi, Makoto; Yusa, Hideo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidified radioactive wastes at high packing density by packing radioactive waste pellets in a container and then packing and curing a thermosetting resin therein. Method: Radioactive liquid wastes are dried into power and subjected to compression molding. The pellets thus obtained are supplied in a predetermined amount from the hopper to the inside of a drum can. Then, thermosetting plastic and a curing agent are filled in the drum can. Gas between the pellets is completely expelled by the intrusion of the thermosetting resin and the curing agent among the pellets. Thereafter, the drum can is heated by a heater and curing is effected. After the curing, the drum can is sealed. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Extracorporeal adsorption of anti-factor VIII allo-antibodies on randomly functionalized polystyrene resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Hélène-Céline; Lasne, Dominique; Rothschild, Chantal; Siali, Rosa; Jozefonvicz, Jacqueline

    2004-02-01

    The occurrence of anti-factor VIII (FVIII) allo-antibodies is a severe complication of the treatment of haemophilia A patients, leading to the inhibition of transfused FVIII activity. The effective elimination of these inhibitory antibodies plays a decisive role in the management of affected patients. To achieve this, immunoadsorption devices employing synthetic adsorbers, which selectively eliminate inhibitors, are of interest in the treatment strategy of haemophilia A patients with inhibitors. Adsorbers consisting of polystyrene-based beads substituted with sulphonate and L-tyrosyl methylester groups, which mimic part of epitope of FVIII molecule recognized by inhibitors, exhibit selective binding capacities towards anti-FVIII antibodies. The adsorption of FVIII inhibitors was investigated by simulating an extracorporeal circulation of haemophilic plasma over these functionalized resins. These innovative adsorbers are able to remove around 25% of anti-FVIII antibodies in 15 minutes depending on the plasma tested. Furthermore, they do not modify the amount of essential plasmatic proteins or residual immunoglobulins G. Experiments which were carried out using different plasmas with various inhibitor titres demonstrate a good reproducibility regarding the adsorption capacity of the synthetic resin. The characteristics of adsorption are similar on either native or regenerated resins. Both the purely synthetic nature of the resin and its easy processability demonstrate the real advantages over currently available protocols. This synthetic adsorber is a major technological advance in selective removal of FVIII inhibitory antibodies.

  7. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...... myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...

  8. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, Michael; Bates, John K.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  9. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10{sup 7} gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10{sup 6} gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10{sup 3} gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10{sup 4} gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10{sup 2} ft{sup 3} of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10{sup 8} gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10{sup 7} gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  10. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10[sup 7] gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10[sup 6] gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10[sup 3] gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10[sup 4] gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10[sup 2] ft[sup 3] of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10[sup 8] gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10[sup 7] gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter

  11. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10 6 gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10 3 gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10 4 gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10 3 ft 3 ) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10 2 ft 3 of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10 8 gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10 7 gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10 3 ft 3 ) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room

  12. Ion exchange resins destruction in a stirred supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A.; Guichardon, P.; Boutin, O.

    2010-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins (IERs) are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation offers a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins, used to remove radioactivity. Up to now, studies carried out in supercritical water for IER destruction showed that degradation rates higher than 99% are difficult to obtain even using a catalyst or a large oxidant excess. In this study, a co-fuel, isopropanol, has been used in order to improve degradation rates by initiating the oxidation reaction and increasing temperature of the reaction medium. Concentrations up to 20 wt% were tested for anionic and cationic resins. Total organic carbon reduction rates higher than 99% were obtained from this process, without the use of a catalyst. The influence of operating parameters such as IERs feed concentration, nature and counterions of exchanged IERs were also studied. (authors)

  13. Method for processing powdery radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Toshihide; Nakayama, Yasuyuki.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive wastes with ease and safety at a high reaction speed but with no boiling by impregnating the radioactive wastes with chlorostyrene. Method: Beads-like dried ion exchange resin, powdery ion exchange resin, filter sludges, concentrated dried waste liquor or the like are mixed or impregnated with a chlorostyrene monomer dissolving therein a polymerization initiator such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and benzoyl peroxide. Mixed or impregnated products are polymerized to solid after a predetermined of time through curing reaction to produce solidified radioactive wastes. Since inflammable materials are used, this process has a high safety. About 70% wastes can be incorporated. The solidified products have a strength as high as 300 - 400 kg/cm 3 and are suitable to ocean disposal. The products have a greater radioactive resistance than other plastic solidification products. (Seki, T.)

  14. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  15. Solidification of radioactive waste in a cement/lime mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of a cement/lime mixture for use as a solidification agent for different types of wastes was investigated. This work includes studies directed towards determining the wasted/binder compositional field over which successful solidification occurs with various wastes and the measurement of some of the waste from properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment. In this study, four types of low-level radioactive wastes were simulated for incorporation into a cement/lime mixture. These were boric acid waste, sodium sulfate wastes, aion exchange resins and incinerator ash. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  16. Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2001-07-10

    Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

  17. Characterization and disposal of ion exchange resins used in nuclear installations; Caracterizacion y disposicion de resinas de intercambio ionico utilizadas en instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Olguin G, M.T.; Emeterio H, M.; Garcia M, H. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    To dispose of an appropriate way the used ion exchange resins so much in the pool water purification systems of the TRIGA Mark III reactor like in the JS6500 gamma irradiator, of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, were carried out a series of analytic nuclear techniques and complementary conventional to those recommended by the ASTM, with the object of to control and to manage 14 lots of worn out resins appropriately. For its were identified the radioactive isotopes, the resins type, the grade of chemical pollution and the physicochemical degradation of the same ones. The lots of resins that didn't contain radioactive isotopes its were regenerated in an usual way, as long as those that if they controlled them they selected options for its final disposition. The first selected option was the extraction method of ion radioactive isotopes, concentrating the elution product by evaporation. As second option it was carried out the resins stabilization damaged by micro-encapsulation by forged to ambient temperature, using an organic polymer. Previous to the immobilization the resins were pretreated by vacuum drying, pulverization and thermal drying, however before carrying out this last, it was carried out a thermal gravimetric analysis to determine the drying conditions of the resins avoiding its chemical decomposition. (Author)

  18. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2018-06-01

    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  19. Overview on resins available in microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, B.; Schue, F.; Montginoul, C.; Giral, L.

    1985-01-01

    Lithographic equipments using electrons and X radiation are developed. Velocity and resolution requirements fix the nature of the material to irradiate. Circuit making principles are recalled here; resists (organic polymers) are employed for it. The different types of resins and then needed characteristics are reviewed here. In the scope of electron sensitive resins methyl polymethacrylate and derivative and its copolymers (and copolymers of methacrylonitrile) and reticulated copolymers are studied. Polysulfones are also presented (poly(buten-1 sulfone), poly(styrene sulfone), poly(methyl-1 cyclopentene-1 sulfone). The interest in photosensitive resins (such as AZ) as electron sensitive resins is recalled. In the field of negative resins, the polyepoxyds, polystyrene and halogenated derivates from polystyrene (CMS and PCMS), the poly(vinyl-2 naphtalene) and its derivatives (PSTTF) are presented. The X radiation sensitive resins are also reviewed: the methyl polymethacrylate and its halogenated derivates, the acrylic homopolymers and copolymers (example of poly(acrylate of chlorinated alcoyls). The resins developable by plasma are mentioned. At last, for photosensitive resins, the diazide polydiene systems are presented together with systems diazo-2 2H-naphtalenone-1. The systems with salt photolysis are just recalled [fr

  20. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  1. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disodium salt of 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol is made to react with 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone in such a... Limitations Dimethyl sulfoxide Not to exceed 50 parts per million as residual solvent in finished basic resin... residual solvent in finished basic resin in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone Not to...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...′-iso-propylidenediphenol with molten diphenyl carbonate in the presence of the disodium salt of 4,4... chloride Monochlorobenzene Not to exceed 500 p.p.m. as residual solvent in finished resin. Pentaerythritol...-88-3) Not to exceed 800 parts per million as residual solvent in finished resin. Triethylamine (c...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of an article... substances required in the production of basic resins or finished food-contact articles. The optional... and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park...

  4. 21 CFR 177.2440 - Polyethersulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2440 Polyethersulfone resins. Polyethersulfone resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended... Petition Control (HFS-215), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 1110 Vermont Ave. NW., suite 1200...

  5. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  6. Measurement of opalescence of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lu, Huan; Powers, John M

    2005-11-01

    Opalescence is an optical property, where there is light scattering of the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum, giving the material a bluish appearance under reflected light and an orange/brown appearance under transmitted light. The objective of this study was to determine the opalescence of resin composites with a color measuring spectrophotometer. Colors of A2 and enamel or translucent shades of four resin composites and of an unfilled resin measured in the reflectance and transmittance modes were compared, and the opalescence parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in blue-yellow coordinate (Deltab*) and red-green parameter (Deltaa*) between the reflected and transmitted colors of 1-mm thick specimens. The masking effect was calculated as the color difference between the color of a black background and the color of specimen over the black background. The range of OP in resin composites was 5.7-23.7, which was higher than that of the unfilled resin. However, there were significant differences among the brands and shades of the resin composites. Opalescence varied by brand and shade of the resin composites, and contributed to the masking of background color along with translucency parameter. Some of the resin composites actually displayed opalescence.

  7. Plasma skin regeneration technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, M A

    2006-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) technology uses energy delivered from plasma rather than light or radiofrequency. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. The plasma is emitted in a millisecond pulse to deliver energy to target tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal sloughing to deeper dermal heating. With the Portrait PSR device (Rhytec, Inc.) there are three treatment guidelines termed PSR1, PSR2, and PSR3. The PSR1 protocol uses a series of low-energy treatments (1.0,1.2 Joules) spaced 3 weeks apart. The PSR2 protocol uses one high-energy pass (3.0, 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment, and the PSR3 protocol uses two high-energy passes (3.0 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment. All protocols improve fine lines, textural irregularities, and dyspigmentation; however, skin tightening is probably more pronounced with the high-energy treatments.

  8. Regeneration mechanisms in Syllidae (Annelida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rannyele P.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Syllidae is one of the most species‐rich groups within Annelida, with a wide variety of reproductive modes and different regenerative processes. Syllids have striking ability to regenerate their body anteriorly and posteriorly, which in many species is redeployed during sexual (schizogamy) and asexual (fission) reproduction. This review summarizes the available data on regeneration in syllids, covering descriptions of regenerative mechanisms in different species as well as regeneration in relation to reproductive modes. Our survey shows that posterior regeneration is widely distributed in syllids, whereas anterior regeneration is limited in most of the species, excepting those reproducing by fission. The latter reproductive mode is well known for a few species belonging to Autolytinae, Eusyllinae, and Syllinae. Patterns of fission areas have been studied in these animals. Deviations of the regular regeneration pattern or aberrant forms such as bifurcated animals or individuals with multiple heads have been reported for several species. Some of these aberrations show a deviation of the bilateral symmetry and antero‐posterior axis, which, interestingly, can also be observed in the regular branching body pattern of some species of syllids. PMID:29721325

  9. Use of strong anion exchange resins for the removal of perfluoroalkylated substances from contaminated drinking water in batch and continuous pilot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaggia, Alessandro; Conte, Lino; Falletti, Luigi; Fant, Massimo; Chiorboli, Andrea

    2016-03-15

    In recent years abnormally high levels of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been detected both in surface and underground water sampled in an area covering approximately 150 square kilometers in the Veneto region (Italy) indicating the presence of a pollution point source (fluorochemicals production plant). Adsorption on granular activated carbon is an emergency measure which is poorly effective requiring frequent replacement. This work focuses on the application of three strong anion exchange resins (Purolite® A520E, A600E and A532E) for the removal of traces of PFOA, PFOS, PFBA and PFBS (concentration of hundreds of ng L(-1)) from drinking water. This technology is attractive for the possibility of reusing resins after an in-situ regeneration step. A strong relationship between the hydrophobicity of the exchange functional group of the resin and its capacity in removing PFAS exists. A600E (non hydrophobic) and A520E (fairly hydrophobic) show a reduced sorption capacity compared to A532E (highly hydrophobic). While A600E and A520E can be regenerated with solvent-less dilute solutions of non-toxic NH4Cl and NH4OH, A532E requires concentrated solutions of methanol or ethanol and 1% NH4Cl and for the sake of this work it was regarded as non-regenerable. The volume of regeneration effluents requiring incineration can be efficiently reduced by more than 96.5% by using reverse osmosis coupled with under-vacuum evaporation. Transmission electron analysis on saturated resins showed that large molecular macro-aggregates of PFAS can form in the intraparticle pores of resin indicating that ion exchange is not the only mechanism involved in PFAS removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  11. Evaluation of the Compressive Strength of Cement-Spent Resins Matrix Mixed with Bio char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Zalina Laili; Mohd Abdul Wahab; Nur Azna Mahmud; Nurfazlina Zainal Abidin

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of compressive strength of cement-spent resins matrix mixed with bio char was investigated. In this study, bio char with different percentage (5 %, 8 %, 11 % 14 % and 18 %) was used as alternative admixture material for cement solidification of spent resins. Some properties of the physical and chemical of spent resins and bio char were also investigated. The performance of cemented spent resins with the addition of bio char was evaluated based on their compressive strength and the water resistance test. The compressive strength was evaluated at three different curing periods of 7, 14 and 28 days, while 4 weeks of immersion in distilled water was chosen for water resistance test. The result indicated that the compressive strength at 7, 14 and 28 days of curing periods were above the minimum criterion for example > 3.45 MPa of acceptable level for cemented waste form. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between the compressive strength of the specimen and the percentage of bio char content. Result from the water resistance test showed that only one specimen that contained of 5 % of bio char failed the water resistance test due to the high of spent resins/ bio char ratio. The compressive strength of cement solidified spent resins was found increased after the water resistance test indicating further hydration occurred after immersed in water. The results of this study also suggest that the specimen with 8 %, 11 %, 14 % and 18 % of bio char content were resistance in water and suitable for the leaching study of radionuclides from cement-bio char-spent resins matrix. (author)

  12. Sequential determination of {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238} Pu, {sup 241} Am and {sup 90}Sr in radioactive wastes using SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 and TRU Resin; Sekvencne stanovenie {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238} Pu, {sup 241} Am a {sup 90}Sr v radioaktivnych odpadoch pouzitim SPE sorbentov Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 a TRU Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkot, E; Dulanska, S [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    A simple and rapid method of the sequential determination of radionuclides {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238} Pu, {sup 241} Am and {sup 90}Sr in radioactive sludge from the NPP Bohunice A1 with high radiochemical yields and efficient removal of interfering components from a matrix was developed. Separation method combines SPE sorbents Analig Pu02, AnaLig Sr01 made by IBC Advanced Technologies and TRU Resin (Eichrom Technologies) placed in tandem. Advantage of a single-stage column located on the vacuum box with a rapid flow is an effective pre-concentration and separation of radionuclides and minimization of sample separation time. (authors)

  13. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in shaft-type reactor with fuel-plasma source of heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Knyazev, I. A.; Lifanov, F. A.; Polkanov, M. A.; Shvetsov, S. Yu; Savkin, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    The method of high-temperature conditioning the spent radioactive ion-exchange resins in combination with other combustible and incombustible radioactive waste in the plasma shaft furnace with obtaining a crystalline glass-like matrix as a final product has been developed. The method was tested on the pilot plant consisted of ceramic plasma melter, steel water-cooled shaft furnace, lined by fire-resistant concrete, and system of gas purification. The capacity of the furnace was within the limits from 10 to 15 kg/h. The volume and mass reduction factors of treated waste were 36 and 7.6, accordingly. The content of gaseous products of thermal decomposition of a waste at an output of the shaft furnace and properties of obtained slag compound were determined. Based on test results the proposals on creation of compact plasma plant for treatment of mixed radioactive waste including spent ion exchange resins were developed. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Final waste classification and waste form technical position papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    The waste classification technical position paper describes overall procedures acceptable to NRC staff which may be used by licensees to determine the presence and concentrations of the radionuclides listed in section 61.55, and thereby classifying waste for near-surface disposal. This technical position paper also provides guidance on the types of information which should be included in shipment manifests accompanying waste shipments to near-surface disposal facilities. The technical position paper on waste form provides guidance to waste generators on test methods and results acceptable to NRC staff for implementing the 10 CFR Part 61 waste form requirements. It can be used as an acceptable approach for demonstrating compliance with the 10 CFR Part 61 waste structural stability criteria. This technical position paper includes guidance on processing waste into an acceptable stable form, designing acceptable high-integrity containers, packaging cartridge filters, and minimizing radiation effects on organic ion-exchange resins. The guidance in the waste form technical position paper may be used by licensees as the basis for qualifying process control programs to meet the waste form stability requirements, including tests which can be used to demonstrate resistance to degradation arising from the effects of compression, moisture, microbial activity, radiation, and chemical changes. Generic test data (e.g., topical reports prepared by vendors who market solidification technology) may be used for process control program qualification where such generic data is applicable to the particular types of waste generated by a licensee

  15. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  16. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai [Nuclear Engineering Department Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngkyun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated.

  17. SuperLig® 639 Resin Performance using 8 Molar LAW Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-15

    All prior testing with SuperLig® 639 has been done with the aqueous concentration of LAW at ~5 M [Na+], where the resin sinks, and can be used in a conventional down-flow column orientation. However, the aqueous LAW stream from the Waste Treatment Plant is expected to be ~8 M [Na+]. The resin would float in this higher density liquid, potentially disrupting the ability to achieve a good decontamination due to poor packing of the resin that leads to channeling. Testing was completed with a higher salt concentration in the feed simulant (7.8 M [Na+]) in an engineering-scale apparatus with two columns, each containing ~0.9 L of resin. Testing of this system used a simulant of the LAW solution, and substituted ReO4 - as a surrogate for TcO4 -. Results were then compared using computer modeling. Bench-scale testing was also performed, and examined an unconstrained resin bed, while engineering-scale tests used both constrained and unconstrained beds in a two-column, lead and lag sequential arrangement.

  18. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai; Kim, Youngkyun; Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated

  19. SuperLig® 639 Resin Performance using 8 Molar LAW Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.; Williams, M.; Restivo, M.; Hamm, L.; McCabe, D.

    2016-01-01

    All prior testing with SuperLig® 639 has been done with the aqueous concentration of LAW at ~5 M [Na+], where the resin sinks, and can be used in a conventional down-flow column orientation. However, the aqueous LAW stream from the Waste Treatment Plant is expected to be ~8 M [Na+]. The resin would float in this higher density liquid, potentially disrupting the ability to achieve a good decontamination due to poor packing of the resin that leads to channeling. Testing was completed with a higher salt concentration in the feed simulant (7.8 M [Na+]) in an engineering-scale apparatus with two columns, each containing ~0.9 L of resin. Testing of this system used a simulant of the LAW solution, and substituted ReO4 - as a surrogate for TcO4 -. Results were then compared using computer modeling. Bench-scale testing was also performed, and examined an unconstrained resin bed, while engineering-scale tests used both constrained and unconstrained beds in a two-column, lead and lag sequential arrangement.

  20. Expansive failure reactions and their prevention in the encapsulation of phenol formaldehyde type ion exchange resins in cement based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constable, M.; Howard, C.G.; Johnson, M.A.; Jolliffe, C.B. (AEA Decommissioning and Waste Management, Winfrith (United Kingdom)); Sellers, R.M. (Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    Lewatit DN is a phenol formaldehyde based ion exchange resin used to remove radioactive caesium from liquid waste streams such as fuel cooling ponds and effluents. This paper presents the results of a study of the encapsulation of the bead form of the resin in cement with particular reference to the mechanisms of its interaction with the encapsulant. When incorporated in pure ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at loadings in excess of 15 wt % an unstable product results due to expansion of the systems and at higher waste loadings failure results after only a few days. Evidence from differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy all indicate the cause of the expansive reaction to be the formation of crystals of calcium salts around and within the resin beads. Addition of BFS and sodium hydroxide prevent the formation of these salts by removal of calcium hydroxide from the system in other reactions. (author).

  1. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and addition of composted olive-mill waste enhance plant establishment and soil properties in the regeneration of a heavy metal-polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) in the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal-polluted soil. The treatments assayed were as follows: AM + 0% COW, AM + 1% COW, and AM + 3% COW. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96 and 60%, respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soil properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni, and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided Glomus mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy metal-contaminated soils derived from the mining process, and also can be a good way for olive-mill waste disposal.

  2. Alternative solidification techniques for radioactive ion exchange resins and liquid concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    Methods, that are used or are under development for solidification of radioactive ion exchange resins or liquid concentrates, utilize normally cement, bitumen or some polymere as matrix material. This report contains a review and a description of these solidification processes and their products, especially of relatively new techniques that are under development in different countries. It is possible that solidification in thermosetting resins will be more used in the future, especially when product quality requirements are high (for instance when solidifying medium level resins) or when special waste categories has to be solidified. However it is not probable that thermosetting resins will be extensively used in a broad application as matrix material. In that case the methods are to complicated and expensive compared to, for instance, solidification in concrete. Systems for incorporation in polyesteremulsions (Dow-process) have a potential as they are quite simple and can accept a large variation of liquid wastes. Some methods in an early stage of development (for instance Inert Carrier Radwaste Process) will have to be tested in active application before they can be further evaluated. (author)

  3. FOUNDRY WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kosec

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.

  4. Decontamination impacts on solidification and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.; Soo, P.

    1988-01-01

    Research to determine chemical and physical conditions which could lead to thermal excursions, gas generation, and/or general degradation of decontamination-reagent-loaded resins has shown that IRN-78, IONAC A-365, and IRN-77 organic ion exchange resin moisture contents vary significantly depending on the counter ion ''loading.'' The extent/vigor of the reaction is very highly dependent on the degree of dewatering of the resins and on the method of solution addition. The heat generation may be due, in part, to the heat of neutralization. In studies of the long-term compatibility effects of decontamination waste resins in contact with waste package container materials in the presence of decontamination reagents, radiolysis products and gamma irradiation, it has been found that the corrosion of carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel in mixed bed resins is enhanced by gamma irradiation. However, cracking in high density polyethylene is essentially eliminated because of the rapid removal of oxygen from the environment by gamma-induced oxidation of the large resin mass. 13 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Nuclear waste in Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf (short: Seibersdorf) is the company operating the research reactor ASTRA. A controversy arose, initied by the Greens and some newspapers on the fact that the waste conditioning plant in Seibersdorf treated not only Austrian waste (from hospitals etc.) but also a large quantity of ion exchange resins from the Caorso nuclear power station, against payment. The author argues that it is untenable that an Austrian institution (peaceful use of nuclear energy in Austria being abandoned by a referendum) should support nuclear power abroad. There is also a short survey on nuclear waste conditioning and an account of an exchange of letters, between the Seibersdorf and the Ecology Institute on the claim of being an 'independent measuring institution' of food, soil, etc. samples. The author argues that the Ecology Institute is the sole independent institution in Austria because it is part of the ecology- and antinuclear movement, whereas Seibersdorf is dependent on the state. (qui)

  6. Thermochemical treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, M.I.; Petrov, G.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Trusov, B.G.; Semenov, K.N.; Klimov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins (IER) is a principal type of radioactive waste constantly generated by nuclear plants of various functions. The reduction of volume of this waste and its treatment to the forms suitable for long-term disposal is an urgent problem facing the present-day atomic energetics. Nowadays the technological process THOR (Studsvik, Sweden) based on the thermodestruction of IER is the best developed and realized on the industrial scale. Unfortunately, this process requires expensive equipment and great energy consumption for the moisture to be evaporated and thereafter IER to be destroyed by heat. Meanwhile the capability of some elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ti etc.) has long been known and practical use found for active interaction with water in combustion regime. This property of the metals has been used in the development of new technology of treatment of IERs in SIA ''Radon''. Wet IER is mixed with powder metal fuel (PMF) which represents a mixture of metal powder, a quantity of burning activator and some technological additives. On initiation, the mixture of IER with PMF burns without extra energy supply to generate enough heat for the moisture to be evaporated and products of IER decomposition to be destroyed and evaporated. To burn out the products of IER evaporation the air is used. The thermodynamic simulation data and the results of experiments using a pilot plant show that radionuclides contained in IER are chemically bound in ash residue consisting of metal oxides, spinel, silicates, etc. According to the experimental data, radionuclides in amounts of 90% or more of Cs-137 and up to 95% of Sr-90 and Co-60 are fixed in the ash residue. The residue volume is several times less than the initial volume of IER. Concentrations of hazard gases in off-gases do not exceed maximum permissible ones accepted in different countries. The technological process is easy to perform, it does not require sophisticated equipment and great energy consumption which

  7. Hydrogen sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing additives eluted from plastic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Kajihara, Yusuke; Shimidzu, Nobuhiro; Hamamura, Kengo; Nagase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    In the present study it was demonstrated that organic additives eluted from plastic resins could be utilized as substrates by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Two laboratory-scale experiments, a microcosm experiment and a leaching experiment, were conducted using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a model plastic resin. In the former experiment, the conversion of sulfate to sulfide was evident in microcosms that received plasticized PVC as the sole carbon source, but not in those that received PVC homopolymer. Additionally, dissolved organic carbon accumulated only in microcosms that received plasticized PVC, indicating that the dissolved organic carbon originated from additives. In the leaching experiment, phenol and bisphenol A were found in the leached solutions. These results suggest that the disposal of waste plastics in inert waste landfills may result in the production of H(2)S.

  8. Treatment of groundwater for nitrate removal by portable ion exchange resin, OSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriburo, A.; Pessi, M.; Castagnino, G.; Garat, S.; Hackenbruch, R.; Laguardia, J.; Yelpo, L.; Amondarain, A.; Brunetto, C.

    2010-01-01

    The locations of Palmitas in the Province of Soriano is supplied with groundwater from a shallow and high nitrogen content in sedimentary aquifer (Asencio Formation). Due to lack of alternative sources, groundwater or surface water, it was decided to test the water treatment from a perforation whose tenors were of the order of 51-66 mg / L of nitrates. The methodology used for the removal of nitrate is ion exchange resins .The main issue raised in this case was the disposal of effluent from the washing of the resins, because there is no collective sanitation network Palmitas nor a sufficient stream flow for discharge . Several alternatives (installation of a transitional deposit, haulage trucks, dumping at distant points, etc.), which were ruled by their poor viability and / or high costs were studied. Finally it was decided to install a device that will have three cylinders with resins were transportable, for which should have a weight less than 75 kg and those which would be used alternately. Regeneration of the resins is carried out in the city of Mercedes, distant 40 km, where the necessary water for the discharge conditions exist with a high content of sodium chloride, resulting from ion exchange. This pilot project represents a first step in treatment for nitrate removal in groundwater using transportable resins which aims to supply the public . Due to the nature of the above location , the chosen methodology had to be adapted to fulfill their duties satisfactorily. The first results of this project to a year of commissioning implementation, which has been funded by SBI and developed by his staff, in order to be used in other places with similar problems are presented in this report

  9. Physico-chemical study of the thermal degradation of ions exchange resins of nuclear origin: research of conditions to limit the pollution transfer, application to electric cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonetti, P.

    1999-01-01

    The ions exchange resins are one solid form of radioactive wastes. They are found mainly during the demineralization operations of the water from reactors cooling systems. This study aims to determine the conditions of a thermal processing leading to the production of a smaller residue, containing the whole activity. A protocol is proposed and validated on resins allowing a decrease of the volume of 63% for 99,93% of the activity. (A.L.B.)

  10. Decomposing method for ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Takeshi; Sato, Shinshi; Akai, Yoshie; Moniwa, Shinobu; Yamada, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of decomposing ion exchange resins generated in a nuclear power plant to carbon dioxide reliably in a short period of time. (1) The ion exchange resins are mixed with water, and then they are kept for a predetermined period of time in the presence of an inert gas at high temperature and high pressure exceeding the critical point of water to decompose the ion exchange resins. (2) The ion exchange resins is mixed with water, an oxidant is added and they are kept for a predetermined time in the presence of an inert gas at a high temperature and a high pressure exceeding a critical point of water of an inert gas at a high temperature to decompose the ion exchange resins. (3) An alkali or acid is added to ion exchange resins and water to control the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution and the ion exchange resins are decomposed in above-mentioned (1) or (2). Sodium hydroxide is used as the alkali and hydrochloric acid is used as the acid. In addition, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or ozone is used as an oxidant. (I.S.)

  11. Method of processing radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, Kenji; Kawamura, Fumio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the efficiency of removing radioactive cesium from radioactive liquid waste by employing zeolite affixed to metallic compound ferrocyanide as an adsorbent. Method: Regenerated liquid waste of a reactor condensation desalting unit, floor drain and so forth are collected through respective supply tubes to a liquid waste tank, and the liquid waste is fed by a pump to a column filled with zeolite containing a metallic compound ferrocyanide, such as with copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel or the like. The liquid waste from which radioactive cesium is removed is dried and pelletized by volume reducing and solidifying means. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. [Guided bone regeneration: general survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The principle of 'guided bone regeneration' was first described in 1988 on the basis of animal-experimental data. Six weeks after transmandibular defects had been created and protected by non-resorbable teflonmembranes, complete bone regeneration was found. The technique was based on the selective repopulation of the wound: every infiltration of cells outside the neighbouring bone tissue was prevented by the application of the membrane. Additional animal experiments showed that guided bone regeneration was a viable treatment option for local bone defects surrounding dental implants. Clinical practice, however, showed that premature membrane exposure was a common complication, which was responsible for a tremendous reduction in regenerated bone volume. In addition, a second surgical intervention was always necessary to remove the membrane. As a result, resorbable alternatives were developed. Since these are less rigid, bone fillers are usually used simultaneously. These comprise autogenous bone chips and bone substitutes from allogenic or xenogenic origine. Also alloplastic materials could be used for this purpose. Based on their characteristics this article provides an overview of the biomaterials that could be considered for guided bone regeneration. Specific attention goes to their application in clinical practice.

  13. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  14. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  15. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  16. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the products' properties. (author)

  17. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives up an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (orig.)

  18. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Yokota, Rikio

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives us an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (author)

  19. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  20. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use