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Sample records for resin curing process

  1. Study of Electron Beam Curing Process Using Epoxy Resin System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitsuji, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    The competition among industries in the current globalization system has required a systematic cost reduction without affecting the quality of the final product. This fact has encouraged the use of new technologies application on productive process, especially on polymeric composites, to assure the competitiveness. The possibility of producing a new type of carbon fiber reinforced composite by radiation process with excellent thermal and mechanical properties, has been researched since 90's and it can be a potential application in aerospace, marine and automobile industries. The polymeric composites cured by thermal process (furnace or autoclave) are an example of long curing cycles, which requires time and energy consumption. Electron beam curing technology allows the process at room temperature and reduces curing time; consequently, it becomes the main difference of this technology over thermal curing process. The aim of this work was to study electron beam curable epoxy formulation for filament winding process, as well as to investigate the electron beam curing process parameters using a DC 1500/25 - Job 188 Dynamitron model linear accelerator as radiation source, with 0.5 to 1.5 MeV, 0.1 to 25 mA and 60 to 120 cm scanning electron beam. The resin system consists of commercial epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A - DGEBA) and cationic initiator (diaryliodonium hexafluoantimonate) and the polymerization carried out at room temperature with controlled dose rate. Thermal post cure took part of the process to improve the degree of cure and glass transition temperature (Tg) similar to thermal curable resin properties

  2. Solidifying process and flame retardancy of epoxy resin cured with boron-containing phenolic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Shi, Yan; Liu, Yuansen; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    For the sake of improving the charring performance and flame retardancy of epoxy resin (EP), boron-containing phenolic resin (BPR) instead of a conventional curing agent, linear phenolic resin (LPR) was employed to cure EP. Of several possible chemical structures for BPR, the existence of benzyl hydroxy groups in BPR chains has been confirmed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The resonance of these groups may reasonably explain the higher curing reactivity of BPR-cured EP than that of LPR-cured EP. Thermogravimetric analysis, observation of the morphologies of the char residues and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic were performed to characterize the charring process. Due to the presence of B2O3 produced on the char surface from decomposition of phenyl borates and the facile high self-crosslinking reaction of BPR, a more continuous and stronger char barrier was formed for BPR-cured EP compared to that for the LPR-cured EP system. Therefore the former exhibited much better flame retardancy. In addition, BPR-cured EP also displayed better dynamic mechanical properties, than those observed for LPR-cured EP. It is not subject to the significant lowering the glass transition temperature of the polymer which accompanies curing with LPR. This suggests that BPR cured resin may meet the requirement for utilization at high temperature.

  3. Effect of cure cycle on curing process and hardness for epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3-dimensional finite element model is developed to simulate and analyze the temperature and degree of cure field of epoxy casting part during cure process. The present model based on general finite element software ABAQUS is verified by literature example and experimental data. The numerical results show good agreement with literature example and measured data, and are even more accurate than the simulation of literature. After modeling successfully, the influence of temperature cure cycle ramps have on the temperature and degree of cure gradient is investigated. Moreover, the effect of non-uniform temperature and degree of cure field within epoxy casting part on hardness is demonstrated. The present model provides an accurate and novel method that allows further insight into the process of cure for epoxy resin.

  4. Study of electron beam curing process using epoxy resin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitsuji, Delmo A.; Marinucci, Gerson; Evora, Maria C.; de Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G.

    2007-12-01

    Polymeric matrix composite (PMC) has been used in engineering applications instead of metal in the last few years, due to its corrosion resistance and excellent relation between tensile strength/density and elastic modulus/density. However, PMC materials cured by thermal process require high temperature and are time-consuming. The electron beam (EB) curing technology allows its use at room temperature and reduced curing times, and this is one of the main advantages over thermal technology. The aim of this work is to investigate electron beam curable epoxy formulations to use in filament winding processes to produce composite material with similar or better properties than thermal curable composites. The study has been made with commercial epoxy resins and cationic initiators. The epoxy resin samples were irradiated for few minutes with total dose of 150 kGy. The glass transition temperatures ( Tg) were determined by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and the result was 137 °C. The thermal process was carried out in a furnace following three steps: 4 h at 90 °C, increasing temperature from 90 °C to 130 °C during 4 h and 12 h at 130 °C. The total process time was 20 h. The Tg of this sample was 102 °C.

  5. Study of electron beam curing process using epoxy resin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitsuji, Delmo A. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha - CTMSP, Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Marinucci, Gerson [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil); Evora, Maria C. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv/CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Andrade Silva, Leonardo G de e [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo/SP (Brazil)], E-mail: lgasilva@ipen.br

    2007-12-15

    Polymeric matrix composite (PMC) has been used in engineering applications instead of metal in the last few years, due to its corrosion resistance and excellent relation between tensile strength/density and elastic modulus/density. However, PMC materials cured by thermal process require high temperature and are time-consuming. The electron beam (EB) curing technology allows its use at room temperature and reduced curing times, and this is one of the main advantages over thermal technology. The aim of this work is to investigate electron beam curable epoxy formulations to use in filament winding processes to produce composite material with similar or better properties than thermal curable composites. The study has been made with commercial epoxy resins and cationic initiators. The epoxy resin samples were irradiated for few minutes with total dose of 150 kGy. The glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) were determined by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and the result was 137 deg. C. The thermal process was carried out in a furnace following three steps: 4 h at 90 deg. C, increasing temperature from 90 deg. C to 130 deg. C during 4 h and 12 h at 130 deg. C. The total process time was 20 h. The T{sub g} of this sample was 102 deg. C.

  6. Cure Behavior and Thermal Properties of Diepoxidized Cardanol Resin Cured by Electron Beam Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Donghwan; Cheon, Jinsil

    2013-01-01

    Thermal curing of epoxy resin requires high temperature, time-consuming process and the volatilization of hardener. It has known that electron beam curing of epoxy resin is a fast process and occurs at low or room temperature that help reduce residual mechanical stresses in thermosetting polymers. Diepoxidized cardanol (DEC) can be synthesized by an enzymatic method from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), that constitutes nearly one-third of the total nut weight. A large amount of CNSL can be formed as a byproduct of the mechanical processes used to render the cashew kerneledible and its total production approaches one million tons annually, which can be bio-degradable and replace the industrial thermosetting plastics. It is expected that DEC may be cured as in an epoxy resin, which was constituted on two epoxide group and long alkyl chain, and two-types of onium salts (cationic initiator) were used as a photo-initiator. The experimental variables of this study are type and concentration of photo-initiators and electron beam dosage. In this study, the effects of initiator type and concentration on the cure behavior and the thermal properties of DEC resin processed by using electron beam technology were studied using FT-IR, TGA, TMA, DSC, and DMA. Figure 1 is the FT-IR results, showing the change of chemical structure of pure DEC and electron beam cured DEC. The characteristic absorption peak of epoxide group appeared at 850cm -1 . The shape and the height were reduced when the sample was irradiated with electron beam. From this result, the epoxide groups is DEC were opened by electron beam and cured. After then, electron beam cured DEC was investigated the effect of forming 3-dimensional network

  7. Process for curing ionizing radiation-highly sensitive resin composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, K.; Sasaki, T.; Tabei, K.; Goto, K.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for curing a radiation curable composition consisting essentially of (a) an amide represented by the formula R,CONR 2 R 3 and (b) an unsaturated polyester resin by irradiating the composition with an ionizing radiation. R 1 is H, an alkyl groups having from 1 to 17 carbon atoms or an alkenyl groups having from 1 to 17 carbon atoms, and R 2 and R 3 are each -H, -CH 3 , or -CH 2 OH. R 1 and R 2 taken together represent alkylene having 2 to 5 carbon atoms

  8. Accurate Cure Modeling for Isothermal Processing of Fast Curing Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bernath

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work a holistic approach for the characterization and mathematical modeling of the reaction kinetics of a fast epoxy resin is shown. Major composite manufacturing processes like resin transfer molding involve isothermal curing at temperatures far below the ultimate glass transition temperature. Hence, premature vitrification occurs during curing and consequently has to be taken into account by the kinetic model. In order to show the benefit of using a complex kinetic model, the Kamal-Malkin kinetic model is compared to the Grindling kinetic model in terms of prediction quality for isothermal processing. From the selected models, only the Grindling kinetic is capable of taking into account vitrification. Non-isothermal, isothermal and combined differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements are conducted and processed for subsequent use for model parametrization. In order to demonstrate which DSC measurements are vital for proper cure modeling, both models are fitted to varying sets of measurements. Special attention is given to the evaluation of isothermal DSC measurements which are subject to deviations arising from unrecorded cross-linking prior to the beginning of the measurement as well as from physical aging effects. It is found that isothermal measurements are vital for accurate modeling of isothermal cure and cannot be neglected. Accurate cure predictions are achieved using the Grindling kinetic model.

  9. Mechanism and kinetics of the curing process in a resin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Cizmecioglu, M.; Hong, S. D.; Gupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the development of a cure reactivity model for a resin system consisting of tetraglycidyl diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM) and diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), taking into account the temperature range from 153 to 177 C. Differential scanning calorimetry and FT-IR spectroscopy have been used to investigate the cure kinetics of the resin with the objective to obtain a correlation between the total conversion and the rates of formation and disappearance of specific functionalities. It was found that the overall process can be satisfactorily described in terms of two first order processes.

  10. Co-Curing of CFRP-Steel Hybrid Joints Using the Vacuum Assisted Resin Infusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitferdt, Alexander; Rudolph, Natalie; Taha, Iman

    2017-10-01

    This study focuses on the one-step co-curing process of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) joined with a steel plate to form a hybrid structure. In this process CFRP laminate and bond to the metal are realized simultaneously by resin infusion, such that the same resin serves for both infusion and adhesion. For comparison, the commonly applied two-step process of adhesive bonding is studied. In this case, the CFRP laminate is fabricated in a first stage through resin infusion of Non Crimp Fabric (NCF) and joined to the steel plate in a further step through adhesive bonding. For this purpose, the commercially available epoxy-based Betamate 1620 is applied. CFRP laminates were fabricated using two different resin systems, namely the epoxy (EP)-based RTM6 and a newly developed fast curing polyurethane (PU) resin. Results show comparable mechanical performance of the PU and EP based CFRP laminates. The strength of the bond of the co-cured samples was in the same order as the samples adhesively bonded with the PU resin and the structural adhesive. The assembly adhesive with higher ductility showed a weaker performance compared to the other tests. It could be shown that the surface roughness had the highest impact on the joint performance under the investigated conditions.

  11. Simulation of Air Entrapment and Resin Curing During Manufacturing of Composite Cab Front by Resin Transfer Moulding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppusamy Raghu Raja Pandiyan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mould filling and subsequent curing are the significant processing stages involved in the production of a composite component through Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM fabrication technique. Dry spot formation and air entrapment during filling stage caused by improper design of filling conditions and locations that lead to undesired filling patterns resulting in defective RTM parts. Proper placement of inlet ports and exit vents as well as by adjustment of filling conditions can alleviate the problems during the mould filling stage. The temperature profile used to polymerize the resin must be carefully chosen to reduce the cure time. Instead of trial and error methods that are expensive, time consuming, and non-optimal, we propose a simulation-based optimization strategy for a composite cab front component to reduce the air entrapment and cure stage optimization. In order to be effective, the optimization strategy requires an accurate simulation of the process utilizing submodels to describe the raw material characteristics. Cure reaction kinetics and chemo-rheology were the submodels developed empirically for an unsaturated polyester resin using experimental data. The simulations were performed using commercial software PAM RTM 2008, developed by ESI Technologies. Simulation results show that the use of increase in injection pressure at the inlet filling conditions greatly reduce the air entrapped. For the cab front, the alteration of injection pressure with proper timing of vent opening reduced the air entrapped during mould filling stage. Similarly, the curing simulation results show that the use of higher mould temperatures effectively decreases the cure time as expected.

  12. Method of controlling a resin curing process. [for fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Charles Neal (Inventor); Scott, Robert O. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to an analytical technique for controlling the curing process of fiber-reinforced composite materials that are formed using thermosetting resins. The technique is the percent gel method and involves development of a time-to-gel equation as a function of temperature. From this equation a rate-of-gel equation is then determined, and a percent gel is calculated which is the product of rate-of-gel times time. Percent gel accounting is used to control the proper pressure application point in an autoclave cure process to achieve desired properties in a production composite part.

  13. Single-component and fast-curing epoxy resin for liquid composite molding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of single-component and fast-curing epoxy resins is highly desired for many industry applications. In this work, we report an epoxy system based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA and 1-(2-cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4- methylimidazole (1C2E4MIM. The inductive effect of electron-withdrawing cyano group distinctly increases the latency of 1C2E4MIM without sacrificing the curing rate. The results of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA measurements indicate DGEBA/1C2E4MIM epoxy system can be fully cured in 15 min. The rheological, thermal and mechanical properties of DGEBA/1C2E4MIM epoxy system were studied in detail. The results show that the shelf life of this epoxy system is more than 4 days at room temperature and more than 6 months at -18 °C. The cured epoxy resins show high glass transition temperature (>155 °C, tensile strength (>80 MPa as well as excellent moist heat resistance. Finally, carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs were fabricated using this epoxy system as matrix via vacuum assisted resin infusion (VARI process. The mechanical properties of CFRPs, including tensile, flexural, compressive and interlaminar shear properties, were investigated.

  14. Curing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Tadashi.

    1969-01-01

    A process for the rapid curing of an electrophoretically applied coating with either compositions of aqueous dispersion or aqueous coating compositions thereof is provided by irradiating with ionizing radiations. The process comprises the steps of (a) neutralizing an aqueous alkyd resin with a base, in which the alkyd resin contains a conjugated unsaturated fatty acid or oil as one of its constituents, (b) dispersing the neutralized resin in water, (c) applying to an electroconductive material the varnishes of the dispersed composition or the dispersed coating composition, and (d) irradiating the coatings with ionizing radiations so as to harden them. The alkyd resins have an acid value of 30 to 100 and the bases are equivalent to 0.7 to 1.2. the process is suitable for coil coating. In examples, a semi-esterified product of acid value 54 was diluted with 440 parts of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and 110 parts of butanol. Next, they were neutralized with 87 parts of dimethyl amino ethanol. Thereafter, they were mixed with 1,013 parts of water to produce an aqueous dispersion of alkyd resin varnish at a concentration of 40%. To 325 parts of the varnish were added 1.3 parts of cobalt naphthenate- 60% toluene solution and then 675 parts of water to produce water soluble varnish containing 13% of a nonvolatile substance. The varnish was applied by electrophoresis for 10 seconds. The time required for the irradiation was about 1 second. The total radiation dose was 3 Mrad of electron beams at an acceleration energy of 300 kV and 25 mA of current. (Iwakiri, K.)

  15. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  16. Single-component and fast-curing epoxy resin for liquid composite molding processes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yiru; Liu Wangshuang; Qiu Yiping; Wei Yi

    2017-01-01

    Development of single-component and fast-curing epoxy resins is highly desired for many industry applications. In this work, we report an epoxy system based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and 1-(2-cyanoethyl)-2-ethyl-4- methylimidazole (1C2E4MIM). The inductive effect of electron-withdrawing cyano group distinctly increases the latency of 1C2E4MIM without sacrificing the curing rate. The results of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) measu...

  17. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1984-08-07

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  18. Electron-beam curing of epoxy resins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron-beam (e-beam) induced polymerization of epoxy resins proceeds via cationic mechanism in presence of suitable photoinitiator. Despite good thermal properties and significant processing advantages, epoxy-based composites manufactured using e-beam curing suffer from low compressive strength, poor ...

  19. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor oil with melamine resin, has been studied by DSC method with programmed heating and in isothermal mode. The results determined from dynamic DSC curves were mathematically transformed using the Ozawa isoconversional method for obtaining the isothermal data. These results, degree of curing versus time, are in good agreement with those determined by the isothermal DSC experiments. By applying the Ozawa method it is possible to calculate the isothermal kinetic parameters for the alkyd/melamine resin mixtures curing using only calorimetric data obtained by dynamic DSC runs. Depending on the alkyd resin type and ratio in mixtures the values of activation energies of curing process of resin mixtures are from 51.3 to 114 kJ mol-1. The rate constant of curing increases with increasing the content of melamine resin in the mixture and with curing temperature. The reaction order varies from 1.12 to 1.37 for alkyd based on dehydrated castor oil/melamine resin mixtures and from 1.74 to 2.03 for mixtures with alkyd based on castor oil. Based on the results obtained, we propose that dehydrated castor oil alkyd/melamine resin mixtures can be used in practice (curing temperatures from 120 to 160°C.

  20. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschueren, K.; Balwant Kaur

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  1. Epoxy foams using multiple resins and curing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russick, Edward M.; Rand, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    An epoxy foam comprising a plurality of resins, a plurality of curing agents, at least one blowing agent, at least one surfactant and optionally at least one filler and the process for making. Preferred is an epoxy foam comprising two resins of different reactivities, two curing agents, a blowing agent, a surfactant, and a filler. According to the present invention, an epoxy foam is prepared with tailorable reactivity, exotherm, and pore size by a process of admixing a plurality of resins with a plurality of curing agents, a surfactant and blowing agent, whereby a foamable mixture is formed and heating said foamable mixture at a temperature greater than the boiling temperature of the blowing agent whereby said mixture is foamed and cured.

  2. Novel thermal curing of cycloaliphatic resins by thiol-epoxy click process with several multifunctional thiols

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Dailyn; Mateu, Blai; Fernández Francos, Xavier; Ramis Juan, Xavier; Serra Albet, Àngels

    2017-01-01

    Novel thermosets were prepared by the base-catalysed reaction between a cycloaliphatic resin (ECC) and various thiol crosslinkers. 4-(N,N-Dimethylaminopyridine) (DMAP) was used as base catalyst for the thiol–epoxy reaction. A commercial tetrathiol (PETMP) and three different thiols synthesized by us, 6SH-SQ, 3SH-EU and 3SH-ISO, were tested. 6SH-SQ and 3SH-EU were prepared from vinyl or allyl compounds from renewable resources such as squalene and eugenol, respectively. Thiol 3SH-ISO was prepa...

  3. Monitoring the Cure State of Thermosetting Resins by Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA) for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing. PMID:28788306

  4. Monitoring the Cure State of Thermosetting Resins by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Maffezzoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of low intensity ultrasound in a curing resin, acting as a high frequency oscillatory excitation, has been recently proposed as an ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA for cure monitoring. The technique measures sound velocity and attenuation, which are very sensitive to changes in the viscoelastic characteristics of the curing resin, since the velocity is related to the resin storage modulus and density, while the attenuation is related to the energy dissipation and scattering in the curing resin. The paper reviews the results obtained by the authors’ research group in the last decade by means of in-house made ultrasonic set-ups for both contact and air-coupled ultrasonic experiments. The basics of the ultrasonic wave propagation in polymers and examples of measurements of the time-evolution of ultrasonic longitudinal modulus and chemical conversion of different thermosetting resins are presented. The effect of temperature on the cure kinetics, the comparison with rheological, low frequency dynamic mechanical and calorimetric results, and the correlation between ultrasonic modulus and crosslinking density will be also discussed. The paper highlights the reliability of ultrasonic wave propagation for monitoring the physical changes taking place during curing and the potential for online monitoring during polymer and polymer matrix composite processing.

  5. The effect of light curing units, curing time, and veneering materials on resin cement microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Ozakar Ilday

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Light-curing units, curing time, and veneering materials are important factors for achieving adequate dual cure resin composite microhardness. High-intensity light and longer curing times resulted in the highest microhardness values.

  6. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  7. The cytotoxicity of resin composites cured with three light curing units at different curing distances

    OpenAIRE

    Ergün, Gülfem; Egilmez, Ferhan; Cekic Nagas, Isil

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of light curing distance on the cytotoxicity of five resin composites cured with three high-power light curing units. Study design: Seven cylindrical discs of each material (Grandio ®, Voco; Filtek ? Z250, 3M ESPE; Clearfil ? AP-X, Kuraray Co. Ltd.; Aelite ? LS, Bisco Inc. and Simile ®, Pentron) were cured. For curing, soft-up mode of quartz-tungsten-halogen, exponential mode of light emitting diode for 20 s, and ramp-curing m...

  8. Photothermal radiometry monitoring of light curing in resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Arjona, M. A.; Medina-Esquivel, R.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2007-10-01

    Real time measurement of thermal diffusivity during the evolution of the light curing process in dental resins is reported using photothermal radiometry. The curing is induced by a non-modulated blue light beam, and at the same time, a modulated red laser beam is sent onto the sample, generating a train of thermal waves that produce modulated infrared radiation. The monitoring of this radiation permits to follow the time evolution of the process. The methodology is applied to two different commercially available light curing resin-based composites. In all cases thermal diffusivity follows a first order kinetics with similar stabilization characteristic times. Analysis of this kinetics permits to exhibit the close relationship of increase in thermal diffusivity with the decrease in monomer concentration and extension of the polymerization in the resin, induced by the curing light. It is also shown that the configuration in which the resin is illuminated by the modulated laser can be the basis for the development of an in situ technique for the determination of the degree of curing.

  9. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Mirjana C.; Radičević Radmila Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor...

  10. Curing efficiency of dual-cure resin cement under zirconia with two different light curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, Pınar; Pak Tunc, Elif; Ongul, Deger; Turp, Volkan; Bultan, Ozgur; Karataslı, Burcin

    2015-01-01

    Adequate polymerization is a crucial factor in obtaining optimal physical properties and a satisfying clinical performance from composite resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization efficiency of dual-cure resin cement cured with two different light curing units under zirconia structures having differing thicknesses. 4 zirconia discs framework in 4 mm diameter and in 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm thickness were prepared using computer-aided design system. One of the 0.5 mm-thick substructures was left as mono-layered whereas others were layered with feldspathic porcelain of same thickness and ceramic samples with 4 different thicknesses (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were prepared. For each group (n=12) resin cement was light cured in polytetrafluoroethylene molds using Light Emitting Diode (LED) or Quartz-Tungsten Halogen (QHT) light curing units under each of 4 zirconia based discs (n=96). The values of depth of cure (in mm) and the Vickers Hardness Number values (VHN) were evaluated for each specimen. The use of LED curing unit produced a greater depth of cure compared to QTH under ceramic discs with 0.5 and 1 mm thickness (punit produced significantly greater VHN values compared to the QTH unit (pLight curing may not result in adequate resin cement polymerization under thick zirconia structures. LED light sources should be preferred over QTH for curing dual-cure resin cements, especially for those under thicker zirconia restorations.

  11. CURING EFFICIENCY OF DUAL-CURE RESIN CEMENT UNDER ZIRCONIA WITH TWO DIFFERENT LIGHT CURING UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar GÜLTEKİN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adequate polymerization is a crucial factor in obtaining optimal physical properties and a satisfying clinical performance from composite resin materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the polymerization efficiency of dual-cure resin cement cured with two different light curing units under zirconia structures having differing thicknesses. Materials and Methods: 4 zirconia discs framework in 4 mm diameter and in 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 1.5 mm thickness were prepared using computer-aided design system. One of the 0.5 mm-thick substructures was left as mono-layered whereas others were layered with feldspathic porcelain of same thickness and ceramic samples with 4 different thicknesses (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 mm were prepared. For each group (n=12 resin cement was light cured in polytetrafluoroethylene molds using Light Emitting Diode (LED or Quartz-Tungsten Halogen (QHT light curing units under each of 4 zirconia based discs (n=96. The values of depth of cure (in mm and the Vickers Hardness Number values (VHN were evaluated for each specimen. Results: The use of LED curing unit produced a greater depth of cure compared to QTH under ceramic discs with 0.5 and 1 mm thickness (p<0.05.At 100μm and 300 μm depth, the LED unit produced significantly greater VHN values compared to the QTH unit (p<0.05. At 500 μm depth, the difference between the VHN values of LED and QTH groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Light curing may not result in adequate resin cement polymerization under thick zirconia structures. LED light sources should be preferred over QTH for curing dual-cure resin cements, especially for those under thicker zirconia restorations.

  12. The cytotoxicity of resin composites cured with three light curing units at different curing distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Gulfem; Egilmez, Ferhan; Cekic-Nagas, Isil

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of light curing distance on the cytotoxicity of five resin composites cured with three high-power light curing units. Seven cylindrical discs of each material (Grandio®, Voco; Filtek™ Z250, 3M ESPE; Clearfil™ AP-X, Kuraray Co. Ltd.; Aelite™ LS, Bisco Inc. and Simile®, Pentron) were cured. For curing, soft-up mode of quartz-tungsten-halogen, exponential mode of light emitting diode for 20 s, and ramp-curing mode of plasma arc light curing units for 6 s were used. The curing tip distances were determined as 2 and 9 mm and controlled via the use of metal rings. After ageing the samples for 24 and 72 hours in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12), cytotoxicity of the extracts to cultured fibroblasts (L 929) was measured by using MTT (tetrazolium salt 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The degree of cytotoxicity for each sample was determined according to the reference value represented by the cells in a pure culture medium. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance. The type of resin composite (p light curing unit (p curing tip distance (p light emitting diode and plasma arc light curing units were used (p=0.184, F=1.448). The results of this study suggest that the light curing units and resin composites should be harmonized to one another and the curing distance between the tip of the light curing unit and the restoration surface should be as close as possible in order to achieve maximal biocompatibility.

  13. Studying Room Temperature Curing of Phenolic Resin and their Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Beheshty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resins are synthetic low molecular weight thermoset resins which are polymerized and cured to higher molecular weights by condensation method. These resins have high weathering resistance, high oxidative thermal properties and good chemical resistance. Phenolic resins can be cured thermally or by acid curing. The most common method of curing phenolic resin is by thermal curing that takes place in the range of 130-180oC. At room temperature, however, phenolic resins are cured by acid catalysts. In this paper, room temperature curing of resol phenolic resin by para toluene sulphonic acid has been investigated. The acid quantity has been determined for room temperature curing of two types of resols to achieve a reasonable hardness and gelation time. Temperature curing and thermal stability of respective resins have been investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. A glass-phenolic composite plate has been prepared and cured by these two methods. The results show that the optimum amount of acid is 20% by weight. Optimum mechanical properties, chemical resistance and thermal properties have been achieved for acid cured system. The hot cured resin, however, has better properties.

  14. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  15. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  16. Effect of Curing Agent and Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Epoxy Resin Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhao; Chenhui Zhao; Guangcheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of curing agent (6610) content and temperature on the rheological behavior of the epoxy resin CYD-128 was studied by DSC analysis and viscosity experiments. The results show that the resin system meets the requirements of processing technology. A complete reaction occurs when the curing agent content (40 parts per hundred resin, phr) is a little higher than the theoretical value (33.33 phr), while the degree of reaction of the resin system is reduced when the curing agent content i...

  17. The curing behavior and properties of phthalonitrile resins using ionic liquids as a new class of curing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Binary blends composed of 1,3-bis (3,4-dicyanophenoxy benzene (3BOCN and ionic liquids (ILs with different molecular structures were prepared. The curing behavior of these 3BOCN/ILs blends were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and rheological analysis. The study suggested that the blends possessed a wide processing window and the structures of ILs (anion, cation and alkyl chain length at cation had an effect on curing behavior. The 3BOCN/[EPy]BF4 resins were prepared at elevated temperature. IR spectra of the resins showed that there were triazine and isoindoline formed in curing process. The TGA and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA revealed that the resins have excellent thermal stability together with high storage modulus and high glass transition temperature (Tg. Dielectric properties, long term oxidative aging and water uptake measurements of the resins suggested the IL brought some unique properties to the resins.

  18. Cold-Curing Structural Epoxy Resins: Analysis of the Curing Reaction as a Function of Curing Time and Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito Corcione, Carola; Freuli, Fabrizio; Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2014-01-01

    The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was also deeply investigated. A highly exothermal reaction, based on a self-activated frontal polymerization reaction, was supposed and verified trough a suitable temperature signal acquisition system, specifically realized for this measurement. This is one of the first studies carried out on the curing behavior of these peculiar cold-cured epoxy resins as a function of curing time and thickness. PMID:28788215

  19. Cold-Curing Structural Epoxy Resins: Analysis of the Curing Reaction as a Function of Curing Time and Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcione, Carola Esposito; Freuli, Fabrizio; Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2014-09-22

    The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was also deeply investigated. A highly exothermal reaction, based on a self-activated frontal polymerization reaction, was supposed and verified trough a suitable temperature signal acquisition system, specifically realized for this measurement. This is one of the first studies carried out on the curing behavior of these peculiar cold-cured epoxy resins as a function of curing time and thickness.

  20. Cold-Curing Structural Epoxy Resins: Analysis of the Curing Reaction as a Function of Curing Time and Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Esposito Corcione

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The curing reaction of a commercial cold-curing structural epoxy resin, specifically formulated for civil engineering applications, was analyzed by thermal analysis as a function of the curing time and the sample thickness. Original and remarkable results regarding the effects of curing time on the glass transition temperature and on the residual heat of reaction of the cold-cured epoxy were obtained. The influence of the sample thickness on the curing reaction of the cold-cured resin was also deeply investigated. A highly exothermal reaction, based on a self-activated frontal polymerization reaction, was supposed and verified trough a suitable temperature signal acquisition system, specifically realized for this measurement. This is one of the first studies carried out on the curing behavior of these peculiar cold-cured epoxy resins as a function of curing time and thickness.

  1. Curing reaction characteristics and phase behaviors of biphenol type epoxy resins with phenol novolac resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shaoping; Lan Yanxun; Zhen Yiquan; Ling Youdao; Lu Mangeng

    2006-01-01

    Diglycidyl ether of 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenol (BPDGE) is a liquid crystalline epoxy. The biphenyl epoxy (diglycidyl ether of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-biphenyl, TMBPDGE) has found great applications in plastic encapsulated semiconductor packaging. Phenol novolac (PN) was used as curing agent. The reaction kinetics of BPDGE/PN and TMBPDGE/PN systems in the presence of triphenylphosphine (TPP) were characterized by an isoconversional method under dynamic conditions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The results showed that the curing of epoxy resins involves different reaction stages and the values of activation energy are dependent on the deg.ree of conversion. The effects of curing temperature on their phase structure have been investigated with polarized optical microscopy and Wide-angle X-ray diffraction. With proper curing process, BPDGE showed a nematic phase when cured with PN

  2. Heat-cured Acrylic Resin versus Light-activated Resin: A Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Although light-activated resins (Eclipse) have been reported to possess superior physical and mechanical properties compared with the heat-cured acrylic resins (Lucitone-199), a few studies have compared overdentures with a locator attachment constructed from heat-cured acrylic resins with those constructed ...

  3. Cure monitoring of epoxy resin by using fiber bragg grating sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In several industrial fields, epoxy resin is widely used as an adhesive for co-curing and manufacturing various structures. Controlling the manufacturing process is required for ensuring robust bonding performance and the stability of the structures. A fiber optic sensor is suitable for the cure monitoring of epoxy resin owing to the thready shape of the sensor. In this paper, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor was applied for the cure monitoring of epoxy resin. Based on the experimental results, it was demonstrated that the FBG sensor can monitor the status of epoxy resin curing by measuring the strain caused by volume shrinkage and considering the compensation of temperature. In addition, two types of epoxy resin were used for the cure-monitoring; moreover, when compared to each other, it was found that the two types of epoxy had different cure-processes in terms of the change of strain during the curing. Therefore, the study proved that the FBG sensor is very profitable for the cure-monitoring of epoxy resin

  4. The effect of light curing units, curing time, and veneering materials on resin cement microhardness

    OpenAIRE

    Nurcan Ozakar Ilday; Yusuf Ziya Bayindir; Funda Bayindir; Aysel Gurpinar

    2013-01-01

    Background/purpose: Several factors may affects microhardness of resin cement under veneering materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different veneering materials, light-curing units and curing times (20/3, 40/6) on the microhardness of dual-cured resin cement. Materials and methods: We pressed dual-cured resin cement specimens (Clearfil SA cement, 5 mm diameter, 1 mm thick) between two microscopic glass slides covered with transparent polystyrene matrix strips to r...

  5. Effect of curing mode on the micro-mechanical properties of dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Nicoleta; Simon, Alexander

    2012-04-01

    Light supplying to luting resin cements is impeded in several clinical situations, causing us to question whether materials can properly be cured to achieve adequately (or adequate) mechanical properties. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the effect of light on the micro-mechanical properties of eight popular dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements by comparing them with two conventional, also dual-cured, resin cements. Four different curing procedures were applied: auto-polymerisation (dark curing) and light curing (LED unit, Freelight 2, 20 s) by applying the unit directly on the samples' surface, at a distance of 5 and 10 mm. Twenty minutes after curing, the samples were stored for 1 week at 37°C in a water-saturated atmosphere. The micro-mechanical properties-Vickers hardness, modulus of elasticity, creep and elastic/plastic deformation-were measured. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test and partial eta-squared statistics (p micro-mechanical properties was measured, whereas the influence of the curing procedure and type of cement-conventional or self-adhesive-was generally low. The influence of light on the polymerisation process was material dependent, with four different behaviour patterns to be distinguished. As a material category, significantly higher micro-mechanical properties were measured for the conventional compared to the self-adhesive resin cements, although this difference was low. Within the self-adhesive resin cements group, the variation in micro-mechanical properties was high. The selection of suitable resin cements should be done by considering, besides its adhesive properties, its micro-mechanical properties and curing behaviour also.

  6. Ultrasonic and thermo-kinetic characterization of curing epoxy resin

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sheikh Mohammod

    2013-01-01

    This study combines cure kinetics modelling and thermal and ultrasonic cure monitoring to characterize the cure state of a complex commercial modified epoxy thermosetting system of industrial importance containing two epoxies, diethylene triamine hardener, external catalyst, aliphatic reactive diluent, and mica. Both catalyst and reactive diluent in the formulation of two epoxy resin mixture keep this complex system odd from others and to some extent a new one to report cure kinetics to the b...

  7. Colour stability of heat and cold cure acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Pavan Kumar; Ganesh, P R; Reddy, Madan Mohan; Ebenezar, A V Rajesh; Sivakumar, G

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the colour stability of heat and cold cure acrylic resins under simulated oral conditions with different colorants. Three different brands of heat cure acrylic resin and two rapid cure auto polymerizing acrylic resin of commercial products such as Trevelon Heat Cure (THC), DPI Heat cure (DHC), Pyrax Heat Cure (PHC), DPI Cold cure (DCC) and Acralyn-R-Cold cure (ACC) have been evaluated for discoloration and colour variation on subjecting it to three different, commonly employed food colorants such as Erythrosine, Tartarizine and Sunset yellow. In order to simulate the oral condition the food colorants were diluted with artificial saliva to the samples taken up for the study. These were further kept in an incubator at 37°C ± 1°C. The UV-visible spectrophotometer has been utilized to evaluate the study on the basis of CIE L* a* b* system. The prepared samples for standard evaluation have been grouped as control group, which has been tested with a white as standard, which is applicable for testing the colour variants. The least colour changes was found to be with Sunset Yellow showing AE* value of 3.55 with heat cure acrylic resin branded as PHC material and the highest colour absorption with Tartarizine showing AE* value of 12.43 in rapid cure autopolymerzing acrylic resin material branded as ACC material. ACC which is a self cure acrylic resin shows a higher colour variation to the tartarizine food coloration. There were not much of discoloration values shown on the denture base resins as the food colorants are of organic azodyes.

  8. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Acosta-Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resins, but the transverse strength and porosity were slightly improved. The acrylic resins cured with microwave energy exhibited reduced C. albicans adherence. These results demonstrate an improved noncytotoxic material for the manufacturing of denture bases in dentistry.

  9. Comparison of residual monomer loss from cold-cure orthodontic acrylic resins processed by different polymerization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik, Tahereh Hosseinzadeh; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar; Eraghihzadeh, Zeinab; Aghajani, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    This investigation aimed to assess and compare the amount of residual monomer (RM) released from removable orthodontic appliances constructed by sprinkle-on and dough techniques. One hundred and twenty acrylic samples were prepared from orthodontic autopolymerized acrylic resins and divided into three groups, according to the processing method: sprinkle-on with polyclave, sprinkle-on without polyclave and dough technique. After polymerization, the specimens of each group were immersed in distilled water for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 1 week. High-performances liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to measure residual monomer content. Maximum observed RM was 1284·91±129·07 ppm measured for sprinkle-on technique without polyclave after 24 h of water immersion. At this time, the level of RM was significantly different among the three applied techniques (Psprinkle-on technique with polyclave released the least amount of RM. Within each group, the maximum monomer releasing was observed after the first 24 h and decreases were observed in subsequent time groups. The reduction over the time was not significant in the polyclave groups (P>0·05). The sprinkle-on technique with polyclave and longer water immersion reduced residual monomer released from acrylic orthodontic appliances.

  10. Isoconversional kinetic analysis of the alkyd/melamine resins curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The curing reaction for the mixtures of alkyd resins based on ricinoleic acid, phthalic anhydride and three polyols (glycerin, trimethylolpropane or ethoxylated pentaerythritol with two different commercial melamine resins was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The curing kinetics analysis was performed using the isoconversional methods (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Friedman. Isoconversional methods were carried out with three heating rates (5, 10 and 20°C/min in a scanning temperature range from 40 to 250°C. It was found that the curing activation energy of resin mixtures is influenced by alkyd and melamine resin type due to the catalytic effect of hydroxyl group on the reactions. The dependence of apparent curing degree on time, which was obtained by mathematical transformations of dynamic DSC data using Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method, describes well the isothermal DSC experiments.

  11. Critical parameters for electron beam curing of cationic epoxies and property comparison of electron beam cured cationic epoxies versus thermal cured resins and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, C.J.; Norris, R.E.; Yarborough, K.; Lopata, V.J.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of composites is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process offering the following advantages compared to conventional thermal curing: substantially reduced manufacturing costs and curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvements in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance electron beam curing of composites. The CRADA has successfully developed hundreds of new toughened and untoughened resins, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility. Several patent applications have been filed for this work. Composites made from these easily processable, low shrinkage material match the performance of thermal cured composites and exhibit: low void contents comparable to autoclave cured composites (less than 1%); superb low water absorption values in the same range as cyanate esters (less than 1%); glass transition temperatures rivaling those of polyimides (greater than 390 C); mechanical properties comparable to high performance, autoclave cured composites; and excellent property retention after cryogenic and thermal cycling. These materials have been used to manufacture many composite parts using various fabrication processes including hand lay-up, tow placement, filament winding, resin transfer molding and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding

  12. Light curing through glass ceramics: effect of curing mode on micromechanical properties of dual-curing resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate micromechanical properties of five dual-curing resin cements after different curing modes including light curing through glass ceramic materials. Vickers hardness (VH) and indentation modulus (Y HU) of Panavia F2.0, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, SpeedCEM, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA were measured after 1 week of storage (37 °C, 100 % humidity). The resin cements were tested following self-curing or light curing with the second-generation light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit Elipar FreeLight 2 in Standard Mode (1,545 mW/cm(2)) or with the third-generation LED curing unit VALO in High Power Mode (1,869 mW/cm(2)) or in XtraPower Mode (3,505 mW/cm(2)). Light curing was performed directly or through glass ceramic discs of 1.5 or 3 mm thickness of IPS Empress CAD or IPS e.max CAD. VH and Y HU were analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05). RelyX Unicem 2 Automix resulted in the highest VH and Y HU followed by BeautiCem SA, BisCem, SpeedCEM, and finally Panavia F2.0. Self-curing of RelyX Unicem 2 Automix and SpeedCEM lowered VH and Y HU compared to light curing whereas self-curing of Panavia F2.0, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA led to similar or significantly higher VH and Y HU compared to light curing. Generally, direct light curing resulted in similar or lower VH and Y HU compared to light curing through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. Light curing through 3-mm-thick discs of IPS e.max CAD generally reduced VH and Y HU for all resin cements except SpeedCEM, which was the least affected by light curing through ceramic discs. The resin cements responded heterogeneously to changes in curing mode. The applied irradiances and light curing times adequately cured the resin cements even through 1.5-mm-thick ceramic discs. When light curing resin cements through thick glass ceramic restorations, clinicians should consider to prolong the light curing times even with LED curing units providing high

  13. Optical Fibre Grating Refractometers for Resin Cure Monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Buggy, Stephen J.; Chehura, Edmon; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2007-01-01

    The use of fibre grating refractometers as a means of monitoring the cure of a UVcured epoxy resin is presented. The wavelength shift of the attenuation bands of a long period grating and the spectral response of a tilted fibre Bragg grating sensor were measured simultaneously during the cure of the resin and compared with measurements made using a fibre optic Fresnel based refractometer. The results showed a good correlation (6 x 10 -3 rius) and illustrate the potential of ...

  14. Microwave and thermal curing of an epoxy resin for microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, K.; Pavuluri, S.K.; Leonard, M.T.; Desmulliez, M.P.Y.; Arrighi, V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermal and microwave curing of a commercial epoxy resin EO1080 are compared. • Microwave curing increases cure rate and does not adversely affect properties. • The curing of EO1080 is generally autocatalytic but deviates at high conversion. • Microwave radiation has a more complex effect on curing kinetics. - Abstract: Microwave curing of thermosetting polymers has a number of advantages to natural or thermal oven curing and is considered a cost-effective alternative. Here we present a detailed study of a commercially available epoxy resin, EO1080. Samples that are thermally cured are compared to curing using a recently developed modular microwave processing system. For commercial purposes it is crucial to demonstrate that microwave curing does not adversely affect the thermal and chemical properties of the material. Therefore, the kinetics of cure and various post cure properties of the resin are investigated. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis shows no significant difference between the conventionally and microwave cured samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to monitor the kinetics of the curing reaction, as well as determine the thermal and ageing properties of the material. As expected, the rate of curing is higher when using microwave energy and we attempt to quantify differences compared to conventional thermal curing. No change in glass transition temperature (T g ) is observed. For the first time, enthalpy relaxation measurements performed on conventional and microwave cured samples are reported and these indicate similar ageing properties at any given temperature under T g

  15. Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.

    1975-01-01

    An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)

  16. Degree of cure and viscosity of Hercules HBRF-55 resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhi, S. T.; Hansen, R. Scott; Wilson, Brian A.; Calius, Emilo P.; Springer, George S.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of cure and viscosity were measured for Hercules HBRF-55 resin. The rate of cure was measured by differential scanning calorimetry, while the viscosity was measured by a parallel disk and plate type apparatus. The data were fitted to analytic expressions to make them suitable for use in numerical calculations.

  17. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  18. A comparison of the accuracy of patterns processed from an inlay casting wax, an auto-polymerized resin and a light-cured resin pattern material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The resin pattern materials studied, undergo a significantly less dimensional change than the inlay waxes on prolonged storage. They would possibly be a better alternative to inlay wax in situations requiring high precision or when delayed investment (more than 1 h of patterns can be expected.

  19. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    L. S. Acosta-Torres; M. C. Arenas; R. E. Nuñez­-Anita; F. H. Barceló-Santana; C. A. Álvarez-Gayosso; J. Palacios-Alquisira; J. de la Fuente-Hernández; Marcos Cajero-Juárez; V. M. Castaño

    2014-01-01

    The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resin...

  20. Turbine superalloy component defect repair with low-temperature curing resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, David W.; Allen, David B.

    2015-09-08

    Voids, cracks or other similar defects in substrates of thermal barrier coated superalloy components, such as turbine blades or vanes, are filled with resin, without need to remove substrate material surrounding the void by grinding or other processes. The resin is cured at a temperature under 200.degree. C., eliminating the need for post void-filling heat treatment. The void-filled substrate and resin are then coated with a thermal barrier coating.

  1. Changes in the temperature of a dental light-cured composite resin by different light-curing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, A. N. S.; Jacomassi, D. P.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increase during the polymerization process through the use of three different light-curing units with different irradiation times. One argon laser (Innova, Coherent), one halogen (Optilight 501, Demetron), and one blue LED (LEC 1000, MM Optics) LCU with 500 mW/cm2 during 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 s of irradiation times were used in this study. The composite resin used was a microhybrid Filtek Z-250 (3M/ESPE) at color A2. The samples were made in a metallic mold 2 mm in thickness and 4 mm in diameter and previously light-cured during 40 s. A thermocouple (Model 120 202 EAJ, Fenwal Electronic, Milford, MA, USA) was introduced in the composite resin to measure the temperature increase during the curing process. The highest temperature increase was recorded with a Curing Light 2500 halogen LCU (5 and 31°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively), while the lowest temperature increase was recorded for the Innova LCU based on an argon laser (2 and 11°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively). The temperature recorded for LCU based on a blue LED was 3 and 22°C after 5 and 60 s, respectively. There was a quantifiable amount of heat generated during the visible light curing of a composite resin. The amount of heat generated was influenced by the characteristics of the light-curing units used and the irradiation times.

  2. Curing agent for polyepoxides and epoxy resins and composites cured therewith. [preventing carbon fiber release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A curing for a polyepoxide is described which contains a divalent aryl radical such as phenylene a tetravalent aryl radical such as a tetravalent benzene radical. An epoxide is cured by admixture with the curing agent. The cured epoxy product retains the usual properties of cured epoxides and, in addition, has a higher char residue after burning, on the order of 45% by weight. The higher char residue is of value in preventing release to the atmosphere of carbon fibers from carbon fiber-epoxy resin composites in the event of burning of the composite.

  3. CURING OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES USING MICROWAVE RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING (RTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. YUSOFF

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to compare the difference between microwave heating and conventional thermal heating in fabricating carbon/epoxy composites. Two types of epoxy resin systems were used as matrices, LY5052-HY5052 and DGEBA-HY917-DY073. All composite samples were fabricated using resin transfer moulding (RTM technique. The curing of the LY5052-HY5052-carbon and the DGEBA-HY917-DY073-carbon composite systems, were carried out at 100 °C and 120 °C, respectively. Microwave heating showed better temperature control than conventional heating, however, the heating rate of the microwave cured samples were slower than the conventionally cured samples. This was attributed to the lower power (250 W used when heating with microwaves compared to 2000 W used in conventional heating. Study of thermal characteristics as curing progressed showed that the polymerisation reaction occurred at a faster rate during microwave curing than in conventional curing for both the DGEBA and the LY/HY5052 carbon composite systems. The actual cure cycle was reduced from 60 minutes to 40 minutes when using microwaves for curing DGEBA-carbon composites. As for LY/HY5052-carbon composites, the actual cure cycle was reduced from 3 hours to 40 minutes. Both conventional and microwave heating yielded similar glass transition temperatures (120 °C for DGEBA systems and 130 °C for LY/HY5052 systems. Microwave cured composites had higher void contents than conventionally cured composites (2.2-2.8% and 1.8-2.4% for DGEBA and LY/HY5052 microwave cured composites, respectively, compared to 0.2-0.4% for both DGEBA and LY/HY5052 thermally cured composites. C-scan traces showed that all composites, regardless of methods of curing, had minimal defects.

  4. Hardening of a dual-cure resin cement using QTH and LED curing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    SANTOS, Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho; PASSOS, Sheila Pestana; da ENCARNAÇÃO, Monalisa Olga Lessa; SANTOS, Gildo Coelho; BOTTINO, Marco Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC) photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal) disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light source. Material and Methods Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light source. Three indentations (50 g for 15 s) were performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and a mean Vickers hardness number (VHN) was calculated for each specimen. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test was used for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. Results Increased indirect resin disk thickness resulted in decreased mean VHN values. Mean VHN values for the top surfaces of the resin cement specimens ranged from 23.2 to 46.1 (QTH) and 32.3 to 41.7 (LED). The LED curing light source produced higher hardness values compared to the QTH light source for 2- and 3-mm-thick indirect resin disks. The differences were clinically, but not statistically significant. Increased indirect resin disk thickness also resulted in decreased mean VHN values for the bottom surfaces of the resin cement: 5.8 to 19.1 (QTH) and 7.5 to 32.0 (LED). For the bottom surfaces, a statistically significant interaction was also found between the type of curing light source and the indirect resin disk thickness. Conclusions Mean surface hardness values of resin cement specimens decreased with the increase of indirect resin disk thickness. The LED curing light source generally produced higher surface hardness values. PMID:20485920

  5. Hardening of a dual-cure resin cement using QTH and LED curing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the surface hardness of a resin cement (RelyX ARC photoactivated through indirect composite resin (Cristobal disks of different thicknesses using either a light-emitting diode (LED or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH light source. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen resin cement specimens were prepared and divided into 6 groups according to the type of curing unit and the thickness of resin disks interposed between the cement surface and light source. Three indentations (50 g for 15 s were performed on the top and bottom surface of each specimen and a mean Vickers hardness number (VHN was calculated for each specimen. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test was used for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: Increased indirect resin disk thickness resulted in decreased mean VHN values. Mean VHN values for the top surfaces of the resin cement specimens ranged from 23.2 to 46.1 (QTH and 32.3 to 41.7 (LED. The LED curing light source produced higher hardness values compared to the QTH light source for 2- and 3-mm-thick indirect resin disks. The differences were clinically, but not statistically significant. Increased indirect resin disk thickness also resulted in decreased mean VHN values for the bottom surfaces of the resin cement: 5.8 to 19.1 (QTH and 7.5 to 32.0 (LED. For the bottom surfaces, a statistically significant interaction was also found between the type of curing light source and the indirect resin disk thickness. CONCLUSION: Mean surface hardness values of resin cement specimens decreased with the increase of indirect resin disk thickness. The LED curing light source generally produced higher surface hardness values.

  6. Curing depth of composite resin light cured by LED and halogen light-curing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, L. R.; Lima, D. M.; Queiroz, R. S.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Andrade, M. F.

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the polymerization effectiveness of a composite resin (Z-250) utilizing microhardness testing. In total, 80 samples with thicknesses of 2 and 4 mm were made, which were photoactivated by a conventional halogen light-curing unit, and light-curing units based on LED. The samples were stored in water distilled for 24 h at 37°C. The Vickers microhardness was performed by the MMT-3 microhardness tester. The microhardness means obtained were as follows: G1, 72.88; G2, 69.35; G3, 67.66; G4, 69.71; G5, 70.95; G6, 75.19; G7, 72.96; and G8, 71.62. The data were submitted to an analysis of variance (ANOVA’s test), adopting a significance level of 5%. The results showed that, in general, there were no statistical differences between the halogen and LED light-curing units used with the same parameters.

  7. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  8. Health Problems of Epoxy Resins and Amine-curing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.; Alberman, K. B.

    1959-01-01

    Epoxy resins were first introduced about 10 years ago. Toxic effects, particularly dermatitis, have been frequently described. An investigation into the possible causes of pathological sequelae following the use of epoxy resin/amine mixtures has been undertaken. The cause of most cases of dermatitis and sensitization appears to be uncombined amine which is present in recent mixtures and persists in hardened resin for long periods. The results of experiments with two of the most commonly used resin/amine mixtures confirm this. Cold-cured resins are more dangerous and remain so even when hardened. A simple theory is suggested for the mechanism of the reaction between epoxy resins, amines, and biological systems. This theory leads logically to the handling precautions outlined. Images PMID:13651551

  9. Curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through different ceramic thicknesses and curing time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Won; Cha, Hyun-Suk

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through ceramic restorations with 3 different thicknesses. Curing efficiency was evaluated by determining the surface microhardness (VHN) of the resin specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four kinds of resin materials were used. Z350 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z350: A2 Shade), Z250 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z250: A2 Shade) and Variolink® II (VL: Ivoclar vivadent, base: transparent) either with or without a self-curing catalyst (VLC: Ivoclar vivadent, catalyst: low viscosity/transparent) were filled into the silicone mold (10 mm diameter, 1 mm thick). They were cured through ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press MO-0 ingot ivoclar vivadent, 10 mm diameter, 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thicknesses) by LED light-curing units for 20 and 40 seconds. Vicker's microhardness numbers (VHNs) were measured on the bottom surfaces by a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed using a 3- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The thickness of ceramic disc increased, the VHNs of all four resin types were decreased (Plight cured for 40 seconds were significantly higher than that of LED for 20 seconds in all four resin materials (Pcuring time resulted higher VHN values of all resin materials. The use of a catalyst produced a greater hardness with all polymerization methods. Restorative resin materials (Z350, Z250) showed higher VHN values than resin cement materials (VL, VLC). PMID:22053242

  10. Curing profile of bulk-fill resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Pongprueksa, Pong; Van Meerbeek, Bart; De Munck, Jan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the curing profile of bulk-fill resin-based composites (RBC) using micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRaman). Four bulk-fill RBCs were compared to a conventional RBC. RBC blocks were light-cured using a polywave LED light-curing unit. The 24-h degree of conversion (DC) was mapped along a longitudinal cross-section using μRaman. Curing profiles were constructed and 'effective' (>90% of maximum DC) curing parameters were calculated. A statistical linear mixed effects model was constructed to analyze the relative effect of the different curing parameters. Curing efficiency differed widely with the flowable bulk-fill RBCs presenting a significantly larger 'effective' curing area than the fibre-reinforced RBC, which on its turn revealed a significantly larger 'effective' curing area than the full-depth bulk-fill and conventional (control) RBC. A decrease in 'effective' curing depth within the light beam was found in the same order. Only the flowable bulk-fill RBCs were able to cure 'effectively' at a 4-mm depth for the whole specimen width (up to 4mm outside the light beam). All curing parameters were found to statistically influence the statistical model and thus the curing profile, except for the beam inhomogeneity (regarding the position of the 410-nm versus that of 470-nm LEDs) that did not significantly affect the model for all RBCs tested. Most of the bulk-fill RBCs could be cured up to at least a 4-mm depth, thereby validating the respective manufacturer's recommendations. According to the curing profiles, the orientation and position of the light guide is less critical for the bulk-fill RBCs than for the conventional RBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of curing agent type, cure treatment and organophilic clay on thermal properties of epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, A.S.C.; Araujo, C.J. de; Silva, S.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of curing agent kind, curing conditions, and the incorporation of small amount of organoclay on the thermal properties of DGEBA epoxy resin was evaluated in order to develop an epoxy system for application as matrix in active composites (composites whose dispersed phase consists of shape memory alloy wires).The DGEBA resin was prepared using three amine derivatives as hardeners (TETA, DETA and DDS) under varied curing conditions, in the absence and presence of organoclay. Epoxy systems were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. According to results, the cured epoxy systems at elevated temperatures (DETA and DDS) showed higher glass transition temperature (T g ) and thermal stability values than the system cured at low temperature (TETA). In addition, when the post-cure treatment was used, the increases were superior. When 1 phr of organoclay was incorporated in DETA and DDS cured epoxy systems and post-cured, either the increase in the T g or thermal stability values were more significant, especially for the system cured with DDS. Hence, the epoxy/DDS/organoclay system (exfoliated nanocomposite) is the most appropriate to be used as matrix in the preparation of active composites since this matrix is thermally stable in the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy working range whose phase transformation occurs between 70-80 deg C. (author)

  12. Effect of Curing Agent and Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Epoxy Resin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing agent (6610 content and temperature on the rheological behavior of the epoxy resin CYD-128 was studied by DSC analysis and viscosity experiments. The results show that the resin system meets the requirements of processing technology. A complete reaction occurs when the curing agent content (40 parts per hundred resin, phr is a little higher than the theoretical value (33.33 phr, while the degree of reaction of the resin system is reduced when the curing agent content is lower (25.00 phr than theoretical value. However, excessive curing agent (50.00 phr results in a lower reaction rate. Curing agent content has little influence on gel time when curing agent content exceeded 33.33 phr and the temperature was less than 70 °C. The isothermal viscosity-time curves shift towards the –x axis when the temperature rises from 50 °C to 80 °C. Meanwhile, higher temperature results in higher reaction rates.

  13. Effect of curing agent and temperature on the rheological behavior of epoxy resin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenhui; Zhang, Guangcheng; Zhao, Lei

    2012-07-17

    The effect of curing agent (6610) content and temperature on the rheological behavior of the epoxy resin CYD-128 was studied by DSC analysis and viscosity experiments. The results show that the resin system meets the requirements of processing technology. A complete reaction occurs when the curing agent content (40 parts per hundred resin, phr) is a little higher than the theoretical value (33.33 phr), while the degree of reaction of the resin system is reduced when the curing agent content is lower (25.00 phr) than theoretical value. However, excessive curing agent (50.00 phr) results in a lower reaction rate. Curing agent content has little influence on gel time when curing agent content exceeded 33.33 phr and the temperature was less than 70 °C. The isothermal viscosity-time curves shift towards the -x axis when the temperature rises from 50 °C to 80 °C. Meanwhile, higher temperature results in higher reaction rates.

  14. Modified Castor Oil as an Epoxy Resin Curing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A castor oil, an agricultural product, is an unsaturated material. Hence the castor oil is brominated by bromine liquid. The brominated castor oil (BCO was then reacted with excess of aliphatic diamines viz; ethylene diamine, 1,3-propane diamine and 1,6-hexane diamine. The resultant amino functionalized castor oil (ACO samples were then characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectral study and number of amino groups. All the three ACO samples were then employed for the curing of commercial Brominated epoxy resin. The curing of epoxy resin by ACO was monitored on differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and based on the DSC study their glass fibre reinforced composites (GRC were fabricated. The cured samples (i.e. unreinforced were also subjected to thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre reinforced composites (GRC were also evaluated.

  15. The Effect of Irradiation Distance on Microhardness of Resin Composites Cured with Different Light Curing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the microhardness of five different resin composites at different irradiation distances (2 mm and 9 mm) by using three light curing units (quartz tungsten halogen, light emitting diodes and plasma arc). Methods: A total of 210 disc-shaped samples (2 mm height and 6 mm diameter) were prepared from different resin composites (Simile, Aelite Aesthetic Enamel, Clearfil AP-X, Grandio caps and Filtek Z250). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen, light emitting diode and plasma arc curing units at two irradiation distances (2 mm and 9 mm). Then the samples (n=7/per group) were stored dry in dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vickers hardness test was performed on the resin composite layer with a microhardness tester (Shimadzu HMV). Data were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that the resin composite groups, the type of the light curing units and the irradiation distances have significant effects on the microhardness values (P<.05). Conclusions: Light curing unit and irradiation distance are important factors to be considered for obtaining adequate microhardness of different resin composite groups. PMID:20922164

  16. Microhardness of heat cure acrylic resin after treatment with disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faiza; Rehman, Abdur; Abbas, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of disinfectants and distilled water on the micro-hardness of heat cure acrylic resins. The case-control study was conducted at Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, and Nadirshaw Edulji Dinshaw University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, from April to October 2011. Specimens were fabricated from heat cure acrylic resin material and they were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 was evaluated at baseline and was taken as the control group. Group 2 was immersed in distilled water for 20 minutes, Group 3 in1% sodium hypochlorite for 20 minutes, and Group 4 in 2% alkaline gluteraldehyde for 10 minutes. All specimens were polished, stored in distilled water for 24 hours prior to experiment. All the specimens were immersed twice daily for a total of 60 days after which they were tested for Vickers micro-hardness test. Statistical analysis was conducted with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (a=0.05). There were 72 specimens divided into four groups of 18(25%) each. Statistically significant differences were found among all groups (pacrylic resins. Group 4 showed the most reduction in the hardness value which was followed by Group 3. The hardness of heat cure acrylic resin was affected by disinfectants.

  17. Effects of distance from tip of LED light-curing unit and curing time on surface hardness of nano-filled composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafadilla, V. A.; Usman, M.; Margono, A.

    2017-08-01

    Polymerization process depends on several variables, including the hue, thickness, and translucency of the composite resin, the size of the filler particles, the duration of exposure to light (the curing time), the intensity of the light, and the distance from the light. This study aimed to analyze the effects of the distance from the tip of the light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing unit and of curing time on the surface hardness of nano-filled composite resin. 60 specimens were prepared in a mold and divided into 6 groups based on various curing distances and times: 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm and 20 seconds and 40 seconds. The highest surface hardness was seen in the group both closest to the tip and having the longest curing time, while the lowest hardness was seen in the group both farthest from the tip and having the shortest curing time. Significant differences were seen among the various tip distances, except for in the two groups that had 8-mm tip distances, which had no significant differences due to curing time. Both decreased distance from the tip of the LED light-curing unit and increased curing time increase the surface hardness of nano-filled composite resin. However, curing time increases the surface hardness only if the tip distance is ≤ 5 mm.

  18. Research Progress on Microwave Curing of Epoxy Resin and Its Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Xue-hong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research progress of microwave curing on epoxy resin and its composites was summarized on the basis of introducing the principle of microwave curing technology and its advantages. The paper focused on the effect of microwave curing on the curing rate of epoxy resin and its composites as well as the mechanical and thermal properties of cured products. Two suitable composite systems for wave curing of powder-strengthened epoxy and fiber-strengthened epoxy and a few key technological problems for industrial application are introduced. The application prospect of microwave curing on epoxy resin and its composites was also presented.

  19. Isothermal curing of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites based upon epoxy resin by means of anionic homopolymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román, Frida; Calventus, Yolanda; Colomer, Pere; Hutchinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocomposite with low content of clay displayed improved thermal properties. • The vitrification was observed in the isothermal curing. • Dielectric relaxations outside and inside of the clay galleries were detected. - Abstract: The use of an initiator, 4-(dimethylamino) pyridine (DMAP), to promote an anionic homopolymerisation reaction for the isothermal cure of polymer layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites based on an epoxy resin, as well as the effect of the nanoclay content, have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The vitrification phenomenon was observed during the isothermal cure process, and it was found that the nanocomposite with a low clay content (2 wt%), denoted EDM2, shows improved thermal properties with respect to the unreinforced resin (denoted ED), while the nanocomposite with a higher clay content (5 wt%), denoted EDM5, displayed inferior properties. The cure kinetics were analysed by different methods, and it was observed that the activation energy and kinetic parameters of EDM2 were lower compared to the other two systems. Examination of the nanostructure of the cured EDM2 nanocomposite showed partial exfoliation, while the EDM5 system retains an intercalated nanostructure. In the DRS studies of the curing process of the EDM2 system, two dielectric relaxations were detected, which are associated with the molecular mobility in the curing reaction which takes place both outside and inside the clay galleries

  20. Hardness Evaluation of Composite Resins Cured with QTH and LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Esmaeili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Today light cured composites are widely used. Physical and mechanical properties of composites are related to the degree of conversion. Light curing unit (LCU is an important factor for composite polymerization. Aim of this study is evaluation of composite resins hardness using halogen and LED light curing units. Materials and methods. In this study, 30 samples of Filtek Z250 and C-Fill composite resins were provided. Samples were light cured with Ultralume2, Valo and Astralis7. Vickers hardness number (VHN was measured in 0, 1, 2 mm depth. Statistical analysis used: Data were analysed by SPSS software and compared with each other by T-test, one-way and twoway ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey test. Results. In Filtek Z250, at top surface, VHN of Ultralume2 was higher than VHN of Valo (P = 0.02 and Astralis7 (P = 0.04, but in depth of 1, 2 mm, VHN of Ultralume2 and Astralis7 were almost the same and both LCUs were more than Valo which the difference between Ultralume2 and Valo was significant in depth of 1mm (0.05 and 2mm (0.02. In C-Fill composite, at top surface, Astralis7 showed higher VHN, but in depth of 2 mm, performance of all devices were rather similar. Conclusion. In Z250, which contains camphorquinone initiator, light cure LED Ultra-lume2 with narrow wavelength showed higher hardness number than Valo. In C-fill, in top surface, Astralis7 with more exposure time, resulted higher VHN. But In depth of 2 mm, various light curing devices had rather similar hardness number.

  1. Simulation and Validation of Injection-Compression Filling Stage of Liquid Moulding with Fast Curing Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ffion A.; Warrior, Nicholas A.; Simacek, Pavel; Advani, Suresh; Hughes, Adrian; Darlington, Roger; Senan, Eissa

    2018-03-01

    Very short manufacture cycle times are required if continuous carbon fibre and epoxy composite components are to be economically viable solutions for high volume composite production for the automotive industry. Here, a manufacturing process variant of resin transfer moulding (RTM), targets a reduction of in-mould manufacture time by reducing the time to inject and cure components. The process involves two stages; resin injection followed by compression. A flow simulation methodology using an RTM solver for the process has been developed. This paper compares the simulation prediction to experiments performed using industrial equipment. The issues encountered during the manufacturing are included in the simulation and their sensitivity to the process is explored.

  2. Environmental SEM and dye penetration observation on resin-tooth interface using different light curing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takako; Morigami, Makoto; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was the effects of different light curing methods on marginal sealing and resin composite adaptation to the cavity wall using the dye penetration test and environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. Cylindrical cavities were prepared on cervical regions. The teeth were restored with Clearfil Liner Bond 2 V adhesive and filled with Clearfil Photo Bright or Palfique Estelite resin composites. These resins were cured with a conventional light-curing method or a slow-start curing method. After thermal cycling, the specimens were subjected to the dye penetration test to evaluate marginal sealing and adaptation of the resin composites to the cavity walls. These resin-tooth interfaces were then observed using environmental SEM. The light-cured resin composite, which exhibited increased contrast ratios during polymerization, suggests high compensation for polymerization stress using the slow-start curing method. There was a high correlation between dye penetration test and environmental SEM observation.

  3. Research on blend system of epoxy resin cured by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Gang; Zhong Weihong; Zhang Zuoguang; Mao Shuli

    2000-01-01

    Electron beam curing of various blends of epoxy resin was studied. Radiation effect of epoxy resin systems of 828, 648 and 207, and their blends was compared. The effect of resin compounding ratio and radiation dose on blends of epoxy resin 828 and 648 systems was analyzed. The performance of the blend with different ratio of epoxy resin 207 and 648 was also studied. The results of study show that radiation effect of epoxy resin is associated with its chemical constitution, steric effect, and crystallinity. The mixing of various epoxy resin can improve radiation curing effect of system, reduce required radiation dose, and enhance performance of radiation product

  4. Influence of curing rate of resin composite on the bond strength to dentin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Asmussen, E; Peutzfeldt, A

    2007-01-01

    This study determined whether the strength with which resin composite bonds to dentin is influenced by variations in the curing rate of resin composites. Resin composites were bonded to the dentin of extracted human molars. Adhesive (AdheSE, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied and cured (10 seconds...... @ 1000 mW/cm2) for all groups. A split Teflon mold was clamped to the treated dentin surface and filled with resin composite. The rate of cure was varied, using one of four LED-curing units of different power densities. The rate of cure was also varied using the continuous or pulse-delay mode...... of the four power densities was followed by a one-minute interval, after which light cure was completed (14, 29, 27 or 78 seconds), likewise, giving a total energy density of 16 J/cm2. The specimens produced for each of the eight curing protocols and two resin composites (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent...

  5. Determination of the gel point of a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin and characterization of its curing rheokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the gel point of a resin is a key in order to design and optimize the manufacturing process of composite materials. In this work, the gel point of a biobased polyfurfuryl alcohol (FA) resin has been determined by rheological isothermal tests at different curing temperatures....... The obtained gel times using three different amounts of catalyst (2, 4 and 6 % wt.) were correlated to temperature by the Macosko model; to predict the gel time at any temperature within the studied range. Furthermore, the evolution of the complex viscosity of the FA resin after its gel point has been studied...... of the resin system. The evolution of the viscosity has been modeled using widely used rheokinetic models. Finally, since rheological properties such as viscosity and complex modulus (G*) are highly sensitive to the molecular weight of a polymeric system, and they can be used as indicators of the degree...

  6. Flexural Strength of Cold and Heat Cure Acrylic Resins Reinforced with Different Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Bijan; Firouz, Farnaz; Izadi, Alireza; Ahmadvand, Shahbaz; Radan, Pegah

    2015-05-01

    Heat-polymerized acrylic resin has been the most commonly used denture base material for over 60 years. However, the mechanical strength of acrylic resin is not adequate for long-term clinical performance of dentures. Consequently, fracture is a common clinical occurrence, which often develops in the midline of the denture base. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cold-cure and heat-cure acrylic resins, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire for denture base repair. Ninety specimens were prepared and allocated to nine groups. Ten specimens were considered as controls, and 80 were divided into 8 experimental groups. In the experimental groups, the specimens were sectioned into two halves from the middle, and were then divided into two main groups: one group was repaired with heat cure acrylic resin, and the other with cold cure acrylic resin. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups: unreinforced, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire. All specimens were subjected to a 3-point bending test, and the flexural strength was calculated. The group repaired with heat cure acrylic resin and reinforced with glass fiber showed the highest flexural strength; however, the group repaired with cold cure acrylic resin and reinforced with polyethylene fibers had the lowest flexural strength. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with heat cure and cold cure acrylic resins without reinforcement. Repairing denture base with heat cure acrylic resin, reinforced with glass fibers increases the flexural strength of denture base.

  7. Dsc cure kinetics of an unsaturated polyester resin using empirical kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the kinetics of curing of unsaturated polyester resin initiated with benzoyl peroxide was studied. In case of unsaturated polyester (UP) resin, isothermal test alone could not predict correctly the curing time of UP resin. Therefore, isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconventional adjustment was used to correctly predict the curing time and temperature of UP resin. Isothermal kinetic analysis through isoconversional adjustment indicated that 97% of UP resin cures in 33 min at 120 degree C. Curing of UP resin through microwaves was also studied and found that 67% of UP resin cures in 1 min at 120 degree C. The crosslinking reaction of UP resin is so fast at 120 degree C that it becomes impossible to predict correctly the curing time of UP resin using isothermal test and the burial of C=C bonds in microgels makes it impossible to be fully cured by microwaves at 120 degree C. The rheological behaviour of unsaturated polyester resin was also studied to observe the change in viscosity with respect to time and temperature. (author)

  8. [Research on structure and UV curing behaviors of novel cardanol-based unsaturated resins using FTIR spectrum analysis method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shou-Hai; Yang, Xue-Juan; Li, Mei; Huang, Kun; Xia, Jian-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Two dissimilar cardanol-based unsaturated resin monomers were prepared via simple ring-opening and etherification reaction by utilizing the reactivity between phenolic hydroxyl and epoxy group with the aid of cardanol as raw material. The transformations of different groups were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) during the synthesis process, the resin monomers' structure was further analyzed using the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and the UV curing behaviors of resin monomers were studied by means of FTIR method. In addition, the thermal stability of UV cured resin monomers were also tested by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The molecular structure analysis demonstrated that these two target products were successfully synthesized. UV curing behaviors analysis showed that the prepared cardanol-based unsaturated resin monomers could reach ultimate curing level within 30 s. TGA results showed that the molecular structure and the content of double bond had critical influence on their thermal stability. The main initial thermal decomposition temperature of these two cured resin monomers was all above 350 degrees C.

  9. Simulated localized wear of resin luting cements for universal adhesive systems with different curing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Johnson, William W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2018-01-29

    This study evaluated the simulated localized wear of resin luting cements for universal adhesive systems using different curing modes. Five resin luting cements for universal adhesive systems were evaluated and subsequently subjected to wear challenge in a Leinfelder-Suzuki wear simulation device. Overall, 20 specimens from each resin luting cement were photo-cured for 40 s (dual-cure group), and 20 specimens of each material were not photo-cured (chemical-cure group). Simulated localized wear was generated using a stainless steel ball-bearing antagonist in water slurry of polymethylmethacrylate beads. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of resin luting cements and wear facets were conducted. Significant differences in simulated wear and SEM observations of wear facets were evident among the materials in the dual- and chemical-cure groups. The simulated wear and SEM observations of wear facets of G-CEM LinkForce and Panavia V5 were not influenced by the curing mode. SEM observations of resin luting cements were material dependent. In most cases, dual curing appears to ensure greater wear resistance of resin luting cements than chemical curing alone. The wear resistance of some resin luting cements appears to be material dependent and is not influenced by the curing mode.

  10. Influence of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of curing rate on softening in ethanol, degree of conversion, and wear of resin composites. METHOD: With a given energy density and for each of two different light-curing units (QTH or LED), the curing rate was reduced by modulating the curing mode. Thus......, the irradiation of resin composite specimens (Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram, Esthet-X) was performed in a continuous curing mode and in a pulse-delay curing mode. Wallace hardness was used to determine the softening of resin composite after storage in ethanol. Degree of conversion was determined by infrared...... spectroscopy (FTIR). Wear was assessed by a three-body test. Data were submitted to Levene's test, one and three-way ANOVA, and Tukey HSD test (alpha = 0.05). Results: Immersion in ethanol, curing mode, and material all had significant effects on Wallace hardness. After ethanol storage, resin composites...

  11. Evaluation of the use of inorganic pigments and fillers in cure of epoxy resins by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.kersting@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), SP (Brazil); Wiebeck, Helio, E-mail: hwiebeck@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2013-07-01

    The use of microwave in chemical processes began soon after the WW II. The mechanism of curing via microwave heating is independent of the thermal conductivity of the irradiated material and offers a good solution to operate with materials that do not have a good thermal conductivity, such as polymers. Despite these advantages, the use of multimode microwave ovens, the main source used today, indicates some challenges to overcome. Associated with the use of epoxy resins in various applications, the use of pigments and inorganic fillers has added more variables to be studied. Much of the inorganic fillers used commercially are good absorbers of microwave providing changes in the amount of radiation absorbed, and thus the amount of heat transferred to the epoxy resin curing process. After selecting the key fillers and pigments traditionally used in the production of parts with epoxy resins they were subjected to the same microwave irradiation for evaluation of their behavior alone. In order to observe the effect of mixtures 1, 2, and 5% by weight of filler were added to epoxy resin, and it was verified these effects in the curing process. The preliminary results are promising, because for the same cure cycle for different types of fillers added separately, gains in curing time were obtained, making the process of cure via microwave quick and efficient without substantial losses in thermal properties of the final products obtained. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the use of inorganic pigments and fillers in cure of epoxy resins by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersting, Daniel; Wiebeck, Helio

    2013-01-01

    The use of microwave in chemical processes began soon after the WW II. The mechanism of curing via microwave heating is independent of the thermal conductivity of the irradiated material and offers a good solution to operate with materials that do not have a good thermal conductivity, such as polymers. Despite these advantages, the use of multimode microwave ovens, the main source used today, indicates some challenges to overcome. Associated with the use of epoxy resins in various applications, the use of pigments and inorganic fillers has added more variables to be studied. Much of the inorganic fillers used commercially are good absorbers of microwave providing changes in the amount of radiation absorbed, and thus the amount of heat transferred to the epoxy resin curing process. After selecting the key fillers and pigments traditionally used in the production of parts with epoxy resins they were subjected to the same microwave irradiation for evaluation of their behavior alone. In order to observe the effect of mixtures 1, 2, and 5% by weight of filler were added to epoxy resin, and it was verified these effects in the curing process. The preliminary results are promising, because for the same cure cycle for different types of fillers added separately, gains in curing time were obtained, making the process of cure via microwave quick and efficient without substantial losses in thermal properties of the final products obtained. (author)

  13. The effect of curing conditions on the dentin bond strength of two dual-cure resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Atsuko; Takahashi, Rena; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the curing condition (i.e., the curing mode and restoration thickness) on the tensile bond strength of a dual-cure resin cement applied to dentin. Indirect composite resin disks (1, 2, and 3mm in thickness) were prepared. The irradiance of a halogen light curing unit through each disk was measured by a curing radiometer. A measurement was also taken for the condition with no disk. Following this, two dual-cure resin cements, Panavia F2.0 and Panavia V5, were polymerized in either dual-cure mode or self-cure mode to bond the composite resin disk to the flat dentin surface. The specimens were sectioned and subjected to a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test after 24h of water storage. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed with multiple comparisons by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05). The irradiance values [mW/cm 2 ] measured through indirect composite resin disks were 600 (0mm), 200 (1mm), 90 (2mm), and not detected (3mm). Two-way ANOVA indicated that both the curing condition and the type of resin cement affected the μTBS (pPanavia V5 bonded to dentin were significantly higher than those of Panavia F2.0 bonded to dentin (pPanavia V5, showed higher dentin bonding than Panavia F2.0 in both dual- and self-cure modes. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Curing kinetics of visible light curing dental resin composites investigated by dielectric analysis (DEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Großgarten, Mandy; Möginger, Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    During the curing process of light curing dental composites the mobility of molecules and molecule segments is reduced leading to a significant increase of the viscosity as well as the ion viscosity. Thus, the kinetics of the curing behavior of 6 different composites was derived from dielectric analysis (DEA) using especially redesigned flat sensors with interdigit comb electrodes allowing for irradiation at the top side and measuring the ion viscosity at the bottom side. As the ion viscosities of dental composites change 1-3 orders of magnitude during the curing process, DEA provides a sensitive approach to evaluate their curing behavior, especially in the phase of undisturbed chain growth. In order to determine quantitative kinetic parameters a kinetic model is presented and examined for the evaluation of the ion viscosity curves. From the obtained results it is seen that DEA might be employed in the investigation of the primary curing process, the quality assurance of ingredients as well as the control of processing stability of the light curing dental composites. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of aromatic amine hardeners in the cure kinetics of an epoxy resin used in advanced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Leali Costa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite structures for aerospace applications are mainly made by the well-known prepreg technology. In order to achieve adequate prepreg processing schedules, and consequently maximum fiber strength utilization, one has to know in deep the cure kinetics of matrix, which held the fibers together. This work describes a procedure to study the cure kinetic and has as example how aromatic amine hardeners influence the cure kinetics of an epoxy resin used in advanced composites. The investigation was carried out by using the DSC technique and it was found that depending on the system used the cure kinetics of the formulation obeys order n or autocatalytic order.

  16. Degree of Conversion and Mechanical Properties of Resin Cements Cured Through Different All-Ceramic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Camila de Carvalho Almança; Rodrigues, Renata Borges; Silva, André Luis Faria E; Simamoto Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Soares, Carlos José; Novais, Veridiana Resende

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the degree of conversion (DC), Vickers microhardness (VH) and elastic modulus (E) of resin cements cured through different ceramic systems. One 1.5-mm-thick disc of each ceramic system (feldspathic, lithium dissilicate and zircônia veneered with feldspathic) was used. Three dual-cured (Allcem, Variolink II and RelyX U200) and one chemically-cured (Multilink) resin cements were activated through ceramic discs. For dual-cured resin cements was used a conventional halogen light-curing unit (Optilux 501 at 650 mW/cm2 for 120 s). Samples cured without the ceramic disc were used as control. The samples were stored at 37 °C for 24 h. ATR/FTIR spectrometry was used to evaluate the extent of polymerization in the samples (n=5). Micromechanical properties - VH and E - of the resin cements (n=5) were measured with a dynamic indentation test. Data were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA, Tukey's test and Pearson's correlation (α=0.05). DC was affected only by the type of resin cement (p=0.001). For VH, significant interaction was detected between resin cement and ceramic (p=0.045). The dual-cured resin cements showed no significant differences in mean values for E and significantly higher values than the chemically-cured resin cement. The degree of conversion and the mechanical properties of the evaluated resin cements depend on their activation mode and the type of ceramics used in 1.5 mm thickness. The dual-cured resin cements performed better than the chemically-cured resin cement in all studied properties.

  17. Study on Ultraviolet Light Cured Resin Bond Grind/Lap for Aluminum Oxide Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuyun

    After the development of ultraviolet (UV) curing technology, a novel method to manufacture abrasive tools using UV light curing technique was proposed. After decades of research activities, the UV-cured resin bond tools have been studied and proven to have substantial advantages. However, very little research has been done to study the mechanism of such abrasive tools. In this study, the mechanism of UV-cured resin bond diamond tools was proposed as a Grind/Lap (G/L) process and an experimental method was used to verify the mechanism. Furthermore, the models of surface roughness (RA) and material removal rate (MRR) in the process of ceramics have been intensively investigated. The traditional way to fabricate abrasive tools is by utilizing the thermosetting method. The mixture of abrasives and bond material is sintered at high temperature under extremely high pressure, and it is a time consuming and costly procedure. However, for the UV-curing technique, after being exposed to UV light with a certain intensity, the abrasive-mixed resin can be solidified in a short time. The process is environmentally friendly and has strong productivity advantages but coupled with low energy consumption. The purpose of this research is to understand fundamental issues in UV-curable resin and face grinding of ceramic materials using UV-cured resin bond wheels, including to study the kinematics of face grinding (grinding with lapping kinematics) and the properties of UV-cured abrasive-mixed resin, verify the mechanism proposed for grind/lap process and investigate the effects of several factors on the performance of UV-cured resin bond wheel for aluminum oxide ceramics. The kinematic relation between the workpiece, workpiece holder and the wheel were investigated. The trajectories generated under different speed combinations were simulated. Based on the trace distribution, a combination of the speed of wheel and holder can be suggested and an explanation of interactional effect of

  18. A novel calorimetry technique for monitoring electron beam curing of polymer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.; Johnston, A.; Petrescue, L.; Hojjati, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a calorimetry-based technique for monitoring of the curing of electron beam (EB) curable resins, including design of the calorimeter hardware and the development of an analytical model for calculating resin cure rates and radiation dose. Factors affecting the performance of the calorimeter were investigated. Experimental trials monitoring the curing of epoxy resin were conducted under single pass and multiple passes of EB irradiation. Results show that the developed calorimeter is a simple, inexpensive and reasonably accurate technique for monitoring the EB curing of cationic epoxies

  19. Curing depth of (polyacid-modified) composite resins determined by scraping and a penetrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupis, Nikolaos S; Vercruysse, Chris W J; Marks, Luc A M; Martens, Luc C; Verbeeck, Ronald M H

    2004-12-01

    The present study aimed to compare the curing depth of polyacid-modified composite resins (PAM-C) and some representative composite resins as a function of shade and post-cure using a scraping method and a penetrometer. The curing depth of the PAM-C Hytac, F2000, Glasiosite, Dyract, Dyract AP, and Compoglass F and of the composite resins Durafill VS and Z100 were determined for shade A2 and A4 using a scraping method based on ISO 4049:2000 and a digital penetrometer. Samples were light-cured (800 mW/cm2 at 40 s) in bulk in split stainless steel molds. Immediately after light-curing or after a 24 h post-cure, the height of the cylinder of cured material was measured and taken as the curing depth. For both test methods, the curing depth was independent of post-cure (P > or = 0.05) but differed significantly among materials and shade (Ppenetrometer give comparable curing depths for PAM-C. The curing depth greatly varies among the materials and can be considerably smaller than that of a microfilled composite resin. Shade A2 results in significantly greater values for the curing depth compared to shade A4, the effect depending quantitatively on the formulation of the material.

  20. Influence of Curing-light Unit and Exposure Conditions on the Properties of Lightcured Resin Composite on Curing-light Units

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 英俊; 石田, 喜紀; 野口, 博志; 長山, 克也; オカダ, ヒデトシ; イシダ, ヨシキ; ノグチ, ヒロシ; ナガヤマ, カツヤ; Hidetoshi, OKADA; Yoshiki, ISHIDA; Hiroshi, NOGUCHI; Katsuya, NAGAYAMA

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of curing light units and exposure conditions on the prperties of the polymerization of a lightcured resin composite. Lightfil was used as a resin composite. The curing light units used were a JETLITE, as a halogen lamp curing light source (HAL), a MICROWAVE, as a xenon lamp curing light source (XEN), and a AQUABLUE, as a light-emitting diode curing light source (LED). Each curing light unit was used to cure the resin composite with the i...

  1. Microhardness of resin composite materials light-cured through fiber reinforced composite.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Ray, N.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Kreulen, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare polymerization efficiency of resin composite basing materials when light-cured through resin composite and fiber reinforced composite (FRC) by testing microhardness. METHODS: Simulated indirect restorations were prepared by application of resin composite (Clearfil AP-X) or FRC

  2. Effect of light-curing units on the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Kil; Hur, Bock; Ko, Ching-Chang; García-Godoy, Franklin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2010-12-01

    To examine the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites after light-curing using different light-curing units. Four different resin nanocomposites and four different light-curing units [quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH), light emitting diode (LED), laser, and plasma arc] were chosen. Metal dies were filled with resin to make specimens and light-cured. The light intensity and light-curing time of the QTH and LED light-curing units were 1000 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds, 700 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds for the laser, and 1600 mW/cm2 and 3 seconds for the plasma arc. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was evaluated using a thermomechanical analyzer (TMA) at temperatures ranging from 30-80 degrees C. The CTE of the resin nanocomposites tested ranged from 28.5 to 65.8 (x 10(-6)/ degrees C), depending on the product and type of light-curing unit used. Among the specimens, Grandio showed the lowest CTE. The specimens cured using the plasma arc unit (Apollo 95E) showed the highest CTE. There was a linear correlation between the CTE and filler content (vol%) (R: -0.94-0.99 depending on the light-curing unit). The results may suggest a careful selection of the light-curing unit because there was more expansion in the specimens cured using the plasma arc unit than those cured by the other units.

  3. Electron radiation curing of particle boards and fiber building boards impregnated with artificial resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaudy, R.; Proksch, E. (Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GmbH Inst. fuer Chemie)

    1980-06-01

    The hardening of wood particle boards and fiber building boards impregnated with artificial resins using a technical electron accelerator was examined. Suitable resin-monomer mixtures were selected by in-vitro-tests. A styrene-free unsaturated polyester resin and acrylic-modified melamine resins turned out be suitable, whereas other unsaturated polyesters and activators used for curing by gamma irradiation did not fit. The hardened boards showed markedly inceased hardness and reduced swelling, but only moderate weather resistance.

  4. Comparative study of sorption and solubility of heat-cure and self-cure acrylic resins in different solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajesh; Kotian, Ravindra; Madhyastha, Prashanthi; Srikant, N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the sorption and solubility of heat-cure and self-cure acrylic resins in different solutions. One heat-cure acrylic resin (Trevalon) and one self-cure acrylic resin (Rapid Repair) were studied. Five groups of square-shaped specimens (20 mm × 20 mm × 2 mm) were prepared for each acrylic resin and then immersed in five solutions: distilled water, artificial saliva, denture cleansing solution, distilled water, and denture cleaning solution for 12 h alternatively, artificial saliva and denture cleaning solution for 12 h alternatively at 37 ± 2°C, and tested sorption and solubility by weight gain/loss method, respectively, after 1, 6, and 11 weeks. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey's test. Water sorption mean values varied from 17.5 ± 0.88 to 27.25 ± 1.04 μg/mm 3 for heat cure and from 12.75 ± 0.55 to 19.75 ± 1.04 μg/mm 3 for self-cure in the different solutions after different interval periods of 1, 6, and 11 weeks. These values were statistically significant (Psolubility mean values varied from 0.25 ± 0.55 to 1.5 ± 0.55 μg/mm 3 for heat cure and from 1.5 ± 0.55 to 6.5 ± 0.55 μg/mm 3 for self-cure in the different solutions after different interval periods of 1, 6, and 11 weeks. These values were statistically not significant (P > 0.05). There was no linear correlation between sorption and solubility values. Overall, analysis of results showed the maximum sorption value in denture cleansing solution followed by alternative soaking in distilled water and artificial saliva. Least sorption was observed with artificial saliva followed by distilled water. Both heat-cure and self-cure acrylic resins showed varying water sorption and solubility. The results of both water sorption and solubility showed compliance with the International Standards Organization specification. No correlation was found between water sorption and solubility. Artificial saliva solution is a

  5. Flexural Strength of Cold and Heat Cure Acrylic Resins Reinforced with Different Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Bijan; Firouz, Farnaz; Izadi, Alireza; Ahmadvand, Shahbaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin has been the most commonly used denture base material for over 60 years. However, the mechanical strength of acrylic resin is not adequate for long-term clinical performance of dentures. Consequently, fracture is a common clinical occurrence, which often develops in the midline of the denture base. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cold-cure and heat-cure acrylic resins, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire for denture base repair. Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were prepared and allocated to nine groups. Ten specimens were considered as controls, and 80 were divided into 8 experimental groups. In the experimental groups, the specimens were sectioned into two halves from the middle, and were then divided into two main groups: one group was repaired with heat cure acrylic resin, and the other with cold cure acrylic resin. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups: unreinforced, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire. All specimens were subjected to a 3-point bending test, and the flexural strength was calculated. Results: The group repaired with heat cure acrylic resin and reinforced with glass fiber showed the highest flexural strength; however, the group repaired with cold cure acrylic resin and reinforced with polyethylene fibers had the lowest flexural strength. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with heat cure and cold cure acrylic resins without reinforcement. Conclusion: Repairing denture base with heat cure acrylic resin, reinforced with glass fibers increases the flexural strength of denture base. PMID:26877726

  6. Flexural Strength of Cold and Heat Cure Acrylic Resins Reinforced with Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Heidari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin has been the most commonly used denture base material for over 60 years. However, the mechanical strength of acrylic resin is not adequate for long-term clinical performance of dentures. Consequently, fracture is a com- mon clinical occurrence, which often occurs in the midline of denture base.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cold cure and heat cure acrylic resins, rein- forced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire for denture base repair.Materials and Methods: Ninety specimens were prepared and allocated to nine groups. Ten specimens were included in the control group, and 80 were allocated to 8 experi- mental groups. In the experimental groups, the specimens were sectioned into two halves from the middle, and were then divided into two main groups: one group was repaired with heat cure acrylic resin, and the other with cold cure acrylic resin. Each group was di- vided into 4 subgroups: unreinforced, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire. All specimens were then subjected to a 3-point bending test, and the flexural strength was calculated.Results: The group repaired with heat cure acrylic resin and reinforced with glass fiber showed the highest flexural strength; however, the group repaired with cold cure acrylic resin and reinforced with polyethylene fibers had the lowest flexural strength. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with heat cure and cold cure acrylic resins without reinforcement.Conclusion: Repairing denture base with heat cure acrylic resin, reinforced with glass fi- bers increases the flexural strength of denture base.

  7. Effect of LED light-curing time for the adhesive resin on the modulus of elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senawongse, Pisol; Harnirattisai, Choltacha; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the elastic modulus of successive layers where an adhesive resin was cured by different light-curing times. Eighty dentin discs which were 2 mm thick were prepared from 40 sound third molars. The dentin discs were further divided into four groups and bonded with 3M Single Bond 2 and cured with an LED for 5, 10, 15 and 20s. Bonded specimens were restored with a microhybrid resin composite. Specimens were cut perpendicular to the resin dentin interface, embedded in epoxy resin, and polished. Polished specimens were evaluated for the elastic modulus at the layer of dentin, hybrid layer, adhesive resin, and resin composite at 24 hours after preparation. Light-curing times influenced the elastic modulus of hybrid layer and adhesive resin. The significant differences of elastic modulus among successive layers were found. The results suggested that extension of light-curing times of adhesive resin from 5 to 20 seconds increased the mechanical properties of the resin dentin interface.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Sorption, Solubility and Microhardness of Heat Cure Polymethylmethacrylate Denture Base Resin & Flexible Denture Base Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbule, Nilesh; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Shah, Riddhi; Kakade, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare sorption, solubility and microhardness of heat cure polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin and flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon) denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Sorption, solubility and microhardness were assessed to determine compliance with ADA Specification no. 12. Results were assessed using statistical and observational analyses. Result: All materials satisfied ADA requirements for sorption, solubility and microhardness. Heat cure PMMA showed more sorption, solubility and microhardness than flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon). Conclusion: Flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon) resin absorbs less water, is less soluble and is more flexible than PMMA. PMID:25302291

  9. On-line in-situ control of the resin transfer molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Eichinger, D.; Williamson, A.; Levy, D.; Reyzer, M.

    1990-01-01

    Resin transfer molding of three-dimensionally stitched fabrics promises to be a cost effective process for obtaining composite parts of exceptional strength. The technique eliminates many problems involving prepreg preparation, storage and layup. It replaces, on the other hand, the single step cure process with a two-stage impregnation and cure process. Of particular importance therefore is selecting and controlling the viscosity during impregnation and cure. The use of in-situ frequency-dependent electromagnetic sensors and the Loos-Springer model for selecting and controllng the processing properties of the resin transfer molding resin during impregnation and cure are discussed.

  10. Influences of molecular weight on curing effect of epoxy resin irradiated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Gang; Liang Ji; Li Dan; Zhang Zuoguang; Chen Huijuan

    2004-01-01

    The influences of molecular weight on electron beam (EB) curing in epoxy resins were studied. The rate of radiation reaction in epoxy resin systems decreases with the increasing molecular weight. Under the low radiation dose, the curing thickness and curing degree is small for samples with high molecular weight. The effect of molecular weight decreases with the increasing radiation dose. The glass transition temperature (Tg) and the storage modulus (E') are under the control of curing degree in samples, and the molecular weight will play a role on the samples with similar curing degree. After heat treatment, the Tg and E' of epoxy resins cured by radiation will increase. The molecular weight is directly associated with effect of heat treatment

  11. Characterization and Process Development of Cyanate Ester Resin and Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1998-03-01

    Cyanate ester (or polycyanate) resins offer advantages as composite matrices because of their high thermal stability, low outgassing, low water absorption and radiation resistance. This report describes the results of a processing study to develop high-strength hoop-wound composite by the wet-filament winding method using Toray T1000G carbon fiber and YLA RS-14A polycyanate resin as the constituent materials. Process trials, tests and analyses were conducted in order to gain insight into factors that can affect final properties of the cured cyanate ester resin and its composites. The study shows that the cyanate ester resin has a broad process envelope but that an inert-atmosphere cure is essential for obtaining optimum resin and composite properties. Minimizing moisture exposure prior to cure is also crucial as it affects the T{sub g} of the resin and composite. Recommendations for reducing moisture contact with the resin during wet-winding are presented. High fiber volume fraction ({approximately}80%) composites wound and cured with these methods yielded excellent hoop tensile strengths (660 to 670 ksi average with individual rings failing above 700 ksi), which are believed to be the highest recorded strengths for this class of materials. The measured transverse properties were also exceptional for these high fiber fraction composites. Based on the available data, this cyanate ester resin system and its composites are recommended for space and vacuum applications only. Further testing is required before these materials can be recommended for long term use at elevated temperatures in an ambient air environment. The results of all analyses and tests performed as part of this study are presented as well as baseline process for fabricating thick, stage-cured composites. The manufacture of a 1 in. thick composite cylinder made with this process is also described.

  12. Efficiency of dual-cured resin cement polymerization induced by high-intensity LED curing units through ceramic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, H; Kazama, Re; Asai, T; Kanaya, F; Ishizaki, H; Fukushima, M; Okiji, T

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) and other curing units to cure dual-cured resin cement through ceramic material. A halogen curing unit (Jetlite 3000, Morita), a second-generation LED curing unit (Demi, Kerr), and two high-intensity LED curing units (PenCure 2000, Morita; Valo, Ultradent) were tested. Feldspathic ceramic plates (VITABLOCS Mark II, A3; Vita Zahnfabrik) with thicknesses of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm were prepared. Dual-cured resin cement samples (Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray Noritake Dental) were irradiated directly or through one of the ceramic plates for different periods (5, 10, 15, or 20 seconds for the high-intensity LED units and 20, 40, 60, or 80 seconds for the others). The Knoop hardness test was used to determine the level of photopolymerization that had been induced in the resin cement. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's post-hoc test to identify test-control (maximum irradiation without a ceramic plate) differences for each curing unit (presin cement through a ceramic plate resulted in decreased KHN values compared with direct irradiation. When the irradiation period was extended, only the LED units were able to achieve similar KHN values to those observed under direct irradiation in the presence of plates ≥2.0-mm thick. High-intensity LED units require a shorter irradiation period than halogen and second-generation LED curing units to obtain KHN values similar to those observed during direct irradiation.

  13. Assessment of the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins for artificial eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Portugal, Aline; Veloso, Letícia Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic eyes are artificial substitutes for the eyeball, made of heat-curing acrylic resin, serving to improve the esthetic appearance of the mutilated patient and his/her inclusion in society. The aim of this study was to assess the flexural strength of two heat-curing acrylic resins used for manufacturing prosthetic eyes. Thirty-six specimens measuring 64 x 10 x 3.3 mm were obtained and divided into four groups: acrylic resin for artificial sclera N1 (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GI) and microwave-cured (GII); colorless acrylic resin for prosthetic eyes (Artigos Odontológicos Clássico, São Paulo, SP, Brazil), heat-cure water technique (GIII) and microwave-cured (GIV). Mechanical tests using three point loads were performed in a test machine (EMIC, São José dos Pinhais, PR, Brazil). The analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to identify significant differences (p < 0.01). Groups GII and GIV presented, respectively, the highest (98.70 +/- 11.90 MPa) and lowest means (71.07 +/- 8.93 MPa), with a statistically significant difference. The cure method used for the prosthetic eye resins did not interfere in their flexural strength. It was concluded that all the resins assessed presented sufficient flexural strength values to be recommended for the manufacture of prosthetic eyes.

  14. Effect of bench time polymerization on depth of cure of dental composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, K.; Yudhit, A.; Sari, F.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of bench time before light cured polymerization on the depth of cure of dental composite resin. Nanofiller composite resin (Filtek Z350 XT,3M, ESPE,China) was used in this study. Sixty samples of nanofiller composite resin were made and divided into control and test groups with bench time for 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min. For the test group, composite resins were stored in refrigerator with 4°C temperatures. Meanwhile, for the control groups, the composite resin was stored at room temperature. The samples were prepared using metal mould with size diameter of 6 mm and 4 mm in thickness. Samples were cured for 20 s by using visible blue light curing unit. Part of samples that unpolymerized were removed by using a plastic spatula. The remaining parts of samples were measured by digital caliper and noted as depth of cure (mm). Data were analyzed to one-way ANOVA and LSD tests (p≤0.05). Results showed there was no significance differences between test groups (p=0.5). A 60 minutes bench time group showed the highest depth of cure value among test group, and it was almost similar with control group value. It can be concluded that longer bench time can increase the depth of cure of composite resin.

  15. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays with modified layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Ok; Oh, Yonghui; Min, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Bin-Na; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to enhance curing light penetration through resin inlays by modifying the thicknesses of the dentin, enamel, and translucent layers. Materials and Methods To investigate the layer dominantly affecting the power density of light curing units, resin wafers of each layer with 0.5 mm thickness were prepared and power density through resin wafers was measured with a dental radiometer (Cure Rite, Kerr). The dentin layer, which had the dominant effect on power density reduction, was decreased in thickness from 0.5 to 0.1 mm while thickness of the enamel layer was kept unchanged at 0.5 mm and thickness of the translucent layer was increased from 0.5 to 0.9 mm and vice versa, in order to maintain the total thickness of 1.5 mm of the resin inlay. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays was measured. Results Power density measured through 0.5 mm resin wafers decreased more significantly with the dentin layer than with the enamel and translucent layers (p inlays increased when the dentin layer thickness was reduced and the enamel or translucent layer thickness was increased. The highest power density was recorded with dentin layer thickness of 0.1 mm and increased translucent layer thickness in all light curing units. Conclusions To enhance the power density through resin inlays, reducing the dentin layer thickness and increasing the translucent layer thickness would be recommendable when fabricating resin inlays. PMID:23431061

  16. The characteristics of epoxy resin cured by γ-ray and E-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Y.C.; Kang, Phil Hyun; Park, Jong Seok

    2004-01-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used as high-performance thermosetting resins for many industrial applications. In this study, the effect of an electron beam (E-beam) and γ-ray irradiation on the curing of epoxy resins was investigated. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A(DGEBA), diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F(DGEBF) as epoxy resins, triarylsulfonium hexafluoroantimonate(TASHFA), and triarylsulfonium hexafluorophosphate(TASHFP) as initiators were used in this study. The chemical and mechanical characteristics of irradiated epoxy resins were compared after curing of E-beam and γ-ray irradiation up to 50 kGy in N 2 and air atmosphere. We ascertained the effect of oxygen on the radiation curing of epoxy resin. The thermal properties of cured epoxy were investigated using DMA and TGA. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength were measured. The chemical structures of cured epoxy were characterized by FT-NIR. The gel fraction and the stress at yield of epoxy resins irradiated by E-beam and γ-ray in N 2 atmosphere were also compared with those of epoxy resins irradiated by E-beam and γ-ray in air

  17. Influence of curing rate of resin composite on the bond strength to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, A R; Asmussen, E; Peutzfeldt, A

    2007-01-01

    This study determined whether the strength with which resin composite bonds to dentin is influenced by variations in the curing rate of resin composites. Resin composites were bonded to the dentin of extracted human molars. Adhesive (AdheSE, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied and cured (10 seconds @ 1000 mW/cm2) for all groups. A split Teflon mold was clamped to the treated dentin surface and filled with resin composite. The rate of cure was varied, using one of four LED-curing units of different power densities. The rate of cure was also varied using the continuous or pulse-delay mode. In continuous curing mode, in order to give an energy density totaling 16 J/cm2, the power densities (1000, 720, 550, 200 mW/cm2) emitted by the various curing units were compensated for by the light curing period (16, 22, 29 or 80 seconds). In the pulse-delay curing mode, two seconds of light curing at one of the four power densities was followed by a one-minute interval, after which light cure was completed (14, 29, 27 or 78 seconds), likewise, giving a total energy density of 16 J/cm2. The specimens produced for each of the eight curing protocols and two resin composites (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent; Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE) were stored in water at 37 degrees C for seven days. The specimens were then either immediately subjected to shear bond strength testing or subjected to artificial aging (6,000 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C baths) prior to testing. Failure modes were also assessed. The shear bond strengths were submitted to factorial analysis of variance, and the failure modes were submitted to a Chi-square test (alpha = 0.05). All but power density (curing mode, resin composite material and mode of aging) significantly affected shear bond strength. The curing mode and resin composite material also influenced the failure mode. At the selected constant energy density, pulse-delay curing reduced bonding of the resin composite to dentin.

  18. Modeling the curing process of thick-section autoclave cured composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, A. C.; Dara, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Temperature gradients are significant during cure of large area, thick-section composites. Such temperature gradients result in nonuniformly cured parts with high void contents, poor ply compaction, and variations in the fiber/resin distribution. A model was developed to determine the temperature distribution in thick-section autoclave cured composites. Using the model, long with temperature measurements obtained from the thick-section composites, the effects of various processing parameters on the thermal response of the composites were examined. A one-dimensional heat transfer model was constructed for the composite-tool assembly. The governing differential equations and associated boundary conditions describing one-dimensional unsteady heat-conduction in the composite, tool plate, and pressure plate are given. Solution of the thermal model was obtained using an implicit finite difference technique.

  19. Effect of different blue light-curing systems on the polymerization of nanocomposite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Chang-Min; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Kim, Hyung-Ii; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2009-12-01

    To examine the degree of polymerization of nanocomposite resins to test the possibility of using a diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser as a light-curing source on behalf of the argon laser. DPSS lasers emitting light at 473 nm have many advantages over argon lasers on account of their compactness, efficiency, and price. A 473-nm DPSS laser (LAS) was used with three other light-curing units (a quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp-based unit, a light emitting diode-based unit, and a xenon lamp-based plasma arc unit) to polymerize dental nanocomposite resins. The degree of polymerization was determined by measuring the microhardness, maximum polymerization shrinkage, and increase in temperature during and after light curing. The results were analyzed statistically. The specimens light cured with LAS showed a microhardness that was similar or superior to the values obtained from the specimens cured with the other light-curing units and maximum polymerization shrinkage values. The maximum increase in temperature by LAS was much lower than that induced by the other light-curing units. LAS effectively polymerizes dental nanocomposite resins to an extent similar to that of recently available light-curing units. The results suggest that LAS has good potential as a light source for light curing of dental nanocomposite resins.

  20. Comparison of curing depth of a colored polyacid-modified composite resin with different light-curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbulcke, Jeroen D E; Marks, Luc A M; Martens, Luc C; Verbeeck, Ronald M H

    2010-10-01

    To compare the depth of cure (DoC) of a colored polyacid-modified composite resin (PAM-C) with a traditional PAM-C and a fine hybrid composite resin using different light-curing units and different radiant energies. The DoC of the PAM-C Twinky Star (Voco, all shades), the PAM-C Glasiosite (Voco), and the composite resin Z100 (3M ESPE) shades A2 and A4 was determined using a penetrometer test method. The materials were cured in bulk using a halogen-based unit (Elipar Trilight, E = 18 J/cm2 and E = 32 J/cm2; 3M ESPE) and an LED curing unit (Elipar Freelight 2, E = 20 J/cm2; 3M ESPE) in split stainless steel molds. Immediately after curing, the height (mm) of the cured material was measured and taken as the DoC. Ranking of means was performed by Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test, and statistically significant differences among mean values were detected with ANOVA. Mean DoC for all materials and shades varied as follows: 4.705 to 8.870 mm (E = 32 J/cm2); 3.672 to 8.050 mm (E = 20 J/cm2); and 4.090 to 7.357 mm (E = 18 J/cm2). Two-way ANOVA revealed that the DoC depended significantly (P curing device. Moreover, there was a significant interaction (P curing device with the highest energy density exhibited the highest curing depths.

  1. Applications of Blue Light-curing Acrylic Resin to Forensic Sample Preparation and Microtomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ethan; Palenik, Christopher S

    2016-03-01

    This study discusses the results of an evaluation of a one-part blue light-curing acrylic resin for embedding trace evidence prior to the preparation of thin sections with a microtome. Through a comparison to several epoxy resins, the physical properties relevant to both trace evidence examination and analytical microscopy in general, including as viscosity, clarity, color, hardness, and cure speed, were explored. Finally, thin sections from paint samples embedded in this acrylic resin were evaluated to determine if, through smearing or impregnation, the resin contributed to the infrared spectra. The results of this study show that blue light-curing acrylic resins provide the desired properties of an embedding medium, generate high-quality thin sections, and can significantly simplify the preparation of paint chips, fibers and a multitude of other types of microscopic samples in the forensic trace evidence laboratory. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Effect of different light curing units on Knoop hardness and temperature of resin composite

    OpenAIRE

    Guiraldo Ricardo; Consani Simonides; Xediek Consani Rafael; Mendes Wilson; Lympius Thais; Coelho Sinhoreti Mario

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the influence of quartz tungsten halogen and plasma arc curing (PAC) lights on Knoop hardness and change in polymerization temperature of resin composite. Materials and Methods: Filtek Z250 and Esthet X composites were used in the shade A3. The temperature increase was registered with Type-k thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46). A self-cured polymerized acrylic resin base was built in order to guide the thermocouple and to support the dentin disk ...

  3. Peel bond strength of two silicone soft liners to a heat-cured denture base resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hakan; Dogan, Arife; Dogan, Orhan Murat; Keskin, Selda; Bolayir, Giray; Soygun, Koray

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the peel strength of two different soft liners to a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin before and after thermocycling. The silicone-based soft liner materials tested were Molloplast B and Permaflex; the denture base material was a heat-cured acrylic resin, Meliodent. A total of 40 specimens was prepared using rectangular molds with dimensions of 100 x 10 x 2 mm for PMMA and 150 x 10 x 2 mm for soft liners, as described in ASTM-D903-93. For each of the liner materials, 10 specimens were packed against a cured PMMA denture base surface as recommended by the manufacturers. The other 10 specimens were packed against PMMA denture base dough and processed together. In each group, 5 of the specimens were tested directly, while the other 5 were thermocycled in a water bath (5°C to 55°C; 3000 cycles) before testing. Peel testing was performed using an Instron testing machine. The results revealed that peel strength values of the Permaflex specimens prepared according to the manufacturer's recommendations were significantly higher than those of Molloplast B (p < 0.05). However, when packing was done against uncured PMMA dough, the difference between the specimens of two liners was not significant. Thermocycling led to significant decreases in the peel strength of both Permaflex liner specimens packed against cured/uncured PMMA resin surfaces (p < 0.05), whereas this process did not affect the strength of Molloplast B specimens. Results indicated that the material Molloplast B was superior to the material Permaflex in terms of peel strength when the specimens were simultaneously polymerized with PMMA and thermocycled.

  4. Linear dimensional change of heat-cured acrylic resin complete dentures after reline and rebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pow, E H; Chow, T W; Clark, R K

    1998-08-01

    Relining and rebasing of complete dentures are common procedures to improve the fit of the prostheses. After relining or rebasing, adjustments may be required because of dimensional change that occurs during reprocessing of the denture when new denture base material is polymerized. This study analyzed the linear dimensional change of heat cured acrylic resin that occurs during reline and rebase procedures for complete dentures. Twenty-two maxillary and mandibular complete denture bases with artificial teeth were saturated by immersion in distilled water at 37 degrees C +/- 1 degree C. Fine crosses were marked on the incisal edges of the central incisors and the supporting cusps of the second molar teeth. Distances between the marks were measured with a high resolution traveling microscope. Heat-cured acrylic resin was processed by a long curing cycle of 72 degrees C for 6.5 hours, then heated to 100 degrees C for over 30 minutes and kept at 100 degrees C for 1 hour. The relined or rebased denture was allowed to cool slowly in the water bath for 48 hours to reach ambient temperature. The reference-crosses were measured immediately after careful deflasking. In the relining procedure, all incisor-molar and intermolar distances exhibited shrinkage of 0.3%, despite different shapes of maxillary and mandibular dentures. Results of the rebasing procedure were similar to that of the reline expect that only 0.1% intermolar shrinkage was found on the maxillary denture. Shrinkage was approximately 0.15 mm for an interarch distance of 50 mm. This degree of change is both clinically undetectable and insignificant. Using this processing cycle for acrylic resin in reline or rebase procedures did not cause clinically significant dimensional changes to complete dentures.

  5. ASRM test report: Autoclave cure process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, D. L.; Mitchell, Suzanne

    1992-01-01

    ASRM insulated segments will be autoclave cured following insulation pre-form installation and strip wind operations. Following competitive bidding, Aerojet ASRM Division (AAD) Purchase Order 100142 was awarded to American Fuel Cell and Coated Fabrics Company, Inc. (Amfuel), Magnolia, AR, for subcontracted insulation autoclave cure process development. Autoclave cure process development test requirements were included in Task 3 of TM05514, Manufacturing Process Development Specification for Integrated Insulation Characterization and Stripwind Process Development. The test objective was to establish autoclave cure process parameters for ASRM insulated segments. Six tasks were completed to: (1) evaluate cure parameters that control acceptable vulcanization of ASRM Kevlar-filled EPDM insulation material; (2) identify first and second order impact parameters on the autoclave cure process; and (3) evaluate insulation material flow-out characteristics to support pre-form configuration design.

  6. [The curing behavior of two thermoset resins containing silicon alkynyl group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Song; Kong, Lei; Qi, Hui-Min; Zhang, Da-Hai

    2013-03-01

    In the present report, the curing behavior of two thermoset resins containing silicon alkynyl group- PAR and PMR, and the correlation between the curing structure of resin and their thermal stability were investigated by FTIR, 13C NMR, DSC and TGA techniques. The IR and NMR results showed that the curing mechanism of PAR and PMR resin is different. Based on aromatic cyclization among alkynyl groups and Diels-Alder reaction, aromatic frame network structure constituted by benzene cycles and condensed aromatic cycles are formed in the PAR cured resin. Using additional reaction among Si-H group, alkynyl group and alkenyl group, saturated Si-C(sp3) network structure is formed in the PMR cured resin. The aromatic frame network structure and Si-C(sp3) network structure provide good thermal stability for PAR and PMR resin respectively. The thermal decomposition temperatures Td5 of both resins are above 600 degrees C, and the residues percentages at 900 degrees C are above 85%.

  7. Dynamic mechanical studies on epoxy resins cured by electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui Gang; Zhang Zuoguang; Liang Zhiyong; Chen Changqi

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical analyses on electron beam (EB)-cured epoxy resins were made in the paper. Through the studies on variation rules of gel fraction, tan δ and storage modulus for varied samples, the important effects of EB radiation dosage, initiator dosage, chemical structure, molecular weight and distribution, and heat treatment on curing reaction and properties of epoxy resin systems have been obtained. Under low radiation doses, the gel fraction, glass transition temperature (Tg) and high temperature modulus of cured epoxy resin increase with increasing radiation dose and initiator dosage. The crosslinking density of epoxy resin decreases slightly with increasing molecular weight. When radiation doses increase, the molecular weight has a little influence on the increasing of curing level and an optimal dosage of initiator appears. The experimental results indicate that the radiation reactivity of epoxy resins is directly associated with their chemical structures. Under the same radiation dose, the reaction extent in sample with high polydispersity is higher than that in low polydispersity sample, but the degree of homogeneity in crosslinking structure is lower. When the EB-cured epoxy resin is heated, the crosslinking density is enhanced. If the temperature of heating treatment exceeds the thermal-initiating temperature of initiator, the local thermal-crosslinking network can be formed in resin system

  8. Effects of Different Light Curing Units/Modes on the Microleakage of Flowable Composite Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A. Ruya; Celik, Cigdem; Dayangac, Berrin; Ozgunaltay, Gul

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different light curing units and modes on microleakage of flowable composite resins. Methods Eighty Class V cavities were prepared in buccal and lingual surfaces of 40 extracted human premolars with cervical wall located in dentin and the occlusal wall in enamel. These teeth were randomly assigned into two groups (n=20) and restored with different flowable composites; Group I: Esthet-X Flow, Group II: Grandio Flow. Each group was randomly divided into four subgroups; while the samples of the first subgroup were polymerized with conventional Halogen light, the rest of them were polymerized with different curing modes of Light Emitting Diode (LED). The second subgroup was polymerized with fast-curing; the third subgroup with pulse-curing and those of the fourth subgroup with step-curing modes of LED. After the samples were thermocycled and immersed in dye, they were longitudinally sectioned. Dye penetration was assessed under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results None of the restorations showed leakage on enamel margins. On dentin margins no significant differences were observed between flowable composite resins polymerized with halogen light (P>.05). While step curing mode of LED presented significant differences between the resins, the difference was insignificant when fast-curing and pulse-curing mode of LED were used. No statistically significant differences were observed between curing units for Esthet-X Flow samples. For Grandio Flow samples, only step-curing mode of LED caused statistically higher leakage scores than halogen and other curing modes of LED (P<.05). Conclusions The effect of curing units’ type and curing mode on flowable composite resin leakage might be material-dependent. PMID:19212529

  9. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Havens, Stephen J.; Dorsey, George F.; Moulton, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  10. Curing behavior and thermal properties of trifunctional epoxy resin cured by 4, 4’-diaminodiphenyl sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel trifunctional epoxy resin 4-(3, 3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2, 4, 4-trimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl-1, 3-benzenediol glycidyl (shorted as TMBPBTH-EPOXY was synthesized in our lab to improve thermal performance. Its curing behavior and performance were studied by using 4, 4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS as hardener with the mass ratio of 100:41 of TMBPBTH-EPOXY and DDS. The curing activation energy was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC to be 64.0 kJ/mol estimated by Kissinger’s method and 68.7 kJ/mol estimated by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method respectively. Thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of cured compounds. It was found that when curing temperature was lower than 180°C, the thermal decomposition temperature increased with the rise of curing temperature and curing time. On the other hand, when the curing temperature was higher than 180°C, the thermal decomposition temperature went down instead with the increase of curing time that might be the over-crosslinking of TMBPBTH-EPOXY and DDS hardener. The glass transition temperature (Tg of cured TMBPBTH-EPOXY/DDS compound determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA is 290.1°C.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Dual-Cured Resin Luting Agents for Ceramic Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Keiichi; Tsuo, Yukiko; Meng, Xiangfeng; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanical properties including surface hardness, flexural strength, and flexural modulus of two dual-cured resin luting agents (New Resin Cement [NRC] and Variolink II [VLII]) irradiated through four different thickness of leucite ceramics (0, 1, 2, and 3 mm) and their shear bond strength to zirconia ceramic (Cercon) using each ceramic primer. Materials and Methods: Knoop hardness was measured on a thin layer of resin luting agent on ...

  12. Gamma-irradiation on cured glycidyl amino-epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ting; Wei, Chengsha; Liu, Hewen

    2010-01-01

    ITER is an international project to design and build an experimental fusion reactor based on the superconductive 'tokamak' concept. Amounts of epoxy resin are used in the superconductive tokamak device as impregnant resins, insulation breaks, etc. Resistance to ionizing radiation is a demanding performance of those epoxy resins. In this work, we study the effects of γ-irradiation on the mechanical properties and chemical structures of glycidyl amino-epoxy resins

  13. Repair bond strength of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deeb, Heba A; Ghalab, Radwa M; Elsayed Akah, Mai M; Mobarak, Enas H

    2016-03-01

    The reparability of dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials using a light-cured one following one week or three months storage, prior to repair was evaluated. Two different dual-cured resin composites; Cosmecore™ DC automix and Clearfil™ DC automix core buildup materials and a light-cured nanofilled resin composite; Filtek™ Z350 XT were used. Substrate specimens were prepared (n = 12/each substrate material) and stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C either for one week or three months. Afterward, all specimens were ground flat, etched using Scotchbond™ phosphoric acid etchant and received Single Bond Universal adhesive system according to the manufacturers' instructions. The light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT) was used as a repair material buildup. To determine the cohesive strength of each solid substrate material, additional specimens from each core material (n = 12) were prepared and stored for the same periods. Five sticks (0.8 ± 0.01 mm(2)) were obtained from each specimen (30 sticks/group) for microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing. Modes of failure were also determined. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect for the core materials but not for the storage periods or their interaction. After one week, dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials (Cosmecore™ DC and Clearfil™ DC) achieved significantly higher repair μTBS than the light-cured nanofilled resin composite (Filtek™ Z350 XT). However, Clearfil™ DC revealed the highest value, then Cosmecore™ DC and Filtek™ Z350 XT, following storage for 3-month. Repair strength values recovered 64-86% of the cohesive strengths of solid substrate materials. The predominant mode of failure was the mixed type. Dual-cured resin composite core buildup materials revealed acceptable repair bond strength values even after 3-month storage.

  14. Effect of High-Irradiance Light-Curing on Micromechanical Properties of Resin Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of light-curing at high irradiances on micromechanical properties of resin cements. Three dual-curing resin cements and a light-curing flowable resin composite were light-cured with an LED curing unit in Standard mode (SM), High Power mode (HPM), or Xtra Power mode (XPM). Maximum irradiances were determined using a MARC PS radiometer, and exposure duration was varied to obtain two or three levels of radiant exposure (SM: 13.2 and 27.2 J/cm 2 ; HPM: 15.0 and 30.4 J/cm 2 ; XPM: 9.5, 19.3, and 29.7 J/cm 2 ) ( n = 17). Vickers hardness ( H V ) and indentation modulus ( E IT ) were measured at 15 min and 1 week. Data were analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and Spearman correlation analyses ( α = 0.05). Irradiation protocol, resin-based material, and storage time and all interactions influenced H V and E IT significantly ( p ≤ 0.0001). Statistically significant correlations between radiant exposure and H V or E IT were found, indicating that high-irradiance light-curing has no detrimental effect on the polymerization of resin-based materials ( p ≤ 0.0021). However, one resin cement was sensitive to the combination of irradiance and exposure duration, with high-irradiance light-curing resulting in a 20% drop in micromechanical properties. The results highlight the importance of manufacturers issuing specific recommendations for the light-curing procedure of each resin cement.

  15. Effect of High-Irradiance Light-Curing on Micromechanical Properties of Resin Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Peutzfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of light-curing at high irradiances on micromechanical properties of resin cements. Three dual-curing resin cements and a light-curing flowable resin composite were light-cured with an LED curing unit in Standard mode (SM, High Power mode (HPM, or Xtra Power mode (XPM. Maximum irradiances were determined using a MARC PS radiometer, and exposure duration was varied to obtain two or three levels of radiant exposure (SM: 13.2 and 27.2 J/cm2; HPM: 15.0 and 30.4 J/cm2; XPM: 9.5, 19.3, and 29.7 J/cm2 (n=17. Vickers hardness (HV and indentation modulus (EIT were measured at 15 min and 1 week. Data were analyzed with nonparametric ANOVA, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and Spearman correlation analyses (α=0.05. Irradiation protocol, resin-based material, and storage time and all interactions influenced HV and EIT significantly (p≤0.0001. Statistically significant correlations between radiant exposure and HV or EIT were found, indicating that high-irradiance light-curing has no detrimental effect on the polymerization of resin-based materials (p≤0.0021. However, one resin cement was sensitive to the combination of irradiance and exposure duration, with high-irradiance light-curing resulting in a 20% drop in micromechanical properties. The results highlight the importance of manufacturers issuing specific recommendations for the light-curing procedure of each resin cement.

  16. Effect of light-curing units on the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Kil; Hur, Bock; Ko, Ching-Chang; García-Godoy, Franklin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the thermal expansion of resin nanocomposites after light-curing using different light-curing units. Methods Four different resin nanocomposites and four different light-curing units [quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH), light emitting diode (LED), laser, and plasma arc] were chosen. Metal dies were filled with resin to make specimens and light-cured. The light intensity and light-curing time of the QTH and LED light-curing units were 1000 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds, 700 mW/cm2 and 40 seconds for the laser, and 1600 mW/cm2 and 3 seconds for the plasma arc. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was evaluated using a thermomechanical analyzer (TMA) at temperatures ranging from 30–80°C. Results The CTE of the resin nanocomposites tested ranged from 28.5 to 65.8 (×10−6/°C), depending on the product and type of light-curing unit used. Among the specimens Grandio showed the lowest CTE. The specimens cured using the plasma arc unit (Apollo 95E) showed the highest CTE. There was a linear correlation between the CTE and filler content (vol%) (R: −0.94~−0.99 depending on the light-curing unit). The results may suggest a careful selection of the light-curing unit because there was more expansion in the specimens cured using the plasma arc unit than those cured by the other units. (Am J Dent 2010;23:331–334). PMID:21344832

  17. Characterization of high-pressure resin transfer molding process variants for manufacturing high-performance composites

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhari, Raman

    2014-01-01

    The current developments in the Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process for the automotive industry are strongly driven by the need for automotive light-weight design and high volume manufacturing capacity. In order to adapt the RTM process for industrial scale manufacturing of the automotive components it is essential to implement newly developed fast curing resin systems. If such resin systems shall be implemented in the RTM process, then it raises the necessity to achieve shorter resin inject...

  18. Light-curing considerations for resin-based composite materials: a review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala

    2010-10-01

    As discussed in Part I, the type of curing light and curing mode impact the polymerization kinetics of resin-based composite (RBC) materials. Major changes in light-curing units and curing modes have occurred. The type of curing light and mode employed affects the polymerization shrinkage and associated stresses, microhardness, depth of cure, degree of conversion, and color change of RBCs. These factors also may influence the microleakage in an RBC restoration. Apart from the type of unit and mode used, the polymerization of RBCs is also affected by how a light-curing unit is used and handled, as well as the aspects associated with RBCs and the environment. Part II discusses the various clinical issues that should be considered while curing RBC restorations in order to achieve the best possible outcome.

  19. Catalyzed Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Lignin-Based Curing Agent for the Curing of High-Performance Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Nikafshar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lignin, an aromatic compound from the forestry industry, was used as a renewable material to synthesize a new aromatic amine curing agent for epoxy resin. Firstly, lignin was separated from black liquor and hydroxyl groups were converted to tosyl groups as leaving groups. Then, primary amination was conducted using an ammonia solution at high pressure and temperature, in the presence of a nano-alumina-based catalyst. The structure of the nanocatalyst was confirmed by FT-IR, ICP, SEM, and XPS analyses. According to the FT-IR spectra, a demethylation reaction, the substitution of hydroxyl groups with tosyl groups, and then an amination reaction were successfully performed on lignin, which was further confirmed by the 13C NMR and CHNS analyses. The active hydrogen equivalent of aminated lignin was determined and three samples with 9.9 wt %, 12.9 wt %, and 15.9 wt % of aminated lignin, as curing agents, were prepared for curing the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA. The thermal characteristics of the curing process of these epoxy samples were determined by DSC and TGA analyses. Moreover, the mechanical performance of the cured epoxy systems, e.g., the tensile strength and Izod impact strength, were measured, showing that in the presence of 12.9 wt % aminated lignin, the mechanical properties of the aminated lignin-epoxy system exhibited the best performance, which was competitive, compared to the epoxy systems cured by commercial aromatic curing agents.

  20. The influence of light exposure on polymerization of dual-cure resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueggeberg, F A; Caughman, W F

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the degree of monomer conversion of four commercial dual-cure resin cements. The products were subjected to various postmix treatments: no light exposure, a 60-second exposure through Mylar only, and either a 20-second or 60-second exposure through an overlying cured wafer of composite 1.5 mm thick. The infrared spectrum of the treated specimens was recorded at specified times postmix for each cure treatment: 2, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes as well as after 24 hours. The degree of cure was then determined from the infrared spectra. The results demonstrate a wide range of potential cures among the various brands. Regardless of brand, the chemical component of cure was always lower than when the specimens were exposed to any lighting condition. For most resin systems tested, the cure observed 10 minutes postmix was almost equivalent to the cure after 24 hours. Despite manufacturers' claims, there is no evidence for a substantial chemically induced polymerization of dual-cure resins that occurs after light exposure is completed.

  1. Application of mass spectrometry to process control for polymer material in autoclave curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    Mass spectrometer analysis of gas samples collected during a cure cycle of polymer materials can be used as a process control technique. This technique is particularly helpful in studying the various types of solvents and resin systems used in the preparation of polymer materials and characterizing the chemical composition of different resin systems and their mechanism of polymerization.

  2. Effect of light curing sources on microhardness of different composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, T. A.; Calabrez-Filho, S.; de Menezes, F. C. H.; Cavalcante, L. M. A.; Pimenta, L. A. F.; de Andrade, M. F.; Dantas, A. A. R.; Rastelli, A. N. S.

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of light-curing units (LCUs) on Knoop microhardness (KHN) of different composite resins formulations. Four LCUs, one Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen (QTH) for 20 s, one Argon-Ion-Laser (AL) for 10 s, one Plasma-Arc-Curing (PAC) for 9 s, and one Light-Emitting-Diode (LED) for 20 s, and three composite resins, nanofill and easy cure (Filtek™ Supreme), microhybrid and medium cure (Herculite XRV), and microfill and difficult cure (Heliomolar) were used. Discs (4 × 2 mm2) of each composite resin were divided in 12 Groups and KHN was measured at the top (T) and bottom (B) surfaces. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test ( p < 0.05). Top presented significantly higher KHN than bottom surface for all composite resins and LCUs tested. Statistical significant differences were observed among the LCUs. At the bottom surface QTH and LED presented higher KHN than PAC and LA. However, at the top surface PAC and LA presented similar results than QTH for nanofill and microhybrid composite resins. Different LCUs play an important effect on Knoop microhardness and the composite resin formulations were significant factor on the photosensitivity.

  3. Influence of curing protocol and ceramic composition on the degree of conversion of resin cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Marcos Daniel Septimio; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Pegoraro, Thiago Amadei; Pegoraro, Luiz Fernando; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins De

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Due to increasing of aesthetic demand, ceramic crowns are widely used in different situations. However, to obtain long-term prognosis of restorations, a good conversion of resin cement is necessary. Objective: To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) of one light-cure and two dual-cure resin cements under a simulated clinical cementation of ceramic crowns. Material and Methods: Prepared teeth were randomly split according to the ceramic's material, resin cement and curing protocol. The crowns were cemented as per manufacturer's directions and photoactivated either from occlusal suface only for 60 s; or from the buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces, with an exposure time of 20 s on each aspect. After cementation, the specimens were stored in deionized water at 37°C for 7 days. Specimens were transversally sectioned from occlusal to cervical surfaces and the DC was determined along the cement line with three measurements taken and averaged from the buccal, lingual and approximal aspects using micro-Raman spectroscopy (Alpha 300R/WITec®). Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA and Tukey test at =5%. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant differences among cements, curing protocols and ceramic type (pcrowns; Duolink resin cement culminated in higher DC regardless ceramic composition and curing protocol. Conclusion: The DC of resin cement layers was dependent on the curing protocol and type of ceramic. PMID:29211292

  4. Material characterization of a polyester resin system for the pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Akkerman, Remko; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    to develop a cure kinetics model which accurately predicts the cure rate evolutions and describes the curing behaviour of the resin over a wide range of different processing conditions. The viscosity of the resin is subsequently obtained from rheological experiments using a rheometer. Based on this, a resin....... The temperature- and curedependent elastic modulus of the resin system is determined using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) in tension mode. A cure hardening and thermal softening model is developed and a least squares non-linear regression analysis is performed. The variation in elastic modulus...... with temperature and phase transition is captured for a fully cured resin sample. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. The effect of light-cured nanofilled composite resin shades on their under-surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, U. A.; Herda, E.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effect of shades of light-cured nanofilled composite resins on their under-surface temperature. Resin composites specimens of shades bright, medium, and dark shade were obtained from a cylindrical mold. While polymerizing using a curing unit, the under-surface temperature was determined at the bottom of the specimens using a thermocouple wire 20 sec after the start. Results showed that the under-surface temperature of the darker shade specimens were relatively higher that those of the brighter shades with significant diffferences between the resin composites of different shades. To conlude, the under-surface temperature of the light-cured nanofilled resin composites raised from the brighter to the darker shades.

  6. Effect of microwave cured acrylic resin on candidal growth in complete denture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmy, A.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of heat-cured acrylic resin denture base and microwave-cured acrylic resin denture base on candidal growth . Seven completely edentulous male patients with on history of denture wearing participated in this study. all the selected patients were re-habilitated by mucosa supported complete dentures .The dentures were constructed from conventional heat-cured acrylic resin denture base following monoplane concept of occlusion. Before dismissing the patients and one month after denture insertion, salivary samples were collected according to oral rinse technique. one month resting period was allowed so as candidal count can reach to normal, then dentures were re based using microwave-cured acrylic denture base, before denture insertion and one month after denture insertion, salivary sample were collected before and one month following the same oral rinse technique.

  7. Cure reaction of epoxy resins catalyzed by graphite-based nanofiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcione, C. Esposito; Acocella, Maria Rosaria; Giuri, Antonella; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Guerra, Gaetano

    2015-12-01

    A significant effort was directed to the synthesis of graphene stacks/epoxy nanocomposites and to the analysis of the effect of a graphene precursor on cure reaction of a model epoxy matrix. A comparative thermal analysis of epoxy resins filled with an exfoliated graphite oxide eGO were conducted. The main aim was to understand the molecular origin of the influence of eGO on the Tg of epoxy resins. The higher Tg values previously observed for low curing temperatures, for epoxy resins with graphite-based nanofillers, were easily rationalized by a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the reaction between the epoxy and amine groups of the resin, which leads to higher crosslinking density in milder conditions. A kinetic analysis of the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin associated to the catalytical activity of the graphite based filler was performed by isothermal DSC measurements. The DSC results showed that the addition of graphite based filler greatly increased the enthalpy of epoxy reaction and the reaction rate, confirming the presence of a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the crosslinking reaction between the epoxy resin components (epoxide oligomer and di-amine). A kinetic modelling analysis, arising from an auto-catalyzed reaction mechanism, was finally applied to isothermal DSC data, in order to predict the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin in presence of the graphite based nanofiller.

  8. Effect of Different Thicknesses of Pressable Ceramic Veneers on Polymerization of Light-cured and Dual-cured Resin Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Lopez, Arnaldo; Berzins, David W.; Prasad, Soni; Ahn, Kwang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the effects of ceramic veneer thicknesses on the polymerization of two different resin cements. Materials and Methods A total of 80 ceramic veneer discs were fabricated by using a pressable ceramic material (e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) from a Low Translucency (LT) ingot (A1 shade). These discs were divided into light-cured (LC; NX3 Nexus LC; Kerr) and dual-cured (DC; NX3 Nexus DC; Kerr) and each group was further divided into 4 subgroups, based on ceramic disc thickness (0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.2 mm). The values of Vickers microhardness (MH) and degree of conversion (DOC) were obtained for each specimen after a 24-hour storage period. Association between ceramic thickness, resin cement type, and light intensity readings (mW/cm2) with respect to microhardness and degree of conversion was statistically evaluated by using ANOVA. Results For the DOC values, there was no significant difference observed among the LC resin cement subgroups, except in the 1.2 mm subgroup; only the DOC value (14.0 ± 7.4%) of 1.2 mm DC resin cement had significantly difference from that value (28.9 ± 7.5%) of 1.2 mm LC resin cement (Presin cement groups, there was statistically significant difference (Presin cement groups demonstrated higher values than DC resin cement groups. On the other hands, among the DC resin cement subgroups, the MH values of 1.2 mm DC subgroup was significantly lower than the 0.3 mm and 0.6 mm subgroups (P.05). Conclusion The degree of conversion and hardness of the resin cement was unaffected with veneering thicknesses between 0.3 and 0.9 mm. However, the DC resin cement group resulted in a significantly lower DOC and MH values for the 1.2 mm subgroup. Clinical Significance While clinically adequate polymerization of LC resin cement can be achieved with a maximum 1.2 mm of porcelain veneer restoration, the increase of curing time or light intensity is clinically needed for DC resin cements at the thickness of more than 0.9 mm

  9. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays with modified layer thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to enhance curing light penetration through resin inlays by modifying the thicknesses of the dentin, enamel, and translucent layers. Materials and Methods To investigate the layer dominantly affecting the power density of light curing units, resin wafers of each layer with 0.5 mm thickness were prepared and power density through resin wafers was measured with a dental radiometer (Cure Rite, Kerr. The dentin layer, which had the dominant effect on power density reduction, was decreased in thickness from 0.5 to 0.1 mm while thickness of the enamel layer was kept unchanged at 0.5 mm and thickness of the translucent layer was increased from 0.5 to 0.9 mm and vice versa, in order to maintain the total thickness of 1.5 mm of the resin inlay. Power density of various light curing units through resin inlays was measured. Results Power density measured through 0.5 mm resin wafers decreased more significantly with the dentin layer than with the enamel and translucent layers (p < 0.05. Power density through 1.5 mm resin inlays increased when the dentin layer thickness was reduced and the enamel or translucent layer thickness was increased. The highest power density was recorded with dentin layer thickness of 0.1 mm and increased translucent layer thickness in all light curing units. Conclusions To enhance the power density through resin inlays, reducing the dentin layer thickness and increasing the translucent layer thickness would be recommendable when fabricating resin inlays.

  10. Alternative to latent catalysts for curing UF resins used in the production of low formaldehyde emission wood-based panels

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Costa; Joao Pereira; Jorge Manuel Santos Silva Martins; João Ferra; Paulo Cruz; Fernao Magalhaes; Adelio Mendes; Luísa Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies alternative catalysts to ammonium sulfate for curing urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. When using a latent catalyst like ammonium sulfate, hexamine is formed as by-product of curing reaction. It is believed that hexamine hydrolysis may contribute to formaldehyde release during the life-time of wood-based panels produced with UF resins. Orthophosphoric acid, on the other hand, catalyzes resin cure without by-product formation and was compared to ammonium sulfate. The pot-life o...

  11. Hardness of resin cement cured under different thickness of lithium disilicate-based ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Fu

    2011-11-01

    The lithium disilicate-based ceramic is a newly developed all-ceramic material, which is lithium disilicate-based and could be used for fabricating almost all kinds of restorations. The extent of light attenuation by ceramic material was material-dependent. Ceramic materials with different crystal composition or crystalline content would exhibit distinct light-absorbing characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of ceramic thickness and light-curing time on the polymerization of a dual-curing resin luting material with a lithium disilicate-based ceramic. A lithium disilicate-based ceramic was used in this study. The light attenuation caused by ceramic with different thickness was determined using a spectral radiometer. The commercial dual-cured resin cement was light-cured directly or through ceramic discs with different thickness (1, 2 and 3 mm, respectively) for different times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds, respectively). The polymerization efficiency of resin cement was expressed in terms as Vickers hardness (VHN) measured after 24 hours storage. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's HSD tests were used to determine differences. Intensity of polymerizing light transmitted through ceramic discs was reduced from 584 mW/cm(2) to about 216 mW/cm(2)2, 80 mW/cm(2) and 52 mW/cm(2) at thicknesses of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Resin cement specimens self-cured alone showed significantly lower hardness values. When resin cement was light-cured through ceramic discs with a thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm, no further increasing in hardness values was observed when light-curing time was more than 30 seconds, 40 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively. Within the limitation of the present study, ceramic thickness and light-curing time had remarkable influence on the polymerization of dual-cured resin cement. When resin cement is light-cured beneath a lithium disilicate ceramic with different thickness, prolonging light-curing

  12. Thermal expansion and swelling of cured epoxy resin used in graphite/epoxy composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents results of experiments in which the thermal expansion and swelling behavior of an epoxy resin system and two graphite/epoxy composite systems exposed to water were measured. It was found that the cured epoxy resin swells by an amount slightly less than the volume of the absorbed water and that the swelling efficiency of the water varies with the moisture content of the polymer. Additionally, the thermal expansion of cured epoxy resin that is saturated with water is observed to be more than twice that of dry resin. Results also indicate that cured resin that is saturated with 7.1% water at 95 C will rapidly increase in moisture content to 8.5% when placed in 1 C water. The mechanism for this phenomenon, termed reverse thermal effect, is described in terms of a slightly modified free-volume theory in conjunction with the theory of polar molecule interaction. Nearly identical behavior was observed in two graphite/epoxy composite systems, thus establishing that this behavior may be common to all cured epoxy resins.

  13. Structural investigation of e-beam cured epoxy resins through solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, Sabina; Spinella, Alberto; Caponetti, Eugenio; Dispenza, Clelia; Spadaro, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the network structure of e-beam cured DGEBF based epoxy resins is investigated. Two epoxy systems, having different reactivity and cured in different process conditions, were analyzed through solid state NMR spectroscopy. The analysis shows that the more reactive system has higher cross-linking density and higher uniformity of network distribution. Similar information were obtained, in a previous work, on the same systems through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. It is worth noting that unlike DMTA tests, which interfere with the molecular structure of the analyzed material, due to the heating during the analysis itself, more reliable information, without any artefact, are obtained by solid state NMR, carried out at constant room temperature. - Highlights: ► The structure of two e-beam cured epoxy systems is investigated through solid state NMR. ► The aim is to have direct information about the structure without inducing modifications. ► The different molecular structures are able to emphasize the response of solid state NMR. ► T 1 H, T 1ρ H and T CH measurements indicate different cross-linking degrees. ► The NMR results are in agreement with DMTA analysis performed in a previous paper.

  14. Effect of resin chemistry on depth of cure and cytotoxicity of dental resin composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susila Anand, V. [Rehabilitation Bioengineering Group, Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, Chennai 600077 (India); Balasubramanian, Venkatesh, E-mail: chanakya@iitm.ac.in [Rehabilitation Bioengineering Group, Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Dental composites have differences in polymerization within 2 mm thickness. • Degree of conversion alone may not affect the biocompatibility of composite. • Unreacted double bonds in dental composites may influence biocompatibility. • Magnitude of double bonds depends on the polymerization and chemical composition. • These influence biocompatibility especially if they possess lipophylic properties. -- Abstract: New dental composite restorative materials are being introduced aiming to overcome the disadvantages of contemporary materials. Hence there is a need to analyze the critical properties of these composites to aid in clinical application. This study aims to comparatively analyze the degree of conversion (DC), residual reactivity (DBC/reactivity) and cytotoxicity of 2 composites based on different resin chemistry. Ceram X and Filtek P90 were used in the study to prepare disc shaped samples of 2 mm thickness and 4 mm diameter. The samples for cytotoxicity were cured for 40 s and those of Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR) (DBC/reactivity and DC) for 5 s, 10 s, 20 s and 40 s, at an average intensity of 800 mW/cm{sup 2} with Quartz–Tungsten–Halogen (QTH) light. DC was calculated in 60–100 μm thick and 6 mm diameter samples. Double bonds concentration/reactivity was measured in approximately 80 μm thick sections prepared from the 2 mm thick discs using a hard tissue microtome. The cell viability was scored by Trypan blue exclusion staining technique at 24 h and 48 h. Both composites showed a progressive increase in double bonds/reactivity as the distance from curing probe increased which was inversely proportional to the curing time. The DC of Filtek P90 was 20% and 96% and that of Ceram X 33% and 50% at 5 s and 40 s, respectively. Ceram X showed statistically significantly higher cell viability score at both 24 h and 48 h than Filtek P90. The results were statistically analyzed using non-parametric Kruskal

  15. Effect of resin chemistry on depth of cure and cytotoxicity of dental resin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susila Anand, V.; Balasubramanian, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dental composites have differences in polymerization within 2 mm thickness. • Degree of conversion alone may not affect the biocompatibility of composite. • Unreacted double bonds in dental composites may influence biocompatibility. • Magnitude of double bonds depends on the polymerization and chemical composition. • These influence biocompatibility especially if they possess lipophylic properties. -- Abstract: New dental composite restorative materials are being introduced aiming to overcome the disadvantages of contemporary materials. Hence there is a need to analyze the critical properties of these composites to aid in clinical application. This study aims to comparatively analyze the degree of conversion (DC), residual reactivity (DBC/reactivity) and cytotoxicity of 2 composites based on different resin chemistry. Ceram X and Filtek P90 were used in the study to prepare disc shaped samples of 2 mm thickness and 4 mm diameter. The samples for cytotoxicity were cured for 40 s and those of Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR) (DBC/reactivity and DC) for 5 s, 10 s, 20 s and 40 s, at an average intensity of 800 mW/cm 2 with Quartz–Tungsten–Halogen (QTH) light. DC was calculated in 60–100 μm thick and 6 mm diameter samples. Double bonds concentration/reactivity was measured in approximately 80 μm thick sections prepared from the 2 mm thick discs using a hard tissue microtome. The cell viability was scored by Trypan blue exclusion staining technique at 24 h and 48 h. Both composites showed a progressive increase in double bonds/reactivity as the distance from curing probe increased which was inversely proportional to the curing time. The DC of Filtek P90 was 20% and 96% and that of Ceram X 33% and 50% at 5 s and 40 s, respectively. Ceram X showed statistically significantly higher cell viability score at both 24 h and 48 h than Filtek P90. The results were statistically analyzed using non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis, Mann

  16. Hard and soft computing models of composite curing process looking toward monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, F.; Carlone, P.; Aleksendrić, D.; Ćirović, V.; Sorrentino, L.; Bellini, C.

    2016-10-01

    The curing process of thermosetting resins plays a key role on the final quality of the composite material components. Soft computing techniques proved to be an efficient method to control and optimize the curing process, replacing the conventional experimental and numerical approaches. In this paper artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic control (FLC) were implemented together to predict and control the temperature and degree of cure profile during the autoclave curing process. The obtained outcomes proved the capability of ANNs and FLC with respect to the hard computing methods.

  17. The applicability of DPSS laser for light curing of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hoon; Jang, Chang-Min; Shin, Dong-Hee; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2008-10-01

    The applicability of diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser for light curing the composite resins was tested with a quartz-tungsten-halogen lamp-based unit and a light emitting diode unit. The emission spectra of the light-curing systems used match with the absorption spectrum of camphorquinone. Among the light-curing systems, DPSS laser showed the narrowest emission bandwidth. The light intensity of DPSS laser was approximately 64% of the other two light-curing units. In most specimens, DPSS laser showed the least attenuation of the number of incident photons. On the top surface, specimens cured with DPSS laser showed similar microhardness values compared to the specimens cured with the other two light-curing units. During the light curing, DPSS laser induced the lowest temperature rise (25.5-35.5 degrees C) in the specimens compared to the other two light-curing units (34.2-41.7 degrees C). In conclusion, DPSS laser has high potential to be an alternative to the other light-curing units or a new light-curing unit.

  18. Microhardness of composite resin cured through different primary tooth thicknesses with different light intensities and curing times: In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Fatemeh; Ajami, Behjatolmolok; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Baghaee, Bahareh; Hafez, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure time and light intensity on microhardness of cured composite through different thicknesses of tooth structure in primary teeth. One hundred and seventy cylindrical resin composite specimens were prepared. All specimens were divided into 17 experimental and control groups. "Light-emitting diode" light curing unit (LCU) applied directly or through 1, 2, and 3 mm thicknesses tooth slices for experimental groups. The irradiation protocols were 25 and 50 s at 650 mW/cm(2) and 15 and 30 s at 1100 mW/cm(2). The "quartz-tungsten-halogen" LCU (400 mW/cm(2)) for 40 s was used in control group. Microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness test. Indirectly cured specimens and those cured through a 1 mm thick tooth structure, an increase in intensity caused hardness drop. In the specimens cured through 2 and 3 mm thick tooth structures, increased intensity and/or exposure time did not show any appropriate changes on microhardness. Irradiation through a 1.0 mm thick tooth slice resulted in reduced microhardness although it was still within the clinically acceptable level. The hardness values of the specimens cured through 2 or 3 mm thick tooth slices fell below the clinically acceptable level even after doubling the exposure time and/or light intensity.

  19. Influence of curing protocol and ceramic composition on the degree of conversion of resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Daniel Septimio Lanza

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to increasing of aesthetic demand, ceramic crowns are widely used in different situations. However, to obtain long-term prognosis of restorations, a good conversion of resin cement is necessary. Objective: To evaluate the degree of conversion (DC of one light-cure and two dual-cure resin cements under a simulated clinical cementation of ceramic crowns. Material and Methods: Prepared teeth were randomly split according to the ceramic's material, resin cement and curing protocol. The crowns were cemented as per manufacturer's directions and photoactivated either from occlusal suface only for 60 s; or from the buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces, with an exposure time of 20 s on each aspect. After cementation, the specimens were stored in deionized water at 37°C for 7 days. Specimens were transversally sectioned from occlusal to cervical surfaces and the DC was determined along the cement line with three measurements taken and averaged from the buccal, lingual and approximal aspects using micro-Raman spectroscopy (Alpha 300R/WITec®. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA and Tukey test at =5%. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant differences among cements, curing protocols and ceramic type (p<0.001. The curing protocol 3x20 resulted in higher DC for all tested conditions; lower DC was observed for Zr ceramic crowns; Duolink resin cement culminated in higher DC regardless ceramic composition and curing protocol. Conclusion: The DC of resin cement layers was dependent on the curing protocol and type of ceramic.

  20. Vickers Hardness of Composite Resins Cured with LED and QTH Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaghemand H

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the factors affecting the degree of polymerization of light-cured composites is the type of light-curing unit used. In addition, physicomechanical properties of the composite resins depend on the degree of conversion and polymerization. Objectives: Since the type of initiator in new composite resins is not explained by manufacturers, this study is an attempt to compare the depth of hardening, with two LED and QTH light-curing units. Materials and Methods: Fifteen samples prepared from Gradia Direct and Filtek Z250, both of which being universal, were cured with QTH (Astralis 7 and LED (Bluephase C8 light-curing units. All the samples were molded in polyester resin and cut from the middle by a disk. The hardness of the cut area was evaluated at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4-mm depth intervals and also at the same interval as the width of the sample, with Vickers hardness machine, while the samples were placed in a darkroom. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, t-test and post Hoc Tukey’s tests in SPSS, version 16. Results: Filtek Z250 was harder than Gradia Direct at all the depth with both light-curing units. The hardness of Filtek Z250 sample cured with Astralis 7 was higher than that cured with LED, but with Gradia Direct the LED unit resulted in higher hardness. Curing depth was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.109. Conclusions: Vickers hardness number for both composites used in this study is in an acceptable range for clinical implications. The composites’ composition is important to be considered for selection of light unit. Based on the findings of the present study, LED did not present more curing depth compared with QTH.

  1. Influence of polymerization time and depth of cure of resin composites determined by Vickers hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardini, Marco; Chiesa, Marco; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adequate polymerization of resin composites could be considered as a crucial factor in obtaining good clinical performance, particularly in stress-bearing areas. An insufficient curing degree affects the resin composite's chemical properties The current in vitro study evaluated the influence of polymerization time and depth of cure of six commercial resin composites by Vickers microhardness (VK). Materials and Methods: Six resin composites were selected: Three microhybrid (Esthet.X HD, Amaris, Filtek Silorane), two nanohybrid (Grandio, Ceram.X mono), and one nanofilled (Filtek Supreme XT). The VK of the surface was determined by a microhardness tester using a Vickers diamond indenter and a 200 g load applied for 15 s. The bottom to top mean VK ratio was calculated using the formula: Hardness ratio = VK of bottom surface/VK of top surface. Vickers hardness values of test materials during exposure time of 20 and 40 s and depths of cure of 2 and 3 mm were determined and compared. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: For all the tested materials and with all the exposure time periods, hardness ratio was higher than the minimum value indicated in literature (0.8). Exposure time and depth of cure did not affect hardness ratio values for Filtek Silorane, Grandio, and Filtek Supreme XT. Conclusion: Among the materials tested, the nanofilled and the nanohybrid resin composites were rather insensible to thickness variations. Miicrohybrid composites, instead, had features different from one another. PMID:23559951

  2. IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTION OF DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES OVER MICROWAVED-CURED ACRYLIC RESINS

    OpenAIRE

    Montagner, Henrique; Montagner, Francisco; Braun, Katia Olmedo; Peres, Paulo Edelvar Correa; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The presence of Candida albicans on the surfaces of denture-base acrylic resins is strongly related to the development of oral stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal action of different agents over microwave-cured acrylic resin without polishing specimens previously contaminated with Candida albicans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty specimens were immersed in BHI broth previously inoculated with the yeast and stored for 3 h at 37ºC. They were divided into 5 experimental groups...

  3. Effects of light intensity and curing time of the newest LED Curing units on the diametral tensile strength of microhybrid composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, D.; Herda, E.; Eriwati, Y. K.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light intensity and curing time of the latest LED curing units on the diametral tensile strength of microhybrid composite resins. Sixty-three specimens from three brands (Polofil Supra, Filtek Z250, and Solare X) were divided into two test groups and one control group. The test groups were polymerized with a Flashmax P3 LED curing unit for one or three seconds. The control group was polymerized with a Ledmax 450 curing unit with the curing time based on the resin manufacturer’s instructions. A higher light intensity and shorter curing time did not influence the diametral tensile strength of microhybrid composite resins.

  4. Effect of new light curing units on microleakage and microhardness of resin sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Mehmet; Tirali, Resmiye Ebru

    2016-01-01

    To determine new developed light curing units with shorter curing times effects on microleakage and microhardness values for resin fissure sealants. Resin filled sealant (UltraSeal-XT), resin unfilled sealant (Delton Type-II) and ormocer-based sealant (Admira-Seal) were light cured with a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH), two LED light and a high power LED. Two hundred and forty extracted human molars were randomly allocated into four groups according to used light-curing unit and three subgroups were formed for three different fissure sealant materials. Specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 h, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for marginal microleakage. Knoop hardness number (KHN) readings were measured after 48 h. Statistical analyses of test were found in significant difference both microleakage and microhardness values between the various light curing units. The time saving approaches in the curing light were determined higher microhardness, although it was found in higher microleakage.

  5. Influence of Curing Light Attenuation Caused by Aesthetic Indirect Restorative Materials on Resin Cement Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Bárbara; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Junior, Washington Steagall; Kawano, Yoshio; Braga, Roberto Ruggiero; Cardoso, Paulo Eduardo Capel

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To verify the effect of interposing different indirect restorative materials on degree of conversion (DC), hardness, and flexural strength of a dual-cure resin cement. Methods: Discs (2 mm-thick, n=5) of four indirect restorative materials were manufactured: a layered glass-ceramic (GC); a heat-pressed lithium disilicate-based glass-ceramic veneered with the layered glass-ceramic (LD); a micro-hybrid (MH); and a micro-filled (MF) indirect composite resin. The light transmittance of these materials was determined using a double-beam spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Bar-shaped specimens of a dual-cure resin cement (Nexus 2/SDS Kerr), with (dual-cure mode) and without the catalyst paste (light-cure mode), were photoactivated through the discs using either a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) or a light-emitting diode (LED) unit. As a control, specimens were photoactivated without the interposed discs. Specimens were stored at 37ºC for 24h before being submitted to FT-Raman spectrometry (n=3), Knoop microhardness (n=6) and three-point bending (n=6) tests. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results: MH presented the highest transmittance. The DC was lower in light-cure mode than in dual-cure mode. All restorative materials reduced the cement microhardness in light-cure mode. GC and LD with QTH and GC with LED decreased the strength of the cement for both activation modes compared to the controls. Curing units did not affect DC or microhardness, except when the dual-cure cement was photoactivated through LD (LED>QTH). Flexural strength was higher with QTH compared to LED. Conclusions: Differences in transmittance among the restorative materials significantly influenced cement DC and flexural strength, regardless of the activation mode, as well as the microhardness of the resin cement tested in light-cure mode. Microhardness was not impaired by the interposed materials when the resin cement was used in dual-cure mode. PMID:20613921

  6. Mechanical properties and bond strength of dual-cure resin composites to root canal dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksornmuang, Juthatip; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the regional mechanical properties of dual-cure resin composites and their regional bond strengths to root canal dentin. One of the following dual-cure resin composites was placed in artificial post spaces: Unifil Core (UC), Clearfil DC Core (DC), Build-It FR (BI), Clearfil DC Core-automix (DCA), and photo-cured for 60s. After 24h storage, each specimen was serially sliced to harvest eight hour-glass shaped specimens for measurement of regional ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and the remaining eight semi-circular slabs were polished for the measurement of Knoop Hardness Number (KHN). For the microtensile bond strength (muTBS) test, post cavities were prepared in human premolar roots, and the cavity surfaces treated with Clearfil SE Bond and photo-cured for 10s. The post spaces were then filled with one of the above resin composites and photo-cured for 60s. After 24h storage, each specimen was serially sliced into 8, 0.6x0.6 mm-thick beams for the muTBS test. The data were divided into coronal and apical regions and analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc test (alpha=0.05). UTS and KHN were affected by the type of dual-cure resin composite and region (presin composite possessed superior UTS to that of the hand-mix type. muTBS among the four composite materials were not significantly different at both apical and coronal regions (p>0.05). Regional differences in bond strengths were found for all materials (presin composites varied among each material, however, differences in the mechanical properties of the resin core materials did not affect their adhesion to root canal dentin.

  7. The effects of alkyd/melamine resin ratio and curing temperature on the properties of the coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADMILA Z. RADICEVIC

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic resins are used as binders in protective coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of a coating called “baking enamel” cured through functional groups of resins. The effects of the alkyd/butylated melamine resin ratio (from 85/15 to 70/30 and curing temperature (from 100°C to 160°C on the crosslinking and properties of the coating are presented in this paper. The degree of curing was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. These data were used for the estimation of the degree of crosslinking. The hardness, elasticity, impact resistance, degree of adherence and gloss were also determined. Optimal coating properties could be achieved with an alkyd/melamine resin ratio of 75/25, a curing temperature of 130 °C and a curing time of 30 min.

  8. UV curing silicon-containing epoxy resin and its glass cloth reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang; Tang Zhuo; Huang Pengcheng

    2007-01-01

    A UV-curable cationic silicon-containing epoxy resin formulation was developed. The gel conversion of the cured resin after 10-min UV irradiation reached 80% in the presence of 5% diaryliodonium salt photoinitiator and 5.5% polyol chain transfer agent by cationic ring-opening polymerization. The glass cloth-reinforced composites were fabricated with the silicon-containing epoxy resin using the wet lay-up technique and UV irradiation. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated. Compared with glass cloth reinforced bisphenol A epoxy resin matrix composites, the silicon-containing epoxy resin matrix composites possessed higher tensile strength and interlayer shear strength which was 158.5MPa and 9.9MPa respectively while other mechanical properties such as flexural property and tensile modulus were similar. (authors)

  9. Investigation into the Depth of Cure of Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Restorative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    glass - ionomer restorative dental materials. Samples of different thicknesses using...attempt at delineating the depth of cure of resin-modified glass - ionomer restorative dental materials. Samples of different thicknesses using Vitremer... glass ionomers liners. Dent Mater 1993:9:198-203. 16. Culbertson BM. Glass - ionomer dental restoratives . Prog Polym Sci 2001 ;26:577-604. 17. Fuji II

  10. Color Stability of Heat‑cure Acrylic Resin Subjected to Simulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Regular usage of denture cleansers is recommended in complete denture wearers for effective plaque control, and these cleansers alter the physical properties of acrylic resin over a period of time. Thus, an in vitro study was carried out to assess the effect of denture cleansers on the color stability of heat‑cure ...

  11. An Optimal Cure Process to Minimize Residual Void and Optical Birefringence for a LED Silicone Encapsulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jae Song

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicone resin has recently attracted great attention as a high-power Light Emitting Diode (LED encapsulant material due to its good thermal stability and optical properties. In general, the abrupt curing reaction of the silicone resin for the LED encapsulant during the curing process induces reduction in the mechanical and optical properties of the LED product due to the generation of residual void and moisture, birefringence, and residual stress in the final formation. In order to prevent such an abrupt curing reaction, the reduction of residual void and birefringence of the silicone resin was observed through experimentation by introducing the multi-step cure processes, while the residual stress was calculated by conducting finite element analysis that coupled the heat of cure reaction and cure shrinkage. The results of experiment and analysis showed that it was during the three-step curing process that the residual void, birefringence, and residual stress reduced the most in similar tendency. Through such experimentation and finite element analysis, the study was able to confirm that the optimization of the LED encapsulant packaging process was possible.

  12. A multi-stage curing technique toward improved dimensional infidelity of curve-shaped composites manufactured with vacuum assisted resin transfer molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Kai Jin

    The occurrence of dimensional infidelity during the curing process is detected as curved composites are being released from the mold after full consolidation. On the other hand, the lengthy cure cycle, thermal spiking and non-uniform consolidation in thick composite manufacturing are often strong deterrents to widespread industrial implementation. Therefore, a multi-stage curing technique is implemented and its outcome toward the spring-in phenomenon is investigated in this research. The composite processing technique of stage curing is useful for assessing the effects of thermal spiking, non-uniform consolidation and fiber wrinkling on mechanical integrity for thick composite structures. However, the prediction of spring-in behavior for a multi-stage curing process is still a relatively unexplored area in engineering research. As a result, a compatibility model based on the residual stress that builds up at each curing stage is performed in our study. Since the resin provides a lubricant effect between each curing stage, a partial slipping interface factor w is introduced to our numerical simulation model. The newly developed multi-stage curing model shows good agreement with the experimental results under Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process.

  13. Designing of cardanol based polyol and its curing kinetics with melamine formaldehyde resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgude, Dinesh Bapurao; Sabnis, Anagha Shyamsunder; Ghosh, Swapan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Commercially used industrial baking enamels consist of alkyd or polyester resin with melamine formaldehyde. These resins are mainly derived from fossil resources. Considering growing environmental legislation regarding use of petroleum based raw materials, utilization of renewable resources to synthesize various chemistries can be the only obvious option as far as academia and industries are concerns. The present work deals with exploration of one of the natural resources (Cardanol) for polyol synthesis, its characterization (FTIR and NMR) and its curing behavior with melamine formaldehyde resin by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The optimized formulations from DSC study were further evaluated for general coating properties to study the suitability of developed polyol for industrial coating application. The experimental studies revealed that melamine content in the curing mixtures and thereby developed crosslinking density played an important role in deciding the coatings properties.

  14. Flame Retardance and Physical Properties of Novel Cured Blends of Unsaturated Polyester and Furan Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur Kandola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel blends of two furan resins with an unsaturated polyester have been prepared and cured by parallel free radical (for the unsaturated polyester and acid-catalysed crosslinking (for the furan resin to give co-cured composite materials. Although these materials have inferior physical properties, such as low Tg and low storage modulus compared with those of unsaturated polyester and furan resins alone, they show markedly improved flame retardance compared with that of the normally highly flammable unsaturated polyester. This increased flame retardance arises from a condensed phase mechanism in which the furanic component forms a semi-protective char, reducing rates of thermal degradation and total heat release and heat of combustion. The blends also burn with reduced smoke output compared with that from unsaturated polyester alone.

  15. [Experimental study on the reinforced effect of light curing composite resins used for crowns and bridges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J; Zhang, J Z

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate the reinforced effect of the light curing composite resins used for crowns and bridges. Three light curing composite resins which were used for crowns and bridges were chosen, and three polyester fiber sieves and three stainless steel sieves in different mesh were used as the additional reinforced materials. Compressive strength and three point flexural strength of test bars made of those materials were evaluated. The reinforced bridges with special fibers were used as control groups. (1)There was significant increase in the stainless steel sieves groups. Nevertheless, there was some decrease after use of the polyester fibers as the additional reinforced material. (2)The increase of the reinforced crowns was especially obvious. (3)Among the three resins, the property of Targis was better than that of Arglass and Solidex. The properties of the whole composite material were closely correlated with the additional reinforced materials, the resistance to compression of the sieves are better than its resistance to bend.

  16. Composite Cure Process Modeling and Simulations using COMPRO(Registered Trademark) and Validation of Residual Strains using Fiber Optics Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Hudson, Tyler B.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Grimsley, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Composite cure process induced residual strains and warping deformations in composite components present significant challenges in the manufacturing of advanced composite structure. As a part of the Manufacturing Process and Simulation initiative of the NASA Advanced Composite Project (ACP), research is being conducted on the composite cure process by developing an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms by which the process induced factors influence the residual responses. In this regard, analytical studies have been conducted on the cure process modeling of composite structural parts with varied physical, thermal, and resin flow process characteristics. The cure process simulation results were analyzed to interpret the cure response predictions based on the underlying physics incorporated into the modeling tool. In the cure-kinetic analysis, the model predictions on the degree of cure, resin viscosity and modulus were interpreted with reference to the temperature distribution in the composite panel part and tool setup during autoclave or hot-press curing cycles. In the fiber-bed compaction simulation, the pore pressure and resin flow velocity in the porous media models, and the compaction strain responses under applied pressure were studied to interpret the fiber volume fraction distribution predictions. In the structural simulation, the effect of temperature on the resin and ply modulus, and thermal coefficient changes during curing on predicted mechanical strains and chemical cure shrinkage strains were studied to understand the residual strains and stress response predictions. In addition to computational analysis, experimental studies were conducted to measure strains during the curing of laminated panels by means of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) embedded in the resin impregnated panels. The residual strain measurements from laboratory tests were then compared with the analytical model predictions. The paper describes the cure process

  17. Influence of polymerization mode and C-factor on cohesive strength of dual-cured resin cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, L.A.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Pallav, P.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the influence of the C-factor and the mode of polymerization on the cohesive strength of various dual-cure resin cements. Methods Three curing conditions were tested; chemical curing with free shrinkage conditions (C = 0), and constraint shrinkage

  18. Depth of Cure of New Flowable Composite Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    study. v ABSTRACT Objectives: This study evaluated the depth of cure of Surefil SDR Flow (Dentsply), Grandio Flow (VOCO) and Venus...bottom/maximum KHN or the scrape technique: Venus ≥ SDR ≥ Grandio ≥ Revolution. Conclusions: Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the...composites are Surefil SDR Flow (Dentsply Caulk), Grandio Flow (VOCO) and Venus Bulk Fill (Heraeus Kulzer). 8 Surefil SDR (Stress Decreasing

  19. Tensile bond strength of dual curing resin-based cements to commercially pure titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rafael; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Henriques, Guilherme Elias Pessanha; Chan, Daniel C N

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength of dual curing luting resin cements to commercially pure titanium at 10 min and 24h after removal of the oxide layer. One hundred and twenty titanium discs were obtained by casting and polishing with silicon carbide papers. The titanium discs were sandblasted with 50 microm aluminum oxide, ultrasonic cleaned and bonded in pairs with the resin-based cements Panavia F and Rely X ARC at 10 min and 24h after the sandblasting. The tensile test was performed with a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min in an Instron Universal testing machine. The Rely X ARC reached the highest tensile strength value at 24h after sandblasting (18.27 MPa), but there was no statistically significant difference between the two dual curing resin cements for both times tested. All specimens showed a mixture of cohesive fracture in the resin cement and adhesive failure. However, the predominant failure mode for Panavia F was cohesive in resin cement, and the Rely X ARC exhibited a greater proportion of specimens with adhesive failure between the alloy and resin luting cement at 10 min and 24h. Both cements had, statistically, the same tensile bond strength. But in the fracture mode analysis, the adhesive predominant fracture mode of Rely X ARC cement indicates a premature clinical adhesive failure. On the other hand, the cohesive predominant fracture mode of Panavia F indicates a longer clinical adhesive bond with titanium.

  20. Effect of thickness of indirect restoration and distance from the light-curing unit tip on the hardness of a dual-cured resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Knoop hardness and polymerization depth of a dual-cured resin cement, light-activated at different distances through different thicknesses of composite resin. One bovine incisor was embedded in resin and its buccal surface was flattened. Dentin was covered with PVC film where a mold (0.8-mm-thick and 5 mm diameter) was filled with cement and covered with another PVC film. Light curing (40 s) was carried out through resin discs (2, 3, 4 or 5 mm) with a halogen light positioned 0, 1, 2 or 3 mm from the resin surface. After storage, specimens were sectioned for hardness measurements (top, center, and bottom). Data were subjected to split-plot ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The increase in resin disc thickness decreased cement hardness. The increase in the distance of the light-curing tip decreased hardness at the top region. Specimens showed the lowest hardness values at the bottom, and the highest at the center. Resin cement hardness was influenced by the thickness of the indirect restoration and by the distance between the light-curing unit tip and the resin cement surface.

  1. Effects of 4-META/MMA-TBB Resin at Different Curing Stages on Osteoblasts and Gingival Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotomi, Takahiko; Hirata-Tsuchiya, Shizu; Washio, Ayako; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of different curing stages of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin on osteoblasts and gingival keratinocytes. The MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblastic cell line and GE-1 murine gingival epithelial cell line were cultured with mixtures of Super-Bond C&B at different curing stages, and the cell viability was assessed. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells was also assessed. The majority of the MC3T3-E1 cells died and showed no ALP activity when cultured with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin during the initial curing phase (1 min of curing). A later curing phase of the 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (7 min of curing) showed cytotoxicity at day 1, but the toxic effect was temporary and the proliferative capacity and ALP activity in the cells were similar to control cells at day 7. Completely cured 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (after 1 or 12 h of curing) did not affect the cell viability or ALP activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells. In contrast, 4-META/MMA-TBB resin showed no effect on the GE-1 cells at any stage of curing. Although 4-META/MMA-TBB resin during the initial curing phase shows toxic effects on MC3T3-E1 cells, that cytotoxicity is minimal at later curing phases. In contrast, neither the uncured nor cured resins affected the GE-1 cells.

  2. Influence of light-curing units and restorative materials on the micro hardness of resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuguimiya Rosiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of indirect restorative materials (IRMs and light-curing units (LCUs on the micro hardness of dual-cured resin cement. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 cylindrical samples (2 mm thick were prepared with dual-cured resin cement (Relyx ARC photo-activated with either a QTH (Optilight Plus for 40s or a LED (Radii light-curing unit for 65s. Photo-activation was performed through the 2-mm- thick IRMs and the samples were divided into six groups (n=6 according to the combination of veneering materials (without, ceramic and indirect resin and LCUs (QTH and LED. In the control group, the samples were light-cured with a QTH unit without the interposition of any restorative material. Vickers micro hardness test was performed on the top and bottom surfaces of each sample (load of 50 g for 15 secs. The data were statistically analyzed using a three-way ANOVA followed by Tukey x s post-hoc test ( P < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences on the top surface between the light curing-units ( P > 0.05; however, the LED provided greater hardness on the bottom surface when a ceramic material was used ( P < 0.05. The mean hardness in photo-activated samples, in which there was no interposition of indirect materials, was significantly greater ( P < 0.01. Conclusions: It may be concluded that the interposition of the restorative material decreased the micro hardness in the deeper cement layer. Such decrease, however, was lower when the ceramic was interposed and the cement light-cured with LED.

  3. Evaluation of microleakage of class II dental composite resin restorations cured with LED or QTH dental curing light; Blind, Cluster Randomized, In vitro cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakavi, Faramarz; Golpasand Hagh, Leila; Sadeghian, Soheila; Freckelton, Virginia; Daraeighadikolaei, Arash; Ghanatir, Elham; Zarnaghash, Najmeh

    2014-07-03

    The aim of this study is to compare the microleakage of Class II dental composite resin restorations which have been cured by three different LED (light emitting diode) light curing modes compared to control samples cured by QTH (quartz tungsten halogen) light curing units (LCUs), to determine the most effective light curing unit and mode of curing. In this experimental study, class II cavities were prepared on 100 sound human premolars which have been extracted for orthodontic treatment. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups; three experimental and one control group of 25 teeth each. Experimental groups were cured by either conventional, pulse-delay, or ramped curing modes of LED. The control group was cured for 20 seconds by QTH. The restorations were thermocycled (1000 times, between 5 and 55°C, for 5 seconds dwell time), dyed, sectioned mesio-distally and viewed under stereo-microscope (40×) magnification. Teeth were then scored on a 0 to 4 scale based on the amount of microleakage. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test.No significant difference was demonstrated between the different LCUs (light curing units), or modes of curing, at the enamel side (p > 0.05). At the dentin side, all modes of LED curing could significantly reduce microleakage (p curing improves marginal integrity and seal. High intense curing endangers those aims. Comparison between the three LED mode cured composite resin restorations and QTH curing showed LED curing in all modes is more effective than QTH for reducing microleakage. Both LED and QTH almost completely eliminate the microleakage on the enamel side, however none of them absolutely eliminated microleakage on the dentin side.

  4. Hardness of composite resin polymerized with different light-curing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengameh Safarcherati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The degree of polymerization depends on the type of light-curing unit. The aim of this study was to compare the hardness of composite resin cured by LED and Halogen light curing units. Methods: In this experimental study, 20 cylindrical samples of Tetric Ceram composite were prepared. Half of them were cured with Ultralume 2 LED and the other half with Astralis 7 Halogen light curing unit. In the depths of 0,1,2 and 3 mm from surface, one point in peripheral and one point in central portion were marked ,then the hardness of these points was measured by Vickers test . The data was analyzed by a pvalue less than 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The mean hardness of samples cured by LED was more than halogen group in different depths and this difference was statistically significant in peripheral points (p=.048 but this was not significant in central points (p=0.644. The mean hardness in both groups had a decreasing trend from surface to the deep parts in central and peripheral parts and this was more in the central parts. Conclusions: Composites cured by LED light curing unit showed more hardness in similar depths, besides the hardness of composites in central parts is more than the peripheral ones in both groups.

  5. A New Silarylene-Siloxane Monomeric Resin for Structural Composites: Cure-Chemistry Insight and Thermal Properties of the Cured Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    total resin , according to TGA . The fragment of this compound minus the butyl group was also found (433 daltons). NAWCWD TP 8777 17...NAWCWD TP 8777 A New Silarylene-Siloxane Monomeric Resin for Structural Composites: Cure-Chemistry Insight and Thermal Properties of...FOREWORD Reported here are the synthesis and characterization of a siloxane-silarylene liquid monomer, which is a promising new resin component

  6. Post-irradiation crosslinking of partially cured unsaturated polyester resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkin, Tanja; Pucic, Irina

    2006-01-01

    The post-irradiation crosslinking of unsaturated polyester (UP) resin samples irradiated to different doses was monitored during the 15-days period. The post-reaction sensitivity of three experimental techniques was evaluated. Significant changes were detected by extraction analysis that also included determination of the free styrene content. The most substantial changes were detected by differential scanning calorimetry, even up to 5 days after the irradiation. The sensitivity and reproducibility of FTIR was the lowest. The first two techniques detected the influence of particular reaction periods, at which the radiation crosslinking was terminated, on the post-reaction

  7. Radiation curing of γ-Al2O3 filled epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Kim, Dong Jin; Nho, Young Chang

    2003-01-01

    Epoxy resins are widely utilized as high performance thermosetting resins for many industrial applications but characterized by a relatively low toughness. Recently, the incorporation with rigid inorganic was suggested to improve the mechanical properties of epoxy resins. In the present work, an attempt has been taken to disperse nano-sized γ- Al 2 O 3 particles into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) epoxy resins for improvement of the mechanical properties. These hybrid epoxy-alumina composites were prepared using by the γ-ray curing technique that was conducted with 100kGy under nitrogen at room temperature. The composites were characterized by determining gel content, UTM (Instron model 4443), SEM, FT-IR studies

  8. Mechanical properties and polymerization shrinkage of composite resins light-cured using two different lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Jeong, Seung-Hwa; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of 457 and 473 nm lasers for the curing of composite resins during the restoration of damaged tooth cavity. Monochromaticity and coherence are attractive features of laser compared with most other light sources. Better polymerization of composite resins can be expected. Eight composite resins were light cured using these two lasers and a light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing unit (LCU). To evaluate the degrees of polymerization achieved, polymerization shrinkage and flexural and compressive properties were measured and compared. Polymerization shrinkage values by 457 and 473 nm laser, and LED ranged from 10.9 to 26.8, from 13.2 to 26.1, and from 11.5 to 26.3 μm, respectively. The values by 457 nm laser was significantly different from those by 473 and LED LCU (p0.05). For the tested LCUs, no specific LCU could consistently achieve highest strength and modulus from the specimens tested. Two lasers (457 and 473 nm) can polymerize composite resins to the level that LED LCU can achieve despite inconsistent trends of polymerization shrinkage and flexural and compressive properties of the tested specimens.

  9. INFLUENCE OF IRRADIATION EXPOSURE TIME ON THE DEPTH CURE OF RESTORATIVE RESIN COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fabiano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the degree of conversion by the hardness measurements of a commercial resin composite. The specimens were prepared according to ISO 4049 and photo-activated for 20s – 40s – 60s with a light-emitting diodes (LEDs. To establish the optimal increment technique mono-layers 1 mm and 2 mm thick were tested. The ratio bottom-to-top was assessed for the mono-layers groups. Vickers hardness profiles were measured for mono-layer, bi-layer and tri-layer along the cross-section. The microhardness map showed difference in the mechanical characteristic of overlying resin confirmed by SEM images analysis of the fracture mechanics. Curing effectiveness of resin composite is not only dependent on the curing light unit but also from thickness of the resin composite and the duration of the exposure. The data suggest that an exposure time of 40 s or higher is required to provide composites with a homogeneous and high hardness, moreover, a 1 mm buildup multi-layering technique results in adequate curing of the bottom layer and better mechanical properties.

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. METHODS: Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6 according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: Group 1: clear acrylic resin; group 2: pink acrylic resin; group 3: blue acrylic resin and group 4: green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+, a glass specimen (C- and cell control (CC. Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM and incubated for 24 h at 37o C. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at 4 different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA with a 492-nm wavelength λ=492 nm. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. CONCLUSION: Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material.

  11. Effect of Microwave Cured Acrylic Resin on Candidal Growth in Complete denture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmy, A.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of heat-cured acrylic resin denture base and microwave-cured acrylic resin denture base on Candidal growth. Seven completely edentulous male patients with no history of denture wearing participated in this study. All the selected patients were re-habilitated by mucosa supported complete dentures. The dentures were constructed from conventional heat-cured acrylic resin denture base following monoplane concept of occlusion. Before dismissing the patients and one month after denture insertion, salivary samples were collected according to oral rinse technique. One month resting period was allowed so as Candidal count can reach to normal. Then dentures were re based using microwave-cured acrylic denture base, before denture insertion and one month after denture insertion, salivary sample were collected before and one month following the same oral rinse technique. In the oral rinse technique, the patients were instructed to rinse their mouths with 10 mL of sterile phosphate buffered saline for 60 seconds. The rinse was then expectorated into a universal container and immediately transported to the laboratory for concentration by centrifugation, then cultured on sabouraud's dextrose agar plates which were incubated at 37 degree C for 48 hours. Microscopic examination and germ tube test were carried out for laboratory investigations. In addition, the morphological features of the isolated Candida from the samples tested in this study, were investigated using the scanning electron microscope(SEM)

  12. An exponential chemorheological model for viscosity dependence on degree-of-cure of a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin during the post-gel curing stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, J.C.; Oliet, M.; Alonso, María Virginia

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the chemorheological behavior of a bio-based polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) resin has been determined by rheological isothermal tests at different curing temperatures for the post-gel curing stage of the resin, using three different amounts of catalyst (2, 4 and 6 wt %). Instead...... of modeling the evolution of the complex viscosity using a widely used chemorheological model such as the Arrhenius model for each tested temperature, the change of the complex viscosity as a function of the degree-of-cure was predicted using a new exponential type model. In this model, the logarithm...

  13. Influence of light curing and sample thickness on microhardness of a composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio HB Aguiar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Flávio HB Aguiar1, Kelly RM Andrade1, Débora AN Leite Lima1, Gláucia MB Ambrosano2, José R Lovadino11Department of Restorative Dentistry; 2Department of Social Dentistry/Statistics, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, SP, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of light-curing units and different sample thicknesses on the microhardness of a composite resin. Composite resin specimens were randomly prepared and assigned to nine experimental groups (n = 5: considering three light-curing units (conventional quartz tungsten halogen [QTH]: 550 mW/cm2 – 20 s; high irradiance QTH: 1160 mW/cm2 – 10 s; and light-emitting diode [LED]: 360 mW/cm2 – 40 s and three sample thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1 mm, and 2 mm. All samples were polymerized with the light tip 8 mm away from the specimen. Knoop microhardness was then measured on the top and bottom surfaces of each sample. The top surfaces, with some exceptions, were almost similar; however, in relation to the bottom surfaces, statistical differences were found between curing units and thicknesses. In all experimental groups, the 0.5-mm-thick increments showed microhardness values statistically higher than those observed for 1- and -2-mm increments. The conventional and LED units showed higher hardness mean values and were statistically different from the high irradiance unit. In all experimental groups, microhardness mean values obtained for the top surface were higher than those observed for the bottom surface. In conclusion, higher levels of irradiance or thinner increments would help improve hybrid composite resin polymerization.Keywords: photo-polymerization, light-curing distance, light-curing units, composite resin, composite thickness, microhardness

  14. Polymerization of dual cure resin cements applied for luting tooth colored fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Insufficient polymerization of resin cements is of considerable clinical importance, because of mechanical deficiencies and biological side effects of uncured resin. Dual cure resin cements are getting popular in luting tooth colored posts and although their curing is claimed to proceed chemically, polymerization efficiency in deep areas of canal is uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate degree of polymerization of dual-cure resin cements used for luting translucent and opaque fiber posts in different distances from the light tip. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, degree of conversion of two dual cured resin cements, Rely X ARC (3M, ESPE and Nexus 2 (Kerr, USA were measured when used with DT-Light and DT-White posts (RTD, France. The light curing unit used was Optilux 501, with output of 650-700 mw/cm2 with emitting time of 60 seconds. Degree of conversion was measured in three different depths (4, 6, 8 mm by FTIR. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Post hoc tests. P0.05. Nexus used with DT-Light had lower DC% in 8 mm depth (P<0.05. Nexus used with DT-White showed lower DC% in 8 mm depth compared to 4 mm depth. The control groups of both cements showed significant increased DC% in 4 mm depth compared to 6 and 8 mm depths (P<0.05. DT-White caused decreased DC% in both cements in 4 mm. DT-Light caused increased DC% of Rely X in 6 mm depth compared to DT-White and control. DT-Light increased DC% of Nexus in 6 and 8 mm depths, compared to DT-White and control groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, application of translucent fiber posts has a significant effect on degree of polymerization in dual-cure resin cements, compared to opaque types. Their better light transmission to deep areas due to the effect of optical fibers, can lead to better results.

  15. Mechanical properties of dual-cured resin luting agents for ceramic restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keiichi; Tsuo, Yukiko; Meng, Xiangfeng; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate mechanical properties, including surface hardness, flexural strength, and flexural modulus, of two dual-cured resin luting agents [Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CEC) and Variolink II (VLII)] irradiated through four thicknesses of leucite ceramics (0, 1, 2, and 3 mm) and to evaluate their shear bond strength to zirconia ceramic (Cercon) using each ceramic primer. Knoop hardness was measured on a thin layer of resin luting agent on the ceramic surface. Three-point bending tests were performed after 24 hours of storage at 37 degrees C. Two differently shaped zirconia ceramic specimens with or without sandblasting with alumina were treated with each primer. The specimens were then cemented together with each resin luting agent. Half of the specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and the other half were thermocycled 5000 times. VLII revealed statistically higher Knoop hardness and flexural modulus than CEC for each thickness of ceramic. No significant differences in flexural strength were observed between VLII and CEC for each ceramic spacer. Reduction of the mechanical properties with increase of ceramic thickness varied for each property; however, these properties were similar in the two materials. Blasting with alumina was significantly effective for increasing shear bond strength of both resin luting agents before and after thermal cycling. The use of Clearfil Ceramic Primer showed the highest shear bond strength and maintained bond durability after 5000 thermocycles. Mechanical properties of CEC dual-cured resin luting agent appear adequate for ceramic restorations.

  16. Shear bond strength of dual-cured and self-cured resin composites to dentin using different bonding agents and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leevailoj, C; Ua-wutthikrerk, P; Poolthong, S

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the effects of bonding agents on the shear bond strength of dual- and self-cured resin composites to dentin. Two light-cured dentin bonding agents (Excite and One-Step) and a dual-cured bonding agent (Excite DSC) were compared. Light activation of the bonding agents prior to placement of the resin composites was also evaluated. This in vitro study was performed on 120 extracted non-carious human third molars. The occlusal part of the crowns was removed to expose a flat dentin surface. The teeth were then randomly divided into three major groups for Excite, One-Step and Excite DSC as bonding agents. The specimens in each adhesive group were divided into four subgroups: with and without light activation of the bonding agent and with dual-cured (Luxacore Dualcure, DMG, Hamburg, Germany) or light-cured resin (Luxacore, DMG, Hamburg, Germany) composites. After placing the restorations, the specimens were kept in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours before being tested for shear bond strength on an Instron universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The results showed that the shear bond strength of dual-cured resin composite to dentin was significantly higher than that of self-cured resin composite (p = 0.017). Light activation of the bonding agents prior to applying the resin composites led to a significantly higher shear bond strength of the resin composites to dentin, compared to no light activation (p < 0.05).

  17. Tetraglycidyl epoxy resins and graphite fiber composites cured with flexibilized aromatic diamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvigs, P.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to synthesize new ether modified, flexibilized aromatic diamine hardeners for curing epoxy resins. The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperatures of a tetraglycidyl epoxy, MY 720, cured with flexibilized hardeners and a conventional aromatic diamine was studied. Unidirectional composites, using epoxy-sized Celion 6000 graphite fiber as the reinforcement, were fabricated. The room temperature and 300 F mechanical properties of the composites, before and after moisture exposure, were determined. The Mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of the composites was characterized using a double cantilever beam technique to calculate the critical strain energy release rate.

  18. The role of oxygen inhibition of a self-etch adhesive on self-cure resin composite bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tatsuo; Finger, Werner J; Hoffmann, Marcus; Kanehira, Masafumi; Komatsu, Masashi

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the bond strengths on enamel and dentin with a self-etch adhesive (iBond), with or without oxygen-inhibited surface layer, or covered with intermediate self-curing resin, in combination with chemical-cured composite (Core Paste). Bond strengths on human enamel and dentin (n = 8) were determined according to the following procedures: 1. Adhesive cured under ambient air. 2. Inhibited surface wiped with ethanol. 3. Adhesive cured under nitrogen. 4. Adhesive covered with glycerol during activation. 5. Adhesive coated with glycerol for 1 minute after activation. 6. As 5, but covered for 5 minutes. 7. Cured adhesive coated with intermediate self-curing resin. 8. As 7, but intermediate resin's amine component loaded with anion exchange resin in OH- form. Shear bond strengths (SBS) were measured after 24-hour storage in 37 degrees C water. SBSs on enamel (7.1 to 25.6 MPa) were, by ranking order (Presin group (mean 19.6 MPa), showed bond strengths resin was low, irrespective of the presence of an oxygen-inhibited layer. Deprotonization of the acidic adhesive monomer with an admixed anion exchange compound, added to an intermediate self-cured resin, was effective at overcoming the incompatibility.

  19. Color stability of visible light cured composite resin after soft drink immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizatul Khairani Hasan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resin is a tooth-colored filling material containing Bis-GMA which exhibits water sorption properties. People tend to consume soft drink with various colors. Water sorption properties can alter the color stability of composite resin purpose. Purpose: This study was to determine the influence of immersion durations of composite resin in soft drink on color stability. Methods: The visible-light cured hybrid composite resin and soft drink were used. Ten disk specimens (2.5 mm thickness and 15 mm diameter of composite resin were prepared and light cured for 20 seconds, then stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37° C. The initial color of specimens were measured by Chromameter. After that, each specimen was immersed in 30 ml of soft drink up to 48, 72, and 96 hours at 37° C. The specimens’ color were measured again after each immersion. The color changes were calculated by CIE L*a*b* system formula. The data was analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and LSD (α = 0.05. Result: The ANOVA showed that the immersion durations of composite resin in soft drinks had significant influence on the color stability (p < 0.05. The LSD0.05 tests showed significant differences among all groups. The least color change was detected from the group of 48 hours immersion, while the greatest color change was from the group of 96 hours immersion. Conclusions: The immersion of composite resin in soft drinks influenced the color stability (began after 48 hours immersion.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of bisimide amines and bisimide amine-cured epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to develop tough, moisture resistant, high char yield epoxy resins by means of novel bisimide amine (BIA) hardener curing agents and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin system. The BIAs are isolated as mixtures containing monomer, oligomer, and polymeric species, and then characterized by elemental analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography. The bisimide amine-cured epoxies (IMEs) were characterized with respect to moisture absorption, thermal properties, and physical and mechanical properties, as well as in the role of matrices in Celion 6000/IME composites. The relative toughness characteristics of each IME formulation was measured by the 10 deg off-axis tensile test, measuring the uniaxial tensile strength, shear strength, and shear-strain-to-failure of the composite systems.

  1. High irradiance curing and anomalies of exposure reciprocity law in resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadis, M; Leprince, J G; Shortall, A C; Devaux, J; Leloup, G; Palin, W M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of high irradiance curing on resultant degree of conversion of 'flowable' resin composites and their counterpart higher viscosity paste materials. Five commercial flowable materials (Venus; Heraeus Kulzer, Synergy D6; Coltene, Premise; Kerr, Grandio; Voco and Gradia; GC Corp) and their counterpart higher viscosity restorative versions were tested. Specimens were cured with a halogen Swiss Master Light (EMS, Switzerland) using five different curing protocols with similar radiant exposure (18J/cm(2)): 400mW/cm(2) for 45s, 900mW/cm(2) for 20s, 1500mW/cm(2) for 12s, 2000mW/cm(2) for 9s and 3000mW/cm(2) for 6s. Degree of conversion (DC) was measured in real time by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS). Three- and subsequent two way ANOVA testing revealed significant differences (p≤0.02) with respect to "composite type" and "cure protocol" for DC for all 5 product comparisons. Supplementary one-way ANOVA also revealed significant differences between curing protocols (pGrandio (41±0.36 and 62±1.15%, respectively) and Venus (44±0.44 and 67±0.44%, respectively). Conversely, other flowable materials exhibited little or no significant differences between curing modes. Generally, a higher degree of conversion was observed for flowables compared with their more viscous counterpart, except at high irradiance for those materials where a reciprocal relationship with exposure time was not observed. The validity of exposure reciprocity law and final degree of conversion depends on several factors, amongst which resin viscosity and filler content were important. Practitioners should be aware of the importance of resin composite constituents and irradiation protocols. Information on material composition and appropriate radiation sources by manufacturers may assist practitioners with the selection of appropriate curing protocols for specific material/light curing unit combinations with the aim of reducing the

  2. Cure Cycle Design Methodology for Fabricating Reactive Resin Matrix Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Protocol for Producing Void-free Quality Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung

    2014-01-01

    For the fabrication of resin matrix fiber reinforced composite laminates, a workable cure cycle (i.e., temperature and pressure profiles as a function of processing time) is needed and is critical for achieving void-free laminate consolidation. Design of such a cure cycle is not trivial, especially when dealing with reactive matrix resins. An empirical "trial and error" approach has been used as common practice in the composite industry. Such an approach is not only costly, but also ineffective at establishing the optimal processing conditions for a specific resin/fiber composite system. In this report, a rational "processing science" based approach is established, and a universal cure cycle design protocol is proposed. Following this protocol, a workable and optimal cure cycle can be readily and rationally designed for most reactive resin systems in a cost effective way. This design protocol has been validated through experimental studies of several reactive polyimide composites for a wide spectrum of usage that has been documented in the previous publications.

  3. Development of a low-color, color stable, dual cure dental resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, James D; Mishriky, Maged; Barghi, Nasser; Rawls, H Ralph; Cardenas, H Lee; Aguirre, Rene; Whang, Kyumin

    2013-04-01

    Dual-cure (DC) resins are mainly used as cements due to high initial color (generally yellow) and large color shift (ΔE*) after polymerization as compared to light-cured resins. However, even as cements, this color shift is clinically unacceptable, especially when used to cement thin veneers. To develop a novel DC initiator system with both lower initial color (less yellow, i.e., whiter) and smaller ΔE*. The effect of using an allyl thiourea (T)/cumene hydroperoxide (CH) self-cure (SC) initiator system in combination with a photo-co-initiator, p-octyloxy-phenyl-phenyl iodonium hexafluoroantimonate (OPPI), in a commercial DC resin cement (PermaFlo DC, Ultradent Products, Inc.) was investigated. Initial color and ΔE* were assessed for 6 weeks in vitro under accelerated aging conditions (75°C water bath). Rockwell15T hardness was used to assess degree of cure (DoC) and the three-point bending test was used to assess mechanical properties. PermaFlo DC (control) was significantly harder than all experimental groups without OPPI but had up to three times higher initial color and four times greater color shift (ΔE*=27 vs. 8). With OPPI, hardness in the experimental groups increased significantly and several were comparable to the controls. Initial color and ΔE* increased slightly (ΔE*=9), but was still 3 times less than that of PermaFlo DC. DC samples containing OPPI had comparable modulus and ultimate transverse strengths to those of the controls. DC resins that use the T/CH initiator system are weaker but have extremely low color and ΔE*. The addition of OPPI increases DoC and mechanical properties to clinically acceptable levels and maintains extremely low color and ΔE*. With this novel initiator system, DC resins potentially can now have comparable color and color stability to light-cure resins and be used in broader esthetic dental applications to improve color stability and reduce shrinkage stress in restorative composites. Copyright © 2013 Academy of

  4. Evaluation of thermal conductivity of heat-cured acrylic resin mixed with A1203

    OpenAIRE

    Ebadian B.; Parkan MA.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics of denture base is thermal conductivity. This property has a major role in secretions of salivary glands and their enzymes, taste of the food and gustatory response. Polymethyl methacrylate used in prosthodontics is relatively an insulator. Different materials such as metal fillers and ceramics have been used to solve this problem. The aim of this study was the evaluation of AI2O3 effect on thermal conductivity of heat-cured acrylic resin. Acrylic res...

  5. Do water based resins find their use in radiation cure applications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravijst, J.-P.

    1995-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for UV/EB formulation without monomers. Water dilutable oligomers offer one approach to formulations of this type. Several ways to use water as a primary means of reducing oligomer viscosities are reviewed. A number of new water dilutable acrylate resins were prepared having different functionalities and properties. Depending on the structure, viscosity decreases significantly by adding water. Good reactivity, solvent and water resistance were achieved after curing

  6. The effect of exposure time on diametral tensile strength of light-cured resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia M Tetelepta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition or extend the exposure time in using light-cured resin composite are often done by practitioners in order to get a higher mechanical strength. Nevertheless, failure still can occur. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposure time on Diametral Tensile Strength (DTS of two different resin composite used for provisional crown and bridge restoration and filling materials. A total of 60 cylindrical specimens (6mm diameter x 3mm thickness were divided into three groups (n=10. The first group was cured as recommended by the manufacturer, the second group were cured two times, and the third group were cured three times. Furthermore, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 24 hours at a temperature of 37 °C. DTS were tested by universal testing machine and the results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA continued with Post Hoc Tamhane to see the difference between the groups. The results showed DTS composite as filling materials was significantly higher compared with the resin composite  for provisional crown and bridge restoration. DTS of composite as filling materials in first group had a higher value than first  and third groups. The composite for the provisional crown and bridge restoration in second group had a lower DTS value than in first and third groups. In third group, DTS increased but not significantly. DTS also could be influenced by the composition of filler content and type of matrix. The conclusion of this study was to extend the exposure time can weaken the DTS resin composite.

  7. The effect of time between curing and tea immersion on composite resin discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Behnaz; Afkhami, Solaleh; Abolghasemzadeh, Faezeh

    2018-01-01

    One common cause for the replacement of a composite restoration is discoloration. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of tea solution on the discoloration of 3 types of composites at different timepoints after curing. For this study, 150 disc-shaped specimens of 3 types of composite resin-a nanohybrid (Filtek Z350), a microhybrid (Filtek Z250), and a microfilled material (Heliomolar)-were prepared. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 subgroups (n = 10) according to the type of composite and the time from curing to immersion in a tea solution (none [immersed immediately], 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, or 24 hours postcuring). The color for all specimens was measured before and after immersion in tea. Color change (ΔE*) for all specimens was measured, and a ΔE* value of less than 3.3 was considered clinically acceptable. Analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test were used to analyze the data (α = 0.05). Immediately after curing, the levels of composite discoloration were deemed clinically acceptable (ΔE* composites, the greatest color change was found immediately after curing (P composite resin specimens was significantly greater than that of Heliomolar specimens (P composite group than in the Heliomolar group (P composites were not significantly different from each other (P > 0.05), except with 12-hour postcure immersion. The results suggest that patients should avoid the intake of staining foods or beverages for at least 12 hours after placement of a composite resin restoration, although this restriction may be reduced to 1 hour for microfilled composite resins.

  8. Degree of Cure, Heat of Reaction, and Viscosity of 8552 and 977-3 HM Epoxy Resin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, S

    2000-01-01

    The heat of reaction, degree of cure, and viscosity of Hexcel 8552 and Cytec Fiberite 977-3 HM neat resins were measured using a modulated differential scanning calorimeter and a rheometric digital analyzer...

  9. Modelling and simulation of cure in pultrusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, F.; Rubino, F.; Paradiso, V.; Carlone, P.; Valente, R.

    2017-10-01

    Trial and error approach is not a suitable method to optimize the pultrusion process because of the high times required for the start up and the wide range of possible combinations of matrix and reinforcement. On the other hand, numerical approaches can be a suitable solution to test different parameter configuration. One of the main tasks in pultrusion processes is to obtain a complete and homogeneous resin polymerization. The formation of cross-links between polymeric chains is thermally induced but it leads to a strong exothermic heat generation, hence the thermal and the chemical phenomena are mutually affected. It requires that the two problems have to be modelled in coupled way. The mathematical model used in this work considers the composite as a lumped material, whose thermal and mechanical properties are evaluated as function of resin and fibers properties. The numerical pattern is based on a quasi-static approach in a three-dimensional Eulerian domain, which describes both thermal and chemical phenomena. The data obtained are used in a simplified C.H.I.L.E. (Cure Hardening Instantaneous Linear Elastic) model to compute the mechanical properties of the resin fraction in the pultruded. The two combined approaches allow to formulate a numerical model which takes into account the normal (no-penetration) and tangential (viscosity/friction) interactions between die and profile, the pulling force and the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid resin to evaluate the stress and strain fields induced by the process within the pultruded. The implementation of the numerical models has been carried out using the ABAQUS finite element suite, by means of several user subroutines (in Fortran language) which improve the basic software potentialities.

  10. Volumetric dimensional changes of dental light-cured dimethacrylate resins after sorption of water or ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridou, Irini D; Karabela, Maria M; Vouvoudi, Evagelia Ch

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of water and ethanol sorption on the volumetric dimensional changes of resins prepared by light curing of Bis-GMA, Bis-EMA, UDMA, TEGDMA or D(3)MA. The resin specimens (15mm diameterx1mm height) were immersed in water or ethanol 37+/-1 degrees C for 30 days. Volumetric changes of specimens were obtained via accurate mass measurements using Archimedes principle. The specimens were reconditioned by dry storage in an oven at 37+/-1 degrees C until constant mass was obtained and then immersed in water or ethanol for 30 days. The volumetric changes of specimens were determined and compared to those obtained from the first sorption. Resins showed similar volume increase during the first and second sorptions of water or ethanol. The volume increase due to water absorption is in the following order: poly-TEGDMA>poly-Bis-GMA>poly-UDMA>poly-Bis-EMA>poly-D(3)MA. On the contrary, the order in ethanol is poly-Bis-GMA>poly-UDMA>poly-TEGDMA>poly-Bis-EMA approximately poly-D(3)MA. The volume increase was found to depend linearly on the amount of water or ethanol absorbed. In the choice of monomers for preparation of composite resin matrix the volume increase in the resin after immersion in water or ethanol must be taken into account. Resins of Bis-EMA and D(3)MA showed the lowest values.

  11. Curing efficiency of dental resin composites formulated with camphorquinone or trimethylbenzoyl-diphenyl-phosphine oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Luis Felipe J; Cavalcante, Larissa Maria; Prahl, Scott A; Pfeifer, Carmem S; Ferracane, Jack L

    2012-04-01

    Since photoinitiator systems for dental resins based on camphorquinone (CQ) present color disadvantages, trimethylbenzoyl-diphenyl-phosphine oxide (TPO) has been proposed as an alternative. However, there are remaining considerations about its curing efficiency. The aims of the present investigation were: to characterize the relationship between the photoinitiator absorption spectra and the light spectrum emitted from a QTH light (absorbed power density, PD(abs)); to evaluate the kinetics of polymerization, and the depth of cure for filled dimethacrylate resins formulated with different photoinitiator systems. CQ+EDMAB (control); TPO and TPO+EDMAB were used in 50:50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resins. Photoinitiator absorption and QTH-light emission were evaluated using a spectrophotometer and kinetics of polymerization with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (n=3). Depth of cure was analyzed by the scraping method (n=5), as recommended by ISO4049. One-way ANOVA/Tukey's (p<0.05) was used to analyze the results. CQ presented higher PD(abs) than TPO (364 and 223 mW/cm(3), respectively). The DSC revealed that TPO and TPO+EDMAB produced a faster reaction than CQ+EDMAB. Composite formulated with CQ+EDMAB produced higher depth of cure (6.3±0.4 mm) than those with TPO (4.3±0.1) or TPO+EDMAB (4.2±0.3). Although CQ presented higher PD(abs) than TPO, formulations containing TPO exhibited higher reactivity than that with CQ. On the other hand, materials formulated with TPO demonstrated lower depth of cure than that with CQ. Therefore, its use as an alternative photoinitiator requires further investigation, with higher concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of different light curing units on Knoop hardness and temperature of resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiraldo Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the influence of quartz tungsten halogen and plasma arc curing (PAC lights on Knoop hardness and change in polymerization temperature of resin composite. Materials and Methods: Filtek Z250 and Esthet X composites were used in the shade A3. The temperature increase was registered with Type-k thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46. A self-cured polymerized acrylic resin base was built in order to guide the thermocouple and to support the dentin disk of 1.0 mm thickness obtained from bovine tooth. On the acrylic resin base, elastomer mold of 2.0 mm was adapted. The temperature increase was measured after composite light curing. After 24 h, the specimens were submitted to Knoop hardness test (HMV-2000, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey′s test (a = 0.05. Results: For both composites, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the top surface hardness; however, PAC promoted statistically lower (P < 0.05 Knoop hardness number values in the bottom. The mean temperature increase showed no significant statistical differences (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The standardized radiant exposure showed no influence on the temperature increase of the composite, however, showed significant effect on hardness values.

  13. Effect of different light curing units on Knoop hardness and temperature of resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Consani, Simonides; Xediek Consani, Rafael Leonardo; Mendes, Wilson Batista; Lympius, Thais; Coelho Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of quartz tungsten halogen and plasma arc curing (PAC) lights on Knoop hardness and change in polymerization temperature of resin composite. Filtek Z250 and Esthet X composites were used in the shade A3. The temperature increase was registered with Type-k thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46). A self-cured polymerized acrylic resin base was built in order to guide the thermocouple and to support the dentin disk of 1.0 mm thickness obtained from bovine tooth. On the acrylic resin base, elastomer mold of 2.0 mm was adapted. The temperature increase was measured after composite light curing. After 24 h, the specimens were submitted to Knoop hardness test (HMV-2000, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan). Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). For both composites, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the top surface hardness; however, PAC promoted statistically lower (P 0.05). The standardized radiant exposure showed no influence on the temperature increase of the composite, however, showed significant effect on hardness values.

  14. Microleakage of different amalgams bonded with dual cure resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, R; du Preez, I C; Oberholzer, T G

    2007-03-01

    To reduce microleakage in high-copper amalgam restorations, bonding of amalgam was introduced. This study compared the microleakage of admixed and spherical amalgams when bonded with different bonding intermediates under thermo- and non-thermocycling conditions. Class II butt-joint cavities were prepared in 200 extracted human molar teeth, and randomly divided into 5 groups. Calibra, Duo Cement Plus, RelyX ARC and Amalgambond Plus were applied to 4 of these groups. The fifth group was left untreated. The groups were further divided and restored with either Dispersalloy or Oralloy Magicap S. Ten specimens of each group were thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C, placed in basic fuchsin for 8 hours, sectioned and evaluated for dye penetration under 40X magnification. The mean microleakage scores were analysed using the chi-squared test at a confidence level of 95%. Microleakage of the non-bonded amalgams was significantly higher (p amalgams (thermocycled and non-thermocycled). The microleakage of the different intermediates bonded to Dispersalloy (thermocycled and non-thermocycled) was not significantly different (p > 0.05). The microleakage of the different intermediates was not significant different except for Duo Cement compared to Calibra (p amalgams was not significantly increased by thermocycling (p > 0.05). The microleakage of the two amalgams when bonded with the same resin cements (thermocycled and non-thermocycled) was not significantly different except for Duo Cement (thermocycled) (p = 0.0051) and RelyX (non-thermocycled) (p = 0.0356). Bonding amalgam restorations to tooth structure in butt-joint cavities will reduce microleakage of both admixed and spherical amalgam restorations. Thermal stress does not affect the bond adversely.

  15. Thermal and mechanical consequences of post-cure processing of DGEBA epoxy cured with diethanolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechederra, Gabriel; McCoy, John; Kropka, Jamie

    When diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) resin is cured with diethanolamine (DEA), a cross-linked network epoxy that exhibits a glass transition temperature is obtained. This resin, when filled with glass microballoons, has been particularly useful as a potting material in high performance aerospace applications. In the present study, we post-process DGEBA/DEA by exposing it to isothermal temperatures, both below and above Tg, for long periods of time. This epoxy has residual reactive potential and is out of structural equilibrium, which leads to chemical and physical changes under these conditions. The relative contributions of the physical and chemical changes on the measured Tg and yield stress are distinguished by ``erasing'' physical aging contributions by annealing samples at temperatures above Tg. The sub-Tg aged and then annealed epoxies show an increase in yield stress with increasing Tg, but the super-Tg aged epoxies show little change in yield stress with increasing Tg. While this is evidence that the evolution of the network structure is different in the glassy, sub-Tg state than in the elastomeric, super-Tg environment, the detailed nature of the differences in the networks are yet to be explored.

  16. Buffering Capacity of Fast-Growing Species and Curing Time of UF Resin Modified With Zinc Borate and Monoammonium Phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Izran Kamal; Koh M. Poh; Tan Y. Eng; Xue J. Ren; Zaidon Ashaari; Faizah Abood; Guenter Beyer; Khairul Masseat

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Occupying a suitable hot pressing time for particleboard fabrication seems very tricky for manufacturers of the wood-based panel. Longer or shorter pressing times can affect physical and mechanical properties of the produced particleboards and that is why extra care should be given on this matter. Longer pressing time can cause resin in a particleboard to over-cure whereas shorter pressing time can cause insufficient curing of the resin. Determination of hot pressing time i...

  17. Use of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexane diamine as a curing agent for epoxy resins. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinde, J.A.; Newey, H.A.

    Primary diamines are prepared for use as a curing agent for epoxy resins. These curing agents can be used to form epoxy resin mixtures useful in filament winding and preimpregnated fiber molding and in formulating film adhesives, powder coatings and molding powders. The epoxy mixtures form for such uses a room temperature non-reacting, intermediate stable state which has a latent cross-linking capability.

  18. Light curing through glass ceramics with a second- and a third-generation LED curing unit: effect of curing mode on the degree of conversion of dual-curing resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Simon; Lussi, Adrian; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of five dual-curing resin cements after different curing modes with a second- and a third-generation light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit. Additionally, irradiance of both light curing units was measured at increasing distances and through discs of two glass ceramics for computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Irradiance and spectra of the Elipar FreeLight 2 (Standard Mode (SM)) and of the VALO light curing unit (High Power Mode (HPM) and Xtra Power Mode (XPM)) were measured with a MARC radiometer. Irradiance was measured at increasing distances (control) and through discs (1.5 to 6 mm thickness) of IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD. DC of Panavia F2.0, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, SpeedCEM, BisCem, and BeautiCem SA was measured with an attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometer when self-cured (negative control) or light cured in SM for 40 s, HPM for 32 s, or XPM for 18 s. Light curing was performed directly (positive control) or through discs of either 1.5- or 3-mm thickness of IPS Empress CAD or IPS e.max CAD. DC was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by pairwise Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05). Maximum irradiances were 1,545 mW/cm(2) (SM), 2,179 mW/cm(2) (HPM), and 4,156 mW/cm(2) (XPM), and all irradiances decreased by >80 % through discs of 1.5 mm, ≥95 % through 3 mm, and up to >99 % through 6 mm. Generally, self-curing resulted in the lowest DC. For some cements, direct light curing did not result in higher DC compared to when light cured through ceramic discs. For other cements, light curing through ceramic discs of 3 mm generally reduced DC. Light curing was favourable for dual-curing cements. Some cements were more susceptible to variations in curing mode than others. When light curing a given cement, the higher irradiances of the third-generation LED curing unit resulted in similar DC compared to the second-generation one, though at shorter

  19. Effect of pre-heating resin composite and light-curing units on monomer conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, E. G.; Bandéca, M. C.; Saade, J. L.; Rossato, D. M.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-heating resin composite photo-cured with light-curing units (LCU) by FT-IR. Twenty specimens were made in a metallic mold (4 mm diameter × 2 mm thick) from composite resin—Tetric Ceram® (Ivoclar/Vivadent) at room temperature (25°C) and pre-heated to 37, 54, and 60°C. The specimens were cured with halogen curing light (QTH) and light emitted by diodes (LED) during 40 s. Then, the specimens were pulverized, pressed with KBr and analyzed with FT-IR. The data were submitted to statistical analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test. Study data showed no statistically significant difference to the degree of conversion for the different light curing units (QTH and LED) ( p > 0.05). With the increase of temperature there was significant increase in the degree of conversion ( p light curing unit and temperature influenced the degree of conversion.

  20. [Effect of thermal cycling on surface microstructure of different light-curing composite resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Da; Liu, Kai-Lei; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Wei-Sheng; Liao, Chu-Hong; Jiang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of thermal cycling on surface microstructure of different light-curing composite resins. A nanofilled composite (Z350) and 4 microhybrid composites (P60, Z250, Spectrum, and AP-X) were fabricated from lateral to center to form cubic specimens. The lateral surfaces were abrased and polished before water storage and 40 000 thermal cycles (5/55 degrees celsius;). The mean surface roughness (Ra) were measured and compared before and after thermal cycling, and the changes of microstructure were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Significant decreases of Ra were observed in the composites, especially in Spectrum (from 0.164±0.024 µm to 0.140±0.017 µm, Presins, and fissures occurred on Z350 following the thermal cycling. Water storage and thermal cycling may produce polishing effect on composite resins and cause fissures on nanofilled composite resins.

  1. Influence of Curing Units and Indirect Restorative Materials on the Hardness of Two Dual-curing Resin Cements Evaluated by the Nanoindentation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuguimiya, Rosiane Noqueira; Rode, Kátia Martins; Carneiro, Paula Mendes Acatauassú; Aranha, Ana Cecilia Corrêa; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the hardness of a dual-curing self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200) and a conventional dual-curing resin cement (RelyX ARC) cured with different light curing units of different wavelengths (Elipar Freelight 2 LED [430 to 480 nm, conventional], Bluephase LED [380 to 515 nm, polywave], AccuCure 3000 Laser [488 nm]) by means of the nanoindentation test. Bovine incisors were cleaned and then sectioned at the cementoenamel junction to remove the crown. After embedding in acrylic, dentin surfaces of the specimens were exposed and ground flat to standardize the surfaces. To simulate clinically placing indirect restorations, ceramic (IPS e.maxPress/Ivoclar Vivadent) or indirect composite resin (SR Adoro/Ivoclar Vivadent) slabs were cemented on dentin surfaces. The specimens were sectioned longitudinally at low speed under constant irrigation and then polished. In the positive control group, the cement was light cured without the interposition of indirect restorative material; in the negative control group, after the indirect restorative material was cemented, no light curing was performed, allowing only chemical polymerization of the cement. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. Nanoindentadion hardness of the cement layer was measured under a 100-mN load. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p resin cements evaluated was negatively influenced by the interposition of an indirect restorative material; only the LEDs were able to maintain the same degree of cement polymerization when an indirect restorative material was used. The photoactivation step is required during the cementation of indirect restorations to ensure adequate polymerization of dual-curing resin cements.

  2. Correlating cytotoxicity to elution behaviors of composite resins in term of curing kinetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junquan; Yang, Huichuan; Cao, Man; Li, Lei; Cai, Qing

    2017-09-01

    Cytotoxicity of photocurable composite resins is a key issue for their safe use in dental restoration. Curing kinetic and elution behaviors of the composite resin would have decisive effects on its cytotoxicity. In this study, composite resins composed of bisphenol-glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), camphorquinone (CQ), N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and barium glass powders were prepared by setting the photoinitiators CQ/DMAEMA at 0.5wt%, 1wt% or 3wt% of the total weight of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA. The ratio of Bis-GMA/TEGDMA was 6:4, the ratio of CQ/DMAEMA was 1:1, and the incorporated inorganic powder was 75wt%. Then, curing kinetics were studied by using real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photo-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter). Elution behaviors in both ethanol solution and deionized water were monitored by using liquid chromatogram/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by in vitro culture of L929 fibroblasts. Finally, they were all analyzed and correlated in terms of initiator contents. It was found that the commonly used 0.5wt% of photoinitiators was somewhat insufficient in obtaining composite resin with low cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of UV-Curable Cyclohexanone-Formaldehyde Resin and Its Cured Film Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-curable cyclohexanone-formaldehyde (UVCF resin was prepared with cyclohexanone-formaldehyde (CF resin, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI, and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA as base substance, bridging agent, and functional monomer, respectively. The structure of UVCF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The viscosity and photopolymerization behavior of the UV-curable formulations were studied. The thermal stability and mechanical properties of the cured films were also investigated. The results showed that UVCF resin was successfully prepared, the number of average molecular weight was about 2010, and its molecular weight distribution index was 2.8. With the increase of UVCF resin content, the viscosity of the UV-curable formulations increased. After exposure to UV irradiation for 230 s, the photopolymerization conversion of the UV-curable formulations was above 80%. Moreover, when the UVCF content was 60%, the formulations had high photopolymerization rate, and the cured UVCF films showed good thermal stability and mechanical properties.

  4. Adhesion of Candida albicans to Vanillin Incorporated Self-Curing Orthodontic PMMA Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zam, K.; Sawaengkit, P.; Thaweboon, S.; Thaweboon, B.

    2018-02-01

    It has been observed that there is an increase in Candida carriers during the treatment with orthodontic removable appliance. Vanillin is flavouring agent, which is known to have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vanillin incorporated PMMA on adhesion of Candida albicans. A total of 36 orthodontic self-curing PMMA resin samples were fabricated. The samples were divided into 3 groups depending on percentage of vanillin incorporated (0.1%, 0.5% and PMMA without vanillin as control). PMMA samples were coated with saliva. The adhesion assay was performed with C. albicans (ATCC 10231). The adherent yeast cells were stained with crystal violet and counted under microscope by random selection of 3 fields at 10X magnification. The statistical analyses performed by Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney non-parametric test. It was found that the PMMA resin samples with vanillin incorporation significantly reduced the adhesion of C. albicans as compared to the control group. This study indicates that vanillin incorporated resin can impede the adhesion of C. albicans to about 45 - 56 %. With further testing and development, vanillin can be employed as an antifungal agent to prevent adhesion of C. albicans to orthodontic self-curing PMMA resin.

  5. Microstructure aspects of radiation-cured networks: Cationically polymerized aromatic epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowandy, Christelle; Ranoux, Guillaume; Walo, Marta; Vissouvanadin, Bertrand; Teyssedre, Gilbert; Laurent, Christian; Berquand, Alexandre; Molinari, Michaël; Coqueret, Xavier

    2018-02-01

    The thermo-mechanical properties and nanostructural features of epoxy aromatic resins cationically cured by UV-visible or electron beam radiation have been studied by FT-NIR spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), dielectric spectroscopy (DS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The influence of formulation (nature and content of onium salt) and of curing parameters (doses, thermal treatment) on the thermophysical have been investigated. The presence of several relaxation domains observed by DMA and DS analysis confirms the presence of heterogeneities in the cured materials. Network formation is described by the percolation of glassy nanoclusters which are evidenced by AFM analyses. AFM probing by quantitative nanomechanical measurements confirms the gradual build-up of the local Young's modulus in good agreement with the macroscopic value.

  6. Degree of conversion and bond strength of resin-cements to feldspathic ceramic using different curing modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Raposo, Luís Henrique Araújo; Miranda, Rafael Resende de; Lopes, Camila de Carvalho Almança; Simamoto, Paulo Cézar; Soares, Carlos José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC) and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer). The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst) and light-activation mode (base paste only). For degree of conversion (DC) (n=5), a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (presin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick.

  7. Thermal analysis of bulk filled composite resin polymerization using various light curing modes according to the curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Sang Chang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymerization temperature of a bulk filled composite resin light-activated with various light curing modes using infrared thermography according to the curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Composite resin (AeliteFlo, Bisco, Schaumburg, IL, USA was inserted into a Class II cavity prepared in the Teflon blocks and was cured with a LED light curing unit (Dr's Light, GoodDoctors Co., Seoul, Korea using various light curing modes for 20 s. Polymerization temperature was measured with an infrared thermographic camera (Thermovision 900 SW/TE, Agema Infra-red Systems AB, Danderyd, Sweden for 40 s at measurement spots adjacent to the cavity wall and in the middle of the cavity from the surface to a 4 mm depth. Data were analyzed according to the light curing modes with one-way ANOVA, and according to curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall with two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The peak polymerization temperature of the composite resin was not affected by the light curing modes. According to the curing depth, the peak polymerization temperature at the depth of 1 mm to 3 mm was significantly higher than that at the depth of 4 mm, and on the surface. The peak polymerization temperature of the spots in the middle of the cavity was higher than that measured in spots adjacent to the cavity wall. CONCLUSION: In the photopolymerization of the composite resin, the temperature was higher in the middle of the cavity compared to the outer surface or at the internal walls of the prepared cavity.

  8. Thermal analysis of bulk filled composite resin polymerization using various light curing modes according to the curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoon-Sang; Cho, Kyu-Jeong; Park, Su-Jung; Lee, Bin-Na; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Oh, Won-Mann; Hwang, In-Nam

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymerization temperature of a bulk filled composite resin light-activated with various light curing modes using infrared thermography according to the curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall. Composite resin (AeliteFlo, Bisco, Schaumburg, IL, USA) was inserted into a Class II cavity prepared in the Teflon blocks and was cured with a LED light curing unit (Dr's Light, GoodDoctors Co., Seoul, Korea) using various light curing modes for 20 s. Polymerization temperature was measured with an infrared thermographic camera (Thermovision 900 SW/TE, Agema Infra-red Systems AB, Danderyd, Sweden) for 40 s at measurement spots adjacent to the cavity wall and in the middle of the cavity from the surface to a 4 mm depth. Data were analyzed according to the light curing modes with one-way ANOVA, and according to curing depth and approximation to the cavity wall with two-way ANOVA. The peak polymerization temperature of the composite resin was not affected by the light curing modes. According to the curing depth, the peak polymerization temperature at the depth of 1 mm to 3 mm was significantly higher than that at the depth of 4 mm, and on the surface. The peak polymerization temperature of the spots in the middle of the cavity was higher than that measured in spots adjacent to the cavity wall. In the photopolymerization of the composite resin, the temperature was higher in the middle of the cavity compared to the outer surface or at the internal walls of the prepared cavity.

  9. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  10. Evaluation of thermal conductivity of heat-cured acrylic resin mixed with A1203

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadian B.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of denture base is thermal conductivity. This property has a major role in secretions of salivary glands and their enzymes, taste of the food and gustatory response. Polymethyl methacrylate used in prosthodontics is relatively an insulator. Different materials such as metal fillers and ceramics have been used to solve this problem. The aim of this study was the evaluation of AI2O3 effect on thermal conductivity of heat-cured acrylic resin. Acrylic resin was mixed with AI2O3 in two different weight rates (15 and 20 % of weight. So, group 1 and 2 were divided on this basis. Samples with pure acrylic resin were considered as control group. 18 cylindrical patterns were made in 9x9 mm dimensions and thermocouple wires embedded in each sample to act as conductor. The specimens were put in water with 70±1°C thermal range for 10 minutes. Then, thermal conductivity was measured. The results were analyzed with variance analysis and Dunken test. There was significant difference between thermal conductivity of all groups in all period times. It the first seconds, thermal conductivity in groups 1 and 2 were more than control group. Therefore, for developing of thermal conductivity of acrylic resin, A1203 can be used. Certainly, other characteristic of new resin should be evaluated.

  11. [Comparison of surface roughness of nanofilled and microhybrid composite resins after curing and polishing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Lv, Da; Liu, Kailei; Zhang, Weisheng; Yao, Yao; Liao, Chuhong

    2014-05-01

    To compare the surface roughness of nanofilled dental composite resin and microhybrid composite resins after curing and polishing. A nanofilled composite (Z350) and 4 microhybrid composites (P60, Z250, Spectrum, and AP-X) were fabricated from the lateral to the medial layers to prepare 8 mm×8 mm×5 mm cubical specimens. The 4 lateral surfaces of each specimens were polished with abrasive disks (Super-Snap). Profilometer was used to test the mean surface roughness (Ra) after polishing. P60 had the lowest Ra (0.125∓0.030 µm) followed by Z250 and Spectrum. The Ra of Z350 (0.205∓0.052 µm) was greater than that of the other 3 resins, and AP-X had the roughest surfaces. Under scanning electron microscope, the polished faces of P60 resin were characterized by minor, evenly distributed particles with fewer scratches; the polished faces of Z350 presented with scratches where defects of the filling material could be seen. The nanofilled composite Z350 has smooth surface after polishing by abrasive disks, but its smoothness remains inferior to that of other micro-hybrid composite resins.

  12. Effect of light energy density on conversion degree and hardness of dual-cured resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Paula Carolina de Paiva; de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Martin, Airton Abrāo; Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different light energy densities on conversion degree (CD) and Knoop hardness number (KHN) of RelyX ARC (RLX) resin cement. After manipulation according to the manufacturer's instructions, RLX was inserted into a rubber mold (0.8 mm x 5 mm) and covered with a Mylar strip. The tip of the light-curing unit (LCU) was positioned in contact with the Mylar surface. Quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) LCUs with light densities of 10, 20 and 30 J/cm2 were used to light-cure the specimens. After light curing, the specimens were stored dry in lightproof containers at 37 degrees C. After 24 hours, the CD was analyzed by FT-Raman and, after an additional 24-hours, samples were submitted to Knoop hardness testing. The data of the CD (%) and KHN were submitted to two-way ANOVA and the Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). QTH and LED were effective light curing units. For QTH, there were no differences among the light energy densities for CD or KHN. For LED, there was a significant reduction in CD with the light energy density set at 10 J/cm2. KHN was not influenced by the light-curing unit and by its light energy density.

  13. Effectiveness of composite resin polymerization using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or halogen-based light-curing units

    OpenAIRE

    Micali,Bianca; Basting,Roberta Tarkany

    2004-01-01

    The clinical performance of composite resins is greatly influenced by the quality of the light-curing unit used. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of a commercial light-emitting diode (LED) with that of a halogen-based light-curing unit by means of dye penetration of a micro hybrid composite resin. The composite resin evaluated was Filtek Z250 (3M Dental). The composite was filled into acrylic moulds that were randomly polymerized for 40 seconds by each of the light-emitting...

  14. Effect of light-curing units on microleakage under dental composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R. S.; Bandéca, M. C.; Calixto, L. R.; Saade, E. G.; Nadalin, M. R.; Andrade, M. F.; Porto-Neto, S. T.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two light-curing units (QTH and LED) on microleakage of Class II composite resin restorations with dentin cavosurface margins. Twenty extracted mandibular first premolars, free of caries and fractures were prepared two vertical “slot” cavities in the occluso-mesial and -destal surfaces (2 mm buccal-lingually, 2 mm proximal-axially and cervical limit in enamel) and divided into 4 equal groups ( n = 8): GI and GII: packable posterior composite light-activated with LED and QTH, respectively; GIII and GIV: micro-hybrid composite resin light-activated with LED and QTH, respectively. The composite resins were applied following the manufacturer’s instructions. After 24 h of water storage specimens were subjected to thermocycling for a total of 500 cycles at 5 and 55°C and the teeth were then sealed with impermeable material. Teeth were immersed in 0.5% Basic fuchsin during 24 h at room temperature, and zero to three levels of penetration score were attributed. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests showed significant statistically similar ( P > 0.05) from GI to GII and GIII to GIV, which the GII (2.750) had the highest mean scores and the GIII and GIV (0.875) had lowest mean scores. The use of different light-curing units has no influence on marginal integrity of Class II composite resin restorations and the proprieties of composite resins are important to reduce the microleakage.

  15. The role of the epoxy resin: Curing agent ratio in composite interfacial strength by single fibre microbond test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minty, Ross; Thomason, James L.; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an investigation into the role of the epoxy resin: curing agent ratio in composite interfacial shear strength of glass fibre composites. The procedure involved changing the percentage of curing agent (Triethylenetetramine [TETA]) used in the mixture with several different...... percentages used, ranging from 4% up to 30%, including the stoichiometric ratio. It was found by using the microbond test, that there may exist a relationship between the epoxy resin to curing agent ratio and the level of adhesion between the reinforcing fibre and the polymer matrix of the composite....

  16. Determination and Correlation of Depth of Cure of a New Composite Resin Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Barry M; Slaven; Phebus, Jeffrey G; Ragain, James C

    2015-01-01

    To quantify the depth of cure (DOC) of a composite resin system using two different testing criteria. The DOC testing employed two different experimental protocol: 1) Forty-eight previously extracted human molars were randomly assigned to four groups of twelve each (n = 12): Group 1 SonicFill composite resin system, shade A1; Group 2 SonicFill, shade A3; Group 3 Herculite Ultra composite resin, shade A1; Group 4 Herculite Ultra, shade A3. Cylindrical cavities (4.0 mm diameter and 10 mm depth) were prepared at the tooth CEJ, in a mesiodistal direction. The preparations were filled with each composite resin material in one bulk increment and polymerized with a LED light for 20 seconds. After 5 minutes, the occlusal surfaces of the teeth (specimens) were ground flat until the composite was exposed in a transverse plane. The uncured (soft) composite was scraped away, using a "modified" ISO 4049 DOC specification, and the remaining cured (hard) material was measured. Three measurements, at different positions of the specimen, were performed, for a total of thirty-six measurements per specimen group. The measurements were averaged and divided by fifty percent, arriving at the final DOC for each specimen. 2) A DOC testing protocol was performed using a two-piece (4.0 mm x 10.0 mm) custom-made Teflon device (mold). The groupings duplicated the previous experimental protocol. The mold was filled with each composite resin material in one bulk increment to a 10 mm length (depth). Excess composite material was removed, followed by placement of a Mylar strip over the external orifice. The composite resin specimen was light-polymerized for 20 seconds. Again, the uncured (soft) composite was scraped away, with the same measurement protocol followed as in method 1. Statistical analyses were conducted using ANOVA tests at a p resin. Also, significant differences were displayed between the Al compared to the A3 shades, with the A1 (lighter) shades exhibiting greater DOC. The prepped

  17. Radiation curing in the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrancken, A.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; what is radiation curing; history; radiation curable resins (with properties of products); ultraviolet and electron beam curing; photoinitiation and the ultraviolet light curing process; electron beam curing (initiation; electron beam accelerators); end uses (graphic arts; wood finishing; paper upgrading; adhesives; metal finishing; electronic chemical; floor coatings). (U.K.)

  18. Curing of epoxy resins with 1-DI(2-chloroethoxyphosphinyl) methyl-2,4 and -2,6-diaminobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Fire resistant compositions were prepared using 1-di(2-chloroethoxy-phosphinyl)methyl-2,4- and -2,6-diaminobenzene (DCEPD) as a curing agent for typical epoxy resins such as EPON 828 (Shell), XD 7342 (Dow), and My 720 (Ciba Geigy). In addition, compositions of these three epoxy resins with common curing agents such as m-phenylenediamine (MPD) or 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulphone (DDS) were studied to compare their reactions with those of DCEPD. The reactivity of the three curing agents toward the epoxy resins, measured by differential calorimetry (DSC), was of the order MPD DCEPD DDS. The relatively lower reactivity of DCEPD toward epoxy resins was attributed to electronic effects.

  19. Curing of epoxy resins with 1-/di(2-chloroethoxyphosphinyl)methyl/-2,4- and -2,6-diaminobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Fire resistant compositions were prepared using 1-di(2-chloroethoxy-phosphinyl)methyl-2,4- and -2,6-diaminobenzene (DCEPD) as a curing agent for typical epoxy resins such as EPON 828 (Shell), XD 7342 (Dow), and My 720 (Ciba Geigy). In addition, compositions of these three epoxy resins with common curing agents such as m-phenylenediamine (MPD) or 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulphone (DDS) were studied to compare their reactions with those of DCEPD. The reactivity of the three curing agents toward the epoxy resins, measured by differential calorimetry (DSC), was of the order MPD DCEPD DDS. The relatively lower reactivity of DCEPD toward epoxy resins was attributed to electronic effects.

  20. Evaluation and comparison of anti-Candida effect of heat cure polymethylmethacrylate resin enforced with silver nanoparticles and conventional heat cure resins: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suganya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have been dominated by research in nano science. Dentistry is no exception and there is increased research on nanoparticles in dentistry. Complete dentures increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of C. albicans can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. Purpose: To evaluate the anti-Candida effect of heat cure denture base resins reinforced with Ag° in the ratio of 4:1, 3:1, 2:1 (Groups B, C, and D, respectively to the weight of denture base resins. Materials and Methods: Ag° were synthesized by chemical reduction method, incorporated into the polymer powder according to the ratio for each group, subjected to polymerization and microbial assay was calculated for the reference C. albicans strains by agar diffusion method for the incubation period of 24 h. Results: Group D showed multifold decrease in the colony-forming units. Conclusion: The antimicrobial effect of silver could be used vividly in the denture base for immunocompromised and geriatric patients.

  1. Heat-cured acrylic resin versus light-activated resin: a patient, professional and technician-based evaluation of mandibular implant-supported overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, S A; Al-AlShiekh, H M

    2017-12-01

    Although light-activated resins (Eclipse) have been reported to possess superior physical and mechanical properties compared with the heat-cured acrylic resins (Lucitone-199), a few studies have compared overdentures with a locator attachment constructed from heat-cured acrylic resins with those constructed from light-activated resins. This clinical study was designed to compare the performance of a mandibular implant-supported overdenture constructed from a heat-cured acrylic resin (Lucitone-199) with that of an overdenture constructed from a light-activated resin (Eclipse). Ten participants received two identical mandibular implant-retained overdentures (Lucitone-199 and Eclipse) opposing one maxillary denture in a random order. Each mandibular overdenture was delivered and worn for 6 months, and two weeks of rest was advised between wears to minimize any carryover effects. Three questionnaires were devised. The first questionnaire (patient evaluation) focused on evaluating different aspects of the denture and overall satisfaction. The second questionnaire (professional dentist evaluation) was based on a clinical evaluation of soft tissues, complications, and the applied technique. The third questionnaire (technician evaluation) involved ranking the different manufacturing steps of the denture and overall preferences. The obtained data was statistically analyzed using an independent sample t-test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The clinician and technician preferred the Eclipse dentures because of their technical aspects, whereas the patients preferred the Lucitone-199 dentures for their aesthetic properties. Implant-supported overdentures constructed from a heat-cured acrylic resin showed superior aesthetics and had a better odor compared with those constructed from a light-cured resin.

  2. Online monitoring method of degree of cure during non-isothermal microwave curing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongxi; Li, Yingguang; Li, Nanya; Hao, Xiaozhong

    2018-02-01

    Curing rate is the variation rate of degree of cure with time, which is a crucial issue in the curing process of composite structures since it has a significant influence on the generation of voids and residual stresses. In this paper, an online monitoring method of degree of cure was presented based on refractive index measurement. The influence of cure and temperature variation on the refractive index of composite was separated in real time with a step-temperature refractive index separation method. Non-isothermal microwave curing process of carbon fiber/epoxy composite was monitored, and the degree of cure was obtained with a low measurement error of ±1.5% compared with that determined by off-line DSC measurement. The online monitoring method is a promising technology for smart manufacturing of composite structures.

  3. Degree of conversion and bond strength of resin-cements to feldspathic ceramic using different curing modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Resende NOVAIS

    Full Text Available Abstract Resin cements have led to great advances in dental ceramic restoration techniques because of their ability to bond to both dental structures and restorative materials. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Material and Methods Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer. The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst and light-activation mode (base paste only. For degree of conversion (DC (n=5, a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used for classifying the failure modes. Results Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. Conclusion The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick.

  4. Comparison of water sorption and solubility of Acropars and Meliodent heat cure acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golbidi F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Water sorption and solubility are important properties of acrylic resins. Denture base acrylic resins have low solubility. This solubility results from the leaching out of unreacted monomer and water soluble additives into the oral fluids. The solubility of denture bases can cause oral soft tissue reactions. In addition, water absorbed into this material acts as a plasticizer and decreases the mechanical properties such as hardness, transverse strength, fatigue limit and also can change the color and dimensional stability. The aim of this study was to compare the water sorption and solubility of Acropars and Meliodent heat cure acrylic resins. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on the basis of ADA specification No.12 and ISO No.1567 and standards NO: 2571 of Institute of Standards & Industrial Research of Iran. Six disc form samples of each acrylic resin were prepared, with the dimension of 50×0.5 mm. After desiccating, the samples were kept in an oven for 24 hours and weighed. Then they were immersed in water, kept in oven for 7 days and weighed again. After this phase, the samples were carried to a dessicator, for 24 hours and kept in an oven for drying and were weighed for the third time. Data were analyzed with Mann Whitney and one sample t-test. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Water sorption mean values were 30.5±0.1 µg/mm3 or 0.76±0.01 mg/cm2 for Meliodent samples and 30.7±0.87 µg/mm3 or 0.77±0.009 mg/cm2 for Acropars samples. No significant difference was observed in water sorption of these two materials (P=0.9. Meliodent acrylic resin showed lower solubility (1.7±0.097 µg/mm3 or 0.042±0.001 mg/cm2 than Acropars acrylic resin (2.5±0.13 µg/mm3 or 0.062±0.001 mg/cm2 (P=0.002. Conclusion: Acropars heat cure acrylic resin matched well with the requirements of the international standards for water sorption, but its solubility was not favorable. This problem

  5. Determining the dimensional stability, fracture toughness and flexural strength of light-cured acrylic resin custom tray material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S B; Geerts, G

    2009-06-01

    Light-cured acrylic resin custom tray material is used in commercial dental laboratories but little evidence-based scientific information on its physical properties is available. This study investigates the dimensional stability of light-cured acrylic resin custom tray material and compares its fracture toughness and flexural strength to a chemically-cured acrylic material. For dimensional stability, 20 light-cured specimens were fabricated and measured 3 times at regular time intervals over 48 hours. Mean shrinkage was calculated for each time interval and the mean values were compared to the standard using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. A p-value of materials with a single-edge notch were subjected to a compressive load using the 3-point bending technique. For flexural strength, 1 group (n=20) of each material was subjected to a compressive load using 3-point bending. The highest load before failure was used to calculate the fracture toughness and flexural strength. Differences in fracture toughness and flexural strength values between the 2 groups were compared using ANOVA testing. A p-value of 0.05). The fracture toughness and flexural strength were significantly higher for the light-cured material. Trays made from light-cured acrylic resin can be used immediately following polymerization. The light-cured material is more resistant to bending and crack propagation than the chemically-cured type.

  6. Young's modulus and degree of conversion of different combination of light-cure dental resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, N; Söderholm, Kj

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate Young's modulus and degree of conversion of several combinations of bisGMA, UEDMA, TEGDMA light-cure dental resin. Young's modulus and DC% were studied for 21 different resin combinations of bisGMA, TEGDMA and UEDMA. Small universal testing machine and photo-calorimetry were used for the tests. The results were evaluated using ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests and regular t-test. Young's modulus varied between 2.37±0.2 GPa (100% TEGDMA) and 4.15±0.2 GPa (100% bisGMA). By adding TEGDMA to bisGMA or UEDMA, the Young's modulus decreased significantly (pphysical properties of the mixtures.

  7. Method of neutralizing the corrosive surface of amine-cured epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    The corrosive alkaline surface layer of an epoxy resin product formed by the curing of the epoxy with an aliphatic amine is eliminated by first applying a non-solvent to remove most or all of the free unreacted amine and then applying a layer of a chemical reagent to neutralize the unused amine or amine functional groups by forming a substituted urea. The surface then may be rinsed with acetone and then with alcohol. The non-solvent may be an alcohol. The neutralizing chemical reagent is a mono-isocyanate or a mono-isothiocyanate. Preferred is an aromatic mono-isocyanate such as phenyl isocyanate, nitrophenyl isocyanate and naplthyl isocyanate.

  8. A comparison of the fitting accuracy of thermoplastic denture base resins used in non-metal clasp dentures to a conventional heat-cured acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Junichiro; Fueki, Kenji; Yatabe, Masaru; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate a metal framework into removable partial dentures, the dimensional accuracy of thermoplastic resins requires precision equivalent to conventional acrylic resins. This study aimed to evaluate the fitting accuracy of thermoplastic resins compared to heat-cured acrylic resin. Four thermoplastic resins (polyethylene terephthalate [EstheShot, ES; EstheShot Bright, ES-B], polyamide [Lucitone FRS, LF], polycarbonate [Reigning Resin N, RN] and a heat-curing acrylic resin [Acron, AC]) were used. The specimens were created on master casts constructed of high-strength stone that simulated a maxillary edentulous ridge. Additionally, high-expansion stone was used as the master cast for RN specimens. The ES-B, LF and RN specimens were prepared with and without annealing after injection molding. The gaps between the molded resin and the cast were measured. ES had the smallest gap and was significantly smaller than AC (p 0.05), while the gap size of RN (high-strength stone) with and without annealing was significantly greater than AC (p dentures and that annealing effectively improved the fitting accuracy of ES-B, LF and RN.

  9. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  10. Degree of conversion and temperature increase of a composite resin light cured with an argon laser and blue LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, A. N. S.; Jacomassi, D. P.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2008-12-01

    Different light sources and power densities used on the photoactivation process may provide changes in the degree of conversion (DC%) and temperature ( T) of the composite resins. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the DC (%) and T (°C) of the microhybrid composite resin (Filtek™ Z-250, 3M/ESPE) photoactivated with one argon laser and one LED (light-emitting diode) with different power densities. For the KBr pellet technique, the composite resin was placed into a metallic mould (2-mm thickness, 4-mm diameter) and photoactivated as follows: a continuous argon laser (CW) and LED LCUs with power density values of 100, 400, 700, and 1000 mW/cm2 for 20 s. The measurements for DC (%) were made in a FTIR spectrometer Bomen (model MB 102, Quebec, Canada). Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra for both uncured and cured samples were analyzed using an accessory of the reflectance diffusion. The measurements were recorded in absorbance operating under the following conditions: 32 scans, 4 cm-1 resolution, 300 to 4000-cm-1 wavelength. The percentage of unreacted carbon double bonds (% C=C) was determined from the ratio of absorbance intensities of aliphatic C=C (peak at 1638 cm-1) against an internal standard before and after the curing of the specimen: aromatic C-C (peak at 1608 cm-1). For T (°C), the samples were created in a metallic mould (2-mm thickness, 4-mm diameter) and photoactivated for 20 s. The thermocouple was attached to the multimeter allowing temperature readings. The DC (%) and T (°C) were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test ( p units.

  11. Influence of Curing Mode on the Surface Energy and Sorption/Solubility of Dental Self-Adhesive Resin Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of curing mode (dual- or self-cure on the surface energy and sorption/solubility of four self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs and one conventional resin cement. The degree of conversion (DC and surface energy parameters including degree of hydrophilicity (DH were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements, respectively (n = 5. Sorption and solubility were assessed by mass gain or loss after storage in distilled water or lactic acid for 60 days (n = 5. A linear regression model was used to correlate between the results (%DC vs. DH and %DC/DH vs. sorption/solubility. For all materials, the dual-curing consistently produced significantly higher %DC values than the self-curing (p < 0.05. Significant negative linear regressions were established between the %DC and DH in both curing modes (p < 0.05. Overall, the SARCs showed higher sorption/solubility values, in particular when immersed in lactic acid, than the conventional resin cement. Linear regression revealed that %DC and DH were negatively and positively correlated with the sorption/solubility values, respectively. Dual-curing of SARCs seems to lower the sorption and/or solubility in comparison with self-curing by increased %DC and occasionally decreased hydrophilicity.

  12. Influence of pre-heat treatment and different light-curing units on Vickers hardness of a microhybrid composite resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, E. G.; Bandeca, M. C.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Bagnato, V. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hardness of a dental composite resin submitted to temperature changes before photo-activation with two light-curing unite (LCUs). Five samples (4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) for each group were made with pre-cure temperatures of 37, 54, and 60°C. The samples were photo-activated with a conventional quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and blue LED LCUs during 40 s. The hardness Vickers test (VHN) was performed on the top and bottom surfaces of the samples. According to the interaction between light-curing unit and different pre-heating temperatures of composite resin, only the light-curing unit provided influences on the mean values of initial Vickers hardness. The light-curing unit based on blue LED showed hardness mean values more homogeneous between the top and bottom surfaces. The hardness mean values were not statistically significant difference for the pre-cure temperature used. According to these results, the pre-heating of the composite resin provide no influence on Vickers hardness mean values, however the blue LED showed a cure more homogeneous than QTH LCU.

  13. Effects of Surface Treatments of Montmorillonite Nanoclay on Cure Behavior of Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherbi-Narteh, A.; Hosur, M.V.; Triggs, E.; Jelaani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA) based SC-15 epoxy resin was modified with three different commercially available montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay: Nanomer I.28E and Cloisite 10A and 30B. Cure behavior of nanocomposites was studied using a variety of techniques. Primary focus of this study was to investigate influence of different surface modifications of MMT nanoclay on rheological properties and cure behavior of SC-15 epoxy resin. By adding MMT to SC-15 epoxy resin, chemistry of the epoxy is altered leading to changes in rheological properties and ultimately enthalpy and activation energy of reactions. Addition of Nanomer I.28E delayed gelation, while Cloisite 10A and 30B accelerated gelation, regardless of the curing temperature. Activation energy of reaction was lower with the addition of Nanomer I.28E and Cloisite 10A and higher for Cloisite 30B compared to neat SC-15 epoxy composite.

  14. The effects of halogen and light-emitting diode light curing on the depth of cure and surface microhardness of composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Batu Can; Efes, Begüm Güray; Dörter, Can; Gömeç, Yavuz; Erdilek, Dina; Büyükgökçesu, Sami

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Light-emitting diode light curing units (LED LCUs) have become more popular than halogen LCUs in routine dental restorative treatment. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of two conventional halogen (Hilux Plus and VIP) and two LED (Elipar FreeLight 2 and Smart Lite) light curing units on the depth of cure and the microhardness of various esthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods: The curing depth and microhardness of a compomer (Dyract Extra), a resin-modified glass ionomer (Vitremer), a packable composite (Sculpt It), an ormocer (Admira), a hybrid composite (Tetric Ceram), two microhybrid composites (Miris and Clearfil Photo Posterior) and, a nanofil composite (Filtek Supreme) were determined using a scraping method and a hardness tester. A total of 320 samples were prepared using the eight different materials (n = 10 samples for each subgroup). The scraping test was based on ISO 4049:2000. Vicker's microhardness testing was carried out using hardness tester (Zwick 3212). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Bonferroni and the Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests. Results: Best microhardness results were obtained with the LED light curing units and Tetric EvoCeram and Filtek Supreme achieved the highest hardness values. The nanofil composite, Filtek Supreme, showed the best curing depth results in all the tested light curing systems. Conclusions: The LEDs were found to be more successful than the halogen units with respect to both curing depth and microhardness properties. PMID:21814353

  15. Optimal cure cycle design of a resin-fiber composite laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jean W.; Sheen, Jeenson

    1987-01-01

    A unified computed aided design method was studied for the cure cycle design that incorporates an optimal design technique with the analytical model of a composite cure process. The preliminary results of using this proposed method for optimal cure cycle design are reported and discussed. The cure process of interest is the compression molding of a polyester which is described by a diffusion reaction system. The finite element method is employed to convert the initial boundary value problem into a set of first order differential equations which are solved simultaneously by the DE program. The equations for thermal design sensitivities are derived by using the direct differentiation method and are solved by the DE program. A recursive quadratic programming algorithm with an active set strategy called a linearization method is used to optimally design the cure cycle, subjected to the given design performance requirements. The difficulty of casting the cure cycle design process into a proper mathematical form is recognized. Various optimal design problems are formulated to address theses aspects. The optimal solutions of these formulations are compared and discussed.

  16. Effect of different light curing methods on mechanical and physical properties of resin-cements polymerized through ceramic discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Ergun, Gulfem

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the polimerization ability of three different light-curing units (quartz tungsten halogen, light-emitting diodes and plasma arc) and their exposure modes (high-intensity and soft-start) by determination of microhardness, water sorption and solubility, and diametral tensile strength of 5 dual-curing resin cements. A total of 720 disc-shaped samples (1 mm height and 5 mm diameter) were prepared from different dual-curing resin cements (Duolink, Nexus, Bifix-QM, Panavia F and RelyX Unicem). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen (high-power and soft-up modes), light-emitting diode (standard and exponential modes) and plasma arc (normal and ramp-curing modes) curing units through ceramic discs. Then the samples (n=8/per group) were stored dry in the dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vickers hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester (Shimadzu HMV). For sorption and solubility tests; the samples were stored in a desiccator at 37°C and weighed to a constant mass. The samples were weighed both before and after being immersed in deionized water for different periods of time (24 h and 7 days) and being desiccated. The diametral tensile strength of the samples was tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at 5% significance level. Resin cement and light-curing unit had significant effects (p0.05) were obtained with different modes of LCUs. The study indicates that polymerization of resin cements with different light-curing units may result in various polymer structures, and consequently different mechanical and physical properties.

  17. Effect of different light curing methods on mechanical and physical properties of resin-cements polymerized through ceramic discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Cekic-nagas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the polimerization ability of three different light-curing units (quartz tungsten halogen, light-emitting diodes and plasma arc and their exposure modes (high-intensity and soft-start by determination of microhardness, water sorption and solubility, and diametral tensile strength of 5 dual-curing resin cements. Material and methods: A total of 720 disc-shaped samples (1 mm height and 5 mm diameter were prepared from different dual-curing resin cements (Duolink, Nexus, Bifix-QM, Panavia F and RelyX Unicem. Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen (high-power and soft-up modes, light-emitting diode (standard and exponential modes and plasma arc (normal and ramp-curing modes curing units through ceramic discs. Then the samples (n=8/per group were stored dry in the dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vickers hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester (Shimadzu HMV. For sorption and solubility tests; the samples were stored in a desiccator at 37°C and weighed to a constant mass. The samples were weighed both before and after being immersed in deionized water for different periods of time (24 h and 7 days and being desiccated. The diametral tensile strength of the samples was tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at 5% significance level. RESULTS: Resin cement and light-curing unit had significant effects (p0.05 were obtained with different modes of LCUs. Conclusion: The study indicates that polymerization of resin cements with different light-curing units may result in various polymer structures, and consequently different mechanical and physical properties.

  18. In vivo wear pattern of experimental light-cured hybrid composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, A; Sekiya, K; Fukushima, M; Iwaku, M

    1993-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of various types of microfiller on the in vivo wear resistance of composite resins. Experimental light-cured composites with two different microfiller systems were prepared: (1) 56 wt % fine quartz filler, 21 wt% organic filler and 3 wt% colloidal silica filler (Hybrid type 1), and (2) 64 wt% fine quartz filler and 21 wt% colloidal silica filler (Hybrid type 2). The resin monomer consisted of 50 wt % Bis-GMA and 50 wt% TEGDMA. These materials were placed in 2 mm diameter cylindrical cavities located in the OCA (occlusal contact area) or the CFA (contact free area) in cast gold-silver-palladium alloy full coverage crowns, which were temporarily set in a volunteer patient's mouth. The crowns were removed at monthly intervals for SEM observation. Hybrid type 1, which contained organic fillers, showed bulk fractures in the OCA, by the second month of the experiment. However, reinforcement of the resin matrix by dispersion of microfiller provided Hybrid type 2 with superior wear resistance for up to two months.

  19. Fast Curing Bio-Based Phenolic Resins via Lignin Demethylated under Mild Reaction Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongjiong Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Demethylation technique has been used to enhance lignin reactivity for preparation of phenolic resins. However, the demethylation efficiency and the demethylated lignin (DL reactivity were still unsatisfactory. To improve the demethylation efficiency, alkali lignin was demethylated under different mild conditions using sodium sulfite as a catalyst. Lignin and DL were characterized by 1H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy to determine the demethylation mechanism. With the demethylation of lignin, the methoxyl group content decreased from 1.93 m mol/g to 1.09 m mol/g, and the phenolic hydroxyl group content increased from 0.56 m mol/g to 0.82 m mol/g. These results revealed that methoxyl groups were attacked by SO32−, and some methoxyl groups were converted to phenolic hydroxyl groups by a nucleophilic substitution reaction, generating DL with high reactivity. The chemical properties of lignin-based phenolic resins were studied by 13C-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy, and their physical properties were also investigated. The results indicated that lignin-based phenolic resins exhibited faster curing rate and shorter gel time. In addition, the bonding strength increased from 0.92 MPa to 1.07 MPa, and the formaldehyde emission decreased from 0.58 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L after lignin demethylated at the optimum condition.

  20. Surface Modified Characteristics of the Tetracalcium Phosphate as Light-Cured Composite Resin Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to characterize the properties of light-cured composite resins that are reinforced with whisker surface-modified particles of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP and to investigate the influence of thermal cycling on the reinforced composites properties. The characteristics of ultimate diametral tensile strength (DTS, moduli, pH values, and fracture surfaces of the samples with different amounts of surface-modified TTCP (30%–60% were determined before and after thermal cycling between 5°C and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. The trends of all groups were ductile prior to thermal cycling and the moduli of all groups increased after thermal cycling. The ductile property of the control group without filler was not significantly affected. Larger amounts of fillers caused the particles to aggregate, subsequently decreasing the resin’s ability to disperse external forces and leading to brittleness after thermal cycling. Therefore, the trend of composite resins with larger amounts of filler would become more brittle and exhibited higher moduli after thermal cycling. This developed composite resin with surface modified-TTCP fillers has the potential to be successful dental restorative materials.

  1. In vitro antifungal action of different substances over microwaved-cured acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Henrique; Montagner, Francisco; Braun, Katia Olmedo; Peres, Paulo Edelvar Correa; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Candida albicans on the surfaces of denture-base acrylic resins is strongly related to the development of oral stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal action of different agents over microwave-cured acrylic resin without polishing specimens previously contaminated with Candida albicans. Sixty specimens were immersed in BHI broth previously inoculated with the yeast and stored for 3 h at 37 degrees C. They were divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10): G1: 2% chlorhexidine solution (10 min); G2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (10 min); G3: modified sodium hypochlorite (10 min); G4: effervescent agent (5 min); G5: hydrogen peroxide 10 v (30 min). The specimens of the control group 1 (C1) were not disinfected. Ten additional specimens of the control group 2 (C2) were not infected with the yeast, aiming to check the asepsis during the experiment. The disinfection agents were neutralized and the acrylic resin specimens were immersed in BHI Broth for 24 h. Culture media turbidity was evaluated spectrophotometrically according to the transmittance degree, i.e. the higher the transmittance the stronger the antimicrobial action. Statistical analysis was performed (Kruskal-Wallis Test, pdisinfectants against C. albicans than 2% chlorhexidine solution and the effervescent agent.

  2. Use of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-hexane diamine as a curing agent for epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinde, James A. [Livermore, CA; Newey, Herbert A. [Lafayette, CA

    1981-02-24

    Primary diamines of the formula ##STR1## wherein R is a straight chain saturated hydrocarbon of 2 to 4 carbons, a disubstituted benzene ring, or disubstituted dibenzo methane for use as a curing agent for epoxy resins. These curing agents can be used to form epoxy resin mixtures useful in filament winding and pre-impregnated fiber molding and in formulating film adhesives, powder coatings and molding powders. The epoxy mixtures form for such uses as room temperature non-reacting, intermediate stable state which has a latent cross-linking capability.

  3. Thermal curing behavior of MWCNT modified vinyl ester-Polyester resin suspensions prepared with 3-roll milling technique

    OpenAIRE

    Seyhan, Abdullah Tuğrul; De La Vega, Alejandra; Tanoğlu, Metin; Schulte, Karl

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the curing behavior of a vinyl ester-polyester resin suspensions containing 0.3 wt % of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with and without amine functional groups (MWCNTs and MWCNT-NH2). For this purpose, various analytical techniques, including Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman Spectroscopy, and Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) were conducted. The resin suspensions with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared via 3-r...

  4. Effect of temperature, curing time, and filler composition on surface microhardness of composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness of two composite resins when subjected to three different temperatures and three different light-curing times. Materials and Methods: Two composites were used; Filtek Z250 and Grandio. Three different temperatures (23, 37, and 55oC) were used, utilizing a composite warmer. The heated samples were immediately injected into cylindrical molds (6 mm × 2 mm) and the top surface of the specimens was polymerized for 10, 20, and 40 sec, using a Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen light-curing unit (QTH LCU). Vickers microhardness measurements were performed from both the top and bottom surface of the specimens, following dry storage for 24 hours in the dark. Statistical analysis were performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post-hoc test at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Results: The results indicated that there was an increase in microhardness as the temperature of the composite was increased for either the top or the bottom surface (P 0.05). Conclusions: Temperature of composites affects their surface microhardness. Also, light-curing time influence microhardness values of the composites tested. PMID:25829688

  5. Effect of light curing unit on resin-modified glass-ionomer cements: a microhardness assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Francisca Gigo Cefaly

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the microhardness of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs photoactivated with a blue light-emitting diode (LED curing light. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty specimens were distributed in 3 groups: Fuji II LC Improved/GC (RM1, Vitremer/3M ESPE (RM2 and Filtek Z250/ 3M ESPE (RM3. Two commercial light-curing units were used to polymerize the materials: LED/Ultrablue IS and a halogen light/XL3000 (QTH. After 24 h, Knoop microhardness test was performed. Data were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at a pre-set alpha of 0.05. RESULTS: At the top surface, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05 in the microhardness was seen when the LED and QTH lights were used for all materials. At the bottom surface, microhardness mean value of RM2 was significantly higher when the QTH light was used (p0.05 was seen at the bottom surface for RM3, irrespective of the light used. Top-to-bottom surface comparison showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05 for both RMGICs, regardless of the light used. For RM3, microhardness mean value at the top was significantly higher (p<0.05 than bottom microhardness when both curing units were used. CONCLUSION: The microhardness values seen when a LED light was used varied depending on the restorative material tested.

  6. An In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Disinfectants on Standard and Clinical Microbial Strains on Heat Cure Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawashe, Karuna Gajanan; Tewary, Shivsagar; Sanyal, Pronob Kumar; Nilesh, Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Oral cavity is colonised by numerous micro-organisms that form a biofilm on the acrylic resin. Hence, routine hygiene is essential to prevent oral mucosal inflammation and lesions. Knowledge of appropriate disinfecting agents for acrylic resins is crucial in this context. To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of four commercially available disinfectants on heat cure acrylic resin specimens contaminated with standard and clinical strains of two micro-organisms commonly inhabiting the oral microflora. Two hundred acrylic resin specimens (n=200), 10 in each group were contaminated in vitro with 1x10 6 cells/ml suspensions of standard and clinical strains of micro-organisms (Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans) and were immersed in four disinfectants (1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% glutaraldehyde and 3.8% sodium perborate) for 10 minutes. The control group was not subjected to any disinfection process. For collection of clinical strains, oral swab was passed over the buccal mucosa and grown on blood agar culture media. Organism confirmation was done by growing them on selective culture media. Final counts of micro-organisms per ml were performed by plating method for evaluation of microbial level reduction. Results obtained were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test. Standard strains of Candida albicans (C) and Streptoccocus mutans (S) subjected to various disinfectants showed varied mean Colony Forming Units per ml (CFU/ml) from disinfectants showed varied mean CFU/ml from 10 5 ). All intergroup comparisons were highly significant (p0.05; NS). Almost 1% sodium hypochlorite was found to be the most effective disinfectant for both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans . The least effective disinfectant being: 3.8% sodium perborate.

  7. An In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Disinfectants on Standard and Clinical Microbial Strains on Heat Cure Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, Shivsagar; Sanyal, Pronob Kumar; Nilesh, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral cavity is colonised by numerous micro-organisms that form a biofilm on the acrylic resin. Hence, routine hygiene is essential to prevent oral mucosal inflammation and lesions. Knowledge of appropriate disinfecting agents for acrylic resins is crucial in this context. Aim To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of four commercially available disinfectants on heat cure acrylic resin specimens contaminated with standard and clinical strains of two micro-organisms commonly inhabiting the oral microflora. Materials and Methods Two hundred acrylic resin specimens (n=200), 10 in each group were contaminated in vitro with 1x106 cells/ml suspensions of standard and clinical strains of micro-organisms (Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans) and were immersed in four disinfectants (1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, 2% glutaraldehyde and 3.8% sodium perborate) for 10 minutes. The control group was not subjected to any disinfection process. For collection of clinical strains, oral swab was passed over the buccal mucosa and grown on blood agar culture media. Organism confirmation was done by growing them on selective culture media. Final counts of micro-organisms per ml were performed by plating method for evaluation of microbial level reduction. Results obtained were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results Standard strains of Candida albicans (C) and Streptoccocus mutans (S) subjected to various disinfectants showed varied mean Colony Forming Units per ml (CFU/ml) from disinfectants showed varied mean CFU/ml from 105). All intergroup comparisons were highly significant (p0.05; NS). Conclusion Almost 1% sodium hypochlorite was found to be the most effective disinfectant for both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The least effective disinfectant being: 3.8% sodium perborate. PMID:28658908

  8. INFLUENCE OF POST-CURE TREATMENTS ON HARDNESS AND MARGINAL ADAPTATION OF COMPOSITE RESIN INLAY RESTORATIONS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Latempa, Antonio Marcelo Accetta; Chagas, Maurício Alves; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Leal, Mariana Pareira da Silva; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Vickers hardness number (VHN) and the in vitro marginal adaptation of inlay restorations of three hybrid composite resins (Filtek Z250, Opallis and Esthet-X) subjected to two post-cure treatments. Material and Methods: For the microhardness test, three different groups were prepared in accordance with the post-cure treatments: control group (only light cure for 40 s), autoclave group (light cure for 40 s + autoclave for 15 min at 130°C); and microwave group (light cure for 40 s + microwave for 3 min at 450 W). To assess the marginal adaptation, the composite resin was inserted incrementally into a mesial-occlusal-distal cavity brass mold and each increment light-cured for 40 s. A previous reading in micrometers was taken at the cervical wall, using a stereomicroscope magnifying glass equipped with a digital video camera and image-analysis software. Subsequently, the specimens were subjected to the post-cure treatments (autoclave and microwave) and a reading was taken again at the cervical wall. Data were compared using ANOVA for the hardness test, split-plot ANOVA for the adaptation assessment and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. A significance level of 5% was adopted for all analyses. Results: The post-cure treatments increased the hardness of conventional composites (pinlay restorations (pinlays. Moreover, Filtek Z250 showed the best results, with higher hardness and lower gap values. PMID:20027437

  9. Dynamic dielectric analysis for nondestructive cure monitoring and process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.; Delos, S. E.; Hoff, M. S.; Whitham, M. E.; Weller, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic dielectric analysis (DDA) is an effective in situ NDE method that can monitor the reaction status in thermosets and the phase changes in thermoplastics, including slow reactions occuring late in the cure cycle and recrystallization during annealing. The effects of moisture and resin history on reaction rate can also be determined, as can ionic and dipolar contributions. The ionic mobility parameter is noted to be an excellent monitor of viscosity above the glass transition temperature. The ability of DDA to monitor cure rate variations in a thick section during autoclaving has been demonstrated.

  10. A comparative evaluation of the dimensional accuracy of heat polymerized acrylic resin denture base clamped by the conventional method and by new-press technique and cured by long curing cycle: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, T; Gowd, Snigdha; Ahmed, Syed Tauqheer; Vinod, V; Goud, M Vikas; Rao, N Venugopal

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of heat polymerized acrylic resin denture base clamped by the conventional method and by new-press technique and cured by long curing cycle. In this study, a total of 60 standardized maxillary record bases were fabricated with seven reference points as follows: Point A: Incisive papilla, Point B and C: Canine region on either side Point E and G: Midpoint of tuberosities on either side Point F: Midpoint of the line joining the two tuberosities Point D: Midpoint between the line joining A and F. Ten maxillary record bases were fabricated by conventional clamping method and cured by long curing cycle. GROUP A': Ten maxillary record bases were fabricated by New Press or RS tension clamping method and cured by long curing cycle. The distances between the reference points, i.e. A-B, A-C, A-D, D-F, B-E, C-G, E-F, F-G, B-D, D-G, C-D, D-E of all three thermoplastic denture base plates were measured and recorded with the help of travelling microscope and were used for comparison with the measured and recorded readings of processed acrylic denture bases. The data obtained was analyzed by using the one-way analysis of variance and HSD Multiple Comparison Test. The overall results of the study indicate that among all the denture bases cured by the two clamping systems and the long curing cycle, group A' were the most dimensionally stable, followed by control group A. The study concluded that the denture bases fabricated by the New Press method using the long curing cycle would produce the most dimensionally stable denture bases.

  11. Elastic properties, reaction kinetics, and structural relaxation of an epoxy resin polymer during cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heili, Manon; Bielawski, Andrew; Kieffer, John

    The cure kinetics of a DGEBA/DETA epoxy is investigated using concurrent Raman and Brillouin light scattering. Raman scattering allows us to monitor the in-situ reaction and quantitatively assess the degree of cure. Brillouin scattering yields the elastic properties of the system, providing a measure of network connectivity. We show that the adiabatic modulus evolves non-uniquely as a function of cure degree, depending on the cure temperature and the molar ratio of the epoxy. Two mechanisms contribute to the increase in the elastic modulus of the material during curing. First, there is the formation of covalent bonds in the network during the curing process. Second, following bond formation, the epoxy undergoes structural relaxation toward an optimally packed network configuration, enhancing non-bonded interactions. We investigate to what extent the non-bonded interaction contribution to structural rigidity in cross-linked polymers is reversible, and to what extent it corresponds to the difference between adiabatic and isothermal moduli obtained from static tensile, i.e. the so-called relaxational modulus. To this end, we simultaneously measure the adiabatic and isothermal elastic moduli as a function of applied strain and deformation rate.

  12. Double-Vacuum-Bag Process for Making Resin-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Larry J.

    2007-01-01

    A double-vacuum-bag process has been devised as a superior alternative to a single-vacuum-bag process used heretofore in making laminated fiber-reinforced resin-matrix composite-material structural components. This process is applicable to broad classes of high-performance matrix resins including polyimides and phenolics that emit volatile compounds (solvents and volatile by-products of resin-curing chemical reactions) during processing. The superiority of the double-vacuum-bag process lies in enhanced management of the volatile compounds. Proper management of volatiles is necessary for making composite-material components of high quality: if not removed and otherwise properly managed, volatiles can accumulate in interior pockets as resins cure, thereby forming undesired voids in the finished products. The curing cycle for manufacturing a composite laminate containing a reactive resin matrix usually consists of a two-step ramp-and-hold temperature profile and an associated single-step pressure profile as shown in Figure 1. The lower-temperature ramp-and-hold step is known in the art as the B stage. During the B stage, prepregs are heated and volatiles are generated. Because pressure is not applied at this stage, volatiles are free to escape. Pressure is applied during the higher-temperature ramp-and-hold step to consolidate the laminate and impart desired physical properties to the resin matrix. The residual volatile content and fluidity of the resin at the beginning of application of consolidation pressure are determined by the temperature and time parameters of the B stage. Once the consolidation pressure is applied, residual volatiles are locked in. In order to produce a void-free, high-quality laminate, it is necessary to design the curing cycle to obtain the required residual fluidity and the required temperature at the time of application of the consolidation pressure.

  13. The stability of new transparent polymeric materials: The epoxy trimethoxyboroxine system. Part 1: The preparation, characterization and curing of epoxy resins and their copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, E.; Lin, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of resin composition, curing conditions fillers, and flame retardant additives on the flammability of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) as measured by the oxygen index is examined. The oxygen index of DGEBA cured with various curing agents was between 0.198 to 0.238. Fillers and flame retardant additives can increase the oxygen index dependent on the material and the amount used. Changes in the basic cured resin properties can be anticipated with the addition of noncompatible additives. High flame resistant epoxy resins with good stability and mechanical properties are investigated.

  14. Processing of exhausted resins for Trino NPP,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuto, F.; Bitetti, G.; Maggini, F.; Scarsi, G.

    2009-01-01

    Decomposition of organic compounds contained in the spent ion exchange resins is considered effective in reducing the waste volume. A system using the wet-oxidation process has been studied for the treatment of the spent resins stored at Trino Nuclear Power Plant owned by SOGIN. Compared with various processes for treating sludge and resin, the wet-oxidation system is rather simple and the process conditions are mild. Not contaminated ion exchange resin samples similar to those ones used in Trino NPP were processed by wet-oxidation and appropriate decomposition of the organic compounds was verified. After decomposition the residue can be solidified with cement for final disposal. When compared with direct solidification without decomposition, the number of waste packages can be significantly reduced. Additional measures for conditioning secondary waste products have also been studied, and their applicability to the Trino Nuclear Power Plant was verified. Some of conditions studied were specific to the Trino Nuclear Power Plant, but it is expected that the system will provide an effective solution for resin treatment at other Italian NPPs. (authors)

  15. Comparative study of the use of non-ionizing and ionizing radiation in the cure of epoxy resin: microwave versus electron electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.kersting@usp.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wiebeck, Helio, E-mail: hwiebeck@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica; Marinucci, Gerson; Silva, Leonardo G.A. e, E-mail: marinuci@ipen.br, E-mail: gasilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Several processes for curing epoxy resins were developed over the years. Two methods are discussed in this paper, in order to present the main advantages and disadvantages of using microwave radiation (non-ionizing radiation) and electron beam radiation (ionizing radiation). The microwave radiation is a non-ionizing radiation, with great power of penetration and transfer of heat in microwave absorbing materials, or materials with microwave absorbing fillers. The frequency usually used in research and development is 2.45 GHz, the same available in commercial equipment. The microwave effect provides increase on the collision velocity between the reactant which, combined with energy absorbed by the reaction system, accelerates the curing reaction. None modifications in the epoxy system are required to use microwave heating for the curing process.On the other hand, the electron beam is a form of ionizing radiation in which the high energy electrons have the ability to interact with the irradiated material and produce ions, free radicals, and molecules in excited state, which can be used to initiate and propagate a polymerization. Specific initiators are necessary for an effective cure of the resin. In this study, a DGEBA epoxy resin with initiators based on anhydride and amine was used under the same conditions indicated by the manufacturer. The curing of the catalyzed system was performed in a domestic microwave oven adapted for laboratory use. The degradation and glass transition temperatures were evaluated by thermal analysis techniques. For comparative purposes, it was used data available in the literature for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  16. Comparative study of the use of non-ionizing and ionizing radiation in the cure of epoxy resin: microwave versus electron electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersting, Daniel; Wiebeck, Helio

    2013-01-01

    Several processes for curing epoxy resins were developed over the years. Two methods are discussed in this paper, in order to present the main advantages and disadvantages of using microwave radiation (non-ionizing radiation) and electron beam radiation (ionizing radiation). The microwave radiation is a non-ionizing radiation, with great power of penetration and transfer of heat in microwave absorbing materials, or materials with microwave absorbing fillers. The frequency usually used in research and development is 2.45 GHz, the same available in commercial equipment. The microwave effect provides increase on the collision velocity between the reactant which, combined with energy absorbed by the reaction system, accelerates the curing reaction. None modifications in the epoxy system are required to use microwave heating for the curing process.On the other hand, the electron beam is a form of ionizing radiation in which the high energy electrons have the ability to interact with the irradiated material and produce ions, free radicals, and molecules in excited state, which can be used to initiate and propagate a polymerization. Specific initiators are necessary for an effective cure of the resin. In this study, a DGEBA epoxy resin with initiators based on anhydride and amine was used under the same conditions indicated by the manufacturer. The curing of the catalyzed system was performed in a domestic microwave oven adapted for laboratory use. The degradation and glass transition temperatures were evaluated by thermal analysis techniques. For comparative purposes, it was used data available in the literature for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  17. New technique of stereolithography to local curing in thermosensitive resins using CO2 laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munhoz, A. L. J.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental study of thermosensitive resins used in thermal stereolithography is presented. The process of local curing through the application of infrared radiation, which has proved to be useful in a new technique for the making of prototypes by means of selective heating with CO2 laser (10.6μm, is studied. The ideal composition of the thermosensitive resins has proved to be 10 parts epoxy, 1.4 part diethylene triamine (the curing agent and 0.7 part silica powder. A physical theoretical model is applied for control of the parameters which influence the confinement of the curing in the irradiated bulk. A mathematical model is applied too; it was developed through the resolution of the heat conduction equation dependent on time in cylindrical co-ordinates, which enables to determine the behaviour of curing in terms of irradiation conditions.

    Se presenta un estudio teórico y experimental, sobre resinas termosensibles usadas en estereolitografía térmica. Se estudia el proceso de cura local mediante la aplicación de radiación infrarroja producida por el láser de CO2 (10.6 μm, el cual mostró ser útil en técnicas nuevas, para la fabricación de prototipos por medio de calentamiento selectivo. La composición ideal para cura local de las resinas termosensibles, está en la proporción de 10.0 partes de epoxi, 1.4 partes de dietilentriamina y 0.7 partes de sílice. Para controlar los parámetros que influyen en el confinamiento de la cura a través de la irradiación, se utiliza un modelo teórico-físico. Se utiliza un modelo matemático en coordenadas cilíndricas basado en la ecuación de conducción de calor dependiente del tiempo, que permite determinar el comportamiento de cura en función de las condiciones de irradiación.

  18. Effect of light sources and curing mode techniques on sorption, solubility and biaxial flexural strength of a composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Andreia Assis; Moreira, Francine do Couto Lima; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Souza, João Batista de; Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga

    2012-01-01

    Adequate polymerization plays an important role on the longevity of the composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing units, curing mode techniques and storage media on sorption, solubility and biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of a composite resin. Two hundred and forty specimens were made of one composite resin (Esthet-X) in a stainless steel mold (2 mm x 8 mm Ø), and divided into 24 groups (n=10) established according to the 4 study factors: light-curing units: quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) lamp and light-emitting diodes (LED); energy densities: 16 J/cm² and 20 J/cm²; curing modes: conventional (CM) and pulse-delay (PD); and permeants: deionized water and 75% ethanol for 28 days. Sorption and solubility tests were performed according to ISO 4049:2000 specifications. All specimens were then tested for BFS according to ASTM F394-78 specification. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA followed by Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). In general, no significant differences were found regarding sorption, solubility or BFS means for the light-curing units and curing modes (p>0.05). Only LED unit using 16 J/cm² and PD using 10 s produced higher sorption and solubility values than QTH. Otherwise, using CM (16 J/cm²), LED produced lower values of BFS than QTH (pcuring units using 16 and 20 J/cm² by CM and PD curing modes produced no influence on the sorption, solubility or BFS of the tested resin.

  19. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of visible light-cured denture base resins and their application to orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E A; Ogle, R E; Sorensen, S E; Zysik, D A

    1988-09-01

    A series of investigations is being conducted to examine the applicability of visible light-cured resins to orthodontics. The experimental vehicle is the Hawley retainer, which is made from autopolymerized (AP), heat-cured (HC), thermoplastic Biocryl 2 (BC), and Traid visible light-cured (VLC) resins. In all physical property testing, it was found that VLC resins met or exceeded required values as established by ADA Specification No. 12 for denture base polymers. In vitro bacterial adherence studies showed that more organisms adhered to heat-cured specimens than to the other specimens. In vivo studies using split-palate Hawley retainers demonstrated slightly less bacterial adherence to BC than to the other resins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations have shown the BC surface to be the smoothest, although surface chemistry also seems important. None of the materials being tested appears to cause any significant change in the subjacent subgingival bacterial flora. There was no adverse tissue reaction under any of the materials when observed clinically. Manipulation characteristics and time of fabrication appear to be dependent on the depth of the palate and the skill of the operator.

  20. Bond strength between composite resin and resin modified glass ionomer using different adhesive systems and curing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Boruziniat, Alireza; Gharaei, Samineh

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate bond strength between RMGI and composite using different adhesive systems and curing techniques. Materials and Methods: Sixty prepared samples of RMGI were randomly divided into six groups according to adhesive systems (total-etch, two-step self-etch and all-in-one) and curing techniques (co-curing and pre-curing). In co-curing technique, the adhesive systems were applied on uncured RMGI samples and co-cured together. In the pre-curing technique, before application of adh...

  1. A Comparative Study of Heat and Self-Cured Acrylic Resins on Color Stability of 5 Brands of Denture Teeth

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    Vafaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Denture teeth play a critical role in overall aesthetic outcomes of removable complete dentures, and long-term maintenance of these outcomes depends on the color stability of the prosthetic teeth. The characteristics of denture base resins play a significant role in prosthetic clinical performance and aesthetics. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of two flasking materials on the color stability of five brands of denture teeth that were immersed in commonly consumed beverages. Materials and Methods In the present study 560 denture teeth (20 series were invested with heat- and cold-cured acrylic resin. All the specimens were thermo cycled between 4°C and 60°C, with 60 Seconds dwell times for 1000 cycles. Subsequently, the specimens in each group were divided into four subgroups based on the immersion medium: coffee, tea, cola, or distilled water. Digital images of the teeth were taken before immersion and 30 days after immersion. The color samples were measured using the CIE L* a* b* system, and color differences (ΔE were calculated. The data were evaluated by 3-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test. Results There were significant differences in color change between the cold-cured acrylic resins and the heat-cured acrylic resins, with a reduced amount of discoloration in the heat-cured group (ΔE = 10.12 ± 3.93, P = 0.001. The solutions showed significantly different amounts of discoloration on the teeth; distilled water had the least effect (ΔE = 8.49 ± 2.62, P = 0.001 and coffee had the maximum discoloration (ΔE = 14.14 ± 7.77, P = 0.001. A Tukey test showed that there was no significant difference between each brand of denture teeth. Conclusions Coffee caused the most color changes in the examined resin denture teeth. Tea and cola left less staining on the teeth, and distilled water caused the least discoloration. Generally, investing by heat- and cold-cured acrylic resins can significantly affect the

  2. The Effects of Exposure Time on the Surface Microhardness of Three Dual-Cured Dental Resin Cements

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    Matheus C. Bandéca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the exposure time of light-curing of the polymers used for cementation on microhardness test in different storage times. The polymers (specifically called resin cements were RelyX ARC, RelyX U100, and SET. Five specimens of each group were prepared and photo-polymerized with exposure times of 20 s and 180 s, using a LED polymerization unit with wavelength of 440 ~ 480 nm and light output was consistently 1,500 mW/cm2. The Vickers hardness test was performed in a MMT-3 Microhardness Tester. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05. The values of RelyX ARC showed statistically significant difference to groups with light exposure when considering only chemical cure (p < 0.05. The groups with light exposure (20 s and 180 s showed no significant difference between them (p > 0.05. The RelyX U100 cured only chemically showed statistically significant difference between 48 h and 7 days (p < 0.05. The SET resin cement showed no significant difference to groups without light exposure for all storage times (p > 0.05. The values of hardening of the dual-cured resin cements improved after setting by light and chemical activation demonstrating the importance of light curing.

  3. Impact of the distance of light curing on the degree of conversion and microhardness of a composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelan, Anderson; de Araújo, Larissa Sgarbosa Napoleão; da Silveira, Bruna Cilene Martins; Kawano, Yoshio; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the distance between the light guide tip of the curing unit and material surface on the degree of conversion and Knoop microhardness of a composite resin. Circular samples were carried out of a methacrylate micro-hybrid resin-based composite and light cured at 0, 2 and 4 mm distance. Monomer conversion rate was measured using a Fourier-transform Raman spectrometer and Knoop hardness number was obtained using a microhardness tester on the top and bottom surfaces. Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Overall, the increase of curing distance reduced the microhardness (p≤0.05), but did not influence the carbon double bond conversion rate (p>0.05) of the composite resin tested; and the top surface showed better properties compared to the bottom (p≤0.05). The light curing at distance can reduce mechanical properties and could affect long-term durability of the composite restorations. Thus, the use of a curing device with high irradiance is recommended.

  4. Degree of conversion of a resin cement light-cured through ceramic veneers of different thicknesses and types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnacles, Patrício; Correr, Gisele Maria; Baratto Filho, Flares; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    During the cementation of ceramic veneers the polymerization of resin cements may be jeopardized if the ceramics attenuate the irradiance of the light-curing device. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types and thicknesses of ceramic veneers on the degree of conversion of a light-cured resin-based cement (RelyX Veneer). The cement was light-cured after interposing ceramic veneers [IPS InLine, IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS e.max LT (low translucency) and IPS e.max HT (high translucency) - Ivoclar Vivadent] of four thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm). As control, the cement was light-cured without interposition of ceramics. The degree of conversion was evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy (n=5). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Significant differences were observed among groups (pceramics of 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm (p>0.05). Among 1.5-mm-thick veneers, IPS e.max LT was the only one that showed different results from the control (p0.05). The degree of conversion of the evaluated light-cured resin cement depends on the thickness and type of ceramics employed when veneers thicker than 1.5 mm are cemented.

  5. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  6. Effect of disinfectants on the colour stability of heat cure acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faiza; Iqbal, Shumaila; Azizuddin, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated dentures need to be disinfected as a part of denture hygiene regimen. This study was conducted to determine the colour stability of heat cure acrylic resin after treatment with two disinfectants. This in-vitro experimental study was conducted at Dr Ishrat-ul- Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences and Al Karam Textiles Karachi, from January to April 2012. Total 72 rectangular shaped specimens; 18 specimens were measured at baseline (control group) of the study (0 day), 18 specimens were immersed in distilled water. Eighteen (18) specimens were placed in 1% Sodium Hypochlorite solution for 20 minutes and eighteen (18) specimens were placed in Alkaline Gluteraldehyde for 10 minutes. All specimens were polished, stored in distilled water for 24 hours prior to experiment. All the specimens were immersed twice daily for total of 60 days. After 60 days of immersion the specimens were tested for colour changes with spectrophotometer. SPSS-16 was used for statistical analysis. There was statistically significant difference in the colour change (AE) between all groups (pdenture base acrylic resin is affected by the disinfectants used.

  7. Study of Curing Kinetics and Thermal Degradation of UV Curable Epoxy Acrylate Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of epoxy acrylate resins (acid values 3, 6.5 & 10 mg KOH/gm Solid with monofunctional monomers (ethoxylated phenol monoacrylate were prepared by physical mixing, having weight ratio 50:50. These blends were cured by using UV radiations in presence of photo initiator (Darocure 1173. The thermal degradation kinetics of these resin blends were studied, using thermo gravimetric analysis in nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min. by applying Coats-Red fern equation. According to the analysis, all the coating films degrade in two steps. In the first step of degradation kinetics, R2M follows 1.75 order (n=1.75 and all other coating films follow second order (n=2 kinetics. In second step, R2M & R3M follow half order (n=0.5 kinetics and R1M follow first order (n=1 degradation kinetics. Order of the reaction is obtained on the basis of best fit analysis, and all the parameters were confirmed by regression analysis. From the reaction order, value of activation energy (E and pre exponential factor (Z were calculated by the slop and intercept of the plot between X and Y, respectively.

  8. Flow monitoring of microwave pre-heated resin in LCM processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, F.; Paradiso, V.; Carlone, P.

    2017-10-01

    Liquid composite molding is manufacturing techniques that involve the injection or infusion of catalyzed liquid resin into a mold to impregnate a dry fiber preform. The challenges of LCM processes are related to the obtaining of a complete wetting of the reinforcement as well as a reduction of the void to obtain a final product with high mechanical properties. The heating of the resin prior the injection into the mold cavity has proven to be useful to improve the LCM processes. The increasing of temperature results in a reduction of resin viscosity and allows the resin to flow more easily through the reinforcement; the cure stage is also improved resulting in a reduction of global process time required. Besides the conventional solutions to heat up the resin based on the thermal conduction, in-line microwave heating is a suitable method to heat dielectric materials providing an even temperature distribution through the resin, thereby avoiding a thermal gradient between the surface and the core of liquid resin, which could result in a premature and uncontrolled cure. In the present work, an in-line microwave system, manually controlled, have been coupled with a VARTM apparatus to heat the resin before the infusion. In addition, parallel-plate dielectric sensors and pressure sensors, embedded into the mold, were employed to track the flow front through the fiber reinforcement in two distinct cases: unheated resin and pre-heated resin. The aim of work was to assess the effectiveness of microwave pre-heating to improve the macro and micro-impregnation of dry preform. The obtained results showed capability of in-line microwave heating to shorten the impregnation of dry fabric and provide a homogeneous wetting of fibers.

  9. Effect of light curing unit on resin-modified glass-ionomer cements: a microhardness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefaly, Daniela Francisca Gigo; de Mello, Liliam Lucia Carrara Paes; Wang, Linda; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the microhardness of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) photoactivated with a blue light-emitting diode (LED) curing light. Thirty specimens were distributed in 3 groups: Fuji II LC Improved/GC (RM1), Vitremer/3M ESPE (RM2) and Filtek Z250/3M ESPE (RM3). Two commercial light-curing units were used to polymerize the materials: LED/Ultrablue IS and a halogen light/XL3000 (QTH). After 24 h, Knoop microhardness test was performed. Data were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at a pre-set alpha of 0.05. At the top surface, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the microhardness was seen when the LED and QTH lights were used for all materials. At the bottom surface, microhardness mean value of RM2 was significantly higher when the QTH light was used (plight was used. No statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was seen at the bottom surface for RM3, irrespective of the light used. Top-to-bottom surface comparison showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) for both RMGICs, regardless of the light used. For RM3, microhardness mean value at the top was significantly higher (pcuring units were used. The microhardness values seen when a LED light was used varied depending on the restorative material tested.

  10. Measurement of linear polymerization shrinkage in light cure Ideal Makoo composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract: Polymerization shrinkage of light cure composite resins causes many complications in conservative and esthetic restorations. The objective of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage, degree of conversion and the amount of filler in IDM and tetric ceram composites. Ten disk shaped, uncured specimens (8mm×1.547mm of each composite were placed on glass slide in the center of the metal attached to it. Then specimens were light cured for 60s from underneath. After 30 minutes, the thickness of specimens, using a micrometer and the percent of the polymerization shrinkage of each sample were measured. Statistical analysis was carried out by t-test (P<0.05. Also the degree of conversion of specimens was evaluated with FTIR and the mineral filler content was measured by burning in electric oven. Polymerization shrinkage in IDM and tetric ceram was not significantly different. Degree of conversion and mineral filler content in tetric ceram was greater than that of IDM. "nIt is assumed that the low degree of conversion in IDM is due to its chemical composition and filler content. Also, the similarity in linear polymerization shrinkage between IDM and tetric ceram may be caused by the low degree of conversion in IDM.

  11. Setting kinetics and shrinkage of self-adhesive resin cements depend on cure-mode and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmüller, Karin; Graf, Alexandra; Watts, David; Schedle, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the influence of curing mode and temperature on the shrinkage kinetics of self-adhesive resin cements in comparison to a conventional multi-step resin cement. The shrinkage of self-adhesive resin cements Maxcem Elite (MX), Speedcem (SPC), Smartcem2 (SMC), iCem (IC) and RelyX Unicem (RX) and Nexus Third Generation (NX3) as a multi-step resin cement was measured continuously for 1h using the bonded disk method. All materials were tested with dual-curing (dc) and self-curing (sc) mode. All measurements (n=5 per group) were conducted at room temperature (23°C) as well as at body temperature (37°C). Shrinkage time constants were obtained from a simple exponential growth model. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the p-values were adjusted for multiplicity according to Hothorn et al. (2008) using the R-package "multcomp". Shrinkages ranged between 1.84 (RX sc23) and 7.09 (IC sc37). The curing-mode changing from sc to dc had the dominant effect for several materials, especially RX, both on final shrinkage and time constant for setting. Temperature increase had an effect on setting and shrinkage for all materials except RX. Final shrinkage for SPC, SMC and NX3 was statistically equivalent (p>0.05). The 3-fold variation in final shrinkage for these materials is significant for clinical material selection. Light curing can lead to a 10-fold increase in the rate of setting. A self-adhesive universal resin cement (RX) had the lowest shrinkage in the groups examined. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro antifungal action of different substances over microwaved-cured acrylic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Montagner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of Candida albicans on the surfaces of denture-base acrylic resins is strongly related to the development of oral stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal action of different agents over microwave-cured acrylic resin without polishing specimens previously contaminated with Candida albicans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty specimens were immersed in BHI broth previously inoculated with the yeast and stored for 3 h at 37ºC. They were divided into 5 experimental groups (n=10: G1: 2% chlorhexidine solution (10 min; G2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (10 min; G3: modified sodium hypochlorite (10 min; G4: effervescent agent (5 min; G5: hydrogen peroxide 10v (30 min. The specimens of the control group 1 (C1 were not disinfected. Ten additional specimens of the control group 2 (C2 were not infected with the yeast, aiming to check the asepsis during the experiment. The disinfection agents were neutralized and the acrylic resin specimens were immersed in BHI Broth for 24 h. Culture media turbidity was evaluated spectrophotometrically according to the transmittance degree, i.e. the higher the transmittance the stronger the antimicrobial action. Statistical analysis was performed (Kruskal-Wallis Test, p<0.05. RESULTS: The results, represented by the medians, were: G1 = 40; G2 = 100; G3 = 100; G4 = 90; G5 = 100; C1 = 40; C2 = 100. CONCLUSIONS: This in vitro study suggested that sodium hypochlorite-based substances and hydrogen peroxide are more efficient disinfectants against C. albicans than 2% chlorhexidine solution and the effervescent agent.

  13. Non-isothermal curing kinetics and physical properties of MMT-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UP) resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, María A., E-mail: angelesvh@yahoo.com [Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Av. Tecnológico S/N, Valle de Anáhuac, 55210 Ecatepec de Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez, H. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Física, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Guthausen, G. [KIT, Pro2NMR at MVM and IBG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-10

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal DSC analysis results have shown that the addition of MMT to a UP resin produces a delay in the cure reaction. • The shape of experimental heat-flow DSC curves showed two exothermic peaks for all the samples at different heating rates. • The overall kinetic analysis was performed by isoconversional methods. • It was found that the dependence of the activation energy (E{sub a}) on degree of reaction (α) is complex. - Abstract: Cure behavior of unsaturated polyester (UP)/montmorillonite (MMT)/methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP)/cobalt octoate intercalated nanocomposites with various MMT loadings was investigated by dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UP/MMT nanocomposites were prepared by sequential mixing. Non-isothermal DSC curves were obtained by applying heating rates ranging from 5 to 20 °C/min. They presented two exothermic peaks, which should correspond to two independent cure reactions. The effective activation energy E{sub a}, was determined by applying both the Kissinger’s and Starink’s methods. The results showed slightly higher activation energy for nanocomposites, except for UP/10-MMT. It was found that the dependence of E{sub a} on α is complex. All the systems in this study fitted Sesták–Berggren (SB) model in overall reaction controlled kinetics and the corresponding model parameters, n, m, A were obtained, but it was insufficient in depicting the complex reaction kinetics. Transmission electron microscopy data support the formation of a partially delaminated nanocomposite material. UP and nanocomposites showed similar behavior on thermal stability.

  14. Effect of two abrasive systems on resin bonding to laboratory-processed indirect resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouschlicher, M R; Cobb, D S; Vargas, M A

    1999-01-01

    This study compared two methods of surface roughening or preparation, with or without the use of proprietary surface wetting agents, to evaluate their effect on resin cement adhesion to the following laboratory-processed, indirect restorations: Artglass (AG), belleGlass HP (BG), Concept (C), and Targis (T). Methods of surface roughening or preparation included microetching with aluminum oxide (AO): 50 microns at 34 psi and silanized silica coating, CoJet-Sand (CJ): 30 microns at 34 psi. Artglass and Concept were tested with and without the use of their respective surface wetting agents: Artglass Liquid (AGL) and Special Bond II (SB). One hundred twenty specimens, each consisting of a pair of cylinders (7.0 x 3 mm and 4.3 x 3 mm) were fabricated. The larger cylinder or base was embedded in self-curing resin in a phenolic ring, and bonding surfaces were finished with 320-grit silicon carbide paper. Specimen pairs for each restorative material were randomly assigned to treatment groups (n = 10) and received the following surface treatments prior to cementation: group 1 (AG/AO/+AGL), group 2 (AG/AO/-AGL), group 3 (AG/CJ/+AGL), group 4 (AG/CJ/-AGL), group 5 (BG/AO), group 6 (BG/CJ), group 7 (C/AO/+SB), group 8 (C/AO/-SB), group 9 (C/CJ/+SB), group 10 (C/CJ/-SB), group 11 (T/AO), and group 12 (T/CJ). Specimen pairs were cemented with a dual-cure resin cement (Dual) and a standardized force of 1 MPa. Specimens were light-cured 40 seconds per side (80 s total), then thermocycled 300 times at between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C. Shear bond strengths (MPa) were determined using a Zwick Materials Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm per minute. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (alpha = 0.05) by restoration type indicated no significant differences in shear bond strength between BG group 5 (29.8 +/- 5.8), BG group 6 (28.3 +/- 4.3), T group 11 (29.3 +/- 4.9), and T group 12 (29.0 +/- 4.4). Shear bond strength in AG group 3 (35.9 +/- 3

  15. Microleakage of Resin Composite Restoration with Total-Etch and Self-Etch Systems at Various Curing Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viona Diansari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Microleakage still occurs between cavity wall and resin composite restoration, although bonding agent such as Total-etch (TE and Selfetch (SE systems had been used. One of the causes of microleakage was associated to improper polymerization affected by curing distances. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of resin composite restoration using TE and SE adhesive systems that were polymerized at various curing distances. A total of 120 human molars were prepared for class V cavity and were divided into 4 groups with bonded resin composite restoration: Group A (TE: Filtek Z350 + Adper Single Bond 2; Group B (TE: Tetric N Ceram + Tetric N Bond; Group C (SE: Clearfil APX + SE Bond; and Group D (SE: Ceram X + Xeno III. Each group were divided into 3 parts (10 teeth each which were restored at 0; 2 and 4 mm of curing distance respectively. After stored in aquadest at 37oC (24 hours, all specimens were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution (24 hours. Dye penetration at coronal site were observed under a stereomicroscope (Nikon SM 2800. The results showed that microleakage between 3 various curing distances of each group were not significantly different (Kruskall-Wallis test, p>0,05. Mann-Whitney U test (p<0,05 showed that microleakage between Group A-C; Group A-D and Group B-D were significantly different at 2 mm curing distance. Conclusion: microleakage of resin composite restoration with TE adhesive system were lower than SE at all curing distances.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.68

  16. The residual monomer content and mechanical properties of CAD\\CAM resins used in the fabrication of complete dentures as compared to heat cured resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayman, Al-Dharrab

    2017-07-01

    The utilization of computer-assisted designing and computer-assisted milling CAD\\CAM resins in the fabrication of removable prostheses is a modern-day concept that offers many advantages over the use of the traditional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). This study instigated some of the mechanical properties of CAD\\CAM denture base resin including the amount of residual monomer. This study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University from October 2016 to February 2017. A total of seventy rectangular specimens were fabricated (group A: 35 heat-cured PMMA and group B: 35 CAD/CAM pre-polymerized acrylic resin blocks). The flexural strength and surface hardness were tested while the residual monomer content at baseline, two-day and seven-day intervals was estimated using gas chromatography (GC). Means and standard deviations were determined for each group as well as independent-samples t-test and ANOVA with repeated measures for comparison between the groups and subgroups of varying time intervals. Heat cured PMMA (A), displayed higher flexural strength and low value flexural modulus compared to CAD/CAM acrylic resin denture base material (B). Student t-test indicated highly significant differences (pCAD/CAM resin may be considered suitable for use in the construction of denture bases.

  17. Assessment of the impact strength of the denture base resin polymerized by various processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To measure the impact strength of denture base resins polymerized using short and long curing cycles by water bath, pressure cooker and microwave techniques. Materials and Methods: For impact strength testing, 60 samples were made. The sample dimensions were 60 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm, as standardized by the American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM. A digital caliper was used to locate the midpoint of sample. The impact strength was measured in IZOD type of impact tester using CEAST Impact tester. The pendulum struck the sample and it broke. The energy required to break the sample was measured in Joules. Data were analyzed using Student′s " t" test. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the impact strength of denture base resins polymerized by long curing cycle and short curing cycle in each technique, with the long curing processing being the best. Conclusion: The polymerization technique plays an important role in the influence of impact strength in the denture base resin. This research demonstrates that the denture base resin polymerized by microwave processing technique possessed the highest impact strength.

  18. Strain development in a filled epoxy resin curing under constrained and unconstrained conditions as assessed by Fibre Bragg Grating sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of adhesion to the mould wall on the released strain of a highly filled anhydride cured epoxy resin (EP, which was hardened in an aluminium mould under constrained and unconstrained condition, was investigated. The shrinkage-induced strain was measured by fibre optical sensing technique. Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG sensors were embedded into the curing EP placed in a cylindrical mould cavity. The cure-induced strain signals were detected in both, vertical and horizontal directions, during isothermal curing at 75 °C for 1000 minutes. A huge difference in the strain signal of both directions could be detected for the different adhesion conditions. Under non-adhering condition the horizontal and vertical strain-time traces were practically identical resulting in a compressive strain at the end of about 3200 ppm, which is a proof of free or isotropic shrinking. However, under constrained condition the horizontal shrinkage in the EP was prevented due to its adhesion to the mould wall. So, the curing material shrunk preferably in vertical direction. This resulted in much higher released compressive strain signals in vertical (10430 ppm than in horizontal (2230 ppm direction. The constrained cured EP resins are under inner stresses. Qualitative information on the residual stress state in the molding was deduced by exploiting the birefringence of the EP.

  19. Synthesis of a Novel Phosphorus-Containing Flame Retardant Curing Agent and Its Application in Epoxy Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongkun; Xu, Miaojun; Li, Bin

    2016-03-01

    A novel phosphorus-containing compound diphenyl-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phosphine oxide defined as DPDHPPO was synthesized and used as flame retardant and curing agent for epoxy resins (EP). The chemical structure was well characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H, 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. The flame retardant properties, combusting performances and thermal degradation behaviors of the cured epoxy resins were investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning tests (UL-94), cone calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests. The morphologies and chemical compositions of char residues for cured epoxy resins were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The water resistant properties were evaluated by putting the samples into distilled water at 70 degrees C for 168 h. The results revealed that the EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets successfully passed UL-94 V-0 flammability rating and the LOI value was as high as 31.9%. The cone tests results revealed that the incorporation of DPDHPPO efficiently reduced the combustion parameters of epoxy resins thermosets, such as heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR) and so on. The TGA results indicated that the introduction of DPDHPPO promoted epoxy resins matrix decomposed ahead of time compared with that of pure EP and led to a higher char yield and thermal stability at high temperature. The morphological structures and analysis of XPS of char residues revealed that DPDHPPO benefited to the formation of a sufficient, compact and homogeneous char layer with rich flame retardant elements on the epoxy resins materials surface during combustion. After water resistance tests, EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets still remained excellent flame retardancy, the moisture absorption of epoxy resins thermosets decreased with the increase of DPDHPPO contents in the thermosets due to the existing

  20. Current status of visible light activation units and the curing of light-activated resin-based composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ario

    2010-05-01

    Light activation units are standard items of equipment in dental practice. It is essential to understand the many factors which affect the polymerization of light-activated resin composite materials and the choice of a light curing unit. In this respect, the development of high-intensity halogen and light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units (LCUs), many with multiple curing modes, has revolutionized light curing techniques. This article reviews visible light activation unit design and development. Factors influencing the effective use of LCUs and polymerization of resin-based composite materials are discussed, as are the steps which should be taken to maintain the efficiency of units in clinical use. Many LCUs produce lower output intensities than stated by the manufacturer. Newer high power LEDs may present as much of a heat problem as high power quartz tungsten halogen lamps (QTHs).The manufacturer's data should be followed to ensure that the emission spectra of the unit is compatible with the photo-initiator in the resin-based composite material.

  1. Preparation of hyperbranched poly (amidoamine)-grafted graphene nanolayers as a composite and curing agent for epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour-Mahmoudalilou, Meysam; Roghani-Mamaqani, Hossein; Azimi, Reza; Abdollahi, Amin

    2018-01-01

    Thermal properties of epoxy resin were improved by preparation of a curing agent of poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-grafted graphene oxide (GO). Hyperbranched PAMAM-modified GO (GD) was prepared by a divergent dendrimer synthesis methodology. Modification of GO with (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), Michael addition of methacrylic acid, and amidation reaction with ethylenediamine results in the curing agent of GD. Then, epoxy resin was cured in the presence of different amounts of GD and the final products were compared with ethylenediamine-cured epoxy resin (E) in their thermal degradation temperature and char contents. Functionalization of GO with APTES and hyperbranched dendrimer formation at the surface of GO were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results. TGA results showed that the weight loss associated with chemical moieties in GONH2, GOMA, and GD is estimated to be 10.1, 12.2, and 14.1%, respectively. Covalent attachment of dendrimer at the surface of GO increases its thermal stability. TGA also showed that decomposition temperature and char content are higher for composites compared with E. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies show that flat and smooth graphene nanolayers are wrinkled in GO and re-stacking and flattening of nanolayers is observed in GD.

  2. Ultrasonic cure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, B. Boro

    1999-12-01

    Fiber reinforced organic matrix composites applied to large structures require inexpensive cure process control. This paper reports on work to develop simple ultrasonic NDE sensors suitable for manufacturing and in-field use. This sensor is designed around a short wave-guide ultrasonic probe that is embedded in composite for in-situ cure monitoring applications. The sensor measures changes in resin density and sound velocity during cure and can be quantitatively calibrated for determination of the final cure. The cure monitoring is based on acoustic impedance variance across a material interface and can be utilized over the full cure cycle change of the resin in the composite. Significant advantage of this method is the simplicity of the measurement, low cost of the wave-guide probe and the adaptability of the sensor configuration to various composite-processing environments

  3. The Effect of Lithium Disilicate Ceramic Thickness and Translucency on Shear Bond Strength of Light-cured Resin Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To achieve acceptable clinical performance, a ceramic veneer must be bonded to enamel by well-polymerized resin cement. Among different factors, thickness and translucency of the ceramic may affect the resin cement polymerization. Thus, the current study evaluated the effect of the thickness and translucency of lithium disilicate ceramic on light-cured resin cement bond strength to enamel. Methods: In this laboratory study, 208 sound bovine incisors were equally divided into 16 groups (n = 13. The lithium disilicate ceramic cubes in four thicknesses (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mm with four translucencies (high and medium opaque, high and low translucent were fabricated and bonded to prepared enamel surfaces using a light-cured translucent resin cement according to manufacturer recommendations. After 5000 cycles of thermocycling, the bonded specimens were placed in a universal testing machine and loaded to the point of fracture. To determine the mode of failure, each sample was observed under a stereomicroscope. Data were recorded and analyzed by Shapiro-Wilk test and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The ceramic thickness and translucency could not significantly affect shear bond strength (SBS of resin cement to enamel (p = 0.17 and p = 0.097, respectively.  The Adhesive and ceramic cohesive failures were reported as the maximum and minimum mode of failure, respectively. Conclusion: The SBS of the light-cured resin cement bonding to enamel and lithium disilicate ceramic was not affected by the translucency of ceramics having a thickness of less than 1 mm.

  4. Influence of light curing unit and ceramic thickness on temperature rise during resin cement photo-activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Consani, Simonides; Mastrofrancisco, Sarina; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different ceramic thickness on heat generation during resin cement photo-activation by QTH (quartz-tungsten-halogen), LED (light emitting diode), and PAC (plasma arc-curing) LCUs (light curing units). The resin cement used was Rely X ARC (3M-ESPE), and the ceramic was IPS Empress Esthetic (Ivoclar-Vivadent), of which 0.7-, 1.4- and 2.0-mm thick disks, 0.8 mm in diameter were made. Temperature increase was recorded with a type-K thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46). An acrylic resin base was built to guide the thermocouple and support the 1.0-mm thick dentin disk. A 0.1-mm thick black adhesive paper matrix with a perforation 6 mm in diameter was placed on the dentin to contain the resin cement and support the ceramic disks of different thicknesses. Three LCUs were used: QTH, LED and PAC. Nine groups were formed (n=10) according to the interaction: 3 ceramic thicknesses, 1 resin cement and 3 photo-activation methods. Temperature increase data were submitted to Tukey's test (5%). For all ceramic thicknesses, a statistically significant difference in temperature increase was observed among the LCUs, with the highest mean value for the QTH LCU (p0.05). The interaction of higher energy density with smaller ceramic thickness showed higher temperature increase values.

  5. ANALYSIS OF GAP FORMATION AT TOOTH-COMPOSITE RESIN INTERFACE: EFFECT OF C-FACTOR AND LIGHT-CURING PROTOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gustavo Oliveira; da Silva, Antônio Henrique Monteiro da Fonseca Thomé; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes; Barcellos, Alexandre de Araújo Lima; Sampaio, Eduardo Martins; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C-factor and light-curing protocol on gap formation in composite resin restorations. Material and Methods: Cylindrical cavities with 5.0 mm diameter and three different depths (A=1.0, B=2.0 and C=3.0 mm) were prepared on the occlusal surface of 30 human molars and restored in a single increment with P 60. The composite resin was light-cured according to two protocols: standard - 850 mW/cm2 / 20 s and gradual - 100 up to 1000 mW/cm2/ 10 s + 1000 mW/cm2 / 10 s. After storage in distilled water (37°C/7 days), the restorations were cut into three slices in a buccolingual direction and the gap widths were analyzed using a 3D-scanning system. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (α=0.05). Results: ANOVA detected a significant influence for the C-factor and light-curing protocol as independent factors, and for the double interaction C-factor vs. light-curing protocol. Cavities with higher C-factor presented the highest gap formation. The gradual light-curing protocol led to smaller gap formation at cavity interfaces. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the C-factor played an essential role in gap formation. The gradual light-curing protocol may allow relaxation of composite resin restoration during polymerization reaction. PMID:19089143

  6. Analysis of gap formation at tooth-composite resin interface: effect of C-factor and light-curing protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Oliveira dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C-factor and light-curing protocol on gap formation in composite resin restorations. Material and METHODS: Cylindrical cavities with 5.0 mm diameter and three different depths (A=1.0, B=2.0 and C=3.0 mm were prepared on the occlusal surface of 30 human molars and restored in a single increment with P 60. The composite resin was light-cured according to two protocols: standard - 850 mW/cm² / 20 s and gradual - 100 up to 1000 mW/cm² / 10 s + 1000 mW/cm² / 10 s. After storage in distilled water (37°C/7 days, the restorations were cut into three slices in a buccolingual direction and the gap widths were analyzed using a 3D-scanning system. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (alpha=0.05. RESULTS: ANOVA detected a significant influence for the C-factor and light-curing protocol as independent factors, and for the double interaction C-factor vs. light-curing protocol. Cavities with higher C-factor presented the highest gap formation. The gradual light-curing protocol led to smaller gap formation at cavity interfaces. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the C-factor played an essential role in gap formation. The gradual light-curing protocol may allow relaxation of composite resin restoration during polymerization reaction.

  7. Evaluation of Vickers hardness and depth of cure of six composite resins photo-activated with different polymerization modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, C; Lombardini, M; Gaviati, S; Chiesa, M

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The current in vitro study evaluated Vickers hardness (VK) and depth of cure (hardness ratio) of six resin composites, polymerized with a light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit by different polymerization modes: Standard 20 s, Standard 40 s, Soft-start 40 s. Materials and Methods: Six resin composites were selected for the present study: three microhybrid (Esthet.X HD, Amaris, Filtek Silorane), two nanohybrid (Grandio, Ceram.X mono) and one nanofilled (Filtek Supreme XT). The VK of the surface was determined with a microhardness tester using a Vickers diamond indenter and a 200 g load applied for 15 seconds. The mean VK and hardness ratio of the specimens were calculated using the formula: hardness ratio = VK of bottom surface / VK of top surface. Results: For all the materials tested and with all the polymerization modes, hardness ratio was higher than the minimum value indicated in literature in order to consider the bottom surface as adequately cured (0.80). Curing time did not affect hardness ratio values for Filtek Silorane, Grandio and Filtek Supreme XT. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cure at the top and bottom surface was not affected by Soft-start polymerization mode. PMID:22876009

  8. Effect of light-curing method and indirect veneering materials on the Knoop hardness of a resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Tetsu Iriyama

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin cement (Rely-X ARC activated solely by chemical reaction (control group or by chemical / physical mode, light-cured through a 1.5 mm thick ceramic (HeraCeram or composite (Artglass disc. Light curing was carried out using conventional halogen light (XL2500 for 40 s (QTH; light emitting diodes (Ultrablue Is for 40 s (LED; and Xenon plasma arc (Apollo 95E for 3 s (PAC. Bovine incisors had their buccal face flattened and hybridized. On this surface a rubber mold (5 mm in diameter and 1 mm in height was bulk filled with the resin cement. A polyester strip was seated for direct light curing or through the discs of veneering materials. After dry storage in the dark (24 h 37°C, the samples (n = 5 were sectioned for hardness (KHN measurements, taken in a microhardness tester (50 gF load 15 s. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05. The cement presented higher Knoop hardness values with Artglass for QTH and LED, compared to HeraCeram. The control group and the PAC/Artglass group showed lower hardness values compared to the groups light-cured with QTH and LED. PAC/HeraCeram resulted in the worst combination for cement hardness values.

  9. Correlation between the beam profile from a curing light and the microhardness of four resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard B T; Labrie, Daniel; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Sullivan, Braden; Kostylev, Ivan; Fahey, John

    2014-12-01

    To demonstrate the effect of localized irradiance and spectral distribution inhomogeneities of one LED-based dental light-curing unit (LCU) on the corresponding microhardness values at the top, and bottom surfaces of four dental resin-based composites (RBCs), which contained either camphorquinone (CQ) alone or a combination of CQ and monoacylphosphine oxide (TPO) as photoinitiators. Localized irradiance beam profiles from a polywave LED-based LCU were recorded five times using a laser beam analyzer, without and with either a 400 nm or 460 nm narrow bandpass filter placed in front of the camera lens. Five specimens of each of the four RBCs (two containing CQ/TPO and two containing CQ-only) were exposed for 5-, 10-, or 30-s with the light guide directly on the top surface of the RBC. After 24 h, Knoop microhardness values were measured at 45 locations across the top and bottom surfaces of each specimen. Microhardness readings for each RBC surface and exposure time were correlated with localized patterns of the LCU beam profile, measured using the 400 nm and 460 nm bandpass filters. Spearman rank correlation was used to avoid relying on an assumption of a bivariate normal distribution for the KHN and irradiance. The local irradiance and spectral emission values were not uniformly distributed across the light tip. There was a strong significant positive correlation with the irradiance beam profile values from the LCU taken through bandpass filters and the microhardness maps of the RBC surfaces exposed for 5 and 10 s. The strength of this correlation decreased with increasing exposure time for the RBCs containing CQ only, and increased for the RBCs containing both CQ and TPO. Localized beam and spectral distributions across the tip end of the light guide strongly correlated with corresponding areas of microhardness in both the top and bottom surfaces among four RBCs with different photoinitiator contents. Significance: A light-curing unit with a highly inhomogeneous

  10. The effects of Exposure Times and Light Curing Sources on Surface Micro-Hardness of a Resin Modified Glass Ionomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Parisay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influenceof different light curing systems and curing times on the micro-hardness of aresin modified glass ionomer. Methods: Forty two samples of ResinModified Glass Ionomer (RMGI were prepared using stainless steel cylindrical mold(8 × 2 mm and randomly divided into six groups of seven. Three groups werecured with a Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH light cure unit and the other threegroups were polymerized with LED unit for 20, 30 and 40 seconds. All sampleswere stored in distilled water for 24 hours. The micro-hardness was measured onthe top and bottom surfaces of the samples by Vickers hardness tester. Datawere analyzed by two–way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc tests. Results: Two-wayANOVA showed that QTH light-cure unit had higher percentage in depth of curethan LED light-curing unit in both surfaces; whereas, the application time hasno significant effect on it. There was no interaction between two variables. Inboth light-curing groups, the values of top and bottom surfaces micro-hardnesswere increased as the application time increased, but there was not anystatistically significant difference among these groups except for 40-second groupof LED light-curing unit which was significantly higher than 20-second and30-second groups (P

  11. Effects of curing protocol and storage time on the micro-hardness of resin cements used to lute fiber-reinforced resin posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAMOS, Marcelo Barbosa; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the micro-hardness profile of two dual cure resin cements (RelyX - U100®, 3M-ESPE and Panavia F 2.0®, Kuraray) used for cementing fiber-reinforced resin posts (Fibrekor® - Jeneric Pentron) under three different curing protocols and two water storage times. Material and methods Sixty 16mm long bovine incisor roots were endodontically treated and prepared for cementation of the Fibrekor posts. The cements were mixed as instructed, dispensed in the canal, the posts were seated and the curing performed as follows: a) no light activation; b) light-activation immediately after seating the post, and; c) light-activation delayed 5 minutes after seating the post. The teeth were stored in water and retrieved for analysis after 7 days and 3 months. The roots were longitudinally sectioned and the microhardness was determined at the cervical, middle and apical regions along the cement line. The data was analyzed by the three-way ANOVA test (curing mode, storage time and thirds) for each cement. The Tukey test was used for the post-hoc analysis. Results Light-activation resulted in a significant increase in the microhardness. This was more evident for the cervical region and for the Panavia cement. Storage in water for 3 months caused a reduction of the micro-hardness for both cements. The U100 cement showed less variation in the micro-hardness regardless of the curing protocol and storage time. Conclusions The micro-hardness of the cements was affected by the curing and storage variables and were material-dependent. PMID:23138743

  12. Effect of Shade and Light Curing Mode on the Degree of Conversion of Silorane-Based and Methacrylate-Based Resin Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sm, Mousavinasab; M, Atai; N, Salehi; A, Salehi

    2016-12-01

    The degree of conversion depends on the material composition, light source properties, distance from light source, light intensity, curing time, and other factors such as shade and translucency. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of different light-curing modes and shades of methacrylate and silorane-based resin composites on the degree of conversion of resin composites (DC). The methacrylate-based (Filtek Z250, 3M, ESPE) and low-shrinkage silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M, ESPE) resin composites were used in three groups as follows: group 1-Filtek Z250 (shade A3), group 2-Filtek Z250 (shade B2), and group 3-Filtek P90 (shade A3). We used a light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit for photopolymerization. 10 samples were prepared in each group to evaluate the degree of conversion; 5 samples were cured using soft-start curing mode, and the other 5 were cured using standard curing mode. The DC of the resin composites was measured using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and one-way ANOVA statistical tests. The degree of conversion of silorane-based resin composite was 70 - 75.8% and that of methacrylate-based resin composites was 60.2 - 68.2% (p = 0.009). The degree of conversion of the composite with brighter colour (B2) was statistically more than the darker composite (A3). Higher degree of conversion was achieved applying the standard curing mode. The results of the study showed that the colour and type of the resin composite and also the curing mode influence the degree of conversion of resin composites.

  13. Bond strength between composite resin and resin modified glass ionomer using different adhesive systems and curing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruziniat, Alireza; Gharaei, Samineh

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate bond strength between RMGI and composite using different adhesive systems and curing techniques. Sixty prepared samples of RMGI were randomly divided into six groups according to adhesive systems (total-etch, two-step self-etch and all-in-one) and curing techniques (co-curing and pre-curing). In co-curing technique, the adhesive systems were applied on uncured RMGI samples and co-cured together. In the pre-curing technique, before application of adhesive systems, the RMGI samples were cured. Composite layers were applied and shear bond strength was measured. Two samples of each group were evaluated by SEM. Failure mode was determined by streomicroscope. Both curing methods and adhesive systems had significant effect on bond strength (P-value adhesives had significantly higher shear bond strength than the total-etch adhesive (P-value technique improved the bond strength in self-etch adhesives, but decreased the bond strength in total-etch adhesive (P-valueadhesive systems and co-curing technique can improve the bond strength between the RMGI and composite.

  14. Conventional dual-cure versus self-adhesive resin cements in dentin bond integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Andreza Talaveira da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During post preparation, the root canal is exposed to the oral cavity, and endodontic treatment may fail because of coronal leakage, bacterial infection and sealing inability of the luting cement. OBJECTIVE: this study quantified the interfacial continuity produced with conventional dual-cure and self-adhesive resin cements in the cervical (C, medium (M and apical (A thirds of the root. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty single-rooted human teeth were restored using Reforpost # 01 conical glass-fiber posts and different materials (N=10 per group: group AC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + AllCem; group ARC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + RelyX ARC; group U100=RelyX U100; and group MXC=Maxcem Elite. After being kept in 100% humidity at 37°C for 72 hours, the samples were sectioned parallel to their longitudinal axis and positive epoxy resin replicas were made. The scanning electron micrographs of each third section of the teeth were combined using Image Analyst software and measured with AutoCAD-2002. We obtained percentage values of the interfacial continuity. RESULTS: Interfacial continuity was similar in the apical, medium and cervical thirds of the roots within the groups (Friedman test, p>0.05. Comparison of the different cements in a same root third showed that interfacial continuity was lower in MXC (C=45.5%; M=48.5%; A=47.3% than in AC (C=85.9%, M=81.8% and A=76.0%, ARC (C=83.8%, M=82.4% and A=75.0% and U100 (C=84.1%, M=82.4% and A=77.3% (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Allcem, Rely X ARC and U100 provide the best cementation; cementation was similar among root portions; in practical terms, U100 is the best resin because it combines good cementation and easy application and none of the cements provides complete interfacial continuity.

  15. Process for preparing thermoplastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Shinnosuke; Onishi, Shunji.

    1971-01-01

    A process for preparing novel graft polymers of acrolein is provided. The process comprises immersing a polymer of ethylenic monomer into a mixture of acrolein, CCl 4 and an alcohol to let the polymer swell to a small extent, followed by irradiating it by the use of isotopes, accelerators or a reactor (absorbed dose 1.0 to 1.5 Mrad). Aldehyde/ether ratio in the side chain can be controlled by varying the concentration of CCl 4 . The maximum graft ratio attainable is about 20%. No acrolein homopolymer is formed. The product exhibits a very high adhesive strength to glass. In one example, a polystyrene film (20μ in thickness, 150 mg) was sealed into an evacuated glass ampoule together with ethanol (13 cc), acrolein (1 cc) and CCl 4 (1 cc) and irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays (1.1 x 10 4 R/hr, 198 hrs). Graft ratio was 11.2%. Gel fraction (extraction with benzene) 0%. Aldehyde structure in the side chain 22%. Adhesive strength to glass: more than 50 kg/cm 2 . (Kaichi, S.)

  16. Effect of energy density on low-shrinkage composite resins: diode-pumped solid state laser versus quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Young-Joon; Lee, Geun-Ho; Park, Jeong-Kil; Ro, Jung-Hoon; García-Godoy, Franklin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of energy density on the polymerization of low-shrinkage composite resins. The number of photons needs to initiate the polymerization process can be controlled by light intensity and curing time through the form of energy density. For the study, two methacrylate-based (Premise [PR] and Venus Diamond [VE]) and one silorane-based (Filtek LS [LS]) composite resins were light cured using a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) light-curing unit (LCU) and a 473 nm diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser. Degree of conversion (DC), microhardness, refractive index, and polymerization shrinkage were evaluated under different energy densities. Through the study, the feasibility of DPSS laser as a light source was tested as well. LS showed the highest DC and refractive index both on the top and bottom surfaces, and the least polymerization shrinkage among the tested specimens. For the same or similar energy density, QTH and DPSS showed insignificant DC difference (p>0.05). On the other hand, for microhardness, except for one case at the bottom surface, QTH and DPSS showed significant difference (punit.

  17. Palate Fracture Repair With Light-Cured Resin Splint: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Jimmy; Dale, Elizabeth L; Halsey, Jordan; Sargent, Larry A

    2015-10-01

    Palate fractures are rare, and their treatment is a matter of debate. Although some investigators have favored rigid plate fixation, others have reported successful treatment without it. Sagittal split and comminuted fractures can require rigid fixation to reduce the maxillary width; however, additional stabilization is needed. Also, palate repair without a splint is complicated by prolonged intermaxillary fixation (IMF), causing stiffness to the temporomandibular joint. We introduce a technique using a rapid light-cured resin (TRIAD TranSheet) frequently used by orthodontists for making dental retainers. Its use is similar to the splints traditionally created preoperatively, but obviates the need for making impressions, a model, and a molded splint. A series of 13 patients treated with this technique during a 5-year period is presented. The average duration of IMF was 4.7 weeks (range 3 to 6). The average duration of the palate splint was 8.4 weeks (range 5 to 12). One patient had malocclusion, but none had malunion, infection, or oronasal fistula. Our series has demonstrated a simple, cost-effective, and successful technique. It can be used alone or combined with rigid fixation and allows for a shortened duration of maxillomandibular fixation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Temperature changes caused by light curing of fiber-reinforced composite resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Sagsoz, Omer; Karatas, Ozcan; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Çelik, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate temperature change in fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) resin photopolymerized with a light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing unit (LCU). Materials and Methods: Forty dentine disks (1 mm thick and 8 mm diameter) were prepared from human molars. The FRC specimens (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter) consisted of polyethylene fiber (Construct (CT)) products or glass fiber (ever Stick (ES)) and one hybrid composite bonded to the dentin disks and polymerized with an LED LCU. Control groups were prepared using the hybrid composite. Temperature rise in dentine samples under the FRC bonded disks was measured using a K-type thermocouple, and data were recorded. Temperature change data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's test. Results: The results show that addition of fiber (one or two layers) did not change temperature rise values at any of the exposure times (P > 0.05). The CT fiber/two layer/40 s group exhibited the greatest temperature rise (5.49 ± 0.62) and the ES/one layer/10 s group the lowest rise (1.75 ± 0.32). A significant difference was observed in temperature rise measured during 10 and 20 s exposures (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Maximal temperature rise determined in all groups was not critical for pulpal health, although clinicians need to note temperature rises during polymerization. PMID:26069409

  19. Effect of aging and curing mode on the compressive and indirect tensile strength of resin composite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-11-21

    Resin composite cements are used in dentistry to bond ceramic restorations to the tooth structure. In the oral cavity these cements are subjected to aging induced by masticatory and thermal stresses. Thermal cycling between 5 and 55 °C simulates the effect of varying temperatures in vitro. Purpose of this study was to compare indirect tensile to compressive strength of different cements before and after thermal cycling. The effect of the curing mode was additionally assessed. Indirect tensile strength and compressive strength of 7 dual-curing resin composite cements (Multilink Automix, Multilink SpeedCem, RelyX Ultimate, RelyX Unicem 2 Automix, Panavia V5, Panavia SA Plus, Harvard Implant semi-permanent) was measured. The specimens were either autopolymerized or light-cured (n = 10). The mechanical properties were assessed after 24 h water storage at 37 °C and after aging (20,000 thermo cycles) with previous 24 h water storage at 37 °C. Indirect tensile strength ranged from 5.2 ± 0.8 to 55.3 ± 4.2 MPa, compressive strength from 35.8 ± 1.8 MPa to 343.8 ± 19.6 MPa. Thermocyclic aging of 20,000 cycles can be considered a suitable method to simulate the degradation of indirect tensile strength but not compressive strength of resin composite cements. The effect of thermocycling and the curing mode on the resin composite cements is material dependent and cannot be generalized.

  20. Effect of aging and curing mode on the compressive and indirect tensile strength of resin composite cements

    OpenAIRE

    Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Background Resin composite cements are used in dentistry to bond ceramic restorations to the tooth structure. In the oral cavity these cements are subjected to aging induced by masticatory and thermal stresses. Thermal cycling between 5 and 55 °C simulates the effect of varying temperatures in vitro. Purpose of this study was to compare indirect tensile to compressive strength of different cements before and after thermal cycling. The effect of the curing mode was additionally assessed. Metho...

  1. Influence of the light-curing unit, storage time and shade of a dental composite resin on the fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R. S.; Bandéca, M. C.; Calixto, L. R.; Gaiao, U.; Cuin, A.; Porto-Neto, S. T.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of three light-curing units, storage times and colors of the dental composite resin on the fluorescence. The specimens (diameter 10.0 ± 0.1 mm, thickness 1.0 ± 0.1 mm) were made using a stainless steel mold. The mold was filled with the microhybrid composite resin and a polyethylene film covered each side of the mold. After this, a glass slide was placed on the top of the mold. To standardize the top surface of the specimens a circular weight (1 kg) with an orifice to pass the light tip of the LCU was placed on the top surface and photo-activated during 40 s. Five specimens were made for each group. The groups were divided into 9 groups following the LCUs (one QTH and two LEDs), storage times (immediately after curing, 24 hours, 7 and 30 days) and colors (shades: A2E, A2D, and TC) of the composite resin. After photo-activation, the specimens were storage in artificial saliva during the storage times proposed to each group at 37°C and 100% humidity. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s posthoc tests showed no significant difference between storage times (immediately, 24 hours and 30 days) ( P > 0.05). The means of fluorescence had difference significant to color and light-curing unit used to all period of storage ( P 0.05).

  2. Synthesis of non-ionic and ionic resins for BEP intaglio inks curing by electron-beam radiation. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, B.J.; Dickens, B.

    1992-01-01

    The inks currently used to print US postage stamps on web presses are dried by heat evaporation of solvents. Emission of solvents into the atmosphere is governed by Local and Federal Government Regulations. Reduction of these emissions to acceptable levels can be accomplished by either of two methods available to the BEP. The work was part of a continuing effort to produce resins for use in formulation of intaglio inks for the printing of postage stamps and security documents. The inks are to be cured by exposure to an electron beam. The uncured inks are cleaned from the roller and wiping blade by washing the wiping blade with neutral water or with caustic water. Laboratory scale work on the urethane/polyethylene oxide/methacrylate resins has now been concluded and information on the synthesis has been provided to BEP for patenting and scaleup. Some effort on nonionic resins continued into FY88

  3. Curing reactions of bismaleimide resins catalyzed by triphenylphosphine. High resolution solid-state 13C NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibahara, Sumio; Enoki, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Motoyoshiya, Jiro; Hayashi, Sadao.

    1996-01-01

    The curing reactions of bismaleimide resins consisted of N,N'-4,4'-diphenylmethanebismaleimide (BMI) and o,o'-diallylbisphenol-A (DABA) in the presence of triphenylphosphine (TPP) as a catalyst were investigated. DSC measurements showed that the catalytic effect of TPP on the curing reaction of BMI was more in the presence of DABA than in its absence. In order to explore this curing reaction, N-phenylmaleimide (PMI) and o-allylphenol (AP) were selected as model compounds. The products of the PMI/TPP system were oligomers and polymers of PMI, whereas the main product of the PMI/AP/TPP system was the PMI trimer which had the five-membered ring formed via the phosphonium ylide intermediate. In these model reactions, 13 C NMR was found to be useful to distinguish between trimerization and polymerization of PMI. On the basis of the results of the model reactions, the curing reactions of bismaleimide resins were investigated by high resolution solid state 13 C NMR techniques. In the BMI/TPP system, maleimides polymerize above 175degC, but the polymerization does not proceed at 120degC. On the other hand, maleimides trimerize above 120degC in the presence of DABA and TPP. The mechanism of the trimerization is briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Effects of fluconazole, chlorhexidine gluconate, and silver-zinc zeolite on flexural strength of heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Naveen S; Saraf, Sneha; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Hazari, Puja

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of incorporating Fluconazole, Chlorhexidine Gluconate, and Silver-Zinc Zeolite as bioactive materials (10% of mass) on the flexural strength of commercially available heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA; Travelon). The following four groups were compared; Group 1: Control group with pure PMMA, Group 2: Antibacterial drug group with chlorhexidine gluconate in powder form + PMMA, Group 3: Antifungal drug group with fluconazole in powder form + PMMA, Group 4: Antimicrobial agent group with silver zinc zeolite in powder form + PMMA. After processing, the specimens were subjected for flexural strength testing using three-point bending test in a universal testing machine. A significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in flexural strength following incorporation of Fluconazole, Chlorhexidine Gluconate, and Silver-Zinc Zeolite to heat polymerized acrylic resin was observed when compared with the control group. The decrease in mean flexural strength was minimal in the fluconazole group. Although the addition of a bioactive material to PMMA acrylic is desirable, it is not practical as it reduces flexural strength of the acrylic base.

  5. EFFECT OF LIGHT CURING UNIT CHARACTERISTICS ON LIGHT INTENSITY OUTPUT, DEPTH OF CURE AND SURFACE MICRO-HARDNESS OF DENTAL RESIN COMPOSITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, B A; Kisumbi, B K; Lesan, W R; Gathece, L W

    2013-09-01

    Modern dental composite restorations are wholly dependent on the use of Visible Light Curing devices. The characteristics of these devices may influence the quality of composite resin restorations. To determine the characteristics of light curing units (LCUs) in dental clinics in Nairobi and their effect on light intensity output, depth of cure (DOC) and surface micro-hardness (SMH) of dental resin composite. Laboratory based, cross-sectional analytical study. Public and private dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Eighty three LCUs which were in use in private and public dental health facilities in Nairobi, Kenya and resin composite specimens. Of the 83 LCUs studied, 43 (51.8%) were Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and 39(47.0%) were Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen (QTH) and 1 (1.2%) was Plasma Arc Curing (PAC) light. Mean light intensity for QTH and LED lights was 526.59 mW/cm2 and 493.67 mW/cm2 respectively (p=0.574), while the mean DOC for QTH lights was 1.71 mm and LED was 1.67 mm (p=0.690). Mean Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) for LED was 57.44 and for QTH was 44.14 (p=0.713). Mean light intensity for LCUs units > 5 years old (p=0.024). The mean DOC for the two age groups was 1.74 mm and 1.57 mm respectively (p=0.073). For SMH, the 5 years age groups gave a mean VHN of 58.81 and 51.46 respectively (p=0.1). On maintenance history, the frequency of routine inspection, duration since the last repair/replacement of a part or other maintenance activity and the nature of the last maintenance activity were determined and were not found to have influenced the light intensity, DOC and SMH. The LCU age has a statistically significant influence on its light intensity (p=0.024) while the type and maintenance history have no significant influence on its light intensity and composite DOC and SMH (p=0.574, p=0.690, p=0.713 respectively).

  6. A comparative evaluation of impact strength of conventionally heat cured and high impact heat cured polymethyl methacrylate denture base resins: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, R; Reddy, N Simhachalam; Reddy, Sashi Deepth; Purna, C R Sashi; Shekar, M Chandra; Balasubramanyam, S

    2013-11-01

    The denture bases made by using polymethyl methacrylates of Acrylic resin family have excellent physical properties, simple to process and easy to reline, rebase and repair. One of the inherent disadvantages of this material is the liability to break during function. The strength assessment of acrylic resins have been made generally by transverse defection tests. To evaluate the impact strength valves of certain brands of commercially available denture base resins and suggest their suitability. The denture bases we made using polymethyl methacrylates of acrylic resin family because they have excellent physical properties, simple to process and easy to reline and rebase. Six commercial brands of polymethyl meth- acrylate, namely Stellon (DPI-India), Acralyn-H (Asian Acrylate, India), Trevalon (Dentsply-England), Lucitone 199 (Dentsply/ York division), Acralyn-H (Super Unbreakable), Trevalon HI (Dentsply, Detray division, England) were tested by breaking them using Analog Pendulum (ASTM D 256). From the entire study the maximum impact strength was reported for Acralyn-H super unbreakable (Asian Acrylates, India) 62.19 joules. All the analysis led to conclusion that there is basic change in material composition within and among the different groups of denture base resins. The complete dentures made using denture base resins with high impact strength valves (e.g. Acralyn-H super unbreakable) will be more durable and can be used by the patient for considerable period of time, i.e. beyond 4 to 5 years.

  7. Novel spirocyclic phosphazene-based epoxy resin for halogen-free fire resistance: synthesis, curing behaviors, and flammability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Dezhen

    2012-08-01

    A novel halogen-free fire resistant epoxy resin with pendent spiro-cyclotriphosphazene groups was designed and synthesized via a three-step synthetic pathway. The chemical structures and compositions of spiro-cyclotriphosphazene precursors and final product were confirmed by (1)H, (13)C, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal curing behaviors of the synthesized epoxy resin with 4,4'-diamino-diphenylmethane, 4,4'-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, and novolac as hardeners were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the curing kinetics were also studied under a nonisothermal condition. The evaluation of the thermal properties demonstrated that these thermosets achieved a good thermal resistance due to their high glass transition temperatures more than 150 °C, and also gained high thermal stabilities with high char yields. The flammability characteristics of the spirocyclic phosphazene-based epoxy thermosets cured with these three hardeners were investigated on the basis of the results obtained from the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 vertical burning experiments as well as the analysis of the residual chars collected from the vertical burning tests. The high LOI values and UL-94 V-0 classification of these epoxy thermosets indicated that the incorporation of phosphazene rings into the backbone chain imparts nonflammability to the epoxy resin owing to the unique combination of phosphorus and nitrogen following by a synergistic effect on flame retardancy. The epoxy resin obtained in this study is a green functional polymer and will become a potential candidate for fire- and heat-resistant applications in electronic and microelectronic fields with more safety and excellent performance.

  8. Evaluation of adhesive bonding of lithium disilicate ceramic material with duel cured resin luting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambade, Dipti Pravin; Gundawar, Sham M; Radke, Usha M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the adhesive bonding of dual cured resin luting agents with lithium disilicate ceramic material. Porcelain laminate veneers were prepared with lithium disilicate ceramic material i.e. IPS Empress II( E-Max Press). These laminates were bonded with RelyX ARC, Panavia F 2.0, Variolink II, Duolink and Nexus NX3.The porcelain laminates were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (Pulpdent Corporation) for one minute, washed for 15 sec with three way syringe and dried for 15 sec with air syringe. The silane (Ultradent) was applied with the help of applicator tip in a single coat and kept undisturbed for one minute. The prepared surfaces of the premolars were treated with 37% phosphoric acid (Prime dent) for 15 sec, thoroughly rinsed and dried as per manufactures instructions. The shear bond test was carried out on all samples with the Universal testing machine (Instron U.S.A.) The scanning electron microscopic study was performed at the fractured interface of representative samples from each group of luting agents. In this study, the highest value of shear bond strength was obtained for NEXUS NX3 and the lowest for VARIOLINK II. The difference in bond strength can be interpreted as the difference in fracture resistance of luting agents, to which shearing load was applied during the shear bond strength test. It is inferred from this study that the composition of the luting agent determines the adhesive characteristics in addition to surface treatment and bonding surface area.

  9. Dimensional change of heat-cured acrylic resin dentures with three different cooling regimes following a standard curing cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moturi, Bhanodaya; Juszczyk, Andrzej S; Radford, David R; Clark, Robert K F

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare dimensional changes in poly(methylmethacrylate) complete denture bases resulting from three different cooling regimens following a standard heating cycle. Changes in three separate dimensions were measured on ten dentures within each cooling regimen after curing, and before and after removing the denture from the cast using a computer imaging system. No consistent differences occurred as a result of removing the denture from the cast. The results indicated that there was greater change in dimension of dentures with the quenching cooling method than with either overnight cooling in the water bath or bench cooling. This was particularly evident after removal from the cast after curing (p<0.001). It is concluded that slow cooling results in less dimensional change.

  10. Setting Reaction of Dental Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Restoratives as a Function of Curing Depth and Postirradiation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kyung Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specular reflectance Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the setting reaction of dental resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI restoratives as a function of curing depth and postirradiation time. Two light-cure and one tri-cure RMGI materials were selected and used according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Samples were prepared by filling the mixed materials into custom-made molds and then light-irradiating using a dental curing light. The degree of conversion and the extent of acid-base reaction of the materials at different depths (0, 1, 2, and 4 mm and postirradiation times (10 min, 1 day, and 7 days were determined using SR-FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with the Kramers-Kronig (K-K transformation. The setting reaction was also investigated using microhardness measurements. The results showed that the depth of cure increased over time by the continuous acid-base reaction rather than photopolymerization or chemical polymerization. Microhardness tests seemed less suitable for studying the setting reaction as a function of postirradiation time, probably due to softening from the humidity. Analysis using specular reflectance in conjunction with the K-K algorithm was an easy and effective method for monitoring the setting reaction of dental RMGI materials.

  11. Novel Multifunctional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Curing Agent with High Flame-Retardant Efficiency for Epoxy Resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi; Shao, Zhu-Bao; Chen, Xue-Fang; Long, Jia-Wei; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2015-08-19

    A novel multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid was designed and prepared based on ammonium polyphosphate (APP) by cation exchange with diethylenetriamine (DETA), abbreviated as DETA-APP. Then DETA-APP was used as flame-retardant curing agent for epoxy resin (EP). Curing behavior, including the curing kinetic parameters, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The flame retardance and burning behavior of DETA-APP cured EP were also evaluated. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of DETA-APP/EP was enhanced to 30.5% with only 15 wt % of DETA-APP incorporated; and the UL-94 V-0 rating could be easily passed through with only 10 wt % of the hybrid. Compared with DETA/EP, the peak-heat release rate (PHRR), total heat release (THR), total smoke production (TSP), and peak-smoke production release (SPR) of DETA-APP/EP (15 wt % addition), obtained from cone calorimetry, were dropped by 68.3, 79.3, 79.0, and 30.0%, respectively, suggesting excellent flame-retardant and smoke suppression efficiency. The flame-retardant mechanism of DETA-APP/EP has been investigated comprehensively. The results of all the aforementioned studies distinctly confirmed that DETA-APP was an effective flame-retardant curing agent for EP.

  12. Dielectric analysis of depth dependent curing behavior of dental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Moeginger, Bernhard; Grossgarten, Mandy; Rosentritt, Martin; Hausnerova, Berenika

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate depth dependent changes of polymerization process and kinetics of visible light-curing (VLC) dental composites in real-time. The measured quantity - "ion viscosity" determined by dielectric analysis (DEA) - provides the depth dependent reaction rate which is correlated to the light intensity available in the corresponding depths derived from light transmission measurements. The ion viscosity curves of two composites (VOCO Arabesk Top and Grandio) were determined during irradiation of 40s with a light-curing unit (LCU) in specimen depths of 0.5/0.75/1.0/1.25/1.5/1.75 and 2.0mm using a dielectric cure analyzer (NETZSCH DEA 231 with Mini IDEX sensors). The thickness dependent light transmission was measured by irradiation composite specimens of various thicknesses on top of a radiometer setup. The shape of the ion viscosity curves depends strongly on the specimen thickness above the sensor. All curves exhibit a range of linear time dependency of the ion viscosity after a certain initiation time. The determined initiation times, the slopes of the linear part of the curves, and the ion viscosities at the end of the irradiation differ significantly with depth within the specimen. The slopes of the ion viscosity curves as well as the light intensity values decrease with depth and fit to the Lambert-Beer law. The corresponding attenuation coefficients are determined for Arabesk Top OA2 to 1.39mm(-1) and 1.48mm(-1), respectively, and for Grandio OA2 with 1.17 and 1.39mm(-1), respectively. For thicknesses exceeding 1.5mm a change in polymerization behavior is observed as the ion viscosity increases subsequent to the linear range indicating some kind of reaction acceleration. The two VLC composites and different specimen thicknesses discriminate significantly in their ion viscosity evolution allowing for a precise characterization of the curing process even with respect to the polymerization mechanism. Copyright © 2014. Published by

  13. Process for Molding Nonreinforced (Neat) Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Void free moldings obtained for neat, condensation, thermosetting resins. Thermally and mechanically treat resin prior to molding to reduce amount of volatiles. With volatiles reduced molding temperature and pressure are applied in way to drive out remaining volatiles during molding.

  14. Integrating Porous Resins In Enzymatic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Haque, Naweed

    of these enzymes to be harnessed. Porous resins as opposed to other auxiliary phases, for example organic solvents, are nonbioavailable, biocompatible and offer simpler operational handling (no foaming and emulsification). This strategy has been applied effectively to single substrate – single product systems...... concentration in the reactor and thus not aid in alleviating inhibition. Further considerationsProcess modelling is a very effective tool in evaluating a process. Critical information about the process can be gained by means of simulations, which can further be re-used to tune the reaction or process conditions...... properties and potential ‘green’ attributes, presents it as a sustainable alternative. Today, the role of biocatalysis is most evident in the pharmaceutical industry and is currently extending towards fine and bulk chemical production as well. The use of hydrolytic enzymes (lipases) is well established...

  15. Effect of pre-heated dual-cured resin cements on the bond strength of indirect restorations to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Morais

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of resin luting agents (LA polymerized using increased temperature on the in vitro microtensile bond strength (mTBS of indirect restorations to dentin. The occlusal dentin surfaces of 40 human third molars were exposed and flattened. The teeth were assigned to 8 groups (n = 5 according to the LA temperature (25°C o r 50°C, curing mode (dual- or self-curing mode, and product (Excite DSC/Variolink II [VII] and XP Bond/Calibra [Cal]. The bonding agents were applied to the dentin surfaces according to manufacturers' instructions. For preheated groups, the LAs were heated to 50°C, subsequently mixed on a heated stirrer surface, and applied to the previously heated pre-polymerized resin discs (2 mm thickness, TPH-Spectrum. The discs were bonded to the dentin surfaces, and the LAs were either exposed to a curing light according to manufacturers' instructions or allowed to self-cure. Specimens were stored in relative humidity at 37°C for 7 days. Specimens were mesio-distally and bucco-lingually sectioned to obtain multiple bonded beams with a 1-mm² cross-sectional area for mTBS testing. Data (MPa were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (a = 5% for each product. Specimen failure patterns were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. VII groups showed higher mTBS at 50°C than at 25°C regardless of curing mode (p = 0.05. Cal groups showed similar mTBS at 25°C and 50°C in all activation modes. The use of some dual-polymerizing LAs at 50°C may improve the mTBS of indirect restorations to dentin.

  16. Influence of prolonged light-curing time on the shear bonding strength of resin to bleached enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Manal; Wang, Yining

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of prolonged light-curing time using a light-emitting diode unit (LED) on the shear bond strength of a resin composite to enamel immediately after bleaching. The enamel surfaces of human molars were divided into four groups: one control and three bleaching groups. One bleaching group (CP) was exposed to a 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent and bonded after 24 hours. The other two bleaching groups (HP) were bleached with a 38% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent, then bonded either within one hour (HPA) or after 24 hours (HPB). All groups were subdivided into two subgroups and cured for two different times (20 or 40 seconds) with an LED unit. Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested with a universal-testing machine and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc tests. Scanning electron micrographs of representative specimens were taken. A significant difference was seen between the control and HPA groups for both curing times (p = 0.000). However, neither the CP nor HPB groups showed any significant differences compared with the control groups (p > 0.05). Two-way ANOVA showed that a significant effect of the curing time factor was recorded for all groups (p = 0.000). Prolonged curing time, using an LED unit with a light intensity of 500 mW/cm2, increased resin-enamel bonding strengths for the control and bleached groups when bonding was performed after 24 hours of immersion in deionized water. However, the SBS was still compromised when bonding was performed immediately to enamel bleached with 38% HP.

  17. Modification of bifunctional epoxy resin using CO{sub 2} fixation process and nanoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshkish, Morteza; Bouhendi, Hosein, E-mail: H.boohendi@ippi.ac.ir; Vafayan, Mehdi

    2014-10-15

    A bifunctional epoxy resin was modified by using a CO{sub 2} fixation solution process in the presence of tetra n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as catalyst and the modified treated resin was treated by cloisite 30B as nano additive. The Unmodified epoxy resin (UME), CO{sub 2} fixated modified epoxy resin (CFME), and CFME/clay nano composite (CFMEN), were cured by diethylenetriamine (DETA). A cycloaliphatic compound as a reactive diluent was used to control the viscosity of high viscose CFME. The exfoliation of organoclay in UME and CFME was investigated by X-ray diffraction and activation energy was computed using the advanced integral isoconversional method. The activation energy dependency demonstrated that the mechanism of UME curing did not change in the presence of nanoclay. In contrast, the CO{sub 2} fixation results showed a significant change in the activation energy dependency. The Thermal stability parameters include the initial degradation temperature (IDT), the temperature at the maximum rate of weight loss (T{sub max}), and the decomposition activation energy (E{sub d}) were determined by thermal gravimetry analysis. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis measurements showed that the presence of organoclay in CFME increases the T{sub g} of nano composite in contrast to UME. The fracture roughness of UME, CFME and CFNE were determined by scanning electron microscope. The exfoliated UME/1%clay nanocomposite was confirmed by TEM image. - Highlights: • A new epoxy resin was synthesized using CO{sub 2} fixation reaction. • The synthesized epoxy resin was modified by an organo nano-clay. • CO{sub 2} fixation noticeably changed the curing mechanism. • CO{sub 2} fixation reaction consumes CO{sub 2} which is a harmful greenhouse gas.

  18. Modification of bifunctional epoxy resin using CO2 fixation process and nanoclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshkish, Morteza; Bouhendi, Hosein; Vafayan, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    A bifunctional epoxy resin was modified by using a CO 2 fixation solution process in the presence of tetra n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as catalyst and the modified treated resin was treated by cloisite 30B as nano additive. The Unmodified epoxy resin (UME), CO 2 fixated modified epoxy resin (CFME), and CFME/clay nano composite (CFMEN), were cured by diethylenetriamine (DETA). A cycloaliphatic compound as a reactive diluent was used to control the viscosity of high viscose CFME. The exfoliation of organoclay in UME and CFME was investigated by X-ray diffraction and activation energy was computed using the advanced integral isoconversional method. The activation energy dependency demonstrated that the mechanism of UME curing did not change in the presence of nanoclay. In contrast, the CO 2 fixation results showed a significant change in the activation energy dependency. The Thermal stability parameters include the initial degradation temperature (IDT), the temperature at the maximum rate of weight loss (T max ), and the decomposition activation energy (E d ) were determined by thermal gravimetry analysis. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis measurements showed that the presence of organoclay in CFME increases the T g of nano composite in contrast to UME. The fracture roughness of UME, CFME and CFNE were determined by scanning electron microscope. The exfoliated UME/1%clay nanocomposite was confirmed by TEM image. - Highlights: • A new epoxy resin was synthesized using CO 2 fixation reaction. • The synthesized epoxy resin was modified by an organo nano-clay. • CO 2 fixation noticeably changed the curing mechanism. • CO 2 fixation reaction consumes CO 2 which is a harmful greenhouse gas

  19. Effect of light curing modes and ethanol immersion media on the susceptibility of a microhybrid composite resin to staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Baggio Aguiar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the susceptibility of a hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z250 - 3M ESPE to staining, when light cured in four different modes and immersed in two different media. Composite resin specimens were randomly prepared and polymerized according to the experimental groups (conventional - 550 mW/cm² / 30 seconds; soft start - 300mW/cm² / 10 seconds + 550 mW/cm² / 20 seconds; high intensity - 1060 mW/cm² - 10 seconds; pulse delay - 550 mW/cm² - 1 seconds + 60 seconds of waiting time + 550 mW/cm² - 20 seconds and immersed in one of two media (distilled water or absolute ethanol for 24h. Next, the specimens were immersed in a 2% methylene blue solution for 12 hours. Afterwards, the specimens were washed and prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis. For statistical analysis, two-way ANOVA (4X2 and Tukey's test were performed on the data at 0.05 confidence level. Soft start showed the least staining, and was statistically different from the high intensity and pulse delay light curing modes (p0.05. There were no significant differences between the two immersion media (p>0.05. The soft start polymerization mode showed lower susceptibly of the composite resin to staining than high intensity and pulse delay, irrespective of the immersion medium.

  20. A combinaison of UV curing technology with ATL process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbzioui, I.; Hasiaoui, B.; Barbier, G.; L'hostis, G.; Laurent, F.; Ibrahim, A.; Durand, B.

    2017-10-01

    In order to reduce the time and the cost of manufacturing composite, UV curing technology combined with automated tape placement process (ATL) based on reverse approach by working with a fixed head was studied in this article. First, a brief description of the developed head placement is presented. Mechanical properties are then evaluated by varying process parameters, including compaction force and tape placement speed. Finally, a parametric study is carried out to identify suitable materials and process parameters to manufacture a photo composite material with high mechanical performances. The obtained results show that UV curing is a very good alternative for thermal polymerization because of its fast cure speed due to less dependency on temperature.

  1. Process study of polycyanate resin for wet-filament wound high-strength composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1997-12-31

    Polycyanate (or cyanate ester) resins offer advantages as composite matrices because of their high thermal stability, low outgassing, low water absorption and radiation resistance. This report describes the results of a processing study to develop high-strength hoop-wound composite by the wet-filament winding method using Toray T1000G carbon fiber and YLA RS-14 polycyanate resin as the constituent materials. T1000G/RS-14 composite cylinders were wet-wound and cured using different process schedules and then evaluated for hoop tensile strength and modulus, transverse flexural strength and short beam shear strength. The results of material characterization tests performed on the T1000G carbon fiber and RS-14 resin constituents used in this study are also presented.

  2. Influence of polymerization time and depth of cure of resin composites determined by Vickers hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lombardini

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Among the materials tested, the nanofilled and the nanohybrid resin composites were rather insensible to thickness variations. Miicrohybrid composites, instead, had features different from one another.

  3. Influence of Emission Spectrum and Irradiance on Light Curing of Resin-Based Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Cak; Sullivan, B; Turbino, M L; Soares, C J; Price, R B

    This study examined the influence of different emission spectra (single-peak and broad-spectrum) light-curing units (LCUs) delivering the same radiant exposures at irradiance values of 1200 or 3600 mW/cm 2 on the polymerization and light transmission of four resin-based composites (RBCs). Two prototype LCUs that used the same light tip, but were either a single-peak blue or a broad-spectrum LED, were used to deliver the same radiant exposures to the top surfaces of the RBCs using either standard (1200 mW/cm 2 ) or high irradiance (3600 mW/cm 2 ) settings. The emission spectrum and radiant power from the LCUs were measured with a laboratory-grade integrating sphere coupled to a spectrometer, and the light beam was assessed with a beam profiler camera. Four RBCs (Filtek Supreme Ultra A2, Tetric EvoCeram A2, Tetric EvoCeram T, and TPH Spectra High Viscosity A2) were photoactivated using four different light conditions: single-peak blue/standard irradiance, single-peak blue/high irradiance, broad-spectrum/standard irradiance, and broad-spectrum/high irradiance. The degree of conversion (N=5) and microhardness at the top and bottom of 2.3-mm-diameter by 2.5-mm-thick specimens (N=5) were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey tests. The real-time light transmission through the RBCs was also measured. For all light conditions, the 2.3-mm-diameter specimens received a homogeneous irradiance and spectral distribution. Although similar radiant exposures were delivered to the top surfaces of the RBCs, the amount of light energy emitted from the bottom surfaces was different among the four RBCs, and was also greater for the single-peak lights. Very little violet light (wavelengths below 420 nm) reached the bottom of the 2.5-mm-thick specimens. The degree of conversion and microhardness results varied according to the RBC (pspectrum lights, while at the bottom, where little violet light was observed, the results were equal or higher when they were photoactivated with

  4. Effect of light curing methods on microleakage and microhardness of different resin sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangthip, Duangporn; Ballungpattama, Suda; Sitthisettapong, Thanya

    2011-07-01

    This study's purpose was to evaluate the effect of light curing methods on the microleakage and microhardness of sealants. The Elipar Free Light 2 light emitting diode (LED) with 10- and 20-second curing times, and the Elipar 2500 halogen light with a 20-second curing time were compared. Four different sealants were used: (1) Delton Clear; (2) Delton Opaque; (3) UltraSeal XT Clear; and (4) UltraSeal XT Opaque. Specimens were fabricated in a silicone mold (2-mm thick) and cured. Knoop hardness was measured at the bottom and top surfaces. For the microleakage evaluation, 120 human molars were divided into 12 groups and sealed with the sealants and curing methods, as stated previously. The teeth were thermocycled and immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours. Each tooth was sectioned and examined for dye penetration. There were no statistically significant differences in the microleakage of sealants polymerized by either the halogen or LED curing methods. The microhardness of sealants varied according to the type of material and curing method. A 10-second polymerization time with light emitting diodes was not sufficient to cure the 2-mm-thick opaque or high filler loaded sealants. Decreasing the curing time, however, had no effect on the microleakage of the sealants.

  5. Effect of reduced exposure times on the cytotoxicity of resin luting cements cured by high-power led

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfem Ergun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Applications of resin luting agents and high-power light-emitting diodes (LED light-curing units (LCUs have increased considerably over the last few years. However, it is not clear whether the effect of reduced exposure time on cytotoxicity of such products have adequate biocompatibility to meet clinical success. This study aimed at assessing the effect of reduced curing time of five resin luting cements (RLCs polymerized by high-power LED curing unit on the viability of a cell of L-929 fibroblast cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disc-shaped samples were prepared in polytetrafluoroethylene moulds with cylindrical cavities. The samples were irradiated from the top through the ceramic discs and acetate strips using LED LCU for 20 s (50% of the manufacturer's recommended exposure time and 40 s (100% exposure time. After curing, the samples were transferred into a culture medium for 24 h. The eluates were obtained and pipetted onto L-929 fibroblast cultures (3x10(4 per well and incubated for evaluating after 24 h. Measurements were performed by dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium assay. Statistical significance was determined by two-way ANOVA and two independent samples were compared by t-test. RESULTS: Results showed that eluates of most of the materials polymerized for 20 s (except Rely X Unicem and Illusion reduced to a higher extent cell viability compared to samples of the same materials polymerized for 40 s. Illusion exhibited the least cytotoxicity for 20 s exposure time compared to the control (culture without samples followed by Rely X Unicem and Rely X ARC (90.81%, 88.90%, and 83.11%, respectively. For Rely X ARC, Duolink and Lute-It 40 s exposure time was better (t=-1.262 p=0,276; t=-9.399 p=0.001; and t=-20.418 p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that reduction of curing time significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of the studied resin cement materials, therefore compromising their clinical

  6. [Comparative evaluation of the marginal accuracy of single crowns fabricated computer using aided design/computer aided manufacturing methods, self-curing resin and Luxatemp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianming, Yuan; Ying, Tang; Feng, Pan; Weixing, Xu

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to compare the marginal accuracy of single crowns fabricated using self-curing resin, Luxatemp, and computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) methods in clinical application. A total of 30 working dies, which were obtained from 30 clinical teeth prepared with full crown as standard, were created and made into 30 self-curing resin, Luxatemp, and CAD/CAM single crowns. The restorations were seated on the working dies, and stereomicroscope was used to observe and measure the thickness of reference points. One-way analysis of variance, which was performed using SPSS 19.0 software package, compared the marginal gap widths of self-curing resin, Luxatemp, and CAD/CAM provisional crowns. The mean marginal gap widths of the fabricated self-curing resin, Luxatemp, and CAD/CAM were (179.06±33.24), (88.83±9.56), and (43.61±7.27) μm, respectively. A significant difference was observed among the three provisional crowns (Pprovisional crown was lower than that of the self-curing resin and Luxatemp. Thus, the CAD/CAM provisional crown offers a better remediation effect in clinical application.

  7. Thermal Expansion and Swelling of Cured Epoxy Resin Used in Graphite/Epoxy Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal expansion and swelling of resin material as influenced by variations in temperature during moisture absorption is discussed. Comparison measurements using composites constructed of graphite fibers and each of two epoxy resin matrices are included. Polymer theory relative to these findings is discussed and modifications are proposed.

  8. Electron-beam curing of epoxy resins: effect of alcohols on cationic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    hydroxyl group reactivity. Current work is directed to- wards the investigation of network formation by e-beam curing of diepoxy based systems (e.g. diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and the effect of presence of different OH containing species on the structural as well as mechanical properties of the e-beam cured materials.

  9. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute's anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

  10. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  11. The Effects of Difunctional Urone Catalysis on Selected Non-Halogenated Flame Retardant Synergies of Dicyandiamide Cured Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan M.

    A standard grade diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A, DGEBA, epoxy resin was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, to determine the optimum stoichiometric balance of a dicyandiamide, DICY, curing agent. The maximum attainable glass transition temperature, Tg, was used as a reference point for the optimal reactivity. The stoichiometric value was found to be 8 epoxy groups to 1 equivalent of dicyandiamide, or an 80% stoichiometric ratio. This value lies within the known literature range of 7-8.5 epoxy groups per dicyandiamide molecule. The optimal blend was then catalyzed with 1, 2 and 3 parts by weight, PBW, of Dyhard UR500, a difunctional urone catalyst. A separate blend was developed for each addition level of Dyhard UR500. Six non-halogenated flame retardants synergies were selected from the literature, and each flame retardant was incorporated at 10 PBW into a separate optimized DGEBA/DICY blend, which contained either 0,1,2 or 3 PBW Dyhard UR500. Cured neat resin and composite samples for each synergy, with each addition level of catalyst, were evaluated to determine the effects of urone catalysis on known non-halogenated flame retardant synergies. The neat resin analysis was performed using thermogravimetric analysis, TGA. The ASTM methods of E1641 and E1877 were used to determine the slope of the thermal endurance graph, or RTI, the slope of the relative thermal index. Composite laminates were prepared using T300B 3K carbon fiber containing 40% resin content, and five samples were evaluated in accordance with the UL-94 test standard. The DSC data showed a reduction in Tg with each increased PBW of urone catalyst. The observed reduction in Tg for these blends is understood to be an accurate representation for the decrease in crosslink density resulting from chain termination during cure. A comparison between the slope of RTI and the UL-94 test data indicate that this reduction in crosslink density has different influences on the flammability and

  12. Economic evaluation of five curing processes for wood coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez M, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this work we study the economic feasibility of five methods for curing coatings over sheet wood products. Each year, Mexico is producing more than 40 millions of square meters of wood panels, but the demand is of the range of 58 millions of square meters of this product. Two millions are expended after they are coated, and 38 millions without coating, they are coated artisanilly when they are used to make pieces of furniture. The technical characteristics and the costs involved in each one of five methods of curing, are described. Investments involved with each method are processed to establish: fixed costs, variable costs, equilibrium point, and others. Initial investment, coasts and revenues are processed to determine the income statement pro-form, the projected statement of change in financial position, the projected working capital, the projected balance sheet, the cash-flow, and some economical and financial indicators for each one of the five curing methods. With this information, the internal rate of return (IRR) is determined, and used to compare the economic worth of each of the five methods. The five methods are profitable, because all they have a IRR greater than the opportunity cost of capital (15%) of projects with similar characteristics. Despite, with each one of the five methods, the capital invested is recoverable, and profits can be obtained; curing by ultraviolet light or by electron beam, let recover the investment in less than two years, require fewer dollars for investment, and have a IRR of 135% and 111% respectively. Besides ultraviolet light or electron beam curing processes, pollute less with volatile solvents, use the energy efficiently, have greater production rate, and the coating obtained have better quality than with the other three methods. (Author)

  13. Processing method of radioactive spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takayuki; Saito, Tomohisa; Kurosaka, Norio.

    1997-01-01

    Resin beads and resin powders are collected from respective reservoir tanks to a supply tank, and the resin beads and the resin powders are continuously transferred from the supply tank to a dehydrator depending on the processing performance thereof to conduct dehydration. The obtained dehydrated resin beads and the powders are formed into a solidification product by cement solidification, or by incineration followed by cement solidification of incineration ashes, or are temporary stored in a storage vessel, and then subjected to one of the solidification treatments. It is possible to eliminate a worry of forming lumpy spent ion exchange resins in a storage tank to cause troubles upon withdrawal from the tank or during transportation. (N.H.)

  14. Influence of energy density of different light sources on knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Piva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin-based luting cement irradiated with different light sources as well energy density through a ceramic sample. Three light-curing unit (LCUs were tested: tungsten halogen light (HAL, light-emitting diode (LED and xenon plasma-arc (PAC lamp. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from a resin-based cement (Enforce. Three energy doses were used by modifying the irradiance (I of each LCU and the irradiation time (T: 24 Jcm-2 (I/2x2T, 24 Jcm-2 (IxT and 48 Jcm-2 (Ix2T. Energy doses were applied through a 2.0-mm-thick ceramic sample (Duceram Plus. Three groups underwent direct irradiation over the resin cement with the different LCUs and a chemically-activated group served as a control. Thirteen groups were tested (n=10. Knoop hardness number (KHN means were obtained from cross-sectional areas. Two-way ANOVA and the Holm-Sidak method were used for statistical comparisons of activation mode and energy doses (a=5%. Application of 48 J.cm-2 energy dose through the ceramic using LED (50.5±2.8 and HAL (50.9±3.7 produced significantly higher KHN means (p<0.05 than the control (44.7±3.8. LED showed statistically similar performance to HAL. Only HAL showed a relationship between the increase of LCU energy dose and hardness increase.

  15. Effects of graphene oxides on the cure behaviors of a tetrafunctional epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of graphene oxides (GOs on the cure behavior and thermal stability of a tetrafunctional tetraglycidyl-4,4’-diaminodiphenylmethane cured with 4,4’-diaminodiphenylsulfone was investigated by using dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The dynamic DSC results showed that the initial reaction temperature and exothermal peak temperature decreased with the increase of GO contents. Furthermore, the addition of GO increased the enthalpy of epoxy cure reaction. Results from activation energy method showed that activation energies of GO/epoxy nanocomposites greatly decreased with the GO content in the latter stage, indicating that GOs significantly hindered the occurrence of vitrification. The oxygen functionalities, such as hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, on the surface of GOs acted as catalysts and facilitated the curing reaction and the catalytic effect increased with the GO contents. TGA results revealed that the addition of GOs decreased the thermal stability of epoxy.

  16. Co-Cure-Ply Resins for High Performance, Large-Scale Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large-scale composite structures are commonly joined by secondary bonding of molded-and-cured thermoset components. This approach may result in unpredictable joint...

  17. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-01-01

    Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

  18. Fracture toughness of heat cured denture base acrylic resin modified with Chlorhexidine and Fluconazole as bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Alaa; Vahid Roudsari, Reza; Satterthwaite, Julian D

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of incorporating Chlorhexidine and Fluconazole as bioactive compounds on the fracture toughness of conventional heat cured denture base acrylic resin material (PMMA). 30 single edge-notched (SEN) samples were prepared and divided into three groups. 10% (mass) Chlorhexidine and 10% (mass) Diflucan powder (4.5% mass Fluconazole) were added to heat cured PMMA respectively to create the two study groups. A third group of conventional heat cured PMMA was prepared as the control group. Fracture toughness (3-point bending test) was carried out for each sample and critical force (Fc) and critical stress intensity factor (KIC) values measured. Data were subject to parametric statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA and Post hoc Bonferroni test (p=0.05). Fluconazole had no significant effect on the fracture toughness of the PMMA while Chlorhexidine significantly reduced the KIC and therefore affected the fracture toughness. When considering addition of a bioactive material to PMMA acrylic, Chlorhexidine will result in reduced fracture toughness of the acrylic base while Fluconazole has no effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LIGHT-CURING UNITS ON TENSILE STRENGTH AND MICROHARDNESS OF A COMPOSITE RESIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; dos Santos, Patrícia Aleixo; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different light-curing units on the tensile bond strength and microhardness of a composite resin (Filtek Z250 – 3M/ESPE). Conventional halogen (Curing Light 2500 – 3M/ESPE; CL) and two blue light emitting diode curing units (Ultraled – Dabi/Atlante; UL; Ultrablue IS – DMC; UB3 and UB6) were selected for this study. Different light intensities (670, 130, 300, and 600 mW/cm2, respectively) and different curing times (20s, 40s and 60s) were evaluated. Knoop microhardness test was performed in the area corresponding to the fractured region of the specimen. A total of 12 groups (n=10) were established and the specimens were prepared using a stainless steel mold composed by two similar parts that contained a cone-shaped hole with two diameters (8.0 mm and 5.0 mm) and thickness of 1.0 mm. Next, the specimens were loaded in tensile strength until fracture in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min and a 50 kg load cell. For the microhardness test, the same matrix was used to fabricate the specimens (12 groups; n=5). Microhardness was determined on the surfaces that were not exposed to the light source, using a Shimadzu HMV-2 Microhardness Tester at a static load of 50 g for 30 seconds. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Regarding the individual performance of the light-curing units, there was similarity in tensile strength with 20-s and 40-s exposure times and higher tensile strength when a 60-s light-activation time was used. Regarding microhardness, the halogen lamp had higher results when compared to the LED units. For all light-curing units, the variation of light-exposure time did not affect composite microhardness. However, lower irradiances needed longer light-activation times to produce similar effect as that obtained with high-irradiance light-curing sources. PMID:19089182

  20. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  1. Effect of activation mode of dual-cured resin cements and low-viscosity composite liners on bond strength to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rubens Nazareno; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the activation mode of dual-cured resin cements and application of low-viscosity composite liners over self-primed dentin on bond strength (BS) of dentin-bonding agents (DBA). Three DBA (Single Bond; Prompt L-Pop and Clearfil SE Bond), their respective resin cements (RelyX ARC and Panavia F) and two low-viscosity composites (Filtek Flow and Protect Liner F) were tested. After removing the buccal enamel surfaces of 25 bovine incisors, each flat dentin surface was sectioned longitudinally and divided into two similar parts. The dentin surfaces were wet-abraded with 600-grit SiC paper and randomly divided into 10 groups. Experimental groups comprised the use of DBA and their respective dual-cured resin cements, with or without light-activation of resin cements. The low-viscosity resin was used only for the self-etching systems, Prompt L-Pop and Clearfil SE Bond. Three resin cement cylinders (0.5mm high and 0.75mm diameter) were built on each bonded dentin surface, using a tygon tubing mold. After water storage for 24h, specimens were subjected to micro-shear testing. Data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Light-activation of resin cements resulted in significantly higher BS for all DBA versus groups in which the resin cements were allowed to self-cure. The low-viscosity composite application increased the BS only for Prompt L-Pop. The bond strength of resin cements to dentin is reduced if light-activation is not employed. The use of a low-viscosity composite liner resulted in improved bond strength only for the single-step self-etching adhesive.

  2. The effect of curing units and methods on degree of conversion of two types of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani Tabatabaei M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Halogen lamp is the commonly used light source for composite photo polymerization. Recently, high power halogen lamps, LED and plasma arc are introduced for improving the polymerization. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conventional and high power halogen lamps and LED light curing unit on degree of conversion of two different composite resins.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study two halogen units (Coltolux 50 with the intensity of  330 mW/cm2 and Optilux 501 with two different operating modes of standard with the intensity of 820 mW/cm2 and Ramp with the intentsiy of 100-1030mW/cm2 and one LED light curing unit (620 mW/cm2 were used. The composites were hybrid (Tetric ceram and nanofilled (Filteke supreme. Each materials/curing method contained three samples and degree of conversion (DC was measured with FTIR. Data were analyzed statistically with one way and two way ANOVA, Tukey HSD. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance.Results: Tetric ceram revealed higher DCthan Supreme. Tetric ceram showed a significant decrease in DC when Coltolux 50 was used in comparison to LED and Optilux 501. The latters did not show significant effect on DC of this material. DC of Supreme polymerized with various curing modes was not significantly different.Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, degree of conversion in hybrid composites was higher than nanofilled. In comparison with conventional halogen lamp (Coltolux 50, high intensity halogen lamps and LED unit significantly lead to higher degree of conversion in hybrid composites.

  3. Degree of conversion and microhardness of TPO-containing resin-based composites cured by polywave and monowave LED units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ario; Miletic, Vesna; Swift, Michael D; Bradley, Mark

    2012-07-01

    To determine the degree of conversion (DC) and Knoop microhardness (KHN) of resin-based composites (RBCs) containing trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) cured by polywave or monowave LED light-curing units (LCUs). Three groups (each n = 5) of Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent), Vit-l-escence (Ultradent) and Herculite XRV Ultra (Kerr) were prepared in Teflon moulds (5mm in diameter and 2mm thick) and cured with polywave Bluephase(®) G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), polywave Valo (Ultradent) or monowave Bluephase(®) (Ivoclar Vivadent; control) resulting in 9 groups. DC and KHN were determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy and Knoop microhardness, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to confirm the presence or absence of TPO in the three uncured materials. Data were statistically analysed using two-way and one-way ANOVA and DC and KHN were correlated using Pearson's correlation (α = 0.05). TPO was confirmed in Tetric EvoCeram and Vit-l-escence but not in Herculite XRV Ultra. All three LCUs produced comparable KHN for Tetric EvoCeram and Herculite XRV Ultra (p > 0.05). Both polywave LCUs resulted in significantly higher KHN for Vit-l-escence and higher DC in Tetric EvoCeram and Vit-l-escence than the monowave Bluephase(®) (p TPO-containing RBCs, but not in Herculite XRV Ultra. DC and KHN were linearly correlated in all three RBCs. Vit-l-escence showed the highest DC and KHN of the three materials tested. The use of polywave LEDs significantly improves both the DC and KHN of materials which contain TPO. This should be taken into account when curing bleached shades of RBCs even if the manufacturers do not indicate the presence of TPO in their materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of a Vertical Root Fracture Using Dual-Curing Resin Cement: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Moradi Majd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth.

  5. Post-Vitrification Cure Kinetics of High Temperature Composite Resins: Implications for Characterization and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    Iso - thermal Cure Kinetics Baseline Residual Cure 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0 50 100 150 200 250 Ba se lin e Co rr ec te d Si gn al...observed values, although all large errors were under-predictions Source (Pred. from iso . DSC run, or “observed” ) TG after curing for temp. (°C...He at F lo w (W /g ) Temperature (°C) ESR255 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 100 200 300 Ta n de lta

  6. Toxoplasma gondii in raw and dry-cured ham: The influence of the curing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Laura; Gracia, María Jesús; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Herrera, Antonio; Bayarri, Susana

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze Toxoplasma gondii in raw hams by mouse bioassay and to evaluate the effect of curing on the viability of the parasite to assess the risk of infection from eating dry-cured ham. After a serology study of 1200 pigs in Aragón (Spain), forty-one naturally infected pigs with different serological titers against T. gondii were selected. Two cured periods (9 and 12 months) were evaluated as well as the influence of the physicochemical composition of hams on T. gondii survival. Although the parasite burden was low, a high number of seropositive pigs with Toxoplasma tissues cysts in raw hams were found (31.6%). Viability of T. gondii was influenced by the curing, with statistically significant differences between fresh and cured hams (p hams cured for 9 months compared to those cured for 12 months. However, this period of curing resulted in the reduction but not in a complete elimination of the risk. Thus, from a public health point of view, under the conditions of this study it is safer to consume dry-cured ham with periods of curing higher than 12 months. Analysis of physicochemical results did not identify any variable with significant influence on the presence and viability of T. gondii in cured ham, but loss of viability of T. gondii was observed in hams with a lower fat content. Further research is required to validate combinations of salts concentration and time of curing that can be used as preventive measures in the HACCP system of dry-cured ham industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of food/oral-simulating liquids on dynamic mechanical thermal properties of dental nanohybrid light-cured resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouvoudi, Evangelia C; Sideridou, Irini D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this work was the study of the effect of food/oral simulating liquids on the dynamic mechanical thermal properties (viscoelastic properties) of current commercial dental light-cured resin composites characterized as nanohybrids. These nanohybrids were Grandio, Protofill-nano and Tetric EvoCeram. The properties were determined under dry conditions (1h at 37°C after light-curing) and also after storage in dry air, distilled water, artificial saliva SAGF(®) or ethanol/water solution (75 vol%) at 37°C for up 1, 7, 30 or 90 days. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis tests were performed on a Diamond Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer in bending mode. A frequency of 1Hz and a temperature range of 25-185°C were applied, while the heating rate of 2°C/min was selected to cover mouth temperature and the materials' likely Tg. Storage modulus, loss modulus and tangent delta were plotted against temperature over this period. The Tg of composites was obtained as the temperature indicated by tanδ peak. Moreover, the maximum height of tanδ peak, the width at the half of tanδ maximum and a parameter known as "ζ" parameter were determined. All composites analyzed 1h after light-curing and 1 day in air or in food/oral simulating liquids showed two Tg. All composites stored for 7, 30 or 90 days in any medium showed unique Tg value. Also among the various properties studied the most sensible in the structural changes of composites seems to be the Tg. Storage of composites in dry air at 37°C which is very close to their Tg (40°C) for 1 or 7 days caused post curing reactions, while storage for 30 or 90 days has no further effect on composites. Storage in water or artificial saliva 37°C for 1 or 7 days caused post curing reactions, while storage for 30 or 90 days seems to cause plasticization effect affecting some parameters analogously. Storage in ethanol/water solution (75vol%) 37°C for 1 or 7 days caused also post curing reactions, while storage for 30 or 90 days

  8. Effect of curing light emission spectrum on the nanohardness and elastic modulus of two bulk-fill resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Yaser; Watts, David C; Boyd, Daniel; Price, Richard B

    2016-04-01

    To determine the nanohardness and elastic moduli of two bulk-fill resin based composites (RBCs) at increasing depths from the surface and increasing distances laterally from the center after light curing. Two bulk-fill dental RBCs: Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TECBF) and Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable (FBFF) were light cured in a metal mold with a 6mm diameter and a 10mm long semi-circular notch. The RBCs were photo-polymerized for 10s using a light emitting diode (LED) Bluephase Style curing light, with the original light probe that lacked the homogenizer. This light has two blue light and one violet light LED emitters. By changing the probe orientation over the mold, the light output from only two LEDs reached the RBC. Measurements were made using: (i) the light from one violet and one blue LED, and (ii) the light from the two blue LEDs. Five specimens of each RBC were made using each LED orientation (total 20 specimens). Specimens were then stored in the dark at 37°C for 24h. Fifty indents were made using an Agilent G200 nanoindentor down to 4mm from the surface and 2.5mm right and left of the centerline. The results were analyzed (alpha=0.05) using multiple paired-sample t-tests, ANOVA, Bonferroni post-hoc tests, and Pearson correlations. The elastic modulus and nanohardness varied according to the depth and the distance from the centerline. For TECBF, no significant difference was found between the spatial variations in the elastic modulus or hardness values when violet-blue or blue-blue LEDs were used. For FBFF, the elastic modulus and nanohardness on the side exposed to the violet emitter were significantly less than the side exposed to the blue emitter. A strong correlation between nanohardness and elastic modulus was found in all groups (r(2)=0.9512-0.9712). Resin polymerization was not uniform throughout the RBC. The nanohardness and elastic modulus across two RBC materials were found to decline differently according to the orientation of the violet and blue

  9. Color Stability of Heat‑cure Acrylic Resin Subjected to Simulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    provisional restorations, and in maxillofacial prosthesis fabrication.[5]. Color Stability of ... Sandeep CH, Sreedevi B. Departments of Prosthodontics and 1Pedodontics, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India ... base resin material were not well documented in the dental literature, the present study ...

  10. [Evaluation of porosity in the restorations of light-cured resin composite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-yi; Zhang, Wu; Lee, Sean; Roggenkamp, Clyde; Lu, Mei; Li, Yi-ming

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the consistency of resin composite and insertion techniques on the homogeneity of the Class I restorations. Standardized Class I cavities were prepared in polymethyl methyacrylate (PMMA) blocks and restored with three resin composites (Prodigy, Tetric EvoCeram and Tetric Ceram HB) using either a packing or an injection technique by six operators. Then the restorations were sectioned longitudinally and inspected for the presence of porosities and voids with microscope. The consistence of the three resins was tested using an area method. There is little porosity in original resin. After insertion, large numbers of porosities were observed in restorations, with Tetric EvoCeram presented much more porosities (1137.1 +/- 365.0 for packing and 566.1 +/- 206.4 for injection) than Prodigy (241.0 +/- 116.1, 195.8 +/- 28.7) and Tetric Ceram HB (193.1 +/- 35.8, 156.3 +/- 33.0). Tetric Ceram HB showed the highest consistency, followed by Tetric EvoCeram and Prodigy. No linear correlation was found between the consistency of the composite and the porosity of their restorations. For Tetric EvoCeram, the restorations inserted with packing showed significant more porosity than that with injection. Contrastively, the restorations of Prodigy or Tetric Ceram HB presented no apparent difference for the two filling techniques. The porosity in restoration was primarily created during the insertion. There was no linear correlation between the consistency of the composite and the porosity of their restorations. The porosity of composite resin is material-brand dependent. The influence of filling techniques on the porosity of restoration is depending on the composite used.

  11. Comparison of bond strength of auto polymerizing, heat cure soft denture liners with denture base resin - An In Vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neerja; Datta, Kusum

    2010-03-01

    Optimum bond strength between denture soft liner and denture base resin is very important for the success of any denture prosthesis. The tensile bond strength of two commercially available silicone-based heat cured (Molloplast B) and auto polymerizing (Mollosil) was compared with denture base material (trevalon). Molloplast B-trevalon bond in both un-polymerized (dough stage) and already polymerized forms were also compared. Lloyds Universal testing machine was used to test 60 samples. Molloplast B bond strength was greater than Mollosil soft denture liner; it was even greater when packed against trevalon in an un-polymerized form than an already polymerized trevalon using primo adhesive. Both the soft lining materials used are acceptable for clinical usage.

  12. Influence of light-curing unit systems on shear bond strength and marginal microleakage of composite resin restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fernandes Sassi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different photopolymerization (halogen, halogen soft-start and LED systems on shear bond strength (SBS and marginal microleakage of composite resin restorations. Forty Class V cavities (enamel and dentin margins were prepared for microleakage assessment, and 160 enamel and dentin fragments were prepared for the SBS test, and divided into 4 groups. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests showed statistically significant difference in microleakage between the margins (p 0.05 neither between substrates nor among groups. It was concluded that Soft-Start technique with high intensity end-light influenced negatively the cervical marginal sealing, but the light-curing systems did not influence adhesion.

  13. Metal (2) 4,4',4",4'" phthalocyanine tetraamines as curing agents for epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achar, B. N.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Metal, preferably divalent copper, cobalt or nickel, phthalocyanine tetraamines are used as curing agents for epoxides. The resulting copolymers have high thermal and chemical resistance and are homogeneous. They are useful as binders for laminates, e.g., graphite cloth laminate.

  14. Effect of various surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia after thermal aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Nijhuis, Henk; Felipe Valandro, Luiz

    This study evaluated the effect of chairside and laboratory types of surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia ceramic after thermocycling. Disk-shaped (diameter: 10 mm, thickness: 2 mm) Y-TZP ceramics (Lava(TM), 3M ESPE) were used

  15. Use of alternative curing salts for processing salamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Yim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was performed to determine effects of different curing salts on the quality of salamis and to assess feasibility of using NaCl-alternative salts. Methods Various types of curing salts (KCl or MgCl2 as well as NaCl (sun-dried or refined were incorporated for processing of salamis. The proximate composition, fatty acids, nucleotide-related compounds, and free amino acids of the salamis were analyzed during 40 days of ripening. Results The substitution of NaCl by KCl caused higher fat and ash content, but lower moisture content of the salami after 20 days of ripening (p<0.05. Compared with the sun-dried NaCl, use of KCl in salami also led to greater inosine 5′-monophosphate whereas refined NaCl had more inosine (p<0.05. KCl-added salami also had a higher C12:0, C17:1, and C20:0 than other types of salami (p<0.05. MgCl2-added salami had higher content of free amino acids compared to the other salamis (p<0.05. Conclusion Alternative curing salts such as KCl and MgCl2 could substitute NaCl in consideration of quality factor of a fermented meat product. Especially replacement of NaCl with KCl will be a suitable strategy for developing relatively low sodium salami products without compromising product quality.

  16. Effects of radiant exposure and wavelength spectrum of light-curing units on chemical and physical properties of resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Fonseca Lima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives In this study, we evaluated the influence of different radiant exposures provided by single-peak and polywave light-curing units (LCUs on the degree of conversion (DC and the mechanical properties of resin cements. Materials and Methods Six experimental groups were established for each cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE; LuxaCore Dual, Ivoclar Vivadent; Variolink, DMG, according to the different radiant exposures (5, 10, and 20 J/cm2 and two LCUs (single-peak and polywave. The specimens were made (7 mm in length × 2 mm in width × 1 mm in height using silicone molds. After 24 hours of preparation, DC measurement was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The same specimens were used for the evaluation of mechanical properties (flexural strength, FS; elastic modulus, E by a three-point bending test. Data were assessed for normality, after which two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were performed. Results No properties of the Variolink cement were influenced by any of the considered experimental conditions. In the case of the RelyX ARC cement, DC was higher when polywave LCU was used; FS and E were not influenced by the conditions evaluated. The LuxaCore cement showed greater sensitivity to the different protocols. Conclusions On the basis of these results, both the spectrum of light emitted and the radiant exposure used could affect the properties of resin cements. However, the influence was material-dependent.

  17. Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem KiLiC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p0.05. Conclusions Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination.

  18. Effects of radiant exposure and wavelength spectrum of light-curing units on chemical and physical properties of resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Formaggio, Stephanie Ellen Ferreira; Zambelli, Lígia França Aires; Palialol, Alan Rodrigo Muniz; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; de Oliveira, Marcelo Tavares

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of different radiant exposures provided by single-peak and polywave light-curing units (LCUs) on the degree of conversion (DC) and the mechanical properties of resin cements. Six experimental groups were established for each cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE; LuxaCore Dual, Ivoclar Vivadent; Variolink, DMG), according to the different radiant exposures (5, 10, and 20 J/cm 2 ) and two LCUs (single-peak and polywave). The specimens were made (7 mm in length × 2 mm in width × 1 mm in height) using silicone molds. After 24 hours of preparation, DC measurement was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The same specimens were used for the evaluation of mechanical properties (flexural strength, FS; elastic modulus, E ) by a three-point bending test. Data were assessed for normality, after which two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey's test were performed. No properties of the Variolink cement were influenced by any of the considered experimental conditions. In the case of the RelyX ARC cement, DC was higher when polywave LCU was used; FS and E were not influenced by the conditions evaluated. The LuxaCore cement showed greater sensitivity to the different protocols. On the basis of these results, both the spectrum of light emitted and the radiant exposure used could affect the properties of resin cements. However, the influence was material-dependent.

  19. Degree of conversion and hardness of a silorane-based composite resin: effect of light-curing unit and depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, S A S; Silva, G C; Maria, D A; Campos, W R C; Magalhães, C S; Moreira, A N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of different light-curing units and depths on the degree of conversion (DC) through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Knoop Hardness Number (KHN) of a silorane-based composite resin (Filtek LS, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) (LS). LS specimens mounted in a particular designed matrix were photoactivated by three light-cure units (LCUs) at depths of 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm. The DC was determined in a FTIR spectrometer with an attenuated total reflectance accessory. The KHN was measured in an automatic microhardness tester. The results were analyzed using the Friedman and Spearman statistical tests (α=0.05). There was no effect of LCUs on the DC (p=0.472) or KHN (p=0.174) for all of the studied depths. The highest DC and KHN means were found at 2-mm depth, which were not statistically different from 3-mm depth, but were higher than 4-mm and 5-mm depths (p=0.007). Spearman analysis found a positive linear correlation between the variables KHN and DC (r=0.858, p<0.000). The LCUs' effect was not verified. Values of DC and KHN for LS decreased with increasing depth. The highest values for both DC and KHN were obtained at depths of 2-3 mm.

  20. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of residual monomer released from heat-cured acrylic resin. An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raghuwar D; Gautam, Rupali; Siddhartha, Ramashanker; Singh, Balendra P; Chand, Pooran; Sharma, Vinod P; Jurel, Sunit K

    2013-07-01

    Heat-polymerized acrylic resins are used in dentistry for complete denture fabrication. Despite the polymerization method, conversion of monomer into polymer is often incomplete with free or unreacted residual monomer remaining in the polymerized resin. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of residual monomeric methyl methacrylate (MMA) leaching in the saliva of patients wearing complete dentures in their postinsertion period. Thirty edentulous participants as first-time complete denture wearers (age 60 to 65 years) were selected. All the prostheses were fabricated using a similar standard technique with a heat-cured acrylic resin denture base material. Saliva samples were collected at time intervals of 1 hour, 1 day, and 3 days postdenture insertion. Participants were asked to discharge saliva every 30 seconds into a pre-weighed screw-capped container for a 5-minute period. MMA levels were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey-HSD. The maximum concentration of monomer released into saliva peaked 1 day after insertion of the complete dentures. The mean (SD) MMA content was 0.04 ± 0.01 (μg/ml) 1 hour after insertion, and 0.3 ± 0.09 (μg/ml), and 0.05 ± 0.01 (μg/ml) on the first and third days postinsertion, respectively. Although the released monomeric MMA was not at toxic levels, it could potentially sensitize complete denture patients or elicit an allergic reaction. The risk of the residual material as a primary irritant for a sensitizing reaction could be minimized by immersion of the denture in water for 24 hours before insertion. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. Effect of post-curing treatment on mechanical properties of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Chetti, Verónica A; Macchi, Ricardo L; Iglesias, María E

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of additional curing procedures on the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of indirect and direct composite materials. Twenty-four rectangular prism-shaped 2 mm x 2 mm x 25 mm samples of Belleglass, Premisa (Kerr), Adoro and Heliomolar (Ivoclar Vivadent) were prepared. Each composite was packed in an ad-hoc stainless steel device with a TeflonR instrument. A mylar strip and a glass slab were placed on top to obtain a flat surface. Polymerization was activated for 20 seconds with a halogen unit (Astralis 10, Ivoclar - Vivadent) with soft start regime and an output with a 350 to 1200 mw/cm2 range at four different points according to the diameter of the end of the guide. The specimens obtained were then randomly divided into two different groups: with and without additional treatment. In the group with additional treatment, the samples adorro were submitted to 25 minutes in Lumamat 100 (Ivoclar Vivadent) and the rest to 20 minutes in BelleGlass HP (Kerr). After the curing procedures, all samples were treated with sandpapers of decreasing grain size under water flow, and stored in distilled water for 24 h. Flexural strength was measured according to the ISO 404920 recommendations and elastic modulus was determined following the procedures of ANSI/ADA standard No. 27. Statistical differences were found among the different materials and curing procedures employed (Pcomposites, and its clinical relevance.

  2. Residual HEMA and TEGDMA Release and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement and Compomers Cured with Different Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Selim Botsali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the elution of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA monomers from resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC and compomers cured with halogen and light-emitting diode (LED light-curing units (LCUs. The effect of cured materials on the viability of L929 fibroblast cells was also evaluated. One RMGIC (Ketac N100 and two compomers (Dyract Extra and Twinkystar were tested. Materials were prepared in teflon disks and light-cured with LED or halogen LCUs. The residual monomers of resin materials in solution were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The fibroblast cells’ viability was analyzed using MTT assay. The type of LCU did not have a significant effect on the elution of HEMA and TEGDMA. A greater amount of HEMA than TEGMDA was eluted. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Twinkystar was greater than Dyract Extra (P0.05. Curing with the LED LCU decreased the cells’ viability more than curing with the halogen LCU for compomers. For Ketac N100, the halogen LCU decreased the cells’ viability more than the LED LCU.

  3. Effects of ceramic shade and thickness on the micro-mechanical properties of a light-cured resin cement in different shades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Elif; Bolay, Şükran; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the micro-mechanical properties of a light-cured resin cement in four different shades when polymerized through a leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic in different shades and thicknesses. A light-cured resin cement in four different shades (HV+1, HV+3, LV-1 and LV-3) was selected for this study. The specimens were cured by using a LED-unit (Bluephase®, IvoclarVivadent) for 20 s under a leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic (IPS Empress® CAD, IvoclarVivadent) in two different shades (A1 and A3) of different thicknesses (1 and 2 mm). Specimens cured directly, without an intermediate ceramic, served as control. The specimens were stored after curing for 24 h at 37°C by maintaining moisture conditions with distilled water. Micro-mechanical properties (indentation modulus, E; Hardness, HV; creep, Cr) of the resin cements were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). Twenty groups were included (n = 3), while 10 measurements were performed on each specimen. Data were statistically analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test, as well as a multivariate analysis to test the influence of the study parameters. Significant differences were observed between the micromechanical properties of the tested resin cements (p resin cement shade showed the highest effect on the micromechanical properties (Partial-eta squared (ηP(2))-E = 0.45, ηP(2)-HV = 0.59, ηP(2)-Cr = 0.29) of the resin cement, followed by ceramic thickness (ηP(2)-E = 0.38, ηP(2)-HV = 0.3, ηP(2)-Cr = 0.04) and ceramic shade (ηP(2)-E = 0.2, ηP(2)-HV = 0.26). Resin cement shade is an important factor influencing the mechanical properties of the material. Light shades of a resin cement express higher E and HV as well as lower Cr values compared with the darker ones.

  4. In vitro tensile bond strength of denture repair acrylic resins to primed base metal alloys using two different processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Engelmeier, Robert L; O'Keefe, Kathy L; Powers, John M

    2009-12-01

    Approximately 38% of removable partial denture (RPD) failures involve fracture at the alloy/acrylic interface. Autopolymerizing resin is commonly used to repair RPDs. Poor chemical bonding of repair acrylic to base metal alloys can lead to microleakage and failure of the bond. Therefore, ideal repair techniques should provide a strong, adhesive bond. This investigation compared the tensile bond strength between cobalt-chromium (Super Cast, Pentron Laboratory Technologies, Llc., Wallingford, CT) and nickel-chromium (Rexalloy, Pentron Laboratory Technologies, Llc.) alloys and autopolymerized acrylic resin (Dentsply Repair Material, Dentsply Int, Inc, York, Pa) using three primers containing different functional monomers [UBar (UB), Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Shiga, Japan: Alloy Primer (AP) Kuraray Medical Inc., Okayama, Japan; and MR Bond (MRB) Tokyuyama Dental Corp., Tokyo, Japan] and two processing techniques (bench cure and pressure-pot cure). One hundred and twenty eight base metal alloy ingots were polished, air abraded, and ultrasonically cleaned. The control group was not primed. Specimens in the test groups were primed with one of the three metal primers. Autopolymerized acrylic resin material was bonded to the metal surfaces. Half the specimens were bench cured, and the other half were cured in a pressure pot. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. The specimens were debonded under tension at a crosshead speed of 0.05 cm/min. The forces at which the bond failed were noted. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Fisher's PLSD post hoc test was used to determine significant differences (p alloys. Primed sandblasted specimens that were pressure-pot-cured had significantly higher bond strengths than primed sandblasted bench-cured specimens. The pressure-pot-curing method had a significant effect on bond strength of all specimens except Co-Cr alloy primed with UB. The highest bond strength was observed for both Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys that

  5. Wear behavior of light-cured resin composites with bimodal silica nanostructures as fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruili; Bao, Shuang; Liu, Fengwei; Jiang, Xiaoze; Zhang, Qinghong; Sun, Bin; Zhu, Meifang

    2013-12-01

    To enhance wear behavior of resin composites, bimodal silica nanostructures including silica nanoparticles and silica nanoclusters were prepared and proposed as fillers. The silica nanoclusters, a combination of individually dispersed silica nanoparticles and their agglomerations, with size distribution of 0.07-2.70 μm, were fabricated by the coupling reaction between amino and epoxy functionalized silica nanoparticles, which were obtained by the surface modification of silica nanoparticles (~70 nm) using 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPS) as coupling agents, respectively. Silica nanoparticles and nanoclusters were then silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) to prepare composites by mixing with bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and tri (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). Experimental composites with various filler compositions were prepared and their wear behaviors were assessed in this work. The results suggested that composites with increasing addition of silica nanoparticles in co-fillers possessed lower wear volume and smoother worn surface. Particularly, the composite 53:17 with the optimum weight ratio of silica nanoparticles and silica nanoclusters presented the excellent wear behavior with respect to that of the commercial Esthet-X, although the smallest wear volume was achieved by Z350 XT. The introduction of bimodal silica nanostructures as fillers might provide a new sight for the design of resin composites with significantly improved wear resistance. Crown Copyright © 2013. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel halogen-free flame retardant thermoset from a hybrid hexakis (methoxymethyl melamine/phosphorus-containing epoxy resin cured with phenol formaldehyde novolac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the curing behaviours, thermal properties and flame-resistance of a novel halogen-free epoxy hybrid thermoset, prepared by the curing reaction of hexakis (methoxymethyl melamine (HMMM, a phosphorouscontaining epoxy resin (EPN-D with 9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene 10-oxide (DOPO group and phenol formaldehyde novolac (n-PF. The resultant thermosets showed high glass-transition temperatures (Tg, 123–147°C as determined by thermal mechanical analysis (TMA, excellent thermal stability with high 5 wt% decomposition temperatures (Td,5% ≥308°C and high char yields (Yc ≥39.4 wt% from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. All the cured EPND/ HMMM/n-PF hybrid resins achieved the UL 94 V-0 grade with high limited oxygen indices (LOI > 45.7. It is found that phosphorous and nitrogen elements in the cured EPN-D/HMMM/n-PF hybrid resins had a positive synergistic effect on the improvement of the flame retardancy.

  7. their use as Accelerator in Curing Process of Rubber Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. taghvaee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In some special cases, rubber compounds with high amounts of unsaturated elastomer are recommended with organic sulfur donors instead of mineral sulfurs. In this condition, activated sulfur is produced in situ and curingprocess is facilitated without accelerators. Organic sulfur donor compounds have low thermal stability and in the vulcanization temperature produce free and activated sulfurs. The advantages of these compounds are:1. High effectiveness of curing agent in low quantities in rubber compounds manufacturing.2. Producing activated sulfurs in controlled condition and avoiding the over curing of rubber compounds.In this report the novel synthesis of some derivatives of diamino-disulfides which can be applied as sulfur donors in vulcanization of special rubber compounds is introduced. The key process is reaction of sulfurmonochloride with amines in petroleum ether as solvent in low temperature. Dithio-dimorpholine(DTDM, dithio-dipipyridyl (DTDP, dithio-bis dibutylamine (DTBDB and dithio-bisdiisopropyl amine (DTBDI were prepared according to this method. All products thus obtained were characterized by 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies. The effects of accelerating and sulfur donoring of all prepared agents were detected in rubber compounds with natural and synthetic rubber bases. All physical, chemical, reological and mechanical properties of rubber compounds based on prepared sulfur donors were characterized.

  8. Study on the heat-resistant EB curing composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Jianwen; Li Yang; Li Fengmei

    2000-01-01

    There are many advantages in the EB-curing process of composites. Heat-resistant EB-curing composites could substitute for polyimide composites used in aeronautical engine. The effects of catalyst and dose on the cured resin were investigated. The heat-resistance of the resin cured by EB was evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The experiment result shows that the mechanical property of the composites cured by EB could meet the needs of the aeronautical engine in 250degC. (author)

  9. The Effect of Rubber Mixing Process on The Curing Characteristics of Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hasan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at studying the relationship between rubber mixing processes and curing characteristics of natural rubber. The curing characteristic analysis was carried out through a natural rubber formula having been masticated and mixed, followed by curing. As many as four mastication methods were finely applied; each respected four sequences of rubber mixing process. In the first method, rubber was masticated for 5 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black N 330 were  simultaneously added. In the second and the third methods, rubber was masticated for 1 minute and then carbon blacks and rubber chemicals were also simultaneously added but using different type of fillers. In the fourth method, rubber was masticated for 3 minutes and then rubber chemicals and carbon black were subsequently added. The additions of rubber chemicals and carbon blacks to the masticated rubber were distinguished by the sequence and time allocated for each mixing process. The carbon blacks were added in two stages by which 10 phr was added first and the remaining 40 phr was added later along with oil. In another method, ratios of the carbon blacks addition (as done in the first  and the second stages were 20:30, 30:20, and 40:10. The examination results showed that rubber mixing process gave an impact on the changes of curing characteristics. They were much affected by the method of carbon black addition. The mixing temperature also had an effect on both curing time and curing rate in which the higher the mixing temperature, the lower the curing time and curing rate. Vulcanization temperature also affected the curing time and curing rate in which the higher the vulcanization temperature, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate. Lastly, particle size of carbon black also gave an impact on the curing time and curing rate in which the smaller the particle size, the lower the curing time and the higher the curing rate.

  10. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength, between IPS-Empress2 ceramics and three dual-cured resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimiragha H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cementation is one of the most critical steps of the porcelain restoration technique. However, limited information is available concerning the bond strength of current ceramic bonding systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of three dual-cure resin cements to IPS-Empress2 ceramics. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 pairs of IPS-Empress 2 ceramic discs were fabricated with 10 and 8 mm diameters and 2.5 mm thickness. After sandblasting and ultrasonic cleaning, the surfaces of all specimens were etched with 9% hydrofluoric acid for 60 seconds. Then, the three groups of 10 bonded specimens were prepared ceramic bonding resin systems including Panavia F2, Variolink II and Rely X ARC. After storage in 37±1c water for 24 hours and thermocycling in 5c and 55c water for 500 cycles with 1-minute dwell time, the shear bond strengths were determined using Instron machine at speed of 0.5mm/min. Data were analyzed by One Way ANOVA test. For multiple paired comparisons, the Tukey HSD method was used. The mode of failure was evaluated by scanning electro microscope (SEM. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Result: Significant differences were found between different cement types (P<0.05. Variolink II provided the highest bonding values with IPS-Empress2. A combination of different modes of failure was observed. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, according to the highest mode of cohesive failure, Variolink II seems to have the strongest bond with IPS-Empress2 ceramics.

  11. General dental practitioners' knowledge of polymerisation of resin-based composite restorations and light curing unit technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, A; Turner, S

    2011-09-23

    Clinical successful use of resin-based composite restorations (RBCs) depends on knowledge of material and light curing unit (LCU) related factors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate general dental practitioners' knowledge of polymerisation of RBCs and LCU technology. Members of the Active Research Group of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) in England, Scotland and Wales engaged in primary dental care were sent a letter introducing the study and asking for their cooperation, followed by an email containing a link to the online survey questionnaire, hosted on Surveymonkey.com. The questionnaire enquired about current LCUs, and asked a series of questions on material science. Sixty-six percent of the 274 members contacted responded. Fifty-seven percent used LED units, 25% quartz tungsten halogen (QTH), and 1% plasma arc (missing: 17%). Thirty percent reported having access to a radiometer. Appropriate responses regarding the degree of conversion of composite and adhesive materials were given by 32% and 23% respectively, and 22% agreed that LED and QTH LCUs had comparable efficiency in polymerising composites. Thirty-three percent were aware that RBCs eluted substances that may have adverse local or systemic consequences. Fifty-eight percent stated that if polymerisation of RBC is slowed down, polymerisation stress will be lower, and 43% said that polymerisation shrinkage will be reduced if the degree of conversion is reduced. Knowledge (measured by appropriate responses to these questions) was not related to years since qualification (r=-0.05, n=168, p=0.53). The study suggests that dentists' knowledge of curing RBC restorations and LCUs is poor. This indicates that there is a need for training and guidance in this aspect of primary dental care.

  12. Structure, thermal and fracture mechanical properties of benzoxazine-modified amine-cured DGEBA epoxy resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available First, traditional diamine hardeners of epoxy resins (EP were checked as potential accelerators for the benzoxazine (BOX homopolymerization. It was established that the acceleration effect depends on both the type and amount of the diamine compounds. In the follow-up work amine-curable diglycidyl ether bisphenol A (DGEBA type EP was modified with BOX keeping the EP/BOX ratio constant (75/25 wt.%. The amine hardeners, added in the EP in stoichiometric amounts, were of aliphatic and aromatic nature, viz. diethylenetriamine (DETA, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM, and their 1/1 mixture. The thermal, viscoelastic, flexural and fracture mechanical properties of the EP/BOX hybrids were determined and compared to those of the reference EPs. Based on dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis and atomic force microscopy the formation of co-network between EP and BOX was concluded. Homopolymerized BOX was built in the network in nanoscaled inclusions and it was associated with internal antiplasticization. Incorporation of BOX improved the charring, enhanced the flexural modulus and strength, and reduced the glass transition of the parent EP. The fracture toughness and energy were not improved by hybridization with BOX.

  13. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  14. Impact of a novel phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardant curing agent on the properties of epoxy resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Liang, Bing

    2017-12-01

    A phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardant curing agent diethyl phosphonic p-Phenylenediamine diamide (DEPPPD) was synthesized. The chemical structure of the obtained compound was identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), and mass spectroscopies. A series of t hermosetting systems were prepared by conventional epoxy resins (E-44) and DEPPPD. The effects of DEPPPD on flame retardancy, thermal degradation behavior, mechanical properties and the morphologies of char residues of EP/DEPPPD thermosets were investigated. The results demonstrated that when the phosphorus content of 2.88 wt%, EP-3 successfully passed UL-94 V-0 flammability rating, the LOI value was as high as 31.1%, the impact strength and tensile strength of it was 6.50 KJ m-2 and 48.21 MPa, the adhesive strength could reach 14.61 MPa, respectively. The TGA results indicated that the introduction of DEPPPD promoted EP matrix decomposed at a lower temperature, the rate of the thermal decomposition also decreased compared with EP-0. The residual char ratio of 800 °C was increased whether in nitrogen or in the air. The morphological structures of char residue were more compact and homogeneous which could prevent the heat transmission and diffusion, limit the production of combustible gases and reduced the heat release rate.

  15. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of three resin based dual-cure core build-up materials: An In-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Gaurav; Narad, Aditi; Boruah, Lalit C.; Rajkumar, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The in-vitro study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of three recently introduced dual-cure resin based core build-up materials namely ParaCore, FluoroCore, and MultiCore. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty extracted permanent human mandibular molar teeth were taken and sectioned horizontally beneath the dentinoenamel junction to expose the coronal dentin. The specimens obtained were divided into three main groups based on the materials used and then further divided into ...

  16. Comparison of bond strength of auto polymerizing, heat cure soft denture liners with denture base resin — An In Vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Neerja; Datta, Kusum

    2010-01-01

    Optimum bond strength between denture soft liner and denture base resin is very important for the success of any denture prosthesis. The tensile bond strength of two commercially available silicone-based heat cured (Molloplast B) and auto polymerizing (Mollosil) was compared with denture base material (trevalon). Molloplast B-trevalon bond in both un-polymerized (dough stage) and already polymerized forms were also compared. Lloyds Universal testing machine was used to test 60 samples. Mollop...

  17. Effect of the solvent type and polymerization conditions on the curing kinetics, thermal and viscoelastic performance of poly(amide-imide resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal and non-isothermal curing kinetics of both N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and N-methylimidazole (MI based poly(amide-imide (PAI resins were investigated by DSC analysis using tightly closed high-pressure crucibles. Several exothermal peaks on the non-isothermal DSC-traces were observed and attributed to the reactions of different functional groups of PAI-resin. Furthermore the final conversion (polymerization degree of PAI was determined under isothermal conditions, simulating three programs with the post-curing temperatures set as 215, 240 and 270°C. For the MI-PAI based resin, the conversion values were found to be much higher compared to those for the NMP-PAI system. Compared to NMP-based PAI-resin, a shift of the main exothermal peaks to the lower temperatures was observed in the non-isothermal kinetic investigations when MI was used as a solvent. This was accompanied with a reduction of activation energy (Ea values, as up to a factor of 3 determined by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa approach for all the main formation reactions. It indicates a catalytic effect of MI on the PAI polymerization. In addition, conversion values were determined according to the Di Benedetto equation for both systems cured using open molds in the oven. Regardless the different post-curing temperatures, the conversion values were similar for all the samples. Thermal and viscoelastic properties as well as crosslink density (nc were also investigated for these systems. It was found that the MI-based samples demonstrate lower nc values compared to the NMP-based ones at an almost two times higher storage modulus (E' at room temperature.

  18. Effects of benzoxazine resin on property enhancement of shape memory epoxy: A dual function of benzoxazine resin as a curing agent and a stable network segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tanpitaksit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An ability of bisphenol-A/aniline based benzoxazine resin (BA-a to simultaneously acts as a curing agent and a stable or rigid network segment for shape memory epoxy, i.e. a two component system, is demonstrated. This significantly simplifies a formulation of present shape memory epoxy systems, i.e. a three or four component system. A suitable content of BA-a in the aliphatic epoxy (NGDE/polybenzoxazine (PBA-a samples for good shape memory performance is in a range of 30 to 50 mol%. The storage modulus of the obtained NGDE/PBA-a shape memory polymers (SMPs was increased from 3.57 GPa for 30 mol% BA-a content to 4.50 GPa for 50 mol% BA-a content. Glass transition temperature of the sample was also substantially increased with increasing BA-a fraction, i.e. from 51°C to 140°C. Flexural modulus and strength at room temperature of the samples at 50 mol% BA-a were found to be as high as 3.97 GPa and 132 MPa compared to the maximum values of 2.54 GPa and 100 MPa of SMP based on cyanate ester-epoxy. All samples exhibited a high value of shape fixity close to 100%. A presence of the BA-a in the samples also imparted a greater recovery stress ranging from 0.25 to 1.59 MPa. Consequently, the obtained NGDE/PBA-a copolymers are highly attractive for shape memory materials to be used in a broader range of applications particularly at elevated temperature and a higher recovery stress value.

  19. Processing ix spent resin waste for C-14 isotope recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F. H.; Woodall, K. B.; Sood, S. K.; Vogt, H. K.; Krochmainek, L. S.

    1991-01-01

    A process developed at Ontario Hydro for recovering carbon-14 (C-14) from spent ion exchange resin wastes is described. Carbon-14 is an undesirable by-product of CANDU 1 nuclear reactor operation. It has an extremely long (5730 years) half-life and can cause dosage to inhabitants by contact, inhalation, or through the food cycle via photosynthesis. Release of carbon-14 to the environment must be minimized. Presently, all the C-14 produced in the Moderator and Primary Heat Transport (PHT) systems of the reactor is effectively removed by the respective ion exchange columns, and the spent ion exchange resins are stored in suitably engineered concrete structures. Because of the large volumes of spent resin waste generated each year this method of disposal by long term storage tends to be uneconomical; and may also be unsatisfactory considering the long half-life of the C-14. However, purified C-14 is a valuable commercial product for medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and organic chemistry research. Currently, commercial C-14 is made artificially in research reactors by irradiating aluminum nitride targets for 4.5 years. If the C-14 containing resin waste can be used to reduce this unnecessary production of C-14, the total global build-up of this radioactive chemical can be reduced. There is much incentive in removing the C-14 from the resin waste to reduce the volume of C-14 waste, and also in purifying the recovered C-14 to supply the commercial market. The process developed by Ontario Hydro consists of three main steps: C-14 removal from spent resins, enrichment of recovered C-14, and preparation of final product. Components of the process have been successfully tested at Ontario Hydro's Research Division, but the integration of the process is yet to be demonstrated. A pilot scale plant capable of processing 4 m 3 of spent resins annually is being planned for demonstrating the technology. The measured C-14 activity levels on the spent resins ranged from 47

  20. Processing and Properties of Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molded Phenylethynyl Terminated Imide Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Jensen, Brian J.; Connell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide composites are very attractive for applications that require a high strength to weight ratio and thermal stability. Recent work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has concentrated on developing new polyimide resin systems that can be processed without the use of an autoclave for advanced aerospace applications. Due to their low melt viscosities and long melt stability, certain phenylethynyl terminated imides (PETI) can be processed into composites using high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (HT-VARTM). VARTM has shown the potential to reduce the manufacturing cost of composite structures. In the current study, two PETI resins, LARC(Trademark) PETI-330 and LARC(Trademark) PETI-9, were infused into carbon fiber preforms at 260 C and cured at temperatures up to 371 C. Photomicrographs of polished cross sections were taken and void contents, determined by acid digestion, were below 4.5%. Mechanical properties including short block compression (SBC), compression after impact (CAI), and open hole compression (OHC) were determined at room temperature, 177 C, and 288 C. Both PETI-9 and PETI-330 composites demonstrated very good retention of mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. SBC and OHC properties after aging for 1000 hours at temperatures up to 288 C were also determined.

  1. Physical properties of current dental nanohybrid and nanofill light-cured resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridou, Irini D; Karabela, Maria M; Vouvoudi, Evangelia Ch

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this work was the detailed study of sorption characteristics of water or artificial saliva, the determination of flexural strength and the flexural modulus, and the study of the thermal stability of some current commercial dental light-cured nanocomposites containing nano-sized filler particles. Three nanohydrid dental composites (Tetric EvoCeram (TEC), Grandio (GR) and Protofill-nano (PR)) and two nanofill composites (Filtek Supreme Body (FSB) and the Filtek Supreme Translucent (FST)) were used in this work. The volumetric shrinkage due to polymerization was first determined. Also the sorption, solubility and volumetric increase were measured after storage of composites in water or artificial saliva for 30 days. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were measured using a three-point bending set-up according to the ISO-4049 specification, after immersion of samples in water or artificial saliva for 1 day or 30 days. Thermal analysis technique TGA method was used to investigate the thermal stability of composites. GR and TEC composites showed statistically no difference in volumetric shrinkage (%) which is lower than the other composites, which follow the order PRGrandio had the lowest polymer matrix content, consisting mainly of Bis-GMA. It showed the lowest polymerization shrinkage and water sorption and the highest flexural strength and flexural modulus after immersion in water or artificial saliva for 30 days. The water and artificial saliva generally showed the same effect on physical properties of the studied composites. Thermogravimetric analysis gave good information about the structure and the amount of organic polymer matrix of composites. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of a broad-spectrum LED curing light on the Knoop microhardness of four posterior resin based composites at 2, 4 and 6-mm depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALShaafi, Maan M; Haenel, Thomas; Sullivan, Braden; Labrie, Daniel; Alqahtani, Mohammed Q; Price, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    To measure the Knoop microhardness at the bottom of four posterior resin-based composites (RBCs): Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (Ivoclar Vivadent), SureFil SDR flow (DENTSPLY), SonicFill (Kerr), and x-tra fil (Voco). The RBCs were expressed into metal rings that were 2, 4, or 6-mm thick with a 4-mm internal diameter at 30°C. The uncured specimens were covered by a Mylar strip and a Bluephase 20i (Ivoclar Vivadent) polywave(®) LED light-curing unit was used in high power setting for 20s. The specimens were then removed and placed immediately on a Knoop microhardness-testing device and the microhardness was measured at 9 points across top and bottom surfaces of each specimen. Five specimens were made for each condition. As expected, for each RBC there was no significant difference in the microhardness values at the top of the 2, 4 and 6-mm thick specimens. SureFil SDR Flow was the softest resin, but was the only resin that had no significant difference between the KHN values at the bottom of the 2 and 4-mm (Mixed Model ANOVA pcure was evaluated when determining the depth of cure. SureFil SDR Flow was the softest material and, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions, this RBC should be overlaid with a conventional resin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication of micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin on aluminum by AFM probe processing and electrophoretic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakairi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: takahasi@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2008-11-30

    Micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin were fabricated on aluminum by anodizing, atomic force microscope (AFM) probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition. Barrier type anodic oxide films of 15 nm thickness were formed on aluminum and then the specimen was scratched with an AFM probe in a solution containing acrylic acid/melamine resin nano-particles to remove the anodic oxide film locally. After scratching, the specimen was anodically polarized to deposit acrylic acid/melamine resin electrophoretically at the film-removed area. The resin deposited on the specimen was finally cured by heating. It was found that scratching with the AFM probe on open circuit leads to the contamination of the probe with resin, due to positive shifts in the potential during scratching. Scratching of the specimen under potentiostatic conditions at -1.0 V, however, resulted in successful resin deposition at the film-removed area without probe contamination. The rate of resin deposition increased as the specimen potential becomes more positive during electrophoretic deposition. Arrays of resin dots with a few to several tens {mu}m diameter and 100-1000 nm height, and resin walls with 100-1000 nm height and 1 {mu}m width were obtained on specimens by successive anodizing, probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition.

  4. Study of improved resins for advanced supersonic technology composites. Part 1: Heteroaromatic polymers containing ether groups. Part 2: Curing chemistry of aromatic polymers and composite studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekoshi, T.; Hillig, W. B.; Mellinger, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen ether-containing, aromatic dianhydrides have been synthesized from N-phenyl-3 or 4-nitrophthalimide and various bisphenols. The process involves nucleophilic displacement of activated nitro groups with bisphenolate ions. Ether-containing dianhydrides were indefinitely stable in the presence of atmospheric moisture. One-step, high temperature solution polymerization of the ether-containing dianhydrides with m-phenylene diamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline and 1, 3-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene afforded 42 polyetherimides. The polyetherimides were all soluble in m-cresol except two which were found to be crystalline. The glass transition temperatures of the polyetherimides ranged from 178 to 277 C. Soluble polybenzimidazopyrrolones containing ether groups were also prepared from the same ether-containing dianhydrides and aromatic tetraamines by one-step solution polymerization. Using low molecular weight polyetherimides, various thermoset resin systems were developed and tested as matrices for fiber-reinforced composites. The curing chemistry involving reaction of the phthalonitrile group and the o-diaminophenyl group was found to be generally applicable to crosslinking various aromatic polymers other than polyimides.

  5. Spectra and concentration profiles throughout the reaction of curing epoxy resins from near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrechi, M S; Rius, F X

    2004-01-01

    When applied to near-infrared (NIR) data, multivariate curve resolution methods, in particular alternating least squares (ALS), make it possible to calculate the concentration profiles and the spectra of all species involved in the reaction of curing epoxy resins. In this paper, the model reaction between phenyl glicidyl ether and aniline (2:1) was studied at 95 degrees C. A NIR spectrum was recorded every five minutes throughout the eight-hour reaction process. The data display rank deficiency. This problem was overcome by supplying additional information to the system in the form of known spectra of some reactants. The recovered spectra and concentration profiles satisfactorily reproduced the experimental data. In this way, 99.99% of the variance associated with the experimental matrix was reproduced. A value of 0.87% was obtained for lack of fit while the similarity coefficient r between the spectra recovered and the spectra corresponding to the three pure species involved in the reaction were PGE (r = 0.994), aniline (r = 0.994), and tertiary amine (r = 0.999). The maximum and minimum limits associated with the ALS solutions were calculated, which made it possible to limit to a considerable extent the ambiguity that is characteristic of these curve resolution methods.

  6. Peptidomics as a tool for quality control in dry-cured ham processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Toldrá, Fidel

    2016-09-16

    Spanish dry-cured ham is a high quality product whose economic value is mainly given by its curing time. An intense proteolysis takes place throughout the dry-cured processing, which results in the generation of a high amount of peptides and free amino acids responsible for the final quality of dry-cured hams. In this work, a peptidomics approach has been used to study the evolution of peptides throughout the ham dry-curing process, identifying and quantifying the generated peptides in order to define potential quality biomarkers. For this purpose, dry-cured ham extracts at different processing times (0, 2, 3.5, 5, 6.5 and 9months) were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography and analysed by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Differences obtained in the relative quantification of peptides by using a label-free methodology were useful to establish differences between processing times, being peptides generated by the degradation of myosin light chain 1 protein mainly responsible for the observed differences during the last stages of curing. In particular, APAPAPAPPKEEKI and PAPAPAPAPAPAPAPPKE, exclusively identified at 9months of curing, would be potential markers to control the time of curing and thus the final quality of dry-cured hams. Biological significance A peptidomics approach has been used to study the evolution of peptides throughout the ham dry-curing process, identifying peptides APAPAPAPPKEEKI and PAPAPAPAPAPAPAPPKE, which were only detected at 9months of process. So, they would constitute good potential markers to control the time of processing and thus the final quality of dry-cured hams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of curing agents on gelation and exotherm behaviour of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A judicious choice of curing agents such as initiator and promoter and their ratio to the resin can avoid reduced gel-time and shortened exothermic reactions in applications such as liquid compositemoulding processes. In this study, effects of different ratio of initiator and promoter to the unsaturated polyester resin on curing ...

  8. Use of eco-friendly epoxy resins from renewable resources as potential substitutes of petrochemical epoxy resins for ambient cured composites with flax reinforcements

    OpenAIRE

    Bertomeu Perelló, David; García Sanoguera, David; Fenollar Gimeno, Octavio Ángel; Boronat Vitoria, Teodomiro; Balart Gimeno, Rafael Antonio

    2012-01-01

    [EN] In the last years, some high renewable content epoxy resins, derived from vegetable oils, have been developed at industrial level and are now commercially available; these can compete with petroleum-based resins as thermoset matrices for composite materials. Nevertheless, due to the relatively high cost in comparison to petroleum-based resins, their use is still restricted to applications with relatively low volume consumption such as model making, tuning components, nautical parts, spec...

  9. Effects of Laboratory Disinfecting Agents on Dimensional Stability of Three Commercially Available Heat-Cured Denture Acrylic Resins in India: An In-Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavanna, Jayaprakash Mugur; Jujare, Ravikanth Haridas; Varghese, Rana Kalappattil; Singh, Vishwa Deepak; Gaurav, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Dental professionals are exposed to a wide variety of microorganisms which calls for use of effective infection control procedures in the dental office and laboratories that can prevent cross-contamination that could extend to dentists, dental office staff, dental technicians as well as patients. This concern has led to a renewed interest in denture sterilization and disinfection. Heat polymerized dentures exhibit dimensional change during disinfection procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different types of widely used laboratory disinfecting agents on the dimensional stability of heat-cured denture acrylic resins and to compare the dimensional stability of three commercially available heat-cured denture acrylic resins in India. Twelve specimens of uniform dimension each of three different brands namely Stellon, Trevalon and Acralyn-H were prepared using circular metal disc. Chemical disinfectants namely 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde, 1% povidone-iodine, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite and water as control group were used. Diameter of each specimen was measured before immersion and after immersion with time interval of 1 hour and 12 hours. The data was evaluated statistically using one way analysis of variance. All the specimens in three disinfectants and in water exhibited very small amount of linear expansion. Among three disinfectants, specimens in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde exhibited least(0.005mm) and water showed highest (0.009mm) amount of dimensional change. Among resins, Trevalon showed least (0.067mm) and Acralyn-H exhibited highest (0.110mm) amount of dimensional change. Although, all the specimens of three different brands of heat-cured denture acrylic resins exhibited increase in linear dimensional change in all the disinfectants and water, they were found to be statistically insignificant.

  10. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: Anin vitrostudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  11. Effect of Reinforcement Using Stainless Steel Mesh, Glass Fibers, and Polyethylene on the Impact Strength of Heat Cure Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, H B Mallikarjuna; Shaik, Sharaz; Sachdeva, Harleen; Khare, Sumit; Haralur, Satheesh B; Roopa, K T

    2015-06-01

    The impact strength of denture base resin is of great concern and many approaches have been made to strengthen acrylic resin dentures. The objective of this study was to compare the impact strength of the denture base resin with and without reinforcement and to evaluate the impact strength of denture base resin when reinforced with stainless steel mesh, glass fiber, and polyethylene fibers in the woven form. The specimens (maxillary denture bases) were fabricated using a standard polyvinylsiloxane mold with conventional heat cured polymethyl methacrylate resin. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group I specimens or control group were not reinforced. Group II specimens were reinforced with stainless steel mesh and Group III and Group IV specimens were reinforced with three percent by weight of glass fibers and polyethylene fibers in weave form respectively. All the specimens were immersed in water for 1-week before testing. The impact strength was measured with falling weight impact testing machine. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Highest impact strength values were exhibited by the specimens reinforced with polyethylene fibers followed by glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and control group. Reinforcement of maxillary complete dentures showed a significant increase in impact strength when compared to unreinforced dentures. Polyethylene fibers exhibit better impact strength followed by glass fibers and stainless steel mesh. By using pre-impregnated glass and polyethylene fibers in woven form (prepregs) the impact strength of the denture bases can be increased effectively.

  12. Influence of light source and extended time of curing on microhardness and degree of conversion of different regions of a nanofilled composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adriano Fonseca; de Andrade, Kamila Menezes Guedes; da Cruz Alves, Louise Esther; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Peris, Alessandra Rezende; Mitsui, Fábio Hiroyuki Ogata

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different light sources and curing time on the degree of conversion and microhardness of two surfaces within a nanofilled composite resin. Four experimental groups (n=10) were formed in accordance with the light source (quartz-tungsten halogen (QTH - 600mW/cm(2)), or light-emitting-diode (LED - 800mW/cm(2))) and the time of curing (20 s or 40 s). The specimens were prepared with a circular mould (5 mm ∅ and 2 mm thick), according to the respective protocol, and the Knoop microhardness and degree of conversion was measured at the top and the base of the specimens. The degree of conversion was evaluated by the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results were analyzed by ANOVA two-way repeated measures and Tukey's test (α=,05). Both the degree of conversion and microhardness were higher at the top than at the bottom of the specimens. The QTH light source presented better values on the degree of conversion evaluation, but this result was not observed in the microhardness evaluation. Although forty seconds of curing promotes an increased level of microhardness, it did not influence the degree of conversion. It could be concluded that increasing the time of curing to 40 s promotes an increase in microhardness, but it does not influence the degree of conversion of a nanofilled composite resin. QTH promote better monomeric conversion; however, the microhardness values are similar to LED curing. For all situations tested, the bottom of the specimens presented lower results than the top.

  13. Roughness comparison of heat cured type of acrylic resin in disinfectant solution immersion (Immersion in a solution of alkaline peroxide and 75% Celery extract (Apium graveolens L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Puspitasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin denture base has the properties absorbing that affecting physical and mechanical properties. One of the physical properties of acrylic resin is surface roughness. The aim of the study was to find out the roughness effect on heat cured acrylic that was immersed in alkaline peroxide and 75% celery (Apium graveoens L extract as a disinfectant solution. The study was a true experimental and posttest with control group designed with a rectangular shape size 65 x 10 x 3.3 mm based on the ISO standard 1567, six samples were used for alkaline peroxide, celery extract 75% and aquadest group for 5 and 15 days. A Surface Roughness Tester was used for the surface roughness changes observation. The statistical test used One-way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni. The results of this study showed the value of roughness on 5 days for alkaline peroxide (1.51 µm is greater than celery extract (0.36µm and aquadest (0.30 µm. The soaking for 15 days in alkaline peroxide (1.52 µm is greater than 75% celery extracts (0.38 µm and aquadest (0.34 µm. Alkaline peroxide caused higher roughness value of heat cured acrylic resin than 75% celery extract.

  14. Light Transmission of Novel CAD/CAM Materials and Their Influence on the Degree of Conversion of a Dual-curing Resin Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V J

    To evaluate the light transmission characteristics of different types, shades, and thicknesses of novel CAD/CAM materials and their effect on the degree of conversion (DC) of a dual-curing resin cement. Square specimens (12 × 12 mm2) of three CAD/CAM materials - GC Cerasmart, Lava Ultimate, Vita Enamic - of different thicknesses (1.00, 1.50, and 2.00 mm, n = 5 per thickness) were irradiated with an LED unit. The amount of transmitted light was quantified. Thereafter, the DC% of the dual-curing resin cement (RelyX Ultimate) was recorded after 15 min using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's HSD post-hoc test at a significance level of p light irradiation (p  0.05). Conversely, material thickness significantly affected light transmission (p light irradiation; p = 0.637 for DC). Linear regression analysis showed a correlation between delivered energy and DC% results of the Vita Enamic (R² = 0.4169, p light transmission in 2-mm-thick specimens of all CAD/CAM materials indicates that proper curing of the cement beneath CAD/CAM materials should be ensured.

  15. Effect of light-emitting diode and halogen light curing on the micro-hardness of dental composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, M; Patel, D; Shashikiran, N D; Mallikarjuna, R M; Nalawade, T M; Reddy, H K

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare the micro-hardness of composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement using light-emitting diode (LED) and halogen curing and also to inter-compare the effect of LED and halogen curing. The study sample comprised of 4 stainless steel plates with a thickness of 2 mm. For these stainless steel plates, holes were made to a diameter of 3 mm. The samples were divided into 4 groups of 8 each and labeled as group I, group II, group III, group IV, thus making provision for the two different modes of light exposure. In each group, the hole was restored with its respective restorative material and cured with light-curing unit according to manufacturer instructions. The results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test. It was concluded that the curing efficacy of the LED lamp was comparable to that of conventional halogen lamp, even with a 50% reduction in cure time, and resin composite (Filtek Z-250) presented the highest hardness values, whereas complete hardening of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Vitremer) was observed because of its self-curing system even after the removal of light source.

  16. Effect of light-emitting diode and halogen light curing on the micro-hardness of dental composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bhalla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare the micro-hardness of composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement using light-emitting diode (LED and halogen curing and also to inter-compare the effect of LED and halogen curing. Materials and Methods : The study sample comprised of 4 stainless steel plates with a thickness of 2 mm. For these stainless steel plates, holes were made to a diameter of 3 mm. The samples were divided into 4 groups of 8 each and labeled as group I, group II, group III, group IV, thus making provision for the two different modes of light exposure. In each group, the hole was restored with its respective restorative material and cured with light-curing unit according to manufacturer instructions. The results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test. Results and conclusion: It was concluded that the curing efficacy of the LED lamp was comparable to that of conventional halogen lamp, even with a 50% reduction in cure time, and resin composite (Filtek Z-250 presented the highest hardness values, whereas complete hardening of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC (Vitremer was observed because of its self-curing system even after the removal of light source.

  17. The use of atmospheric pressure plasma as a curing process for canned ground ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juri; Jo, Kyung; Lim, Yubong; Jeon, Hee Joon; Choe, Jun Ho; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the potential use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment as a curing process for canned ground ham. APP treatment for 60min while mixing increased the nitrite content in the meat batters from 0.64 to 60.50mgkg -1 while the pH and the total content of aerobic bacteria in the meat batters were unchanged. The canned ground hams cured by the APP treatment for 30min displayed no difference in their physicochemical qualities, such as nitrosyl hemochrome, color, residual nitrite, texture, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation, compared with those of canned ground hams cured with sodium nitrite or celery powder at 42mgkg -1 of nitrite. The canned ground hams cured by the APP treatment received a higher score in taste and overall acceptability than those cured with sodium nitrite. Canned ground ham can be cured by the APP treatment without nitrite additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of Resin Infusion Processing for Composite Pipe Key-Part and K/T Type Joints Using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changchun; Bai, Guanghui; Yue, Guangquan; Wang, Zhuxi; Li, Jin; Zhang, Boming

    2016-10-01

    In present study, the optimization injection processes for manufacturing the composite pipe key-part and K/T type joints in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) were determined by estimating the filling time and flow front shape of four kinds of injection methods. Validity of the determined process was proved with the results of a scaling-down composite pipe key-part containing of the carbon fiber four axial fabrics and a steel core with a complex surface. In addition, an expanded-size composite pipe part was also produced to further estimate the effective of the determined injection process. Moreover, the resin injection method for producing the K/T type joints via VARTM was also optimized with the simulation method, and then manufactured on a special integrated mould by the determined injection process. The flow front pattern and filling time of the experiments show good agreement with that from simulation. Cross-section images of the cured composite pipe and K/T type joints parts prove the validity of the optimized injection process, which verify the efficiency of simulation method in obtaining a suitable injection process of VARTM.

  19. Effects of the different atmospheric steam curing processes on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper an attempt has been made to study the use of microsilica on the properties of self-compacting-concrete (SCC) such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and micro-hardness when exposed to different atmospheric steam curing temperatures.

  20. Comparative Effect of Self- or Dual-Curing on Polymerization Kinetics and Mechanical Properties in a Novel, Dental-Resin-Based Composite with Alkaline Filler. Running Title: Resin-Composites with Alkaline Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Ilie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental bulk-fill restorations with resin-composites (RBC are increasing in popularity, but doubts concerning insufficient curing in depth still disconcert clinicians. An alternative might be offered by modern dual-cured RBCs, which additionally provide bioactive properties. This study assessed the impact of additional light-curing on polymerization kinetics, the degree of conversion (DC and mechanical properties of a novel, dual-cured RBC with alkaline fillers. Since the bioactivity of a material often implies a release of compounds, the mechanical stability in simulated clinical environments was also evaluated. Polymerization kinetics and DC were assessed at 2- and 4-mm specimen depths in real-time up to one hour (n = 6. Incident and transmitted irradiance and radiant exposure were recorded at 2- and 4-mm depths. Micro-mechanical profiles (n = 6 were assessed in 100-µm steps along 6-mm deep specimens at 24 h post-polymerization. Flexural strength and modulus (n = 10 were determined up to three months of immersion in neutral (6.8 and acidic (4 pH conditions. DC variation in time was best described by a sigmoidal function (R2 > 0.98, revealing a retarded (3.4 ± 0.4 min initiation in C=C double bond conversion in self-cured versus dual-cured specimens. The setting reaction kinetic was identical at 2- and 4-mm depths for the self-cure mode. For the dual-cure mode, polymerization initiated at 2-mm depth instantly with light-irradiation, while being retarded (0.8 min at 4-mm depth. The material behaves similarly, irrespective of curing mode or depth, later than 11 min after mixing. Flexural strength and modulus was comparable to regular RBCs and maintained up to three months in both neutral and acidic conditions. Additional light-curing initially accelerates the polymerization kinetic and might help shorten the restauration procedure by hardening the material on demand, however with no effect on the final properties.

  1. Effect of high intensity vs. soft-start halogen irradiation on light-cured resin-based composites. Part I. Temperature rise and polymerization shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Norbert; Markert, Tanja; Hugo, Burkard; Klaiber, Bernd

    2003-12-01

    To determine polymerization shrinkage kinetics and temperature rise of light-cured resin-based composites after high intensity vs. soft-start quartz tungsten halogen irradiation. Shrinkage kinetics was evaluated using the "deflecting disk technique", modified for simultaneous measurement of temperature within the resin-based composite using a thermocouple. Additional irradiations after 60 and 65 minutes allowed the determination of temperature rises caused by radiation or by reaction heat. Four hybrids (Filtek Z250, Herculite, Solitaire 2, Tetric Ceram), an inhomogeneously filled hybrid (InTen-S) and a microfill (Filtek A110, formerly Silux Plus) were cured using the quartz tungsten halogen units Astralis 10 and Optilux 501 in the high intensity (A10 HiPo: 10 seconds at 1300 mW/cm2; OL Boost: 10 seconds at 1140 mW/cm2) or soft-start modes (A10 Pulse: increase to 700 mW/cm2 within 10 seconds, three periods of 2 seconds at 1300 mW/cm2 alternating with two periods of 2 seconds at 700 mW/cm2; OL Ramp: exponential increase within 10 seconds, followed by 10 seconds at 1140 mW/cm2). The soft-start protocols produced less contraction, and polymerization shrinkage started later and progressed slower (or: more slowly), compared to high intensity irradiation [correction]. The lowest shrinkage was observed for InTen-S, followed by Filtek Z250 and A110, whereas Solitaire 2, Herculite and Tetric Ceram scored highest for this parameter. Temperature rise was caused more or less equally by radiation and by reaction heat and reached values of up to 28.9 degrees C relative to a baseline of 37 degrees C. For some combinations of curing modes and resin-based composites, less heat was generated by the soft-start protocols and by Optilux 501.

  2. Clinical long-term success of contemporary nano-filled resin composites in class I and II restorations cured by LED or halogen light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Torsten; Kranz, Stefan; Montag, Regina; Güntsch, Arndt; Völpel, Andrea; Mills, Robin; Jandt, Klaus; Sigusch, Bernd

    2017-10-28

    The use of LED light-curing units (LED LCUs) for polymerising resin-based composite restorations has become widespread throughout dentistry. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of clinical longitudinal studies that evaluate the comparative efficacy of LED-based polymerisation in direct posterior composite restorations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the performance of class I and II resin composite restorations for two successful composite restorative materials cured with LED versus halogen LCUs. One hundred restorations were placed using the nano-filled composites Grandio® or Filtek™ Supremé. The following test groups were established: LED-Grandio® n = 23 (LG), LED-Filtek™ Supremé n = 21 (LS). As controls were used: Halogen-Grandio® n = 28 (HG), Halogen-Filtek™ Supremé n = 28 (HS). All restorations were evaluated according to the clinical criteria of the CPM index (C-criteria) at baseline and after 6, 12 and 36 months. After 12 and 36 months, there were no significant differences between restorations polymerised with LED or halogen light. At the end of the study, 97% of the restorations showed sufficient results regardless of the employed LCU or composite. Globally, after 36 months, 56% of all restorations were assessed with code 0 (excellent) and 41% with code 1 (acceptable). In detail, excellent results (code 0) among the criteria surface quality; marginal integrity and marginal discoloration were assigned in 72, 70 and 69%. For the current limitations in the clinical trial design, the results showed that LED-polymerisation is appropriate to ensure clinical success of direct posterior resin composite restorations in a range of 3 years. The choice of LCU has no significant influence on the clinical performance of posterior direct resin composite restorations within 3 years of wear.

  3. Effect of light intensity and irradiation time on the polymerization process of a dental composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Discacciati José Augusto César

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymerization shrinkage is a critical factor affecting the longevity and acceptability of dental composite resins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of light intensity and irradiation time on the polymerization process of a photo cured dental composite resin by measuring the Vickers hardness number (VHN and the volumetric polymerization shrinkage. Samples were prepared using a dental manual light-curing unit. The samples were submitted to irradiation times of 5, 10, 20 and 40 s, using 200 and 400 mW.cm-2 light intensities. Vickers hardness number was obtained at four different moments after photoactivation (immediate, 1 h, 24 h and 168 h. After this, volumetric polymerization shrinkage values were obtained through a specific density method. The values were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's (p = 0.05. Results showed increase in hardness values from the immediate reading to 1 h and 24 h readings. After 24 h no changes were observed regardless the light intensities or activation times. The hardness values were always smaller for the 200 mW.cm-2 light intensity, except for the 40 s irradiation time. No significant differences were detected in volumetric polymerization shrinkage considering the light intensity (p = 0.539 and the activation time (p = 0.637 factors. In conclusion the polymerization of the material does not terminate immediately after photoactivation and the increase of irradiation time can compensate a lower light intensity. Different combinations between light intensity and irradiation time, i.e., different amounts of energy given to the system, have not affected the polymerization shrinkage.

  4. Effect of the irradiance distribution from light curing units on the local micro-hardness of the surface of dental resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenel, Thomas; Hausnerová, Berenika; Steinhaus, Johannes; Price, Richard B T; Sullivan, Braden; Moeginger, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    An inhomogeneous irradiance distribution from a light-curing unit (LCU) can locally cause inhomogeneous curing with locally inadequately cured and/or over-cured areas causing e.g. monomer elution or internal shrinkage stresses, and thus reduce the lifetime of dental resin based composite (RBC) restorations. The aim of the study is to determine both the irradiance distribution of two light curing units (LCUs) and its influence on the local mechanical properties of a RBC. Specimens of Arabesk TOP OA2 were irradiated for 5, 20, and 80s using a Bluephase® 20i LCU in the Low mode (666mW/cm(2)), in the Turbo mode (2222mW/cm(2)) and a Celalux® 2 (1264mW/cm(2)). The degree of conversion (DC) was determined with an ATR-FTIR. The Knoop micro-hardness (average of five specimens) was measured on the specimen surface after 24h of dark and dry storage at room temperature. The irradiance distribution affected the hardness distribution across the surface of the specimens. The hardness distribution corresponded well to the inhomogeneous irradiance distributions of the LCU. The highest reaction rates occurred after approximately 2s light exposure. A DC of 40% was reached after 3.6 or 5.7s, depending on the LCU. The inhomogeneous hardness distribution was still evident after 80s of light exposure. The irradiance distribution from a LCU is reflected in the hardness distribution across the surface. Irradiance level of the LCU and light exposure time do not affect the pattern of the hardness distribution--only the hardness level. In areas of low irradiation this may result in inadequate resin polymerization, poor physical properties, and hence premature failure of the restorations as they are usually much smaller than the investigated specimens. It has to be stressed that inhomogeneous does not necessarily mean poor if in all areas of the restoration enough light intensity is introduced to achieve a high degree of cure. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by

  5. Curing of polymer thermosets via click reactions and on demand processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Mark Richard

    In the first project, an azide functional resin and tetra propargyl aromatic diamines were fabricated for use as a composite matrix. These systems take already established epoxy/amine matrices and functionalize them with click moieties. This allows lower temperatures to be used in the production of a thermoset part. These new systems yield many better mechanical properties than their epoxy/amine derivatives, but their Tgs are low in comparison. The second project investigates the characterization of a linear system based off of the above azide functional resin and a difunctional alkyne. Through selectively choosing catalyst, the linear system can show regioselectivity to either a 1,4-disubstituted triazole, or a 1,5-disubstituted triazole. Without the addition of catalyst, the system produces both triazoles in almost an equal ratio. The differently catalyzed systems were cured and then analyzed by 1H and 13C NMR to better understand the structure of the material. The third project builds off of the utility of the aforementioned azide/alkyne system and introduces an on-demand aspect to the curing of the thermoset. With the inclusion of copper(II) within the azide/alkyne system, UV light is able to catalyze said reaction and cure the material. It has been shown that the copper(II) loading levels can be extremely small, which helps in reducing the copper's effect on mechanical properties The fourth project takes a look at polysulfide-based sealants. These sealants are normally cured via an oxidative reaction. This project took thiol-terminated polysulfides and fabricated alkene-terminated polysulfides for use as a thiol-ene cured material. By changing the mechanism for cure, the polysulfide can be cured via UV light with the use of a photoinitiator within the thiol/alkene polysulfide matrix. The final chapter will focus on a characterization technique, MALDI-TOF, which was used to help characterize the above materials as well as many others. By using MALDI-TOF, the

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-11 - Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-11 Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes. (a) Dried, cured, or processed fruits and vegetables (except frozen fruits and... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits...

  7. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of three resin based dual-cure core build-up materials: An In-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Narad, Aditi; Boruah, Lalit C; Rajkumar, Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    The in-vitro study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) of three recently introduced dual-cure resin based core build-up materials namely ParaCore, FluoroCore, and MultiCore. One hundred twenty extracted permanent human mandibular molar teeth were taken and sectioned horizontally beneath the dentinoenamel junction to expose the coronal dentin. The specimens obtained were divided into three main groups based on the materials used and then further divided into four sub-groups based on time interval with ten samples each. The dentin surface was treated with the respective adhesives of the groups and then bulk filled with core build-up materials. The attained samples were than subjected to shear loading in Instron Universal Testing Machine. The data were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's HSD, and Levene's test. The mean SBS was highest in MultiCore at all time periods as compared to FluoroCore and ParaCore and was also higher at 48 h thermocycling in all three groups studied. MultiCore dual-cure resin based core build-up material showed the highest mean SBS as compared to FluoroCore and ParaCore. SBS was not negatively affected by thermocycling.

  8. To Evaluate the Effect of Steel Strengtheners on Fracture Resistance of Heat Cured Methyl Methacrylic Resin - An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The incorporation of thick steel strengtheners few millimetres apart and perpendicular to anticipated line of fracture will produce significant resistance to flexure and reduce the likelihood of fracture of the acrylic resin denture base.

  9. Influence of light-exposure methods and depths of cavity on the microhardness of dual-cured core build-up resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi YOSHIDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness number (KHN of dual-cured core build-up resin composites (DCBRCs at 6 depths of cavity after 3 post-irradiation times by 4 light-exposure methods. Material and Methods: Five specimens each of DCBRCs (Clearfil DC Core Plus [DCP] and Unifil Core EM [UCE] were filled in acrylic resin blocks with a semi-cylindrical cavity and light-cured using an LED light unit (power density: 1,000 mW/cm2at the top surface by irradiation for 20 seconds (20 s, 40 seconds (40 s, bonding agent plus 20 seconds (B+20 s, or 40 seconds plus light irradiation of both sides of each acrylic resin block for 40 seconds each (120 s. KHN was measured at depths of 0.5, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0 mm at 0.5 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days post-irradiation. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's compromise post-hoc test with a significance level of p0.05. In DCP, and not UCE, at 24 hours and 7 days post-irradiation, the B+20 s method showed significantly higher KHN at all depths of cavity, except the depth of 0.5 mm (p<0.05. Conclusion: KHN depends on the light-exposure method, use of bonding agent, depth of cavity, post-irradiation time, and material brand. Based on the microhardness behavior, DCBRCs are preferably prepared by the effective exposure method, when used for a greater depth of cavity.

  10. Effect of different light-curing modes on degree of conversion, staining susceptibility and stain's retention using different beverages in a nanofilled composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Georgetto, Matheus Henrique; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Catelan, Anderson; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Figueroba, Sidney Raimundo; Lovadino, José Roberto

    2011-04-01

    It is unknown whether the staining pigment concentration would affect the color of composite resin and whether the absorption of the staining pigment is related to the degree of conversion (DC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing units (LCUs) on DC, superficial staining (ΔE), and pigment concentration (PC) in a nanofilled composite resin (Z350, 3M ESPE) using different beverages. Specimens were polymerized for 20 seconds using four LCUs (N=50): quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH)--450 mW/cm(2); laser (LAS)--300 mW/cm(2); second-generation light-emitting diode (LED)-1100 mW/cm(2); and third generation LED--700 mW/cm(2). DC (%) was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Specimens concerning each group (N=10) were then immersed in one of the solutions (distilled water, red wine, whisky, coffee, and cola--40 min/day, for 40 days). Specimen's color was measured before and after exposure to solutions using a colorimeter (Commission Internacionale de I'Eclairaga L*a*b* color scale), and ΔE was calculated. Specimens were then prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis to measure PC. Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p=0.05). DC: QTH presented the lowest DC, with statistical differences for LAS, LED 2, and LED 3. Whisky and wine showed lower PC mean values than cola and coffee. No statistical difference was observed for LCUs regarding PC and all staining solutions, except cola. Whisky showed the highest values for ΔE regarding all LCUs. Wine showed statistically lower ΔE than whisky, with water presenting the lowest ΔE. LAS and QTH showed higher values than LED 2 concerning ΔE.   LCUs interfered with DC and altered the PC and ΔE of the composite resin submitted to different staining solutions. There was no correlation among DC, PC, and ΔE. Light-curing modes might interfere with staining susceptibility, stain's retention, and DC of a composite resin, compromising the clinical

  11. Reinforcing Effects of Calcium Silicate-based Cement and Dual Cure Composite Resin in Simulated Immature Teeth with an Open Apex: Anin vitroStudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Zhabuawala, Murtuza; R Nadig, Roopa; S Pai, Veena; Gowda, Yashwanth; M Aswathanarayana, Ranjini

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth with an apical plug of biodentine followed by composite resin vs total obturation with biodentine tested immediately and after 3 months of aging and also to find out the chemical composition of dentin in contact with these materials. Extracted human maxillary central incisors with simulated immature apex with radicular dentin thickness (RDT) of 1 to 1.5 mm selected and divided into three groups of 20 each. Group I (control)-4 mm biodentine apically and thermoplasticized gutta-percha. Group II-4 mm biodentine apically and composite resin. Group III-complete obturation with biodentine. About 10 samples from each group were tested immediately and remaining 10 stored in phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and tested after 3 months for fracture resistance and chemical analysis of dentin. No significant difference in fracture resistance between the groups was observed when tested immediately. After 3 months of aging, only biodentine group showed a significant reduction in fracture resistance with increased Ca/P ratio of root dentine. Biodentine group has shown drastic reduction in fracture resistance after 3 months of aging, and hence, cannot be recommended as a reinforcement material in immature teeth with thin dentin walls. How to cite this article: Zhabuawala MS, Nadig RR, Pai VS, Gowda Y, Aswathanarayana RM. Reinforcing Effects of Calcium Silicate-based Cement and Dual Cure Composite Resin in Simulated Immature Teeth with an Open Apex: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):351-357.

  12. Morphological analysis of glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber posts and bonding to self or dual-cured resin luting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Carlini-Júnior, Bruno; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF), carbon (CF) and glass/carbon (G/CF) fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p0.05), but higher than that of G/CF (p0.05) were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable.

  13. Temperature and humidity response in the curing and drying process for Burley tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Daniel Gomez-Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the methodology development used for characterization and implementation of a control and automation of a camera for curing and drying of Burley tobacco, done with the purpose of analyzing its three stages: yellowing, color fixing and drying.As first step, the paper gives to know the process that is important for air curing of Burley tobacco. As second step, analysis of heating and humidification of system is presented, for determinate the most adequate control system for maintenance the ideal conditions for curing and drying of Burley. Results are presented through figures and tables.

  14. Optimal cure cycle design for autoclave processing of thick composites laminates: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jean W.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal analysis and the calculation of thermal sensitivity of a cure cycle in autoclave processing of thick composite laminates were studied. A finite element program for the thermal analysis and design derivatives calculation for temperature distribution and the degree of cure was developed and verified. It was found that the direct differentiation was the best approach for the thermal design sensitivity analysis. In addition, the approach of the direct differentiation provided time histories of design derivatives which are of great value to the cure cycle designers. The approach of direct differentiation is to be used for further study, i.e., the optimal cycle design.

  15. New bismaleimide matrix resins for graphite fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.; Chen, T. S.; Parker, J. A.; Heimbuch, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Two new bismaleimide resins based on the N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have been synthesized and characterized. The mixtures of the two resins gave better handling, processing, mechanical, and thermal properties in graphite composites than did the individual resins. The mechanical strength of the cured graphite composites prepared from the 1:1 copolymer of the two bismaleimide resins was excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites from the new bismaleimide matrix resin systems are compared with conventional composites based on epoxy and other bismaleimide systems. The copolymer system provides another method for improving bismaleimide resins.

  16. Microrheology of magnetorheological silicone elastomers during curing process under the presence of magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjun Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A microrheological method is employed for the first time to continuously and undisturbedly monitor variations of viscoelasticity of magnetorheological elastomers (MREs based on silica-coated carbonyl iron particles (SiCIPs-filled silicone during the curing process. Results indicate that the elasticity of MREs dramatically increases with increasing magnetic field intensity, which is much more significant in comparison with the slow process of silicone curing at 25 % and 40 % SiCIPs. The formations of chain-like structure of SiCIPs and cured network of silicone are recognized, both contributing to the rheology of MREs, suggesting the possibility of developing a facile method for adjusting the rheology and fixing the structure of a wide range of MREs by applying magnetic field during the curing of matrix.

  17. The influence of two different curing regimens on light energy transmission through bulk-fill resin composites and Vickers hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Mohammed Saeed; Santini, Ario

    2016-10-01

    To compare the total light energy transmission (J/cm2) through bulk-fill composite materials (BFMs) and Vickers hardness (VH) using a single-peak light curing unit (LCU) using two curing regimens. Samples (n= 5) of viscous BFMs, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TBF), X-tra fil (XF), and flowable BFMs, SureFil SDR (SDR), and X-tra base (XB) were prepared in 4 mm deep rings. The control was Tetric EvoCeram (TEC), a conventional composite. Using MARC-RC, the irradiance delivered to the top surface of the samples was adjusted to either 800 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds (16 J/cm2) or 1,600 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds (16 J/cm2). Samples were stored post-irradiation at 22 ± 2°C for 24 hours. Top and bottom-surface VH were measured and Bottom/Top (B/T) VH ratios were calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (α= 0.05). Total energy transmission for all materials ranged from 1.0 J/cm2 (6.1%) to 2.7 J/cm2 (16.9%). There was a statistically significant difference for total energy transmission to the bottom surface, more being transmitted at 800 mW/cm2 x 20 (Pcured at 800 mW/cm2 x 20 seconds (P 0.05) with either curing regimen. The degree of cure was material-dependent and increasing curing time may be more important than LCU tip irradiation values. Manufacturer's recommended total energy regimen may not always be adequate for effective curing. Some bulk-fill materials, containing additional photo-sensitivity to lower wave lengths, may be adequately cured using a single-peak LCU.

  18. A Comparison of Curing Process-Induced Residual Stresses and Cure Shrinkage in Micro-Scale Composite Structures with Different Constitutive Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongna; Li, Xudong; Dai, Jianfeng; Xi, Shangbin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, three kinds of constitutive laws, elastic, "cure hardening instantaneously linear elastic (CHILE)" and viscoelastic law, are used to predict curing process-induced residual stress for the thermoset polymer composites. A multi-physics coupling finite element analysis (FEA) model implementing the proposed three approaches is established in COMSOL Multiphysics-Version 4.3b. The evolution of thermo-physical properties with temperature and degree of cure (DOC), which improved the accuracy of numerical simulations, and cure shrinkage are taken into account for the three models. Subsequently, these three proposed constitutive models are implemented respectively in a 3D micro-scale composite laminate structure. Compared the differences between these three numerical results, it indicates that big error in residual stress and cure shrinkage generates by elastic model, but the results calculated by the modified CHILE model are in excellent agreement with those estimated by the viscoelastic model.

  19. Process for hardening an alkyd resin composition using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tadashi; Murata, Koichiro; Maruyama, Tsutomu.

    1969-01-01

    In an alkyd resin composition having free hydroxide radicals and containing a conjugated unsaturated fatty acid and/or oil as a component thereof, a process for hardening an alkyd resin composition comprises the steps of dissolving into a vinyl monomer, the product obtained by the semi-esterification reaction of said hydroxide radicals with acid anhydrides having polymerizable radicals and hardening by ionizing radiation to provide a coating with a high degree of cross-linking, with favorable properties such as toughness, hardness, chemical resistance and resistance to weather and with the feasibility of being applied as the ground and finish coat on metals, wood, paper, outdoor construction or the like. Any kind of ionization radiation, particularly accelerated electron beams, γ radiation can be used at 50 0 C to -5 0 C for a few seconds or minutes, permitting continuous operation. In one example, 384 parts of phthalic anhydride, 115 parts of pentaerythritol, 233 parts of trimethylol ethane, 288 parts of tung fatty acid and 49 parts of para-tertiary-butyl benzoic acid are mixed and heated with 60 parts of xylene to an acid value of 12. In addition, 271 parts of maleic anhydride and 0.6 parts of hydroquinone are admixed with the content and heated to terminate the reaction. 100 parts of a 50% stylene solution of this alkyd resin are mixed with 1 part of a 60% toluene solution of cobalt naphthenate, and then coated on a glass plate and irradiated with high energy electron beams of 300 kV with a dose of 5 Mrad for 1 sec. (Iwakiri, K.)

  20. Simulation of Injection Molding Process Including Mold Filling and Compound Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Erfanian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports and discusses the results of a 3D simulation of the injection molding process of a rubber compound that includes the mold flling stage and  material curing, using the computer code is developed in “UDF” part of the Fluent 6.3 CAE software. The data obtained from a rheometer (MDR 2000 is used to characterize the rubber material in order to fnd the cure model parameters which exist in curing model. Because of non-newtonian behavior of rubber, in this work the non-newtonian model for viscosity was used and viscosity parameters were computed by mean of viscometry test by RPA. After calculation of the physical and curing properties, vulcanization process was simulated for a complex rubber article with non-uniform thickness by solving the continuity, momentum, energy and curing process equations. Predicted flling and curing time in a complex and 3D rubber part is compared with experimentally measured data which confrmed  the accuracy and applicability of the method.

  1. Tensile and shear bond strength of hard and soft denture relining materials to the conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin: An In-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Mayank; Amarnath, G S; Muddugangadhar, B C; Swetha, M U; Das, Kopal Anshuraj Ashok Kumar

    2014-04-01

    The condition of the denture bearing tissues may be adversely affected by high stress concentration during function. Chairside Denture (Hard and Soft) reliners are used to distribute forces applied to soft tissues during function. Tensile and shear bond strength has been shown to be dependent on their chemical composition. A weak bond could harbor bacteria, promote staining and delamination of the lining material. To investigate tensile and shear bond strength of 4 different commercially available denture relining materials to conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin. 4 mm sections in the middle of 160 Acrylic cylindrical specimens (20 mm x 8 mm) were removed, packed with test materials (Mollosil, G C Reline Soft, G C Reline Hard (Kooliner) and Ufi Gel Hard and polymerized. Specimens were divided into 8 groups of 20 each. Tensile and shear bond strength to the conventional heat cured acrylic denture base resin were examined by Instron Universal Tensile Testing Machine using the equation F=N/A (F-maximum force exerted on the specimen (Newton) and A-bonding area= 50.24 mm2). One-way ANOVA was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Bonferroni Test and Hsu's MCB for multiple pairwise comparisons to asses any significant differences between the groups. The highest mean Tensile bond strength value was obtained for Ufi Gel Hard (6.49+0.08 MPa) and lowest for G C Reline Soft (0.52+0.01 MPa). The highest mean Shear bond strength value was obtained for Ufi Gel Hard (16.19+0.1 MPa) and lowest for Mollosil (0.59+0.05 MPa). The Benferroni test showed a significant difference in the mean tensile bond strength and the mean shear bond strength when the two denture soft liners were compared as well as when the two denture hard liners were compared. Hsu's MCB implied that Ufi gel hard is better than its other closest competitors. The Tensile and Shear bond strength values of denture soft reliners were significantly lower than denture hard reliners. How to cite the

  2. Effect of water storage on the flexural strength of heat-cured denture base resin reinforced with stick (s glass fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Galav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexural strength (FS of denture base resins (DBRs had been improved by reinforcing it with different glass fibers. However, a limited data are available on the effect of glass fiber reinforcement with conventional heat-cured resin after prolonged water storage. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the reinforcing effect of novel S-glass and nylon fibers on the FS of acrylic DBRs. It also aimed to evaluate the effect of glass fiber reinforcement on the FS of acrylic DBRs after a prolonged storage in water. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty identical specimens were fabricated in specially designed molds according to the manufacturer's instructions. The three experimental groups were prepared consisting of conventional (unreinforced acrylic resin, novel S-glass fiber-reinforced and nylon fiber-reinforced acrylic resin. The specimens were fabricated in a standardized fashion for each experimental group. Each group was further subdivided into two groups on the basis of storage conditions (dry and wet. FS was tested using a three-point universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Glass fiber-reinforced group was further tested after prolonged storage in distilled water. Entered data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and least significant difference post hoc test. Results: In this study, statistically significant differences were noted in the FS of all the groups. S-glass fiber-reinforced group had highest FS compared to the other two groups (P < 0.001. Nylon fiber-reinforced group had lowest FS. All the groups stored in distilled water revealed a decrease in strength compared to those stored in dry atmosphere. Among wet specimens, those stored for 3 weeks had a significantly higher FS than those stored at one and 2 weeks (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this investigation, the FS of heat-cured acrylic DBR was improved after reinforcement with glass fibers. It can be

  3. Cure Cycle Optimization of Rapidly Cured Out-Of-Autoclave Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anqi Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Out-of-autoclave prepreg typically needs a long cure cycle to guarantee good properties as the result of low processing pressure applied. It is essential to reduce the manufacturing time, achieve real cost reduction, and take full advantage of out-of-autoclave process. The focus of this paper is to reduce the cure cycle time and production cost while maintaining high laminate quality. A rapidly cured out-of-autoclave resin and relative prepreg were independently developed. To determine a suitable rapid cure procedure for the developed prepreg, the effect of heating rate, initial cure temperature, dwelling time, and post-cure time on the final laminate quality were evaluated and the factors were then optimized. As a result, a rapid cure procedure was determined. The results showed that the resin infiltration could be completed at the end of the initial cure stage and no obvious void could be seen in the laminate at this time. The laminate could achieve good internal quality using the optimized cure procedure. The mechanical test results showed that the laminates had a fiber volume fraction of 59–60% with a final glass transition temperature of 205 °C and excellent mechanical strength especially the flexural properties.

  4. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  5. Light energy transmission and Vickers hardness ratio of bulk-fill resin based composites at different thicknesses cured by a dual-wave or a single-wave light curing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ario; Naaman, Reem Khalil; Aldossary, Mohammed Saeed

    2017-04-01

    To quantify light energy transmission through two bulk-fill resin-based composites and to measure the top to bottom surface Vickers hardness ratio (VHratio) of samples of various incremental thicknesses, using either a single-wave or dual-wave light curing unit (LCU). Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TECBF) and SonicFill (SF) were studied. Using MARC-RC, the irradiance delivered to the top surface of the samples 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm thick (n= 5 for each thickness) was adjusted to 800 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds (16 J/cm2) using either a single-wave, Bluephase or a dual-wave, Bluephase G2 LCUs. Light energy transmission through to the bottom surface of the specimens was measured at real time using MARC-RC. The Vickers hardness (VH) was determined using Vickers micro hardness tester and the VHratio was calculated. Data were analyzed using a general linear model in Minitab 16; α= 0.05. TECBF was more translucent than SF (Pcured with the dual-wave Bluephase G2). SF showed significantly higher VH ratio than TECBF at all different thickness levels (P 0.05). TECBF showed significantly greater VH ratio when cured with the single-wave Bluephase than when using the dual-wave Bluephase G2 (Plight energy through to the bottom surface and the VHratio are material dependent. Although TECBF is more translucent than SF, it showed lower VHratio compared to SF when cured with dual-wave Bluephase G2.

  6. Simulation of the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process and the development of light-weight composite bridging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marc J.

    A continued desire for increased mobility in the aftermath of natural disasters, or on the battlefield, has lead to the need for improved light-weight bridging solutions. This research investigates the development of a carbon/epoxy composite bridging system to meet the needs for light-weight bridging. The research focuses on two main topics. The first topic is that of processing composite structures and the second is the design and testing of these structures. In recent years the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process has become recognized as a low-cost manufacturing alternative for large Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite structures for civil, military, and aerospace applications. The success of the VARTM process (complete wet-out) is very sensitive to the resin injection strategy used and the proper placement of flow distribution materials and inlet and vacuum ports. Predicting the flow front pattern, the time required for infusing a part with resin, and the time required to bleed excess resin at the end of filling, is critical to ensure that the part will become completely impregnated and desired fiber volume fractions achieved prior to the resin gelling (initiation of cure). In order to eliminate costly trial and error experiments to determine the optimal infusion strategy, this research presents a simulation model which considers in-plane flow as well as flow through the thickness of the preform. In addition to resin filling, the current model is able to simulate the bleeding of resin at the end of filling to predict the required bleeding time to reach desired fiber volume fractions for the final part. In addition to processing, the second portion of the dissertation investigates the design and testing of composite bridge deck sections which also serve as short-span bridging for gaps up to 4 m in length. The research focuses on the design of a light-weight core material for bridge decking as well as proof loading of short-span bridge

  7. Influence of the curing cycles on the fatigue performance of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüther, Jonas; Brøndsted, Povl

    2016-01-01

    During the manufacturing process of fiber reinforced polymers the curing reaction of the resin results in shrinkage of the resin and introduces internal stresses in the composites. When curing at higher temperatures in order to shorten up the processing time, higher curing stresses and thermal...... stresses are built up and frozen, as residual stresses occur. In the present work, a glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminate with an unidirectional architecture based on non-crimp fabrics with backing fibers is investigated. Three different curing cycles (time-temperature cycles) are used, leading...

  8. Resistance to bond degradation between dual-cure resin cements and pre-treated sintered CAD-CAM dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Raquel; Castillo-de Oyagüe, Raquel; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Estrella; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the bond stability of resin cements when luted to glass-reinforced alumina and zirconia CAD/CAM dental ceramics. Eighteen glass-infiltrated alumina and eighteen densely sintered zirconia blocks were randomly conditioned as follows: Group 1: No treatment; Group 2: Sandblasting (125 µm Al₂O₃-particles); and Group 3: Silica-coating (50 µm silica-modified Al₂O₃-particles). Composite samples were randomly bonded to the pretreated ceramic surfaces using different resin cements: Subgroup 1: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CEC); Subgroup 2: RelyX Unicem (RXU); and Subgroup 3: Calibra (CAL). After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into 1 ± 0.1 mm² sticks. One-half of the beams were tested for microtensile bond strength (MTBS). The remaining one-half was immersed in 10 % NaOCl aqueous solution (NaOClaq) for 5 h before testing. The fracture pattern and morphology of the debonded surfaces were assessed with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). A multiple ANOVA was conducted to analyze the contributions of ceramic composition, surface treatment, resin cement type, and chemical challenging to MTBS. The Tukey test was run for multiple comparisons (p Resin-ceramic interfacial longevity depended on cement selection rather than on surface pre-treatments. The MDP-containing and the self-adhesive resin cements were both suitable for luting CAD/CAM ceramics. Despite both cements being prone to degradation, RXU luted to zirconia or untreated or sandblasted alumina showed the most stable interfaces. CAL experimented spontaneous debonding in all tested groups.

  9. Comparative evaluation for microleakage between Fuji-VII glass ionomer cement and light-cured unfilled resin: A combined in vivo in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cement, besides being used as restorative material, can also be used as pit and fissure sealant. The use of glass ionomer cement as pit and fissure sealant has added benefit by its fluoride-releasing property that results in increased resistance of the fissures to demineralize. The capacity of a sealant to prevent microleakage into the fissure is important, since microleakage may initiate and support a carious lesion beneath the sealant. The study was carried out to compare marginal microleakage between Fuji-VII glass ionomer cement (G C Corporation, Tokyo, Japan and the conventional light-cured unfilled resin as pit and fissure sealants (3M Concise, 3M Dental Products, St. Paul, USA. The dye used was 2% methylene blue (Qualigens Fine Chemicals, Mumbai, India. The teeth were sectioned and studied under the stereomicroscope. The result revealed that there was no difference in microleakage ( P > 0.05 between the two materials.

  10. Do light cured ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants perform better than resin-composite sealants: a 4-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, WeiWei; Chen, Xi; Fan, Ming-Wen; Mulder, Jan; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte C D N J M; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-05-01

    The hypotheses tested were: the cumulative survival rates of dentin caries lesion-free pits and fissures of ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants with light-curing (high-intensity LED) and glass-carbomer sealants are higher than those of conventional ART sealants and resin-composite sealants after 4 years. The randomized controlled clinical trial covered 405 children (mean age 8-years). Three dentists placed sealants in pits and fissures of high caries-risk children. Evaluation by two independent evaluators was conducted after 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 years. The Kaplan-Meier survival method, ANOVA and t-test were used in data analyses. 1304 first permanent molars were sealed. 12.3% of children and 15.4% of sealants dropped out. 46 re-exposed pits and fissures, 39 (occlusal) 7 (free smooth surfaces), in 42 children developed a dentin carious lesion. The cumulative survival of dentin caries lesion-free occlusal pits and fissures in ART plus LED group (98%) was statistically significantly higher than in the resin-composite group (96.4%) and in the glass-carbomer group (94.5%). The cumulative survival of dentin caries lesion-free occlusal pits and fissures in the glass-carbomer group was statistically significantly lower than that in the conventional ART group (97.3%). For the free smooth surfaces, there was no statistically significantly difference among the four sealant groups. Light-cured ART conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer sealants prevented the occurrence of dentin cavities best. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and electrical characterization of low-temperature thermal-cured epoxy resin/functionalized silica hybrid-thin films for application as gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Moonkyong, E-mail: nmk@keri.re.kr [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); System on Chip Chemical Process Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Taec [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Cheol [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Dong [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-31

    Thermal-cured hybrid materials were synthesized from homogenous hybrid sols of epoxy resins and organoalkoxysilane-functionalized silica. The chemical structures of raw materials and obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal resistance of the hybrids was enhanced by hybridization. The interaction between epoxy matrix and the silica particles, which caused hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force was strengthened by organoalkoxysilane. The degradation temperature of the hybrids was improved by approximately 30 °C over that of the parent epoxy material. The hybrid materials were formed into uniformly coated thin films of about 50 nm-thick using a spin coater. An optimum mixing ratio was used to form smooth-surfaced hybrid films. The electrical property of the hybrid film was characterized, and the leakage current was found to be well below 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Preparation of thermal-curable hybrid materials using epoxy resin and silica. • The thermal stability was enhanced through hybridization. • The insulation property of hybrid film was investigated as gate dielectrics.

  12. Effect of light-activation with different light-curing units and time intervals on resin cement bond strength to intraradicular dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Almeida, Maria Eleonora; Azevedo, Mario Lucio da Costa; Rached-Júnior, Fuad Abi; Oliveira, Camila Favero; Silva, Ricardo Gariba; Messias, Danielle Cristine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the bond strength of a resin cement to intraradicular dentin varying the light-curing unit and the moment at which the light was applied. Post spaces of endodontically treated canines were prepared. The roots were distributed into 6 groups (n=10) according to the light-curing unit and the moment of light exposure: I) Quartz tungsten halogen-600 mW/cm² (QTH) + immediate light activation (t0); II) QTH + light activation after 10 min (t10); III) Light-emitting diodes (LED)-800 mW/cm² (LED-800)+ t0; IV) LED-800 + t10; V) LED-1,500 mW/cm² (LED-1500)+ t0; VI) LED-1500 + t10. After post cementation, slices from coronal, middle and apical post/root regions were submitted to the push-out test and failure evaluation. It was verified that LED-800 (4.40 ± 3.00 MPa) and LED-1500 (4.67 ± 3.04 MPa) provided bond strength statistically superior to QTH (3.13 ± 1.76 MPa) (p0.05). There was no significant difference between t0 and t10 (p>0.05). Coronal post/root region (4.75 ± 3.10 MPa) presented significantly higher bond strength than the apical (3.32 ± 2.30 MPa) (plight-activation, regardless of the moment of light exposure.

  13. Effect of oxygen inhibition in two-step self-etch systems on surface free energy and dentin bond strength with a chemically cured resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Ayumi; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Asaoka, Tetsui; Matsuyoshi, Saki; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    We compared the surface free energies and dentin bond strengths of two-step self-etch systems with and without an oxygen-inhibited layer. The adhesives were applied to self-etching primer-treated dentin surfaces of bovine incisors, after which the teeth were light-irradiated and the oxygen-inhibited layer was left intact or removed with ethanol. We determined surface free energies (γS) and their components by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. We also measured the dentin bond strengths of chemically cured resin composite to the adhesives, with and without the oxygen-inhibited layer. For all surfaces, the estimated surface tension component, γS(LW), was relatively constant. The Lewis base (γS(-)) component decreased significantly when the oxygen-inhibited layer was removed, whereas the Lewis acid (γS(+)) component slightly increased. The dentin bond strengths of the two-step self-etch systems did not significantly differ in relation to the presence of the oxygen-inhibited layer. Although the surface free energy of the adhesive was affected by the presence of the oxygen-inhibited layer, no changes in dentin bond strength were detected.

  14. Cure Chemistry of Phenylethynyl Terminated Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Karen H.; Orwoll, Robert A.; Young, Philip R.; Jensen, Brian J.; McNair, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    The ability to process high performance polymers into quality, void-free composites has been significantly advanced using oligomers terminated with reactive groups which cure or crosslink at elevated temperature without the evolution of volatile byproducts. Several matrix resin systems of considerable interest to the aerospace community utilize phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) technology to achieve this advantage. The present paper addresses the cure chemistry of PETI oligomers. The thermal cure of a low molecular weight model compound was studied using a variety of analytical techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The studies indicate an extremely complex cure process. Many stable products were isolated and this paper reports current work on identification of those products. The intent of this research is to provide fundamental insight into the molecular structure of the cured PETI engineering materials so that performance and durability can be more fully assessed.

  15. Assessment of changes in color and color parameters of light-cured composite resin after alternative polymerization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Emine Sirin; Bulbul, Mehmet; Ertas, Ertan; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    To examine the amount of change in color and color parameters of a composite resin (Filtek P60) polymerized by five different polymerization methods. A Teflon mold (6mm in diameter, 2mm in height) was used to prepare the composite resin discs (n=10). G1: Polymerization with inlay oven; G2: Polymerization with HQTH and autoclave; G3: Polymerization with LED and autoclave; G4: Polymerization with HQTH; G5: Polymerization with LED. Colorimetric values of the specimens before and after polymerization were measured using a spectrophotometer. The CIE L*a*b color system was used for the determination of color difference. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data for significant differences. Tukey's HSD test and paired two-tailed tests were used to perform multiple comparisons (α=.05). There were no significant differences in total color change (ΔE*ab) among the polymerization groups (P>.05). However, the lowest color change (ΔE*ab) value was 3.3 in LED and autoclave; the highest color change (ΔE*ab) value was 4.6 in HQTH. For all groups, CIE L*, C*ab and a*values decreased after polymerization (PComposite resin material showed color changes above the clinically accepted value in all study groups (ΔE*ab⩾3.3). All specimens became darker during investigation (ΔL*< 0). Specimens polymerized with inlay oven presented the highest Δb* values which means less yellow color in specimens.

  16. Reinforcing Heat-cured Poly-methyl-methacrylate Resins using Fibers of Glass, Polyaramid, and Nylon: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gautam Vs; Nigam, Anupama; Naeem, Ahmad; Gaur, Abhishek; Pandey, Kaushik Kumar; Deora, Abhimanyu

    2016-11-01

    As civilization has progressed, there has been continued refinement of materials available for dental practice. The applications of resins have been extended to increased practical uses in numerous areas of prosthetic and restorative dentistry. Certain significant alterations in the technique of manipulation and nature of the dental product have influenced the range of application in dentistry. The present study was done to measure and compare the fracture strength of heat polymerized poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resin reinforced with fibers of glass, polyaramid, and nylon. The present study was conducted in vitro on 40 PMMA denture base resin specimens. Specimens were divided into four subgroups with ten specimens each and tested for transverse strength using universal testing machine. In group I, the transverse strength mean value was 67.82 MPa. In group II, the transverse strength mean value was 59.47 MPa. In group III, the transverse strength mean value was 66.87 MPa, while in group IV, the transverse strength mean value was 66.47 MPa. Incorporation of 4% weight glass fibers in loose form significantly increased the transverse strength of denture base PMMA, while 4% of polyaramid fiber in random distribution significantly increased the transverse strength of denture base PMMA.

  17. 2D Numerical Modelling of the Resin Injection Pultrusion Process Including Experimental Resin Kinetics and Temperature Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Salling; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Larsen, Martin

    In the present study, a two-dimensional (2D) transient Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis of a carbon fibre epoxy thermosetting Resin Injection Pultrusion (RIP) process is carried out. The numerical model is implemented using the well known unconditionally stable Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI...... inside the composite profile are validated by comparison with experimental measurements and good agreement is found....

  18. In vitro comparative study of share bond of light cured composite resins with halogen light and argon laser, using stainless steel brackets on human premolars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carillo, Vitoria Eugenia Bismarck

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study in vitro was to compare the share bond strength of the light-cured composite resins Transbond XT (Unitek), with halogen light and argon laser. The Adhesive Remmant Index (ARI) was also investigated. The brackets Dyna lock (3M-UNITEK) were bonded to 75 human premolars, divided into 5 groups (15 each) according to time and the polymerization: Group H20, 15 brackets bonded with halogen light for 20s (10s both sides); Group H40, 15 brackets bonded with halogen light for 40s (20s both sides); Group A40, 15 brackets bonded with argon laser for 40s (20s both sides); Group A20, 15 brackets bonded with argon laser for 20s (10s both sides); Group A10, 15 brackets bonded with argon laser for 10s (5s both sides). The pulpal temperature changes were determined during a polymerization, not exceeding 3,5 deg C. After bonding, the teeth were submitted to a thermo cycled of 700 cycles between 5 deg C and 55 deg C, to simulate the consuming that the light cured composite resin would have in a short space of time. The specimens were then placed in PVC ring and embedded in acrylic resin (Aero-Jet). The tensile bond strength test was performed on an Universal Machine set at a crosshead speed of 1,5 mm/min, and for each rupture we registered a graphic and the best load required in Newtons, was converted to MPa and kgf. The share bond strength showed bigger values for the exposure time of 20 seconds, for the Group bonded for halogen light (H20), 7,45 kgf (7,64 MPa) and for argon laser 7,50 kgf (7,69 MPa); lesser values for the exposure time of 40s for the Group with halogen light (H40), 6,15 kgf (6,30 MPa) and argon laser Group (A40), 6,20 kgf (6,35 MPa) 0; and A10, 4,85 kgf (4,97 MPa). In the ARI Index, only A40 Group showed the 1 Index, with statistical results. In this Group, less than half of the remainder adhesive stayed on the surface of the enamel, conferring specimens failed at the enamel-adhesive interface. The results of the in vitro study demonstrate that

  19. [Enrichment process of gentiopicroside from the leaves of Gentiana macropylla with macroporous resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ru; Sun, Wen-ji

    2007-12-01

    To select the best type of macroporous resin for enriching gentiopicroside from the leaves of Gentiana macropylla, and study its optimal conditions and parameters. Adsorption and desorption characteristics of gentiopieroside were carried out on the resins. HPLC was used to determine the content of gentiopieroside. The better resin D-101 was chosen, and the optimal parameters were obtained. The process is feasible to enrich gentiopicroside from the leaves of Gentiana macropylla Pall.

  20. The effect of processing on autohesive strength development in thermoplastic resins and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Jeremy C.; Loos, Alfred C.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    In the present investigation of processing effects on the autohesive bond strength of neat polysulfone resin and graphite-reinforced polysulfone-matrix composites measured resin bond strength development in precracked compact tension specimens 'healed' by heating over a contact period at a given temperature. The critical strain energy release rate of refractured composite specimens did not exhibit the strong time or temperature dependence of the neat resin tests; only 80-90 percent of the undamaged fracture energy is recoverable.

  1. Process for improving mechanical properties of epoxy resins by addition of cobalt ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A resin product useful as an adhesive, composite or casting resin is described as well as the process used in its preparation to improve its flexural strength mechanical property characteristics. Improved flexural strength is attained with little or no change in density, thermal stability or moisture resistance by chemically incorporating 1.2% to 10.6% by weight Co(3) ions in an epoxidized resin system.

  2. Tracking the curing process of automotive paint by moving-window two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy and principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Qun

    2014-07-01

    Moving-window two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (MW2DCOS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were combined to interpret the time serial infrared spectra. The curing process of an automotive paint sample was tracked by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Score plots of the first and second principal components showed that the curing process contained three stages. Meanwhile, the loading spectra indicated that the solvent was a mixture of aromatic compounds. Absorption peaks which changed significantly in each stage were revealed by auto-peak MW2DCOS. Furthermore, point-line and point-point MW2DCOS demonstrated the time-resolved relationship between absorption peaks from toluene, xylene and resin. In summary, the evaporation of toluene was the first stage of the curing process of this automotive paint sample. Next, the mixture of o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene began to evaporate in the second stage. After the evaporation of the solvent, the solid paint membrane was formed. For the interpretation of the time serial spectra, PCA is useful to estimate the number of significant chemical components and to find out the important turning points of the process, while MW2DCOS can show the changes of the spectral peaks and the relationship between them step by step. The combination of PCA and MW2DCOS is very interesting to extract and display the time-resolved information in the time serial spectra.

  3. Development and Validation of a Constitutive Model for Dental Composites during the Curing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham Kolstad, Lauren

    Debonding is a critical failure of a dental composites used for dental restorations. Debonding of dental composites can be determined by comparing the shrinkage stress of to the debonding strength of the adhesive that bonds it to the tooth surface. It is difficult to measure shrinkage stress experimentally. In this study, finite element analysis is used to predict the stress in the composite during cure. A new constitutive law is presented that will allow composite developers to evaluate composite shrinkage stress at early stages in the material development. Shrinkage stress and shrinkage strain experimental data were gathered for three dental resins, Z250, Z350, and P90. Experimental data were used to develop a constitutive model for the Young's modulus as a function of time of the dental composite during cure. A Maxwell model, spring and dashpot in series, was used to simulate the composite. The compliance of the shrinkage stress device was also taken into account by including a spring in series with the Maxwell model. A coefficient of thermal expansion was also determined for internal loading of the composite by dividing shrinkage strain by time. Three FEA models are presented. A spring-disk model validates that the constitutive law is self-consistent. A quarter cuspal deflection model uses separate experimental data to verify that the constitutive law is valid. Finally, an axisymmetric tooth model is used to predict interfacial stresses in the composite. These stresses are compared to the debonding strength to check if the composite debonds. The new constitutive model accurately predicted cuspal deflection data. Predictions for interfacial bond stress in the tooth model compare favorably with debonding characteristics observed in practice for dental resins.

  4. Effects of the different atmospheric steam curing processes on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The introduction of SCC represents a major technological advance, which leads to a better quality of concrete produced and a faster and more economical concrete construction process. The use of SCC in civil engineering has gradually increased over the past few years. In addition, the increasing proportion of fine material ...

  5. Extraction metallurgy for coarse particle ore and acid-curing and ferric-trickle leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Suoqing

    1993-02-01

    Based on the viewpoint that only if the ground fine ore leaching method is replaced by the extraction from coarse particle ore, the face of uranium ore processing can be changed, the article presents the summary of the studying of thin-layer leaching (TLL) and of the developing a new process, acid-curing and ferric-trickle leaching (AFL) process (It is called NGJ process in China.). The operation of AFL process is similar to TLL method, but the water or acidified water is replaced by ferric solution for leaching-rising for cured ore. Ferric-trickle leaching can effectively complete the leaching reaction for uranium mineral in 'remaining leaching reaction' that is hardly to be finished in the course of curing. For the most uranium ores in China the AFL-process is competitive with the conventional leaching process. According to this analysis the AFL-process and other extractive processes for coarse particle should become basic extraction process for uranium ore in China. In other words the ore grinding is no more as an essential operation in uranium ore processing in China. Thus, many serious problems caused by ore grinding method in uranium ore processing can be solved and the uranium ore hydrometallurgy will be significantly changed

  6. The influence of chemical activation on hardness of dual-curing resin cements A influência da ativação química na dureza de cimentos resinosos duais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Garcia Fonseca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During the cementation of metallic restorations, the polymerization of dual-curing resin cements depends exclusively on chemical activation. This study evaluated the influence of chemical activation compared with dual-curing (chemical and light activation, on the hardness of four dual-curing resin cements. In a darkened environment, equal weight proportions of base and catalyst pastes of the cements Scotchbond Resin Cement, Variolink II, Enforce and Panavia F were mixed and inserted into moulds with cavities of 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height. Subsequently, the cements were: 1 not exposed to light (chemical activation = self-cured groups or 2 photoactivated (dual-curing = dual-cured groups. The Vickers hardness number was measured at 1 hour, 24 hours and 7 days after the start time of cements' spatulation. For all the cements, the hardness values of self-cured groups were lower than those of the respective dual-cured groups at 1 hour and 24 hours. At 7 days, this