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Sample records for resin regeneration waste

  1. Evaluation of Resin Regeneration Using HCl and H2SO4 for the Ion Exchanger of Copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Djoko Sardjono

    2002-01-01

    The experimental investigation on the regeneration of resin using HCl and H 2 SO 4 with its varian concentration of 1; 2.5; 2; 2.5 and 3 N and the stirring time was 5; 10; 15; 20; and 25 minutes. For evaluating their effectiveness on the separation of ion copper in the waste with concentration 500 ppm. Experimentally this investigation is the first step of resin results of regeneration process usage as an alternative resin for the treatment of liquid waste containing especially copper. The experimental resulted by mixing the feed copper waste with resin after regeneration. Therefore it could be concluded that the most effective regeneration was obtained with HCl as the regeneration of concentration 2 N and the stirring time 15 minutes with the percentage of separation used of 85.1 %. (author)

  2. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  3. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  4. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables

  5. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  6. Ion-exchange resin for removing hexavalent chromium from ground water at treatment facility C: Data on removal capacity, regeneration efficiency, and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahowick, S.; Dobie, D.; Kumamoto, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by the University of California. In July 1987, LLNL was placed on the National Priorities List based on the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water. The July 1992 Record of Decision stipulates air stripping for treatment of VOCs and ion-exchange to treat chromium in the ground water for Treatment Facility C (TFC). TFC, which was activated in October 1993, was designed to treat influent ground water at 60 gpm with concentrations of hexavalent chromium averaging 30 ppb. The ion exchange system removes the hexavalent chromium to below its limit of detection (2 ppb). The resin used is a strongly basic Type I quaternary ammonium anion exchange resin with a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer gel matrix. The total hexavalent chromium removed from the ground water as of October 8, 1995 was 660 grams. An initial operating capacity was achieved of 6.4 grams CrO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} removal per ft{sup 3} of resin, but this was observed to vary over the next two years. Variation was observed in the rate of breakthrough. The regeneration process was optimized to minimize waste produced and maximize regeneration of the resin. Elevated levels of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, potassium 40 and uranium have been observed in the regeneration waste. Because of the potassium and uranium content, the regenerated waste had to be disposed of as mixed waste.

  7. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected

  8. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  9. Method of heat decomposition for chemical decontaminating resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To make resin wastes into non-deleterious state, discharge them into a resin waste storage tank of existent radioactive waste processing facility and store and dispose them. Constitution: In the processing of chemical decontaminating resin wastes, iron exchange resins adsorbing chemical decontaminating agents comprising a solution of citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and EDTA alone or as a mixture of them are heated to dry, thermally decomposed and then separated from the ion exchange resins. That is, the main ingredients of the chemical decontaminating agents are heat-decomposed when heated and dried at about 250 deg C in air and converted into non-toxic gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 or H 2 O. Further, since combustion or carbonization of the basic materials for the resin is not caused at such a level of temperature, the resin wastes removed with organic acid and chelating agents are transferred to an existent resin waste storage tank and stored therein. In this way, facility cost and radiation exposure can remarkably be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Feasibility and kinetics study on the direct bio-regeneration of perchlorate laden anion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2008-11-01

    Anion exchange is one of the most promising treatment technologies for the removal of low levels of perchlorate. The spent anion-exchange resins, however, need to be disposed of or regenerated because they contain high contents of perchlorate. This study investigated the feasibility and kinetics of a direct bio-regeneration method. The method accomplished resin regeneration and biological perchlorate destruction concurrently, by directly contacting the spent resin with the perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB). The results indicated that the method was effective in regeneration of perchlorate and nitrate loaded resin and the resin could be repeatedly regenerated with the method. The regenerated resin was effective, stable, and durable in the filtration treatment of perchlorate in well water from the Saddle River area, NJ. Moreover, the method was also effective in regeneration of the spent A-530E resin, which had high perchlorate affinity and was yet very difficult for regeneration with the conventional brine desorption technique. Besides, the results further suggested that the perchlorate and nitrate desorption from the loaded resin coupling with their subsequent biological reduction could be the direct bio-regeneration mechanism. No biofilm was formed on the regenerated resin surface according to a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis.

  11. Saturated Resin Ectopic Regeneration by Non-Thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Hao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes are some of the most refractory organic compounds in the environment due to their complex and various structure. An integrated resin adsorption/Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD plasma regeneration was proposed to treat the indigo carmine solution. It is the first time to report ectopic regeneration of the saturated resins by non-thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge. The adsorption/desorption efficiency, surface functional groups, structural properties, regeneration efficiency, and the intermediate products between gas and liquid phase before and after treatment were investigated. The results showed that DBD plasma could maintain the efficient adsorption performance of resins while degrading the indigo carmine adsorbed by resins. The degradation rate of indigo carmine reached 88% and the regeneration efficiency (RE can be maintained above 85% after multi-successive regeneration cycles. The indigo carmine contaminants were decomposed by a variety of reactive radicals leading to fracture of exocyclic C=C bond, which could cause decoloration of dye solution. Based on above results, a possible degradation pathway for the indigo carmine by resin adsorption/DBD plasma treatment was proposed.

  12. Demonstration of Regenerable, Large-Scale Ion Exchange System Using WBA Resin in Rialto, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Organics ug/L All were ND EPA 608--Chlorinated Pesticides and/or PCB’s ug/L All were ND Oil & Grease mg/L ND Sulfide, soluble mg/L ND Sulfide, Total...WBA resin functional groups and achieve a pH of 12.0. The resin is rinsed using perchlorate-free water to remove residual perchlorate. Wastewater ... Wastewater produced during regeneration is treated to remove perchlorate. This can be done by use of a small volume of scavenger resin, or by biodegradation

  13. Organic resin anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; McGinnes, D.F.

    1988-07-01

    Organic anion exchange resins are evaluated for 99-TcO 4 - (pertechnate) removed from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal and radiation stabilities were studied. Selected resins were examined in detail for their selectivities in the presence of I - , NO 3 - , SO 4 = , CO 3 = , Cl - and OH - . Ion exchange equilibria and kinetic mechanisms were determined. Preliminary investigations of cement encapsulation in polymer modified form were made and some leach studies carried out. (author)

  14. Dilute chemical decontamination resins and the mixed waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denault, R.P.; Hallman, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The decontamination of reactor primary systems, sub-systems and components is an important method used to reduce the occupational radiation exposure of nuclear plant personnel. The waste produced by the application of this technology is mainly solid in the form of ion exchange resins. As a result of a recent agreement between the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), all radioactive waste must meet EPA burial criteria. The chemicals used in a decontamination and certain metals dissolved during the process, primarily chromium, could render the waste hazardous as well as radioactive or more commonly called a mixed waste. This paper defines mixed waste as described in the EPA directive 9432.00-2, and examine the criteria by which waste is categorized as hazardous. The decontamination waste resin generated by two processes, the CAN-DEREM and the LOMI process, is described in detail. Waste data obtained from decontaminations performed by LN Technologies Corporation including chemical, metal and radionuclide loadings on resins from both PWR and BWR applications are presented

  15. Encapsulation pilot plant of radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The thermosetting resins (polyesters, epoxides) are used to encapsulate the low and intermediate - level radioactive wastes. The testing program concerning the drums produced by the pilot plant of the Chooz nuclear power plant is described. The installation operating is examined while thinking of the industrial application. The production costs are then evaluated

  16. Processing ix spent resin waste for C-14 isotope recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F. H.; Woodall, K. B.; Sood, S. K.; Vogt, H. K.; Krochmainek, L. S.

    1991-01-01

    A process developed at Ontario Hydro for recovering carbon-14 (C-14) from spent ion exchange resin wastes is described. Carbon-14 is an undesirable by-product of CANDU 1 nuclear reactor operation. It has an extremely long (5730 years) half-life and can cause dosage to inhabitants by contact, inhalation, or through the food cycle via photosynthesis. Release of carbon-14 to the environment must be minimized. Presently, all the C-14 produced in the Moderator and Primary Heat Transport (PHT) systems of the reactor is effectively removed by the respective ion exchange columns, and the spent ion exchange resins are stored in suitably engineered concrete structures. Because of the large volumes of spent resin waste generated each year this method of disposal by long term storage tends to be uneconomical; and may also be unsatisfactory considering the long half-life of the C-14. However, purified C-14 is a valuable commercial product for medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and organic chemistry research. Currently, commercial C-14 is made artificially in research reactors by irradiating aluminum nitride targets for 4.5 years. If the C-14 containing resin waste can be used to reduce this unnecessary production of C-14, the total global build-up of this radioactive chemical can be reduced. There is much incentive in removing the C-14 from the resin waste to reduce the volume of C-14 waste, and also in purifying the recovered C-14 to supply the commercial market. The process developed by Ontario Hydro consists of three main steps: C-14 removal from spent resins, enrichment of recovered C-14, and preparation of final product. Components of the process have been successfully tested at Ontario Hydro's Research Division, but the integration of the process is yet to be demonstrated. A pilot scale plant capable of processing 4 m 3 of spent resins annually is being planned for demonstrating the technology. The measured C-14 activity levels on the spent resins ranged from 47

  17. The separation of waste printed circuit board by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P; Chen, Y; Wang, L Y; Zhou, M; Zhou, J

    2013-02-01

    Separation of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) has been a bottleneck in WPCBs resource processing. In this study, the separation of WPCBs was performed using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent. Various parameters, which included solid to liquid ratio, temperature, WPCB sizes, and time, were studied to understand the separation of WPCBs by dissolving bromine epoxy resin using DMSO. Experimental results showed that the concentration of dissolving the bromine epoxy resin increased with increasing various parameters. The optimum condition of complete separation of WPCBs was solid to liquid ratio of 1:7 and WPCB sizes of 16 mm(2) at 145°C for 60 min. The used DMSO was vapored under the decompression, which obtained the regenerated DMSO and dissolved bromine epoxy resin. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to separate valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent the environmental pollution of waste printed circuit boards effectively. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 'Like new': plastic wastes regeneration by radiation induced grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Gaussens, G.; Lemaire, F.

    1978-01-01

    The reclaiming and the recycling of plastic wastes is made especially difficult when those wastes are a mixture of various plastics; this is due to the incompatibility of the polymers. The radiation induced grafting allows to overcome this incompatibility. Results are given which shows that, for various mixtures of reclaimed polyethylene, PVC and polystyrene, an improvement of the properties of the processed blends is obtained by grafting the mixtures of wastes by a suitable polymer; the obtained properties of those regenerated plastic blends are enough attractive from the technical point of view to open a market to those products with a reasonable economical value [fr

  19. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELsourougy, M.R.; Zaki, A.A.; Aly, H.F.; Khalil, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  20. New ion exchange resin designs and regeneration procedures yield improved performance for various condensate polishing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmy, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    Condensate polishing is an application with many different design and operational aspects. The past decade has brought new challenges for improved water quality with respect to both soluble and insoluble contaminants. Nonetheless, the endeavors to understand the compositional complexities of the ion exchange resin bead and the convoluted dynamics of ion exchange chemistry and chemical engineering mechanisms occurring within the mixed bed condensate polisher have brought new ideas and expectations for ion exchange resin in deep-bed condensate polishers than ever before. The new products and procedures presented here are a collaboration of a great deal of effort on the part of researchers, consultants, system engineers, station chemists, lab technicians and others. The studies discussed in this paper unequivocally demonstrate the merits of: 1. A specially designed cation resin to achieve greater than 95% insoluble iron removal efficiency, 2. A less-separable mixed resin for improved control of reactor water sulfate in BWR primary cycles, 3. Applying increased levels of regeneration chemicals and retrofitting the service vessels with re-mixing capability to improve the operation of deep-bed condensate polishers in PWR secondary cycles. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs{sup +} ions and their regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Won Yang [Kangwon University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs{sup +} ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs{sup +} ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs{sup +} ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs{sup +} ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe{sup 2+} ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K{sup +} ion.

  2. A basic study for the boron thermal regeneration system using anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantiesek, P.; Kotaka, Masahiro; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake.

    1979-01-01

    For the boron thermal regeneration system (BTRS), the basic characteristics of commercial anion exchange resin have been investigated on the swelling characteristics, absorption, desorption and temperature coefficient of exchange capacity for boric acid. The equilibrium capacity increases as decrease of temperature and depends strongly on the degrees of cross linking having a maximum point at about 7% of DVB. The temperature coefficient of equilibrium capacity of boric acid is also a function of the concentration of external solution and of the cross linking having a maximum point around 7% of DVB. (author)

  3. Regeneration of brewery waste water using nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, L; Van der Bruggen, B; Vandecasteele, C

    2004-07-01

    The brewing industry is a large consumer of groundwater for brewing, rinsing and cooling purposes. As regulations become more and more stringent and the cost of water increases, water recycling gains interest. This paper investigates the possibilities of nanofiltration for the treatment of brewery waste water streams in view of recycling. Four different water streams (waste water after biological treatment, bottle rinsing water, rinsing water of the brewing room and rinsing water of the bright beer reservoir) were filtered with four different nanofiltration membranes (UTC-20, UTC-60, Desal-HL-51 and Desal-5-DK). The results for the biologically treated waste water were the most promising. For the other streams, rejection of organics was insufficient to obtain the required quality, mainly due to the high concentrations of organics such as ethanol in the feed water. Over the periods considered (3 h) only moderate flux decline (10-40%) was observed for most membranes and feed solutions. For Desal-5-DK at high pH, an increase of the flux was observed.

  4. Application of nanoemulsions in the regeneration of adsorbent polymeric resins; Emprego de nanoemulsoes na regeneracao de resinas polimericas adsorvedoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Josane A.; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Vieira, Helida V.P.; Lucas, Elizabete F.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas. Lab. de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo], e-mails: josaneacosta@yahoo.com.br, yuregomes@ima.ufrj.br, elucas@ima.ufrj.br, celias@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the solbrax/water/polyoxyethylene nanoemulsions were produced under high pressure homogenizer (HPH). These systems presented droplets diameter ranging between 7 to 30 nm. The nanoemulsions were used in regeneration of a polymeric resin, which has been used in treatment of oily water. This resin was contaminated with different kinds of oils. The nanoemulsions presented high cleaning efficiency, above of 90% and its performance was higher than equivalent micellar systems. (author)

  5. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laili, Zalina; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Wahab, Mohd Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins

  6. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laili, Zalina, E-mail: liena@nm.gov.my [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Wahab, Mohd Abdul [Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  7. Fixing of various simulated radioactive wastes in urea-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Dahai; Wei Peng

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of the fixing of a variety of simulated radioactive wastes in the urea-formaldehyde resin. The radioactive waste materials fixed include spent ion exchange resin, concentrates of NaNO 3 -NaBO 2 as well as NaBO 2 and sludge. The performance of the fixed products has been improved by means of selecting the synthetic conditions of resin, a suitable hardener and an inorganic additive

  8. Destruction of organic wastes by ammonium peroxydisulfate with electrolytic regeneration of the oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, J.F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.

    1997-01-01

    Research is reported concerning a new aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes. This process uses acidified ammonium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at 80- to 100 degrees C. The oxidant may be efficiently regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by-product at Pt anodes, even in the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants expected to be entrained in the cycle. Integral rate constants were determined for the oxidation of 25 diverse organic compounds at low (50 ppm) concentrations through fixed-time experiments with excess oxidant and a Pt wire catalyst. For high initial concentrations, uncatalyzed mineralization rates were measured for waste surrogates including kerosene, triethylamine, ion exchange resin, oxalic acid, trinitrotoluene, and cellulose. A packed bed reactor was tested with ethylene glycol, with offgas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Rate data extrapolate to throughputs of approximately 200 kg/m 3 -day. The process may benefit the destruction of highly toxic or specialized industrial wastes as well as the organic fraction of mixed wastes

  9. Dissolution of brominated epoxy resins by dimethyl sulfoxide to separate waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Chen, Yan; Wang, Liangyou; Qian, Guangren; Zhang, Wei Jie; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Jin

    2013-03-19

    Improved methods are required for the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this study, WPCBs (1-1.5 cm(2)) were separated into their components using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 60 °C for 45 min and a metallographic microscope was used to verify their delamination. An increased incubation time of 210 min yielded a complete separation of WPCBs into their components, and copper foils and glass fibers were obtained. The separation time decreased with increasing temperature. When the WPCB size was increased to 2-3 cm(2), the temperature required for complete separation increased to 90 °C. When the temperature was increased to 135 °C, liquid photo solder resists could be removed from the copper foil surfaces. The DMSO was regenerated by rotary decompression evaporation, and residues were obtained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to verify that these residues were brominated epoxy resins. From FT-IR analysis after the dissolution of brominated epoxy resins in DMSO it was deduced that hydrogen bonding may play an important role in the dissolution mechanism. This novel technology offers a method for separating valuable materials and preventing environmental pollution from WPCBs.

  10. Testing of bituminized ion-exchange resin waste products from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.K.; Vuorinen, U.S.

    Testing methods are described and preliminary results presented for the bituminized waste products from TVO nuclear power plant. Radiation effects on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste product and a pure bitumen sample were studied using an external 60 Co gamma source. Results of the postirradiation study show that the relative density decreases for both the waste products and the bitumen. Softening points rise for waste products but drop for bitumen. Breaking point of the powder resin waste product drops; in the granular resin waste product it rises on the surface and slightly decreases or does not significantly change at the bottom. For bitumen the breaking point rises

  11. Column adsorption of perchlorate by amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin and its biological, chemical regeneration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Xu, Xing; Tan, Xin; Wang, Yan; Ling, Jianya; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-01-22

    Column adsorption of perchlorate by amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin was investigated by considering the bed depth, stream flow rate and influent pH. The empty bed contact time (EBCT) increased with the growth of bed depths, meanwhile rising flow rate at constant bed depth (3.4 cm) decreased the breakthrough time. It was observed that perchlorate adsorption capacity was optimum at neutral condition (pH: 6.0, 170.4 mg/g), and decreased at acidic (pH: 3.0, 96.4 mg/g) or alkalic (pH: 12.0, 72.8 mg/g) influents. The predominant strains of the acclimated sludge for resin biological regeneration were the β-subclass of Proteobacteria. Biological regeneration of the saturated amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin with mixed bacteria have shown its merit with regeneration and biological perchlorate destruction simultaneously, although its regeneration efficiency was only 61.2-84.1% by contrast to chemical regeneration with efficiency more than 95%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple use of waste catalysts with and without regeneration for waste polymer cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmiaton, A.; Garforth, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Waste plastics contain a substantial number of valuable chemicals. The wastes from post-consumer as well as from industrial production can be recycled to valuable chemical feedstock, which can be used in refineries and/or petrochemical industries. This chemical recycling process is an ideal approach in recycling the waste for a better environment. Polymer cracking using a laboratory fluidised bed reactor concentrated on the used highly contaminated catalyst, E-Cat 2. Even though E-Cat 2 had low activity due to fewer acid sites, the products yielded were similar with amorphous ASA and were far better than thermal cracking. The high levels of heavy metals, namely nickel and vanadium, deposited during their lifetime as an FCC catalyst, did not greatly affect on the catalyst activity. It was also shown that E-Cat 2 could be used with and without regeneration. Although there was more deactivation when there was no regeneration step, the yield of gases (C 2 -C 7 ) remained fairly constant. For the first time, these results indicate that 'waste' FCC catalyst (E-Cat) is a good candidate for future feedstock recycling of polymer waste. The major benefits of using E-Cat are a low market price, the ability to tolerate reuse and regeneration capacity.

  13. Waste minimization pretreatment via pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, U.K.; Choi, K.; Yang, K.H.; Park, J.K.; Song, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrolysis and/or oxidative pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins and other combustible waste may be effective pretreatment processes before vitrification. Three different methods were examined with the TGA to pretreat the resins: pyrolysis; oxidative pyrolysis; and oxidative pyrolyses of ash remaining after the pyrolysis of resin. The latter two methods were found to provide better volume reduction than the pyrolysis-only process. Between the two types of resins, cationic and anionic, the cationic exchange resin was less volatile. Pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of mixed resin (50% cation and 50% anion by wt.) showed volatilization at the temperatures where volatilization was observed for each of the separate resins. Because of certain limitations of the commercial TGA, tube furnace experiments were performed, generally, to examine the pyrolysis of larger quantities of cationic, anionic, and mixed resin, and to examine off-gas characteristics. The cationic resin-only and anionic resin-only gravimetric results showed good agreement with the smaller-scale TGA results. SEM pictures of the different variants of the resin (cationic, anionic, and mixed) show a different morphology for each. Off-gas data showed the presence of H 2 S, SO 2 , CO, and NO during the pyrolysis of cationic resin. CO was observed during the pyrolysis of anionic resin. The mixed resin trials showed the presence of the gases approximately at the temperatures where the gases would evolve if the results of the two different resins (cationic and anionic) were superimposed. However, the amount of hydrogen sulfide relative to the sulfur dioxide was found to increase significantly compared to the results of the cationic resin-only trials

  14. Effect of ingredients in waste water on property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Junshu; Mu Tao; Zhang Wei; Yang Shengya

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ingredients in waste water on the property of ion exchange resin for uranium-contained waste water treatment was studied by the method of static ad- sorption combined with dynamic experiment. The experimental result shows that the efficiency or breackthrough volume of resin is reduced if there are other general anions, triethanolamine and oil in the solution. When the concentrations of CO 3 2- , HCO 3 - , SO 3 2- , Cl - in the solution are more than 0.24, 0.28, 0.23 and 0.09 mol/L, respectively, the concentrations of uranium in the outlet waste water will exceed 20 μg/L. The maximal allowable concentration of triethanolamine through the resin is no more than 250 mg/L. When the content of oil in the resin exceeds 1%(by quality), the breackthrough volume reduces by 16%, and when it exceeds 11%, the breackthrough volume almost loses at all. (authors)

  15. Production of alkyd resins starting from the wastes of the polyester process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Liliana; Perez, Yolanda; Espinel, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the results of the bibliographic search of alternatives for the reuse of the waste of the polyester polymerization process and the experimental evaluation at laboratory scale of the process of obtaining alkyd resins. Also a feasibility analysis for applying this resin in the production of enamels was done. A characterization of the material with the purpose of determining the compounds and the present quantities was done. It was carried out a comparison of the raw material costs for the obtained resins using recovered material and without this. It was demonstrated that alkyd resins of commercial quality could be made from the waste of the process of polymerization of the polyester with a sensitive decrease in the raw material costs in comparison to the resins obtained without recovered material

  16. Alkyd-amino resins based on waste PET for coating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torlakoglu, A.; Gueclue, G.

    2009-01-01

    Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40 mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin (G), coconut oil fatty acids (COFA) and glycolyzed products of waste PET (PET-based alkyd resins) or glycols (PG) (reference alkyd resins). These alkyd resins were blended with 30%, 40%, and 50% of a commercial urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde/melamine-formaldehyde mixture (1/1 weight ratio) and heated at 140 deg. C. The physical and chemical properties such as drying time, hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, water resistance, alkaline resistance, acid resistance, gelation time, and thermal oxidative degradation resistance (with thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of these alkyd-amino resins were investigated. The properties of the waste PET-based resins were found to be compatible with the properties of the reference resins

  17. Alkyd-amino resins based on waste PET for coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakoğlu, A; Güçlü, G

    2009-01-01

    Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin (G), coconut oil fatty acids (COFA) and glycolyzed products of waste PET (PET-based alkyd resins) or glycols (PG) (reference alkyd resins). These alkyd resins were blended with 30%, 40%, and 50% of a commercial urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde/melamine-formaldehyde mixture (1/1 weight ratio) and heated at 140 degrees C. The physical and chemical properties such as drying time, hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, water resistance, alkaline resistance, acid resistance, gelation time, and thermal oxidative degradation resistance (with thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of these alkyd-amino resins were investigated. The properties of the waste PET-based resins were found to be compatible with the properties of the reference resins.

  18. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author) [pt

  19. Adsorption of naphthalene onto a high-surface-area carbon from waste ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qianqian; Li, Aimin; Zhu, Zhaolian; Liu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    A high-surface-area carbon (KC-1) was prepared from waste polystyrene-based ion exchange resin by KOH activation and used for naphthalene adsorption. The carbon exhibited a good hydrophobic nature with developed porous structure, favoring the adsorption of organic compounds. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area and total pore volume of KC-1 were 3442.2 and 1.68 cm3/g, respectively, which can be compared with those of KOH-activated carbons prepared from other precursors. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption of naphthalene onto KC-1. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi-Manes isotherms and agreed with the Polanyi-Manes Model. The adsorption of naphthalene depended greatly on the porosity of the carbon, and the dispersive interactions between naphthalene and carbon could be relatively weak. The pH variation in aqueous solution had little effect on the adsorption process. The equilibrium time for 0.04 g/L of carbon dose was around 5 hr. Different models were used to evaluate the kinetic data and the pseudo second-order model was suitable to describe the kinetic process of naphthalene adsorption onto KC-1. Regeneration of spent carbon could be carried out effectively by alcohol treatment. The results indicated that KC-1 was a promising adsorbent for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solutions.

  20. Development of Green Resin Using Solid Waste Protein Soybean Curd “Tofu” Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most concerns associated with many commercially available composites is that they used of non-degradable resins and fibers that primarily made using non-degradable, petroleum-based chemicals as feed stock. These conditions will create a serious problem in term of waste disposal after end of their life. Unlike petroleum, plant based protein and starches are yearly renewable. These resins are increasingly developed for various applications as replacements for non-degradable petroleum based resins. In addition, these resins may be easily composted after their life. In this study, Soybean Pulp Hemi-cellulose (SPH was modified by cross-linking it with glutaraldehyde (GA. The modified SPH resins were characterized for its surface morphology, tensile and mass losses or biodegradability properties. The effect of GA on the surface morphology, tensile and biodegradability of the SPH resins were discussed. The SPH resins showed improved surface morphology and ductility. However, the increasing the GA content reduces the Young’s modulus of the SPH resins. The SPH resins exhibited fracture stress point and Young’s modulus maximum of and 3.02 MN/m2, respectively, and biodegradability of 40.42% after 30 days placed on the open air. These properties seem to be sufficient for developing green composites from the SPH resins reinforced with natural fiber for indoor structural applications

  1. Treatment of alpha active organic liquid scintillator waste with ion exchange resins-column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Vaidya, V.N.; Venugopal, V.; Rao, P.R.V.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution ratios and percentage extraction for americium and total alpha due to plutonium and americium were determined using mixture of resins from the simulated alpha active organic liquid scintillator waste solution. Macroporous Bifunctional Phosphinic Acid (MPBPA) resin along with Amberlite IR-120 or AG 50WX8 in the ratios 1 : 1 to 1 : 6 were studied and the percentage extraction of better than 97% and distribution ratio of more than 480 were obtained. The data indicated the usefulness of these resins to remove alpha activity from these organic waste solutions. The column experiments were carried out using the active organic liquid scintillator waste with and without dilution with alcohol, and only alcoholic waste generated in the laboratory during the washing of the used liquid scintillator vials. The column containing either single MPBPA resin or with additional resin bed of Amberlite IR-120 were used for the treatment of the wastes. In the case of alcoholic waste after removal of activity it was reused for rinsing of the used vials. (author)

  2. Liberation of metal clads of waste printed circuit boards by removal of halogenated epoxy resin substrate using dimethylacetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Himanshu Ranjan; Singh, Kamalesh K; Mankhand, Tilak Raj

    2017-02-01

    Present work reports the evaluation of dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as a solvent to dissolve the halogenated epoxy resin substrate (HERS) of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Studies revealed that HERS dissolution attributes to the cracking and delamination of WPCB's layers. Variation of the parameters governing the dissolution elucidated that dissolution is directly dependent on temperature and WPCBs concentration in DMAc. The results also showed that increase in the WPCBs size drastically retards the rate of HERS dissolution. After delamination, the spent DMAc was regenerated, and the dissolved HERS was recovered as residue. The chemical structure of regenerated solution and recovered residue were found to be similar to pure DMAc and untreated HERS, respectively. Cyclic usage of regenerated DMAc revealed that 3-5% of DMAc is lost after each usage cycle while its effectiveness to dissolve the HERS remains equivalent to the pure DMAc. The dissolution of HERS ensures the liberation of copper cladded on the surface of WPCBs, and thus the proposed process avoids the requirement of highly energy intensive metal liberation processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin for fixation of membrane to tooth in guided tissue regeneration in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Shibukawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Tadashi; Miyakoshi, Shoichi; Shimono, Masaki; Yamada, Satoru

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate 4-META/MMA-TBB resin as an alternative to sling sutures for fixation of membrane to tooth in GTR in terms of its effect on tissue regeneration. Dehiscence periodontal defects were created in 6 dogs which were divided at random into two groups, 3 dogs in each group: an experimental group, in which non-absorbable or absorbable membrane was fixed to the teeth with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin; and a control group, in which sling sutures were applied to fix the two types of membrane. Histologic and histometric evaluation was carried out at 8 weeks post-operatively to determine healing response in each group. Both methods of achieving membrane fixation to tooth were effective in inhibiting epithelial migration and encouraging formation of regenerated periodontal tissues around the root surfaces. These results suggest that 4-META/MMA-TBB resin is as effective as sling sutures in achieving membrane fixation in GTR and is, moreover, easier to apply.

  4. Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE's mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies

  5. Design and Characterization of Renewable Bioasphalt Containing Damar Resin, Fly Ash, Wasted Cooking Oil and Latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Legowo, S. J.; Widiharjo, B.; Zai, A. K. S.; Pradana, A. A. W.; Rusadi, I. P.; Permana, A.

    2017-02-01

    Dasphalt is one alternative of bioasphalt, made from materials that can be renewed as a substitute for conventional asphalt. Dasphalt inspired from jabung made of damar resin, brick powder and wasted cooking oil. Jabung have the same character with conventional asphalt. Research has been conducted by the characteristics of jabung but there are still many shortcomings, softening point and ductility values are not qualify. In this research the brick powder will be replaced by fly ash, as fly ash has a finer grain so that it can become a better absorbent. The resin will act as a natural resin for dasphalt, wasted cooking oil will be a mixed solvent. Use of additional polymers latex, is expected to improve the elasticity of dasphalt in ductility test. The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of the modification dasphalt properties in accordance with the specifications of asphalt penetration test and find the optimal composition of dasphalt. This research method is done by direct testing in the laboratory. In the present study that became the basic composition of the resin is resin (100g pure resin+ 350g resin packaging or powder), fly ash (150g) and wasted cooking oil (205g) and latex were mixed at temperatures below 150°C. While variations of latex starting from 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%. Several asphalt characterization are performed include penetration tests, test softening point, ductility test, flash point test, specific gravity test, affinity test and solubility test. Dasphalt modification achieved optimum composition of resin (100g pure resin or resin chunk + 350Gr packaging), Fly Ash powder (150g), cooking oil (205g), and latex 4%, ductility increased from 63.5 cm to 119.5 cm, the value of the flash point was originally at temperature of 240°C to 260°C, dasphalt penetration from 68.2 dmm to 43 dmm, and the value of density decreases to 1.01 g/cm3 to 0.99 g/cm3. Dasphalt modifications meet some of the specifications and could be categorized as

  6. Solidification of radioactive liquid wastes. A comparison of treatment options for spent resins and concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.; Willmann, F.; Ebata, M.; Wendt, S.

    2008-01-01

    Ion exchange is one of the most common and effective treatment methods for liquid radioactive waste. However, spent ion exchange resins are considered to be problematic waste that in many cases require special approaches and pre-conditioning during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. Because of the function that they fulfill, spent ion exchange resins often contain high concentrations of radioactivity and pose special handling and treatment problems. Another very common method of liquid radioactive waste treatment and water cleaning is the evaporation or diaphragm filtration. Both treatment options offer a high volume reduction of the total volume of liquids treated but generate concentrates which contain high concentrations of radioactivity. Both mentioned waste streams, spent resins as well as concentrates, resulting from first step liquid radioactive waste treatment systems have to be conditioned in a suitable manner to achieve stable waste products for final disposal. The most common method of treatment of such waste streams is the solidification in a solid matrix with additional inactive material like cement, polymer etc. In the past good results have been achieved and the high concentration of radioactivity can be reduced by adding the inactive material. On the other hand, under the environment of limited space for interim storage and the absence of a final repository site, the built-up of additional volume has to be considered as very critical. Moreover, corrosive effects on cemented drums during long-term interim storage at the surface have raised doubts about the long-term stability of such waste products. In order to avoid such disadvantages solidification methods have been improved in order to get a well-defined product with a better load factor of wastes in the matrix. In a complete different approach, other technologies solidify the liquid radioactive wastes without adding of any inactive material by means of drying

  7. Ion Exchange Modeling Of Cesium Removal From Hanford Waste Using Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2007-06-27

    This report discusses the expected performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline Hanford radioactive waste. Predictions of full scale column performance in a carousel mode are made for the Hot Commissioning, Envelope B, and Subsequent Operations waste compositions under nominal operating conditions and for perturbations from the nominal. Only the loading phase of the process cycle is addressed in this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests, kinetic experiments, and batch equilibrium experiments are used to estimate model parameters and to benchmark the ion-exchange model. The methodology and application presented in this report reflect the expected behavior of spherical RF resin manufactured at the intermediate-scale (i.e., approximately 100 gallon batch size; batch 5E-370/641). It is generally believed that scale-up to production-scale in resin manufacturing will result in similarly behaving resin batches whose chemical selectivity is unaffected while total capacity per gram of resin may vary some. As such, the full-scale facility predictions provided within this report should provide reasonable estimates of production-scale column performance.

  8. Characterization of radioactive wastes - spent ion-exchange resins and charcoal filter beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rozilene Elaine; Isiki, Vera Lucia Keiko; Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Potiens Junior, Ademar Jose; Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we report the initial results of the work undertaken at the Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory (RWML), in Sao Paulo, Brazil, to develop sampling procedures and analytical methods applied to the characterization of radioactive wastes, specifically spent ion-exchange resins and charcoal filter beds generated at the IEA-R1 Research Reactor operated by the Nuclear Energy Research Institute. The work objectives are to characterize those wastes to comply with regulatory requirements, to generate data to support the development of treatment processes, and to improve characterization methods and laboratorial infrastructure. (author)

  9. Towards reinforcement solutions for urban fibre/fabric waste using bio-based biodegradable resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pramod; Hermes, Alina; Bapeer, Solaf; Luiken, Anton; Bouwhuis, Gerrit; Brinks, Ger

    2017-10-01

    The main research question is how to systematically define and characterize urban textile waste and how to effectively utilise it to produce reinforcement(s) with selected bio-based biodegradable resin(s). Several composite samples have been produced utilising predominantly natural and predominantly synthetic fibres by combining loose fibres with PLA, nonwoven fabric with PLA, woven fabric with PLA, two-layer composite & four-layer composite samples. Physio-chemical characterisations according to the established standards have been conducted. The present work is a step toward the circular economy and closing the loop in textile value chain.

  10. Protein-based green resins and nanocomposites from waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Maksudur

    The main goal of the present research is to design and fabricate 'green' nanocomposites using eco-friendly and biodegradable polymers, an effort driven towards an alternative of conventional petroleum-derived polymers in structural applications considering environmental and economic concerns. The behavior of structure, composition and property relationships between the novel combinations of these materials has been analyzed and discussed. The materials used in this study, many of them from non-edible sources, are obtained, derived and/or synthesized using various wastes from agricultural and food industries, as much as possible, so as to utilize wastes that are discarded at present. At the same time, the use of waste sources reduces the dependency of edible source-based biopolymers in various structural applications and thus, reduces the cost of materials significantly. Overall, this study opens up new avenues in the fabrication of low-cost 'green' nanocomposite with facile and 'green' methodology using various agricultural and food wastes.

  11. Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Wayne D. Shepperd; John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    There are basically two approaches to regenerating aspen stands-sexual reproduction using seed, or vegetative regeneration by root suckering. In the West, root suckering is the most practical method. The advantage of having an existing, well established root system capable of producing numerous root suckers easily outweighs natural or artificial reforestation in the...

  12. Study of phosphorous based resins for the uptake of plutonium from H2SO4 based analytical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, H.; Mohandas, Jaya; Srinivasan, S.; Kumar, T.; Rajan, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    This study indicates that phosphorous based resins can be conveniently employed for the uptake of plutonium from analytical wastes even in strong acid media and also in the presence of diverse ions like silver and chromium. It is also evident that phosphorous based resins have proved to be efficient even in sulphuric acid medium

  13. Use of a phenolic-carboxylic acid cation resin in the treatment of low-level liquid waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    The loading capacity of CS-100 resin, using plant waste as feed, was found to be significantly reduced after 20 loading-elution cycles; one-fourth or less of the original capacity was retained after 30 cycles. No important differences were noted between an untreated column and a column that had been reconverted to the sodium form in the regeneration step. Omission of the sodium regeneration could not be adopted as a routine procedure because it produced a packing effect in the plant beds; however, reconversion to the sodium form is now achieved by using a stoichiometric amount of caustic rather than a 100% excess, as was previous practice. Since the distribution coefficients for calcium and strontium are about six times greater than that for cesium, no loss of 90 Sr would be expected while 137 Cs is loading. Laboratory results obtained by using plant conditions and feed indicate that a typical bed would remove 96% of 90 Sr in the feed. Cobalt-60 is generally the greatest contributor to the radioactivity of the plant effluent. Laboratory tests indicate that this 60 Co is present as a mixture of a soluble anionic complex and insoluble colloids. The anionic complex could be removed by placing an anion exchange column in the effluent from the CS-100 resin bed. In studies of the dynamics of loading on CS-100 resin, the contact time in plant operation (3 to 4 min per column volume) was found to be more than adequate to obtain the desired results. Effects of flow velocity were not investigated. Data from a series of laboratory experiments show that CS-100 resin can be eluted satisfactorily with 0.5 to 1.0 M formic or acetic acid, although a larger volume is required than for elution with 0.5 M nitric acid

  14. Under-utilisation of organic wastes during brownfield regeneration to community woodland: tackling the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Francis E; Doick, Kieron J; Atkinson, Gail E; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of brownfield land to greenspace is a governmental policy objective of many European countries. Healthy vegetation establishment and growth is an essential component of successful greenspace establishment, and research has shown that a planting medium of an appropriate standard for supporting vegetation can be created through amendment of soil-forming materials with organic wastes. However, failed regeneration projects suggest that barriers may exist that prevent the use of suitable quality soil materials. The aim of this research was to identify barriers to the use of organic wastes for improving soil materials for brownfield regeneration to community woodland. We conducted interviews with a range of professionals experienced in regeneration to greenspace, and used content analysis on interview transcripts. A diverse set of barriers was revealed, including a low technical awareness among some professional groups of how to improve soil quality, coupled with a low awareness of the published technical guidance. Other barriers include regulatory and project management issues, which influence the timings and economics of raising brownfield soil quality. We highlight areas in which future efforts may be focused to improve the quality of planting media used in land regeneration. Such effort will improve the sustainability of greenspaces created and complement effective management of organic waste streams.

  15. The recycling of comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Jia, Weifeng; Li, Jinhui

    2010-05-01

    The reuse of comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin with various granularities gathered from printed circuit manufacturing residues was investigated. As fillers, these residues were converted into polymeric composite board by an extrusion and injection process using polypropylene as a bonding agent. The mechanical properties of the reproduced composite board were examined by considering the effects of mass fraction and glass-fiber distribution. Interfacial-layer micrograph analysis of the composite material fracture surface was used to study the fiber reinforcement mechanism. Results showed that using comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin as a filler material greatly enhanced the performance properties of the composite board. Although the length and diameter of filler varied, these variations had no appreciable effect on the mechanical properties of the processed board. Maximum values of 48.30 MPa for flexural strength, 31.34 MPa for tensile strength, and 31.34 J/m for impact strength were achieved from a composite board containing mass fractions of 30, 10, and 20% glass-fiber-reinforced resin waste, respectively. It was found that the maximum amount of recyclate that could be added to a composite board was 30% of weight. Beyond these percentages, the materials blend became unmanageable and the mixture less amenable to impregnation with fiber. Presented studies indicated that comminuted glass-fiber-reinforced resin waste-filled polypropylene composites are promising candidates for structural applications where high stiffness and fracture resistance are required.

  16. Solidification of radioactive liquid wastes, Treatment options for spent resins and concentrates - 16405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Ion exchange is one of the most common and effective treatment methods for liquid radioactive waste. However, spent ion exchange resins are considered to be problematic waste that in many cases require special approaches and pre-conditioning during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. Because of the function that they fulfill, spent ion exchange resins often contain high concentrations of radioactivity and pose special handling and treatment problems. Another very common method of liquid radioactive waste treatment and water cleaning is the evaporation or diaphragm filtration. Both treatment options offer a high volume reduction of the total volume of liquids treated but generate concentrates which contain high concentrations of radioactivity. Both mentioned waste streams, spent resins as well as concentrates, resulting from first step liquid radioactive waste treatment systems have to be conditioned in a suitable manner to achieve stable waste products for final disposal. Spent resin and concentrate treatment often appear as a specific task in decommissioning projects, because in the past those waste streams typically had been stored in tanks for the lifetime of the plant and needs to be retrieved, conditioned and packed prior to dismantling activities. Additionally a large amount of contaminated liquids will be generated by utilizing decontamination processes and needs to be processed further on. Such treatment options need to achieve waste products acceptable for final disposal, because due to the closure of the site no interim storage can be envisaged. The most common method of treatment of such waste streams is the solidification in a solid matrix with additional inactive material like cement, polymer etc. In the past good results have been achieved and the high concentration of radioactivity can be reduced by adding the inactive material. On the other hand, under the environment of limited space for interim storage and the absence

  17. Investigation into the possibility of recycling thermosetting resin waste originating from the plastics industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, E.; Richer; Marting, Ch.

    Thermosetting resin waste originating from glass fiber reinforced polyester production amounts to approximately 4% of the output. It is proposed to use the material recovered from the waste as reinforcement of polymers, either virgin or recycled material, for the purpose of enhancing mechanical properties such as resistance to tensile stress, deformation, shock, etc. The process includes recovery of the glass fibers from the resin matrix by heat treatment at 350C to 400C, followed by crushing and chopping, treatment with dilute HCl, addition of adjuvants, kneading and masticating, prior to blending with the polymer melt of recycled thermoplastics such as plasticized PVC and polyethylene. The recovered glass fibers enable energy to be saved in the manufacture of novel types of fibers. However, a comprehensive energy balance must await the construction and testing of a small pilot plant.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Mortar with Sand Washing Waste as Filler

    OpenAIRE

    Yemam, Dinberu Molla; Kim, Baek-Joong; Moon, Ji-Yeon; Yi, Chongku

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of sand washing waste as filler for epoxy resin mortar. The mechanical properties of four series of mortars containing epoxy binder at 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt. % mixed with sand blended with sand washing waste filler in the range of 0–20 wt. % were examined. The compressive and flexural strength increased with the increase in epoxy and filler content; however, above epoxy 20 wt. %, slight change was seen in strength due to increas...

  19. Development and testing of a method for coating metallic wastes by thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassigny, C. de

    1985-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear installations produces large-sized metallic components difficult to be compacted or to be inserted in the usual containers. The purpose of this study was to develop a coating procedure for low and medium activity wastes, in order to: - fix the contamination of the waste by a first appropriate layer; - protect this layer from mechanical shocks by a second thick layer; - reduce the diffusion of radionuclides. The study has proven the feasibility of depositing epoxy resins by electrostatic spraying in a nuclear environment on steel sub-strata with an efficiency higher than 95%; showing that it is possible to work in closed ventilated rooms without risk of clogging the filters. Two layers of epoxy resin are sufficient to fix contamination with a factor of 8600; their thickness (about 30 μm) nevertheless limits their use to this application. To reduce diffusion of radionuclides (Co-60 and Cs-137), polyurethane resins were chosen with which it is possible to obtain a thick coating in only a short time. Their properties of fixing the contamination, retaining of radionuclides and resistance to impact, have been assessed. First application of the procedure on a contaminated metallic bellow coming from dismantling of nuclear reactor, has been carried out

  20. Ion exchange removal of cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates with SuperLigR 644 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; McCabe, D.J.; King, W.D.; Hamm, L.L.

    2002-01-01

    SuperLig R 644 ion exchange resin is currently being evaluated for cesium ( 137 Cs) removal from radioactive Hanford tank waste supernates as part of the River Protection Project. Testing was performed with actual Hanford tank wastes of widely different compositions using two identical ion exchange columns connected in series each containing approximately 5.5-6.5 ml of SuperLig R 644 resin. The ion exchange columns utilized the same resin material that was eluted between the column tests. This was done to demonstrate the performance of the SuperLig R 644 resin for cesium removal from waste samples of different compositions, determine the loading and elution profiles, and to validate design assumptions for full-scale column performances. Decontaminated product solutions generated at the same operating temperature and constant residence times (bed volumes per hour) exhibited the same chemical compositions as their feed samples. The compositions of eluate solutions were generally as expected with the exception of uranium and total organic carbon, which where concentrated by the resin. Development of a pretreatment method for the SuperLig R 644 resin has been critical to successful column operation with different waste solutions. (author)

  1. Eichrom's ABEC trademark resins: Alkaline radioactive waste treatment, radiopharmaceutical, and potential hydrometallurgical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, A.H.; Gula, M.J.; Chang, F.; Rogers, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Eichrom's ABEC trademark resins selectivity extract certain anions from high ionic strength acidic, neutral, or strongly alkaline media, and solute stripping can be accomplished by eluting with water. ABEC resins are stable to pH extreme and radiolysis and operate in high ionic strength and/or alkaline solutions where anion-exchange is often ineffective. Potential applications of the ABEC materials include heavy metal and ReO 4 - separations in hydrometallurgy and purification of perrhenate iodide, and iodate in radiopharmaceutical production. Separation of 99m TcO 4 - from its 99 MoO 4 2- parent and stripping with water or physiological saline solution have been demonstrated for radiopharmaceutical applications. Removal of 99 TcO 4 - and 129 I - from alkaline tank wastes has also been successfully demonstrated. The authors will discuss the scale-up studies, process-scale testing, and market development of this new extraction material

  2. Thermal removal of nitrogen species from wood waste containing urea formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girods, P. [LERMAB, Nancy-Universite, UMR 1093, INRA, ENGREF, UHP, ENSTIB 27, rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88 051 Epinal (France)], E-mail: pierre.girods@yahoo.fr; Dufour, A.; Rogaume, Y.; Rogaume, C.; Zoulalian, A. [LERMAB, Nancy-Universite, UMR 1093, INRA, ENGREF, UHP, ENSTIB 27, rue du Merle Blanc, BP 1041, 88 051 Epinal (France)

    2008-11-30

    The removal of nitrogen from wood board waste through a low temperature pyrolysis (523-573 K) is investigated with two analytical methods. The kinetic study of the thermal behaviour of wood board and of its components (wood, UF and MF resins) shows the feasibility of removing thermally nitrogen from wood board waste. Indeed, the range of temperatures associated with the degradation of wood is different from the one obtained for the degradation of UF and MF resin. Isothermal conditions enable the determination of a kinetic model for degradation of wood board and of its components and demonstrate that the thermal behaviour of wood board is not the reflection of the sum of its components' behaviour. FTIR analysis of gas products confirms the feasibility removing nitrogen thermally and enables the evaluation of the optimum treatment conditions (temperature/duration). Elementary analysis of the treated samples and study of their low heating value (LHV) enable to quantify the efficiency of the thermal treatment in terms of nitrogen removal and of energy recovery. Results show that around 70% of the initial nitrogen can be removed from the waste, and that the temperature of treatment (between 523 K and 573 K) does not influence the efficiency in terms of nitrogen removal. Nevertheless, the ratio Residual energy/Initial energy (between 76% and 90%) is improved with the lowest temperature of treatment.

  3. A metabolic link to skeletal muscle wasting and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René eKoopman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to its essential role in movement, insulating the internal organs, generating heat to maintain core body temperature, and acting as a major energy storage depot, any impairment to skeletal muscle structure and function may lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality. In the context of skeletal muscle, altered metabolism is directly associated with numerous pathologies and disorders, including diabetes, and obesity, while many skeletal muscle pathologies have secondary changes in metabolism, including cancer cachexia, sarcopenia and the muscular dystrophies. Furthermore, the importance of cellular metabolism in the regulation of skeletal muscle stem cells is beginning to receive significant attention. Thus, it is clear that skeletal muscle metabolism is intricately linked to the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and regeneration. The aim of this review is to discuss some of the recent findings linking a change in metabolism to changes in skeletal muscle mass, as well as describing some of the recent studies in developmental, cancer and stem-cell biology that have identified a role for cellular metabolism in the regulation of stem cell function, a process termed ‘metabolic reprogramming’.

  4. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Cementation of secondary wastes generated from carbonisation of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-07-01

    The spent IX resins containing radioactive fission and activation products from power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Process for carbonization of IX resins to achieve weight and volume reduction has been optimized on 50 dm 3 /batch pilot test rig. The process generates carbonaceous residue, organic liquid condensates (predominantly styrene) and aqueous alkaline scrubber solutions as secondary wastes. The report discusses laboratory tests on leaching of 137 Cs from cement matrix incorporating carbonaceous residues and extrapolation of results to 200 liter matrix block. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from 200 liter cement matrix was estimated to be 0.0021 in 200 days and 0.0418 over a period of 30 years. Incorporation of organic liquid condensates into cement matrix has been tried out successfully. Thus two types of secondary wastes generated during carbonization of spent IX resins can be immobilized in cement matrix. (author)

  6. Resin screening for the removal of pyridine-derivatives from waste-water by solvent impregnated resin technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The selective removal of pyridine derivatives by solvent impregnated resins has been studied. A solvent impregnated resin consists of a macro-porous particle that is impregnated with a solvent. This technology allows the use liquid–liquid extraction in fixed-bed operation, and prevents problems like

  7. Ontario Hydro Research Division's program for treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.; Dodd, D.J.R.

    1981-09-01

    A brief review of the evolution of work programmes for chemical treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in Ontario Hydro's Research Division is presented. Attention has been focussed on pre-treatment processes for the treatment of the spent resins prior to encapsulation of the products in solid matrices. Spent Resin Regeneration and Acid Stripping processes were considered in some detail. Particular attention was paid to carbon-14 on spent resins, its determination in and removal from the spent resins (with the acid stripping technique). The use of separate cation and anion resin beds instead of mixed bed resins was examined with a view to reducing the volume of resin usage and consequently the volume of waste radioactive ion-exchange resin generated. (author)

  8. Long-term storage of waste ion-exchange resins in high-density polyethylene containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Milian, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    This research effort is being carried out for the Empire Static Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) to evaluate the use of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as a container material for the extended storage of low-level radioactive waste ion-exchange resins. This need arises because of the possibility that a new disposal site may not be commissioned soon enough for wastes to be shipped away. If the wastes are to be stored for periods greater than five years application to the NRC for extended storage must include an analysis of the integrity of the container and its retrievability. In order to ensure that New York State utilities have the necessary database to include in such an application, ESEERCO has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to quantify the integrity of HDPE containers for resin storage periods in excess of five years. Based on past BNL research it is considered that three procedural steps should be implemented if a container is to qualify for long-term use. These are: (a) Determine storage conditions and state which degradation modes are likely to be applicable; (b) Specify container performance criteria that must be met for safe storage; and (c) Carry out testing and analyses to demonstrate that these requirements will be met over the storage period. It is envisioned that the study will provide the information needed to determine if the current, inexpensive HDPE containers in use will serve effectively for extended storage. This will be done by quantifying anticipated degradation rates and specifying means to retard their progress

  9. Deactivation and regeneration of ZSM-5 zeolite in catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, A.; Marco, I. de; Caballero, B.M.; Adrados, A.; Laresgoiti, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pyrolysis transforms plastic wastes in valuable liquids and gases useful as fuels or source of chemicals. → The use of ZSM-5 zeolite in pyrolysis favours the production of gases and of lighter and more aromatic liquids. → ZSM-5 zeolite is almost completely deactivated after one plastics pyrolysis experiment. → ZSM-5 zeolite used in plastic wastes pyrolysis can be regenerated by burning the deposited coke in an air stream. → Regenerated ZSM-5 recovers its activity and produces liquids and gases equivalent to those obtained with fresh catalyst. - Abstract: In this work, a study of the regeneration and reuse of ZSM-5 zeolite in the pyrolysis of a plastic mixture has been carried out in a semi-batch reactor at 440 deg. C. The results have been compared with those obtained with fresh-catalyst and in non-catalytic experiments with the same conditions. The use of fresh catalyst produces a significant change in both the pyrolysis yields and the properties of the liquids and gases obtained. Gases more rich in C3-C4 and H 2 are produced, as well as lower quantities of aromatic liquids if compared with those obtained in thermal decomposition. The authors have proved that after one pyrolysis experiment the zeolite loses quite a lot of its activity, which is reflected in both the yields and the products quality; however, this deactivation was found to be reversible since after regeneration heating at 550 deg. C in oxygen atmosphere, this catalyst recovered its initial activity, generating similar products and in equivalent proportions as those obtained with fresh catalyst.

  10. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-01-01

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit

  11. Selective recovery of a pyridine derivative from an aqueous waste stream containing acetic acid and succinonitrile with solvent impregnated resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, J.; Visser, T.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Solvent impregnated resins (SIRs) were evaluated for the recovery of pyridine derivatives from an aqueous waste-stream containing also acetic acid and succinonitrile. For this purpose, a new solvent was developed, synthesized and impregnated in Amberlite XAD4. Sorption studies were used to determine

  12. French processes for waste embedding. The use of epoxy resin for waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, X.; Gauthey, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The low- and medium-level wastes generated by nuclear facilities when operating as well as during their decommissioning (dismantling, decontamination, etc.) are embedded for the purpose of obtaining a product suitable for disposal. Due to the varieties of waste produced, it was necessary to resort to multi-purpose techniques to solve problems relating to their embedding. The process for waste embedding in thermosetting polymer (polyester, epoxy) developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and its subsidiary TECHNICATOME is easy to operate and yields excellent results having regard to volume reduction and containment of radioisotopes (particularly caesium). The industrial development of this process has led to the design of small, flexible, fixed or mobile, embedding stations. Examples illustrating the increasing use of this process during facility dismantling are described

  13. Characterization and Regeneration of Pt-Catalysts Deactivated in Municipal Waste Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Severe deactivation was observed for industrially aged catalysts used in waste incineration plants and tested in lab-scale. Possible compounds that cause deactivation of these Pt-based CO oxidation catalysts have been studied. Kinetic observations of industrial and model catalysts showed...... that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H-2/N-2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore...... the activity of the deactivated catalysts. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Characterization and regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Soeren Birk; Kustov, Arkady; Due-Hansen, Johannes; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Siret, Bernard; Tabaries, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Severe deactivation was observed for industrially aged catalysts used in waste incineration plants and tested in lab-scale. Possible compounds that cause deactivation of these Pt-based CO oxidation catalysts have been studied. Kinetic observations of industrial and model catalysts showed that siloxanes were the most severe catalyst poisons, although acidic sulfur compounds also caused deactivation. Furthermore, a method for on-site regeneration without shutdown of the catalytic flue gas cleaning system has been developed, i.e. an addition of H 2 /N 2 gas to the off-gas can completely restore the activity of the deactivated catalysts. (author)

  15. A new technology for separation and recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by dissolving bromine epoxy resins using ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.Y.; Qian, G.Y.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► WPCBs were heated in [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] for recovering solider at 240 °C. ► The bromine epoxy resins in WPCBs were all dissolved in [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] at 260 °C. ► Used [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] is treated by water to obtain regeneration. - Abstract: Recovery of valuable materials from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is quite difficult because WPCBs is a heterogeneous mixture of polymer materials, glass fibers, and metals. In this study, WPCBs was treated using ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ]). Experimental results showed that the separation of the solders went to completion, and electronic components (ECs) were removed in WPCBs when [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] solution containing WPCBs was heated to 240 °C. Meanwhile, metallographic observations verified that the WPCBs had an initial delamination. When the temperature increased to 260 °C, the separation of the WPCBs went to completion, and coppers and glass fibers were obtained. The used [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] was treated by water to generate a solid–liquid suspension, which was separated completely to obtain solid residues by filtration. Thermal analyses combined with infrared ray spectra (IR) observed that the solid residues were bromine epoxy resins. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) showed that hydrogen bond played an important role for [EMIM + ][BF 4 − ] dissolving bromine epoxy resins. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to recycle valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent environmental pollution from WPCBs effectively.

  16. Structure, mechanical and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin and dental ceramic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Rodríguez, G.; Martínez Maldonado, L.; Dulce Moreno, H. J.

    2016-02-01

    The tensile strength and bending strength, structure and thermal behaviour of mixtures of polyester resin (P-2000) and powders (ASTM sieve 200, dental ceramic wastes (dentals impressions, alginate and gypsum) was reported. The samples consisted of mixtures with percentage weights of 50-50%, 60-40%, 70-30%, 80-20%, 90-10%, where the resin was the majority phase, the Mekc (4% wt) was used as catalyst. The structure was studied using SEM and XRD, the thermal behaviour using DSC, TGA and DMA, while the mechanical strength was tested using standards ASTM D790 and D638. Irregular morphology and presence of small agglomerations was observed, with particle sizes between 29.63 and 38.67μm, the presence of different phases of calcium sulphate was found, and that to the increasing the concentration of the powder, the materials becomes more crystalline, increasing its density. An average service temperature of 69.15±4.60°C was found. Vickers hardness values are reported in ranges from 18.65 to 27.96. Considering the elastic modules was established that the materials become more rigid by having more powder concentration.

  17. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange for separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penwell, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. The flowsheet also discusses process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs associated with the ion exchange process. It is expected that this flowsheet will evolve as open issues are resolved and progress is made on development needs. This is part of the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. 26 refs, 6 figs, 25 tabs

  18. Physico-Chemical Studies Involving Incorporation of Radioactive and Industrial Waste In Cement-Epoxy Resin Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, M.S.; Hafez, N.

    1999-01-01

    Cement and epoxy resin as chemical additives are proposed to incorporate different types of wastes. The study was extended to prepare different mixtures of cement and epoxy resin in presence of some toxic ions. The studied ions were Cd II, Ni II, Cu II, Fe III, Ce IV, 154+152 Eu, phenol and toluene. The physical, mechanical and leaching properties of the mixtures were studied. The thermal analysis and infrared spectra were also investigated. It was observed that all the studied properties of the epoxy modified cement as a disposal matrix was improved

  19. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Kustov, Arkadii

    Municipal waste flue gas was previously found to deactivate the Pt-based CO oxidation catalyst severely. In the specific case studied, siloxanes were found to cause the deactivation. An on-site method for complete regeneration of the catalyst activity was found without shutdown of the flue gas st......, i.e. the reaction 4NO + 4NH3 + O2 ->4N2 + 6H2O....

  20. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  1. Regeneration of pilot-scale ion exchange columns for hexavalent chromium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korak, Julie A; Huggins, Richard; Arias-Paic, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    Due to stricter regulations, some drinking water utilities must implement additional treatment processes to meet potable water standards for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), such as the California limit of 10 μg/L. Strong base anion exchange is effective for Cr(VI) removal, but efficient resin regeneration and waste minimization are important for operational, economic and environmental considerations. This study compared multiple regeneration methods on pilot-scale columns on the basis of regeneration efficiency, waste production and salt usage. A conventional 1-Stage regeneration using 2 N sodium chloride (NaCl) was compared to 1) a 2-Stage process with 0.2 N NaCl followed by 2 N NaCl and 2) a mixed regenerant solution with 2 N NaCl and 0.2 N sodium bicarbonate. All methods eluted similar cumulative amounts of chromium with 2 N NaCl. The 2-Stage process eluted an additional 20-30% of chromium in the 0.2 N fraction, but total resin capacity is unaffected if this fraction is recycled to the ion exchange headworks. The 2-Stage approach selectively eluted bicarbonate and sulfate with 0.2 N NaCl before regeneration using 2 N NaCl. Regeneration approach impacted the elution efficiency of both uranium and vanadium. Regeneration without co-eluting sulfate and bicarbonate led to incomplete uranium elution and potential formation of insoluble uranium hydroxides that could lead to long-term resin fouling, decreased capacity and render the resin a low-level radioactive solid waste. Partial vanadium elution occurred during regeneration due to co-eluting sulfate suppressing vanadium release. Waste production and salt usage were comparable for the 1- and 2-Stage regeneration processes with similar operational setpoints with respect to chromium or nitrate elution. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Experience in industrial operation of the plant for immobilizing radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins at the Ardennes Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.; Romestain, P.; Bruant, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has developed, at the Grenoble Centre for Nuclear Studies, a procedure for immobilizing low- and intermediate-level wastes in thermosetting resins of the polyester or epoxy types. To demonstrate feasibility on an industrial scale, a pilot plant has been set up at the effluent treatment station of the Ardennes Franco-Belgium Nuclear Power Station (SENA), which is a 305 MW(e) PWR type. Assembly work began in January 1979. After a period devoted to final adjustments and operation with inactive products, conditioning of active products began in January 1981. In the paper, the methods of conditioning the three types of waste (evaporation concentrates, ion exchange resins and filter cartridges) are described, experience of the start-up and operation of the plant is reported and the principal results of coating characterization tests are given. The results of tests on active and inactive products show that the characteristics of the materials obtained on an industrial scale match those of laboratory products and confirm their high quality with regard to mechanical behaviour, fire resistance, homogeneity and low-leachability. Industrial experience and economic comparisons show that the process of immobilizing waste from nuclear power stations in thermosetting resins offers an extremely interesting alternative to classical methods of conditioning. (author)

  3. Mechanical properties of waste paper/jute fabric reinforced polyester resin matrix hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sekhar

    2017-09-15

    Hybrid composites were prepared with jute fabric and un-shredded newspaper in polyester resin matrix. The experiment was designed 1:2 weights ratio jute and unshredded newspaper to have 42 (w/w)% fibre content hybrid composites and two different sequences jute/paper/jute and paper/jute/paper of waste newspaper and jute fabric arrangement. Reinforcing material is characterized by chemically, X-ray diffraction methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tensile testing. The tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear strength and fracture surface morphology of composites were evaluated and compared. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composite are higher than that of pure paper-based composite but less than pure woven jute composite. The hybridization effect of woven jute fabric and layering pattern effect on mechanical properties of newspaper/woven jute fabric hybrid composites were studied. The test results of composites were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (α=0.05), it showed significant differences among the groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sorption of Pb(II) onto a mixture of algae waste biomass and anion exchanger resin in a packed-bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgariu, Dumitru; Bulgariu, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Sorption of Pb(II) was studied by using a biosorbent mixture of algae waste biomass and Purolite A-100 resin in a packed-bed column. Mixing these two components was done to prevent the clogging of the column and to ensure adequate flow rates. Increasing of solution flow rate and initial Pb(II) concentration make that the breakthrough and saturation points to be attained earlier. The experimental breakthrough curves were modeled using Bohart-Adams, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models, and the parameters for all these models were calculated. A regeneration efficiency of 98% was achieved using 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl and not significant changes in lead uptake capacity after three biosorption/desorption cycles were noted. The biosorbent mixture was able to remove Pb(II) from synthetic wastewater at pH 5.0 and flow rate of 3.5 mL min(-1), and the obtained effluent has better quality characteristics. The biosorbent mixture it is suitable for a continuous system for large-scale applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regeneration of Pt-catalysts deactivated in municipal waste flue gas with H2/N2 and the effect of regeneration step on the SCR catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Rasmussen, Søren Brik; Kustov, Arkady

    The deactivation performance of Pt-catalysts for CO oxidation has been studied in relation to use in sewage sludge municipal waste burners, where HMDS was found to poison the industrial catalyst in a similar way to the model Pt/TiO2 catalyst. A promising regeneration procedure was developed based...... on reduction with hydrogen. This procedure had negligible effect on the performance of the SCR catalyst. After treatment with 2% H2, 8% O2 in N2 for one hour, a slight better NO SCR activity was observed due to increase in the concentration V4+ sites. However, after exposure in normal NO SCR gases the activity...

  6. Preparation of titanates and zeolites and their uses in radioactive waste management, particularly in the treatment of spent resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Airola, C.; Forsberg, S.; Faelt, L.

    1983-05-01

    Work on the preparation of titanates and zeolites was started and their possible uses in the management of radioactive wastes proposed in the first years of the 1970's by the Department of Nuclear Chemistry at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the Chemical Center of the University of Lund, respectively. The major part of these efforts was sponsored by the National Council for Radioactive Waste (Prav), while the concluding phase including an over-all system design study adapted to the Swedish nuclear power programme for an economic evaluation was sponsored by the KBS Division of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Co. The preparation work resulted in processes ready for industrial scale production of sorbents of qualities adequate for applications in radioactive waste treatment. The essential effort was devoted to the treatment of spent resins from nuclear power plants by transfer to their radioactive contents to titanates and zeolites, which can then be sintered to stabel ceramic bodies (the PILO process). The economic evaluation indicated a significant economic incentive for the introduction of the PILO process if an incineration step is included for all types of spent resins. The essential efforts and results from this programme are summarized in this report. (Authors)

  7. Separation of Caffeine and Tea Poly-phenols from Instant (Soluble) Tea Waste Liquor by Macro-porous Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Xueling Gao; Bin Zhang; Zenglang Shao; Yong Yang; Pengxiang Yue

    2014-01-01

    Instant tea is presently manufactured by spraying and freeze drying the concentrated brew of processed tea leaves and dust. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique using macro-porous resins for separating Caffeine (Caf) and Tea Poly-phenols (TP) from the waste liquor generated by manufacturing instant tea. Optimum adsorption conditions were obtained using an initial concentration of Caf solution of 80 mg/L and a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min at 60°C; The optimal desorption conditions w...

  8. Analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) of the gamma radiation effect on epoxy resin, used as solidification agent of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.H.; Riella, H.G.; Guedes, S.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on Epoxy resin, used as solidification agent of radioactive wastes, were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The spectra showed no significant modifications on Epoxy resin functional groups (irradiated with dose from 0 to 1 MGy). Up to 1 MGy Epoxy resin did not oxidize, confirming the Epoxy good radiation strength. The presence of aromatic chain and amine group, mainly tertiary amine, give good radiolytic stability to the Epoxy, increasing the interest to use this material in nuclear facilities. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs

  9. Solvent impregnated resin for isolation of U(VI) from industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karve, M.; Rajgor, R.V.

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method based upon impregnation of Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl)mono-thio-phosphinic acid) on Amberlite XAD-2 resin is proposed for isolation of U(VI) from uranmicrolite ore tailing samples and industrial effluent samples. U(VI) was sorbed from nitric acid media on the solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) and was recovered completely with 1.0 M HCl. Based upon sorption behavior of U(VI) with Cyanex 302, it was quantitatively sorbed on the SIR in a dynamic method, while the other metal ions were not sorbed by the modified resin. The preparation of impregnated resin is simple, based upon physical interaction of the extractant and solid support, has good sorption capacity for U(VI), and is also reliable for detection of traces of U(VI). (authors)

  10. Bio nitrate Project: a new technology for water nitrate elimination by means of ionic exchange resins; Proyecto Bionitrate: una nueva tecnologia para la eliminacion de nitratos en aguas mediante resinas de intercambio ionico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano Ortiz, J.

    2009-07-01

    The use of ion exchange resins for nitrate elimination from water generates a waste containing a sodium chloride mixture plus the retained nitrates. this waste must be correctly disposed. In this project, the resin ionic form is modified to be regenerated with other compounds, different from the common salt, which are interesting because of the presence of mineral nutrition. So, with Bio nitrate Project, nitrates are recovered and the regeneration waste is apt to be use as fertilizer, for agricultural uses, or as complementary contribution of nutrients in biological water treatment. (Author) 27 refs.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of UPR/ LNR/ Glass Fiber Composite by using Unsaturated Polyester Resin (PET) from PET Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Farhana Hisham; Ishak Ahmad; Rusli Daik

    2011-01-01

    UPR/ LNR/ glass fibre composite had been prepared by using unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) based from recycled PET product. PET waste was recycled by glycolysis process and the glycides product was then reacted with maleic anhydride to produce unsaturated polyester resin. The preparation of UPR/ LNR blends were conducted by varying the amount of LNR addition to the resin ranging from 0-7.5 % (wt). The composition of UPR/LNR blend with good mechanical properties had been selected as a matrix of the glass fiber reinforced composite. Glass fibre was also treated by (3-Amino propil)triethoxysilane as a coupling agent. From the result, the addition of 2.5 % LNR in UPR had showed the optimum mechanical and morphological properties where the elastomer particle's were well dispersed in the matrix with smaller size. The silane treatment on the glass fiber increased the tensile and impact strength values of the UPR/ LNR/ GF composite compared to untreated fiber reinforcement. (author)

  12. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palamarchuk, Marina, E-mail: marina_p@ich.dvo.ru; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to silicate deposits. • Application of RFR substantially increases cesium desorption from an ion-exchanger. • The radwaste volume was reduced at least 2-fold for zeolites and 10-fold for SIER. • The distribution coefficient values for RFR were high (K{sub d} > 10{sup 4}) after 6 regenerations. • The volume of secondary waste formed after regeneration of RFR was reduced 600-fold. - Abstract: The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated.

  13. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to silicate deposits. • Application of RFR substantially increases cesium desorption from an ion-exchanger. • The radwaste volume was reduced at least 2-fold for zeolites and 10-fold for SIER. • The distribution coefficient values for RFR were high (K d > 10 4 ) after 6 regenerations. • The volume of secondary waste formed after regeneration of RFR was reduced 600-fold. - Abstract: The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated.

  14. Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste

  15. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  16. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III

  18. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Vigreux, B.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alphaβgamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alphaβgamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process. 11 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  20. Regeneration to OH{sup -} form of anionic Dowex 1-X8 and Dowex 2-X8 resins as a function of concentration of eluent solution; Regeneracao de resinas anionicas Dowex 1-X8 e Dowex 2-X8 a forma OH{sup -} em funcao da concentracao da solucao eluente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendassolli, Jose Albertino; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuse [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: jbendass@cena.usp.br; pcotrive@pira.cena.usp.br; Carneiro Junior, Francisco [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: fcarneir@unimep.br

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of the present paper was to evaluate the regeneration process of Dowex 1-X8 and Dowex 2-X8, 100-200 mesh anionic resins, from Cl{sup -} to OH{sup -} forms. The efficiency of the regeneration process with different concentrations of the eluent sodium hydroxide solution was determined. (author)

  1. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange process for the separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, K.M.; Penwell, D.L.; Knutson, B.J.

    1994-12-01

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin to remove cesium from Hanford Tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. Process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs are discussed which relate to the process.

  2. Upgrade to Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Technetium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig® 639 Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2013-05-16

    This report documents the development and application of computer models to describe the sorption of pertechnetate [TcO₄⁻], and its surrogate perrhenate [ReO₄⁻], on SuperLig® 639 resin. Two models have been developed: 1) A thermodynamic isotherm model, based on experimental data, that predicts [TcO₄⁻] and [ReO₄⁻] sorption as a function of solution composition and temperature and 2) A column model that uses the isotherm calculated by the first model to simulate the performance of a full-scale sorption process. The isotherm model provides a synthesis of experimental data collected from many different sources to give a best estimate prediction of the behavior of the pertechnetate-SuperLig® 639 system and an estimate of the uncertainty in this prediction. The column model provides a prediction of the expected performance of the plant process by determining the volume of waste solution that can be processed based on process design parameters such as column size, flow rate and resin physical properties.

  3. Separation of palladium from high-level waste using metal ferro cyanide loaded resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsala, T.P.; Joseph, Annie; Yeotikar, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    High-level waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent fuel. HLW contains corrosion products, unextracted actinides, process chemicals and fission products. A recent trend is there to consider waste as a source of wealth. Among the fission products separation and recovery of platinum group metals have gained great attention. HLW is a good source of palladium of the platinum group metal. The present study shows the feasibility of ion exchange separation of Pd from HLW. (author)

  4. Application of supercritical water to decompose brominated epoxy resin and environmental friendly recovery of metals from waste memory module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-02-03

    Waste Memory Modules (WMMs), a particular kind of waste printed circuit board (WPCB), contain a high amount of brominated epoxy resin (BER), which may bring a series of environmental and health problems. On the other hand, metals like gold and copper are very valuable and are important to recover from WMMs. In the present study, an effective and environmental friendly method using supercritical water (SCW) to decompose BER and recover metals from WMMs was developed instead of hydrometallurgy or pyrometallurgy simultaneously. Experiments were conducted under external-catalyst-free conditions with temperatures ranging from 350 to 550 °C, pressures from 25 to 40 MPa, and reaction times from 120 to 360 min in a semibatch-type reactor. The results showed that BER could be quickly and efficiently decomposed under SCW condition, and the mechanism was possibly free radical reaction. After the SCW treatments, the glass fibers and metal foils in the solid residue could be easily liberated and recovered, respectively. The metal recovery rate reached 99.80%. The optimal parameters were determined as 495 °C, 33 MPa, and 305 min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM). This study provides an efficient and environmental friendly approach for WMMs recycling compared with electrolysis, pyrometallurgy, and hydrometallurgy.

  5. Fully-differential spectrophotometry determination of trace thorium in uranium-containing waste water separated by CL-TBP levextrel resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Jiannan

    2000-01-01

    A method for separation by CL-TBP levextrel resin and determination of trace thorium in uranium-containing waste water by fully-differential spectrophotometry is developed. In 4 mol/L HNO 3 medium, in presence of tartaric acid, CL-TBP levextrel resin is used for adsorption of thorium and separating from other elements. The thorium on the resin is stripped by 4 mol/L HCl, with oxalic acid and urea as screening agent, thorium forms red complex with arsenazo III. The maximum absorption of the complex is at 668 nm, and the molar absorptivity is 1.27 x 10 5 L/(mol·cm) . The complex can be steady for 2.5 h. By regulating micro-current of differential spectrophotometry, the method can realize determination with high precision. Sensitivity of this method increase 10 times than usual spectrophotometry. The relative standard deviation is better than +- 5% and recovery of thorium is 99%-107%

  6. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  7. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  8. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  9. Waste water treatment of CO2+O2 in-situ leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Liu Naizhong; Du Zhiming; Wang Hongying

    2012-01-01

    An in-situ leaching uranium mine located in Northern China uses CO 2 +O 2 leaching process to leach uranium. The consumption of industrial reagent and water, and generation and discharge of waste water are minimized by comprehensive waste water treatment technology with process water recycle, reverse osmosis and natural evaporation. The process water of the mine that can be recycled and reused includes barren fluid, solution washing loaded resin, precipitating mother solution and filtered liquor of yellow cake. Solution regenerating barren resin is treated by reverse osmosis. Concentrated water from reverse osmosis and solution washing barren resin are naturally evaporated. (authors)

  10. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Variation in some chemical parameters and organic matter in soils regenerated by the addition of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Costa, F. (Centro de Edafologia y Biologia, Murcia (Spain))

    The organic fraction of a municipal solid waste was added in different doses to an eroded soil formed of loam and with no vegetal cover. After three years, the changes in macronutrient content and the chemical-structural composition of its organic matter were studied. The addition of the organic fraction from a municipal solid waste had a positive effect on soil regeneration, the treated soils being covered with spontaneous vegetation from 1 yr onwards. An increase in electrical conductivity and a fall in pH were noted in the treated soils as were increases in macronutrients, particularly N and available P and the different carbon fractions. Optical density measurements of the organic matter extracted with sodium pyrophosphate showed that the treated soils contained an organic matter with less condensed compounds and with a greater tendency to evolve than the control. A pyrolysis-gas chromatography study of the organic matter extracted with pyrophosphate showed large quantities of benzene both in the treated soils and control; pyrrole was also relatively abundant, although this fragment decreased as the dose rose. Xylenes and pyridine were present in greater quantities in the control and furfural in the treated soils.

  12. ACTIVITY TEST AND REGENERATION OF NiMo/Z CATALYST FOR HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE PLASTIC FRACTION TO GASOLINE FRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Activity test and regeneration of NiMo/active natural zeolite catalyst for hydrocracking of waste plastic fraction of polyprophylene (PP type have been carried out. The catalysts was prepared by loading Mo followed by Ni Metals onto the natural zeolite (Z sample, then calcined at 500oC, oxidized and reduced at 400oC under nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stream, respectively. The characterization of catalysts including spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume were performed by gas sorption analyzer, amount of total acid sites was determined by gas sorption method, and acid site strength was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The hydrocracking process was carried out in a semi-flow reactor system at 360 oC and catalyst:feed ratio 0.5 under hydrogen stream (150 mL/hour. The feed was vaporized from the pyrolisis reactor into the hydrocracking reactor. A liquid product was collected and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. The characterization results showed that spesific surface area, average pore radius, and total pore volume of the Z sample decreased after loading of the Ni and Mo metals. Amount of total acid sites of the NiMo/Z catalyst was higher than that of the Z sample. The activity of NiMo/Z catalyst decreased after several continously runs. Its regeneration produced the NiMo/Z reg catalyst with similar activity and selectivity to the fresh catalyst (NiMo/Z. The activity of catalysts at the optimum condition followed the order of NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (conversion of hydrocarbon C>12 and NiMo/Z reg>NiMo/Z>Z (total yield of gasoline fraction. The selectivity of catalysts for C7-C8 product followed the order of Z>NiMo/Z>NiMo/Z reg. Keywords: activity, polyprophylene, catalyst, gasoline fraction.

  13. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  14. Organic diagenesis in commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry currently faces numerous challenges. Large volumes of already existing wastes must be permanently disposed using environmentally acceptable technologies. Numerous criteria must be addressed before wastes can be permanently disposed. Waste characterization is certainly one of the key criteria for proper waste management. some wastes are complex melting pots of inorganics, radiochemicals, and, occasionally, organics. It is clear, for example, that organics have been used extensively in nuclear operations, such as waste reprocessing, and continue to be used widely as solvents, decontamination agents, etc. The authors have analyzed the organic content of many kinds of nuclear wastes, ranging from commercial to defense wastes. In this paper, the finale analyses are described of three commercial wastes: one waste from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and two wastes from a boiling water reactor (BWR). The PWR waste is a boric acid concentrate waste. The two BWR wastes, BWR wastes Nos. 1 and 2, are evaporator concentrates of liquid wastes produced during the regeneration of ion-exchange resins used to purify reactor process water. In preliminary analyses, which were reported previously, a few know organics and myriad unknowns were detected. Recent reexamination of mass-spectral data, coupled with reanalysis of the wastes, has resulted in the firm identification of the unknowns. Most of the compounds, over thirty distinct organics, are derived from the degradation, or diagenesis, of source-term organics, revealing, for the first time, that organic diagenesis in commercial wastes is both vigorous and varied

  15. Ion exchange removal of chromium (iii) from tannery wastes by using a strong acid cation exchange resin amberlite ir-120 h+ and its hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.

    2014-01-01

    A strong acid cation exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 H+ and its hybrids with Mn(OH)/sub 2/, Cu(OH)/sub 2/ and Fe(OH)/sub 3/ are used for the removal of chromium (III) from spent tannery bath. The experimental data give good fits with the Langmuir sorption model. The thermodynamic parameters entropy (delta S), enthalpy (delta H) and free energy (delta G) changes are computed, which reveal that the chromium removal from tannery wastes by ion exchangers is an endothermic, physical sorption and entropically driven process. The rate of sorption is found to increase with the increase of resin dosage, stirring speed and temperature. Different kinetic models such as film diffusion, particle diffusion and Lagergren pseudo first order are used to evaluate the mechanism of the process. It is found that the hybrid ion exchange resins have better removal capacity as compared to the parent ion exchanger. The increase in the removal capacity is found to be in the order of the corresponding PZC values of the hybrid ion exchangers. Further, it is suggested that the higher exchange capacity is the result of Donnan effect and specific adsorption of chromium by the oxides / hydroxides present inside the matrix of the organic cation exchanger. (author)

  16. Conceptual design for a food production, water and waste processing, and gas regeneration module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, O. W.

    1986-01-01

    During the first six month period, the RECON (Regenerative Concepts Group) team collected reference material, made visits to consult with other researchers, and invited distinguished visitors to speak on the status of closed life support activities. A decision was made to develop the data base and modeling such that artificial intelligence (AI) methods could be used to manipulate data and examine concept alternatives. Six discrete tasks and a project schedule were outlined for the first year. The first two tasks have been essentially completed and have resulted in a sample set of assumptions for general use in defining candidate systems and for the specification of closed system characteristics. To model a closed environment, decisions were necessary to establish the amounts of food, air, water and waste products. Although recognized that data would eventually be normalized on the basis of a single human, the amount of data in existence for four person crews led to the decision to use this as a baseline. Information on existing concepts was collected from NASA sources, from industry, and libraries. Concept modeling was begun, hardware and software obtained, technical tasks identified and experimental work initiated.

  17. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  18. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of used sands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determined dimensions and strength parameters.

  19. Highly-selective and Regenerable Ion Exchange for Perchlorate Remediation, Recovery, and Environmental Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B.; Brown, G.

    2007-12-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) has recently emerged as a widespread contaminant found in drinking water and groundwater supplies in the United States and is known to disrupt thyroid function by inhibiting iodide uptake. Among various treatment technologies, the highly-selective and regenerable ion-exchange technology has recently been developed at ORNL for removing ClO4- from contaminated water. The selective ion exchange technology relies on a unique, highly specific resin to trap ClO4- from contaminated water. The treatment system is then regenerated and perchlorate is destroyed. The reaction that destroys ClO4- produces Cl- and Fe(III) that are used to regenerate the resin, resulting in practically zero secondary waste production. In comparison with conventional non-selective ion-exchange technology, this new treatment process is expected to result in not only a reduced O&M cost but also the elimination of the disposal of hazardous wastes containing perchlorate. Additionally, the selective and regenerable ion exchange technology has allowed the quantitative recovery of perchlorate from contaminated water for reuse, or from other environmental matrices such as sediment, groundwater, and salt deposits for perchlorate isotopic and source identification. Naturally-forming perchlorate has been found to contain distinct oxygen and chlorine isotope signatures or anomalies as compared with anthropogenic perchlorate and can thus provide unambiguous identification of the sources of perchlorate contamination as a powerful tool for the forensics of perchlorate in the environment.

  20. A new technology for separation and recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by dissolving bromine epoxy resins using ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P; Chen, Y; Wang, L Y; Qian, G Y; Zhou, M; Zhou, J

    2012-11-15

    Recovery of valuable materials from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is quite difficult because WPCBs is a heterogeneous mixture of polymer materials, glass fibers, and metals. In this study, WPCBs was treated using ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM+][BF4-]). Experimental results showed that the separation of the solders went to completion, and electronic components (ECs) were removed in WPCBs when [EMIM+][BF4-] solution containing WPCBs was heated to 240 °C. Meanwhile, metallographic observations verified that the WPCBs had an initial delamination. When the temperature increased to 260 °C, the separation of the WPCBs went to completion, and coppers and glass fibers were obtained. The used [EMIM+][BF4-] was treated by water to generate a solid-liquid suspension, which was separated completely to obtain solid residues by filtration. Thermal analyses combined with infrared ray spectra (IR) observed that the solid residues were bromine epoxy resins. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) showed that hydrogen bond played an important role for [EMIM+][BF4-] dissolving bromine epoxy resins. This clean and non-polluting technology offers a new way to recycle valuable materials from WPCBs and prevent environmental pollution from WPCBs effectively. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  2. Statistical Analysis of 3-Point Bending Properties of Polymer Concretes Made From Marble Powder Waste, Sand Grains, and Polyester Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzannache, N.; Bezazi, A.; Bouchelaghem, H.; Boumaaza, M.; Amziane, S.; Scarpa, F.

    2018-01-01

    The mechanical performance of concrete polymer beams subjected to 3-point bending was investigated. The polymer concrete incorporates marble powder waste and quarry sand. The results obtained showed that the type of sand, and amount of marble powder and sand aggregate affected the resistance of the polymer concrete beams significantly. The marble waste increased their bending strength by reducing the porosity of polymer concrete.

  3. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  4. Ion Exchange Studies for Removal of Sulfate from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (241-AN-107) Using SuperLig 655 Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, D.L.; Fiskum, S.K.; Rapko, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    BNFL Inc. is evaluating various pretreatment technologies to mitigate the impacts of sulfate on the LAW vitrification system. One pretreatment technology for separating sulfate from LAW solutions involves the use of SuperLig(reg. sign) 655 (SL-655), a proprietary ion exchange material developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report describes testing of SL-655 with diluted ([Na] approximately 5 M) waste from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division. Batch contact studies were conducted from 4 to 96 hours to determine the sulfate distribution coefficient and reaction kinetics. A small-scale ion exchange column test was conducted to evaluate sulfate removal, loading, breakthrough, and elution from the SL-655. In all of these tests, an archived 241-AN-107 tank waste sample (pretreated to remove Cs, Sr, and transuranics elements) was used. The experimental details and results are described in this report. Under the test conditions, SL-655 was found to have no significant ion exchange affinity for sulfate in this matrix. The batch contact study resulted in no measurable difference in the aqueous sulfate concentration following resin contact (K d ∼ 0). The column test also demonstrated SL-655 had no practical affinity for sulfate in the tested matrix. Within experimental error, the sulfate concentration in the column effluent was equal to the concentration in the feed after passing 3 bed volumes of sample through the columns. Furthermore, some, if not all, of the decreased sulfate concentration in these first three column volumes of effluent can be ascribed to mixing and dilution of the 241-AN-107 feed with the interstitial liquid present in the column at the start of the loading cycle. Finally, ICP-AES measurements on the eluate solutions showed the presence of barium as soon as contact with the feed solution is completed. Barium is a metal not detected in the feed solution. Should the loss of barium be

  5. Performances and improvement of copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenfen; Zhang Hao; Sun Haijun; Liu Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin is tested to examine its performances including effluent water quality and capacity of deoxidisation. By the means of changing the resin type and regeneration, the deoxidising capacity of the resin can be improved to 13 times more than before. At the same time, physical performances of the resin are also greatly improved while maintaining its velocity of deoxidisation and effluent quality. (authors)

  6. Adsorption characteristics of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine in the extract of waste tea on macroporous adsorption resins functionalized with chloromethyl, amino, and phenylamino groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Bai, Qingqing; Lou, Song; Di, Duolong; Li, Jintian; Guo, Mei

    2012-02-15

    According to the Friedel-Crafts and amination reaction, a series of macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) with novel structures were synthesized and identified by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and corresponding adsorption behaviors for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine (CAF) extracted from waste tea were systemically investigated. Based on evaluation of adsorption kinetics, the kinetic data were well fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetics. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin-Pyzhev, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms were selected to illustrate the adsorption process of EGCG and CAF on the MARs. Thermodynamic parameters were adopted to explain in-depth information of inherent energetic changes associated with the adsorption process. The effect of temperature on EGCG and CAF adsorption by D101-3 was further expounded. Van der Waals force, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction were the main driving forces for the adsorption of EGCG and CAF on the MARs. This study might provide a scientific reference point to aid the industrial large-scale separation and enrichment of EGCG from the extracts of waste tea using modified MARs.

  7. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: A potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Teng, E-mail: zhangteng@mail.iee.ac.cn; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Sulfonated magnetic microsphere was prepared as one strong acid cation-exchange resin. • Cd and Te can be removed directly from the highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. • Good chemical stability, fast adsorbing rate and quick magnetic separation in strong acidic media. • A potential path for recycling CdTe photovoltaic waste. - Abstract: Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste.

  8. Concentrations and environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks and accumulation in sludge, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Jacobsen, Eric; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Parsa, Bahman

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of Ra in liquid and solid wastes generated from 15 softeners treating domestic well waters from New Jersey Coastal Plain aquifers (where combined Ra ( 226 Ra plus 228 Ra) concentrations commonly exceed 0.185 Bq L -1 ) were determined. Softeners, when maintained, reduced combined Ra about 10-fold ( -1 ). Combined Ra exceeded 0.185 Bq L -1 at 1 non-maintained system. Combined Ra was enriched in regeneration brine waste (maximum, 81.2 Bq L -1 ), but concentrations in septic-tank effluents receiving brine waste were less than in the untreated ground waters. The maximum combined Ra concentration in aquifer sands (40.7 Bq kg -1 dry weight) was less than that in sludge from the septic tanks (range, 84-363 Bq kg -1 ), indicating Ra accumulation in sludge from effluent. The combined Ra concentration in sludge from the homeowners' septic systems falls within the range reported for sludge samples from publicly owned treatment works within the region

  9. Advanced degradation of brominated epoxy resin and simultaneous transformation of glass fiber from waste printed circuit boards by improved supercritical water oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2016-10-01

    This work investigated various supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) systems, i.e. SCWO1 (only water), SCWO2 (water+H2O2) and SCWO3 (water+H2O2/NaOH), for waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) detoxification and recycling. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the operating conditions of the optimal SCWO3 systems. The optimal reaction conditions for debromination were found to be the NaOH of 0.21g, the H2O2 volume of 9.04mL, the time of 39.7min, maximum debromination efficiency of 95.14%. Variance analysis indicated that the factors influencing debromination efficiency was in the sequence of NaOH>H2O2>time. Mechanism studies indicated that the dissociated ions from NaOH in supercritical water promoted the debromination of brominated epoxy resins (BERs) through an elimination reaction and nucleophilic substitution. HO2, produced by H2O2 could induce the oxidation of phenol ring to open (intermediates of BERs), which were thoroughly degraded to form hydrocarbons, CO2, H2O and NaBr. In addition, the alkali-silica reaction between OH(-) and SiO2 induced the phase transformation of glass fibers, which were simultaneously converted into anorthite and albite. Waste PCBs in H2O2/NaOH improved SCWO system were fully degraded into useful products and simultaneously transformed into functional materials. These findings are helpful for efficient recycling of waste PCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  11. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamińska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

  12. Environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA: migration to the water table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Jacobsen, Eric; Kraemer, Thomas F; Parsa, Bahman

    2010-01-01

    Fate of radium (Ra) in liquid regeneration brine wastes from water softeners disposed to septic tanks in the New Jersey Coastal Plain was studied. Before treatment, combined Ra ((226)Ra plus (228)Ra) concentrations (maximum, 1.54 Bq L(-1)) exceeded the 0.185 Bq L(-1) Maximum Contaminant Level in 4 of 10 studied domestic-well waters (median pH, 4.90). At the water table downgradient from leachfields, combined Ra concentrations were low (commonly 5.3, indicating sequestration; when pH was synoptic sampling of effluents and ground waters, and large uncertainties associated with analytical methods. The trend of Ra mobilization in acidic environments does match observations from regional water-quality assessments.

  13. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  14. Retention of phosphorous ions on natural and engineered waste pumice: Characterization, equilibrium, competing ions, regeneration, kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimaian, Kamal Aldin [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sannandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amrane, Abdeltif [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, Université Rennes 1, CNRS, UMR 6226, Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Kazemian, Hossein [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London, ON, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Panahi, Reza [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarrabi, Mansur, E-mail: mansor62@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Natural and Mg{sup 2+} modified pumice were used for the removal of phosphorous. The adsorbents were characterized using XRF, XRD, SEM and FTIR instrumental techniques. In the optimal conditions, namely at equilibrium time (30 min), for a phosphorus concentration of 15 mg/L and pH 6, 69 and 97% phosphorus removals were achieved using 10 g/L of natural and modified pumice adsorbents, respectively. Maximum adsorption capacities were 11.88 and 17.71 mg/g by natural and modified pumice, respectively. Pseudo-second order kinetic model was the most relevant to describe the kinetic of phosphorus adsorption. External mass transfer coefficient decreased for increasing phosphorous concentration and film diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step. Only a very low dissolution of the adsorbent was observed, leading to a low increase in conductivity and turbidity. Removal efficiency decreased for increasing ionic strength. It also decreased in the presence of competing ions; however modified pumice remained effective, since 67% of phosphorus was removed, versus only 17% for the natural pumice. The efficiency of the modified pumice was confirmed during the regeneration tests, since 96% regeneration yield was obtained after 510 min experiment, while only 22% was observed for the raw pumice.

  15. TECHNOLOGY MATURATION PLAN FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    This Technology Maturation Plan schedules the development process that will bring the Lithium Hydrotalcite waste pretreatment process from its current estimated Technology Readiness Level of 3, to a level of 6. This maturation approach involves chemical and engineering research and development work, from laboratory scale to pilot scale testing, to incrementally make the process progress towards its integration in a fully qualified industrial system.

  16. Technology Maturation Plan For Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Guillot, S.

    2011-01-01

    This Technology Maturation Plan schedules the development process that will bring the Lithium Hydrotalcite waste pretreatment process from its current estimated Technology Readiness Level of 3, to a level of 6. This maturation approach involves chemical and engineering research and development work, from laboratory scale to pilot scale testing, to incrementally make the process progress towards its integration in a fully qualified industrial system.

  17. Radioactive waste source volume reduction by improving water chemistry control of the condensate purification system in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, C.; Yoshikawa, S.; Ohsumi, K.; Mizuniwa, F.; Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, K.; Usui, N.; Aizawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of reducing the volume of radioactive waste which was applied to the BWRs in nuclear power stations. The goals for reducing waste are iron crud reduction at the inlet of the condensate prefilters and to attain the same years use of condensate resin as a preceding plant without chemical regeneration, based on improved water chemistry. The volume of radioactive waste from the condensate purification system decreased by about one half for the condensate prefilters and about one tenth for the condensate demineralizers

  18. Thermally Regenerable Ion Exchange Resins, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Exploration Initiative missions will require substantial reductions in ESM for water processing hardware. Significant reductions can be achieved using water...

  19. Thermally Regenerable Ion Exchange Resins Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Exploration Initiative missions will require substantial reductions in ESM for water processing hardware. Significant reductions can be achieved using water...

  20. Microbiological study of water-softener resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, J M; Engelhard, W E; Parsons, J E

    1969-09-01

    Microbial identification using effluents backflushed from exhausted urban and rural tank resins and cleaned resins containing the sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene (SDB) were completed, along with microbial assessment of the concentrated stock salt brine. Forty-four different bacterial and fungal genera were identified. Extensive biochemical and animal virulence tests completed on one of the six bacterial salt brine isolates indicated a pathogenic staphylococcal strain. The retention of Staphylococcus aureus, a Flavobacterium sp, and Escherichia coli B bacteriophage was demonstrated both by using the nonexhausted sodium-regenerated resin and by using the same resin exchanged with different mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Effluent counts completed after bacterial seepage through the resins indicated the Pb(++) exchanged resin removed 55% of the bacteria; Na(+), Fe(++), and Al(+++) removed 31 to 36% and Ca(++) and Cu(++) removed about 10 to 15%. Seventy per cent or more of the bacteriophage was removed by Fe(++), Cu(++), and Al(+++), whereas the Ca(++) and Na(++) cations removed 25 to 31%. Over a 77-day period, nonsterile tap water was passed through bacterial seeded and uninoculated SDB (Na) resin columns. Effluent and resin elution counts demonstrated the growth and survival of 2 different bacteria per column. Increased bacterial retention, survival, and multiplication occurred concomitantly with accumulation of organic and inorganic materials and the Ca(++) and Mg(++) cations from the tap water. Furthermore, microbial elution from resin particles taken from column depths of 1, 8, and 16 cm indicated a bacterial diminution with increasing depths.

  1. Method of solidifying radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masahiko; Kira, Satoshi; Watanabe, Naotoshi; Nagaoka, Takeshi; Akane, Junta.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain solidification products of radioactive wastes having sufficient monoaxial compression strength and excellent in water durability upon ocean disposal of the wastes. Method: Solidification products having sufficient strength and filled with a great amount of radioactive wastes are obtained by filling and solidifying 100 parts by weight of chlorinated polyethylene resin and 100 - 500 parts by weight of particular or powderous spent ion exchange resin as radioactive wastes. The chlorinated polyethylene resin preferably used herein is prepared by chlorinating powderous or particulate polyethylene resin in an aqueous suspending medium or by chlorinating polyethylene resin dissolved in an organic solvent capable of dissolving the polyethylene resin, and it is crystalline or non-crystalline chlorinated polyethylene resin comprising 20 - 50% by weight of chlorine, non-crystalline resin with 25 - 40% by weight of chlorine being particularly preferred. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  3. Method of controlling radioactive waste processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikawa, Hiroji; Sato, Takao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the pellet production amount, maximize the working life of a solidifying device and maintaining the mechanical strength of pellets to a predetermined value irrespective of the type and the cycle of occurrence of the secondary waste in the secondary waste solidifying device for radioactive waste processing systems in nuclear power plants. Method: Forecasting periods for the type, production amount and radioactivity level of the secondary wastes are determined in input/output devices connected to a control system and resulted signals are sent to computing elements. The computing elements forecast the production amount of regenerated liquid wastes after predetermined days based on the running conditions of a condensate desalter and the production amounts of filter sludges and liquid resin wastes after predetermined days based on the liquid waste processing amount or the like in a processing device respectively. Then, the mass balance between the type and the amount of the secondary wastes presently stored in a tank are calculated and the composition and concentration for the processing liquid are set so as to obtain predetermined values for the strength of pellets that can be dried to solidify, the working life of the solidifying device itself and the radioactivity level of the pellets. Thereafter, the running conditions for the solidifying device are determined so as to maximize the working life of the solidifying device. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  6. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  7. Liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  8. Selective extraction of vanadium from the APV-precipitated waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui; Li, Hong-Yi; Tu, Chun-Bin; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Hai-Xing; Xie, Bing

    In the process of precipitating ammonium polyvanadate (APV) to produce vanadium pentoxide in Pan-steel in China, rest waste water usually contains about 24 333mg/L V(V), 2 100g/L Cr(VI),20 500mg/L Si(IV) and 20 100g/L Na2SO4. In order to recover valuable and also toxic metal ions contained in the waste water, effective extraction method of using anion exchange resin was realized to extract Vanadium selectively, leading to effective separation between vanadium and chromium. To ensure vanadium was absorbed by the resin, V(V) and Cr(VI) were reduced to V(IV) and Cr(III) by NaHSO3, respectively, and then V(IV) was oxidized by H2O2 to V(V) anions. Effects of temperature, solution pH, concentration of ions and absorbing time on vanadium absorption rate were investigated. Chromium was precipitated from rest solution while vanadium was eluted from resin by NaOH solution and then precipitated. Results showed that vanadium recovery of 73% could be obtained in optimized condition. The resin could be regenerated by 3% hydrochloric acid, which indicated the recyclability of the resin and thus low cost of this established method.

  9. Resin-based preparation of HTGR fuels: operation of an engineering-scale uranium loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The fuel particles for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared from uranium-loaded carboxylic acid ion exchange resins which are subsequently carbonized, converted, and refabricated. The development and operation of individual items of equipment and of an integrated system are described for the resin-loading part of the process. This engineering-scale system was full scale with respect to a hot demonstration facility, but was operated with natural uranium. The feed uranium, which consisted of uranyl nitrate solution containing excess nitric acid, was loaded by exchange with resin in the hydrogen form. In order to obtain high loadings, the uranyl nitrate must be acid deficient; therefore, nitric acid was extracted by a liquid organic amine which was regenerated to discharge a NaNO 3 or NH 4 NO 3 solution waste. Water was removed from the uranyl nitrate solution by an evaporator that yielded condensate containing less than 0.5 ppM of uranium. The uranium-loaded resin was washed with condensate and dried to a controlled water content via microwave heating. The loading process was controlled via in-line measurements of the pH and density of the uranyl nitrate. The demonstrated capacity was 1 kg of uranium per hour for either batch loading contractors or a continuous column as the resin loading contractor. Fifty-four batch loading runs were made without a single failure of the process outlined in the chemical flowsheet or any evidence of inability to control the conditions dictated by the flowsheet

  10. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  11. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond Ng; Jimmy C. M. Hsiao; Keith C. T. Tong; Harry Kim; Yanjie Mai; Keith H. S. Chan

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin ...

  12. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  13. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute's anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

  14. Resin Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    to see plastic deformation of the surface. 8.1.4.3 Density: Density using the Archimedes principle (ASTM D 792). 8.1.4.4 Density as a Function of...the cure and postcure, quickly cool the sample to 0 °C or lower the temperature to quench the reaction, and then ramp the temperature at 5 °C/min to...prepared by pouring 10 g of resin into a 30-mL screw-cap scintillation vial and adding appropriate amounts of initiator, catalyst, and inhibitor

  15. Effect of catalytic curing agents on the epoxy matrices for immobilization of sodium sulphate bearing ILW waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lal, K.B.; Amalraj, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory scale studies, on the incorporating of sodium sulfate bearing Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) generated during regeneration of spent ion-exchange resins in the nuclear fuel cycle, in epoxy resins, were carried out. The matrices were prepared by loading different amounts of sodium sulfate on epoxy resins and curing them with such catalytic curing agents as N, N-dimethylbenzylamine (BDMA) and 2,4,6-tris(dimethylaminomethyl) phenol (Tris Phenol). The epoxy matrices were subjected to compressive strength and water resistance tests and their values were compared with those of commercial epoxy matrix (Araldite). The compressive strength of the epoxy matrix prepared using BDMA as a hardener was observed to be 38 Mpa and the diffusion coefficients were two orders lower than the other matrices. (author). 4 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs

  16. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-01-01

    Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

  17. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from wasted ionic exchange resins kept at Area de Gestion Ezeiza belonging to RA-3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera Rodriguez, Leon; Pizarro, Ramon A.

    2009-01-01

    A spent ionic exchange resin kept at Area de Gannet's Ezeiza (Age), belonging to RA-3 Reactor, was treated with sterile water. Microorganisms suspended in the aqueous sample were isolated by several methods, broadening as much as possible cell recovery conditions. Bacteria were subject to purity controls and re-isolation when necessary. Characterization of the strains found in the sample included morphological, physiological and biochemical tests as well as stains. Being the spent resins volume reduction at Age the main purpose, a screening experiment is proposed based on bacteria capability to take carbon from the sediment present in the liquid sample. Recovered bacteria are at least the following: Method I: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas sp. Method II: Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Flavimonas sp., Agrobacterium sp. Method III: Bacillus circulans, Bacillus sphaericus, Kocuria rosea, Kytococcus sedentarius, Pseudomonas acidovorans. Microorganisms present in the sample are characteristic of those having low microbiological-contamination levels. Way III is an isolation method whose design would lead to find bacteria having the desired properties in order to diminish the volume of RA-3 Reactor spent resins. (author)

  18. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  19. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-12-31

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute`s anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins` performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

  20. Method of solidifying radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Mihara, Shigeru; Yamashita, Koji; Sauda, Kenzo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain satisfactory plastic solidification products rapidly and more conveniently from radioactive wastes. Method: liquid wastes contain, in addition to sodium sulfate as the main ingredient, nitrates hindering the polymerizing curing reactions and various other unknown ingredients, while spent resins contain residual cationic exchange groups hindering the polymerizing reaction. Generally, as the acid value of unsaturated liquid polyester resins is lower, the number of terminal alkyd resins is small, formation of nitrates is reduced and the polymerizing curing reaction is taken place more smoothly. In view of the above, radioactive wastes obtained by dry powderization or dehydration of radioactive liquid wastes or spent resins are polymerized with unsaturated liquid polyester resins with the acid value of less than 13 to obtain plastic solidification. Thus, if the radioactive wastes contain a great amount of polymerization hindering material such as NaNO 2 , they can be solidified rapidly and conveniently with no requirement for pre-treatment. (Kamimura, Y.)

  1. Uso de resíduo industrial a base de resina fenólica como carga para o polipropileno Use of industrial waste based on phenolic resin as filler for polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P. Cavalcante

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a viabilidade técnica do uso de resíduo industrial composto de resina fenólica, lignocelulose, carbonato de cálcio, talco, mica e negro de fumo como carga para o polipropileno (PP. Compósitos de PP com 10, 15 e 20% em massa do resíduo foram processados em extrusora de rosca dupla e moldados por injeção. Os compósitos moldados foram caracterizados por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, análises térmicas (DSC e TGA, ensaios mecânicos (tração, flexão e impacto e ensaio termo-mecânico (HDT. Os compósitos moldados apresentaram partículas do resíduo com tamanhos inferiores a 500 µm dispersas na matriz de polipropileno. As partículas do resíduo atuaram como agentes de nucleação da cristalização do PP. Os compósitos apresentaram maior resistência à degradação térmica, balanço de rigidez e resistência com aumento do módulo sob flexão e diminuição da resistência à tração, manutenção da resistência ao impacto sob entalhe, e aumento da temperatura de distorção ao calor (HDT. O desempenho dos compósitos demonstrou que o resíduo industrial de resina fenólica pode ser empregado como carga funcional para o PP. Além disso, os compósitos desenvolvidos representam uma alternativa para a reciclagem do resíduo industrial de resina fenólica.The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using industrial waste composed of phenolic resin, lignocellulose, calcium carbonate, talc, mica and carbon black as filler for polypropylene (PP. Composites of PP with 10, 15 and 20 wt% of the waste were processed in a twin-screw extruder followed by injection molding. Molded composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal analyses (DSC and TGA, mechanical tests (tensile, flexural and impact and thermo-mechanical test (HDT. The composites showed residue particles with sizes less than 500 µm dispersed in the PP matrix. The residue particles

  2. Periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, S

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the tissues destroyed as a result of periodontal disease. Currently, two clinical techniques, based on the principles of "guided tissue regeneration" (GTR) or utilization of the biologically active agent "enamel matrix derivative" (EMD), can be used for the regeneration of intrabony and Class II mandibular furcation periodontal defects. In cases where additional support and space-making requirements are necessary, both of these procedures can be combined with a bone replacement graft. There is no evidence that the combined use of GTR and EMD results in superior clinical results compared to the use of each material in isolation. Great variability in clinical outcomes has been reported in relation to the use of both EMD and GTR, and these procedures can be generally considered to be unpredictable. Careful case selection and treatment planning, including consideration of patient, tooth, site and surgical factors, is required in order to optimize the outcomes of treatment. There are limited data available for the clinical effectiveness of other biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and platelet concentrates, and although promising results have been reported, further clinical trials are required in order to confirm their effectiveness. Current active areas of research are centred on tissue engineering and gene therapy strategies which may result in more predictable regenerative outcomes in the future.

  3. Processing of exhausted resins for Trino NPP,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuto, F.; Bitetti, G.; Maggini, F.; Scarsi, G.

    2009-01-01

    Decomposition of organic compounds contained in the spent ion exchange resins is considered effective in reducing the waste volume. A system using the wet-oxidation process has been studied for the treatment of the spent resins stored at Trino Nuclear Power Plant owned by SOGIN. Compared with various processes for treating sludge and resin, the wet-oxidation system is rather simple and the process conditions are mild. Not contaminated ion exchange resin samples similar to those ones used in Trino NPP were processed by wet-oxidation and appropriate decomposition of the organic compounds was verified. After decomposition the residue can be solidified with cement for final disposal. When compared with direct solidification without decomposition, the number of waste packages can be significantly reduced. Additional measures for conditioning secondary waste products have also been studied, and their applicability to the Trino Nuclear Power Plant was verified. Some of conditions studied were specific to the Trino Nuclear Power Plant, but it is expected that the system will provide an effective solution for resin treatment at other Italian NPPs. (authors)

  4. Sustainable nitrate-contaminated water treatment using multi cycle ion-exchange/bioregeneration of nitrate selective resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Roberts, Deborah J

    2013-11-15

    The sustainability of ion-exchange treatment processes using high capacity single use resins to remove nitrate from contaminated drinking water can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin and reusing it multiple times. In this study, multi cycle loading and bioregeneration of tributylamine strong base anion (SBA) exchange resin was studied. After each cycle of exhaustion, biological regeneration of the resin was performed using a salt-tolerant, nitrate-perchlorate-reducing culture for 48 h. The resin was enclosed in a membrane to avoid direct contact of the resin with the culture. The results show that the culture was capable of regenerating the resin and allowing the resin to be used in multiple cycles. The concentrations of nitrate in the samples reached a peak in first 0.5-1h after placing the resin in medium because of desorption of nitrate from resin with desorption rate of 0.099 ± 0.003 hr(-1). After this time, since microorganisms began to degrade the nitrate in the aqueous phase, the nitrate concentration was generally non-detectable after 10h. The average of calculated specific degradation rate of nitrate was -0.015 mg NO3(-)/mg VSS h. Applying 6 cycles of resin exhaustion/regeneration shows resin can be used for 4 cycles without a loss of capacity, after 6 cycles only 6% of the capacity was lost. This is the first published research to examine the direct regeneration of a resin enclosed in a membrane, to allow reuse without any disinfection or cleaning procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Ng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  6. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Keith H. S.; Mai, Yanjie; Kim, Harry; Tong, Keith C. T.; Ng, Desmond; Hsiao, Jimmy C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  7. Experience in waste drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, R.E.; Temus, C.J.; Hillstrom, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Ion exchange resins, filter media and sludges are currently either dewatered or solidified for stabilization, prior to disposal at a low level waste facility. Nuclear Packaging developed the Resin Drying System and placed it into commercial service to provide a system which meets the regulatory requirements for free standing water with a relatively short process duration, requiring no chemical or material addition and utilizing more volume efficient containers than were previously available. The Resin Drying System has proven to be a very cost effective, efficient and secure means of processing low level radioactive waste for many utilities in the United States

  8. Leaching of 60 Co and 137 Cs from spent ion exchange resins in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cement; radioactive waste; composite; waste management. Abstract. The leaching rate of 60Co and 137Cs from the spent cation exchange resins in cement–bentonite matrix has been studied. The solidification matrix was a standard Portland cement mixed with 290–350 (kg/m3) spent cation exchange resins, with or ...

  9. Aluminum Removal And Sodium Hydroxide Regeneration From Hanford Tank Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation Summary Of Prior Lab-Scale Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Guillot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  10. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  11. The use of regeneration profiles as a tool to optimise the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-10-04

    Oct 4, 2003 ... change in the structure of the solid. At the start of a service cycle the predominant ionic ..... The reason for these changes was to remove as many of the hardness salts exchanged by the WAC resin as ... higher average top acid strength for the 2nd regeneration of 0.6%, against 0.5% for the 1st regeneration.

  12. Feasible modifications for the low-level waste treatment plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chilton, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Aqueous, low-level, radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain small amounts of /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides. These wastes are processed by passage through beds of a strong-acid cation exchange resin, and the treated water is then discharged to the environment. Studies show that pretreatment of the waste with a weak-acid cation exchange resin would result in a significant decrease in regeneration reagents and a saving of manpower. This can be accomplished in the present plant by piping changes on the existing columns. The effluent from the cation treatment process contains all of the radionuclides that are present in anionic form. Routinely, this consists only of approximately one-half of the /sup 60/Co. Under certain conditions, other anions (such as /sup 131/I) could be present. Studies show that these can be removed by use of an anion exchange resin bed at the end of the process. This would require the construction of an additional column, if the head-end treatment described above is also installed. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Mechanisms of Cardiac Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Aysu; Lee, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Adult humans fail to regenerate their hearts following injury, and this failure to regenerate myocardium is a leading cause of heart failure and death worldwide. Although all adult mammals appear to lack significant cardiac regeneration potential, some vertebrates can regenerate myocardium throughout life. In addition, new studies indicate that mammals have cardiac regeneration potential during development and very soon after birth. The mechanisms of heart regeneration among model organisms, including neonatal mice, appear remarkably similar. Orchestrated waves of inflammation, matrix deposition and remodeling, and cardiomyocyte proliferation are commonly seen in heart regeneration models. Understanding why adult mammals develop extensive scarring instead of regeneration is a crucial goal for regenerative biology. PMID:26906733

  14. Utilization of waste product (tamarind seeds) for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions: equilibrium, kinetics, and regeneration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suresh; Babu, B V

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, an adsorbent was prepared from tamarind seeds and used after activation for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The tamarind seeds were activated by treating them with concentrated sulfuric acid (98% w/w) at a temperature of 150 degrees C. The adsorption of Cr(VI) was found to be maximum at low values of initial pH in the range of 1-3. The adsorption process of Cr(VI) was tested with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Koble-Corrigan, Tempkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Generalized isotherm models. Application of the Langmuir isotherm to the system yielded a maximum adsorption capacity of 29.7 mg/g at an equilibrium pH value ranging from 1.12 to 1.46. The adsorption process followed second-order kinetics and the corresponding rate constants obtained were 2.605 x 10(-3), 0.818 x 10(-3), 0.557 x 10(-3) and 0.811 x 10(-3) g/mg min(-1) for 50, 200, 300 and 400 mg/L of initial Cr(VI) concentration, respectively. The regenerated activated tamarind seeds showed more than 95% Cr(VI) removal of that obtained using the fresh activated tamarind seeds. A feasible solution is proposed for the disposal of the contaminants (acid and base solutions) containing high concentrations of Cr(VI) obtained during the regeneration (desorption) process.

  15. Carbon-14 removal for disposal of reactor deionizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Baumann, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    Disposal of depleted ion exchange resins from the primary system of the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors is complicated by the presence of Carbon-14. Because Carbon-14 has a long half-life (5,730 years) and high mobility in soils, burial of the resins is no longer a viable option. Consequently some 35 spent reactor deionizers have accumulated that are to be stored aboveground in H-Area for an indefinite period. Spent deionizers containing Carbon-14 will continue to accumulate with operation of the present production reactors and would also accumulate from the proposed heavy water new production reactor. Removal of the Carbon-14 from the resins would reduce the volume of Carbon-14 bearing waste and enable the resins to be disposed of as low-level waste. Studies at SRS have indicated that the Carbon-14 from reactor primary coolant is mostly retained by the resins as the bicarbonate anion. Thus Carbon-14 removal might be accomplished by an acidification operation with trapping of the carbon dioxide released, for separate disposal. Conversion of the bicarbonate from the resin to barium carbonate, for example, would reduce the volume of waste more than a hundredfold. Displacement and recovery of Carbon-14 dioxide from reactor coolant deionizers by acid treatment has been reported by the Canadians. This memorandum recommends that a process be developed for Carbon-14 dioxide removal from SRS spent reactor deionizer resins, drawing on the Canadian experience

  16. Sequestration Resins for Accelerating Removal of Radioactive Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattini, Paul-L.; Wells, Daniel-M.; Garcia, Susan-E.; Richard, Kohlmann; Asay, Roger; Yengoyan, Leon

    2012-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is developing sequestration resins that can be used in the treatment of nuclear plant water streams for the enhanced removal of ionic cobalt. EPRI is focusing on three key areas of success: 1. Plant safety. The resins that are synthesized must be fully tested to determine that no leachable species or decomposition products (in the event of a resin bed failure) would be introduced to the plant. 2. Acceptable system performance. The resins are currently being synthesized in a powdered form for use in the reactor water clean-up and fuel pool clean-up systems that utilize pre-coatable filter elements. The resins must have effective flocking behavior; uniform application over the underlay resin and efficient removal from the septa elements after use. Bead type resins are also under development. 3. Enhanced cobalt removal. The resins are expected to out-perform the currently used ion exchange resins in the removal of ionic cobalt. During nuclear plant maintenance or refueling outages, current ion exchange resins may require several days to reduce concentrations of cobalt (for example, radio-cobalt 60 Co and 58 Co) and other activated corrosion products to safe levels in reactor coolant streams. This performance limitation often delays key maintenance activities. EPRI's resins are expected to provide at least a three-fold increase in removal capacity in light water reactor coolants. These resins also offer the potential for higher overall removal efficiencies reducing occupational exposures and waste management costs. This paper addresses issues from the range of novel resin development for radio-cobalt removal from synthesis at the bench-top level through scale-up to demonstration of use in an actual operating nuclear power plant. (authors)

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Radionuclide for the Used Resin of the Primary Purification System in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun; Kim, Myong Seop; Park, Se Il; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Chil

    2005-01-01

    In HANARO, a 30 MW research reactor, the ion exchange resin has been used for the purification of the primary coolant system. The resin used in the primary coolant purification system is replaced with new one once every 3 months during 30 MW reactor operation. The extracted resin from the primary coolant purification system is temporarily stored in a shielding treatment of the reactor hall for radiation cooling. After the radiation level of resin decreases enough to be handled for the waste disposal, it is put into the waste drum, and delivered to the waste facility in KAERI. Recently, in this procedure, the quantitative analysis of radionuclide which is contained in resin is required to have more quantitative data for the disposal. Therefore, in this work, a preliminary study was performed to find a sampling method for the representation of the characteristics of radionuclide in the spent resin

  18. Anoxic selectors with regeneration in activated sludge waste water treatment processes; Selectores anoxicos con regeneracion en procesos de depuracion de aguas residuales por fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho Seuma, L.; Lopetigue Garnica, J.; Paredes, J.A.; Alonso, E.; Plaza, F.I.; Diaz chozas, M.

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a reduction in the concentration of filamentous bulking or foaming related microorganisms, such as usually appear in connection with nutrient elimination processes, where sludge retention times are high and loads are small. The Research Institute Centa has established, annexed to the sewage treatment plant Norte I. Seville, a pilot plant with the classical DN layout, and an anoxic selector, as well as a regeneration tank . This tank is meant to eliminate the remaining substratum associated with the cells after being settled in a high-concentration environment the selector. We endeavor therefore to select by kinetic and metabolic procedures the flock formers microorganisms to the expense of the filamentous microorganisms. (Author)

  19. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date

  20. Effect of the chemical structure of anion exchange resin on the adsorption of humic acid: behavior and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Jun; Li, Haibo; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrenic (PS) anion-exchange resin and polyacrylic (PA) anion-exchange resin were used to investigate the effect of resin chemical structure on the adsorption of humic acid (HA). Due to the rearrangement of HA to form layers that function as barricades to further HA diffusion, PS resin exhibited 12.4 times slower kinetics for the initial adsorption rate and 8.4 times for the diffusion constant in comparison to that of the PA resin. An HA layer and a spherical cluster of HA can be observed on the surface of the PS and PA resins after adsorption, respectively. The considerable difference in HA adsorption between the PS and PA resins was due to the difference in molecule shape for interaction with different resin structures, which can essentially be explained by the hydrophobicity and various interactions of the PS resin. A given amount of HA occupies more positively charged sites and hydrophobic sites on the PS resin than were occupied by the same amount of HA on the PA resin. Increased pH resulted in an increase of HA adsorption onto the PA resin but a decrease in adsorption onto PS resin, as the non-electrostatic adsorption led to electrostatic repulsion between the HA attached to the resin and the HA dissolved in solution. These results suggest higher rates of adsorption and higher regeneration efficiency for interaction of HA with more hydrophilic anion exchange materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Particleboard from Waste Styrofoam and Sawdust

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    ABSTRACT: The use of Plastic Based Resin (PBR) synthesised from waste Styrofoam as binder in the production of particleboard was ... A208.1 standards. KEYWORDS: styrofoam waste, plastic-based resin, particleboard, sawdust waste, curing. .... C1 reduced from 188.6 to 182.2 g in 7 days of curing; the C2 mass reduced ...

  2. Effects of Resin Refining on the Chemical and Physical Stability of Sardine Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Irianto, Hari Eko

    2014-01-01

    The effect of resin refining on the stability of sardine oil was studied. Fish canning waste oil and fish meal processing waste oil were used in the experiment. The oils were refined by passing through the resin packed column at fish oil and resin ration of 1 : 1.            The fish oil stability was investigated using Schaal oven method by placing the oil in an oven at 63 ± 2oC and the sample was withdrawn after 0, 2, 4, 7 and 11 days. Resin refining improved fish oil quality as indicated b...

  3. Integration of adsorption and direct bio-reduction of perchlorate on surface of cotton stalk based resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhongfei; Xu, Xing; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Song, Wen

    2015-12-01

    In this work, perchlorate was first adsorbed by the cotton stalk based resin (CS-resin) and then the laden perchlorate was directly reduced by mixed perchlorate reduction bacteria (PRB) on surface of CS-resin. The characteristics of cotton stalk, clean CS-resin, perchlorate-laden CS-resin and bio-regenerated CS-resin were evaluated by XPS, FT-IR, SEM, zeta potential measurements. All characteristics showed clearly that (i) adsorption mechanism of perchlorate onto CS-resin was based on electrostatic attraction; (ii) biological destruction of laden perchlorate was effective for bio-regenerating the saturated CS-resin. The experimental adsorption capacities (Qexp) of perchlorate by CS-resin achieved at equilibrium condition was about 138.9 mg/g. Reduction rate of laden perchlorate on surface of CS-resin were about 2.12, 1.67, 0.032 and 0.009 mg/g(CS-resin)/d for initial redox potentials poised at -193, -70, +169, and +363 mV, respectively. This indicated that the rapid reduction of laden perchlorate may occur only when conditions were present to cause a low Eh. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Immobilisation Of Spent Ion Exchange Resins Using Portland Cement Blending With Organic Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Mohd Abdul Wahab; Nur Azna Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    Immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins (spent resins) using Portland cement blending with organic material for example bio char was investigated. The performance of cement-bio char matrix for immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins was evaluated based on their compression strength and leachability under different experimental conditions. The results showed that the amount of bio char and spent resins loading effect the compressive strength of the waste form. Several factors affecting the leaching behaviour of immobilised spent resins in cement-bio char matrix. (author)

  5. Evaluation of matrices for immobilizing ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Speranzini, R.A.

    1980-07-01

    Ion exchange resins make up a significant fraction of the volume of radioactive wastes generated during the operation of CANDU-PHW nuclear power stations. Since permanent disposal will eventually be required for these contaminated ion-exchange resins, some way to reduce their volume and to immobilize their radionuclides is required. An evaluation of the processes for immobilizing contaminated ion exchange resins directly into glasses, plastics, bitumens and cements is reported here. Releases of Cs-137, Co-60 and C-14 in leach testss were found to be lowest for bitumen followed by glasses, plastics and cements. Approximately 8% of the C-14 inventory on the ion-exchange resins is released into the off-gas system during glass formation and could limit use of this option. A pyrolysis method for a three-fold reduction in the volume of used ion-exchange resins is described. (auth)

  6. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.

    1983-07-01

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m 3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  7. Study and application on lean resin converting in uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shaoxi; Huang Qijin; Zhu Shuguang; Yi Faqing; Du Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    The field test about sulphuric acid used to convert lean resin was finished. The results indicated sulphuric acid could replace chlorin in lean resin and could be reclaimed to desorption procedure. The consumption of NaCl decreased, the chlorin concentration of tailing decreased too. Both of uranium loss and waste water volume were reduced. The uranium concentration of tailing decreased and energy saving and emission reduction can be achieved. (authors)

  8. Fast kinetic and efficient removal of As(V) from aqueous solution using anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donia, Ahmed M.; Atia, Asem A.; Mabrouk, Dalia H.

    2011-01-01

    Glycidyl methacrylate/methelenebisacrylamide resin with immobilized tetraethylenepentamine ligand was prepared. This pentamine containing resin was transformed to two anion exchange resins through treatment by glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride to give (RI) or hydrochloric acid giving (RII). The resins were used to adsorb As(V) at different experimental conditions using batch and column methods. Kinetics and thermodynamic properties as well as the mechanism of interaction between As(V) and resin active sites were discussed. The maximum adsorption capacities of As(V) on RI and RII were found to be 1.83 and 1.12 mmol/g, respectively. The regeneration and the durability of the loaded resin towards the successive reuse were also investigated.

  9. Selective removal of carbon-14 from ion exchange resins using supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, S.A.; Krasznai, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Ion exchange resins (IX) are used extensively in CANDU-PHWR (Canada Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) and other reactor systems worldwide to remove ionic contaminants from various coolant circuits. Spent IX resins represent a significant volume of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The presence of long-lived C-14 which is found in significant quantities in IX resins from CANDU reactors, complicates the disposal of these resins. Several experiments were conducted with carbon dioxide under subcritical and supercritical conditions to determine the feasibility of removing C-14 present as carbonate and/or bicarbonate on IX resins. It has been established that resins containing inorganic C-14 undergo rapid isotopic exchange when exposed to inactive carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions. This treatment reduces the C-14 to the limits of detection and leaves other radioisotopes on the resins largely unaffected. This selective and highly efficient means to remove long-lived C-14 activity from CANDU spent IX resins allows the resin waste to be reclassified as low level waste. This lower classification simplifies the handling, transportation and eventual disposal of IX resins which translates to a very significant cost saving. Since the process is selective the C-14 can be enriched and recovered for commercial purposes

  10. Recovery of soil properties after seedlings Inoculation with AM fungi and addition of composted olive mill waste in the regeneration of a heavy metal polluted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldan, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) on the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal polluted soil. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96% and 60% respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soils properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided G-mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs; because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy-metal contaminated soils derived from mining process, and also can be a good way for olive mill wastes disposal.

  11. Physical and chemical durability of cement impregnated epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryantoro

    1997-01-01

    Immobilization of simulation radioactive waste contains Cs and Sr with cement impregnated epoxy resin has been done. Low level liquid waste in 30% weight mixed cement homogeneously and then set in its curing time about 28 days. Waste from was impregnated with epoxy resin (Bisphenol-A-diglycidylether) and use Triethylenteramin as catalyst. the sample of cement impregnated epoxy resin 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm in diameter and length was tested by Paul Weber. The compressive strength was obtained of 4.08 kN.cm - 2. The sochxlet apparatus was run on flow rate of 300 ml/hour at 100 o C and during 24 hours. The leaching rate of Cs was round on 5.5 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 and Sr was 6.1 x 10 - 4 g.cm - 2.d - 1 (author)

  12. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  13. Leaching of nuclear power reactor wastes forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, L.S.; Villalobos, J.P.; Miyamoto, H.

    1986-01-01

    The leaching tests for power reactor wastes carried out at IPEN/CNEN-SP are described. These waste forms consist mainly of spent resins and boric acid concentrates solidified in ordinary Portland cement. All tests were conducted according to the ISO and IAEA recommendations. 3 years leaching results are reported, determining cesium and strontium diffusivity coefficients for boric acid waste form and ion-exchange resins. (Author) [pt

  14. SHALLOW SHELL RESIN VERSUS TRADITIONAL RESIN: A CASE STUDY FOR Cu(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Arar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on Cu2+ removal by shallow shell resin (Purolite SST 60 and traditional strongly acidic cation exchange resin (Purolite PFC 100 was performed. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of  resin  dosage and  solution pH and contact time. Ion exchange reaction showed a pH depended feature.  Maximum removal of Cu2+ achieved  pH  from 2 to 5. Sorption isothermal data is well interpreted by the Langmuir equation. Additionally, kinetic experiments showed that the pseudo first-order model was suitable for such resins. The regeneration performance of shallow shell technology (SST resin is better than PFC 100.  A solution of 2M H2SO4 performed well in regenerationof SST 60 resin. On the other han maximum regeneration reached 80% for PFC 100 resin.Özet: Bu çalışmada, klasik iyon değiştirici reçine (Purolite PFC 100 ve  sığ kabuk  reçine (Purolite SST 60  ile Cu2+ giderilmesi incelenmiştir. Yapılan kesikli çalışmalarla Cu2+ giderilmesine, reçine miktarı, çözelti pH`ı ve temas süresinin etkisi incelenmiştir. Çözelti pH`ının 2 ile 5 arasında olduğu durumda Cu2+ iyonları tamamen giderilmiştir. Denge çalışmalarında elde edilen sonuçlar Langmuir izoterm modeline daha uygun olmuştur. Kinetik çalışmalarda elde edilen sonuçlar yalancı birinci mertebe kinetik modeline uygunluk göstermişir. SST 60 reçinesinin rejenerasyon verimi PFC 100 reçinesinden daha yüksektir. 2M H2SO4 ile SST 60 reçinesi tamamen rejenere edilmiştir.

  15. Plastic solidification treatment for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Yasumura, Keijiro

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct solidification treatment to radioactive wastes adequately depending on the water content by separately providing an independent process for adding surface active agent to emulsified liquid wastes to the resin solidification process for the wastes. Constitution: For particulate wastes subjected to drying process, the wastes are introduced by way of a feeding machine into a mixer. Then, thermosetting resin, polymerization initiator and polymerization accelerator are introduced from respective tanks to the mixer, agitated to mix and then discharge to solidify in a radioactive waste storage container. On the contrary, for liquid wastes containing lot of water, resin, surface active agent and liquid wastes from respective tanks are introduced into a mixer, agitated to mix into water-in-oil emulsions, then incorporated and mixed with polymerization initiator and polymerization accelerator, and then discharged to solidify in a storage container. (Kawakami, Y.)

  16. Biobased, thermoreversibly crosslinked polyesters: A styrene-free alternative to currently employed resins

    OpenAIRE

    Beljaars, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Polyester resins are often used due to their superior chemical and mechanical properties. However, most commercial resins contain high amounts of the toxic chemical styrene. This thesis describes the search for a human-friendly alternative to polyester resins. In this work, mostly biobased (obtained from renewable sources) chemicals are used to end up with a green compound. However, just "going green" does not solve the problem of waste generated at the end of product life, in order to addres...

  17. Diffusion in composite materials made of thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno.

    1981-03-01

    The embedding process of low and medium level radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins allows their containment in a solid matrix. During storage the risk of circulation of water is possible. The aim of this containment process is to prevent radionuclide migration in environment. Ion migration through membranes of thermosetting resins alone or filler added were measured to evaluate released radioactivity by embedded blocks with time and to compare the different embedding formulas. Water influence on diffusion was taken into account considering that radioactive wastes dispersion is faster in a wet medium than in a dry one [fr

  18. Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, M.; Brzostowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to decrease the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin, taking place during radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified with cinnamic and acrylic acids. A composition of 90 parts of polyester resin, 10 parts of epoxy resin modified with cinnamic acid, and 150 parts of a silica filler showed a volume shrinkage of 1.2%. (author)

  19. Leaching of Co and Cs from spent ion exchange resins in cement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2003-08-22

    Aug 22, 2003 ... matrix with a waste load of 290–350 (kg/m3) spent cation exchange resins, was measured for 60Co : (1,1–4,0) ×. 10–6 (cm2/d) and ... active waste management for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal centre. Keywords. ... The cement specimens were prepared from construction cement which is ...

  20. Tests of the use of cation exchange organic resins for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdrez, Jean; Girault, Jacques; Wormser, Gerald

    1962-01-01

    The authors report tests performed in laboratory and results obtained during an investigation of the use of synthetic ion exchangers for the decontamination of radioactive effluents of moderate activity level and with a non neglectable salt loading. Resins are used under sodium form and regenerated after each fixing operation. Once decontaminated and free of its disturbing ions, the regenerating agent (NaCl) is used for several operations. The authors present the used resins, the treated effluents, describe the tests, and discuss the obtained results [fr

  1. A mechanistic study of Protein A chromatography resin lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Canping; Liu, Jing; Rubacha, Michael; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2009-07-31

    A mechanistic study into Protein A chromatographic resin lifetime limitations is presented. Binding and mass transport properties of two widely used agarose-based Protein A resins were studied to distinguish between the roles of resin fouling due to product/impurity build-up and ligand degradation as contributory factors towards the decline in binding capacity with use. Cycling studies were conducted with and without product loading on the columns to separate out the influence of resin fouling. Ligand degradation under the mildly alkaline conditions used for column regeneration was determined to be the primary cause for Protein A resin capacity decline with usage. The use of lower concentrations of caustic and the use of stabilizing excipients to protect the Protein A ligand during cleaning and sanitization were found to be useful techniques in maintaining column performance. The results presented in this paper provide a clearer understanding of the causative factors that limit Protein A chromatographic resin lifetime. It is anticipated that these findings will assist in the development of more robust and economical downstream manufacturing processes for monoclonal antibody and Fc fusion protein purification.

  2. Study on Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregates Immersed in Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Suraya Hani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, engineers have sought a more sustainable method to dispose of concrete construction and demolition waste. One solution is to crush this waste concrete into a usable gradation for new concrete mixes. This not only reduces the amount of waste entering landfills but also alleviates the burden on existing sources of quality natural concrete aggregates. There are too many kinds of waste but here constructions waste will be the priority target that should be solved. It could be managed by several ways such as recycling and reusing the concrete components, and the best choice of these components is the aggregate, because of the ease process of recycle it. In addition, recycled aggregates and normal aggregates were immersed in epoxy resin and put in concrete mixtures with 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% which affected the concrete mixtures properties. The strength of the concrete for both normal and recycled aggregates has increased after immersed the aggregates in epoxy resin. The percentage of water absorption and the coefficient of water permeability decreased with the increasing of the normal and the recycled aggregates immersed in epoxy resin. Generally the tests which have been conducted to the concrete mixtures have a significant results after using the epoxy resin with both normal and recycled aggregates.

  3. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000?). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the res...

  4. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.; Shirsat, A.N.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2005-08-01

    The spent IX resins from nuclear power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of these resins can lead to high volume reduction of these wastes. Low temperature pyrolysis of transition metal ion loaded IX resins in presence of nitrogen was carried out in order to optimize catalyst composition to achieve maximum weight reduction. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis residues was carried out in presence of air in order to compare the oxidative characteristics of transition metal oxide catalysts. Copper along with iron, chromium and nickel present in the spent IX resins gave the most efficient catalyst combination for catalytic and oxidative pyrolysis of the residues. During low temperature catalytic pyrolysis, 137 Cesium volatility was estimated to be around 0.01% from cationic resins and around 0.1% from anionic resins. During oxidative pyrolysis at 700 degC, nearly 10 to 40% of 137 Cesium was found to be released to off gases depending upon type of resin and catalyst loaded on to it. The oxidation of pyrolytic residues at 700 degC gave weight reduction of 15% for cationic resins and 93% for anionic resins. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis is attractive for reducing weight and volume of spent cationic resins from PHWRs and VVERs. (author)

  5. Carbonization-cementation process for treatment of spent IX resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-08-01

    The spent IX resins containing radioactive fission and activation products of reactor structural materials are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Feasibility tests were conducted for carbonization of IX resins to achieve weight and volume reduction and destruction of functional groups so as to make them compatible for immobilization in cement matrix. Carbonization of non-radioactive resins was studied at 250 to 350 degC. Carbonization residues were 20 to 32 wt% depending upon the type of resin and temperature of carbonization. The release of 137 Cs activity to off-gases was 0.004% at 300 degC and 0.05 % at 350 degC. Based on these tests, a 50 liter/batch capacity inactive resin carbonization pilot plant was set up. Carbonization residues could be immobilized into cement matrix with 60 wt % loading using vermiculite and precipitated silica as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from the selected cement matrix was 0.0066 in 200 days. Based on pilot plant studies and cementation tests, the swollen spent resins waste volume could be minimized by 2.7 times. (author)

  6. Method of solidifying radioactive laundry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Keijiro

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to solidify radioactive laundry wastes containing non-ionic liquid detergents less solidifiable by plastic solidification process in liquid laundry wastes for cloths or the likes discharged from a nuclear power plant. Method: Radioactive laundry wastes are solidified by using plastic solidifying agent comprising, as a main ingredient, unsaturated polyester resins and methylmethacrylate monomers. The plastic solidifying agents usable herein include, for example, unsaturated polyester resins prepared by condensating maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride with propylene glycol and incorporated with methylmethacrylate monomers. The mixing ratio of the methylmethacrylate monomers is preferably 30 % by weight based on the unsaturated polyester resins. (Aizawa, K.)

  7. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  8. An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Collins, Robert T [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance

  9. Treatment of radioactive waste - Routine or challenge? Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The seminar had the following topics: Proposal for new legislation covering radioactive waste management in the EU, new requirements preparations for the later repository, efficient and cost effective treatment of radioactive waste water, intermediate level waste cementation, incineration of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic mixture, application of THOR-technology on resins, new development for transportation and storage of reactor vessel parts, and conditioning of nuclear fuel containing wastes. (uke)

  10. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date

  11. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date. An unusual aspect of this investigation is the use of commercial grade, ion exchange resins that have been loaded with over five times the radioactivity normally seen in a commercial application. That dramatically increases the total radiation dose to the resins. The objective of the resin solidification task is to determine the adequacy of test procedures specified by NRC for ion exchange resins having high radionuclide loadings

  12. Integrated Ion Exchange Regeneration Process for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    example, the use of HCl for resin regeneration in the refining and processing of sugar is well established. HCl is inexpensive and available in food ...MSA MSD MSD MSDS MS/MS MTBE NELAC NELAP NIOSH NIST NPD NPDES OCP OSHA PAH PBMS PC PCBs PCDD PCDF PID PQL PT sample, and its...spectrometry) GC/MS with Chemical Ionization positive ion and negative ion GC with FID, NPD ,ECD,PID, TCD Revision 16 - Dec. 2005 Page 13 HPLC with

  13. Process for preparing wastes for non-pollutant disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debus, A.A.G.; Rosenstiel, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    In disposing of wastes, especially those containing radioactive or toxic substances, wherein the liquid or finely divided solid waste is mixed with water and a hydraulic binder and allowed to set, the binder used comprises a mixture of calcium sulphate hemihydrate, a water-dispersible melamine formaldehyde resin which when cured is hydrophobic and sufficient cross-linking agent to cure the resin. (author)

  14. Isotopic analysis of radioactive waste packages (an inexpensive approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, D.A.; Richmond, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer printout of the isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages containing resins, or other aqueous filter media is now required at the disposal sites at Barnwell, South Carolina, and Beatty, Nevada. Richland, Washington requires an isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages. The NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission), through 10 CFR 61, will require shippers of radioactive waste to classify and label for disposal all radioactive waste forms. These forms include resins, filters, sludges, and dry active waste (trash). The waste classification is to be based upon 10 CFR 61 (Section 1-7). The isotopes upon which waste classification is to be based are tabulated. 7 references, 8 tables

  15. Ion Exchange Column Tests Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morse, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-12-20

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed on site. There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important. Options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste, as well as to examine the volatility of 99Tc during the vitrification process. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. A conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. SuperLig® 639 is an elutable ion exchange resin. In the tank waste, 99Tc is predominantly found in the tank supernate as pertechnetate (TcO4-). Perrhenate (ReO4-) has been shown to be a good non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in laboratory testing for this ion exchange resin. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient and column resin maturation kinetics testing using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from simulated LAW. This revision includes results from testing to determine effective resin operating temperature range. Loading tests were performed at 45°C, and the computer modeling was updated to include the temperature effects. Equilibrium contact testing indicated that this batch of

  16. The dissolution of organic ion exchange resins using iron-catalysed hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkings, N.; Horton, K.D.; Snelling, K.W.

    1980-10-01

    Feasibility studies have been made of the dissolution/partial decomposition of radioactive waste resins by means of iron-catalysed hydrogen peroxide. They have shown that the procedure is limited in its application and successfully treats only polystyrene/divinylbenzene-based resins. Evaporation of the final solution produces a solid residue which is difficult to handle and results in only a relatively small reduction in volume. It is concluded that the method could be used to dissolve specific waste resins for easier handling and disposal, but is not of general applicability. (author)

  17. Sorption studies of heavy metal ions on a novel chelating resin and its application in the stripping of mercury (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L; Sivasankara Pillai, V N

    1987-01-01

    A chelating resin containing a stable thiol group was synthesised, using polystyrene as the starting material. The resin is stable towards conc. HCl, 0.1M HNO(3) and 0.1M NaOH. The resin shows affinity towards Ag(+), Hg(2+), Bi(3+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+). Extraction of these metal ions as a function of pH, kinetics of exchange and breakthrough capacities is evaluated. The selectivity of the resin for the metal ions is in the order Ag(+) > Hg2+ > Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+. The equilibrium constants for exchange and kinetics of exchange are favourable for the recovery of mercury from lean sources. Application of the resin in the stripping of mercury from chlor-alkali plant affluent, and in the enrichment of mercury from seawater, have been investigated. Mercury sorbed resin can be regenerated using 5% thiourea in 0.1M HCl.

  18. Accurate determination of 129I concentrations and 129I/137Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-01-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 129 I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 129 I in spent resins using accelerator mass spectrometry. • The treatment procedure included microwave acid digestion of samples, iodine extraction by CL resins and AgI precipitation. • Developed first on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g of dry resin. • Results are in agreement with previous measurements and support reference values currently used for nuclear resin management

  19. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  20. A STUDY ON ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIORS OF 14C FROM A MIXED BED RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEUNG-CHUL PARK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spent resin waste containing a high concentration of 14C radionuclide cannot be disposed of directly. A fundamental study on selective 14C stripping, especially from the IRN-150 mixed bed resin, was carried out. In single ion-exchange equilibrium isotherm experiments, the ion adsorption capacity of the fresh resin for non-radioactive HCO3− ion, as the chemical form of 14C, was evaluated as 11mg-C/g-resin. Adsorption affinity of anions to the resin was derived in order of NO3− > HCO3− ≥ H2PO4−. Thus the competitive adsorption affinity of NO3− ion in binary systems appeared far higher than that of HCO3− or H2PO4−, and the selective desorption of HCO3− from the resin was very effective. On one hand, the affinity of Co2+ and Cs+ for the resin remained relatively higher than that of other cations in the same stripping solution. Desorption of Cs+ was minimized when the summation of the metal ions in the spent resin and the other cations in solution was near saturation and the pH value was maintained above 4.5. Among the various solutions tested, from the view-point of the simple second waste process, NH4H2PO4 solution was preferable for the stripping of 14C from the spent resin.

  1. Retina regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jin; Goldman, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish are able to regenerate a damaged retina. Key to this regenerative response are Müller glia that respond to retinal injury by undergoing a reprogramming event that allows them to divide and generate a retinal progenitor that is multipotent and responsible for regenerating all major retinal neuron types. The fish and mammalian retina are composed of similar cell types with conserved function. Because of this it is anticipated that studies of retina regeneration in fish may suggest strategies for stimulating Müller glia reprogramming and retina regeneration in mammals. In this review we describe recent advances and future directions in retina regeneration research using zebrafish as a model system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated bicarbonate-form ion exchange treatment and regeneration for DOC removal: Model development and pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Boyer, Treavor H

    2017-05-15

    The application of bicarbonate-form anion exchange resin and sodium bicarbonate salt for resin regeneration was investigated in this research is to reduce chloride ion release during treatment and the disposal burden of sodium chloride regeneration solution when using traditional chloride-form ion exchange (IX). The target contaminant in this research was dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The performance evaluation was conducted in a completely mixed flow reactor (CMFR) IX configuration. A process model that integrated treatment and regeneration was investigated based on the characteristics of configuration. The kinetic and equilibrium experiments were performed to obtain required parameters for the process model. The pilot plant tests were conducted to validate the model as well as provide practical understanding on operation. The DOC concentration predicted by the process model responded to the change of salt concentration in the solution, and showed a good agreement with pilot plant data with less than 10% difference in terms of percentage removal. Both model predictions and pilot plant tests showed over 60% DOC removal by bicarbonate-form resin for treatment and sodium bicarbonate for regeneration, which was comparable to chloride-form resin for treatment and sodium chloride for regeneration. Lastly, the DOC removal was improved by using higher salt concentration for regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    to epoxy resin remained stable over the study period. Of the patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test, 71% returned a questionnaire; 95 patients had worked with epoxy resin in the occupational setting, and, of these, one-third did not use protective gloves and only 50.5% (48) had participated...

  4. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Annual technical progress report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-12-31

    Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins` performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

  5. Enhancement of adhesion between resin coating materials and resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoaki; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Weerasinghe, Dinesh S; Harada, Naoko; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-07-01

    Resin coating technique is a unique method that improves the dentin bond strength of resin cements in indirect restorations. However, the weak link of a specimen bonded using the resin coating technique was reported to be the bonded interface between the resin coating material and resin cement. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to enhance the bonding performance between a resin coating material and a resin cement. Two light-cured flowable composites, Protect Liner F and Clearfil Flow FX, were used as coating materials, and two dual-cure composite materials, Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfil DC Core Automix, were used as resin cements. The ultimate tensile strength of each material and the microtensile bond strengths of the bonded specimens of resin coating material and resin cement were measured using a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Three-way ANOVA (p=0.05) revealed that the highest microtensile bond strength was obtained using a combination of Clearfil Flow FX and Clearfil DC Core Automix, and when the surface of the coating material was treated with ED Primer II. It was strongly suggested that materials with a higher ultimate tensile strength, when used in both resin coating and cementation, could enhance the bond strength between the two.

  6. Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1997-10-01

    There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory's Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system's costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies

  7. Diphonix trademark Resin: A review of its properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The recently developed Diphonix trademark resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. It has potential applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. Influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results studies on the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions

  8. Devices using resin wafers and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, YuPo J [Naperville, IL; Henry, Michael P [Batavia, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL; Martin, Edward [Libertyville, IL; Arora, Michelle [Woodridge, IL; de la Garza, Linda [Woodridge, IL

    2009-03-24

    Devices incorporating a thin wafer of electrically and ionically conductive porous material made by the method of introducing a mixture of a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material into a mold. The mixture is subjected to temperatures in the range of from about 60.degree. C. to about 170.degree. C. at pressures in the range of from about 0 to about 500 psig for a time in the range of from about 1 to about 240 minutes to form thin wafers. Devices include electrodeionization and separative bioreactors in the production of organic and amino acids, alcohols or esters for regenerating cofactors in enzymes and microbial cells.

  9. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  10. [Enriching of total flavonoids from Herba Leonuri with polyamide and macroporous resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan-Ni; Xu, De-Sheng; Feng, Yi; Wei, Hong-Chang

    2008-02-01

    To study the enriching method of total flavonoid from Herba Leonuri with polyamide and macroporous resin. Seven enriching and purifying methods were compared with the yield and purity as indexes. The method of enriching with polyamide and macroporous resin was confirmed and the process of purifying was determined by orthogonal design. D101 resin is packed by wet method, the ratio of diameter to height is 1:7. After mixed with the extract liquids, the weight of wet resin increased to 3 times of the dry resin. Evaporated the wet resin to dryness, mixed well with a little of 95% ethanol and dry polyamide powder, evaporated them to dryness again. Elute with deionized water until the effluent being colourless, then loaded it on the macroporous adsorptive resin, elute with 50% ethanol, the volume of effluents was collected to 7 times of the column volume. The purity of total flavonoids reached to 23%, while the diversion rate from raw Herba Leonuri was to 69%. The process is simple and convenient, and the regeneration of resin is easy, which has a good application foreground.

  11. Leaching of nuclear power reactor waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, L.S.; Villalobos, J.P.; Miyamoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    The leaching tests for immobilized power reactor wastes carried out at IPEN are described. These wastes forms consist mainly of spent resins and boric acid concentrates solidified in ordinary Portland cement. All tests were conducted according to the ISO and IAEA recommendations. Three years leaching results are reported. The cesium diffuvity coefficients determined out of these results are about 1 x 10 -8 cm 2 /s for boric acid waste form and 9 x 10 -9 cm 2 /s for ion-exchange resin waste. Strontium diffusivity coefficients found are about 3 x 10 -11 cm 2 /s and 9 x 10 -11 cm 2 /s respectively. (Author) [pt

  12. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE's Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin

  13. Synthesis, structural characterization, and performance evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.; Bryan, S.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1995-08-01

    The 177 underground storage tanks at the DOE`s Hanford Site contain an estimated 180 million tons of high-level radioactive wastes. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction of the tank wastes for vitrification. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, an organic ion-exchange resin with high selectivity and capacity for the cesium ion, which is a candidate ion-exchange material for use in remediation of tank wastes. The report includes information on the structure/function analysis of R-F resin and the synthetic factors that affect performance of the resin. CS-100, a commercially available phenol-formaldehyde (P-F) resin, and currently the baseline ion-exchanger for removal of cesium ion at Hanford, is compared with the R-F resin. The primary structural unit of the R-F resin was determined to consist of a 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted resorcinol ring unit while CS-100, was composed mainly of a 1,2,4-trisubstituted ring. CS-100 shows the presence of phenoxy-ether groups, and this may account for the much lower decontamination factor of CS-100 for cesium ion. Curing temperatures for the R-F resin were found to be optimal at 105--130C. At lower temperatures, insufficient curing, hence crosslinking, of the polymer resin occurs and selectivity for cesium drops. Curing at elevated temperatures leads to chemical degradation. Optimal particle size for R-F resin is in the range of 20--50 mesh-sized particles. R-F resin undergoes chemical degradation or oxidation which destroys ion-exchange sites. The ion-exchange sites (hydroxyl groups) are converted to quinones and ketones. CS-100, though it has much lower performance for cesium ion-exchange, is significantly more chemically stable than R-F resin. To gamma radiation, CS-100 is more radiolytically stable than R-F resin.

  14. Electrodialysis Treatment of Industrial Waste Waters That Generaters Little Sludge; Tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales por electrodialisis, tecnica que genera pocos lodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savastoma Mariel, C. [Universidad de Cantabria. Santander (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes is reviewed as a separation technique and details are shown. The method is used in several process applications but its adoption looks particularly attractive in the treatment of waste water streams consisting primarily of diluted residual salts and electrolytes. It is argued that the main advantage shown by the technology compared to the classical treatment consisting of adding lime to neutralize the waste waters resides in tis avoiding the generation of voluminous sludges thus permitting savings in the management and disposal of the mud. Other interesting applications are those operations where generating acidity and/or alkalinity with addition of no extra chemicals is desirable, such as the regeneration of ion exchange resins. (Author) 34 refs.

  15. Summary of pilot-scale activities with resorcinol ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bickford, D.F.; Sargent, T.N.; Andrews, M.K.; Bibler, J.P.; Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-10-02

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating vitrification technology for treatment of low level mixed wastes (LLMW). They have chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to study vitrification of the wastes through an Office of Technology Development (OTD) Technical Task Plan (TTP). SRTC`s efforts have included crucible-scale studies and pilot scale testing on simulated LLMW sludges, resins, soils, and other solid wastes. Results from the crucible-scale studies have been used as the basis for the pilot-scale demonstrations. As part of the fiscal year (FY) 1995 activities, SRTC performed crucible-scale studies with organic resins. This waste stream was selected because of the large number of DOE sites, as well as commercial industries, that use resins for treatment of liquid wastes. Pilot-scale studies were to be completed in FY 1995, but could not be due to a reduction in funding. Instead, a compilation of pilot-scale tests with organic resins performed under the guidance of SRTC was provided in this report. The studies which will be discussed used a resorcinol- formaldehyde resin loaded with non-radioactive cesium, which was fed with simulated wastewater treatment sludge feed. The first study was performed at the SRTC in the mini-melter, 1/100th scale of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter, and also involved limited crucible-scale studies to determine the resin loading obtainable. The other study was performed at the DOE/Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) and involved both crucible and pilot-scale testing in the Stir-Melter stirred-melter. Both studies were successful in vitrifying the resin in simulated radioactive sludge and glass additive feeds.

  16. Method of processing liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naba, Katsumi; Oohashi, Takeshi; Kawakatsu, Ryu; Kuribayashi, Kotaro.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To process radioactive liquid wastes with safety by distillating radioactive liquid wastes while passing gases, properly treating the distillation fractions, adding combustible and liquid synthetic resin material to the distillation residues, polymerizing to solidify and then burning them. Method: Radioactive substance - containing liquid wastes are distillated while passing gases and the distillation fractions containing no substantial radioactive substances are treated in an adequate method. Synthetic resin material, which may be a mixture of polymer and monomer, is added together with a catalyst to the distillation residues containing almost of the radioactive substances to polymerize and solidify. Water or solvent in such an extent as not hindering the solidification may be allowed if remained. The solidification products are burnt for facilitating the treatment of the radioactive substances. The resin material can be selected suitably, methacrylate syrup (mainly solution of polymethylmethacrylate and methylmethacrylate) being preferred. (Seki, T.)

  17. Receipt and processing of RBOF/RRF liquid waste in H-Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Receiving Basin for Off-Site Fuels/Resin Regeneration Facility (RBOF/RRF) currently generates approximately 50,000 gallons of wastewater per month. This waste is sent to the 211-H General Purpose (GP) evaporator and/or the 241-H Tank Farm (HTF). The primary criteria for selecting the destination of the waste are solids content and radioactively.The waste is typically sent to the GP evaporator if it has low solids content and low activity. Currently, approximately 70% of the waste water produced at RBOF/RRF meets the criteria for acceptance by the GP evaporator. In June 1993, High Level Waste Engineering opened a Technical Issue (TI) related to processing of RBOF/RRF directly through the 1H Cesium Removal Column (CRC) to the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). In March 1994, additional emphasis was placed on this effort after it was determined that the 1H evaporator had a failed tube bundle. As a result, The TI was expanded to include evaluations of methods to increase the acceptance rate of wastewater at the GP (i.e., to ensure that the 70% of RBOF/RRF wastewater that currently meets the GP acceptance criteria is actually processed at the GP). Since March 1994, waste receipts from RBOF/RRF have averaged less than the 30,000 gallons/month allotted in the HLW System Plan. In addition, the RBOF/RRF waste sent to HTF has successfully been processed through the 2H evaporator. Based on this progress, no additional effort should be expended to reduce the amount of RBOF/RRF sent to HTF, either by increasing the criteria for acceptance of RBOF/RRF waste at the GP evaporator or by evaluating alternate treatment options (such as processing through the 1H CRC or installing treatment equipment in the RBOF/RRF)

  18. Activated carbon regeneration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skripnik, K.I.; Burachevskii, I.I.; Tarkovskaya, I.A.; Yarovenko, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration process was tested by oxidative treatment of activated carbon, employable in the vodka industry, with an aqueous KMnO/sub 4/ (I) solution. The spent carbon is exposed to a 0.4% solution of for 30-50 min, then washed with water, and blown through for 15-30 min with steam at a temperature of 105-110/sup 0/ C under 0.07 MPa pressure. A check of the activity of the regenerated carbon revealed an increase in pore volume by 29% with respect to benzene adsorption and a higher adsorptive capacity (by a factor of about 2) with respect to fatty acids by comparison with carbon regenerated by the conventional steam procedure. Application of the process in the plant made it possible to use the carbon for 3-4 months additionally because of an increase in activity after regeneration. Iodine comsumption amounts to 5-6 kg per column.

  19. Waste Minimization Program. Air Force Plant 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    PRESENT IN CONCENTRATIONS GREATER THAN 10% BY WEIGHT (SHOWING PROBABLE % RANGE): Alkyd Resin (30 - 60%). Dimetiyl Polysiloxane (2-301). Mineral Oil...WASTE, STATE: (a) THE LISTED DESCRIPTION OF THE WASTE: Alkyd Resin , Silicone, Mineral Oil, Naphtha Solvent Blend and Inorganic Salts (b) THE HAZARD...25-50% water o 25-30% dry solids 0 7-10% oil o 5-10% polyvinyl acetate O 5-10% acrylic resin o 8-15% inorganic compounds The sludges are skimmed from

  20. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings

  1. Preparation of novel polyamine-type chelating resin with hyperbranched structures and its adsorption performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Huan; Li, Yuhong; Li, Chenxi

    2018-01-01

    This paper explored the method of combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) technology and hyperbranched polymer principle to prepare the high capacity chelating resin. First, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on chloromethylated cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene resin, and then the novel polyamine chelating resin with a kind of hyperbranched structure was prepared through the amination reaction between amino group of (2-aminoethyl) triamine and epoxy group in GMA. This resin had a selective effect on As(V) and Cr(VI) at a relatively low pH and can be used for the disposal of waste water containing As(V) and Cr(VI). It had a relatively strong adsorption effect on Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) and can be used for the disposal of heavy metal ion waste water. The finding was that, the adsorption capacity of resin on the studied heavy metal ions was higher than that of the chelating resin synthesized by traditional technology and also higher than that of the resin modified by ATRP technology and bifunctional chelator, indicating that the combination of ATRP and hyperbranched polymer concept is an effective method to prepare chelating resin with high capacity. PMID:29515875

  2. Sorption of Uranium Ions from Their Aqueous Solution by Resins Containing Nanomagnetite Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud O. Abd El-Magied

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic amine resins composed of nanomagnetite (Fe3O4 core and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA/N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA shell were prepared by suspension polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate with N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of nanomagnetite particles and immobilized with different amine ligands. These resins showed good magnetic properties and could be easily retrieved from their suspensions using an external magnetic field. Adsorption behaviors of uranium ions on the prepared resins were studied. Maximum sorption capacities of uranium ions on R-1 and R-2 were found to be 92 and 158 mg/g. Uranium was extracted successfully from three granite samples collected from Gabal Gattar pluton, North Eastern Desert, Egypt. The studied resins showed good durability and regeneration using HNO3.

  3. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  4. Bismaleimide Copolymer Matrix Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John A.; Heimbuch, Alvin H.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.

    1987-01-01

    Graphite composites, prepared from 1:1 copolymer of two new bismaleimides based on N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have mechanical properties superior to those prepared from other bismaleimide-type resins. New heat-resistant composites replace metal in some structural applications. Monomers used to form copolymers with superior mechanical properties prepared by reaction of MMAB with maleic or citraconic anhydride.

  5. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  6. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  7. Cesium Isotherm Testing with Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin at High Sodium Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rinehart, Donald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing a Low-Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to provide low-activity waste (LAW) directly to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low-Activity Waste Facility for immobilization. The pretreatment that will be conducted on tank waste supernate at the LAWPS facility entails filtration to remove entrained solids and cesium (Cs) ion exchange to remove Cs from the product sent to the WTP. Currently, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin (Microbeads AS, Skedsmokorset, Norway) is the Cs ion exchange resin of choice. Most work on Cs ion exchange efficacy in Hanford tank waste has been conducted at nominally 5 M sodium (Na). WRPS is examining the possibility of processing supernatant at high Na concentrations—up to 8 M Na—to maximize processing efficiency through the LAWPS. Minimal Cs ion exchange work has been conducted at 6 M and 8 M Na concentrations..

  8. Vitrification of ion-exchange (IEX) resins: Advantages and technical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the commercial sector to convert low-level radioactive ion exchange (IEX) resin wastes from the nuclear utilities to solid stabilized waste forms for permanent disposal. One of the alternative waste stabilization technologies is vitrification of the resin into glass. Wastes can be vitrified at elevated temperatures by thermal treatment. One alternative thermal treatment is conventional Joule heated melting. Vitrification of wastes into glass is an attractive option because it atomistically bonds both hazardous and radioactive species in the glass structure, and volume reduces the wastes by 70-80%. The large volume reductions allow for large associated savings in disposal and/or long term storage costs

  9. Removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by a high-efficiency resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hao; Ren, Yongzheng; Sun, Xueliang; Xu, Yadi; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Tiancheng; Kang, Jianxiong; Liu, Dongqi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of Pb 2+ from aqueous solution by 732 cation-exchange resin in sodium type (732-CR) has been studied in batch experiments at varying pH (2.0–8.0), Pb 2+ concentration (50–200 mg/L), contact time (5–300 min), temperature (288–308 K) and resin dose (0.125–0.75 g/L). The experimental data show that the ion-exchange process was dependent on pH and temperature, the optimal exchange capacity was found at pH 4.0, and higher temperature was beneficial to lead sorption. Kinetic data indicate that the ion-exchange process followed a pseudo-first order model. The equilibrium exchange capacity could be reached at approximately 4 h, and the maximum sorption capacity of Pb 2+ at pH 4.0 was 396.8 mg/g resin. The equilibrium data were evaluated with Langmuir and Freundlich model, and were best fitted with Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters for removal of Pb 2+ indicate that the reaction was spontaneous and endothermic. Additionally, column tests were conducted by using both synthetic solution and effluents from lead battery industry. The regeneration of resin was performed for two sorption-regeneration cycles by 1 M NaOH, and the results show that effective regeneration was achieved by this method.

  10. Biokompatibilitas Gelas Ionomer Modifikasi Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Rotua Lestari M

    2008-01-01

    Saat ini banyak berkembang material baru dalam dunia kedokteran gigi diantaranya adalah Gelas ionomer modifikasi resin yang dikembangkan untuk mengatasi kekurangan-kekurangan dari gelas ionomer konvensional. Adanya penambahan monomer resin daIam bentuk 2-hydroxyethylmetacylate (HEMA) telah meningkatkan kekuatan dari bahan ini. Gelas ionomer modifikasi resin mempunyai sifat-sifat fisis dan mekanis yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan gelas ionomer konvensional. Gelas ionomer modifikasi ...

  11. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  12. Pilot Plant for treating of spent exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Alberto M.; Raffo Calderon, Maria del C.; Varani, Jose L.

    2004-01-01

    Spent exchange resins that have been accumulating during the last operational 30 years in Atucha I nuclear power plant (NPP) are a 'problematic' waste. These spent resins conform an intermediate level waste due to the total content of alpha, beta and gamma emitters (some samples of spent resins were analyzed in 2003). For this reason its treatment is more expensive since it is necessary to add more safety barriers for its final disposition and also for the radioprotection actions that are involved. Using sulfuric acid solutions it is possible to elute from the spent resins the ions that are retained. In the same operation are eluted Cobalt, Cesium and alpha emitters since that all these elements react as cations in aqueous solution. Decontamination by electrochemical methods was analyzed as an interesting method to apply after elution operation to these spent resins since that with the decontamination process it is possible to obtain a solid without activity and concentrate the activity in cells that are small in volume and its manipulation doesn't present any extra complication. Experiments made with active samples taken from the deposit were successful. Because of these results it was built a small plant to treat a batch of 100 dm 3 of wet spent exchange resins. Some problems with the material that was in the deposit together with spent resins caused that we had to plan a more complex strategy to obtain a complete decontamination of the spent resins (in this stage we used the cobalt retention cell that was described in other paper to retain Cobalt and alpha emitters and a sample of zeolites from Argentina ores to retain Cesium). Due to alpha emitters act electrochemically like cations it was possible to retain altogether with ionic Cobalt on the copper amalgam electrode. Working in the non-active lab with alcoholic solutions it was possible to retain ionic Cesium on a copper electrode (copper is covered by mercury fine film which forms a solid amalgam) with a

  13. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  14. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, Jr., Thomas N. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass.

  15. [Study on purification of total flavonoids from seed residue of Hippophae rhamnoides with macroporous resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qun-hua; Qu, Wei-jing; Li, Jia-gui; Deng, Yun-xia

    2004-03-01

    To study the conditions and parameters of purifying total flavonoids from seed residue of H. rhamnoides. Absorption capacity of three resins for total flavonoids was compared. With the yield and purity as indexes, the process of absorbing and purifying total flavonoids from seed residue with D101 macroporous resin absorbent was selected by orthogonal design. The D101 resin was the best of the three resins and its absorption capacity was determined to be 63.00 mg x g(-1) wet resin. The optimum process condition was 30% ethanol as eluting solvent, wet resin vs crude herbs: 2:1, diameter vs height: 1:10, eluting solvent vs crude herbs: 10:1, absorbing time for 3 h. The yield of total flavonoids from seeds residue of H. rhamnoides by this process was 2.39%, and the purity reached 64.81%. The process is simple and convenient and the regeneration of resin is easy. So this method of purification is advisable.

  16. Perchlorate adsorption and desorption on activated carbon and anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, In-Ho; Meng, Xiaoguang; Wang, Chao; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Bang, Sunbaek; Choe, Eunyoung; Lippincott, Lee

    2009-05-15

    The mechanisms of perchlorate adsorption on activated carbon (AC) and anion exchange resin (SR-7 resin) were investigated using Raman, FTIR, and zeta potential analyses. Batch adsorption and desorption results demonstrated that the adsorption of perchlorate by AC and SR-7 resin was reversible. The reversibility of perchlorate adsorption by the resin was also proved by column regeneration test. Solution pH significantly affected perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of AC, while it did not influence perchlorate adsorption and the zeta potential of resin. Zeta potential measurements showed that perchlorate was adsorbed on the negatively charged AC surface. Raman spectra indicated the adsorption resulted in an obvious position shift of the perchlorate peak, suggesting that perchlorate was associated with functional groups on AC at neutral pH through interactions stronger than electrostatic interaction. The adsorbed perchlorate on the resin exhibited a Raman peak at similar position as the aqueous perchlorate, indicating that perchlorate was adsorbed on the resin through electrostatic attraction between the anion and positively charged surface sites.

  17. Characterization and disposal of ion exchange resins used in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Olguin G, M.T.; Emeterio H, M.; Garcia M, H.

    2006-01-01

    To dispose of an appropriate way the used ion exchange resins so much in the pool water purification systems of the TRIGA Mark III reactor like in the JS6500 gamma irradiator, of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, were carried out a series of analytic nuclear techniques and complementary conventional to those recommended by the ASTM, with the object of to control and to manage 14 lots of worn out resins appropriately. For its were identified the radioactive isotopes, the resins type, the grade of chemical pollution and the physicochemical degradation of the same ones. The lots of resins that didn't contain radioactive isotopes its were regenerated in an usual way, as long as those that if they controlled them they selected options for its final disposition. The first selected option was the extraction method of ion radioactive isotopes, concentrating the elution product by evaporation. As second option it was carried out the resins stabilization damaged by micro-encapsulation by forged to ambient temperature, using an organic polymer. Previous to the immobilization the resins were pretreated by vacuum drying, pulverization and thermal drying, however before carrying out this last, it was carried out a thermal gravimetric analysis to determine the drying conditions of the resins avoiding its chemical decomposition. (Author)

  18. Adsorption performance of salicylic acid on a novel resin with distinctive double pore structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guqing; Wen, Ruiming; Liu, Aijiao; He, Guowen; Wu, Dan

    2017-05-05

    Two approaches were used to synthesize two resins with different pore structures. In one way, the CH 2 Cl groups in macroporous chloromethylated polystyrene resin were transformed to methylene bridges, and achieved a hypercrosslinked resin with plentiful micropores (denoted GQ-06). In the other way, 50% of the CH 2 Cl groups in chloromethylated polystyrene resin was used to produce micropores, while the residual 50% of the CH 2 Cl groups was reacted with 2-aminopyridine, and prepared another resin with double pore structure of hypercrosslinked resin and macroporous resin (denoted GQ-11). The adsorption of salicylic acid (SA) on GQ-11 was investigated using GQ-06 as the reference adsorbent. The effect of pH on the adsorption of SA on GQ-06 was consistent with the dissociation curve of SA. The maximum adsorption capacity of SA on GQ-11 was observed at the solution pH of 2.64. The greater adsorption rate of SA on GQ-11 than that of GQ-06 was attributed to its double pore structure. The multifunctional adsorption mechanism of anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction resulted in the larger equilibrium capacity of SA on GQ-11 than that of GQ-06. GQ-06 and GQ-11 could be regenerated by absolute alcohol and 80% of alcohol -0.5mol/L of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of liquids of exchange resins washing from RA6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, F.L.; Menghini, J.; Rodriguez, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work nanometric magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrochemical co-precipitation method to achieve the adsorption and extraction of the contaminant species present in the water coming from the regeneration of exchange resins in Research Reactor RA6. It has been possible to obtain a mean nanoparticle size of 16 nm, necessary to increase the specific surface area of the material and thus, its adsorbent capability. The synthesis parameters and adsorption conditions made it possible to achieve a treatment efficiency superior to 80% for Cs-137 (author)

  20. Radiation effects on resins and zeolites at Three Mile Island Unit II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.K.; Grant, P.J.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Quinn, G.J.; Runion, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island created certain waste forms that are not routinely encountered in normal light water reactor plants and were the subject of a research and development program. Fifty EPICOR II organic resin containers were loaded to as much as 2200 Ci (of predominantly cesium plus strontium) in the course of processing contaminated water. Resin samples were taken from two of the EPICOR II vessels and examined. Nineteen zeolite containers loaded with radioactive cesium plus strontium to as much as 55,000 Ci have been analyzed. The makeup and purification system demineralizer resins, highly contaminated by the letdown of reactor coolant, have been radiation surveyed, and gas, liquid, and resin samples have been obtained. On-site sampling and analysis of these wastes indicated that combustible gases (hydrogen and oxygen) were being generated as a result of radiolysis. The results of this work are discussed, compared, and presented

  1. New system applying image processor to automatically separate cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin for condensate demineralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tsuneyasu; Nagao, Nobuaki; Yoshimori, Yasuhide; Inoue, Takashi; Yoda, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    In PWR plant, condensate demineralizer is equipped to remove corrosive ion in condensate water. Mixed bed packing cation exchange resin (CER) and anion exchange resin (AER) is generally applied, and these are regenerated after separation to each layer periodically. Since the AER particle is slightly lighter than the CER particle, the AER layer is brought up onto the CER layer by feeding water upward from the bottom of column (backwashing). The separation performance is affected by flow rate and temperature of water for backwashing, so normally operators set the proper condition parameters regarding separation manually every time for regeneration. The authors have developed the new separation system applying CCD camera and image processor. The system is comprised of CCD camera, LED lamp, image processor, controller, flow control valves and background color panel. Blue color of the panel, which is corresponding to the complementary color against both ivory color of AER and brown color of CER, is key to secure the system precision. At first the color image of the CER via the CCD camera is digitized and memorized by the image processor. The color of CER in the field of vision of the camera is scanned by the image processor, and the position where the maximum difference of digitized color index is indicated is judged as the interface. The detected interface is able to make the accordance with the set point by adjusting the flow rate of backwashing. By adopting the blue background panel, it is also possible to draw the AER out of the column since detecting the interface of the CER clearly. The system has provided the reduction of instability factor concerning separation of resin during regeneration process. The system has been adopted in two PWR plants in Japan, it has been demonstrating its stable and precise performance. (author)

  2. Chemical derivation to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, T.L.; Shaw, W.J.; Brown, G.N.; Linehan, J.C.; Franz, J.A.; Hart, T.R.; Hogan, M.O.

    1996-09-01

    Tank wastes at Hanford and SRS contain highly alkaline supernate solutions of conc. Na, K nitrates with large amounts of 137 Cs. It is desirable to remove and concentrate the highly radioactive fraction for vitrification. One candidate ion exchange material for removing the radiocesium is R-F resin. This report summarizes studies into synthesis and characterization of 4-derivatized R-F resins prepared in pursuit of more chemically/oxidatively robust resin. 85% 4-fluororesorcinol/15% phenol formaldehyde resin appears to have good stability in alkaline solution, although there may be some nucleophilic displacement reaction during synthesis; further studies are needed

  3. Study PWA8 resin for chromatographic uranium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coceancigh, Herman; Ramella, J. L.; Marrero, Julieta; Jiménez Rebagliati, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    For many years nuclear industry have been using resins as filler of chromatographic columns. These methods are specific and give reliable results in different applications, for those reasons are extremely useful as separation process. Currently the nuclear industry is growing and this brings new issues such as the need of reduction of the amount of waste, the optimization of the production process and others that the chromatography could solve with great results. AMBERLITETM PWA8 resin is an anion exchange resin which can be used for the removal of uranium from drinking water. In addition to high exchange capacity, this resin has excellent physical stability and a wide range of pH in which is operational. With the idea of concentrating uranium from wastes solution as main goal we made different experiments to understand the AMBERLITETM PWA8 and obtain the most important characteristics like; pH working range; capacity; activation and elution procedures. These procedures were developed and optimized the capacity was determined using a batch experiment and we obtain that the maximum capacity is 882,5 U ug /resin gr at a pH of 4,2. Following on from these results chromatographic experiments were performed in which both were obtained the percentage of recovery and the concentration factor. The percent recovery (% R) calculated as the percentage ratio between the total mass and the load mass eluted (% R = eluted mass / total mass * 100) was 94% with a concentration factor of 5 times From these results it is intended to concentrate wastes solutions from the fuel cycle processes with two main goals: decreasing volume for storage and for future reusing of the uranium coming from production. (author)

  4. Degradation of resins in EPICOR-II prefilters from Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development--EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is investigating the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins contained in several EPICOR-II prefilters. Those prefilters were used during cleanup of contaminated water from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station after the March 1979 accident. This paper summarizes results and analyses of the second sampling of resins from prefilters PF-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated resins supplied by Epicor, Inc. to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose. Results also are compared with results from tests performed on resins obtained from the first sampling of those two prefilters

  5. Development of new waste form for treatment and disposal of concentrated liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Kyung Kil; Ji, Young Yong

    2010-12-01

    The radioactive waste form should be meet the waste acceptance criteria of national regulation and disposal site specification. We carried out a characterization of rad waste form, especially the characteristics of radioactivity, mechanical and physical-chemical properties in various rad waste forms. But asphalt products is not acceptable waste form at disposal site. Thus we are change the product materials. We select the development of the new process or new materials. The asphalt process is treatment of concentrated liquid and spent-resin and that we decide the Development of new waste form for treatment and disposal of concentrated liquid radioactive waste

  6. Large-Scale Demonstration of Perchlorate Removal Using Weak Base Anion Resin at Well No. 3 in Rialto, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    USEPA 324–Volatile Organics μg/L All were ND USEPA 608–Chlorinated Pesticides and/or PCBs μg/L All were ND Oil & Grease mg/L ND Sulfide, soluble mg...perchlorate. Wastewater produced during regeneration is treated to remove perchlorate. This is performed using a small volume of strong base anion (SBA...regeneration. Wastewater produced during regeneration is treated to remove perchlorate. This can be done by using a small volume of scavenger resin, or

  7. An investigation of the applicability of the new Reillex trademark-HPQ anion exchange resin system for technetium/rhenium and uranium in the Hanford waste tanks. Milestone 4 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, K.R.; Ball, J.R.; Cobb, S.L.; Adams, J.M.; Young, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the measurements of the exchange capacity and K d values for ReO 4 - on Reillex trademark-HPQ as a function of nitric acid and hydroxide concentration, temperature, and ten months time will be reported. Results of the breakthrough volumes for UO 2 2+ on Reillex-HPQ chromatography columns as a function of carbonate ion concentration in high nitrate ion concentrations and various column sizes will be reported. Individual sections of this report describe the following: the sorption behavior of ReO 4 - on the Reillex-HPQ between pH 2 and 12 in 1.00 M NaNO 3 ; results of the measurements of the K d values for ReO 4 - on Reillex-HPQ and on Reillex-HP as a function of nitrate and hydroxide ion concentrations; the sorption behavior of ReO 4 - on Reillex-HPQ resin in base with time as a variable; the results of the early attempts at determining the K d values for Na 4 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 on Reillex-HPQ resin; and the breakthrough of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 in varying nitric acid solutions on Reillex-HPQ columns

  8. Process for affixing radioactive contamination on contaminated materials or wastes. Its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubouin, Guy; Aude, Georges; Tassigny, Christian de.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for affixing radioactive contamination on materials or waste matter in order to ensure that the materials are transferred in complete safety or to package them when their activity is low. Under this process at least one coat of a resin polymerizable at ambient temperature, for example an epoxy resin, a polyester resin, a vinyl resin or a mixture of thermohardening resin and thermoplastic resin, is sprayed on to the contaminated material part by means of an electrostatic gun [fr

  9. Waste Form Evaluation Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-09-01

    This report presents data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. The waste streams selected for this study include dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash as representative wastes which result from advanced volume reduction technologies and ion exchange resins which remain problematic for solidification using commercially available matrix materials. Property evaluation tests such as compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation and leachability were conducted for polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms over a range of waste-to-binder ratios. Based on the results of the tests, optimal waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins were established for polyethylene, although maximum loadings were considerably higher. For modified sulfur cement, optimal loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate, 40 wt % boric acid and 40 wt % incinerator ash are reported. Ion exchange resins are not recommended for incorporation into modified sulfur cement because of poor waste form performance even at very low waste concentrations. The results indicate that all waste forms tested within the range of optimal waste concentrations satisifed the requirements of the NRC Technical Position Paper on Waste Form

  10. Design of Ion-Exchange Resins Through EDTA and DTPA Modified Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Catechol, resorcinol, and their admixtures with EDTA and DTPA moieties were converted into polymeric resins by alkaline polycondensation with formaldehyde. The resins were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, ion-exchange capacity, and distribution coefficient (D for heavy metal and radionuclide such as Cs and Sr. 137Cs and 90Sr constitutes a major source of heat in nuclear waste streams and in regards to recent nuclear event their remediation in complex solution – sea water - represent an important issue.

  11. Lawps ion exchange column gravity drain of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-28

    Experiments at several different scales were performed to understand the removal of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) ion exchange resin using a gravity drain system with a valve located above the resin screen in the ion exchange column (IXC). This is being considered as part of the design for the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to be constructed at the DOE Hanford Site.

  12. [Regeneration of airway epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Perotin, J-M; Lebargy, F; Birembaut, P; Deslée, G; Coraux, C

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial regeneration is a complex process. It can lead to the remodeling of the airway epithelium as in asthma, COPD or cystic fibrosis. The development of in vivo and in vitro models has allowed the analysis of remodeling mechanisms and showed the role of components of extracellular matrix, proteases, cytokines and growth factors. Airway epithelial progenitors and stems cells have been studied in these models. However, their identification remains difficult. Identification and characterization of airway epithelial progenitor/stem-cells, and a better knowledge of the regeneration process may allow the development of new therapeutic strategies for airway epithelial reconstitution. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of hemicellulose-acrylic acid graft copolymer super water absorbent resin by ultrasonic irradiation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hemicellulose super water absorbent resin is prepared by using ultrasonic irradiation technology, with the waste liquid produced during the preparation of viscose fiber which contains a large amount of hemicellulose as raw material, acrylic acid as graft monomer, N,N’-methylene bis acrylamide (NMBA as cross linking agent, and (NH42S2O8-NaHSO3 as the redox initiation system. The synthesis conditions, structure and water absorption ability of resin are discussed. The results indicate that water absorbency of the resin is 311 g/g, the tap water absorbency is 102 g/g, the normal saline absorbency is 55 g/g, and the artificial urine absorbency is 31 g/g under the optimal synthesis conditions, so the resin has great water absorption rate and water retaining capacity. The FT-IR and SEM analysis shows that the resin with honeycomb network structure is prepared. The successfully synthesized of the resin means that the hemicellulose waste liquid can be highly effectively recycled, and it provides a kind of new raw material for the synthesis of super water absorbent resin.

  14. Inclusion of radioactive ion-exchange resins into inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epimakhov, V.N.; Olejnik, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is devoted to inclusion of the radioactive ion-exchange resins into the portland, slag-portland and alumina cements. The degree of filling the solidified products achieves 7-10, 12 and 18.9-19.7% correspondingly under conservation of sufficient strength (not less 5 MPa). The coefficient of waste volume increasing during solidification does not exceed 1.5 under consideration of addition of 10 mass % of clay into aluminia cement [ru

  15. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  16. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  17. Performance testing of high specific activity waste forms per 10 CFR Part 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1987-03-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste by means of NRC-prescribed tests in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program and includes the current test status and results. 28 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Performance testing of high specific activity waste forms per 10 CFR part 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M.; McConnell, J.W.; Rodgers, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste by means of NRC-prescribed tests in a disposal environment. This paper describes on the resin solidification task of that program and includes the current test status and results

  19. Natural Regeneration of Longleaf Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Boyer

    1979-01-01

    Natural regeneration is now a reliable alternative for existing longleaf pine forests. The shelterwood system, or modifications of it, has been used experimentally to regenerate longleaf pine for over 20 years, and regional tests have confirmed its value for a wide range of site conditions. Natural regeneration, because of its low cost when compared to other...

  20. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  1. Characterization of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomine, J.C.; Tassigny, C. de; Billon, J.

    1983-11-01

    Leaching tests on real wastes embedded in cement, bitumens or resins are realized to study leachability of alpha-emitters or fission products and anion-cation exchange between leachate and embedded materials. Radionuclide distribution is examined by spectrogammametry on cores taken from cemented wastes. Qualitative results concerning degradation of waste blocks embedded in bitumens by bacteria in the ground are given [fr

  2. Essentials in Periodontal Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    F. Haghighati; G. Saaveh

    2007-01-01

    Various materials and techniques have been used in the treatment of periodontal disease to achieve regeneration of lost periodontal tissues including cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone. The composition, regenerative potential, application and therapeutic characteristics of several regenerative materials have been evaluated in the present study.

  3. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  4. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Dayal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Major tasks in this NRC-sponsored program include: (1) an evaluation of the acceptability of low-level solidified wastes with respect to minimizing radionuclide releases after burial; and (2) an assessment of the influence of pertinent environmental stresses on the performance of high-integrity radwaste container (HIC) materials. The waste form performance task involves studies on small-scale laboratory specimens to predict and extrapolate: (1) leachability for extended time periods; (2) leach behavior of full-size forms; (3) performance of waste forms under realistic leaching conditions; and (4) leachability of solidified reactor wastes. The results show that leach data derived from testing of small-scale specimens can be extrapolated to estimate leachability of a full-scale specimen and that radionuclide release data derived from testing of simulants can be employed to predict the release behavior of reactor wastes. Leaching under partially saturated conditions exhibits lower releases of radionuclides than those observed under the conventional IAEA-type or ANS 16.1 leach tests. The HIC assessment task includes the characterization of mechanical properties of Marlex CL-100, a candidate radwaste high density polyethylene material. Tensile strength and creep rupture tests have been carried out to determine the influence of specific waste constituents as well as gamma irradiation on material performance. Emphasis in ongoing tests is being placed on studying creep rupture while the specimens are in contact with a variety of chemicals including radiolytic by-products of irradiated resin wastes. 12 references 6 figures, 2 tables

  5. Rapid determination of 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am and 90Sr in high contaminated samples waste using combined SPE sorbents AnaLigR Pu-02, AnaLigR Sr-01 and DGAR Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia Dulanska; Igor Antalik; Miroslav Labaska; Boris Remenec; Andrej Matel

    2013-01-01

    A rapid separation method has been developed which allows measurement of plutonium, americium and strontium isotopes in the high active sample from CBRN Training and Testing Centre in Zemianske Kostolany (Slovakia) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses different commercial products stacked AnaLig R Pu-02, AnaLig R Sr-01 and DGA R Resin cartridges from IBC Advanced Technologies and Eichrom Technologies. The method allows rapid separation of plutonium, strontium and americium using a single multi-stage column in the vacuum box (cartridge technology) with rapid flow rates to minimize sample separation time. The 239,240 Pu, 23 8Pu and 241 Am were determined by alpha spectroscopy, 90 Sr was counted on TRICARB 2900 TR by Cherenkov counting of its progeny 90 Y. (author)

  6. Tritiated waste conditioning. Pt.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, J.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Darlington Tritium Removal Facility will generate both liquid and solid tritiated waste. Liquid waste will have to be conditioned and packaged prior to disposal to minimize the releases of tritium to the environment. The conditioning requirements for solid tritiated waste are presently under investigation. Earlier work on the conditioning of aqueous tritiated waste has shown that solidification by itself in either cement or an organic polymer matrix is inadequate to meet a tritium (as HTO) release target of 1 x 10 -3 % per day. Encapsulating the solidified waste in a 1-cm thick layer of water extendible polyester resin reduced the release rate to 1.3 x 10 -4 % per day over a 150-day leaching period. The release rate however, increased to 1.7 x 10 -3 % per day when averaged over the subsequent 600-day leaching period. Encapsulation, however, is a difficult process and the information presented in this report compares encapsulation with simple containerization in a low water permeable material such as polyethylene. The results indicate that the same degree of tritium (as HTO) retention can be achieved by replacing a 1-cm thick encapsulating layer of polymer resin with a .14-cm thick high density polyethylene container. Consequently, encapsulation should not be pursued further for this type of waste. Leaching data has shown that even for the short exposure times encountered (typically 4-5 hours) the components of the polymer resin solidification agent permanently increase the water permeability and hence tritium releases from the polyethylene containers

  7. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  8. Immobilization in cement of ion exchange resins from Spanish nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebra, A.G. de la; Murillo, R.; Ortiz, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange materials used at nuclear power plants can be immobilized in cements less expensive than polymer matrices. Cement solidification of spent ion exchange resins shows swelling and cracking troubles (during setting time, or of storage). The objective of this study was to select the types of cement that produce the best quality on immobilization of three kinds of resins and to set up cement formulations containing the maximum possible loading of resin. Four cements were selected to carried out the study. After a study of hydration-dehydration phenomena of ion exchange resins, a systematic work has been carried out on immobilization. Tests were performed to study compressive strength and underwater stability by changing water/cement ratio and resin/cement ratio. Mixtures made with water, cement and resin only were loaded with 10% by weight dry resin. Mixtures with higher loadings show poor workability. Tests were carried out by adding organic plasticizers and silica products to improve waste loading. Plasticizers reduced water demand and silica products permit the use of more water. Leaching tests have been performed at 40 O C. In conclusion Blast Furnace Slag is the best cement for immobilization of ion exchange resin both bead and powdered form for mechanical strength, stability and leaching

  9. Wet oxidative destruction of spent ion-exchange resins using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Spent organic ion exchange resins are generated in large quantities during the operation of nuclear facilities. Wet oxidation as a mode of treatment of these gel-type ion exchange resins was investigated using H 2 O 2 as oxidant in the presence of CuSO 4 as catalyst. Experiments using commercial samples were conducted at 95-100 deg C under reflux conditions at atmospheric pressure. It was found that the reaction of cation resin with H 2 O 2 was instantaneous whereas with anion resin, there was a lag time. For efficient utilization of the oxidant, low rate of addition of H 2 O 2 , 0.01M concentration of CuSO 4 and neutral pH in mixed resin reactions, were found to be useful. Foaming was noted during reactions involving anion resins. This could be controlled by silicone-based agents. The residual solution left after resin oxidation is aqueous in nature and is expected to contain all the radioactivity originally present in the resin. Preliminary experiments showed that it could be efficiently trapped using available inorganic sorbents. Wet oxidation system offers a simple method of converting organic waste into environmentally acceptable inorganic products. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  10. production of particleboards using polystyrene and bamboo wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    This investigation was able to produce incredibly strong particleboards using bamboo and resinous material obtained from Polystyrene wastes. The particleboards were prepared by mixing the bamboo fibres and Polystyrene based resin. (PBR) followed by flat press process at different ratio (v/v). Physical properties were ...

  11. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)

  12. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results.

  13. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site's 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results

  14. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  15. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  16. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of...

  17. Continuous fusion solidification treatment for radioactive waste and its device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Noboru; Dojiri, Shigeru; Ito, Akihiko; Machi, Sueo; Sugo, Takanobu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To permit solidification treatment of a radioactive waste such as concentrated liquid waste, used ion exchange resin, ash, laundry waste and liquid waste of decontamination by using a thermoplastic resin such as polyethylene. Constitution: The radioactive waste is preliminarily dried to reduce the water content to such an extent that scattering of the radioactive substance and generation of powdery dust no longer take place, and then it is dried up to the absolute dry state through removal of water vapor and gas by suction. The radioactive waste which is thus dried in this way and a thermoplastic resin such as polyethylene are mixed together, and the mixture is fused and then dried. (Aizawa, K.)

  18. Research and development for decontamination system of spent resin in Hanbit Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Gi Hong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    When reactor coolant leaks occur due to cracks of a steam generator tube, radioactive materials contained in the primary cooling water in nuclear power plant are forced out toward the secondary systems. At this time the secondary water purification resin in the ion exchange resin tower of the steam generator blowdown system is contaminated by the radioactivity of the leaked radioactive materials, so we pack this in special containers and store temporarily because we could not dispose it by ourselves. If steam generator tube leakage occurs, it produces contaminated spent resins annually about 5,000-7,000 liters. This may increase the amount of nuclear waste productions, a disposal working cost and a unit price of generating electricity in the plant. For this reasons, it is required to develop a decontamination process technique for reducing the radioactive level of these resins enough to handle by the self-disposal method. In this research, First, Investigated the structure and properties of the ion exchange resin used in a steam generator blowdown system. Second, Checked for a occurrence status of contaminated spent resin and a disposal technology. Third, identified the chemical characteristics of the waste radionuclides of the spent resin, and examined ionic bonding and separation mechanism of radioactive nuclear species and a spent resin. Finally, we carried out the decontamination experiment using chemicals, ultrasound, microbubbles, supercritical carbon dioxide to process these spent resin. In the case of the spent resin decontamination method using chemicals, the higher the concentration of the drug decontamination efficiency was higher. In the ultrasound method, foreign matter of the spent resin was removed and was found that the level of radioactivity is below of the MDA. In the microbubbles method, we found that the concentration of the radioactivity decreased after the experiment, so it can be used to the decontamination process of the spent resin. In

  19. Waste management at the Ardennes power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    In 1976, the SENA (with the participation of EDF, CEA and CEC in the framework of a research program on the management and storage of radioactive wastes) has developed an industrial pilot plant for the encapsulation of wastes in thermosetting polyester resins. The industrial putting in operation of the plant will enable most of the wastes from the nuclear station to be processed. The quality of products will be improved and the volume and processing cost reduced

  20. Method for solidification of slurry-like liquid wastes or radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Yoshiki; Oda, Norimasa.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate various defects in cement, asphalt or resin solidification processes of liquid wastes. Method: Vulcanized rubber such as wasted tyres or unvulcanized rubber is decomposed through melting in a screw type extruder. The molten rubber is heated and melted again to reduce the viscosity and poured into another extruder. Then, slurry-like liquid wastes or radioactive liquid wastes are mixed with the molten rubber in the extruder, and the water contents in the liquid wastes are evaporated during mixing. Thus, the liquid wastes are solidified with the molten rubber. (J.P.N.)

  1. Potential problems associated with ion-exchange resins used in the decontamination of light-water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Adams, J.W.; Kempf, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    During a typical decontamination event, ion-exchange resin beds are used to remove corrosion products (radioactive and nonradioactive) and excess decontamination reagents from waste streams. The spent resins may be solidified in a binder, such as cement, or sealed in a high-integrity container (HIC) in order to meet waste stability requirements specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Lack of stability of low-level waste in a shallow land burial trench may lead to trench subsidence, enhanced water infiltration and waste leaching, which would result in accelerated transport of radionuclides and the complexing agents used for decontamination. The current program is directed at investigating safety problems associated with the handling, solidification and containerization of decontamination resin wastes. The three tasks currently underway include freeze-thaw cycling of cementitious and vinyl ester-styrene forms to determine if mechanical integrity is compromised, a study of the corrosion of container materials by spent decontamination waste resins, and investigations of resin degradation mechanisms

  2. Experience with intermediate strong base anion resins at three mile island nuclear station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federick, K.H.; Reed, J.G.; Glass, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    A-104 resin appears to have been an excellent replacement for upflow regenerated Stratabeds at Three Mile Island. It has resulted in a 50% increase in operating throughputs, lower maintenance and greater ease of operation for the makeup trains. It should be stressed that differences in raw water characteristics or equipment design might render this experience not applicable to any given specific installation. A thorough evaluation of all aspects of such a conversion is recommended before any changes are attempted. 1 ref

  3. Surface Engineering of PAMAM-SDB Chelating Resin with Diglycolamic Acid (DGA) Functional Group for Efficient Sorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) from Aqueous Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaiyaraja, P.; Venkatraman, B., E-mail: chemila07@gmail.com [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Deb, A.K. Singha [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ponraju, D. [Safety Engineering Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Ali, Sk. Musharaf [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A new DGA-PAMAM-SDB chelating resin has been synthesized for actinide sorption. • Maximum sorption capacities of resin are 682 and 544.2 mg g{sup −1}for U(VI) and Th(IV). • DGA-PAMAM-SDB chelating resin could be regenerated and reused. • DFT calculation of actinides interaction with resin corroborates the experimental. • Resin is effective for sorption of actinides from both aqueous and HNO{sub 3} medium. - Abstract: A novel chelating resin obtained via growth of PAMAM dendron on surface of styrene divinyl benzene resin beads, followed by diglycolamic acid functionalization of the dendrimer terminal. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, nitric acid concentration, amount of adsorbent, shaking time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption efficiency. Diglycolamic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimer functionalized styrene divinylbenzene chelating resin (DGA-PAMAM-SDB) is found to be an efficient candidate for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions from aqueous (pH > 4) and nitric acid media (> 3 M). The sorption equilibrium could be reached within 60 min, and the experimental data fits with pseudo-second-order model. Langmuir sorption isotherm model correlates well with sorption equilibrium data. The maximum U(VI) and Th(IV) sorption capacity onto DGA-PAMAMG{sub 5}-SDB was estimated to be about 682 and 544.2 mg g{sup −1} respectively at 25 °C. The interaction of actinides and chelating resin is reversible and hence, the resin can be regenerated and reused. DFT calculation on the interaction of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions with chelating resin validates the experimental findings.

  4. Urban regeneration and bioregionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Passaro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development and the bioregionalism find their meeting point in the strategies of urban regeneration adoptable in the Campania Region. In the article, following a brief consideration about possible scenarios of short chain to be triggered between the agricultural and the building sector, three samples of experimental actions are described, which are under development in three areas, in S. Arsenio in the Diano valley, in S. Antonio Abate and in Naples. All the here presented cases are object of a collaboration between the University (Research and education institution, the local authorities and the Small and Medium Enterprises of the bioregions, which has led to application of those principles within design proposals of sustainable and bioregionalist urban regeneration.

  5. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  6. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  7. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  8. Immobilization of Ion Exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Martinez, H.

    1999-01-01

    In the last decades many countries in the world have taken interest in the use, availability, and final disposal of dangerous wastes in the environment, within these, those dangerous wastes that contain radioactive material. That is why studies have been made on materials used as immobilization agent of radioactive waste that may guarantee its storage for long periods of time under drastic conditions of humidity, temperature change and biodegradation. In mexico, the development of different applications of radioactive material in the industry, medicine and investigation, have generated radioactive waste, sealed and open sources, whose require a special technological development for its management and final disposal. The present work has as a finality to develop the process and define the agglutinating material, bitumen, cement and polyester resin that permits immobilization of resins of Ionic Exchange contaminated by Barium 153, Cesium 137, Europium 152, Cobalt 60 and Manganese 54 generated from the nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark III. Ionic interchange contaminated resin must be immobilized and is analysed under different established tests by the Mexican Official Standard NOM-019-NUCL-1995 L ow level radioactive wastes package requirements for its near-surface final disposal. Immobilization of ionic interchange contaminated resins must count with the International Standards applicable in this process; in these standards, the following test must be taken in prototype examples: Free-standing water, leachability, compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, thermal stability and burning rate. (Author)

  9. Accurate determination of 41Ca concentrations in spent resins from the nuclear industry by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bourlès, Didier; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2013-01-01

    The radiological characterisation of nuclear waste is essential for managing storage sites. Determining the concentration of Long‐Lived RadioNuclides (LLRN) is fundamental for their long-term management. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 41 Ca concentrations in ions exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). 41 Ca concentrations were successfully measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) after the acid digestion of resin samples, followed by radioactive decontamination and isobaric suppression through successive hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate and final CaF 2 precipitations. Measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 ng/g, i.e. from 0.06 to 0.09 Bq/g. The 41 Ca/ 60 Co activity ratios obtained were remarkably reproducible and in good agreement with the current ratio used for resins management. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 41 Ca in spent resins using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. • A chemical treatment procedure was developed to quantitatively recover calcium in solution and selectively extract it. • Developed firstly on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • Accelerator mass spectrometry allowed measuring concentrations of 41 Ca in spent resins as low as 0.02 ng/g of dry resin. • Final results are in agreement with current data used for spent resins management

  10. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  11. and phenol–formaldehyde resin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    formaldehyde resin (PFR) modified with tetraethylorthosilicate are investigated in detail. The chemical synthesis of PFR, its modification with nanometer- sized SiO2 particles created by sol–gel method and subsequent coating, enables a preparation of ...

  12. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  13. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  14. Leachability of chelated ion-exchange resins solidified in cement or cement and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Leach tests were conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on six small-scale specimens of cement-solidified ion-exchange resin wastes. The ion-exchange resins had been used to process reagent solutions following chemical decontaminations of primary coolant systems at five commercial light water reactors. The decontaminations were performed using the AP/Citrox, Can-Decon, Dow NS-1, and Low Oxidation-State Transition-Metal ION (LOMI) processes. The ion-exchange resin wastes were loaded with radionuclides, transition metals, and organic chelating agents, and were solidified in either unmodified Portland Type 1 cement or in a mixture of Portland Type 1 cement and fly ash. Waste-form specimens were leach-tested in deionized water at 23C using the American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS) Standard 16.1 procedure. Release rates, effective diffusivities, and leachability indexes of radionuclides, chelating agents, and stable metals were determined using ANS-16.1 diffusion release models. Releases of radionuclides, chelating agents, and metals from waste forms that degraded during leaching were similar to releases from waste forms that maintained their physical integrity during leaching. The presence of chelating agents in the waste forms did not adversely affect the leachability of the waste forms

  15. Digit Tip Regeneration: Merging Regeneration Biology with Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Connor P; Dawson, Lindsay A; Muneoka, Ken

    2018-03-01

    Regeneration Biology is the study of organisms with endogenous regenerative abilities, whereas Regenerative Medicine focuses on engineering solutions for human injuries that do not regenerate. While the two fields are fundamentally different in their approach, there is an obvious interface involving mammalian regeneration models. The fingertip is the only part of the human limb that is regeneration-competent and the regenerating mouse digit tip has emerged as a model to study a clinically relevant regenerative response. In this article, we discuss how studies of digit tip regeneration have identified critical components of the regenerative response, and how an understanding of endogenous regeneration can lead to expanding the regenerative capabilities of nonregenerative amputation wounds. Such studies demonstrate that regeneration-incompetent wounds can respond to treatment with individual morphogenetic agents by initiating a multi-tissue response that culminates in structural regeneration. In addition, the healing process of nonregenerative wounds are found to cycle through nonresponsive, responsive and nonresponsive phases, and we call the responsive phase the Regeneration Window. We also find the responsiveness of mature healed amputation wounds can be reactivated by reinjury, thus nonregenerated wounds retain a potential for regeneration. We propose that regeneration-incompetent injuries possess dormant regenerative potential that can be activated by targeted treatment with specific morphogenetic agents. We believe that future Regenerative Medicine-based-therapies should be designed to promote, not replace, regenerative responses. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:262-270. © 2018 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  16. Resin glycosides from Porana duclouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Dai-Gui; Liu, Chun-Jie; Li, Guan-Hua; Li, You-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    A new intact resin glycoside (3) and two glycosidic acids (1 and 2), all having a common trisaccharide moiety and (11S)-hydroxytetradecanoic acid or (3S,11S)-dihydroxytetradecanoic acid as the aglycone, were obtained from the roots of Porana duclouxii. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlations. These compounds represent the first examples of resin glycosides from the genus Porana.

  17. Karakteristik Komposit Resin Berkemampuan Mengalir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of resin composites as posterior restoratives has markedly increased over the past decade. The patients demand for better esthetics, concerns related to possible mercury toxicity from amalgam and improvements in resin composite materials have significantly contributed the popularity of these materials. Early problems related to composites included excessive wear, less of anatomic form, post operative sensitivity, secondary caries and marginal leakage. Marginal adaptation still remains an unavoidable problem for composite restoration, especially at the gingival wall of cervical or Class II restoration. In an attempt to improve marginal sealing, many techniques and lining materials have been designed. To reduce stress generated by polymerization shrinkage, applying and curing of resin composites in layers is often recommended. Using a thick adhesive layer or low-viscosity resin may, due to its elastic properties, serve as a flexible intermediate layer and compensate for the polymerization stress created in resin composite. Flowable composites were created by retaining the same small particle size of traditional hybrid composite but reducing the filler content and allowing the increased resin to reduce the viscosity of the mixture. Flowable composites were introduced in 1996 as liners, fissure sealants and also in tunnel preparations. They have been suggested for Class I, II, III and V cavity restorations, preventive resin restorations and composite, porcelain and amalgam repairing. Their usage as a liner under high filled resins in posterior restorations has been shown to improve the adaptation of composites and effectively achieve clinically acceptable results. This article attempts to give a broad characteristics of different types of flowable composites. 

  18. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  19. Studies of Vitrification of Ion-Exchange Resins. A Joint USA-Argentina Collaborative Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Herman, C.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Sundaram, S.K.; Perez, J.M.; Hoeffner, S.L.; Russo, D.O.; Sterba, M.

    2003-01-01

    Under the Science and Technology Implementing Arrangement for Cooperation on Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management (JCCRM), the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) is helping to transfer waste treatment technology to international atomic energy commissions.As part of the JCCRM, DOE has established a collaborative research agreement with the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Cnea).The Cnea is investigating treatment and disposal options for organic ion exchange resins currently stored at two nuclear power plants in the Republic of Argentina.The major hazards of the ion exchange resins are their organic composition and the contaminants that are present on the resins after purification processes.The principal contaminants are usually the radioactive species that are removed.For these studies, actual non-radioactive resins from Argentina's Embalse and Atucha plants were tested.The glass produced during the runs was durable was measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT).The product had a predictable, mostly amorphous composition throughout the demonstrations; though there was some evidence of the formation of clinopyroxene crystals.The immobilized product represented an approximately 70% volume reduction from the simulated Argentine ion exchange resin (i.e., a reduction from the volume of as-stored wet resin to the volume of the ultimate borosilicate glass product).For all runs, the radioactive surrogate retention was near 100%

  20. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  1. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  2. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitument matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    To study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms, many samples of bitumen mixed with ion-exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared. The resins used in the tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/anionic bead resins. Different bittumen types were assayed: two destilled and to oxidized bitumens. Laboratory to scale samples, with surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 1, were molded to 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height. The composition of the mixtures were: 30, 40, 50 and 60% by weight of dried resin with bitumen. The leachant was deionized water with a leachant volume to sample surface rario of about 8 cm. Leached fractions were collected according to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant beckers after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli were used for counting in a Ge(Li) detector. Up to now, results of 250 days have been accumulated. Samples prepared with distilled bitumen have shown a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -14 cm 2 /sec and those prepared with oxidized bitumen yielded a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -12 cm 2 /sec. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry were employed to fit experimental data. (Author) [pt

  3. Degradation of ion spent resin using the Fenton's reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Leandro Goulart de

    2013-01-01

    The most common method for spent radioactive ion exchange resin treatment is its immobilization in cement, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. Although this method is efficient, it increases considerably the final volume of the waste due to the low incorporation capacity. The objective of this work was to develop a degradation method of spent resins arising from the nuclear research reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagents. This method would allow a higher incorporation in cement. Three different resins were evaluated: cationic, anionic and a mixture of both resins. The reactions were conducted varying the catalyst concentration (25, 50, 100 and 150 mM), the volume of hydrogen peroxide (320 to 460 mL), and three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg C. Degradation of about 98% was achieved using a 50 mM catalyst solution and 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution. The most efficient temperature was 60 deg C. (author)

  4. Development of an ion-exchange process for removing cesium from high-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgarten, P.K.; Wallace, R.M.; Whitehurst, D.A.; Steed, J.M.

    1979-11-01

    Methods to determine resin characteristics, i.e., cesium equilibria and diffusion rates, were developed. These parameters can now guide resin selection and aid in interpreting column performance. The K/sub D/ cesium ion concentration relation gives evidence of three different types of ion exchange sites. The countercurrent load/elution/regeneration cycle for the removal of cesium by ion exchange repeatedly reached the goal decontamination factor (DF) of 10,000 at throughputs up to 60 column volumes. Resin backwashing appears feasible, but further development of column geometry will be required. The proposed ammonium elutriant is satisfactory. Regeneration end-point can be controlled by electrical conductivity monitoring

  5. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  6. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  7. Nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Pan, Yong Zheng; Li, Lin; He, Chao Bin

    2013-04-01

    Natural bone tissue possesses a nanocomposite structure that provides appropriate physical and biological properties. For bone tissue regeneration, it is crucial for the biomaterial to mimic living bone tissue. Since no single type of material is able to mimic the composition, structure and properties of native bone, nanocomposites are the best choice for bone tissue regeneration as they can provide the appropriate matrix environment, integrate desirable biological properties, and provide controlled, sequential delivery of multiple growth factors for the different stages of bone tissue regeneration. This article reviews the composition, structure and properties of advanced nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration. It covers aspects of interest such as the biomimetic synthesis of bone-like nanocomposites, guided bone regeneration from inert biomaterials and bioactive nanocomposites, and nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. The design, fabrication, and in vitro and in vivo characterization of such nanocomposites are reviewed.

  8. Simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions using an extractive scintillating resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, J E; DeVol, T A

    2002-11-01

    An extractive scintillating resin was evaluated for the simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions. The transuranic extractive scintillating (TRU-ES) resin is composed of an inert macroporous polystyrene core impregnated with organic fluors (diphenyloxazole and 1,4-bis-(4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene) and an extractant (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tributyl phosphate). The TRU-ES resin was packed into FEP Teflon tubing to produce a flow cell (0.2-mL free column volume), which is placed into a scintillation detection system to obtain pulse height spectra and time series data during loading and elution of actinides onto/from the resin. The alpha-particle absolute detection efficiencies ranged from 77% to 96.5%, depending on the alpha energy and quench. In addition to the on-line analyses, off-line analyses of the effluent can be conducted using conventional detection methods. The TRU-ES resin was applied to the quantification of a mixed radionuclide solution and two actual waste samples. The on-line characterization of the mixed radionuclide solution was within 10% of the reported activities whereas the agreement with the waste samples was not as good due to sorption onto the sample container walls and the oxidation state of plutonium. Agreement between the on-line and off-line analyses was within 35% of one another for both waste samples.

  9. Study on uranium adsorption ability of tannix resin from solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thi Kim Dung; Le Quang Thai; Nguyen Lanh; Le Ngoc Thuy

    2004-01-01

    During past years, generated liquid waste from uranium ore processing has been treated by co-precipitation method in ITRRE. In this liquid waste treatment process, mixing liquid waste and lime, decantation, filtration of precipitate were implemented. The treated fluid has underlimited toxic concentration and ensures for moving into environment. Residue was dried and packed into drums as low level radioactive waste. Next to the advantages of this method such as simplest technology, cheapest cost, easy operation. Some amount of secondary radioactive waste as noncombustible materials must be stored with complicated technologies a highly cost. We have been researching a new liquid waste treatment system replaceable precipitation system. In the new process, insoluble tannin is utilized as adsorbent of uranium liquid waste. Advantage of insoluble tannin is expected to be possible to reduce its volume incineration as well as its adsorption ability. Those are the reasons why tannix resin is used this research subject. In this subject, we have studied adsorption capacity of uranium in Tannix, relation of adsorption rate and pH, the change of adsorption ability of column system, the pyrolysis curve of dried Tannix (author)

  10. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filter, H.E.; Roberson, K.

    1979-01-01

    Test program results for the Dow system for solidification of low-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are described. Simulated radioactive wastes containing 137 Cs and 60 Co and actual radioactive nuclear power plant wastes were solidified in the Dow system. All wastes were converted to homogeneous, liquid-free solids. Data are presented for solidified boiling water reactor (BWR) wastes, pressurized water reactor (PWR) wastes, mixed bed ion exchange resin (MBR), and filter aid (DE) slurries

  11. FOUNDRY WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kosec

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.

  12. Image resolution influence on determination of resin injection rock mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Hakami, Eva

    2006-01-01

    In the context of nuclear waste repositories, an important approach to understanding brittle rock mass behavior to integrate new and powerful observational and numerical methods with multi-functional 3-D imaging and visualization techniques. Since 1994, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) have identified the need for a better understanding of radionuclide transport and retention processes in fractured rock. As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, we sampled a number of rock specimens for analyze rock fracture network by optical image technique. The samples are resin injected, in which way; opened fractures can be seen clearly by means of UV (Ultraviolet) light illumination. In the study period, we used different optical focuses to obtain the images from the same samples; we found that Image resolution influences on porosity determination of resin injected rock mass. This paper presents and discusses the six issues based on our research results: (1) Fracture porosity increases as camera focus distance decreases; (2) Porosity increases as illumination increases in resin injected fracture images; (3) To roughly estimate the porosity, the low resolution image can be used; (4) To collect more details of fracture information, the high resolution image is needed; (5) The resolution of image should be determined based on the aim of fracture analysis; (6) To acquire high resolution image, constructing a special illumination (standard) box maybe helpful to avoid light reflection and diffusion.

  13. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Ion-Exchange Resin - Effects of Oxygen Uptake and Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2009-01-01

    An ion-exchange process, using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site in Washington State. The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS)in South Carolina. Testing at ORNL will determine the impact of radiation exposure and oxygen uptake by the RF resin on the hydraulic permeability of the resin. Samples of the resin will be removed periodically to measure physical properties (bead size and compressibility) and cesium capacity. The proposed full-scale treatment system at Hanford, the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), will use an ion-exchange column containing nominally 680 gal of resin, which will treat 30 gpm of waste solution. The ion-exchange column is designed for a typical pressure drop of 6 psig, with a maximum of 9.7 psig. The lab-scale column is 3-in. clear PVC pipe and is prototypic of the proposed Hanford column. The fluid velocity in the lab-scale test will be much higher than for the full-scale column, in order to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in that column (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity will produce similar forces on the resin in the lab-scale column as would be expected at the bottom of the full-scale column. The chemical changes in the resin caused by radiation exposure and oxygen uptake are expected to cause physical changes in the resin that could reduce the bed porosity and reduce the hydraulic permeability of the resin bed. These changes will be monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and by measuring the physical properties of samples of the resin. The test loop with the lab-scale column is currently being fabricated, and operation will start by late May. Testing will be completed by the

  14. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahida, Nurul [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Irwan, M. N. [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 65}Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs were leached out from the spent resin while {sup 60}Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  15. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  16. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  17. Formulation study on immobilization of spent ion exchange resins in polymer cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lili; Lin Meiqiong; Bao Liangjin; Fan Xianhua

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a formulation of cement-solidified spent radioactive ion exchange resin form. The solidified form consists of a sort of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion, and spent ion exchange resins. The composite cement is made up of quick-setting sulphoaluminate cement, silica powder, zeolite, and fly ash in the proportion 1:0.05:0.10:0.05. Sixteen combinations of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion and mixed anion-cation exchange resins are selected according to a three-factors-four-levels normal design table with the compression strength as the evaluation criterion. The resulted formulation is as follows: the mass ratio of polymer emulsion to composite cement is 0.55:1, the loading of mixed anion-cation exchange resins is 0.3, and the anionic-to-cationic exchange resins ratio is 2:1. The polymer cement solidified forms were tested after 28 d curing for Cs + and Sr 2+ leaching rates, pH and conductivity of the leaching water, and radiation-resistant property in addition to their compressive strength. The measurement results indicate that the performance of thus prepared solidified forms can meet the requirements of the National Standard GB14569.1-93 for near earth's surface disposal of low radioactive waste. (authors)

  18. Flowsheet Validation For The Permanganate Digestion Of REILLEX(trademark) HPQ Anion Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.

    2009-01-01

    The flowsheet for the digestion of Reillex(trademark) HPQ was validated both under the traditional alkaline conditions and under strongly acidic conditions. Due to difficulty in performing a pH adjustment in the large tank where this flowsheet must be performed, the recommended digestion conditions were changed from pH 8-10 to 8 M HNO 3 . Thus, no pH adjustment of the solution is required prior to performing the permanganate addition and digestion and the need to sample the digestion tank to confirm appropriate pH range for digestion may be avoided. Neutralization of the acidic digestion solution will be performed after completion of the resin digestion cycle. The amount of permanganate required for this type of resin (Reillex(trademark) HPQ) was increased from 1 kg/L resin to 4 kg/L resin to reduce the amount of residual resin solids to a minimal amount ( 2 ) solids (1.71 kg/L resin) and involves the generation of a significant liquid volume due to the low solubility of permanganate. However, since only two batches of resin (40 L each) are expected to be digested, the total waste generated is limited.

  19. Incineration of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic mixture at Belgoprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.

    2003-01-01

    Up to 1998, spent ion exchange resins have been fed to the incinerator in combination with various other solid combustible wastes at Belgoprocess. However, thanks to sustained efforts to reduce radioactive waste production in all nuclear facilities in Belgium, the annual production of solid combustible waste is now much too small to allow this practice to be continued. Since the incinerator at Belgoprocess is not capable of treating spent ion exchange resins as such, it was decided to adopt the use of foam as a carrier to feed the resins to the incinerator. The mixture is a pseudohomogeneous charged foam, ensuring easy handling and allowing incineration in the existing furance, while a number of additives may be included, such as oil to increase the calorific value of the mixture and accelerate combustion. The first incineration campaign of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic foam mixture, in conjunction with other liquid and solid combustible wastes, will be started in January 2000. The foam, comprising 70% by weight of resins, 29% by weight of water and 1% by weight of surfactant will be pulverized in the incinerator through an injection lance, at a feed rate of 40 to 100 kg/h. The incinerator and associated off-gas treatment system can be operated at standard conditions. Belgoprocess is the subsidiary of the Belgian national agency for the management of radioactive waste, known by its Dutch and French acronyms, NIRAS and ONDRAF respectively. The company ensures the treatment, conditioning and interim storage of nearly all radioactive waste produced in Belgium. (orig.)

  20. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  1. Low Temperature Regenerator Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    a definite value: where eis Avogadros number k is the Boltzman constant and V. is the gas constant. This relationship, known as the law of Dulong and...for bulk material. 2.2 Bulk Lattice Specific Heat The first law of thermodynamics is written as S = 4 + (2) wheresis heat absorbed by a system 1Uis...TEMPERATURE REGENERATOR STUDY. Augutwt -*e Aug4W79 7. AUHO~t()_,_ . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUN8ER( s ) P. 7J.alshF33615-78-c-3425-( 9. PERFORMING

  2. Use of an Italian pozzolanic cement for the solidification of bead ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.

    1988-05-01

    Granular ion-exchange resins represent a large portion of the medium-active wastes generated at nuclear power stations. The most common practice for their confinement is to mix them with cement paste and cast the mixture in a concrete shell. Such a procedure however does not prove successful in many cases, because of the extreme swelling to which the embedded resin can give rise. This phenomenon has been investigated carefully. In particular, measurements of the swelling pressure have been made together with evaluation of the volume changes of the resin beads due to ion exchange and of the weight increase as a function of relative humidity. The ion exchange capacity, which continues even after incorporation in the cement matrix has also been put into evidence. The conclusion was drawn that a three component diagram (water - dry resin- cement) has to be prepared every time in order to identify the region corresponding to the better formulations. With this in mind the optimum waste loading of 11.5 wt% of dry resin was chosen to incorporate a mixed bed resin (Amberlite IR 120 Na + and IRA 400 Cl - in the weight ratio of 1:1) into an Italian pozzolanic cement (425 type). Several properties of the final waste form have been investigated, ranging from mechanical (crushing strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, elastic modulus and Poisson ratio), to thermal stability, radiation stability, permeability, leachability and resistance to bacterial attack. Dimensional stability was also measured with the aim of examining the expansion phenomena which can take place in the presence of resin beads. The data obtained are encouraging for future application of the type 425 cement tested in the field of radwastes. An attempt to explain the performance of this binder, based on its intrinsic properties, was also made. (author)

  3. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10[sup 7] gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10[sup 6] gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10[sup 3] gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10[sup 4] gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10[sup 2] ft[sup 3] of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10[sup 8] gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10[sup 7] gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10[sup 3] ft[sup 3]) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter

  4. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10{sup 7} gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10{sup 6} gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system`s discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10{sup 3} gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10{sup 4} gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10{sup 2} ft{sup 3} of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10{sup 8} gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10{sup 7} gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10{sup 3} ft{sup 3}) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room.

  5. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Department annual operating report, CY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, M.A.; Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    1993-03-01

    A total of 6.05 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) ion exchange system during CY 1992. This averaged to 115 gpm throughout the year. When necessary, a wastewater sidestream of 50--80 gpm was treated through the use of a natural zeolite treatment system. An additional 8.00 x 10 6 gal (average of 15 gpm throughout the year) were treated by the zeolite system. Therefore, the average total flow treated at the PWTP for CY 1992 was 130 gpm. In mid-June, the zeolite system was repiped to allow it the capability to treat the ion exchange system's discharge due to rising Cs problems in the wastewater. While being used to treat the ion exchange system's discharge, it cannot treat a sidestream of wastewater. During the year, the regeneration of the cation exchange resins resulted in the generation of 7.83 x 10 3 gal of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) concentrate and 1.15 x 10 4 gal of LLLW evaporator feed. The head-end softening process (precipitation/clarification) generated 604 drums (4.40 x 10 3 ft 3 ) of solid low-level waste sludge. The zeolite treatment system generated approximately 8.40 x 10 2 ft 3 of spent zeolite resin, which was turned over to the Solid Waste Operations Department for disposal. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at the PWTP. Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 show a comparison of operations at the PWTP in 1992 with previous years. Figure 5 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1987. A total of 1.55 x 10 8 gal of liquid waste (average of 294 gpm throughout the year) was treated at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). Of this amount, 1.40 x 10 7 gal were treated by the precipitation/clarification process for removal of heavy metals. Twenty-five boxes (1.60 x 10 3 ft 3 ) of solid sludge generated by the precipitation/clarification process were removed from the filter press room

  6. Sampling and characterization of spent exchange resins of Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, Jose L.; Cernadas, D.; Iglesias, Alberto M.; Raffo Calderon, Maria del C.

    2004-01-01

    The present storage facilities for spent resins in Atucha I NPP would be full within the next 5 years, accordingly some tasks are being planned to conditioning these waste and so generate enough storage capacity for the remaining life of the plant. Among this tasks is the characterization of spent resins that has several objectives: to know their chemical and radiochemical composition; the homogeneity of these parameters in the total volume of spent resins; the existence or not of compact zones; the proportion of 'crud'; the breakage degree of the micro-spheres; etc. The first step was to analyse the criterion to follow for sampling resins in the storage deposit of 40 m 3 . In order to take some samples from different points, a special device was required. It had to be introduced closed in the resin bed, opened to take the sample and then closed again to return to the surface. A device used in cereal industry for sampling silos to different depths was modified in its internal capacity for reducing operator dose and increasing the length of rod in order to reaching the bottom of the pit. The device was tested in cold mock up before to taking actual samples. Active resins samples, five in total up to now, were taken from deposit to different depths and kept in lead containers. After analysing the samples, the following average results were extracted: 1.7 x 10 5 Bq/g of Co-60, 9.7 x 10 5 Bq/g of Cs-137 and 774 Bq/g of total alpha, which corresponds to intermediate activity waste. The differences between the values of activity of the different samples are of up to 310 % for Co-60 and of up to 788 % for the Cs-137 what indicates a great inhomogeneity. The direct observation of resin grains, placed in a transparent glass burette, did not demonstrate an important proportion of broken or divided resins. (author)

  7. Nuclear waste in Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf (short: Seibersdorf) is the company operating the research reactor ASTRA. A controversy arose, initied by the Greens and some newspapers on the fact that the waste conditioning plant in Seibersdorf treated not only Austrian waste (from hospitals etc.) but also a large quantity of ion exchange resins from the Caorso nuclear power station, against payment. The author argues that it is untenable that an Austrian institution (peaceful use of nuclear energy in Austria being abandoned by a referendum) should support nuclear power abroad. There is also a short survey on nuclear waste conditioning and an account of an exchange of letters, between the Seibersdorf and the Ecology Institute on the claim of being an 'independent measuring institution' of food, soil, etc. samples. The author argues that the Ecology Institute is the sole independent institution in Austria because it is part of the ecology- and antinuclear movement, whereas Seibersdorf is dependent on the state. (qui)

  8. Engineering study for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin resulting from nuclear process applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1990-09-01

    This document is an engineering study of spent ion exchange resin treatment processes with the purpose of identifying one or more suitable treatment technologies. Classifications of waste considered include all classes of low-level waste (LLW), mixed LLW, transuranic (TRU) waste, and mixed TRU waste. A total of 29 process alternatives have been evaluated. Evaluation parameters have included economic parameters (both total life-cycle costs and capital costs), demonstrated operability, environmental permitting, operational availability, waste volume reduction, programmatic consistency, and multiple utilization. The results of this study suggest that there are a number of alternative process configurations that are suitable for the treatment of spent ion exchange resin. The determinative evaluation parameters were economic variables (total life-cycle cost or capital cost) and waste volume reduction. Immobilization processes are generally poor in volume reduction. Thermal volume reduction processes tend to have high capital costs. There are immobilization processes and thermal volume reduction processes that can treat all classifications of spent ion exchange resin likely to be encountered. 40 refs., 19 figs., 17 tabs

  9. A regulatory program for excretory system regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, M Lucila; Srivastava, Mansi; Bell, George W; Reddien, Peter W

    2011-10-01

    Planarians can regenerate any missing body part, requiring mechanisms for the production of organ systems in the adult, including their prominent tubule-based filtration excretory system called protonephridia. Here, we identify a set of genes, Six1/2-2, POU2/3, hunchback, Eya and Sall, that encode transcription regulatory proteins that are required for planarian protonephridia regeneration. During regeneration, planarian stem cells are induced to form a cell population in regeneration blastemas expressing Six1/2-2, POU2/3, Eya, Sall and Osr that is required for excretory system formation. POU2/3 and Six1/2-2 are essential for these precursor cells to form. Eya, Six1/2-2, Sall, Osr and POU2/3-related genes are required for vertebrate kidney development. We determined that planarian and vertebrate excretory cells express homologous proteins involved in reabsorption and waste modification. Furthermore, we identified novel nephridia genes. Our results identify a transcriptional program and cellular mechanisms for the regeneration of an excretory organ and suggest that metazoan excretory systems are regulated by genetic programs that share a common evolutionary origin.

  10. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-06-11

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.0 , which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590 PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590 PTF TEF RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  11. Resin technologies: construction and staining of resin TMA's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, William J; Wilson, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    The traditional formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and therefore the tissue microarrays created from it, provide good morphology but with a compromised antigenicity when compared to frozen tissue. In contrast, while solving the issue of antigenicity, frozen tissue suffers from a lack of morphology. We have demonstrated that tissue microarrays constructed in glycol methacrylate resin, when combined with a cold acetone fixation step, have been able to combine the superior morphology of resin-embedded sections with the superior antigenicity of frozen tissue for prospectively collected material.

  12. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  13. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D

    2013-01-01

    myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...

  14. The Basis of Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Musarò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration recapitulates many aspects of embryonic myogenesis and is an important homeostatic process of the adult skeletal muscle, which, after development, retains the capacity to regenerate in response to appropriate stimuli, activating the muscle compartment of stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as other precursor cells. Moreover, significant evidence suggests that while stem cells represent an important determinant for tissue regeneration, a “qualified” environment is necessary to guarantee and achieve functional results. It is therefore plausible that the loss of control over these cell fate decisions could lead to a pathological transdifferentiation, leading to pathologic defects in the regenerative process. This review provides an overview about the general aspects of muscle development and discusses the cellular and molecular aspects that characterize the five interrelated and time-dependent phases of muscle regeneration, namely, degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, remodeling, and maturation/functional repair.

  15. Use of Anion Exchange Resins for One-Step Processing of Algae from Harvest to Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Poenie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Some microalgae are particularly attractive as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production due to their rapid growth, high content of triacylglycerols, and ability to be grown on non-arable land. Unfortunately, obtaining oil from algae is currently cost prohibitive in part due to the need to pump and process large volumes of dilute algal suspensions. In an effort to circumvent this problem, we have explored the use of anion exchange resins for simplifying the processing of algae to biofuel. Anion exchange resins can bind and accumulate the algal cells out of suspension to form a dewatered concentrate. Treatment of the resin-bound algae with sulfuric acid/methanol elutes the algae and regenerates the resin while converting algal lipids to biodiesel. Hydrophobic polymers can remove biodiesel from the sulfuric acid/methanol, allowing the transesterification reagent to be reused. We show that in situ transesterification of algal lipids can efficiently convert algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters while allowing the resin and transesterification reagent to be recycled numerous times without loss of effectiveness.

  16. Produced water treatment using polymeric resins; Resinas polimericas para tratamento da agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Freire, Norma de Oliveira [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Queiros, Yure Gomes de Carvalho; Silva, Carla Michele Frota da; Barros, Cintia Chagas; Lucas, Elizabeth Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    2008-07-01

    The treatment and disposal of oily waters from oil production and refining processes represent an important technological pass for attendance of the ambient legislation and to the politics of the Cia of search of the environmental excellence. The reuse or reinjection of the co-produced water has been considered an interesting strategical alternative, however, the water quality requirement for these processes demands a pretreatment step, considering the exit effluent from primary and secondary treatment processes currently used. This work presents resulted of the polymeric resin development for tertiary treatment of oily waters with low oil and grasses content and fine solids, including the dissolved fraction. These resins can adsorb, in reversible form, organic components. Its high adsorption capacity is determined by the polarity, superficial area, range of porosity and a wide distribution of particle size and pore. Another important characteristic is the possibility of its use in some cycles of work due to its weak forces of interaction between the contaminants and the surface of the resin. Regeneration can be carried through of diverse forms, including the use of solvent, with or without the variation of temperature and/or pH. The gotten results indicated a high resin adsorption capacity, with concentrated oily water treatment volume 10,000 times the volume of resin used. (author)

  17. Epoxy Resins in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Henry

    1960-01-01

    A method of embedding biological specimens in araldite 502 (Ciba) has been developed for materials available in the United States. Araldite-embedded tissues are suitable for electron microscopy, but the cutting qualities of the resin necessitates more than routine attention during microtomy. The rather high viscosity of araldite 502 also seems to be an unnecessary handicap. The less viscous epoxy epon 812 (Shell) produces specimens with improved cutting qualities, and has several features—low shrinkage and absence of specimen damage during cure, minimal compression of sections, relative absence of electron beam-induced section damage, etc.—which recommends it as a routine embedding material. The hardness of the cured resin can be easily adjusted by several methods to suit the materials embedded in it. Several problems and advantages of working with sections of epoxy resins are also discussed. PMID:13822825

  18. Process for Molding Nonreinforced (Neat) Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Void free moldings obtained for neat, condensation, thermosetting resins. Thermally and mechanically treat resin prior to molding to reduce amount of volatiles. With volatiles reduced molding temperature and pressure are applied in way to drive out remaining volatiles during molding.

  19. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used...

  20. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  1. Adsorption of an Uranyl Carbonate Complex onto an Amidoxime Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Kih-Soo; Lee, Eil-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Jung, Euo-Chang; Jee, Kwang-Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Uranium is a major element in the management of spent nuclear fuel or radioactive waste. Uranium is also present in sea water at a trace level ({approx}3ppb). Usually, an acid medium in a solvent extraction or ion exchange system have been used for the separation of uranium from a radioactive waste solution. Especially, some adsorbants containing amidoxime functional groups selective for the uranyl ion have been developed for the recovery of uranium in sea water. An amidoxime resin as an anion exchanger synthesized using divinylbenzene copolymer as a supporting material was applied for the separation of uranium and plutonium from simulated fission products in carbonate solution by making an uranyl tricarbonate complex, UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4-}, in an alkaline solution of a carbonate (pH>8). A carbonate leaching of uranium from uranium contaminated soils was also successfully performed using a sodium carbonate and a sodium bicarbonate solution. In this work, the distribution coefficients of uranyl ions were measured for the amidoxime resins with a variation of carbonate concentration and the pH of the solutions as a preliminary work for a spent fuel treatment with a strong alkaline carbonate solution because this system has an advantage to reduce a high level waste volume by a selective oxidation and an adsorption of uranium from spent fuels.

  2. Krsko NPP radioactive waste characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the

  3. Corrosion of steel drums containing immobilized ion exchange-resins and incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotta, F.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.M.; Farina, Silvia B.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The intermediate radioactive waste consists mostly in spent ionic exchange resins and filters from the nuclear power plants, research reactors and radioisotopes production facilities. The spent resins, as well as the incineration ashes, have to be immobilized before being stored to improve leach resistance of waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability for safety requirements. Generally, cementation processes have been used as immobilization techniques for economical reasons as well as for being a simple operation. The immobilized resins and incineration ashes are thus contained in steel drums that, in turn, can undergo corrosion depending on the ionic content of the matrix. This work is a part of a systematic study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with immobilized cemented exchange-resins with different types and contents of aggressive species and incineration ashes. To this purpose, a special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix are being monitored along time. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species present in nature) and sulphate ions (produced during the radiolysis process of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). Preliminary results show the strong effect of chloride on the corrosion susceptibility of the steel. Monitoring will continue for

  4. Method and apparatus for processing radioactive laundry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takamori; Suzuki, Takeo; Inami, Ichiro

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the processing efficiency by processing radioactive laundry waste by removing solid components and then eliminating ionic components contained therein. Constitution: Stored liquid wastes are sent to a cyclone to remove particles of greater specific weight and sludges are accumulated in a sludge reservoir. The liquid wastes are sent to a self-cleaning strainer to remove thread dusts, hairs and the likes, and then sent to a storage tank. The liquid wastes are further sent to a self-cleaning type centrifugal settler. Fine clads separated there are stored in a sludge reservoir and cleaned liquid wastes are sent to ultrafilter and an ion exchange resin column to remove radioactive components. The concentration liquid wastes from the ultrafilter are dried in a drier and the resin wastes from the ion exchange column are subjected to solidification. Sludges in the sludge reservoirs are solidified in a solidifier and then packed in drum can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  6. Uranium sorption by tannin resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares Rieumont, S.; Martinez Luzardo, J.; Torres Hernandez, J.; Lima Cazorla, D. de la Rosa.

    1998-01-01

    The sorption of uranium by immobilised Eucalyptus Saligna Sm. and Lysiloma latisiliqua L tannins was investigated. Immobilization condition were analyzed. These resins resulted suitable adsorbent for the concentration of uranium from aqueous systems. The sorption of uranium is pH dependent. At pH 5.5 maximum in sorption capacity is registered. The presence of appreciable amount of sodium chloride do not have any effect on uranium removal. Carbonate and calcium ions in concentrations similar to these that could be found in sea water and other natural water do not decrease the uranium uptake. Tannin resins can be used several times without an appreciable decay of their sorption capacity

  7. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  8. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and addition of composted olive-mill waste enhance plant establishment and soil properties in the regeneration of a heavy metal-polluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) in the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal-polluted soil. The treatments assayed were as follows: AM + 0% COW, AM + 1% COW, and AM + 3% COW. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96 and 60%, respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soil properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni, and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided Glomus mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy metal-contaminated soils derived from the mining process, and also can be a good way for olive-mill waste disposal.

  9. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  10. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  11. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  12. Immobilization of wet solid wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wet solid wastes are classified into four basic types: spent resins, filter sludges, evaporator concentrates, and miscellaneous liquids. Although the immobilization of wet solid wastes is primarily concerned with the incorporation of the waste with a solidification agent, there are a number of other discrete operations or subsystems involved in the treatment of these wastes that may affect the immobilized waste product. The immobilization process may be broken down into five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging, and waste package handling. The properties of the waste forms that are ultimately shipped from the reactor site are primarily influenced by the methods utilized during the waste collection, waste pretreatment and mixing/packaging operations. The mixing/packaging (solidification) operation is perhaps the most important stage of the immobilization process. The basic solidification agent types are: absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, bitumen, and other polymer systems

  13. Bone regeneration in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Paolo; Duvina, Marco; Barbato, Luigi; Biondi, Eleonora; Nuti, Niccolò; Brancato, Leila; Rose, Giovanna Delle

    2011-01-01

    Summary The edentulism of the jaws and the periodontal disease represent conditions that frequently leads to disruption of the alveolar bone. The loss of the tooth and of its bone of support lead to the creation of crestal defects or situation of maxillary atrophy. The restoration of a functional condition involves the use of endosseous implants who require adequate bone volume, to deal with the masticatory load. In such situations the bone need to be regenerated, taking advantage of the biological principles of osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. Several techniques combine these principles with different results, due to the condition of the bone base on which we operate changes, the surgical technique that we use, and finally for the bone metabolic conditions of the patient who can be in a state of systemic osteopenia or osteoporosis; these can also affect the result of jaw bone reconstruction. PMID:22461825

  14. Results from neutral kaon regeneration at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental neutral kaon regeneration results at Serpukhov energies up to 50 GeV are presented, including the coherent regeneration on hydrogen, deuterium and carbon regenerators and elastic regeneration on deuterium and carbon regenerators. (author)

  15. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

    1980-05-09

    A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  16. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, Michael; Bates, John K.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  17. Regenerating the English coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, A. [National Audit Office, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-17

    In England 124 coalfield pits out of 130 have closed since 1981, resulting in 193,000 job losses from an industry of 200,000. This report by Amyas Morse, the Comptroller and Auditor General, examines the progress and impact of the Department for Communities and Local Government's (the Department) three specific initiatives to tackle coalfields' regeneration in England: the National Coalfields Programme, to decontaminate and find uses for former coalfield sites; the Coalfield Regeneration Trust, to provide grants to community projects; and the Enterprise fund, to support businesses. The cost for these three schemes is 630 million pounds to date and spending is set to reach almost 1.1 billion pounds. The National Coalfields Programme has brought into new use 54 of 107 former coalfield sites, making them suitable for private development or recreational use; and work is underway on a further 22 sites. Private developers have built housing and employment space on 44 sites. The Programme expects to have treated 90 per cent of land by its target completion date of 2012 and it will take twice the ten-year timescale of the original Programme to achieve its aims for housing and employment space. While the Trust has helped to fund over 3,000 community projects and exceeded most of its targets, including building or enhancing over 2,300 community centres, because of strict funding cycles for departments it can currently offer support only up to 2011 and so the future of many projects is at risk. The Department for Communities and Location Government took five years to put the Enterprise Fund in place because of delays in meeting state aid requirements and protracted and unsuccessful negotiations with a private bank. The Fund has invested 6.5 million in 23 companies employing a total of 312 people. 12 figs., 2 apps.

  18. The safe management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivian, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Methods and facilities used by Ontario Hydro for storage of nuclear waste other than spent fuel are described and illustrated. The waste storage site is at the Bruce Nuclear Development. It has an impermeable clay subsoil. Low level, compactable and combustible waste is stored in concrete trenches. In-ground tile holes or concrete 'quadricells' are used for ion-exchange resins. The 'quadricells' are also used for pressure tubes. Liquid wastes are solidified before emplacement. Radioactive emissions from the site have been two to three orders of magnitude below the regulatory limits. (N.D.H.)

  19. Process and device for processing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for processing liquid radioactive wastes. It includes the heating of the liquid wastes so that the contained liquids are evaporated and a practically anhydrous mass of solid particles inferior in volume to that of the wastes introduced is formed, then the transformation of the solid particles into a monolithic structure. This transformation includes the compressing of the particles and sintering or fusion. The solidifying agent is a mixture of polyethylene and paraffin wax or a styrene copolymer and a polyester resin. The device used for processing the radioactive liquid wastes is also described [fr

  20. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  1. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  2. Cardiac Regeneration and Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Mignone, John; MacLellan, W Robb

    2015-10-01

    After decades of believing the heart loses the ability to regenerate soon after birth, numerous studies are now reporting that the adult heart may indeed be capable of regeneration, although the magnitude of new cardiac myocyte formation varies greatly. While this debate has energized the field of cardiac regeneration and led to a dramatic increase in our understanding of cardiac growth and repair, it has left much confusion in the field as to the prospects of regenerating the heart. Studies applying modern techniques of genetic lineage tracing and carbon-14 dating have begun to establish limits on the amount of endogenous regeneration after cardiac injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms of this regeneration remained unclear. These same studies have also revealed an astonishing capacity for cardiac repair early in life that is largely lost with adult differentiation and maturation. Regardless, this renewed focus on cardiac regeneration as a therapeutic goal holds great promise as a novel strategy to address the leading cause of death in the developed world. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y.; Zhou, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth. PMID:21699433

  4. Diterpene resin acids in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2006-11-01

    Diterpene resin acids are a significant component of conifer oleoresin, which is a viscous mixture of terpenoids present constitutively or inducibly upon herbivore or pathogen attack and comprises one form of chemical resistance to such attacks. This review focuses on the recent discoveries in the chemistry, biosynthesis, molecular biology, regulation, and biology of these compounds in conifers.

  5. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  6. Radioactive waste management practices in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Different countries around the globe, especially those involved in nuclear power plant operation, spent fuel reprocessing, nuclear research activities and diverse nuclear applications; generate large inventory of radioactive wastes. These waste streams generated during various stages of nuclear fuel cycle are of different categories, which require special care for handling, treatment and conditioning. Conventional treatment and conditioning methods may not be efficient for various type of waste; therefore special options may be required to manage these waste streams. Presently, Indian waste management fraternity is focused to minimize the volume of the waste to be finally disposed off, by partitioning radionuclides, regenerating separation media and re-using as much of the waste components as possible and economically feasible. This approach, together with the reuse/recycling strategy, seems to represent a robust waste treatment strategy for the future

  7. Recovery of transplutonium elements from nuclear reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Buxton, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    A method of separating actinide values from nitric acid waste solutions resulting from reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels comprises oxalate precipitation of the major portion of actinide and lanthanide values to provide a trivalent fraction suitable for subsequent actinide/lanthanide partition, exchange of actinide and lanthanide values in the supernate onto a suitable cation exchange resin to provide an intermediate-lived raffinate waste stream substantially free of actinides, and elution of the actinide values from the exchange resin. The eluate is then used to dissolve the trivalent oxalate fraction prior to actinide/lanthanide partition or may be combined with the reprocessing waste stream and recycled. 5 claims, 2 figures

  8. Lignin model compounds as bio-based reactive diluents for liquid molding resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, Joseph F; Sadler, Joshua M; La Scala, John J; Wool, Richard P

    2012-07-01

    Lignin is a copious paper and pulping waste product that has the potential to yield valuable, low molecular weight, single aromatic chemicals when strategically depolymerized. The single aromatic lignin model compounds, vanillin, guaiacol, and eugenol, were methacrylated by esterification with methacrylic anhydride and a catalytic amount of 4-dimethylaminopyridine. Methacrylated guaiacol (MG) and methacrylated eugenol (ME) exhibited low viscosities at room temperature (MG: 17 cP and ME: 28 cP). When used as reactive diluents in vinyl ester resins, they produced resin viscosities higher than that of vinyl ester-styrene blends. The relative volatilities of MG (1.05 wt% loss in 18 h) and ME (0.96 wt% loss in 18 h) measured by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were considerably lower than that of styrene (93.7 wt% loss in 3 h) indicating the potential of these chemicals to be environmentally friendly reactive diluents. Bulk polymerization of MG and ME generated homopolymers with glass transition temperatures (T(g)s) of 92 and 103 °C, respectively. Blends of a standard vinyl ester resin with MG and ME (50 wt % reactive diluent) produced thermosets with T(g)s of 127 and 153 °C, respectively, which are comparable to vinyl ester-styrene resins, thus demonstrating the ability of MG and ME to completely replace styrene as reactive diluents in liquid molding resins without sacrificing cured-resin thermal performance. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Removal of 89Sr and 137Cs from effluents with considerable content of calcium by ion exchange on synthetic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svabic, A.; Vukovic, Z.; Bojovic, P.

    1964-10-01

    Decontamination factors for 89 Sr and 137 Cs from synthetic solutions with considerable contents of calcium, and calcium and magnesium were determined. The decontamination for different ratios of calcium concentrations to concentrations of the above two radioelements, then as a function of the velocity of flow of the solution through the column, i.e. the time of solution-resin contact, the geometry of the column and the pH of the solution. The saturated columns on which the above radioactive isotopes were accumulated were regenerated with a NaCl solution of different concentrations. Conditions were investigated under which the best regeneration is obtained with the least possible quantity of NaCl, thus allowing the obtaining of a considerable degree of radioactive effluent concentration and the possibility of using the resins several times (author)

  11. Recycling paper-pulp waste liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    Papermills in U.S. annually produce 3 million tons of sulfite waste liquor solids; other fractions of waste liquor are monomeric sugars and lignosulfonates in solution. Recovery of lignosulfonates involves precipitation and cross-linking of sulfonates to form useful solid ion-exchange resin. Contamination of sugars recovered from liquor is avoided by first converting them to ethanol, then removing ethanol by distillation.

  12. Characterisation of plastic packaging waste for recycling: problems related to current approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    were addressed by a resin type-based sorting analysis and a washing test for plastic packaging material from Danish household waste. Preliminary results show that, for a quarter of the hand sorted material, no resin type could be identified and that Polypropylene and Polyethylene terephthalate were...... the dominating resin types in plastic packaging. The suggested washing procedure caused a decrease of 70% of the ash content of the plastic material. The analysed metals and nutrients were reduced by up to 24%...

  13. Method of processing radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Fumio; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Matsuda, Masami.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the performance of removing metal ions in ion exchange resins for use in clean-up of service water or waste water in BWR type reactors. Method: A column filled with activated carbon is disposed at the pre- or post-stage of a clean-up system using ion exchange resins disposed for the clean-up of service water or waste water of a nuclear reactor so that organics contained in water may be removed through adsorption. Since the organic materials are thus adsorbed and eliminated, various types of radioactive ions contained in radioactive liquid are no more masked and the performance of removing ions in the ion exchanger resins of the clean-up device can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. The impact of LWR decontaminations on solidification, waste disposal and associated occupational exposure: Annual report, Fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.W.; Soo, P.

    1988-06-01

    A study was carried out to determine the extent of corrosion for a range of low-level waste container materials in contact with simulated resin bead decontamination wastes. The materials included metals and high-density polyethylene. Tests were also conducted on mechanical stability of the decontamination resin wastes, solidified in cement and vinyl ester-styrene, during thermal cycling between 60/degree/C and /minus/40/degree/C. 12 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Application of advanced oxidative process in treatment radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Catia; Sakata, Solange K.; Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Marumo, Julio T.

    2009-01-01

    The ion exchange resin is used in the water purification system in both nuclear research and power reactors. Combined with active carbon, the resin removes dissolved elements from water when the nuclear reactor is operating. After its consumption, it becomes a special type of radioactive waste. The usual treatment to this type of waste is the immobilization with Portland cement, which is simple and low cost. However, its low capacity of immobilization and the increase volume of waste have been the challenges. The development of new technologies capable of destroying this waste completely by increasing its solidification is the main target due to the possibility of both volume and cost reduction. The objective of this work was to evaluate ion exchange resin degradation by Advanced Oxidative Process using Fenton's Reagent (H 2 O 2 / Fe +2 ) in different concentration and temperatures. One advantage of this process is that all additional organic compounds or inorganic solids produced are oxidized easily. The degradation experiments were conducted with IRA-400 resin and Fenton's Reagents, varying the H 2O 2 concentration (30% e 50%) and heat temperature (25, 60 and 100 deg C). The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of BaCO 3 as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ba(OH) 2 and the CO 2 from the resin degradation. All experiments run in duplicate. Higher degradation was observed with Fenton's Reagent (Fe +2 /H 2 O 2 30%) at 100 deg C after 2 hours. (author)

  16. HTGR fuel development: loading of uranium on carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins using solvent extraction of nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1975-09-01

    The reference fuel kernel for recycle of 233 U to HTGR's (High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) is prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. The purified 233 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solution from a fuel reprocessing plant contains excess HNO 3 (NO 3 - /U ratio of approximately 2.2). The reference flowsheet for a 233 U recycle fuel facility at Oak Ridge uses solvent extraction of nitrate by a 0.3 M secondary amine in a hydrocarbon diluent to prepare acid-deficient uranyl nitrate. This nitrate extraction, along with resin loading and amine regeneration steps, was demonstrated in 14 runs. No significant operating difficulties were encountered. The process is controlled via in-line pH measurements for the acid-deficient uranyl nitrate solutions. Information was developed on pH values for uranyl nitrate solution vs NO 3 - /U mole ratios, resin loading kinetics, resin drying requirements, and other resin loading process parameters. Calculations made to estimate the capacities of equipment that is geometrically safe with respect to control of nuclear criticality indicate 100 kg/day or more of uranium for single nitrate extraction lines with one continuous resin loading contactor or four batch loading contactors. (auth)

  17. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A., E-mail: shaikh@kfupm.edu.sa

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g{sup −1} does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  18. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g −1 does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  19. An active magnetic regenerator device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) device comprising two or more regenerator beds, a magnet arrangement and a valve arrangement. The valve arrangement comprises a plurality of valve elements arranged substantially immovably with respect to the regenerator beds along a rotational direction....... A cam surface is arranged substantially immovably with respect to the magnet arrangement along the rotational direction, and comprises a plurality of cam elements arranged to cooperate with the valve elements in order to control opening degrees of the valve elements, in accordance with a relative...... position of the cam elements and the valve elements. Thereby the opening degree of each valve element is controlled in accordance with a relative angular position of the regenerator beds and the magnet arrangement....

  20. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  1. DECOLORIZATION AND CHEMICAL REGENERATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GAC) was studied and an improved chemical regeneration method of the exhausted GAC by the color of CAF liquor was investigated. The effects of the GAC dosage, time and temperature on the decoloring efficiency (DE %) were studied.

  2. Diffusion through composite materials made with thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno.

    1981-08-01

    Medium and low-level radioactive wastes may be coated in a solid matrix mainly made with thermosetting resins: the study of water and cesium migration through composite materials made with thermosetting resins is usefull to compare the water tightness of different coatings. Disks with a thickness of two millimeters were used to measure the water absorption. Diffusion cells including a plane membrane the thickness of which was at least 70μ were used to measure the diffusion of cesium 137. The diffusion coefficient of water in pure thermosetting resins, polyester or epoxyde, is about 10 -9 cm 2 .s -1 ; the diffusion coefficients of cesium in the same materials are about 10 -12 cm 2 .s -1 ; the introduction of solid particles in these polymers generally induces an acceleration of the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficient may reach 10 -8 cm 2 .s -1 . This lost of water-tightness may be reduced either by rendering insoluble the filler mixed to the polymer, or by diminushing the porosity of the interfacial zones by improving the bonding between the polymer and the filler [fr

  3. Studies on the incorporation of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants into bitumen and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevie-Svendsen, M.; Tallberg, K.; Aittola, P.; Tollbaeck, H.

    1976-01-01

    The joint Nordic incorporation experiments should provide technical data needed for the assessment of solidification techniques for wastes from nuclear reactors in the Nordic countries. Spent ion exchange resins are a main fraction of such wastes, and more knowledge about their incorporation is wanted. The effects of simulated and real ion exchange wastes on the quality of bitumen and cement incorporation products were studied. Blown and distilled bitumen and three Portland cement qualities were used. Product characterizations were based on properties relevant for safe waste management, storage, transport and disposal. The applicability and relevance of established and suggested tests is discussed. Up to 40-60% dry resin could be incorporated into bitumen without impairing product qualities. Products with higher resin contents were found to swell in contact with water. The products had a high leach resistance. Their form stability was improved by incorporated resins. Product qualities appeared to be less affected by physico-chemical variables than by mechanical process parameters. Pure resin-cement products tend to decompose in water. Product qualities were strongly affected by a variety of physico-chemical process parameters, and integer products were only obtained within narrow tolerance limits. Caesium was rapidly leached out. To attain integer products and improved leach resistance within technically acceptable tolerance limits it was necessary to utilize stabilizing and caesium-retaining additives such as Silix and vermiculite. Under the present conditions the water content of the resins limited the amounts that could be incorporated in 40-50wt% or about 70vol.% water-saturated (containing 20-40% dry) resin. (author)

  4. Testing and evaluation of polyethylene and sulfur cement waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies related to the use of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement as new binder materials for the improved solidification of low-level wastes. Waste streams selected for this study include those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those that remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion-exchange resins). Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported for polyethylene. For sulfur cement the recommended waste loadings of 40 wt % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt % incinerator ash are reported. However, incorporation of ion-exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended due to poor waste form performance. The work presented in this paper will, in part, present data that can be used to assess the acceptability of polyethylene and modified sulfur cement waste forms to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61. 8 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Nuclide content in reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Certain corrosion and fission products of importance in reactor waste management cannot be measured by gammaspectrometric techniques. In this study, a method is suggested by which the occurence of such nuclides can be quantitatively related to suitable gamma-emitters of similar origin. The method is tested by statistical analysis on the waste data recorded from two Swedish nuclear power plants. As this method is not applicable for Carbon-14, this nuclide was measured directly in spent ion exchange resins from three Finnish and Swedish power plants. (author)

  6. Measurements of the speed of sound and the absorption coefficient for ion exchange resin embedded in concrete and bitumen using ultrasonic waves at around 0.1 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out on concrete and bitumen containing ion exchange resin. The speed and absorption of sound was determined for different amounts of resin, different times after preparation of the samples, and for different temperatures. The absorption data indicate that it should be possible to use the technique on full-scale waste products. The data also indicate that the velocity of sound is sensitive to several parameters of interest in radioactive waste treatment and storage. The technique may also be used to gain information on the internal disposition of a waste package. (Auth.)

  7. Waste form development/test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1983-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate new solidification agents relative to their potential application to wastes generated by advanced high volume reduction technologies, e.g., incinerator ash, dry solids, and ion exchange resins. Candidate materials selected for the solidification of these wastes include a modified sulfur cement and low-density polyethylene, neither of which are currently employed commerically for the solidification of low-level waste (LLW). As both the modified sulfur cement and the polyethylene are thermoplastic materials, a heated screw type extruder is utilized in the production of waste form samples for testing and evaluation. In this regard, work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be satisfactorily applied to the specific LLW streams and to provide information relevant to operating parameters and process control

  8. Results of field testing of waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Unit 2] EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station are being tested to: (a) develop a low-level waste data base, and (b) obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. This paper updates field testing of those waste forms during FY-1989. The results of the lysimeters is presented and the use of lysimeter data in performance assessment is discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  9. A big picture prospective for wet waste processing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of general observations made relative to the technical and economical considerations being evaluated by many commercial nuclear power plants involving their decision making process for implementation of several new wet waste management technologies. The waste management processes reviewed include the use of, Reverse Osmosis, Non-Precoat Filters, Resin Stripping ampersand Recycling, Evaporation ampersand Calcination (RVR trademark, ROVER trademark ampersand Thermax trademark), Compression Dewatering (PressPak trademark), Incineration (Resin Express trademark), Survey ampersand Free Release (Green Is Clean) and Quantum Catalytic Extraction Processing (QCEP trademark). These waste management processes are reviewed relative to their general advantages and disadvantages associated with the processing of various wet waste streams including: reactor make-up water, floor drain sludges and other liquid waste streams such as boric acid concentrates and steam generator cleaning solutions. A summary of the conclusions generally being derived by most utilities associated with the use of these waste management processes is also provided

  10. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J.; Alexander, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A literature review on studies concerning radioactive wastes is presented. Literature on radioactive wastes available from the National Technical Information Service, Washington, DC, was not included in the review. Studies were reviewed that dealt with general programs for radioactive wastes; isolation of radioactive wastes; waste management; waste storage; environmental transport; transportation; risk assessment; and remedial action are reviewed

  11. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  12. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  13. Environmental Factors Affecting the Strength Characteristics of Modified Resin Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debska, Bernardeta; Licholai, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Resin concretes are composites in which a cement binder has been completely replaced by a synthetic resin. These materials are a good choice for the construction industry, especially in solutions requiring high strength, fast curing and durability. Polymer mortars are mainly used for the manufacture of industrial floors and prefabricated products such as tanks for aggressive chemicals, sewage pipes, or road and bridge drainage systems, as well as for the repair of damaged concrete structures. In all these applications, the strength and high chemical resistance of the applied material solutions are of key importance. It is particularly crucial to obtain information on how resin composites behave when exposed to aggressive agents over extended periods of time. It is also very important to use waste materials in order to obtain resin composites, as these activities are very well inscribed in the idea of environmental protection and meet the criteria of sustainable construction. The mortars described in this article meet the above principles. The article presents how the compressive strength of glycolyzate-modified epoxy mortars, obtained with the use of poly(ethylene terephthalate), changes after they are immersed in 10% sodium chloride solution. Sodium chloride solution was chosen due to the prospective applicability of the tested composites as repair materials used for e.g. bridges or overpasses that are exposed to this salt solution in wintertime. Changes in the properties of the composite samples were monitored over the period of one year. Statistical analysis of the test results was carried out with the use of Statistica programme. The module available in the mentioned program called Nonparametric Statistics - Comparing multiple independent samples made it possible to check the monitoring times during which the compressive strength values differed significantly. The obtained results allowed for determining the equation of the function approximating the course of

  14. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended

  15. Technical solutions for waste treatment in the Belene project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büttner, K.; Eichhorn, H.

    2011-01-01

    Outline: In June 2010 NUKEM Technologies GmbH was awarded a contract from ATOMSTROYEXPORT JSC to perform the complete work package related to designing and completion of the equipment for treatment of radioactive waste on the turn-key basis for Belene NPP. Technical Solutions: Waste Streams and Technologies at UKC and UKS; Concentration Plant; Thermal Treatment of Resins Sorting Facility; Biological Waste Water Treatment; Conditioning – Cementation • Sorting of Radwaste; Plasma Facility; Grouting; Filter Press; Monitoring and Tracking

  16. Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    controls. The reduction of solid waste was contributed to by the decrease in resin used to manufacture the Meal Bag. The reduction of solid waste for...transmission rate through plastic film and sheeting using a coulometric sensor 13. ASTM International E96/E 96M-05 Standard Test Methods for water...WP-200816) Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging June 2016 This document has been cleared for public release

  17. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  18. Synthesis of Hydrophobic, Crosslinkable Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Bismaleimides have also been crosslinked with radical initiators to produce brittle networks [4].If a damine is added, chain extension and radical crosslinkinq...are produced during cure.The company also produced a similar phenylene based resin, with pendant nitrile groups which could be crosslinked without the...benzenes and tetra substituted cyclopentadienones [881. g. Preparation of poly 1,4 phenylene by nickel (0> catalysed electropolymerisation 1891. Cont’d

  19. Leaching behavior of 60Co and 137Cs from spent ion exchange resins in cement-bentonite clay matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecas, Ilija; Pavlovic, Radojko; Pavlovic, Snezana

    2004-05-01

    The leach rate of 60Co and 137Cs from two different ion exchange resins: (a) spent cation exchange resins and (b) spent mix bead ion exchange resins in cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. The solidification matrix was a standard Portland cement mixed with 290-350 kg/m 3 spent cation exchange resins, with or without 2-5% of bentonite clay. The leach rates from the cement-bentonite matrix as 60Co: (4.2-7.3) × 10 -5 cm/d, and for 137Cs: (3.2-6.6) × 10 -5 cm/d, after 245 days were measured. From the leaching data the apparent diffusivity of cobalt and cesium in cement-bentonite clay matrix with a waste load of 290-350 kg/m 3 spent cation exchange resins was measured as 60Co: (1.0-4.0) × 10 -6 cm 2/d and for 137Cs: (0.5-2.6) × 10 -4 cm 2/d after 245 days. These results are part of a 20-year mortar and concrete testing project which will influence the design of radioactive waste management for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

  20. Method of producing solidification product of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Shunji; Iwami, Etsuji; Kadota, Keishi.

    1989-01-01

    Layers of thermosetting resin composition capable of curing at normal temperature are formed to a thickness of 2 to 5 mm at the bottom of a container. As the thermosetting resin composition capable of curing at normal temperature, there can be mentioned, for example, unsaturated polyester resin comprising a polymerizable monomer and an unsaturated polyester. After the layers are cured, a mixture of radioactive wastes and the thermosetting resin composition capable of curing at normal temperature is filled on the layer. After curing, thermosetting resin composition capable of curing at normal temperature is filled so as to fill gaps between the curing product and the container caused by curing shrinkage and at the upper surface of the curing products. After curing, plastic layers are formed at the surface. This can avoid residual bubbles in the layers or development of cracks. Further, leaching rate of Na ions is low and water proofness can be improved as well. (T.M.)

  1. Experience in radioactive wastes management in Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plant; Experiencia en la gestion de residuos radiactivos en C.N. Jose Cabrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socorro Garcia, G.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Garcia Acosta, F.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the problems and subsequent procedures carried out for eight years to manage the following types of wastes: resins produced in the preparatory decommissioning activities; metal wastes with high dose rate; low activity wastes; and prepared wastes of different natures and volumes.

  2. Coal Producer's Rubber Waste Processing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarevich, Evgeniya; Papin, Andrey; Nevedrov, Alexander; Cherkasova, Tatyana; Ignatova, Alla

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of rubber-containing waste, the bulk of which are worn automobile tires and conveyor belts, is produced at coal mining and coal processing enterprises using automobile tires, conveyor belts, etc. The volume of waste generated increases every year and reaches enormous proportions. The methods for processing rubber waste can be divided into three categories: grinding, pyrolysis (high and low temperature), and decomposition by means of chemical solvents. One of the known techniques of processing the worn-out tires is their regeneration, aimed at producing the new rubber substitute used in the production of rubber goods. However, the number of worn tires used for the production of regenerate does not exceed 20% of their total quantity. The new method for processing rubber waste through the pyrolysis process is considered in this article. Experimental data on the upgrading of the carbon residue of pyrolysis by the methods of heavy media separation, magnetic and vibroseparation, and thermal processing are presented.

  3. Unconventional processes for food regeneration in space - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, B. O.; Petersen, G. R.; Schubert, W. W.; Mueller, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Alternatives to conventional plant agriculture for the regeneration of food during space missions of extended duration are examined. The options considered, which may be used in combination with conventional agriculture, include the production of food from plant wastes, the chemical synthesis of food from carbon dioxide and other simple molecules or the substitution of edible chemicals, and the use of microrganisms for food and oxygen regeneration, with suitable processing. A comparison of solar energy conversion efficiencies is presented for nonphotosynthetic bacteria grown on hydrogen and algal systems photosynthetically, and it is shown that hydrogen bacteria are potentially more attractive than photosynthetic algae using artificial light. Weight-volume requirements for the conventional plant, algae and hydrogen bacteria systems are also compared to demonstrate the advantages of microbial systems.

  4. Chromium (VI removal from aqueous solutions using a polyethylenimine - epichlorohydrin resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarri Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a synthesized polyethylenimine - epichlorohydrin resin to remove Cr(VI from aqueous solutions was investigated in absence (initial pH 2 to 7 and presence of background electrolytes (NaNO3 and Na2SO4 solutions of initial pH 3 and 6. The determined Cr-uptake was significantly higher than the one reported for the majority of other sorbents. The photo-metrically determined uptake data were modeled by the Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Langmuir-Freundlich, and Toth equations. The modeling results did not point out any preference to one specific model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and the prediction of maximum sorption capacity. The Cr-sorption kinetics was investigated at 15, 25, 35 and 45 oC using 51Cr-labeled solutions and γ-ray spectroscopy. The Cr-sorption was very fast at all studied temperatures and well reproduced by the pseudo-second order kinetics equation. Rate constant and activation energy values were calculated using the experimental data. The Cr-loaded resin was also examined by XRD, XPS, XAFS and SEM/EDS. The XPS and XAFS investigations indicated a partial reduction of Cr(VI to Cr(III. The environmental compatibility of the Cr-loaded resin was examined using the EPA-TCLP method. The Cr-binding by the resin was very stable and regeneration attempts by HCl solutions of pH 3 were rather unsuccessful.

  5. Seasonal variability in nutrient regeneration by mussel Mytilus edulis rope culture in oligotrophic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Strand, O.; Strohmeier, T.; Krogness, C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussel Mytilus edulis cultures contribute to nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems. Mussel populations filter particulate nutrients from the water column and inorganic nutrients are regenerated by excretion of metabolic wastes and decomposition of (pseudo-)faeces. The objective of this study

  6. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  7. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  8. Microscopic Approaches to Decomposition and Burning Processes of a Micro Plastic Resin Particle under Abrupt Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiwa, Norio; Ishino, Yojiro; Yamamoto, Atsunori; Yamakita, Ryuji

    To elucidate the possibility and availability of thermal recycling of waste plastic resin from a basic and microscopic viewpoint, a series of abrupt heating processes of a spherical micro plastic particle having a diameter of about 200 μm is observed, when it is abruptly exposed to hot oxidizing combustion gas. Three ingenious devices are introduced and two typical plastic resins of polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene are used. In this paper the dependency of internal and external appearances of residual plastic embers on the heating time and the ingredients of plastic resins is optically analyzed, along with appearances of internal micro bubbling, multiple micro explosions and jets, and micro diffusion flames during abrupt heating. Based on temporal variations of the surface area of a micro plastic particle, the apparent burning rate constant is also evaluated and compared with those of well-known volatile liquid fuels.

  9. Ion exchange resins destruction in a stirred supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A.; Guichardon, P.; Boutin, O.

    2010-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins (IERs) are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation offers a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins, used to remove radioactivity. Up to now, studies carried out in supercritical water for IER destruction showed that degradation rates higher than 99% are difficult to obtain even using a catalyst or a large oxidant excess. In this study, a co-fuel, isopropanol, has been used in order to improve degradation rates by initiating the oxidation reaction and increasing temperature of the reaction medium. Concentrations up to 20 wt% were tested for anionic and cationic resins. Total organic carbon reduction rates higher than 99% were obtained from this process, without the use of a catalyst. The influence of operating parameters such as IERs feed concentration, nature and counterions of exchanged IERs were also studied. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of adhesion of reline resins to the thermoplastic denture base resin for non-metal clasp denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Choe, Han Cheol; Son, Mee Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tensile and transverse bond strength of chairside reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II, Mild Rebaron LC) to a thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) used for non metal clasp denture. The results were compared with those of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20) and a thermoplastic polyamide resin (Biotone). The failure sites were examined by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the mode of failure. As results, the bond strength of reline resins to a thermoplastic acrylic resin was similar to the value of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin. However, thermoplastic polyamide resin showed the lowest value. The results of this study indicated that a thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasps denture allows chairside reline and repair. It was also found that the light-polymerized reline resin had better bond strength than the autopolymerizing reline resin in relining for a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin and a thermoplastic acrylic resin.

  11. Kaolinite adsorption-regeneration system for dyestuff treatment by Fenton based processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Emilio; Anasie, Delia; Pazos, Marta; Lazar, Iuliana; Sanromán, M Angeles

    2018-05-01

    The regeneration and reuse of adsorbents is a subject of interest nowadays in order to reduce the pollution and the wastes generated in the adsorption wastewater treatment. In this work, the regeneration of the spent kaolinite by different advanced oxidation processes (Fenton, electro-Fenton and electrokinetic-Fenton) was evaluated. Initially, it was confirmed the ability of a low cost clayey material, kaolinite, for the adsorption of model dye such as Rhodamine B showing Freundlich isotherm fitting. Then, the regeneration and consequent degradation of the pollutant in the adsorbent by Fenton based processes was carried out. The role of different parameters affecting the regeneration process (H 2 O 2 :Fe 2+ ratio, liquid:solid ratio) were evaluated. Working at 100:1 H 2 O 2 :Fe 2+ ratio and 30min near complete dye removal (around 97%) from kaolinite was obtained by Fenton treatment. After that, a two-stage treatment for adsorption-regeneration was evaluated during five treatment cycles demonstrating its viability for regeneration of the adsorbent through dye degradation. Based on the successful application of Fenton technique, the improvement of the treatment by electro-Fenton and electrokinetic-Fenton were studied for different solid:liquid ratios achieving satisfactory regeneration values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  13. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  14. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  15. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Mondelli, José

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion wit...

  16. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  17. Centralized cement solidification technique for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Izumida, Tatsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A centralized cement solidification system has been developed to enable a single facility to solidify such low-level radioactive wastes as liquid waste, spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash, and miscellaneous solid wastes. Since the system uses newly developed high-performance cement, waste loading is raised and deterioration of waste forms after land burial prevented. This paper describes the centralized cement solidification system and the features of the high-performance cement. Results of full-scale pilot plant tests are also shown from the viewpoint of industrial applicability. (author)

  18. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de, E-mail: Rodrigotoscano1@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  19. Characterization and disposal of ion exchange resins used in nuclear installations; Caracterizacion y disposicion de resinas de intercambio ionico utilizadas en instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Olguin G, M.T.; Emeterio H, M.; Garcia M, H. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    To dispose of an appropriate way the used ion exchange resins so much in the pool water purification systems of the TRIGA Mark III reactor like in the JS6500 gamma irradiator, of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, were carried out a series of analytic nuclear techniques and complementary conventional to those recommended by the ASTM, with the object of to control and to manage 14 lots of worn out resins appropriately. For its were identified the radioactive isotopes, the resins type, the grade of chemical pollution and the physicochemical degradation of the same ones. The lots of resins that didn't contain radioactive isotopes its were regenerated in an usual way, as long as those that if they controlled them they selected options for its final disposition. The first selected option was the extraction method of ion radioactive isotopes, concentrating the elution product by evaporation. As second option it was carried out the resins stabilization damaged by micro-encapsulation by forged to ambient temperature, using an organic polymer. Previous to the immobilization the resins were pretreated by vacuum drying, pulverization and thermal drying, however before carrying out this last, it was carried out a thermal gravimetric analysis to determine the drying conditions of the resins avoiding its chemical decomposition. (Author)

  20. Heat-cured Acrylic Resin versus Light-activated Resin: A Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Although light-activated resins (Eclipse) have been reported to possess superior physical and mechanical properties compared with the heat-cured acrylic resins (Lucitone-199), a few studies have compared overdentures with a locator attachment constructed from heat-cured acrylic resins with those constructed ...

  1. Radioactive liquid waste solidifying device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yoshio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the requirement for discharge gas processing and avoid powder clogging in a facility suitable to the volume-reducing solidification of regenerated liquid wastes containing sodium sulfate. Constitution: Liquid wastes supplied to a liquid waste preheater are heated under a pressure higher than the atmospheric pressure at a level below the saturation temperature for that pressure. The heated liquid wastes are sprayed from a spray nozzle from the inside of an evaporator into the super-heated state and subjected to flash distillation. They are further heated to deposit and solidify the solidification components in the solidifying evaporation steams. The solidified powder is fallen downwardly and heated for removing water content. The recovered powder is vibrated so as not to be solidified and then reclaimed in a solidification storage vessel. Steams after flash distillation are separated into gas, liquid and solids by buffles. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Use of strong anion exchange resins for the removal of perfluoroalkylated substances from contaminated drinking water in batch and continuous pilot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaggia, Alessandro; Conte, Lino; Falletti, Luigi; Fant, Massimo; Chiorboli, Andrea

    2016-03-15

    In recent years abnormally high levels of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) have been detected both in surface and underground water sampled in an area covering approximately 150 square kilometers in the Veneto region (Italy) indicating the presence of a pollution point source (fluorochemicals production plant). Adsorption on granular activated carbon is an emergency measure which is poorly effective requiring frequent replacement. This work focuses on the application of three strong anion exchange resins (Purolite® A520E, A600E and A532E) for the removal of traces of PFOA, PFOS, PFBA and PFBS (concentration of hundreds of ng L(-1)) from drinking water. This technology is attractive for the possibility of reusing resins after an in-situ regeneration step. A strong relationship between the hydrophobicity of the exchange functional group of the resin and its capacity in removing PFAS exists. A600E (non hydrophobic) and A520E (fairly hydrophobic) show a reduced sorption capacity compared to A532E (highly hydrophobic). While A600E and A520E can be regenerated with solvent-less dilute solutions of non-toxic NH4Cl and NH4OH, A532E requires concentrated solutions of methanol or ethanol and 1% NH4Cl and for the sake of this work it was regarded as non-regenerable. The volume of regeneration effluents requiring incineration can be efficiently reduced by more than 96.5% by using reverse osmosis coupled with under-vacuum evaporation. Transmission electron analysis on saturated resins showed that large molecular macro-aggregates of PFAS can form in the intraparticle pores of resin indicating that ion exchange is not the only mechanism involved in PFAS removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microwave regeneration of molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.

    1984-05-01

    Molecular sieve driers have been included in the design of tritium handling systems for fusion reactors. In these systems there is a need to maintain extremely low exit dew points from the driers as well as a capability to rapidly reduce tritium concentrations following an accident. The required capacity of the driers is very high. The conventional method of regenerating these sieves after a water adsorption cycle is with hot air. However, because water is rapidly heated by microwave energy, this technology may be suitable for decreasing the bed regeneration time and hence may allow reduced capital and operating costs associated with a smaller bed. The present study was conducted to obtain preliminary information on the technical feasibility of regenerating molecular sieves with microwave energy. The study concentrated on Type 4A molecular sieve with a few tests on Type 13X sieve and also a silica gel adsorbent

  4. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS ) Resin with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    synthetic) resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate ...

  5. Purification of radioactive waste oil by a supercritical fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Sung, Jinhyun; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon; Lim, Taeyoon; Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive waste oil from the nuclear industry is potentially hazardous due to its possibility to contaminate soil and underwater. Pollutants in waste oil are generally radioactive heavy metals or organo-metals. Radioactive waste oils are highly viscous fluids that are similar to used-motor oils. Several processes have been developed to regenerated used motor oil, such as acid clay treatment, chemical addition, vacuum distillation, thermal cracking and hydrofinishing. However, these technologies are difficult to apply to separating radioactive nuclides from radioactive waste oils. In recent years, our laboratory developed a membrane method for the regeneration of used motor oils. We applied supercritical Co2 (scCO2) as a viscosity reducing additive to waste oils at a lower process temperature in order to improve membrane permeability and thus the energy saving. However, the membrane cannot filter the contaminants in radioactive waste oil that are not particles, such as radioactive ions in impurity water in the oil. In this paper, we suggest a method extracting clean oil from the radioactive waste oil rather than filtering by a supercritical fluid. We selected R22, a refrigerant, as a solvent for extraction. R22 has a mild critical point - 96.1 .deg. and 49.9bar. Regeneration of waste oils by extracting clean oil using a supercritical fluid such as R22 is easy to handle and reduce secondary wastes. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of R22 in extracting clean oil from radioactive waste oils

  6. Stabilization of Metal-Loaded Ion-Exchange Resin with a Porous Silica Supporter Through Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I-T. Park, H-S.; Yoo, J-H.; Kim, J-H.

    2003-02-25

    A new ion exchanger with porous silica as a supporting material and diphosphonic acid as a functional chelating group has been developed at ANL for the effective removal of transition metals and actinide ions from very acidic radioactive liquid wastes. The applicability of this resin for the treatment of low- and/or intermediate-level aqueous waste from nuclear power plants (NPP) has not been reported in scientific literature, but is under study now in Korea. The major radioisotopes in NPP radioactive liquid waste are Cs and Co in neutral pH ranges. This study on the thermal stabilization of metal-loaded waste resin has been carried out in parallel with the sorption experiment. Thermal treatment of metal (Co, Cs or U) loaded resin was accomplished to see the possibility of enhancing the safety and stability of the final product during transportation and disposal. In this paper, characteristics of the metal-loaded resins before and after heat treatment at three different thermal conditions were investigated and compared with each other to see the effectiveness of the thermal treatment method.

  7. Corrosion of metal containers containing cemented radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, G.S.; Farina, S.B.; Schulz, F.M.; Marotta, F

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear activities generate different kinds of radioactive wastes. In the case of Argentina, wastes classified as low and medium level are conditioned in metal drums for final disposal in a repository whose design is based on the use of multiple and independent barriers. Nuclear energy plants generate a large volume of mid-level radioactive wastes, consisting mainly of ion-exchange resins contaminated by fission products. Other contaminated products such as gloves, papers, clothing, rubber and plastic tubing, can be incinerated and the ashes from the combustion also constitute wastes that must be disposed of. These wastes (resins and ashes) must be immobilized in order to avoid the release of radionuclides into the environment. The wastes usually undergo a process of cementing to immobilize them. This work aims to systematically study the process of degradation by corrosion of the steel drums in contact with the cemented resins and with the ashes cemented with the addition of different types and concentrations of aggressive compounds (chloride and sulfate). The specimens are configured so that the parameters of interest for the steel in contact with the cemented materials can be measured. The variables of corrosion potential, electric resistivity of the matrix and polarization resistance (PR) were monitored and show that the presence of chloride increases the susceptibility to corrosion of the drum steel that is in contact with the cement resin matrix

  8. Hydrolysis and oxidation of an epoxy resin in sub- and supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromonteil, C.; Bardelle, P.; Cansell, F.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrolysis and oxidation in sub- and supercritical water has been widely studied as methods to convert organic wastes into carbon dioxide and water. This technique could be applied to destroy epoxy resin, a polymer easily used in nuclear plants. This paper deals with the behavior of an epoxy resin tested in a batch reactor. The organic network is hydrolyzed and oxidized. The influence of temperature, pressure, and residence time is studied. Low-molecular-degradation compounds are characterized by the GC/MS technique. The epoxy resin is completely destroyed by way of oxidation at 410 C and 24 MPa. The development of civil nuclear energy implies the existence of a significant number of experimental irradiations from a nuclear reactor. The main characterization of these irradiated materials relies on the study of embedded samples by a light microscope, with a coating made of epoxy resin. These materials are considered as radioactive wastes, and so their treatment is expensive and needs to reduce their volume

  9. Resin composite for sealing and its use in a solar cell. Fushiyo jushi soseibutsu oyobi sore wo mochiita taiyo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, H.; Mimura, T.; Takehara, N.

    1994-01-28

    This invention presents resin composites for sealing of a solar cell composed of a hardening resin and a thermoplastic resin which has a number average molecular weight larger than that of the hardening resin and is soluble in the hardening resin, and the invention affords a solar cell to endure a long-term stable operation and to give a good performance. The hardening resin includes unsaturated polyester resin, phenolic resin, alkyd resin, unsaturated acrylic resin, epoxy resin, polyurethane resin, melamine resin, diallyl phthalate resin, their oligomers and their modifications. The thermoplastic resin includes saturated polyester resin, phenolic resin, acrylic resin, styrene resin, epoxy resin, polyurethane resin, polyvinyl acetate resin, polyvinyl chloride resin, polyvinyl alcohol resin, polyacetal resin, their modifications and their copolymer resin. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)

  11. Analysis of diterpenoic compounds in natural resins applied as binders in museum objects by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Anna; Kolivoska, Viliam; Kaml, Isabella; Baatz, Wolfgang; Kenndler, Ernst

    2007-07-20

    The exudates of conifers consist mainly of diterpenoic acids of the abietane and pimarane type (abietic, neoabietic, dehydroabietic, palustric, pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric and sandaracopimaric acid) and larixol acetate. These natural resins were used as adhesives, coatings, varnishes or plasticizers in artistic and historic works since ancient times. For the purpose of conservation and restoration and for art historic examination of such museum objects the identification of the binding media used is undoubtedly of paramount importance. In the present paper, the characterization of these resins based on the pattern of their diterpenoid constituents is carried out by capillary electrophoresis. For separation a background electrolyte which has been initially introduced for the analysis of chlorinated and natural resin acids in waste water was modified and the experimental conditions were adjusted in terms of resolution and analysis time. Separation was carried out in borate buffer at pH 9.25 (ionic strength 20 mmol L(-1)) with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin as additives to increase selectivity and enhance the solubility of the analytes. With this electrophoretic system the resin acids of interest and larixol acetate--all as anionic cyclodextrin complexes--were separated within 5 min and detected at 200, 250 and 270 nm with a diode array detector. The electrophoretic patterns served for the characterisation of the relevant diterpenoic resins, balsams and copals. Sample pre-treatment was limited to sonication in methanol at 55 degrees C for 30 min. This enables the identification of the resins in mixtures with other binders like plant gums, animal glues or drying oils, even when these media are present in excess. Colophony was identified as resinous constituent of a modelling mass for gilded frames originating from the 19th century.

  12. Evaluation of the Compressive Strength of Cement-Spent Resins Matrix Mixed with Bio char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Zalina Laili; Mohd Abdul Wahab; Nur Azna Mahmud; Nurfazlina Zainal Abidin

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of compressive strength of cement-spent resins matrix mixed with bio char was investigated. In this study, bio char with different percentage (5 %, 8 %, 11 % 14 % and 18 %) was used as alternative admixture material for cement solidification of spent resins. Some properties of the physical and chemical of spent resins and bio char were also investigated. The performance of cemented spent resins with the addition of bio char was evaluated based on their compressive strength and the water resistance test. The compressive strength was evaluated at three different curing periods of 7, 14 and 28 days, while 4 weeks of immersion in distilled water was chosen for water resistance test. The result indicated that the compressive strength at 7, 14 and 28 days of curing periods were above the minimum criterion for example > 3.45 MPa of acceptable level for cemented waste form. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant relationship between the compressive strength of the specimen and the percentage of bio char content. Result from the water resistance test showed that only one specimen that contained of 5 % of bio char failed the water resistance test due to the high of spent resins/ bio char ratio. The compressive strength of cement solidified spent resins was found increased after the water resistance test indicating further hydration occurred after immersed in water. The results of this study also suggest that the specimen with 8 %, 11 %, 14 % and 18 % of bio char content were resistance in water and suitable for the leaching study of radionuclides from cement-bio char-spent resins matrix. (author)

  13. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs.

  14. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's ''Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs

  15. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  16. SuperLig® 639 Resin Performance using 8 Molar LAW Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-15

    All prior testing with SuperLig® 639 has been done with the aqueous concentration of LAW at ~5 M [Na+], where the resin sinks, and can be used in a conventional down-flow column orientation. However, the aqueous LAW stream from the Waste Treatment Plant is expected to be ~8 M [Na+]. The resin would float in this higher density liquid, potentially disrupting the ability to achieve a good decontamination due to poor packing of the resin that leads to channeling. Testing was completed with a higher salt concentration in the feed simulant (7.8 M [Na+]) in an engineering-scale apparatus with two columns, each containing ~0.9 L of resin. Testing of this system used a simulant of the LAW solution, and substituted ReO4 - as a surrogate for TcO4 -. Results were then compared using computer modeling. Bench-scale testing was also performed, and examined an unconstrained resin bed, while engineering-scale tests used both constrained and unconstrained beds in a two-column, lead and lag sequential arrangement.

  17. Physico-chemical study of the thermal degradation of ions exchange resins of nuclear origin: research of conditions to limit the pollution transfer, application to electric cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonetti, P.

    1999-01-01

    The ions exchange resins are one solid form of radioactive wastes. They are found mainly during the demineralization operations of the water from reactors cooling systems. This study aims to determine the conditions of a thermal processing leading to the production of a smaller residue, containing the whole activity. A protocol is proposed and validated on resins allowing a decrease of the volume of 63% for 99,93% of the activity. (A.L.B.)

  18. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Mirjana C.; Radičević Radmila Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor...

  19. Skeletal muscle regeneration is modulated by inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complex process orchestrated by multiple steps. Recent findings indicate that inflammatory responses could play central roles in bridging initial muscle injury responses and timely muscle injury reparation. The various types of immune cells and cytokines have crucial roles in muscle regeneration process. In this review, we briefly summarise the functions of acute inflammation in muscle regeneration. The translational potential of this article: Immune system is closely relevant to the muscle regeneration. Understanding the mechanisms of inflammation in muscle regeneration is therefore critical for the development of effective regenerative, and therapeutic strategies in muscular disorders. This review provides information for muscle regeneration research regarding the effects of inflammation on muscle regeneration. Keywords: Chronic muscle disorders, Cytokines, Immune cells, Inflammation, Muscle regeneration, Muscle stem cells

  20. Proceedings of the Shortleaf Pine Regeneration Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Brissette; James P. Barnett; [Compilers}

    1992-01-01

    This proceedings documents the results of a workshop to develop state-of-the-art information on the regeneration of shortleaf pine. Regeneration by both artificial and natural means is discussed in detail.

  1. Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spotlight on Research Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration By Kirstie Saltsman, Ph.D. | January 5, 2014 ... Diseases has uncovered chemical signals that drive the regeneration of lost digit tips in mice. The findings, ...

  2. QPSK regeneration without active phase-locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Niels-Kristian; Da Ros, Francesco; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard

    2016-01-01

    QPSK regeneration without active phase stabilization is investigated in numerical simulations. We propose an improved scheme for phase-locking free QPSK regeneration showing significant improvements in the error vector magnitude of the signal....

  3. Economics and policy environments for forest regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora

    1970-01-01

    MOST OF YOUR DAILY CONCERNS IN FOREST REGENERATION are biologic, technologic, and mechanical. But periodically, perhaps once a year, many of you must consider regeneration in a context that includes alternative uses for the financial resources you have.

  4. Survey on drum containers for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Tozawa, Seiichi; Maeda, Sho

    1981-01-01

    This report summarized the survey on drum containers for radioactive wastes which were used at nuclear power plants and research institutes in Japan, with respect to the specifications such as structure and coating system. The containers investigated are full removable head steel drums (200l) specified by JIS Z 1600 (1977). The drums made of steel sheets of 1.6mm thickness are most widely used in nuclear facilities. These conventional drums are coated with melamine-alkyd resin paints on the outside and epoxy resin paints on the inside, after the surface treatment with zinc phosphate. (author)

  5. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-07-02

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.01, which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590-PTF-TEF-RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  6. Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2001-07-10

    Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

  7. Gold Loading on Ion Exchange Resins in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muslim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The loading of gold using strong base anion exchange resin in non-ammoniac resin-solution (NARS systems has been studied. The loading of gold onto ion exchange resins is affected by polythionate concentration, and trithionate can be used as the baseline in the system. The results also show that resin capacity on gold loading increases due to the increase in the equilibrium thiosulfate concentration in the NARS system. Gold loading performances show the need of optimization the equilibrium concentrations of thiosulfate in the NARS system. Keywords: equilibrium, gold loading, resin capacity, thiosulfate, trithionate

  8. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as

  9. The solidification of spent resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, S. J.; Tsai, C. M.; Shyu, Y. H.

    1991-01-01

    A quasi-steady apparatus was applied to measure the thermal conductivity of solids ranging in size for 0.3 to 200 L, and temperature distributions in the solids were recorded during the curing, and theoretical equation for conduction in a cylindrical form with uniform energy generation was established to define the thermal state of reaction. The heat of reaction calculated from the theoretical equation with experimental values for the maximum temperature and thermal conductivity agrees very well with the data reported. The relationships among heat of reaction and amount of curing agent, retardant, loading of spent resin, and water were established

  10. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synthetic resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate compressive strength of 55MPa compared to that of polyester resin with an ultimate strength of 68MPa. The result of tensile strength proved cashew nut shell liquid resin (with ultimate strength of 44MPa to be better than polyester resin with 39MPa as ultimate tensile strength. This means that natural resins could be a better substitute for the synthetic ones when the required quantities of fibers (reinforcements and fillers are used in the fibre-reinforced plastic composite developments.

  11. Semiconductor devices for all-optical regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Bischoff, Svend; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    We review different implementations of semiconductor devices for all-optical regeneration. A general model will be presented for all-optical regeneration in fiber links, taking into consideration the trade-off between non-linearity and noise. Furthermore we discuss a novel regenerator type, based...

  12. All optical regeneration using semiconductor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne

    All-optical regeneration is a key functionality for implementing all-optical networks. We present a simple theory for the bit-error-rate in links employing all-optical regenerators, which elucidates the interplay between the noise and and nonlinearity of the regenerator. A novel device structure ...... is analyzed, emphasizing general aspects of active semiconductor waveguides....

  13. Regional Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Natural Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Boyer

    1998-01-01

    Duration: 1968-present Objective: Test the shelterwood system of longleaf pine natural regeneration. Methods: Longleaf pine natural regeneration tests were established from 1966 through 1970 at ten locations in seven states from North Carolina to Louisiana. One of these was established on a 50-acre flatwoods site on Eglin AFB in 1968. Regeneration was initially...

  14. An experimental study of passive regenerator geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini

    2011-01-01

    experimental uncertainty associated with magnetocaloric material properties, all regenerators are made of aluminum. The performance of corrugated plates and dimpled plates are compared to traditional flat plate regenerators for a range of cycle times and utilizations. Each regenerator is built using 18...

  15. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  16. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Mondelli, José

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4) rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (presin increments.

  17. resin as polymer-supported synthesis support

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    dichloro-5,6-dicyano- benzoqunone ... ports used most widely in SPOS are Merrifield resin .... (2 × 10 mL). The resin was dried at 50°C for one hour to give white beads. IR (KBr): 3108, 3312 cm–1. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7⋅13 (br s, PS), 7⋅01.

  18. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  19. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  20. Facile synthesis of hypercrosslinked resins via chloromethylation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A sort of non-polystyrene type hypercrosslinked resin was firstly synthesized through chloromethylation of simple aryl molecules (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, diphenyl), succedent continuous Friedel–Crafts alkylation polymerization and post-crosslinking reaction. The chemical and porous structures of these novel resins ...

  1. Birch regeneration: a stochastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1968-01-01

    The regeneration of a clearcutting with paper or yellow birch is expressed as an elementary stochastic (probabalistic) model that is computationally similar to an absorbing Markov chain. In the general case, the model contains 29 states beginning with the development of a flower (ament) and terminating with the abortion of a flower or seed, or the development of an...

  2. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  3. Changing contexts in urban regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouten, P.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The need to combat decay of obsolete housing and services in urban renewal areas has been recognized by every major country in Western Europe, including the Netherlands (Couch et al., 2003). Urban regeneration in general can be considered as developing an approach in a complex urban context that

  4. Stem cells and kidney regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Chou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kidney disease is an escalating burden all over the world. In addition to preventing kidney injury, regenerating damaged renal tissue is as important as to retard the progression of chronic kidney disease to end stage renal disease. Although the kidney is a delicate organ and has only limited regenerative capacity compared to the other organs, an increasing understanding of renal development and renal reprogramming has kindled the prospects of regenerative options for kidney disease. Here, we will review the advances in the kidney regeneration including the manipulation of renal tubular cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages in renal disease. Several types of stem cells, such as bone marrow-derived cells, adipocyte-derived mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells are also applied for renal regeneration. Endogenous or lineage reprogrammed renal progenitor cells represent an attractive possibility for differentiation into multiple renal cell types. Angiogenesis can ameliorate hypoxia and renal fibrosis. Based on these studies and knowledge, we hope to innovate more reliable pharmacological or biotechnical methods for kidney regeneration medicine.

  5. Bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, L.R.; Everts, V.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bone has the capacity to regenerate in response to injury. During distraction osteogenesis, the renewal of bone is enhanced by gradual stretching of the soft connec- tive tissues in the gap area between two separated bone segments. This procedure has received much clinical atten- tion as a way to

  6. National regeneration of shortleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin R. Lawson

    1986-01-01

    Natural regeneration with clearcutting, shelterwood, seed tree, and selection systems is a viable method for establishing and managing shortleaf pine stands. An adequate seed source, a suitable seedbed, control of competing vegetation, follow-up cultural treatments, and protection of reproduction are the primary prerequisites for establishing and maintaining natural...

  7. Mechanical device for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Maij, E.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a mechanical device for tissue- regeneration inside a patient, comprising means (2, 3) to place a scaffold for the tissue under mechanical stress. Said means comprise a first device-part (2) and a second device-part (3) which parts are arranged to be movable with respect to

  8. New model of kaon regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaruk, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that in the standard model of {{{K}}}S0 regeneration a system of non-coupled equations of motion is used instead of the coupled ones. A model alternative to the standard one is proposed. A calculation performed by means of the diagram technique agrees with that based on exact solution of the equations of motion.

  9. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  10. Disinfection of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J J; Cameron, S M; Runyan, D A; Craft, D W

    1999-02-01

    During repair or adjustments of acrylic resin removable complete and partial dentures, particles of the acrylic resin from the interior of the prosthesis may expose dental personnel to microbial health hazards if the prosthesis has not been thoroughly disinfected. This study investigates the efficacy of a commercially prepared microbial disinfectant (Alcide) on the external and internal surfaces of acrylic resins. Four groups of acrylic resin were incubated in an experimental model to simulate the oral environment over time. Specimens were treated in 2 groups, disinfected and not disinfected, and then further grouped by breaking and not breaking. Analysis was performed with microbial colony counts, SEM, and statistical analyses. Viable microorganisms still remain on the internal and external surfaces of treated resins. Chlorine dioxide reduces, but does not eliminate, viable microorganisms on these dental prostheses.

  11. A novel polar-modified post-cross-linked resin: Effect of the porogens on the structure and adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Fu, Zhenyu; Yu, Na; Huang, Jianhan

    2016-03-15

    The porogens used in the polymerization play important roles in the structure and adsorption performance for the polar-modified post-cross-linked resins. A series of novel polar-modified post-cross-linked resins were prepared using different mass percentage of toluene and 3-methyl-1-butanol as the mixed porogens. The results indicated that the resins using a higher mass percentage of toluene in the mixed porogens possessed a higher content of pendent vinyl groups, the greater Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and t-plot micropore surface area. What's more, the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction induced a higher increment of the BET surface area and t-plot micropore surface area before and after the post-cross-linking. The resin p(GMA-co-DVB)-22-pc using 50% (w/w) of toluene and 50% (w/w) of 3-methyl-1-butanol in the mixed porogens held the largest equilibrium capacity to phenol among the four considered resins. The equilibrium data was well characterized by the Freundlich model and the isosteric enthalpy decreased dramatically with increasing of the fractional loading. The resin using a lower mass percentage of toluene in the mixed porogens required less time to reach equilibrium because of its less micropores and the minor diffusion resistance in the pores. p(GMA-co-DVB)-22-pc exhibited a dynamic saturated capacity of 55.4 mg/mL wet resin at an initial concentration of 1250 mg/L and a flow rate of 1.4 mL/min, and it could be completely regenerated by 0.001 mol/L of sodium hydroxide (w/v) and 80% of ethanol (v/v). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of plasma off-gas treatment from spent ion exchange resin pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hernán Ariel; Luca, Vittorio; Bianchi, Hugo Luis

    2017-03-23

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene-based ion exchange resins are employed extensively within nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors for purification and chemical control of the cooling water system. To maintain the highest possible water quality, the resins are regularly replaced as they become contaminated with a range of isotopes derived from compromised fuel elements as well as corrosion and activation products including 14 C, 60 Co, 90 Sr, 129 I, and 137 Cs. Such spent resins constitute a major proportion (in volume terms) of the solid radioactive waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several treatment and conditioning techniques have been developed with a view toward reducing the spent resin volume and generating a stable waste product suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Between them, pyrolysis emerges as an attractive option. Previous work of our group suggests that the pyrolysis treatment of the resins at low temperatures between 300 and 350 °C resulted in a stable waste product with a significant volume reduction (>50%) and characteristics suitable for long-term storage and/or disposal. However, another important issue to take into account is the complexity of the off-gas generated during the process and the different technical alternatives for its conditioning. Ongoing work addresses the characterization of the ion exchange resin treatment's off-gas. Additionally, the application of plasma technology for the treatment of the off-gas current was studied as an alternative to more conventional processes utilizing oil- or gas-fired post-combustion chambers operating at temperatures in excess of 1000 °C. A laboratory-scale flow reactor, using inductively coupled plasma, operating under sub-atmospheric conditions was developed. Fundamental experiments using model compounds have been performed, demonstrating a high destruction and removal ratio (>99.99%) for different reaction media, at low reactor temperatures and moderate power consumption

  13. Treatment of groundwater for nitrate removal by portable ion exchange resin, OSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriburo, A.; Pessi, M.; Castagnino, G.; Garat, S.; Hackenbruch, R.; Laguardia, J.; Yelpo, L.; Amondarain, A.; Brunetto, C.

    2010-01-01

    The locations of Palmitas in the Province of Soriano is supplied with groundwater from a shallow and high nitrogen content in sedimentary aquifer (Asencio Formation). Due to lack of alternative sources, groundwater or surface water, it was decided to test the water treatment from a perforation whose tenors were of the order of 51-66 mg / L of nitrates. The methodology used for the removal of nitrate is ion exchange resins .The main issue raised in this case was the disposal of effluent from the washing of the resins, because there is no collective sanitation network Palmitas nor a sufficient stream flow for discharge . Several alternatives (installation of a transitional deposit, haulage trucks, dumping at distant points, etc.), which were ruled by their poor viability and / or high costs were studied. Finally it was decided to install a device that will have three cylinders with resins were transportable, for which should have a weight less than 75 kg and those which would be used alternately. Regeneration of the resins is carried out in the city of Mercedes, distant 40 km, where the necessary water for the discharge conditions exist with a high content of sodium chloride, resulting from ion exchange. This pilot project represents a first step in treatment for nitrate removal in groundwater using transportable resins which aims to supply the public . Due to the nature of the above location , the chosen methodology had to be adapted to fulfill their duties satisfactorily. The first results of this project to a year of commissioning implementation, which has been funded by SBI and developed by his staff, in order to be used in other places with similar problems are presented in this report

  14. Optical Regeneration and Noise in Semiconductor Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip

    2005-01-01

    In this report all-optical 2R-regeneration in optical communication systems is investigated. A simple regenerator device based on concatenated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electro absorbers (EAs) is introduced and examined. Experiments show that the monolithic SOA-EA 2R-regenerator......In this report all-optical 2R-regeneration in optical communication systems is investigated. A simple regenerator device based on concatenated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electro absorbers (EAs) is introduced and examined. Experiments show that the monolithic SOA-EA 2R...

  15. Effect of supercritical water treatment on porous structure, liquid-phase adsorption and regeneration characteristics of activated anthracite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanthapanichakoon, W.; Sittipraneed, S.; Japthong, P.; Charinpanitkul, T.; Boon-Amnuayvitaya, V.; Nakagawa, K.; Tamon, H. [National Nanotechnological Centre, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2006-06-15

    Microporous activated anthracite was produced from waste anthracite powders by the conventional steam activation. The activated anthracite was also treated by supercritical water reaction (SWR) by using distilled water and hydrogen peroxide solution as a liquid medium for SWR treatment. It was found that SWR treatment can improve the mesoporosity of the activated anthracite though the micropore volume was reduced by the treatment. In liquid-phase adsorption and supercritical water regeneration studies, phenol and organic dye RED 31 were selected as the representative adsorbates. The adsorption and regeneration characteristics of activated anthracite were compared with those of a commercial activated carbon. The results indicate that the activated anthracite prepared showed comparable phenol adsorption capacity but significantly lower dye adsorption capacity than the commercial one. However, supercritical water regeneration efficiency was remarkably high. The first/second regeneration efficiencies of commercial activated carbon and activated anthracite exhausted with phenol were 55/55 and 65/65%, respectively, and in the case of RED 31, 78/79 and 338/317%, respectively, with losses of activated carbon less than 4% per regeneration. Because of little loss of activated carbon during successive regenerations, this SWR regeneration method was suitable for regenerating spent activated carbon or anthracite.

  16. Distribution of 14 elements from two solutions simulating Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY (acid-dissolved sludge and acidified supernate) on four cation exchange resins and five anion exchange resins having different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated a series of cation exchange and anion exchange resins for their ability to remove hazardous components from radioactive high-level waste (HLW). The anion exchangers were Reillex TM HPQ, a polyvinyl pyridine resin, and four strong-base polystyrene resins having trimethyl, tri ethyl, tri propyl, and tributyl amine as their respective functional groups. The cation exchange resins included Amberlyst TM 15 and Amberlyst tM XN-1010 with sulfonic acid functionality, Duolite TM C-467 with phosphonic acid functionality, and poly functional Diphonix TM with di phosphonic acid, sulfonic acid, and carboxylic acid functionalities. We measured the distributions of 14 elements on these resins from solutions simulating acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6) and acidified supernate (pH 3.5) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, USA. To these simulants, we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of the 252 element/resin/solution combinations, distribution coefficients (Kds) were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours to obtain information about sorption kinetics from these complex media. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate which unwanted elements are most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of special interest. On the basis of these 756 measured Kd values, we conclude that some of the tested resins appear suitable for partitioning hazardous components from Hanford HLW. (author). 10 refs., 11 tabs

  17. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish heart regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ling Lien

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian hearts cannot regenerate. In contrast, zebrafish hearts regenerate even when up to 20% of the ventricle is amputated. The mechanism of zebrafish heart regeneration is not understood. To systematically characterize this process at the molecular level, we generated transcriptional profiles of zebrafish cardiac regeneration by microarray analyses. Distinct gene clusters were identified based on temporal expression patterns. Genes coding for wound response/inflammatory factors, secreted molecules, and matrix metalloproteinases are expressed in regenerating heart in sequential patterns. Comparisons of gene expression profiles between heart and fin regeneration revealed a set of regeneration core molecules as well as tissue-specific factors. The expression patterns of several secreted molecules around the wound suggest that they play important roles in heart regeneration. We found that both platelet-derived growth factor-a and -b (pdgf-a and pdgf-b are upregulated in regenerating zebrafish hearts. PDGF-B homodimers induce DNA synthesis in adult zebrafish cardiomyocytes. In addition, we demonstrate that a chemical inhibitor of PDGF receptor decreases DNA synthesis of cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo during regeneration. Our data indicate that zebrafish heart regeneration is associated with sequentially upregulated wound healing genes and growth factors and suggest that PDGF signaling is required.

  18. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  19. Method of processing radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootaka, Hisashi; Aizu, Tadashi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the volume-reducing effect for the radioactive solids wastes by freezing and then pulverizing them. Method: Miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes produced from a nuclear power plant and packed in vinyl resin bags are filled in a drum can and nitrogen gas at low temperature (lower than 0 0 C) from a cylinder previously prepared by filling liquid nitrogen (at 15kg/cm 2 , -196 0 C) to freeze the radioactive solid wastes. Thereafter, a hydraulic press is inserted into the drum can to compress and pulverize the thus freezed miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes into powder. The powder thus formed does not expand even after removing the hydraulic press from the drum can, whereby the volume reduction of the radioactive solid wastes can be carried out effectively. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, P. D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    The results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene are discussed. Waste streams included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment.