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Sample records for resin benefit negligible

  1. Diversity matters: how bees benefit from different resin sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Nora; Wallace, Helen M; Katouli, Mohammad; Massaro, Carmelina F; Leonhardt, Sara Diana

    2014-12-01

    Biodiverse environments provide a variety of resources that can be exploited by consumers. While many studies revealed a positive correlation between biodiversity and consumer biomass and richness, only few studies have investigated how resource diversity affects single consumers. To better understand whether a single consumer species benefits from diverse resources, we tested how the protective function of a defensive plant resource (i.e. resin exploited by social bees) varied among different sources and target organisms (predators, parasites and pathogens). To assess synergistic effects, resins from different plant genera were tested separately and in combination. We found that resin diversity is beneficial for bees, with its functional properties depending on the target organisms, type and composition of resin. Different resins showed different effects, and mixtures were more effective than some of the single resins (functional complementarity). We conclude that resins of different plant species target different organisms and act synergistically where combined. Bees that rely on resin for protection benefit more when they have access to diverse resin sources. Loss of biodiversity may in turn destabilize consumer populations due to restricted access to a variety of resources.

  2. [Medical negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, St G

    2016-06-01

    Medical negligence is a matter of growing public interest. This review outlines various aspects of medical negligence: epidemiology, taxonomy, and the risks, causes, psychology, management and prevention of errors.

  3. Medical negligence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    19. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. The progress made in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine has resulted in an increase in the number of malprac- tice suits brought against medical practitioners. To constitute negligence it must be shown that the conduct of the accused did not measure up to the.

  4. Negligence and Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    2001-01-01

    Although athletic events generate their share of negligence lawsuits, the relatively small number, compared with other education areas, suggests that defenses (like assumption or risk and contributory negligence) have a better fit in athletics. Implications of newer litigation trends involving coaches' misconduct and interpretation of state…

  5. Medical Negligence : An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratin Kumar Dey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical professionals are treated as next to God. They provide humanitarian services and gives solace to individuals suffering from various diseases and disorders. Due to their great service to humanity, the doctors and medical professionals are treated with reverence and since the ancient times the medical profession has been considered as a noble profession. However with the passage of time, there has been a change in the doctor - patient relationship. During the last few decades a number of incidents have come to light in which the patients have suffered due to the error and inadvertent conduct of doctors. Due to the increasing conflicts and legal disputes between the doctors and patients, most of the legal systems have developed various rules and principles to deal with such inadvertent behavior of doctors. This has led to the development of a new branch of jurisprudence, i.e. medical negligence. Hence, any negligence on part of the medical professional would be treated as either a tort of negligence or a deficiency in service under Consumer Protection Act, 1986. As the profession involves the idea of an occupation requiring purely intellectual skills or of manual skills controlled by the intellectual skill of the operator, it is distinctively different from an occupation, which is substantially production or sale or arrangement for the production or sale of commodities. Medicine is a highly complex domain. It is difficult for consumer laws to review medical negligence cases with flawless technical clarity and accuracy. Thus medical negligence is not purely a matter of consideration for judiciary but also the technical inputs of specialized experts in the field have substantial weightage while deciding the case of medical negligence against doctors. The present paper is devoted to introvert inspection of negligence in medical profession in the light of existing laws with more emphasis on the interpretation of consumer protection law by

  6. Are micro-benefits negligible? The implications of the rapid expansion of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in rural Bangladesh for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Satoru; Kaneko, Shinji; Ghosh, Partha Pratim

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the multiple benefits of the adoption of Solar Home Systems (SHS) and discusses the dissemination potential for sustainable rural livelihoods in developing countries. Based on a household survey conducted in rural Bangladesh, we first identify the impact of SHS on the reduction in energy costs and compare purchasing costs. We then examine household lifestyle changes following the adoption of SHS. Finally, we consider several price-reduction scenarios to examine the potential demand for SHS and to evaluate its future dissemination potential. The results of the analysis indicate that households with SHS successfully reduce their consumption of kerosene and dependency on rechargeable batteries, with the cost reductions accounting for some 20-30% of monthly expenditures on SHS. Moreover, most households with SHS can enjoy its benefits, including electric lighting, watching television, and the ease of mobile phone recharging at home. Further, the price reduction can make possible potential demand in more than 60% of households without SHS, while additional price reductions promote the purchase of even larger SHS packages. This study concludes that even though the scale of single SHS is small, the micro-benefits for each household and the dissemination potential are substantial. - Research Highlights: → Price reductions on Solar Home Systems potentially generate demand. → Solar Home Systems enable a reduction in energy costs and improvements in lifestyle. → The micro-benefits for households and the dissemination potential are substantial.

  7. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohn DH

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system.Keywords: medical malpractice, tort reform, no fault compensation, alternative dispute resolution, system errors

  8. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, David H

    2013-01-01

    Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort system in the United States; and review current and future solutions, including medical malpractice reform, alternative dispute resolution, health courts, and no-fault compensation systems. The current political environment favors investigation of non-cap tort reform remedies; investment into more rational oversight systems, such as health courts or no-fault systems may reap both quantitative and qualitative benefits for a less costly and safer health system. PMID:23426783

  9. Innovative negligence rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Franzoni, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Often, injurers or victims (or both) can adopt a new technology that reduces the social costs of accidents. When adoption costs are not verifiable in court, optimal adoption decisions cannot be induced by means of an appropriate determination of negligence. Hence the parties might either over- or

  10. Relative fault and efficient negligence: Comparative negligence explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Hendriks, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that the rule of comparative negligence with relative fault - a sharing of the loss proportional to the parties’ relative departures from due care - induces the parties to an accident to be efficiently negligent. Comparative negligence is more efficient than simple or contributory

  11. The benefits of heavy resins in fluidized-bed ion-exchange columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddey, T.B.S.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages to be gained from the use of a high-density ion-exchange resin in a uranium-recovery circuit are shown. It is concluded that, in existing fluidized-bed plants, the throughput of solution can be increased by up to 40 per cent at the same uranium recovery. Alternatively, the values in the barren solution can be improved at the same flow-rate of solution [af

  12. Relative fault and efficient negligence: comparative negligence explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Hendriks, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative negligence poses a persisting puzzle in law & economics. Under standard assumptions, its performance is identical to other negligence rules, while its implementation is slightly more complex. If so, why is it the most common rule? In this paper, we advance a novel argument: comparative

  13. Negligence is negligence: implications for an egalitarian agenda [Blog

    OpenAIRE

    Priaulx, Nicolette

    2013-01-01

    This short paper explores the significance of the "constitutionalism of private law" through the lens of developments in the context of the tort of negligence. Drawing a distinction between legal egalitarianism and social egalitarianism, the author notes that in the former respect the greater convergence of human rights and private law might be regarded as a welcome development; in respect of social egalitarianism, however, the author argues that given the way that the tort of negligence oper...

  14. Negligence, genuine error, and litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, David

    2013-01-01

    David H SohnDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH, USAAbstract: Not all medical injuries are the result of negligence. In fact, most medical injuries are the result either of the inherent risk in the practice of medicine, or due to system errors, which cannot be prevented simply through fear of disciplinary action. This paper will discuss the differences between adverse events, negligence, and system errors; the current medical malpractice tort syst...

  15. The efficiency of the negligence rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Ljubica; Mojašević, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    This study comparatively analizes economic effects of different negligence rules, contained in American law on the one hand, and Serbian law on the other. It is important to establish economic implications of the different negligence rules, based on the incentives for tortfeasor’s and victim’s precaution under the different negligence rules. Study of the efficiency of several different forms of negligence rules: simple negligence, negligence with a defense of contributory negligence, comparat...

  16. Medical negligence: Indian legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A basic knowledge of how judicial forums deal with the cases relating to medical negligence is of absolute necessity for doctors. The need for such knowledge is more now than before in light of higher premium being placed by the Indian forums on the value of human life and suffering, and perhaps rightly so. Judicial forums, while seeking to identify delinquents and delinquency in the cases of medical negligence, actually aim at striking a careful balance between the autonomy of a doctor to make judgments and the rights of a patient to be dealt with fairly. In the process of adjudication, the judicial forums tend to give sufficient leeway to doctors and expressly recognize the complexity of the human body, inexactness of medical science, the inherent subjectivity of the process, genuine scope for error of judgment, and the importance of the autonomy of the doctors. The law does not prescribe the limits of high standards that can be adopted but only the minimum standard below which the patients cannot be dealt with. Judicial forums have also signaled an increased need of the doctors to engage with the patients during treatment, especially when the line of treatment is contested, has serious side effects and alternative treatments exist.

  17. Asymptotic density and effective negligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor, Eric P.

    In this thesis, we join the study of asymptotic computability, a project attempting to capture the idea that an algorithm might work correctly in all but a vanishing fraction of cases. In collaboration with Hirschfeldt and Jockusch, broadening the original investigation of Jockusch and Schupp, we introduce dense computation, the weakest notion of asymptotic computability (requiring only that the correct answer is produced on a set of density 1), and effective dense computation, where every computation halts with either the correct answer or (on a set of density 0) a symbol denoting uncertainty. A few results make more precise the relationship between these notions and work already done with Jockusch and Schupp's original definitions of coarse and generic computability. For all four types of asymptotic computation, including generic computation, we demonstrate that non-trivial upper cones have measure 0, building on recent work of Hirschfeldt, Jockusch, Kuyper, and Schupp in which they establish this for coarse computation. Their result transfers to yield a minimal pair for relative coarse computation; we generalize their method and extract a similar result for relative dense computation (and thus for its corresponding reducibility). However, all of these notions of near-computation treat a set as negligible iff it has asymptotic density 0. Noting that this definition is not computably invariant, this produces some failures of intuition and a break with standard expectations in computability theory. For instance, as shown by Hamkins and Miasnikov, the halting problem is (in some formulations) effectively densely computable, even in polynomial time---yet this result appears fragile, as indicated by Rybalov. In independent work, we respond to this by strengthening the approach of Jockusch and Schupp to avoid such phenomena; specifically, we introduce a new notion of intrinsic asymptotic density, invariant under computable permutation, with rich relations to both

  18. Clinical errors and medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the definition, nature and origins of clinical errors including their prevention. The relationship between clinical errors and medical negligence is examined as are the characteristics of litigants and events that are the source of litigation. The pattern of malpractice claims in different specialties and settings is examined. Among hospitalized patients worldwide, 3-16% suffer injury as a result of medical intervention, the most common being the adverse effects of drugs. The frequency of adverse drug effects appears superficially to be higher in intensive care units and emergency departments but once rates have been corrected for volume of patients, comorbidity of conditions and number of drugs prescribed, the difference is not significant. It is concluded that probably no more than 1 in 7 adverse events in medicine result in a malpractice claim and the factors that predict that a patient will resort to litigation include a prior poor relationship with the clinician and the feeling that the patient is not being kept informed. Methods for preventing clinical errors are still in their infancy. The most promising include new technologies such as electronic prescribing systems, diagnostic and clinical decision-making aids and error-resistant systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. An Update on Negligence. A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Ivan

    This newsletter defines common law negligence, discusses recent trends in common law negligence, cites litigation, and establishes guidelines to assist school administrators in the avoidance of such tort action. The success or failure of a negligence suit most commonly turns on one of three factors: duty, breach of that duty, and proximate cause…

  20. On the optimal scope of negligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2005-01-01

    This article studies the optimal scope of negligence, considering which of the parties’ precautionary measures should be included in the determination of negligence and which instead should be omitted. The analysis shows that the optimal scope of negligence balances the gains derived from improved

  1. 46 CFR 5.29 - Negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negligence. 5.29 Section 5.29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Definitions § 5.29 Negligence. Negligence is the commission of an act which a reasonable...

  2. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  3. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  4. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead

  5. Educators' Negligence: What, Why, and Who's Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunklee, Dennis R.; Shoop, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors define negligence and cite specific examples where teachers were found accountable for their negligent actions related to their profession. They report results of an informal study of teacher knowledge of tort liability that indicate educators should be more knowledgeable about education law. Recommendations are included. (CH)

  6. Medical negligence | Otto | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To constitute negligence it must be shown that the conduct of the accused did not measure up to the standard of care the law required of him in the particular circumstances and that he acted with guilt and therefore can be blamed for the deed. This paper describes medical practitioner negligence and reviews relevant cases ...

  7. Challenging the cost of clinical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Graham; Hallinan, Emma

    2016-01-05

    Healthcare professionals in South Africa (SA) are facing challenging times. As the clinical negligence claims environment in SA deteriorates, the impact is being felt by healthcare professionals, but also by the wider public owing to the strain that costs place on the public purse. The authors look at the current claims environment, and explain why a debate about reform is so important.

  8. Professional negligence: when practice goes wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Curtis E; Richards, Warren; Fincham, Jack E

    2006-01-01

    To review the practice and legal principles of negligence law. An illustrative, fictional case is presented, based in part on facts gleaned from actual case law. A respected pharmacist, faced with the financial loss of his business, decided to engage in 2 creative but unethical schemes to increase his profit margin. In doing so, he violated federal Medicare law and placed a number of the patients who used his services at significant risk for medical complications. Negligence law has evolved over the past 30 years in a manner that significantly increases the liability of the practicing pharmacist for both ordinary negligence actions and criminal negligence actions. In addition, the past decade has seen the expansion of Medicare Fraud and Abuse law such that it now represents an increasingly high risk area for every medical service provider, including the pharmacist. Professional practice in the US is highly regulated, governed by both case law and statutory law. Every practicing pharmacist should be aware of the law that governs his or her behavior to avoid both civil and criminal liability.

  9. The Vulnerable Subject of Negligence Law

    OpenAIRE

    Stychin, C.

    2012-01-01

    The approach taken by English courts to the duty of care question in negligence has been subject to harsh criticism in recent years. This article examines this fundamental issue in tort law, drawing upon Canadian and Australian jurisprudence by way of comparison. From this analysis, the concept of vulnerability is developed as a productive means of understanding the duty of care. Vulnerability is of increasing interest in legal and political theory and it is of particular relevance to the law...

  10. Handling medical negligence: necessity of a proper system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuwadatta Subedi

    2017-12-01

    of charging them against negligence. The health professionals are at times threatened and forced to apologize in public. Most of the times, they demand for compensation and many direct benefits to the relatives of the deceased. The hospitals and the health professionals feel insecure and often they have agreed to the demands put forth to peacefully settle the issue and to get prevented from defamation. The government is also unable to provide security. Similar cases have been reported time and again in Nepal, creating a sense of lawlessness in the country.When deciding whether a doctor is held liable for negligence, the “standard of care” should be analysed. It means the practice should be an accepted one and standard, such that doctor of the similar filed and competence would have also opted the same procedure in given circumstances. Even when a doctor has duly acted opting standard procedure, still there can be chances that a patient can develop complications. Every human body cannot react exactly same to a medical intervention though that may be a scientifically proven one as there can be chances of medical misadventure. The doctors should have possessed reasonable degree of care and skill when he is attending the patient. According to Bolam’s test, a person is said to have inappropriate standard, and becomes negligent, if it is proven that he had failed to do what a reasonable person would do in the circumstances.1 The degree of care and skill should be comparable to an average doctor in similar settings. In order to analyse these issues, expert opinion from reputable and unbiased experts of the similar field of medicine should be taken. In case of death due to alleged medical negligence, the dead body should be autopsied by qualified experts in Forensic Medicine. This can explain so many facts about the deceased which can be helpful to decide whether negligence has factually taken. It highlights the need of taking opinion from the experts of the concerned

  11. Safety Tips: Avoiding Negligence Suits in Chemistry Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovich, Jack A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses various aspects related to negligence on the part of chemistry teachers. Areas addressed include negligence in tort law, avoiding negligence suits, proper instructions, proper supervision, equipment maintenance, and other considerations such as sovereign immunity, and contributory versus comparative negligence. (JN)

  12. 7 CFR 276.3 - Negligence or fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negligence or fraud. 276.3 Section 276.3 Agriculture... Negligence or fraud. (a) General. If FNS determines that there has been negligence or fraud on the part of..., pay to FNS a sum equal to the amount of coupons issued as a result of such negligence or fraud. (b...

  13. Medical records and issues in negligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for the treating doctor to properly document the management of a patient under his care. Medical record keeping has evolved into a science of itself. This will be the only way for the doctor to prove that the treatment was carried out properly. Moreover, it will also be of immense help in the scientific evaluation and review of patient management issues. Medical records form an important part of the management of a patient. It is important for the doctors and medical establishments to properly maintain the records of patients for two important reasons. The first one is that it will help them in the scientific evaluation of their patient profile, helping in analyzing the treatment results, and to plan treatment protocols. It also helps in planning governmental strategies for future medical care. But of equal importance in the present setting is in the issue of alleged medical negligence. The legal system relies mainly on documentary evidence in a situation where medical negligence is alleged by the patient or the relatives. In an accusation of negligence, this is very often the most important evidence deciding on the sentencing or acquittal of the doctor. With the increasing use of medical insurance for treatment, the insurance companies also require proper record keeping to prove the patient′s demand for medical expenses. Improper record keeping can result in declining medical claims. It is disheartening to note that inspite of knowing the importance of proper record keeping it is still in a nascent stage in India. It is wise to remember that "Poor records mean poor defense, no records mean no defense". Medical records include a variety of documentation of patient′s history, clinical findings, diagnostic test results, preoperative care, operation notes, post operative care, and daily notes of a patient′s progress and medications. A properly obtained consent will go a long way in proving that the procedures were

  14. Medical records and issues in negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    It is very important for the treating doctor to properly document the management of a patient under his care. Medical record keeping has evolved into a science of itself. This will be the only way for the doctor to prove that the treatment was carried out properly. Moreover, it will also be of immense help in the scientific evaluation and review of patient management issues. Medical records form an important part of the management of a patient. It is important for the doctors and medical establishments to properly maintain the records of patients for two important reasons. The first one is that it will help them in the scientific evaluation of their patient profile, helping in analyzing the treatment results, and to plan treatment protocols. It also helps in planning governmental strategies for future medical care. But of equal importance in the present setting is in the issue of alleged medical negligence. The legal system relies mainly on documentary evidence in a situation where medical negligence is alleged by the patient or the relatives. In an accusation of negligence, this is very often the most important evidence deciding on the sentencing or acquittal of the doctor. With the increasing use of medical insurance for treatment, the insurance companies also require proper record keeping to prove the patient's demand for medical expenses. Improper record keeping can result in declining medical claims. It is disheartening to note that inspite of knowing the importance of proper record keeping it is still in a nascent stage in India. It is wise to remember that "Poor records mean poor defense, no records mean no defense". Medical records include a variety of documentation of patient's history, clinical findings, diagnostic test results, preoperative care, operation notes, post operative care, and daily notes of a patient's progress and medications. A properly obtained consent will go a long way in proving that the procedures were conducted with the concurrence of

  15. Surviving and winning a professional negligence lawsuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Douglas W; Teuscher, David D

    2013-01-01

    Being served with a medical negligence lawsuit usually is a traumatic event for an orthopaedic surgeon. The course of litigation is long and tedious, and the defendant physician must be well prepared for the experience. It is imperative that the physician contact his or her insurance carrier immediately after being served with the complaint because many legal actions are time dependent. The insurance company will assign an attorney to defend the physician, and an effective team will be needed to mount a powerful defense. The defendant physician's deposition is among the most important aspects of the entire process. Extensive preparation for the deposition will strengthen the defense; but the physician must remember that the lawsuit will not be won during the deposition. Because the testimony of expert witnesses often decides the outcome of the case, it is important for the physician to help the attorney identify the best potential witnesses. A thorough knowledge of the tactics that the plaintiff's attorney may use during cross-examination can help ensure that the truth is clearly portrayed. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Professional Compliance Program is designed to ensure that all testimony in medical liability cases is fair and factual.

  16. Loss of chance in medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, K; Bramley, D; Shulman, M; Kennedy, E

    2014-05-01

    Occasionally accidents and complications occur during anaesthesia and perioperative care that result in injury to the patient. Unfortunately, this is sometimes due to a breach in the anaesthetist's duty of care to the patient. Sometimes, rather than being the cause of immediate damage, the act or omission results in an alteration in the prognosis of the complaint or increased risk of complications related to the complaint. This avenue for a negligence action is known as 'loss of chance of a better outcome' and has been the subject of much legal argument in Australia in recent years. A recent High Court of Australia decision is widely seen as having 'closed the door' to, or at least made it difficult for the patient to succeed in, loss of chance cases. Many anaesthetists may not be familiar with the concept of 'loss of chance'. This review will explore the concept of loss of chance and the manner in which Australian courts have dealt with it before and after Tabet v Gett from the perspective of the anaesthetist.

  17. Negligence: What Is It? How Can It Be Avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda Jean; Acosta, R. Vivian

    1982-01-01

    The physical educator or athletic coach needs to be aware of negligence in relation to the possible athletic injuries of students. The four legal components of negligence--duty, breach, cause, and harm--are discussed. (JN)

  18. Negligent Hiring and Employer Liability in the Selection of Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sharon Swenson

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some theories of employer liability: (1) negligent hiring; (2) negligent entrustment; and (3) respondent superior. Applicable cases focusing on the investigation of prospective employees and the emerging constitutional implications are discussed. (MLF)

  19. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  20. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  1. Beyond the standard of care: a new model to judge medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lawrence H; Brenner, Alison Tytell; Awerbuch, Eric J; Horwitz, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The term "standard of care" has been used in law and medicine to determine whether medical care is negligent. However, the precise meaning of this concept is often unclear for both medical and legal professionals. Our purposes are to (1) examine the limitations of using standard of care as a measure of negligence, (2) propose the use of the legal concepts of justification and excuse in developing a new model of examining medical conduct, and (3) outline the framework of this model. We applied the principles of tort liability set forth in the clinical and legal literature to describe the difficulty in applying standard of care in medical negligence cases. Using the concepts of justification and excuse, we propose a judicial model that may promote fair and just jury verdicts in medical negligence cases. Contrary to conventional understanding, medical negligence is not simply nonconformity to norms. Two additional concepts of legal liability, ie, justification and excuse, must also be considered to properly judge medical conduct. Medical conduct is justified when the benefits outweigh the risks; the law sanctions the conduct and encourages future conduct under similar circumstances. Excuse, on the other hand, relieves a doctor of legal liability under specific circumstances even though his/her conduct was not justified. Standard of care is an inaccurate measure of medical negligence because it is premised on the faulty notion of conformity to norms. An alternative judicial model to determine medical negligence would (1) eliminate standard of care in medical malpractice law, (2) reframe the court instruction to jurors, and (3) establish an ongoing consensus committee on orthopaedic principles of negligence.

  2. Establishing breach of the duty of care in the tort of negligence: 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, John

    This article discusses the law surrounding breach of the duty of care in negligence. A mistake or error does not necessarily mean legal fault and negligence. Judges look at risks and benefits in determining what would have been the appropriate standard of care to be exercised in the circumstances and may decide that the defendant's conduct was reasonable. There are a number of interrelated factors which judges have to balance and these can be categorized as foreseeability of harm, magnitude of risk, burden of taking precautions, utility of the defendant's conduct and common practice.

  3. Children in Civil Law: The Tort of Negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, N. P.; Chapman, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Examines judgments involving children under the tort of negligence, using All England Law Reports for 1939 to 1983 and some cases from other countries. Discusses "contributory negligence,""parental liability,""responsibility,""allurement," and "res-ipsa loquitur." Suggests more use of developmental…

  4. Negligence--When Is the Principal Liable? A Legal Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph D., Ed.

    Negligence, a tort liability, is defined, discussed, and reviewed in relation to several court decisions involving school principals. The history of liability suits against school principals suggests that a reasonable, prudent principal can avoid legal problems. Ten guidelines are presented to assist principals in avoiding charges of negligence.…

  5. Chemistry, Courtrooms, and Common Sense. Part I: Negligence and Duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, J. Ric

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are concepts involved in legal liability for laboratory accidents. The focus of this article is on negligence, duty, and responsibility issues. Highlighted are the basis of a lawsuit, negligent tort, duty and breech of duty, and cause and harm. Thirty-one cases are cited. (CW)

  6. Preschoolers' Understanding of Lies and Innocent and Negligent Mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Peterson, Candida C.

    1998-01-01

    Examined preschoolers' ability to distinguish innocent and negligent mistakes from lies. Found that, when asked to identify a mistake or lie about a food's contact with contaminants and identify a bystander's reaction, children distinguished mistakes from lies; they could also discriminate between lies and both negligent mistakes that generate…

  7. Negligence: What You Need To Know To Avoid Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.; Fericks, Donald J.

    1996-01-01

    To help educators understand their legal responsibilities when supervising students, this article reviews the elements of negligence (duty, breach, injury, and causation) an injured party must prove to hold an educator or school system legally accountable. The article also reviews basic defenses to negligence: immunity, comparative/contributory…

  8. [Medical negligence in surgery: 112 cases retrospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jian; Chang, Lin; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Feng-Qin

    2013-06-01

    To explore the general characteristics of medical negligence in surgery in order to provide the reference for forensic practices. One hundred and twelve cases of medical negligence in surgical department were retrospectively analyzed in Fada Institute of Forensic Medicine and Science from 2008 to 2010. The common types of medical negligence cases in the surgery were improper operation procedure (28.57%), failure of consent (26.79%), and inadequate monitoring (22.32%). The results of complications included disability or functional impairment (61.61%), death (31.25%) and transient impairment with no obvious adverse reactions (7.14%). The most common roles played by the medical negligence cases were minor role (26.79%), equal role (19.64%), and slight role (14.29%). Significant attention should be paid to the operation procedure, consent, and monitoring. It should be cautious to not make assessment on involvement degree of medical negligence.

  9. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond Ng; Jimmy C. M. Hsiao; Keith C. T. Tong; Harry Kim; Yanjie Mai; Keith H. S. Chan

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin ...

  10. Resin Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    to see plastic deformation of the surface. 8.1.4.3 Density: Density using the Archimedes principle (ASTM D 792). 8.1.4.4 Density as a Function of...the cure and postcure, quickly cool the sample to 0 °C or lower the temperature to quench the reaction, and then ramp the temperature at 5 °C/min to...prepared by pouring 10 g of resin into a 30-mL screw-cap scintillation vial and adding appropriate amounts of initiator, catalyst, and inhibitor

  11. On the Firing Line: Negligence in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drowatzky, John N.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses teachers' vulnerability to tort actions for negligence in physical education classes, and suggests guidelines for proper teacher behavior, based on analysis of court cases in various states. (JG)

  12. The high cost of clinical negligence litigation in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, John

    2017-03-09

    John Tingle, Reader in Health Law at Nottingham Trent University, discusses a consultation document from the Department of Health on introducing fixed recoverable costs in lower-value clinical negligence claims.

  13. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  14. Optimal Rules of Negligent Misrepresentation in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    negligent by the court when it is unclear the misrepresentation was due to a mistake or intentional. Rules of negligent misrepresentation differ significantly across jurisdictions. For example, the rule of common law allows the insurer to rescind the contract, whereas the German rule does not allow......This article analyzes rules for negligent misrepresentation in insurance contract law. Before contract signature, the applicant can be asked by the insurer to fill in a questionnaire concerning the risk, and may then omit or make untrue statements about facts. Such misrepresentation is considered...... the insurer to reduce cover at all. Other rules, that differ in the strictness of the consequences for the insured, apply in other European countries, and yet others have been proposed in current attempts to harmonise both American and European insurance contract law. This article allows for an evaluation...

  15. Modern negligence law: Contribution of the medical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John

    The law on medical negligence is part of the law of negligence generally. It has played a significant part in developing two key aspects of the law. There are special rules to determine the standard of care expected of experts when advising and solving problems, and medical cases have largely shaped the law. Although cases on causation may arise in any area, several of the key cases happen to be medical ones. They are particularly likely to assist where there are alternative causes, as it is often difficult to distinguish the effects of disease from those of inappropriate treatment.

  16. Loss of chance: a new development in medical negligence law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James

    2007-08-20

    The concept of "loss of chance" as an alternative cause of action in cases of medical negligence has succeeded in recent cases where actions based on causation have failed. The plaintiff must prove negligence and loss of a chance of a better outcome. The quantity of loss of chance must be more than "speculative" (1%). Damages are awarded as a proportion of the total injury commensurate with the loss of chance. More claims may be expected, although damages will generally be less than those awarded under causation. Doctors' insurance premiums may rise.

  17. Radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation suitable for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1987-01-01

    It is planned to dispose of radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation in the Konrad repository. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements are derived taking the results of site-specific safety assessments as a basis. These requirements must be fulfilled by the waste packages on delivery. The waste amounts which are currently stored and those anticipated up to the year 2000 are discussed. The disposability of these waste packages in the Konrad repository was evaluated. This examination reveals that basically almost all radioactive wastes with negligible heat generation can be accepted. (orig.) [de

  18. Medical negligence and res ipsa loquitur in South Africa | Patel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inter-relationship between Medicine and Law is most commonly brought to the fore by cases involving medical negligence. This relationship needs to protect all parties concerned based on the probability of reasonableness in terms of who performs the act as well as the patient affected by the act in question. The res ...

  19. Craniofacial Surgery and Adverse Outcomes: An Inquiry Into Medical Negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Folbe, Adam J; Carron, Michael A; Zuliani, Giancarlo F; Shkoukani, Mahdi A

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate factors contributing to medical negligence relevant to craniofacial surgery. Retrospective analysis of verdict and settlement reports on the Westlaw legal database for outcome, awards, physician defendants, and other specific factors raised in malpractice litigation. Of 42 verdicts and settlement reports included, 52.4% were resolved with either an out-of-court settlement or plaintiff verdict, with aggregate payments totaling $50.1M (in 2013 dollars). Median settlements and jury-awarded damages were $988,000 and $555,000, respectively. Payments in pediatric cases ($1.2M) were significantly higher. Plastic surgeons, oral surgeons, and otolaryngologists were the most commonly named defendants. The most common alleged factors included intraoperative negligence (69.0%), permanent deficits (54.8%), requiring additional surgery (52.4%), missed/delayed diagnosis of a complication (42.9%), disfigurement/scarring (28.6%), postoperative negligence (28.6%), and inadequate informed consent (20.6% of surgical cases). Failure to diagnose a fracture (19.0%) and cleft-reparative procedures (14.3%) were the most frequently litigated entities. Medical negligence related to craniofacial surgery involves plaintiffs in a wide age range as well as physician defendants in numerous specialties, and proceedings resolved with settlement and plaintiff verdict involve substantial payments. Cases with death, allegedly permanent injuries, and pediatric plaintiffs had significantly higher payments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Ng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  1. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Keith H. S.; Mai, Yanjie; Kim, Harry; Tong, Keith C. T.; Ng, Desmond; Hsiao, Jimmy C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  2. Progress in Medicine: Compensation and medical negligence in India: Does the system need a quick fix or an overhaul?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghana S Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent judgment on medical negligence, the Supreme Court awarded compensation amounting to Rs. 11 crore to a victim, which was to be paid by the doctors and the private hospital deemed responsible for the wrongful death of a patient. This landmark decision was by far the largest compensation award in the history of Indian medical negligence litigation. Hence, the process of calculating compensation for medical negligence has received great attention and debate, largely due to the impact that it is going to have on the practice of medicine within the country, in the near future. However, the method of calculation of compensation is unpredictable as it varies hugely across different cases, courts and tribunals resulting, in a loss of faith in the system, protracted litigation, and frequent appeals. With over 80% of India's healthcare being provided by the private sector, predictability and uniformity in the regulation of compensation in medical negligence would benefit the victims and the doctors concerned. A basic knowledge of how medical negligence compensation is calculated and adjudicated in the judicial courts of India will aid a doctor in planning his/her professional indemnity insurance, as well as in practicing his/her profession without undue worry about facing litigation for alleged medical negligence. This article addresses the merits and demerits of large compensation awards, and also discusses whether the system is broken, needs a quick fix, or a massive overhaul.

  3. Progress in Medicine: Compensation and medical negligence in India: Does the system need a quick fix or an overhaul?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Meghana S; Math, Suresh Bada

    2016-10-01

    In a recent judgment on medical negligence, the Supreme Court awarded compensation amounting to Rs. 11 crore to a victim, which was to be paid by the doctors and the private hospital deemed responsible for the wrongful death of a patient. This landmark decision was by far the largest compensation award in the history of Indian medical negligence litigation. Hence, the process of calculating compensation for medical negligence has received great attention and debate, largely due to the impact that it is going to have on the practice of medicine within the country, in the near future. However, the method of calculation of compensation is unpredictable as it varies hugely across different cases, courts and tribunals resulting, in a loss of faith in the system, protracted litigation, and frequent appeals. With over 80% of India's healthcare being provided by the private sector, predictability and uniformity in the regulation of compensation in medical negligence would benefit the victims and the doctors concerned. A basic knowledge of how medical negligence compensation is calculated and adjudicated in the judicial courts of India will aid a doctor in planning his/her professional indemnity insurance, as well as in practicing his/her profession without undue worry about facing litigation for alleged medical negligence. This article addresses the merits and demerits of large compensation awards, and also discusses whether the system is broken, needs a quick fix, or a massive overhaul.

  4. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  5. Characterizing regulation and negligence rule uncertainty in solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Wagner; Gregory DeAngelo

    2005-01-01

    We propose a model of municipal waste management that combines waste quality monitoring with leachate control. These inputs modulate two types of uncertainty. First, waste quality is uncertain, as it arrives from several nonpoint sources and may contain hazardous waste. Second, while U.S. federal law requires landfill operators to employ these specific inputs, the rates at which they should be employed to avoid culpable negligence for environmental damages are uncertain. We extend the economi...

  6. [Risk factors associated with mother negligence in child care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Porras, Carolina; Villamizar-Carvajal, Beatriz; Ardila-Suárez, Edinson Fabian

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with the risk of negligence in child care during the first year of rearing in adolescent and adult mothers. This was cross-sectional correlation study with a non-probabilistic sample composed of 250 mothers during their first year of child rearing. The information was collected through the Parenting Inventory for Teenagers and Adults. 88 teenager mothers and 162 adult mothers participated in this study. In general low scores were found in all dimensions in both adolescent mothers group and adult mother group, which indicate the existence of deficiencies in the adequate maternal behavior and risk of negligent care to their children. In the group of teenage mothers there was an evident and significant correlation between the factors: maternal age and occupation dimension belief in punishment and occupation with inappropriate expectations dimension. The group of adult mothers showed significant correlation between: educational level with the dimensions of role reversal, belief in punishment and lack of empathy; socioeconomic dimension with the belief in punishment and age of the child with the lack of empathy dimension. Child rearing expectations of mothers show a high risk of negligence in child care. Therefore, nurses should promote the strengthening of the maternal role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Requirements for controlling a repository's releases of carbon-14 dioxide; the high costs and negligible benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, U Sun; Pflum, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    A repository excavated within the unsaturated zone may release carbon (C)-14 dioxide in amounts that exceed limits imposed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The release would not threaten the general population, but may expose some hypothetical maximally exposed individual to 0.0005 millirems/year. Yet a repository's releases of C-14 dioxide are strictly regulated, perhaps unintentionally. The EPA and NRC regulations could force the Department of Energy to design and fabricate an expensive 10,000-year waste package solely for the sake of controlling releases of C-14 dioxide. This paper argues that the repository regulations should exempt releases of C-14 dioxide or at least impose more equitable limits. 21 refs., 1 tab

  8. Abrigo, pobreza e negligência: percursos de judicialização Shelter, poverty and negligence: ways of judicialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Livia do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho discute a negligência como uma categorização que passa a justificar a intervenção estatal sobre famílias pobres, no que se refere à prática de abrigamento de crianças e adolescentes e como essa prática se instala na lógica de judicialização da vida. Com a emergência do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA, fica interditado abrigar por pobreza. Dessa maneira, a falta de recursos materiais perde força como justificativa, e se implanta um novo estatuto de criminalização da pobreza e de judicialização da vida, que se apoia no desrespeito a direitos estabelecidos na legislação: família negligente. Com esse referencial, a negligência passa a ser produzida como um dispositivo de afirmação da sociedade de segurança, tendo como parâmetro a lógica biopolítica de governo da vida.This work discusses the concept of negligence as a categorisation that justifies the intervention of the State in poor families, through the practice of sheltering children and adolescents. With the emergency of the Child and Adolescent Statute it becomes interdicted to shelter on behalf of poverty. For such, the lack of material resources becomes a weak justification and a new statute of criminalisation of poorness and judicialization of life is implanted, based on the disrespect of the rights established in the legislation: neglectful family. From this reference negligence comes to be produced as a device of affirmation of the society of security, having as parameter the biopolitical logic of the government of life.

  9. Optimal Rules of Negligent Misrepresentation in Insurance Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Rules of misrepresentation in insurance contract law differ widely between jurisdictions. When the insured has negligently misrepresented a fact prior to contracting, common law allows the insurer to rescind the contract if the misrepresentation was material, while civil law countries apply more...... lenient rules. The article compares the efficiency of the common and the civil law rules in an adverse selection model in which the insurer separates types of risk not only through a deductible but also by requiring the insured to represent their type. A strict rule of misrepresentation increases...... the incentive for policy-holders to represent truthfully but also exposes them to risk when they may misrepresent by mistake. While the economic literature has tended to defend the strict common law rule, because it makes it easier for the insurer to separate types, the present article demonstrates...

  10. Medical Mishap and Negligence: It happens in the Outpatients too

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2011-06-01

    When we consider medical negligence and clinical error we think of busy hospitals late at night and at week-ends. We think of crowded emergency medicine departments, complex surgery and the critically ill ICU patient. We think of prescribing errors in the administration of potent intravenous therapy. We think of high risk specialties such as obstetrics, anaesthesia and surgery. We are less likely to think of outpatients\\/ ambulatory care or a non-interventionist specialty as an important source of litigation. This is remiss on our part. Risks in this setting have gone relatively unnoticed. There 30 times more outpatients than inpatients annually. In the US there are 900 million outpatient visits compared with 30 million inpatients. It is not surprising that this quantum of patient-doctor interaction should also be a source of litigation claims. Furthermore it is likely to continue rising with the increased numbers of procedures now being undertaken at outpatients.

  11. Using cohort change ratios to estimate life expectancy in populations with negligible migration: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Tedrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Census survival methods are the oldest and most widely applicable methods of estimating adult mortality, and for populations with negligible migration they can provide excellent results. The reason for this ubiquity is threefold: (1 their data requirements are minimal in that only two successive age distributions are needed; (2 the two successive age distributions are usually easily obtained from census counts; and (3 the method is straightforward in that it requires neither a great deal of judgment nor “data-fitting” techniques to implement. This ubiquity is in contrast to other methods, which require more data, as well as judgment and, often, data fitting. In this short note, the new approach we demonstrate is that life expectancy at birth can be computed by using census survival rates in combination with an identity whereby the radix of a life table is equal to 1 (l0 = 1.00. We point out that our suggested method is less involved than the existing approach. We compare estimates using our approach against other estimates, and find it works reasonably well. As well as some nuances and cautions, we discuss the benefits of using this approach to estimate life expectancy, including the ability to develop estimates of average remaining life at any age. We believe that the technique is worthy of consideration for use in estimating life expectancy in populations that experience negligible migration.

  12. Using cohort change ratios to estimate life expectancy in populations with negligible migration: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Swanson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Census survival methods are the oldest and most widely applicable methods of estimating adult mortality, and for populations with negligible migration they can provide excellent results. The reason for this ubiquity is threefold: (1 their data requirements are minimal in that only two successive age distributions are needed; (2 the two successive age distributions are usually easily obtained from census counts; and (3 the method is straightforward in that it requires neither a great deal of judgment nor “data-fitting” techniques to implement. This ubiquity is in contrast to other methods, which require more data, as well as judgment and, often, data fitting. In this short note, the new approach we demonstrate is that life expectancy at birth can be computed by using census survival rates in combination with an identity whereby the radix of a life table is equal to 1 (l0 = 1.00. We point out that our suggested method is less involved than the existing approach. We compare estimates using our approach against other estimates, and find it works reasonably well. As well as some nuances and cautions, we discuss the benefits of using this approach to estimate life expectancy, including the ability to develop estimates of average remaining life at any age. We believe that the technique is worthy of consideration for use in estimating life expectancy in populations that experience negligible migration.

  13. Making SENSE: strategies for engineering negligible senescence evolutionarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    Thirty years ago, in 1977, few biologists thought that it would be possible to increase the maximum life span characteristic of each species over the variety of environmental conditions in which they live, whether in nature or in the laboratory. But the evolutionary theory of aging suggested otherwise. Accordingly, experiments were performed with fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, which showed that manipulation of the forces of natural selection over a number of generations could substantially slow the rate of aging, both demographically and physiologically. After this first transgression of the supposedly absolute limits to life extension, it was suggested that mammals too could be experimentally evolved to have greater life spans and slower aging. And further, it was argued that such postponed-aging mammals could be used to reverse-engineer a slowing of human aging. The subsequent discovery and theoretical explanation of mortality-rate plateaus revealed that aging was not due to the progressive physiological accumulation of damage. Instead, aging is now understood by evolutionary biologists to arise from a transient fall in age-specific adaptation, a fall that does not necessarily proceed toward ineluctable death. This implies that SENS must be based on re-tuning adaptation, not repairing damage. As evolutionary manipulation of model organisms shows us how adaptation can be focused on engineering negligible senescence, there are thus both scientific and practical reasons for making SENS evolutionary; that is making SENSE.

  14. Obesity in menopause – our negligence or an unfortunate inevitability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kozakowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous concerns about menopause exist among women, and fear of an increase in body weight is one of the most important of them. This paper presents an overview of current knowledge concerning the etiology of obesity related to menopause and about the mechanisms of its development, with particular regard to the hormonal changes that occur during this period of life. The role of estrogens in the regulation of energy balance and the effect of sex hormones on metabolism of adipose tissue and other organs are presented. The consequence of the sharp decline in the secretion of estrogens with subsequent relative hyperandrogenemia is briefly discussed. The main intention of this review is to clarify what is inevitable and what perhaps results from negligence and unhealthy lifestyles. In the last part of the paper the possibilities of counteracting the progress of adverse changes in body composition, by promoting beneficial lifestyle modifications and the use of hormonal substitution treatment, in cases where it is reasonable and possible, are described.

  15. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1, thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  16. Droplet evaporation dynamics on a superhydrophobic surface with negligible hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Susmita; Garimella, Suresh V

    2013-08-27

    We report on experiments of droplet evaporation on a structured superhydrophobic surface that displays very high contact angle (CA ∼ 160 deg), and negligible contact angle hysteresis (evaporation is observed to occur in a constant-contact-angle mode, with contact radius shrinking for almost the entire duration of evaporation. Experiments conducted on Teflon-coated smooth surface (CA ∼ 120 deg) as a baseline also support an evaporation process that is dominated by a constant-contact-angle mode. The experimental results are compared with an isothermal diffusion model for droplet evaporation from the literature. Good agreement is observed for the Teflon-coated smooth surface between the analytical expression and experimental results in terms of the total time for evaporation, transient volume, contact angle, and contact radius. However, for the structured superhydrophobic surface, the experiments indicate that the time taken for complete evaporation of the droplet is greater than the predicted time, across all droplet volumes. This disparity is attributed primarily to the evaporative cooling at the droplet interface due to the high aspect ratio of the droplet and also the lower effective thermal conductivity of the substrate due to the presence of air gaps. This hypothesis is verified by numerically evaluating the temperature distribution along the droplet interface. We propose a generalized relation for predicting the instantaneous volume of droplets with initial CA > 90 deg, irrespective of the mode of evaporation.

  17. Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, M.; Brzostowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to decrease the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin, taking place during radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified with cinnamic and acrylic acids. A composition of 90 parts of polyester resin, 10 parts of epoxy resin modified with cinnamic acid, and 150 parts of a silica filler showed a volume shrinkage of 1.2%. (author)

  18. 26 CFR 1.6662-3 - Negligence or disregard of rules or regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negligence or disregard of rules or regulations... Penalties § 1.6662-3 Negligence or disregard of rules or regulations. (a) In general. If any portion of an... Internal Revenue Code that is required to be shown on a return is attributable to negligence or disregard...

  19. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  20. Myocardial serotonin exchange: negligible uptake by capillary endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffett, T.C.; Chan, I.S.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The extraction of serotonin from the blood during transorgan passage through the heart was studied using Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Outflow dilution curves of 131 I- or 125 I-labeled albumin, [ 14 C]sucrose, and [3H]serotonin injected simultaneously into the inflow were fitted with an axially distributed blood-tissue exchange model to examine the extraction process. The model fits of the albumin and sucrose outflow dilution curves were used to define flow heterogeneity, intravascular dispersion, capillary permeability, and the volume of the interstitial space, which reduced the degrees of freedom in fitting the model to the serotonin curves. Serotonin extractions, measured against albumin, during single transcapillary passage, ranged from 24 to 64%. The ratio of the capillary permeability-surface area products for serotonin and sucrose, based on the maximum instantaneous extraction, was 1.37 +/- 0.2 (n = 18), very close to the predicted value of 1.39, the ratio of free diffusion coefficients calculated from the molecular weights. This result shows that the observed uptake of serotonin can be accounted for solely on the basis of diffusion between endothelial cells into the interstitial space. Thus it appears that the permeability of the luminal surface of the endothelial cell is negligible in comparison to diffusion through the clefts between endothelial cells. In 18 sets of dilution curves, with and without receptor and transport blockers or competitors (ketanserin, desipramine, imipramine, serotonin), the extractions and estimates of the capillary permeability-surface area product were not reduced, nor were the volumes of distribution. The apparent absence of transporters and receptors in rabbit myocardial capillary endothelium contrasts with their known abundance in the pulmonary vasculature

  1. Clinical negligence in hospitals in France and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J; de Bono Q C, John; Métayer, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    This article arose from the back-to-back presentations by Michael Kelly and Patrice Métayer to the Anglo-French Medical Society in 2013 on the French and English legal systems handling a case of alleged clinical negligence as it proceeds from complaint to settlement or judgment in the two jurisdictions. Both systems have a hospital-based first stage with various avenues being available for amicable resolution, the French version being more regulated and prescribed than the English one. In both jurisdictions fewer than 5% cases go down the criminal route. Before the court is involved, in England there is an elaborate lawyer-controlled phase involving negotiations between the two sides and their experts which is expensive but often leads to pre-trial settlement for significant sums of money. Medical experts are central to all of this. In England they are largely unregulated and entirely advisory in an open market, in France they are both regulated and supervised by judges, being placed on official lists. These experts take a major inquisitorial role in a Debate between the two sides, combining the functions of Single Joint Expert (SJE), arbiter and mentor. If agreement is not reached, a second Debate before a different Expert is arranged. In both countries fewer than 5% cases reach a court for a hearing before a judge. In England a trial is an elaborate lengthy, expensive adversarial contest where all of the issues are rehearsed in full with factual and expert evidence, whereas in France in a contested case the judge reviews the reports of the two Debates with the lawyers who were involved (and not the experts, factual witnesses or parties). © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Malodorous consequences: what comprises negligence in anosmia litigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svider, Peter F; Mauro, Andrew C; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Setzen, Michael; Carron, Michael A; Folbe, Adam J

    2014-03-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate factors raised in malpractice litigation in which plaintiffs alleged that physician negligence led to olfactory dysfunction. We analyzed publically available federal and court records using Westlaw, a widely used computerized legal database. Pertinent jury verdicts and settlements were comprehensively examined for alleged causes of malpractice (including procedures for iatrogenic causes), defendant specialty, patient demographics, and other factors raised in legal proceedings. Of 25 malpractice proceedings meeting inclusion criteria, 60.0% were resolved for the defendant, 12.0% were settled, and 28.0% had jury-awarded damages. Median payments were significant ($300,000 and $412,500 for settlements and awards, respectively). Otolaryngologists were the most frequently named defendants (68.0%), with the majority of iatrogenic cases (55.0%) related to rhinologic procedures. Associated medical events accompanying anosmia included dysgeusia, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, and meningitis. Other alleged factors included requiring additional surgery (80.0%), unnecessary procedures (47.4% of iatrogenic procedural cases), untimely diagnosis leading to anosmia (44.0%), inadequate informed consent (35.0%), dysgeusia (56.0%), and psychological sequelae (24.0%). Olfactory dysfunction can adversely affect quality of life and thus is a potential area for malpractice litigation. This is particularly true for iatrogenic causes of anosmia, especially following rhinologic procedures. Settlements and damages awarded were considerable, making an understanding of factors detailed in this analysis of paramount importance for the practicing otolaryngologist. This analysis reinforces the importance of explicitly including anosmia in a comprehensive informed consent process for any rhinologic procedure. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  3. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000?). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the res...

  4. Procedural protection of juvenile victims of negligence and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence against children is often designated as the worst form of domestic violence, and violence in general. Such a conclusion is a result of multiple factors: children's age and vulnerability, the distinctive features in their physical and mental development which makes them inferior to adults, the kinship (blood relations] and emotional bonds between parents and children, etc. The positive trend in the evolution of the social response to violence against children is reflected in the effort to discover and prevent the abuse, to punish the offenders and to protect the child/victim from secondary victimization during the criminal proceedings. In the Republic of Serbia, the procedural measures governing the protection of juvenile victims/witnesses are set out in Part III of the Juvenile Justice Act (Act on the Juvenile Offenders and Criminal Law Protection of Minors]. However, it was soon evident that there was a need to provide a better legislative framework than the one envisaged in this Act, particularly in terms of ensuring a better protection of minors in the course of criminal proceedings involving children who are victims of abuse and neglect. For this purpose, in 2004, the legislator adopted the National Action Plan on Children in Adversity. This document envisaged the adoption of the General Protocol on the protection of children from abuse and negligence, as well as the adoption of subject-specific protocols which would further regulate the specific procedures for the protection of children-victims in particular social circumstances (health, education, justice] by different social institutions (police, social services]. In this paper, the author analyses the legal framework governing the procedural protection of juvenile victims in the course of criminal proceedings. In addition, the author also explores the statutory provisions (by-laws] adopted in order to establish specific standards and ensure a higher level of protection of

  5. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  6. ["The severe degree of negligence" and its application in the settle of medical malpractice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Min; Zhang, Qin-Chu

    2006-04-01

    To found the quantifiable index of "The severe degree of negligence" in describing the general severity degree of medical malpractice or medical dispute. "The severe degree of negligence" can be calculated by the way of multiplying the coefficient of medical malpractice's grade by the coefficient of responsibility degree. There are 15 grades of "The severe degree of negligence" through calculation, from the severest degree of 1 to the lightest degree of 20. "The severe degree of negligence" can give an order of severe degree to different grade and different responsibility of medical malpractice. According to this order, the operation of medical malpractice and medical dispute settle will be easier and more rationality.

  7. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    to epoxy resin remained stable over the study period. Of the patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test, 71% returned a questionnaire; 95 patients had worked with epoxy resin in the occupational setting, and, of these, one-third did not use protective gloves and only 50.5% (48) had participated...

  8. Enhancement of adhesion between resin coating materials and resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoaki; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Weerasinghe, Dinesh S; Harada, Naoko; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-07-01

    Resin coating technique is a unique method that improves the dentin bond strength of resin cements in indirect restorations. However, the weak link of a specimen bonded using the resin coating technique was reported to be the bonded interface between the resin coating material and resin cement. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to enhance the bonding performance between a resin coating material and a resin cement. Two light-cured flowable composites, Protect Liner F and Clearfil Flow FX, were used as coating materials, and two dual-cure composite materials, Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfil DC Core Automix, were used as resin cements. The ultimate tensile strength of each material and the microtensile bond strengths of the bonded specimens of resin coating material and resin cement were measured using a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Three-way ANOVA (p=0.05) revealed that the highest microtensile bond strength was obtained using a combination of Clearfil Flow FX and Clearfil DC Core Automix, and when the surface of the coating material was treated with ED Primer II. It was strongly suggested that materials with a higher ultimate tensile strength, when used in both resin coating and cementation, could enhance the bond strength between the two.

  9. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  10. Delictual Negligence of Educators in Schools: The Confusing Influence of the "in loco parentis" Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Johan

    2004-01-01

    This article points out that the "in loco parentis" maxim is partly to blame for introducing the confusing "reasonable parent" doctrine as the test for delictual negligence of educators in the school context. It is argued that the standard of care exercised by parents over their children is not appropriate to determine the negligence of educators.…

  11. 7 CFR 1.51 - Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. 1.51 Section 1.51 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Claims § 1.51 Claims based on negligence, wrongful act or omission. (a) Authority of the Department...

  12. Family and neglect: an analysis of the concept of child negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Natália Teixeira; Silveira, Liane Maria Braga da; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to specify and investigate the types of negligence practiced on families in the context of healthcare that are considered to be insufficient or inappropriate for children and adolescents. These reflections are part of a previous study that analyzed how the concept of negligence is defined and applied in Brazilian academic studies, and indicated that a large part of the cases of negligence practiced against children is attributed to the sphere of the family. This present discussion seeks to consider families in their plurality. It is a qualitative study made from an interpretative anthropological point of view. The results indicate that there are accusatory labels, and serious omissions in relation to the configurations of families - underlining the complexity of defining a situation as negligence: families can reproduce, practice, or suffer negligence.

  13. Direct composite resin layering techniques for creating lifelike CAD/CAM-fabricated composite resin veneers and crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Direct composite resin layering techniques preserve sound tooth structure and improve function and esthetics. However, intraoral placement techniques present challenges involving isolation, contamination, individual patient characteristics, and the predictability of restorative outcomes. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations enable dentists to better handle these variables and provide durable restorations in an efficient and timely manner; however, milled restorations may appear monochromatic and lack proper esthetic characteristics. For these reasons, an uncomplicated composite resin layering restoration technique can be used to combine the benefits of minimally invasive direct restorations and the ease and precision of indirect CAD/CAM restorations. Because most dentists are familiar with and skilled at composite resin layering, the use of such a technique can provide predictable and highly esthetic results. This article describes the layered composite resin restoration technique. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Resin infiltration of proximal caries lesions differing in ICDAS codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Sebastian; Bitter, Kerstin; Naumann, Michael; Dörfer, Christof E; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik

    2011-04-01

    Resin infiltration of non-cavitated proximal caries lesions has been shown to inhibit further demineralization. However, the effect of resin infiltration in cavitated lesions is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate infiltration patterns of proximal caries lesions differing in International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) codes. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal caries lesions with and without cavitations (ICDAS codes 2-5) were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid gel and resin infiltrated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Three sections from each lesion were prepared and analyzed using a dual-fluorescence staining technique and confocal microscopy. The dimensions of the demineralized and cavitated lesions areas, as well as the resin-infiltrated parts within these lesions, were measured. The demineralized parts were infiltrated from 73% to 100% (median values) but the cavities were filled only negligibly (0-5%). Teeth that had an ICDAS code of 5 showed a significantly lower percentage infiltration/filling of lesions compared to teeth with ICDAS codes of 2 and 3. It was concluded that under in vitro conditions the tested infiltrant penetrates most parts of the demineralized enamel but is not capable of filling up cavities and therefore the efficacy of caries infiltration, particularly in lesions with larger cavitations, might be impaired. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  15. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  16. Bismaleimide Copolymer Matrix Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John A.; Heimbuch, Alvin H.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.

    1987-01-01

    Graphite composites, prepared from 1:1 copolymer of two new bismaleimides based on N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have mechanical properties superior to those prepared from other bismaleimide-type resins. New heat-resistant composites replace metal in some structural applications. Monomers used to form copolymers with superior mechanical properties prepared by reaction of MMAB with maleic or citraconic anhydride.

  17. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  18. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  19. Biokompatibilitas Gelas Ionomer Modifikasi Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Rotua Lestari M

    2008-01-01

    Saat ini banyak berkembang material baru dalam dunia kedokteran gigi diantaranya adalah Gelas ionomer modifikasi resin yang dikembangkan untuk mengatasi kekurangan-kekurangan dari gelas ionomer konvensional. Adanya penambahan monomer resin daIam bentuk 2-hydroxyethylmetacylate (HEMA) telah meningkatkan kekuatan dari bahan ini. Gelas ionomer modifikasi resin mempunyai sifat-sifat fisis dan mekanis yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan gelas ionomer konvensional. Gelas ionomer modifikasi ...

  20. Unintended, but still blameworthy: the roles of awareness, desire, and anger in negligence, restitution, and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Sean M; Nuñez, Narina L; Schweitzer, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Two experiments (Experiment 1 N = 149, Experiment 2 N = 141) investigated how two mental states that underlie how perceivers reason about intentional action (awareness of action and desire for an outcome) influence blame and punishment for unintended (i.e., negligent) harms, and the role of anger in this process. Specifically, this research explores how the presence of awareness (of risk in acting, or simply of acting) and/or desire in an acting agent's mental states influences perceptions of negligence, judgements that the acting agent owes restitution to a victim, and the desire to punish the agent, mediated by anger. In both experiments, awareness and desire led to increased anger at the agent and increased perception of negligence. Anger mediated the effect of awareness and desire on negligence rather than negligence mediating the effect of mental states on anger. Anger also mediated punishment, and negligence mediated the effects of anger on restitution. We discuss how perceivers consider mental states such as awareness, desire, and knowledge when reasoning about blame and punishment for unintended harms, and the role of anger in this process.

  1. Urea-formaldehyde resins: production, application, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, A.; Risnasari, I.; Sucipto, T.; Heri Iswanto, A.; Rosmala Dewi, R.

    2017-07-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, one of the most important formaldehyde resin adhesives, is a polymeric condensation product of formaldehyde with urea, and being widely used for the manufacture of wood-based composite panels, such as plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard. In spite of its benefits such as fast curing, good performance in the panels (colorless), and lower cost; formaldehyde emission (FE) originated from either UF resin itself or composite products bonded by UF resins is considered a critical drawback as it affects human health particularly in indoor environment. In order to reduce the FE, lowering formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio in the synthesis of the UF resin was done. In this study, synthesis of UF resins was carried out following the conventional alkaline-acid two-step reaction with a second addition of urea, resulting in F/U mole ratio around 1.0, namely 0.95; 1.05, and 1.15. The UF resins produced were used as binder for particleboard making. The board was manufactured in the laboratory using shaving type particle of Gmelina wood, 8% UF resin based on oven dry particle, and 1% NH4Cl (20%wt) as hardener for the resin. The target of the thickness was 10 mm and the dimension was 25 cm x 25 cm. The resulted particleboard then was evaluated the physical and the mechanical properties by Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Further, the resulted particleboard also was used for the mice cage’s wall in order to mimic the real living environment. After four weeks exposure in the cages, the mice then were evaluated their mucous organs as well as their blood. The experiment results were as follows: 1) It was possible to synthesis UF resins with low F/U mole ratio; 2) However, the particleboard bonded UF resins with low F/U mole ratio showed poor properties, particularly on the thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity; 3) There was no significant differences among the mucous organs of the mice after a month exposure FE originated from

  2. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  3. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  4. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  5. Nonlinear Inelastic Mechanical Behavior Of Epoxy Resin Polymeric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekani Fard, Masoud

    compression plastic flow has negligible influence on flexural behavior in epoxy resins, which are stronger in pre-peak and post-peak softening in compression than in tension. The second model was a piecewise-linear stress strain curve simplified in the post-peak response. Beams and plates with different boundary conditions were tested and analytically studied. The flexural over-strength factor for epoxy resin polymeric materials were also evaluated.

  6. 32 CFR 536.128 - Effect of disciplinary action, voluntary restitution, or contributory negligence for claims under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restitution, or contributory negligence for claims under the UCMJ. 536.128 Section 536.128 National Defense... action, voluntary restitution, or contributory negligence for claims under the UCMJ. (a) Disciplinary... claimant. (c) Contributory negligence. A claim otherwise cognizable and meritorious is payable whether or...

  7. Establishing breach of the duty of care in the tort of negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, John

    This article, the third in a series on clinical negligence, looks at the law surrounding breach of the duty of care in negligence. It shows some of the principles that judges and lawyers use in order to decide whether a person has broken his/her duty of care in the tort of negligence. It will be seen that the principles are contained in decided court cases, some of which are quite old but are still relevant today. The focus of this article is on the rule that courts, in deciding the issue of a breach of duty of care, would judge the defendant's conduct by the standard of what the hypothetical, 'reasonable person' would have done in the circumstances of the case.

  8. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  9. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of...

  11. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for Rare Earth Elements (REEs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller FEC; Kalf DF; Weltje L; Wezel AP van; CSR

    2000-01-01

    In this report maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) and negligible concentrations (NCs) are derived for Rare Earth Elements (REEs), which are also known as lanthanides. The REEs selected for derivation of environmental risk limits in this report are Yttrium (Y), Lanthanum (La), Cerium (Ce),

  12. A child's potential claim for negligent misdiagnosis: The case of H v ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A child's potential claim for negligent misdiagnosis: The case of H v. Fetal Assesment Centre. P Mahery. Prinslean Mahery is a lecturer in family law at the Oliver Schreiner School of Law, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Corresponding author: P Mahery (prinslean.mahery@wits.ac.za).

  13. How to model a negligible probability under the WTO sanitary and phytosanitary agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Since the 1997 EC--Hormones decision, World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Panels have wrestled with the question of what constitutes a negligible risk under the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement. More recently, the 2010 WTO Australia--Apples Panel focused considerable attention on the appropriate quantitative model for a negligible probability in a risk assessment. The 2006 Australian Import Risk Analysis for Apples from New Zealand translated narrative probability statements into quantitative ranges. The uncertainty about a "negligible" probability was characterized as a uniform distribution with a minimum value of zero and a maximum value of 10(-6) . The Australia - Apples Panel found that the use of this distribution would tend to overestimate the likelihood of "negligible" events and indicated that a triangular distribution with a most probable value of zero and a maximum value of 10⁻⁶ would correct the bias. The Panel observed that the midpoint of the uniform distribution is 5 × 10⁻⁷ but did not consider that the triangular distribution has an expected value of 3.3 × 10⁻⁷. Therefore, if this triangular distribution is the appropriate correction, the magnitude of the bias found by the Panel appears modest. The Panel's detailed critique of the Australian risk assessment, and the conclusions of the WTO Appellate Body about the materiality of flaws found by the Panel, may have important implications for the standard of review for risk assessments under the WTO SPS Agreement. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Age distributions of Greenlandic dwarf shrubs support concept of negligible actuarial senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan; Rizzi, Silvia; Schweingruber, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    are independent of age. Actuarial senescence is thus negligible in these dwarf shrub populations. We suggest that smoothing techniques such as pclm enable consideration of noisy age data for determining age distributions. These distributions may, in turn, reveal age effects on demographic rates. Moreover, age...

  15. The Influence of Negligence, Intention, and Outcome on Children's Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia.; Pawson, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Piaget (1932) and subsequent researchers have reported that young children's moral judgments are based more on the outcomes of actions than on the agents' intentions. The current study investigated whether negligence might also influence these judgments and explain children's apparent focus on outcome. Children (3-8 years of age) and adults (N =…

  16. Student Injuries and Negligence: Lessons from the International Scene with Implications for Singapore's Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Many jurisdictions are showing a trend of school-related negligence cases being taken to court. This article explores the legal principles applied by the courts in England, Australia, Canada, the United States, and New Zealand to ensure the safety of students in schools. As we look at the developments in these countries, we can see student injury…

  17. Closed medical negligence claims can drive patient safety and reduce litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegalis, Steven E; Bal, B Sonny

    2012-05-01

    Medical liability reform is viewed by many physician groups as a means of reducing medical malpractice litigation and lowering healthcare costs. However, alternative approaches such as closed medical negligence claims data may also achieve these goals. We asked whether information gleaned from closed claims related to medical negligence could promote patient safety and reduce costs related to medical liability. Specifically, we investigated whether physician groups have examined such data to identify error patterns and to then institute specific patient treatment protocols. We searched for medical societies that have systematically examined closed medical negligence claims in their specialty to develop specific standards of physician conduct. We then searched the medical literature for published evidence of the efficacy, if any, related to the patient safety measures thus developed. Anesthesia and obstetric physician societies have successfully targeted costs and related concerns arising from medical malpractice lawsuits by using data from closed claims to develop patient safety and treatment guidelines. In both specialties, after institution of safety measures derived from closed medical negligence claims, the incidence and costs related to medical malpractice decreased and physician satisfaction improved. Tort reform, in the form of legislatively prescribed limits on damages arising from lawsuits, is not the only means of addressing the incidence and costs related to medical malpractice litigation. As the experience of anesthesia and obstetric physicians has demonstrated, safety guidelines derived from analyzing past medical malpractice litigation can achieve the same goals while also promoting patient safety.

  18. The School Counselors' Ideas on Features, Determinant and Intervention on Child Negligence and Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    It is sad to know that many of the child negligence and child abuse cases, which are being frequently encountered in the society today, still remains unknown. This perhaps is due to lack of information on the part of the administrators, school counselors and other related bodies in the management of such cases. In this study, 50 school counselors…

  19. Analysis of clinical negligence claims following tonsillectomy in England 1995 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Rajeev; Asimacopoulos, Eleni; Walker, David; Gutierrez, Tatiana; Valentine, Peter; Pitkin, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    We determined the characteristics of medical negligence claims following tonsillectomy. Claims relating to tonsillectomy between 1995 and 2010 were obtained from the National Health Service Litigation Authority database. The number of open and closed claims was determined, and data were analyzed for primary injury claimed, outcome of claim, and associated costs. Over 15 years, there were 40 claims of clinical negligence related to tonsillectomy, representing 7.7% of all claims in otolaryngology. There were 34 closed claims, of which 32 (94%) resulted in payment of damages. Postoperative bleeding was the most common injury, with delayed recognition and treatment of bleeding alleged in most cases. Nasopharyngeal regurgitation as a result of soft palate fistulas or excessive tissue resection was the next-commonest cause of a claim. The other injuries claimed included dentoalveolar injury, bums, tonsillar remnants, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Inadequate informed consent was claimed in 5 cases. Clinical negligence claims following tonsillectomy have a high success rate. Although postoperative bleeding is the most common cause of negligence claims, a significant proportion of claims are due to rare complications of surgery. Informed consent should be tailored to the individual patient and should include a discussion of common and serious complications.

  20. Negligence 10 Years after Gertz v. Welch. Journalism Monographs Number Ninety-Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. Wat

    The implications and shortcomings of court rulings on negligence in libel laws are explored in this paper. The paper first discusses the particulars of the 1974 landmark "Gertz versus Robert Welch, Inc." United States Supreme Court case, in which the court ruled that private persons as well as public figures would be required to prove…

  1. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for metals, taking background concentrations into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommentuijn T; Polder MD; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    1997-01-01

    Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) have been derived for a series of heavy metals. For some of the metals, the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) used earlier MPCs and NCs to set Environmental Quality Objectives for water,

  2. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  3. and phenol–formaldehyde resin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    formaldehyde resin (PFR) modified with tetraethylorthosilicate are investigated in detail. The chemical synthesis of PFR, its modification with nanometer- sized SiO2 particles created by sol–gel method and subsequent coating, enables a preparation of ...

  4. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  5. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  6. Resin glycosides from Porana duclouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Dai-Gui; Liu, Chun-Jie; Li, Guan-Hua; Li, You-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    A new intact resin glycoside (3) and two glycosidic acids (1 and 2), all having a common trisaccharide moiety and (11S)-hydroxytetradecanoic acid or (3S,11S)-dihydroxytetradecanoic acid as the aglycone, were obtained from the roots of Porana duclouxii. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlations. These compounds represent the first examples of resin glycosides from the genus Porana.

  7. Karakteristik Komposit Resin Berkemampuan Mengalir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of resin composites as posterior restoratives has markedly increased over the past decade. The patients demand for better esthetics, concerns related to possible mercury toxicity from amalgam and improvements in resin composite materials have significantly contributed the popularity of these materials. Early problems related to composites included excessive wear, less of anatomic form, post operative sensitivity, secondary caries and marginal leakage. Marginal adaptation still remains an unavoidable problem for composite restoration, especially at the gingival wall of cervical or Class II restoration. In an attempt to improve marginal sealing, many techniques and lining materials have been designed. To reduce stress generated by polymerization shrinkage, applying and curing of resin composites in layers is often recommended. Using a thick adhesive layer or low-viscosity resin may, due to its elastic properties, serve as a flexible intermediate layer and compensate for the polymerization stress created in resin composite. Flowable composites were created by retaining the same small particle size of traditional hybrid composite but reducing the filler content and allowing the increased resin to reduce the viscosity of the mixture. Flowable composites were introduced in 1996 as liners, fissure sealants and also in tunnel preparations. They have been suggested for Class I, II, III and V cavity restorations, preventive resin restorations and composite, porcelain and amalgam repairing. Their usage as a liner under high filled resins in posterior restorations has been shown to improve the adaptation of composites and effectively achieve clinically acceptable results. This article attempts to give a broad characteristics of different types of flowable composites. 

  8. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  9. Negligência infantil a partir do Child Neglect Index aplicado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Silvia Pasian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou descrever a utilização do Child Neglect Indexpara identificar casos de crianças negligenciadas por seus pais/cuidadores no contexto brasileiro. Após adaptação inicial à realidade sociocultural brasileira, o instrumento foi aplicado em três grupos de indivíduos, cada qual com 30 díades de crianças/pais, totalizando 90 díades (n=180, assim compostos: G1 (primeiro grupo = casos oficialmente notificados por negligência infantil; G2 (segundo grupo = casos suspeitos de negligência não notificados; G3 (terceiro grupo = casos sem suspeita de negligência ou outra forma de maus-tratos (grupo de comparação; além de um quarto grupo de professoras dessas crianças (n=11. Os resultados apontaram altos escores no índice de negligência em G1 e G2, e baixos escores em G3, sugerindo presença de indicadores de falta de supervisão parental referentes a cuidados com alimentação, vestimenta, higiene, saúde física, saúde mental e educação nos dois primeiros grupos avaliados, comparativamente às crianças sem suspeita de maus-tratos. Os atuais achados empíricos, embora preliminares em termos de adaptação do Child Neglect Index ao contexto do Brasil, foram promissores ao sinalizar potencial do instrumento como recurso para detecção/confirmação da negligência infantil, estimulando novas investigações e aprimoramento desse recurso técnico para favorecer adequada identificação e intervenção nesses casos.

  10. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  11. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  12. Socioeconomic benefits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    perception on the benefits of shade trees in coffee production systems in southwestern ..... Table 4. Other socioeconomic benefits of coffee shade tree species alluded by the respondents, Southwestern Ethiopia. Mentioned benefits. Responses (%). Yes. No. Firewood ... (fast growth, longevity, possession of thin and small ...

  13. Mid-infrared reflectance of silicone resin coating on metal substrates: Effect of polymeric binders' absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Dar; Ma, Chen-Chi M.

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the infrared reflectance of polymeric coatings of silicone resin, silicone modified alkyd resin, and alkyd resin on aluminum substrates. The Kubelka-Munk's two constants theory is applied to calculate the reflectance while considering the surface reflection. An integrating sphere, infrared spectroradiometer and blackbody source are utilized as the measurement systems. The extinction coefficients are determined and used to calculate the reflectances of coatings on aluminum. Coefficients in the mid-infrared region display the quantitative difference between the polymers' structure. Silicone content enhances the absorptance of the coating in the mid-IR region. The coefficients of miscible silicone resin/alkyd resin blends are determined as well. Comparing the measured and calculated reflectances reveals that the discrepancies in thinner coatings or at the IR transparent wavelength are higher and around 0.1. Such a discrepancy is owing to the polymers' non-scattering with absorption properties which affect the validity of the values involving internal reflectances considered in the model. The internal reflectance can be assigned a negligible value in the high absorption region and is also a variable depending on thickness and transparency.

  14. Medical negligence: Coverage of the profession, duties, ethics, case law, and enlightened defense - A legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Pandit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient approaching a doctor expects medical treatment with all the knowledge and skill that the doctor possesses to bring relief to his medical problem. The relationship takes the shape of a contract retaining the essential elements of tort. A doctor owes certain duties to his patient and a breach of any of these duties gives a cause of action for negligence against the doctor. The doctor has a duty to obtain prior informed consent from the patient before carrying out diagnostic tests and therapeutic management. The services of the doctors are covered under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and a patient can seek redressal of grievances from the Consumer Courts. Case laws are an important source of law in adjudicating various issues of negligence arising out of medical treatment.

  15. Medical negligence: Coverage of the profession, duties, ethics, case law, and enlightened defense - A legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, M S; Pandit, Shobha

    2009-07-01

    A patient approaching a doctor expects medical treatment with all the knowledge and skill that the doctor possesses to bring relief to his medical problem. The relationship takes the shape of a contract retaining the essential elements of tort. A doctor owes certain duties to his patient and a breach of any of these duties gives a cause of action for negligence against the doctor. The doctor has a duty to obtain prior informed consent from the patient before carrying out diagnostic tests and therapeutic management. The services of the doctors are covered under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and a patient can seek redressal of grievances from the Consumer Courts. Case laws are an important source of law in adjudicating various issues of negligence arising out of medical treatment.

  16. Medical negligence: Criminal prosecution of medical professionals, importance of medical evidence: Some guidelines for medical practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Pandit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modern medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. On the one hand, there can be unfavorable results of treatment and on the other hand the patient suspects negligence as a cause of their suffering. There is an increasing trend of medical litigation by unsatisfied patients. The Supreme Court has laid down guidelines for the criminal prosecution of a doctor. This has decreased the unnecessary harassment of doctors. As the medical profession has been brought under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, the patients have an easy method of litigation. There should be legal awareness among the doctors that will help them in the proper recording of medical management details. This will help them in defending their case during any allegation of medical negligence.

  17. The market for precedent: shifting visions of the role of clinical negligence claims and trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the interface between the standard setting activity of the NHS Litigation Authority, and the courts and uses the clinical negligence action as a prism through which to examine it. It is suggested that despite its many disadvantages, the clinical negligence action remains an important safety valve when internal regulatory systems fail or are insufficiently transparent to gain full legitimacy. More specifically, it explores the ways in which attitudes about the usefulness of the data contained in claims against the NHS have changed in the aftermath of a number of high profile inquiries which have focused on issues of poor performance. The article concludes that while much greater use is now been made of the data contained in claims when setting standards, strategies for prompting judicial precedent as an alternative way of mobilising standard setting behaviour remain under developed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Development of the Concept of Contributory Negligence in English Common Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel G.D. van Dongen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The injured party’s own conduct which has contributed to the damage that he has suffered has been a bar to the recovery of damages for centuries in the common law tradition. This article describes and analyses the historical development, from the early modern period until the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence Act of 1945, of the way in which English common law dealt with cases in which the behaviour of the injured party contributed to the occurrence of his damage – nowadays called ‘contributory negligence’. Historically, contributory conduct was linked to the (broader question of causation. The way in which cases involving contributory negligence were dealt with slowly developed from a very strict rule, depriving the injured party of his action even in the presence of the slightest degree of negligence on his part  (leading to a so-called all-or-nothing approach, into a more lenient approach, in which attempts aimed at doing justice to the degree to which both parties contributed to the accident were made during the 19th century. Furthermore, juries regularly mitigated the damages they awarded, rather than applying the all-or-nothing rule. The idea of a partition of damages seems to have emerged in English common law around the end of the 19th century. In 1945, the possibility of a reduction, based on the respective degrees of the responsibility of the parties, was officially introduced with the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence Act, which is still in force today.

  19. [Negligent homicide caused by exhaust gas escaping from a manipulated chimney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Ingo; Varchmin-schultheiss, Karin; Schmeling, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A chimney built and operated according to the instructions is supposed to ensure that the combustion gases coming from the fireplace can escape safely. If the operational reliability is impaired, this presents a risk of acute poisoning. The report deals with a negligently caused carbon monoxide poisoning of a married couple as a consequence of improper installation of a cover of the chimney opening. Various causes of fatal poisoning due to defective exhaust systems are discussed in connection with the presented case report.

  20. Lymphoma Patients Treated without Anthracyclines Have Negligible Risk of Cardiotoxicity: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baech, J; Hansen, SM; Lund, PE

    Abstract Objective: For more than two decades, CHOP (and later R-CHOP) has been the standard frontline treatment for diffuse large b-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens increase risk of cardiotoxicity with congestive heart failure (HF) being the best document....... Patients treated without anthracyclines had a negligible risk of HF supporting the safety of these regimens in patients considered at substantial risk of cardiotoxicity....

  1. Clinical negligence claims in pediatric surgery in England: pattern and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyoka, Mandela

    2015-02-01

    We hypothesized that there has been an increase in the number of successful litigation claims in pediatric surgery in England. Our aim was to report the incidence, causes, and costs of clinical negligence claims against the National Health Service (NHS) in relation to pediatric surgery. We queried the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) on litigation claims among children undergoing pediatric surgery in England (2004-2012). We decided a priori to only examine closed cases (decision and payment made). Data included year of claim, year of payment of claim, payment per claim, paid-to-closed ratio, and severity of outcome of clinical incident. Out of 112 clinical negligence claims in pediatric surgery, 93 (83%) were finalized-73 (65%) were settled and damages paid to the claimant and 20 (18%) were closed with no payment, and 19 (17%) remain open. The median payment was £13,537 (600-500,000) and median total cost borne by NHSLA was £31,445 (600-730,202). Claims were lodged at a median interval of 2 (0-13) years from time of occurrence with 55 (75%) cases being settled within the 3 years of being received. The commonest reasons for claims were postoperative complications (n=20, 28%), delayed treatment (n=16, 22%), and/or diagnosis (n=14, 19%). Out of 73, 17 (23%) closed claims resulted in case fatality. Conclusion: Two-thirds of all claims in pediatric surgery resulted in payment to claimant, and the commonest reasons for claims were postoperative complications, delayed treatment, and/or diagnosis. Nearly a quarter of successful claims were in cases where negligence resulted in case fatality. Pediatric surgeons should be aware of common diagnostic and treatment shortfalls as high-risk areas of increased susceptibility to clinical negligence claims. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. How the contractualist account of preconception negligence undermines prenatal reproductive autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Glen

    2013-08-01

    Suppose a physician advises a woman to delay her planned pregnancy for a few months in order to significantly reduce the likelihood that her baby will suffer with Spina Bifida. If the woman chooses to ignore this advice and conceives soon after, I believe most people would consider it a matter of common sense that the child thus born is a victim of this woman's negligence, even if it is fortunate enough to not be burdened with Spina Bifida. This common sense judgement appeared to have been done in by the fact that the timing of conception can be identity-influencing, and so the child that is born only exists because of its mother's decision to ignore her physician's advice. However, recently, contemporary contractualist theories have been used to make sense of preconception negligence towards persons whose existence is a result of that same negligence. I will briefly discuss this interesting development and then show how this retrieval of the common sense judgement comes at a great cost to prenatal reproductive autonomy.

  3. [Liability of pediatric nurses for professional negligence in Taiwan: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Man; Sun, Fan-Ko

    2014-04-01

    Liability attribution and professional negligence in pediatric nursing are topics that have been neglected in Taiwan. (1) Identify the definitions of related criminal activities in accordance with domestic criminal law; (2) Elucidate the facts and the dispute in a current case involving a pediatric nurse; (3) Elucidate the principle of 'no punishment without law'; (4) Explore the reasons why the pediatric nurse in the current case received a verdict of 'not guilty'. A literature review and case study approach were used to analyze a sentence reconsideration of the first instance No. 1 (2011) issued by the Taiwan high court, Kaohsiung branch court. The conditions for the scrutiny of criminal activity under Taiwan criminal law are statement of facts, illegality (justifiable cause), and liability (excuse). In this case, the pediatric nurse was accused of failing to prevent an infant from suffocation and of not discharging her obligations as a nurse. The pediatric nurse rebutted the charge of criminal negligence. The intervening behaviors of the pediatric nurse were found to be legal and not culpable. In this case, the High Court and Supreme Court made a final criminal judgment based on the presumption of innocence, and the pediatric nurse was pronounced innocent of the charge. This article intends to assist pediatric nurses understand their liabilities under Taiwan's criminal law. Pediatric nurses should gain a better understanding of the nature of liability for professional negligence in order to clarify how actions that may be illegal do not necessarily make nurses culpable.

  4. The Impact of Material and Design Criteria on the Assessment of Negligible Creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetter, Robert I.; Sham, Sam; Swindeman, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Two of the proposed High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) under consideration for a demonstration plant have the design object of avoiding creep effects during normal operation. The goal of negligible creep could have different interpretations depending upon what failure modes are considered and associated criteria for avoiding the effects of creep. This work addresses the criteria for negligible creep in Subsection NH of Section III of the ASME B and PV Code, other international design codes and some currently suggested criteria modifications and their impact on permissible operating temperatures for various reactor pressure vessel materials. There are a number of other considerations for the selection of vessel material besides avoiding creep effects. Of particular interest for this review are (1) the materials allowable stress level and impact on wall thickness (the goal being to minimize required wall thickness) and (2) ASME Code approval (inclusion as a permitted material in the relevant Section and Subsection of interest) to expedite regulatory review and approval. The application of negligible creep criteria to two of the candidate materials, SA533 and Mod 9Cr-1Mo, and to a potential alternate, normalized and tempered 2 Cr-1Mo, are illustrated and the relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  5. Resin technologies: construction and staining of resin TMA's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, William J; Wilson, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    The traditional formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and therefore the tissue microarrays created from it, provide good morphology but with a compromised antigenicity when compared to frozen tissue. In contrast, while solving the issue of antigenicity, frozen tissue suffers from a lack of morphology. We have demonstrated that tissue microarrays constructed in glycol methacrylate resin, when combined with a cold acetone fixation step, have been able to combine the superior morphology of resin-embedded sections with the superior antigenicity of frozen tissue for prospectively collected material.

  6. Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael D; Spivak, Marla

    2012-01-01

    The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed "social immunity." One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee's immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self-medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB). Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self-medication by increasing the

  7. Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Simone-Finstrom

    Full Text Available The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed "social immunity." One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee's immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self-medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB. Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self

  8. Epoxy Resins in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Henry

    1960-01-01

    A method of embedding biological specimens in araldite 502 (Ciba) has been developed for materials available in the United States. Araldite-embedded tissues are suitable for electron microscopy, but the cutting qualities of the resin necessitates more than routine attention during microtomy. The rather high viscosity of araldite 502 also seems to be an unnecessary handicap. The less viscous epoxy epon 812 (Shell) produces specimens with improved cutting qualities, and has several features—low shrinkage and absence of specimen damage during cure, minimal compression of sections, relative absence of electron beam-induced section damage, etc.—which recommends it as a routine embedding material. The hardness of the cured resin can be easily adjusted by several methods to suit the materials embedded in it. Several problems and advantages of working with sections of epoxy resins are also discussed. PMID:13822825

  9. Process for Molding Nonreinforced (Neat) Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Void free moldings obtained for neat, condensation, thermosetting resins. Thermally and mechanically treat resin prior to molding to reduce amount of volatiles. With volatiles reduced molding temperature and pressure are applied in way to drive out remaining volatiles during molding.

  10. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used...

  11. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  12. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  13. Uranium sorption by tannin resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares Rieumont, S.; Martinez Luzardo, J.; Torres Hernandez, J.; Lima Cazorla, D. de la Rosa.

    1998-01-01

    The sorption of uranium by immobilised Eucalyptus Saligna Sm. and Lysiloma latisiliqua L tannins was investigated. Immobilization condition were analyzed. These resins resulted suitable adsorbent for the concentration of uranium from aqueous systems. The sorption of uranium is pH dependent. At pH 5.5 maximum in sorption capacity is registered. The presence of appreciable amount of sodium chloride do not have any effect on uranium removal. Carbonate and calcium ions in concentrations similar to these that could be found in sea water and other natural water do not decrease the uranium uptake. Tannin resins can be used several times without an appreciable decay of their sorption capacity

  14. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  15. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  16. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  17. 31 CFR 370.40 - Can I be held accountable if my negligence contributes to a forged signature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can I be held accountable if my negligence contributes to a forged signature? 370.40 Section 370.40 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... if my negligence contributes to a forged signature? (a) General. If your failure to exercise ordinary...

  18. Factors potentially associated to domestic negligence among elders assisted in home assistance program

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Zally Pinto Vasconcellos de; Lemos, Naira de Fátima Dutra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2010-01-01

    A violência contra idosos é uma questão social cada vez mais presente em todas as sociedades, até nos países em desenvolvimento. Uma das formas de violência menos conhecidas e denunciadas é a negligência doméstica, especialmente contra idosos que apresentam comprometimento funcional. Este artigo apresenta resultados de um estudo transversal descritivo/analítico realizado com cuidadores familiares de idosos comprometidos atendidos pelo Programa de Assistência Domiciliar a Idosos, da disciplina...

  19. When can a patient sue for negligence and wrongful detention under the Mental Health Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, Diana

    1985-10-05

    Section 139 of Great Britain's 1983 Mental Health Act makes the courts more accessible to patients with complaints regarding alleged negligence and wrongful detention than did the 1959 Act. The test for whether criminal proceedings can be brought is now whether the "patient's complaint appears to merit fuller investigation." The 1983 legislation also removes the legal immunity of the Secretary of State and the health authorities. Brahams explains that patients dissatisfied with the British law can appeal to the European Court in Strasbourg under Articles 5 and 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantee personal liberty and a fair trial.

  20. Variations in survival time for amalgam and resin composite restorations: a population based cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, S; Price, R; Andreou, P; Jones, G; Portolesi, A

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the association between the restorative material used and time to further treatment across population cohorts with universal coverage for dental treatment. Cohort study of variation in survival time for tooth restorations over time and by restoration material used based on an Accelerated Failure Time model. Primary dental care clinics. Members of Canada's First Nations and Inuit population covered by the Non-Insured Health Benefits program of Health Canada for the period April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2012. Tooth restorations using resin composite or amalgam material. Survival time of restoration to further treatment. Median survival time for resin composite was 51 days longer than amalgam, for restorations placed in 1999-2000. This difference was not statistically significant (p⟩0.05). Median survival times were lower for females, older subjects. Those visiting the dentist annually, and decreased monotonically over time from 11.2 and 11.3 years for resin composite and amalgam restorations respectively placed in 1999-2000 to 6.9 and 7.0 years for those placed in 2009-10. Resin composite restorations performed no better than amalgams over the study period, but cost considerably more. With the combination of the overall decrease in survival times for both resin composite and amalgam restorations and the increase in use of resin composite, the costs of serving Health Canada's Non-Insured Health Benefits population will rise considerably, even without any increase in the incidence of caries. Copyright© 2016 Dennis Barber Ltd

  1. Diterpene resin acids in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2006-11-01

    Diterpene resin acids are a significant component of conifer oleoresin, which is a viscous mixture of terpenoids present constitutively or inducibly upon herbivore or pathogen attack and comprises one form of chemical resistance to such attacks. This review focuses on the recent discoveries in the chemistry, biosynthesis, molecular biology, regulation, and biology of these compounds in conifers.

  2. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  3. The effects of fillers on polyurethane resin-based electrical insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altafim Ruy Alberto Corrêa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly widespread use of polymeric insulators in vehicle distributors and transmission systems has led to an ongoing quest for quality and low costs. This quest has, in turn, resulted in improved performance and cost benefits, brought about by the use of new polymeric and composite resins. Occasionally, however, while some properties are improved, others may show a loss of optimal performance. Therefore, to understand the behavior of fillers, such as carbon black, silica and mica added to castor oil-derived polyurethane resins, several thermal, mechanical and electrical tests were conducted on samples and insulators produced specifically for this purpose, using these new materials. The results of these tests clearly demonstrated that this type of resin and its composites can be used to manufacture indoor electrical insulators and that the fillers analyzed in this study improve or maintain the characteristics of the pure resins.

  4. Abrigo, pobreza e negligência: percursos de judicialização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Livia do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho discute a negligência como uma categorização que passa a justificar a intervenção estatal sobre famílias pobres, no que se refere à prática de abrigamento de crianças e adolescentes e como essa prática se instala na lógica de judicialização da vida. Com a emergência do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA, fica interditado abrigar por pobreza. Dessa maneira, a falta de recursos materiais perde força como justificativa, e se implanta um novo estatuto de criminalização da pobreza e de judicialização da vida, que se apoia no desrespeito a direitos estabelecidos na legislação: família negligente. Com esse referencial, a negligência passa a ser produzida como um dispositivo de afirmação da sociedade de segurança, tendo como parâmetro a lógica biopolítica de governo da vida.

  5. Paving the road to negligence: the compensation for research-related injuries in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    The planned reform of the regulation of clinical trials in Spain has reopened the debate over how to regulate research-related injuries. Act 29/2006 and Royal Decree 223/2004 regulate the insurance of research-related injuries, and they include a general clause requiring mandatory insurance and imposing a no-fault compensation system; they also contain an exception clause enabling clinical trials to be carried out without insurance under some conditions, and an exclusion clause excluding compensation when there is no causal connection between injuries and a clinical trial. National legislation is under review, affecting the requirement of mandatory insurance and paving the road to a liability system based on negligence, which will affect the level of protection of the persons enrolled in clinical trials because it would not ensure compensation. Regulatory texts on individuals' participation as research subjects should include not only mandatory insurance, but also a no-fault compensation system for cases when voluntary research subjects are injured, irrespective of negligence.

  6. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  7. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  8. When the strong punish: why net costs of punishment are often negligible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rueden, Christopher R; Gurven, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In small-scale societies, punishment of adults is infrequent and employed when the anticipated cost-to-benefit ratio is low, such as when punishment is collectively justified and administered. In addition, benefits may exceed costs when punishers have relatively greater physical and social capital and gain more from cooperation. We provide examples from the Tsimane horticulturalists of Bolivia to support our claims.

  9. Hazard and precautionary measures in connection with negligent or wilful contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlfaenger, Rainer; Scheidegger, Roland

    2009-01-01

    Handling open radioactive substances requires extensive precautionary measures in order to avoid any danger. During the past 100 years many persons were injured or killed due to unintended external irradiation, contamination of the skin or uptake of radioactive substances. With the help of organisational measures with users of sources and with operators of radionuclide laboratories or nuclear installations numerous accidents can be avoided or their consequences can be mitigated. Also the government itself is challenged in order to register and secure radioactive sources and maintaining the national safeguard. Education of personnel handling radioactive substances plays an important role when it comes to precautionary measures. In combination with suitable technical equipment it is possible to obtain a high degree of protection against the hazard from negligent or wilful contamination. (orig.)

  10. Photochemical generation of reactive species upon irradiation of rainwater: Negligible photoactivity of dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinet, Alexandre; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the photochemical activity of dissolved organic matter present in rainwater. Formation rates of the reactive species hydroxyl radical (OH · ), singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) and dissolved organic matter triplet states ( 3 DOM * ) were determined by irradiation (UV-A) of wet-only rainwater samples collected in Turin (Italy) in the presence of specific scavengers (benzene, furfuryl alcohol and phenol, respectively). Photo-formation rates of OH · (∼ 3 . 10 -11 M s -1 ) and 1 O 2 (∼ 10 -14 M s -1 ) were lower (1 or 2 orders of magnitude) or largely lower (4 to 10 orders of magnitude) than those determined for fog and cloud samples in previous studies. 3 DOM * formation rate values were either negligible or quite low (∼ 10 -12 M s -1 ) by comparison with those evaluated for surface water samples. Deduced steady-state [OH · ] were in the same range as those reported for fog samples in the literature (8.7 . 10 -16 to 1.5 . 10 -15 M), while [ 1 O 2 ] was often several orders of magnitude lower and, therefore, could be considered as negligible. Nitrite (NO 2 - ) constituted the main source of OH · (69 ± 21 to 138 ± 36%), and the deduced contribution of DOM was low or nil. All the results obtained in this study tend to demonstrate that DOM (including HUmic LIke Substances, HULIS) present in rainwater is poorly or not photoactive. Therefore, there could be considerable difference between rainwater DOM (HULIS included) and the organic matter present in surface waters, particularly the humic substances, as far as the photochemical activity is concerned.

  11. Photochemical generation of reactive species upon irradiation of rainwater: negligible photoactivity of dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinet, Alexandre; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide

    2010-07-15

    This paper focuses on the study of the photochemical activity of dissolved organic matter present in rainwater. Formation rates of the reactive species hydroxyl radical (OH(*)), singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) and dissolved organic matter triplet states ((3)DOM()) were determined by irradiation (UV-A) of wet-only rainwater samples collected in Turin (Italy) in the presence of specific scavengers (benzene, furfuryl alcohol and phenol, respectively). Photo-formation rates of OH(*) ( approximately 3.10(-)(11)Ms(-)(1)) and (1)O(2) ( approximately 10(-)(14)Ms(-)(1)) were lower (1 or 2 orders of magnitude) or largely lower (4 to 10 orders of magnitude) than those determined for fog and cloud samples in previous studies. (3)DOM() formation rate values were either negligible or quite low ( approximately 10(-)(12)Ms(-)(1)) by comparison with those evaluated for surface water samples. Deduced steady-state [OH(*)] were in the same range as those reported for fog samples in the literature (8.7.10(-)(16) to 1.5.10(-)(15)M), while [(1)O(2)] was often several orders of magnitude lower and, therefore, could be considered as negligible. Nitrite (NO(2)(-)) constituted the main source of OH(*) (69 + or - 21 to 138 + or - 36%), and the deduced contribution of DOM was low or nil. All the results obtained in this study tend to demonstrate that DOM (including HUmic LIke Substances, HULIS) present in rainwater is poorly or not photoactive. Therefore, there could be considerable difference between rainwater DOM (HULIS included) and the organic matter present in surface waters, particularly the humic substances, as far as the photochemical activity is concerned. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lemaître model with non-negligible pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Marra, Valerio; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-01-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaître model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=ρ/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential ψ and the curvature potential φ is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation ψ+φ=O(φ 2 )—which holds for the case of a dust fluid—is not valid for a relativistic fluid, and an effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaître model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids with non-negligible pressure. We show that this happens when the characteristic scale of the inhomogeneity is smaller than the sound horizon and that the deviation is caused by the nonlinear effect of the fluid's fast motion. We also find that ψ+φ= [O(φ 2 ),O(c s 2φ  δ)] for an inhomogeneity with density contrast δ whose characteristic scale is smaller than the sound horizon, unless w is close to −1, where w and c s are the equation of state parameter and the sound speed of the fluid, respectively. On the other hand, we expect ψ+φ=O(φ 2 ) to hold for an inhomogeneity whose characteristic scale is larger than the sound horizon, unless the amplitude of the inhomogeneity is large and w is close to −1

  13. A report on 15 years of clinical negligence claims in rhinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyton, Thomas; Odutoye, Tunde; Mathew, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the characteristics of medical negligence claims in rhinology. In 2010-2011 the National Health Service (NHS) litigation bill surpassed 1 billion Great British Pounds (GBP; 1.52 billion U.S. dollars [US$]). Systematic analysis of malpractice complaints allows for the identification of errors and can thereby improve patient safety and reduce the burden of litigation claims on health services. Claims relating to ear, nose, and throat between 1995 and 2010 were obtained from the NHS Litigation Authority and were analyzed. The series contains 65 closed claims that resulted in payment totaling 3.1 million GBP (US$4.7 million). Fifty claims were related to surgical complications. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery and septoplasty were the procedures most commonly associated with successful claims. There were 11 cases of orbital injury including 6 cases of visual loss and 5 cases of diplopia. The most common cause of a claim was failure to recognize the complication or manage it appropriately. Lack of informed consent was claimed in eight cases. Other claims arose because of errors in outpatient procedures (two), diagnosis (six), delayed surgery (one), and errors in medical management (three). This is the first study to report the outcomes of negligence claims in rhinology in the United Kingdom. Claims in rhinology are associated with a high success rate. Steps that can be taken to reduce litigation include careful patient workup and ensuring adequate informed consent. Where there is a suspicion of orbital damage early recognition and intervention is needed to reduce long-term injury to the patient.

  14. Synthesis of Hydrophobic, Crosslinkable Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Bismaleimides have also been crosslinked with radical initiators to produce brittle networks [4].If a damine is added, chain extension and radical crosslinkinq...are produced during cure.The company also produced a similar phenylene based resin, with pendant nitrile groups which could be crosslinked without the...benzenes and tetra substituted cyclopentadienones [881. g. Preparation of poly 1,4 phenylene by nickel (0> catalysed electropolymerisation 1891. Cont’d

  15. Evaluation of adhesion of reline resins to the thermoplastic denture base resin for non-metal clasp denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Choe, Han Cheol; Son, Mee Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tensile and transverse bond strength of chairside reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II, Mild Rebaron LC) to a thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) used for non metal clasp denture. The results were compared with those of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20) and a thermoplastic polyamide resin (Biotone). The failure sites were examined by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the mode of failure. As results, the bond strength of reline resins to a thermoplastic acrylic resin was similar to the value of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin. However, thermoplastic polyamide resin showed the lowest value. The results of this study indicated that a thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasps denture allows chairside reline and repair. It was also found that the light-polymerized reline resin had better bond strength than the autopolymerizing reline resin in relining for a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin and a thermoplastic acrylic resin.

  16. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  17. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  18. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  19. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  20. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  1. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Mondelli, José

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion wit...

  2. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  3. Microbiological study of water-softener resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, J M; Engelhard, W E; Parsons, J E

    1969-09-01

    Microbial identification using effluents backflushed from exhausted urban and rural tank resins and cleaned resins containing the sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene (SDB) were completed, along with microbial assessment of the concentrated stock salt brine. Forty-four different bacterial and fungal genera were identified. Extensive biochemical and animal virulence tests completed on one of the six bacterial salt brine isolates indicated a pathogenic staphylococcal strain. The retention of Staphylococcus aureus, a Flavobacterium sp, and Escherichia coli B bacteriophage was demonstrated both by using the nonexhausted sodium-regenerated resin and by using the same resin exchanged with different mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Effluent counts completed after bacterial seepage through the resins indicated the Pb(++) exchanged resin removed 55% of the bacteria; Na(+), Fe(++), and Al(+++) removed 31 to 36% and Ca(++) and Cu(++) removed about 10 to 15%. Seventy per cent or more of the bacteriophage was removed by Fe(++), Cu(++), and Al(+++), whereas the Ca(++) and Na(++) cations removed 25 to 31%. Over a 77-day period, nonsterile tap water was passed through bacterial seeded and uninoculated SDB (Na) resin columns. Effluent and resin elution counts demonstrated the growth and survival of 2 different bacteria per column. Increased bacterial retention, survival, and multiplication occurred concomitantly with accumulation of organic and inorganic materials and the Ca(++) and Mg(++) cations from the tap water. Furthermore, microbial elution from resin particles taken from column depths of 1, 8, and 16 cm indicated a bacterial diminution with increasing depths.

  4. Heat-cured Acrylic Resin versus Light-activated Resin: A Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Although light-activated resins (Eclipse) have been reported to possess superior physical and mechanical properties compared with the heat-cured acrylic resins (Lucitone-199), a few studies have compared overdentures with a locator attachment constructed from heat-cured acrylic resins with those constructed ...

  5. [The prevalence and influencing factors of abuse and negligence against elderly in rural areas of Anhui province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pu-yu; Hao, Jia-hu; Xiong, Li-ming; Yu, Dan-dan; Cao, Yue-ting; Fang, Yun; Jiang, Xiu-ling; Qian, Qiao-xia; Tao, Fang-biao

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors related to abuse and negligence against the elderly in the rural areas. 975 elderly over 60 years from 41 counties in Anhui province were included. All participants completed an anonymous questionnaire including items as: educational background, marital condition, income, child-discipline, rude action to parents, daily activities, physical functions, having chronic illness, abuse and negligence against the elderly, etc. In the last year, rates of common physical abuse, serious physical abuse, emotional abuse, financial exploitation, negligence, overall abuse and negligence against the elderly were 4.5%, 1.5%, 26.9%, 4.9%, 7.2%, 29.9% respectively. Among the 281 victims, 80.4% reported that they were suffered more than 3 times of abuse and neglect episodes, and 34.9% reported that they were suffered more than 2 forms of abuse and negligence. The primary sadism was carried out by the daughter-in-law or son-in-law (43.2%) of the elderly. Low activity on daily life and having chronic illness were the risk factors causing common physical abuse while better education was the protective factor to it. Low ability in managing daily activity of living was the risk factor causing serious physical abuse. Less active on daily life and having rude action to parents were the risk factors to emotional abuse, but being strict with their children was the protective factor to emotional abuse. Less active on daily life, often beating their children and having rude action to parents were the risk factors related to financial exploitation. Less active on daily life, having rude action to parents and having bad physical functions were the risk factors causing negligence. Less active on daily life and having rude manner to parents were the risk factors of overall elderly abuse and negligence, but being strict with their children was protective factor to the abuse and negligence against the elderly. High prevalence on abuse and

  6. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS ) Resin with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    synthetic) resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate ...

  7. Ion Exchange Column Tests Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morse, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-12-20

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed on site. There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important. Options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste, as well as to examine the volatility of 99Tc during the vitrification process. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. A conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. SuperLig® 639 is an elutable ion exchange resin. In the tank waste, 99Tc is predominantly found in the tank supernate as pertechnetate (TcO4-). Perrhenate (ReO4-) has been shown to be a good non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in laboratory testing for this ion exchange resin. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient and column resin maturation kinetics testing using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from simulated LAW. This revision includes results from testing to determine effective resin operating temperature range. Loading tests were performed at 45°C, and the computer modeling was updated to include the temperature effects. Equilibrium contact testing indicated that this batch of

  8. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  9. Resin composite for sealing and its use in a solar cell. Fushiyo jushi soseibutsu oyobi sore wo mochiita taiyo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, H.; Mimura, T.; Takehara, N.

    1994-01-28

    This invention presents resin composites for sealing of a solar cell composed of a hardening resin and a thermoplastic resin which has a number average molecular weight larger than that of the hardening resin and is soluble in the hardening resin, and the invention affords a solar cell to endure a long-term stable operation and to give a good performance. The hardening resin includes unsaturated polyester resin, phenolic resin, alkyd resin, unsaturated acrylic resin, epoxy resin, polyurethane resin, melamine resin, diallyl phthalate resin, their oligomers and their modifications. The thermoplastic resin includes saturated polyester resin, phenolic resin, acrylic resin, styrene resin, epoxy resin, polyurethane resin, polyvinyl acetate resin, polyvinyl chloride resin, polyvinyl alcohol resin, polyacetal resin, their modifications and their copolymer resin. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Counting the cost of negligence in neurosurgery: Lessons to be learned from 10 years of claims in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Alhafidz; Strachan, Roger D; Nath, Fredrick; Coulter, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    Despite substantial progress in modernising neurosurgery, the specialty still tops the list of medico-legal claims. Understanding the factors associated with negligence claims is vital if we are to identify areas of underperformance and subsequently improve patient safety. Here we provide data on trends in neurosurgical negligence claims over a 10-year period in England. We used data provided by the National Health Service Litigation Authority to analyse negligence claims related to neurosurgery from the financial years 2002/2003 to 2011/2012. Using the abstracts provided, we extracted information pertaining to the underlying pathology, injury severity, nature of misadventure and claim value. Over the 10-year period, the annual number of claims increased significantly. In total, there were 794 negligence claims (range 50-117/year); of the 613 closed cases, 405 (66.1%) were successful. The total cost related to claims during the 10 years was £65.7 million, with a mean claim per successful case of £0.16 million (total damages, defence and claimant costs of £45.1, £6.36 and £14.3 million, respectively). Claims related to emergency cases were more costly compared to those of elective cases (£209,327 vs. £112,627; P=0.002). Spinal cases represented the most frequently litigated procedures (350; 44.1% of total), inadequate surgical performance the most common misadventure (231; 29.1%) and fatality the commonest injury implicated in claims (102; 12.8%). Negligence claims related to wrong-site surgery and cauda equina syndrome were frequently successful (26/26; 100% and 14/16; 87.5% of closed cases, respectively). In England, the number of neurosurgical negligence claims is increasing, the financial cost substantial, and the burden significant. Lessons to be learned from the study are of paramount importance to reduce future cases of negligence and improve patient care.

  11. Influence of incorporation of fluoroalkyl methacrylates on roughness and flexural strength of a denture base acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ramirez Cunha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorinated denture base acrylic resins can present more stable physical properties when compared with conventional polymers. This study evaluated the incorporation of a fluoroalkyl methacrylate (FMA mixture in a denture base material and its effect on roughness and flexural strength. A swelling behavior assessment of acrylic resin specimens (n=3, per substance after 12 h of FMA or methyl methacrylate (MMA immersion was conducted to determine the solvent properties. Rectangular specimens (n=30 were allocated to three groups, according to the concentration of FMA substituted into the monomer component of a heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Lucitone 550, as follows: 0% (control, 10% and 20% (v/v. Acrylic resin mixed with concentrations of 25% or more did not reach the dough stage and was not viable. The surface roughness and flexural strength of the specimens were tested. Variables were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05. Immersion in FMA produced negligible swelling, and MMA produced obvious swelling and dissolution of the specimens. Surface roughness at concentrations of 0%, 10% and 20% were: 0.25 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.04, 0.22 ± 0.03 mm (F=1.78; p=0.189, not significant. Significant differences were found for flexural strength (F=15.92; p<0.001 and modulus of elasticity (F=7.67; p=0.002, with the following results: 96 ± 6, 82 ± 5, 84 ± 6 MPa, and 2,717 ± 79, 2,558 ± 128, 2574 ± 87 MPa, respectively. The solvent properties of FMA against acrylic resin are weak, which would explain why concentrations over 20% were not viable. Surface changes were not detected after the incorporation of FMA in the denture base acrylic resin tested. The addition of FMA into denture base resin may lower the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, regardless of the tested concentration.

  12. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Mirjana C.; Radičević Radmila Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor...

  13. Language-related differential item functioning between English and German PROMIS Depression items is negligible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Wahl, Inka; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd; Rose, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    To investigate differential item functioning (DIF) of PROMIS Depression items between US and German samples we compared data from the US PROMIS calibration sample (n = 780), a German general population survey (n = 2,500) and a German clinical sample (n = 621). DIF was assessed in an ordinal logistic regression framework, with 0.02 as criterion for R 2 -change and 0.096 for Raju's non-compensatory DIF. Item parameters were initially fixed to the PROMIS Depression metric; we used plausible values to account for uncertainty in depression estimates. Only four items showed DIF. Accounting for DIF led to negligible effects for the full item bank as well as a post hoc simulated computer-adaptive test (German general population sample was considerably lower compared to the US reference value of 50. Overall, we found little evidence for language DIF between US and German samples, which could be addressed by either replacing the DIF items by items not showing DIF or by scoring the short form in German samples with the corrected item parameters reported. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Common mistakes, negligence and legal offences in paediatric dentistry: a self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, M; Bijaoui, E; Blumer, S; Gordon, M

    2011-08-01

    To identify the type and relative prevalence of mistakes, negligence and legal offences (MNLOs) performed or nearly performed by paediatric dentists during their entire career. The population consisted of 25 (29.4%) certified and 48 (56.5%) non-certified paediatric dentists, and 12 (14.1%) residents in paediatric dentistry. A structured anonymous questionnaire accessed occupational characteristics and frequencies of MNLOs (0, 1-4, 5-10, >10). The most prevalent MNLOs related to the performance of radiographs: bite-wings with overlapping teeth (90%), overturned film (30%), film over-exposure (48%), faulty film development (84%) and exposure of the same side of film twice (32%). Other MNLOs were drilling an intact tooth (37%), misdiagnosing existing radiographic caries (63%), anaesthetising the wrong tooth (49%), accidental incision of the cheek/lips during treatment (73%), administering an incorrect dose of antibiotic (49%) or analgesics (24%), extracting the wrong tooth (15%), documenting the wrong tooth in the patient's file (63%), and a child swallowing an instrument (33%) or clasp (15%). Prevalent MNLOs included administering sedation to a child who had not fasted (32%), sedating without monitoring (9%), treating children without receiving signed parental consent (15%) and losing a radiograph (64%). MNLOs occur commonly during various operative dental treatments. Means to raise awareness and to implement regulations should be addressed to limit these mistakes.

  15. Analysis of 11 years of clinical negligence claims in esophagogastric cancer in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingham, K; Stroud, L; Knight, J; Preston, S R; Sultan, J

    2017-04-01

    In the National Health Service (NHS), clinical negligence claims and associated compensations are constantly rising. The aim of this study is to identify the size, trends, and causes of litigations claims in relation to esophagogastric (EG) cancer in the NHS. Data requests were submitted to the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) for the period of January 2003 to December 2013. Data were reviewed, categorized clinically, and analyzed in terms of causes and costs behind claims. In this time period, there were 163 claims identified from the NHSLA database. Ninety-five (58.3%) claims were successful with a pay out of £6.25 million. An increasing overall claim frequency and success rate were found over the last few years. Majority of the claims were from gastric cancer 84 (88.4%). The commonest cause of complaint in successful claims was delay or failure in diagnosis (21.1%) and treatment (17.9%). There were only 10.5% successful intraoperative claims, of which 50% were due to unnecessary or additional procedures. The frequency and success rates of malpractice claims in EG cancer are rising. The failure or delay in diagnosing and treatment in EG malignancy are the common cause for successful litigation claims. The findings further reinforce the need to improve early diagnosis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-10-21

    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO 2 ). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO 2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO 2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO 2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials.

  17. Negligible water surface charge determined using Kelvin probe and total reflection X-ray fluorescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, Vladimir L; Möhwald, Helmuth; Konovalov, Oleg V; Knecht, Volker

    2013-09-07

    The water surface charge has been extensively debated in recent decades. Electrophoretic mobilities of air bubbles in water and disjoining pressures between the surfaces of aqueous films suggest that the surface of water exhibits a significant negative charge. This is commonly attributed to a strong adsorption of hydroxide ions at the interface, though spectroscopic measurements and simulation studies suggest surface depletion of hydroxide ions. Alternatively, the negative surface charge could arise from surface contamination with trace charged surfactants. We have probed the variation in the surface charge of water with pH by measuring surface potentials using the Kelvin probe technique. Independently, the abundance in the interfacial layer of "reporter ions" (Rb(+) and Br(-)), which must be affected by a charged surface, has been monitored using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXF) technique. Special care was taken to prove the high sensitivity of this technique as well as to avoid surface contaminants. The magnitude of the surface charge was found to be below 1 e per 500 nm(2) (TRXF). No evidence of variations in the surface potential between pH 2-3 and pH 9-12 was detected within the accuracies of the methods (5 mV for Kelvin probe and 2 mV for TRXF). Hence, our findings suggest that the clean water surface exhibits negligible charge in a wide pH range.

  18. Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2001-07-10

    Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

  19. Gold Loading on Ion Exchange Resins in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muslim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The loading of gold using strong base anion exchange resin in non-ammoniac resin-solution (NARS systems has been studied. The loading of gold onto ion exchange resins is affected by polythionate concentration, and trithionate can be used as the baseline in the system. The results also show that resin capacity on gold loading increases due to the increase in the equilibrium thiosulfate concentration in the NARS system. Gold loading performances show the need of optimization the equilibrium concentrations of thiosulfate in the NARS system. Keywords: equilibrium, gold loading, resin capacity, thiosulfate, trithionate

  20. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as

  1. The solidification of spent resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, S. J.; Tsai, C. M.; Shyu, Y. H.

    1991-01-01

    A quasi-steady apparatus was applied to measure the thermal conductivity of solids ranging in size for 0.3 to 200 L, and temperature distributions in the solids were recorded during the curing, and theoretical equation for conduction in a cylindrical form with uniform energy generation was established to define the thermal state of reaction. The heat of reaction calculated from the theoretical equation with experimental values for the maximum temperature and thermal conductivity agrees very well with the data reported. The relationships among heat of reaction and amount of curing agent, retardant, loading of spent resin, and water were established

  2. When Care is a "Systematic Route of Torture": Conceptualizing the Violence of Medical Negligence in Resource-Poor Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Carina

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of patient mistreatment fill ethnographic accounts of healthcare in resource-poor settings. Often, anthropologists point to structural factors and the ways that the global political economy produces substandard care. This approach makes it difficult to hold parties accountable when there is blatant disregard for human life on the part of individuals providing care. In this article, I draw on the illness narrative of Magaly Chacón, the first HIV positive individual in Bolivia to file charges of medical negligence after failing to receive care to prevent mother-to-child transmission. Magaly's narrative demonstrates how structural conditions are often used to explain away poor patient outcomes, shifting attention away from and normalizing the symbolic violence that also perpetuates substandard care of marginalized patients. I use Magaly's accusations to interrogate how defining acts of mistreatment as medical negligence can be a productive exercise, even when it is difficult to disentangle structural constraints from blatant acts of negligence. Defining who is negligent in resource-poor settings is not easy, as Magaly's case demonstrates. However, Magaly's case also demonstrates that accusations of negligence themselves can demand accountability and force changes within the local structures that contribute to the systematic mistreatment of marginalized patients.

  3. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synthetic resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate compressive strength of 55MPa compared to that of polyester resin with an ultimate strength of 68MPa. The result of tensile strength proved cashew nut shell liquid resin (with ultimate strength of 44MPa to be better than polyester resin with 39MPa as ultimate tensile strength. This means that natural resins could be a better substitute for the synthetic ones when the required quantities of fibers (reinforcements and fillers are used in the fibre-reinforced plastic composite developments.

  4. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Mondelli, José

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4) rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (presin increments.

  5. resin as polymer-supported synthesis support

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    dichloro-5,6-dicyano- benzoqunone ... ports used most widely in SPOS are Merrifield resin .... (2 × 10 mL). The resin was dried at 50°C for one hour to give white beads. IR (KBr): 3108, 3312 cm–1. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7⋅13 (br s, PS), 7⋅01.

  6. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  7. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  8. Facile synthesis of hypercrosslinked resins via chloromethylation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A sort of non-polystyrene type hypercrosslinked resin was firstly synthesized through chloromethylation of simple aryl molecules (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, diphenyl), succedent continuous Friedel–Crafts alkylation polymerization and post-crosslinking reaction. The chemical and porous structures of these novel resins ...

  9. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  10. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  11. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  12. Disinfection of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J J; Cameron, S M; Runyan, D A; Craft, D W

    1999-02-01

    During repair or adjustments of acrylic resin removable complete and partial dentures, particles of the acrylic resin from the interior of the prosthesis may expose dental personnel to microbial health hazards if the prosthesis has not been thoroughly disinfected. This study investigates the efficacy of a commercially prepared microbial disinfectant (Alcide) on the external and internal surfaces of acrylic resins. Four groups of acrylic resin were incubated in an experimental model to simulate the oral environment over time. Specimens were treated in 2 groups, disinfected and not disinfected, and then further grouped by breaking and not breaking. Analysis was performed with microbial colony counts, SEM, and statistical analyses. Viable microorganisms still remain on the internal and external surfaces of treated resins. Chlorine dioxide reduces, but does not eliminate, viable microorganisms on these dental prostheses.

  13. Principles and applications of colorimetric solid-phase extraction with negligible depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Neil C.; Porter, Marc D.; Fritz, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) is an integrated technique in which an analyte is selectively concentrated onto a disk and then quantitated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This paper describes the results of an investigation that applies the concept of negligible depletion (ND) to C-SPE, representing the first application of ND concepts to solid-phase extractions. The approach relies on passing the minimal volume of sample through the disk required to reach an equilibrium in which the concentration of analyte in the sample entering and exiting the disk are equal. At this point, the amount of analyte extracted by the disk is proportional to the sample concentration but is independent of the sample volume passed through the disk. With this new method, called C-SPE/ND, the precise measurement of sample volume is no longer necessary. The work herein details the general principles of this new methodology, and validates its basic tenets in an investigation of the extraction of the organic dye methyl violet. The analytical capabilities of C-SPE/ND are then demonstrated by its application to measurements of iodine. Iodine is a biocide increasingly used as a simple and effective disinfectant for water in locations where municipal water treatment systems are potentially compromised. Thus, the ability to operate C-SPE in an ND mode notably enhances the broad-based utility of this methodology as a reliable and an easy-to-use analysis tool for water quality assessments. Since iodine is also the biocide used on NASAs Space Shuttle, C-SPE/ND has the potential to overcome problems associated with the removal of air bubbles entrapped in a water sample in the microgravity environment encountered in space exploration. Extensions of C-SPE/ND to facile determinations of other water quality parameters with respect to both earth- and space-based needs are briefly discussed

  14. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  15. Evaluation of Resin-Resin Interface in Direct Composite Restoration Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoleriu, S.; Andrian, S.; Pancu, G.; Nica, I.; Iovan, G.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resin-resin interface when a universal bonding agent was used in two different strategies in direct restoration repair. Two composite resins (a micro-filled hybrid and a nano-filled hybrid) as old restorations that have to be repair, a universal bonding agent and a micro-filled hybrid composite resin (different then that aged) as new material for repair were chosen for the study. Non-aged samples were used as control and aged samples were used as study groups. The universal bonding agent was applied in etch-and-rinse and in self-etch strategies. The interface between old and new composite resins was evaluated by SEM and the microleakage was assessed by scoring the dye penetration. Very good adaptation of the two different composite resins placed in direct contact in non-aged samples was recorded. No gaps or defects were visible and strong resin-resin contact was observed. After aging, enlargement of resin-resin junction were observed in most of the samples and a increased dye penetration was recorded irrespective of the strategy (etch-and-rinse or self-etch) used for bonding agent application.

  16. Bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four kinds of injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, a polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and a polycarbonate) and PMMA, as a control, were tested. The eight types of surface treatment: ((1) no treatment, (2) air abrasion, (3) dichloromethane, (4) ethyl acetate, (5) 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (6) air abrasion and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (7) tribochemical silica coating, and (8) tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin) were applied to each specimen. The chairside autopolymerizing reline resins were bonded to disks of the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. All of the specimens were immersed in water for 4 months and then thermocycled for 10,000 cycles in water between 5 and 55°C. The shear bond strengths were determined. The shear bond strengths of the two polyamides treated using air abrasion, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and no treatment were exceedingly low. The greatest bond strength was recorded for the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer specimens treated with tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (22.5MPa). The bond strengths of the other injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins increased using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin were the most effective surface treatments among all denture base resins tested. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New resin gel for uranium determination by diffusive gradient in thin films technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregusova, Michaela; Docekal, Bohumil

    2011-01-01

    A new resin gel based on Spheron-Oxin chelating ion-exchanger with anchored 8-hydroxyquinoline functional groups was tested for application in diffusive gradient in thin film technique (DGT) for determination of uranium. Selectivity of uranium uptake from model carbonate loaded solutions of natural water was studied under laboratory conditions and compared with selectivity of the conventional Chelex 100 based resin gel. The affinity of Spheron-Oxin functional groups enables determination of the overall uranium concentration in water containing carbonates up to the concentration level of 10 2 mg L -1 . The effect of uranium binding to the polyacrylamide (APA) and agarose diffusive gels (AGE) was also studied. Uranium is probably bound in both gels by a weak interaction with traces of acrylic acid groups in the structure of APA gel and with pyruvic and sulfonic acid groups in the AGE gel. These sorption effects can be eliminated to the negligible level by prolonged deployment of DGT probes or by disassembling probes after the 1-2 days post-sampling period that is sufficient for release of uranium from diffusive gel and its sorption in resin gel.

  18. Mineralogy of fossil resins in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdasarov, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The investigation is focused on identification and origin of fossil resins from the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments of Northern Eurasia on the basis of detailed study of their physical and chemical characteristics: morphology; size; mass; density; optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; chemical composition; etc. The composition of amorphous organic minerals with polymeric structure, fossil resins included, is studied with IR spectrometry, the EPR method, derivatography at low heating rates, XRD, chemical analysis, emission spectrometry, etc. The results of investigation summarized for the Baltic-Dnieper, North Siberian, and Far East amber-bearing provinces show some similarity of fossil resins in combination with specific features inherent to each province. Resins from the Baltic-Dnieper province should be termed as amber (succinite). Their variety is the most characteristic of Northern and Eastern Europe. Amber-like fossil resins from the North Siberian and Far East provinces are irrelevant to succinite. They usually occur as brittle resins, namely, retinite and gedanite, without jewelry value. Viscous fossil resin rumänite with an expected high economic value occurs in the Far East, on the shore of Sakhalin Island.

  19. Investigation of fossil resins and amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Makarova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fossil resins and amber are a product of lithogenesis of resinous substances of higher plants – resinite. These components of plants, like other lipoid ingredients (suberins, coutines, sporinins, natural rubbers are resistant to microbial action, so they are well preserved in bacterial processing of organic matter in the stages of sedimento- and diagenesis, and are well diagnosed in microscopic studies. They occur in a rather wide age range of sedimentary rocks. The amber of the Baltic region of the Eocene age is most fully studied. The article presents the results of a study of the collection of fossil resins and amber from various regions of the world. Samples were studied microscopically; carbon isotope analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy were performed. The most informative analysis of high-molecular polymeric compounds is IR spectroscopy. It was found that in the analyzed samples of fossil resins of different ages, aromatic compounds are not observed, most of which are first volatilized in fossilization processes. The possibility of influencing the group composition of amber and amber-like resins for sedimentation, diagenesis and catagenesis is discussed. The IR spectra of fossil and modern resin conifers are compared. Using the IR spectroscopy method, an attempt was made to identify the botanical origin of fossil resins.

  20. Melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin for bonding particleboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2008-01-01

    For the development of a cost-effective melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin (MUF), the study evaluated the effects of reaction pH and melamine content on resin properties and bond performance of the MUF resin adhesive systems. Eight resins, each with three replicates, were prepared in a factorial experiment that included two formulation variables: two reaction...

  1. Traumatic resin ducts as indicators of bark beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Matthew F. Bekker; James N. Long

    2017-01-01

    The formation of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) represents an important induced defense in woody plants that enhances oleoresin production and flow in response to environmental perturbations. In some genera (Pinus), resin ducts are copious and conspicuous; however, in others (Picea), resin ducts are relatively rare. The occurrence and strength of resin ducts, in...

  2. The role of nano-perovskite in the negligible thorium release in seawater from Greek bauxite residue (red mud)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkamaletsos, Platon; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    -ICP-MS, using Mediterranean seawater from Greece, indicated significant release of V, depending on S/L ratio, and negligible release of Th at least after 12 months leaching. STEM-EDS/EELS & HR-STEM-HAADF study of the leached BR at the nanoscale revealed that the significant immobility of Th4+ is due to its...

  3. Evolution of E. coli on [U-13C] Glucose Reveals a Negligible Isotopic Influence on Metabolism and Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Troy E.; Long, Christopher P.; Gonzalez, Jacqueline E.

    2016-01-01

    13C-Metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) traditionally assumes that kinetic isotope effects from isotopically labeled compounds do not appreciably alter cellular growth or metabolism, despite indications that some biochemical reactions can be non-negligibly impacted. Here, populations of Escherichia...

  4. Properties of a nanodielectric cryogenic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Physical properties of a nanodielectric composed of in situ synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles ({le} 5 nm in diameter) and a cryogenic resin are reported. The dielectric losses were reduced by a factor of 2 in the nanocomposite, indicating that the presence of small TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles restricted the mobility of the polymer chains. Dielectric breakdown data of the nanodielectric was distributed over a narrower range than that of the unfilled resin. The nanodielectric had 1.56 times higher 1% breakdown probability than the resin, yielding 0.64 times thinner insulation thickness for the same voltage level, which is beneficial in high voltage engineering.

  5. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use

  6. In-depth disinfection of acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, V B; Saunders, T R; Pimsler, M; Elfring, D R

    1995-09-01

    This study demonstrated that bacteria penetrate three kinds of dental acrylic resin after a short time period. Samples of acrylic resin were contaminated with a variety of bacteria and were then placed in three different disinfecting solutions as directed by the manufacturers. After the specific dilution and immersion time, cultures were made from the resin samples. The only effective disinfectant was a 0.525% solution of sodium hypochlorite at a 10-minute immersion. It disinfected not only the surfaces but also the bacteria that penetrated the surfaces to a depth of 3 mm.

  7. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  8. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  9. Shear bond strength of an autopolymerizing repair resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the shear bond strength of an autopolymerizing repair resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, a polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and a polycarbonate) were used in this study. The specimens were divided into eight groups according to the type of surface treatment given: (1) no treatment, (2) air abrasion with alumina, (3) dichloromethane, (4) ethyl acetate, (5) 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (6) alumina and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (7) tribochemical silica coating or (8) tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Half of the specimens in groups 1, 5, 6 and 8 were thermocycled for 10,000 cycles in water between 5-55°C with a dwell time of 1 min at each temperature. The shear bond strengths were determined. The shear bond strengths to the two polyamides treated with alumina, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and no treatment were very low. The greatest post-thermocycling bond strengths to polyamides were recorded for the specimens treated with tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (PA12: 16.4 MPa, PACM12: 17.5 MPa). The greatest post-thermocycling bond strengths to polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycarbonate were recorded for the treatment with alumina and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (22.7 MPa, 20.8 MPa). Polyamide was exceedingly difficult to bond to an autopolymerizing repair resin; the shear bond strength improved using tribochemical silica coating followed by the application of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Both polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycarbonate were originally easy to bond to an autopolymerizing repair resin. However, with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, the bond was more secure.

  10. Magnetic ion-exchange resin treatment: Impact of water type and resin use

    OpenAIRE

    Mergen, Maxime Rodolphe Denis; Jefferson, Bruce; Parsons, Simon A.; Jarvis, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Three raw waters of fundamentally different natural organic matter (NOM) character were treated by magnetic resin using a bench-scale method designed to mimic how the resin is used in continuous operation. Increasing water hydrophobicity resulted in reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal with removal of 56%, 33% and 25% for waters containing 21%, 50% and 75% hydrophobic NOM, respectively. Study of consecutive resin uses showed that the NOM in the hydrophobic water ha...

  11. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  12. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant substances...

  13. Fatores potencialmente associados à negligência doméstica entre idosos atendidos em programa de assistência domiciliar Factors potentially associated to domestic negligence among elders assisted in home assistance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zally Pinto Vasconcellos de Queiroz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A violência contra idosos é uma questão social cada vez mais presente em todas as sociedades, até nos países em desenvolvimento. Uma das formas de violência menos conhecidas e denunciadas é a negligência doméstica, especialmente contra idosos que apresentam comprometimento funcional. Este artigo apresenta resultados de um estudo transversal descritivo/analítico realizado com cuidadores familiares de idosos comprometidos atendidos pelo Programa de Assistência Domiciliar a Idosos, da disciplina de geriatria da Escola Paulista de Medicina (Unifesp, com o objetivo de identificar a existência de fatores potencialmente associados à negligência doméstica na situação de cuidados domésticos prestados por familiares. Foram entrevistados quarenta cuidadores, sendo aplicados os questionários de identificação de perfil de idoso e cuidador e o instrumento Caregiver Burden Scale. Os resultados encontrados mostraram a existência de fatores potencialmente associados à negligência doméstica no perfil de idosos e cuidadores e nas correlações significativas entre as variáveis comprometimento funcional do idoso, ações de cuidados e depressão do cuidador, nas dimensões tensão geral e isolamento.The cases of abuse against elderly people have been growing significantly throughout the entire world. Among the various forms of abuse, one of the less known and denounced is the domestic negligence. As it occurs mostly inside family and nursing homes, it is hardly identified. This article presents the results of a cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study that pointed out the existing factors potentially associated to domestic negligence towards elderly patients attended by the Elderly Home Care Program as part of the discipline of Geriatrics of the Paulista Medical School, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. Interviews were made with 40 familiar caregivers of these patients who had functional disability. The profiles of those

  14. The strengthening of resin cemented dental ceramic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to advance the understanding of the mechanism of resin-strengthening conferred to dental ceramic materials by resin-based composite materials. The investigation is presented as a series of manuscripts. In the first study (Manuscript 3.1), dental porcelain disc-shaped specimens were resin-coated with three resin-based composite materials with different flexural moduli at discrete resin thicknesses. The discs were loaded to failure in a biaxial flexure t...

  15. Pengaruh Sifat-Sifat Fisik Resin Akrilik Terhadap Basis Protesa

    OpenAIRE

    Amriani Syahfitri

    2008-01-01

    Saat ini resin akrilik banyak digunakan secara umum untuk konstruksi gigi tiruan. Sebagai bahan basis prothesa, penggunaan resin akrilik terutama resin heat cured adalah yang paling sering digunakan selain bernilai estetis, juga lebih ekonomis. Pada prothesa yang ideal memerlukan suatu basis yang kuat, Syarat- syarat basis protesa tidak semuanya dapat dipenuhi oleh basis resin akrilik. Sifat-sifat fisik resin akrilik mempunyai pengaruh terhadap basis protesa. Untuk menghindari k...

  16. Color Stability Assessment of Two Different Composite Resins with Variable Immersion Time Using Various Beverages: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Senthil; Ajay, R; Miskeen Sahib, S A; Chittrarasu, M; Navarasu, M; Ragavendran, N; Burhanuddin Mohammed, Omar Farooq

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in the color of microhybrid (MH) and nanofilled (NF) composite resins after 24 and 48 h in beverages such as red wine (RW), Coca-Cola, and distilled water. The specific objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of the colorant solutions on the dental composites. MH and NF composite resins (A2 shade) were used in this current study. Sixty disk-shaped material specimens (10 mm in diameter × 2 mm in thickness) were prepared using a fiber mold (ring), with the desired dimensions. The specimen surfaces were polished using super-snap polishing system. Sixty specimens were divided into two groups of 30 each (Group I: MH resin composite; Group II: NF resin composite). Both the groups divided into six subgroups (Subgroup I: RW for 24 h [RW-24]; Subgroup II: RW for 48 h; Subgroup III: Coca-Cola for 24 h [CC-24]; Subgroup IV: Coca-Cola for 48 h [CC-48]; Subgroup V: Distilled water for 24 h [DW-24]; Subgroup VI: Distilled water for 48 h [DW-48]). All the samples were immersed in respective drinks for a period of 24 h, and color differences were measured using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Once again, all the samples were immersed for another 24 h in the same drinks. After 48 h, the color change of the samples was measured. Measurements were made according to the CIE L × a × b × color space relative to the CIE standard illuminant D65. The color changes of the specimens were evaluated using the following formula: Statistical analysis was performed. The data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and t -test at a significance level of 0.05. Color stability of MH composite resin was found to be inferior than the NF resin composite irrespective of immersion medium and time. In RW, the color change observed was maximum for both composite resins followed by Coca-Cola. Immersing the resin composites in distilled water for 24 and 48 h had negligible color change. A 48-h immersion of both composite resins in

  17. Color stability assessment of two different composite resins with variable immersion time using various beverages: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Senthil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    48 h had negligible color change. A 48-h immersion of both composite resins in all three immersion mediums showed greater color change than 24 h immersion.

  18. Resin Flow Analysis in the Injection Cycle of a Resin Transfer Molded Radome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanian, Hossein; Poursina, Mehrdad

    2007-04-01

    Resin flow analysis in the injection cycle of an RTM process was investigated. Fiberglass and carbon fiber mats were used as reinforcements with EPON 826 epoxy resin. Numerical models were developed in ANSYS finite element software to simulate resin flow behavior into a mold of conical shape. Resin flow into the woven fiber mats is modeled as flow through porous media. The injection time for fiberglass/epoxy composite is found to be 4407 seconds. Required injection time for the carbon/epoxy composite is 27022 seconds. Higher injection time for carbon/epoxy part is due to lower permeability value of the carbon fibers compared to glass fiber mat.

  19. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum.

  20. Nanosilica Modification of Elastomer-Modified VARTM Epoxy Resins for Improved Resin and Composite Toughness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Jason; Bujanda, Andres; DeSchepper, Daniel; Dibelka, Jessica; Costanzo, Philip; Jensen, Robert; McKnight, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Recent publications have reported a synergy between rubber and silica in modified epoxy resins that results in significantly improved fracture toughness without reductions in other material properties...

  1. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  2. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/aim: To evaluate in a randomized controlled study the 5-year clinical durability of a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in Class I and Class II restorations. Materials and methods: 38 pairs Class I and 62 pairs Class II restorations were placed in 44 male and 42 female (mean age...... 52.4 years). Each patient received at least two, as similar as possible, extended Class I or Class II restorations. In all cavities, a 1-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V+) was applied. Randomized, one of the cavities of each pair received the flowable bulk-filled resin composite (SDR), in increments...... up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Chlorotrifluoroethylene-1,1-difluoroethylene-tetrafluoroethylene co-polymer resins produced by copolymerization of..., Extrusion, and Coating Materials,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and...

  4. Liquid Resins With Low VOC Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaScala, John J; Sands, James M; Palmese, Guiseppe R

    2004-01-01

    .... The polymer properties were similar to that of commercial resins, including Tg greater than 120 C, flex strength greater than 100 MPa, modulus of approximately 3 GPa, and fracture toughness greater than 200 J/m2...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by osmotic pressure in monochlorobenzene; or (2) 1,1′-Sulfonylbis[4-chlorobenzene] polymer with 4,4... determined by osmotic pressure in dimethylformamide. (b) The basic polysulfone resins identified in paragraph...

  6. Sensitization potential of dental resins: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and its water-soluble oligomers have immunostimulatory effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Fukumoto

    Full Text Available The immunostimulatory effects of the representative dental resin monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, a HEMA derivative that does not contain a double bond (2-hydroxyethyl isobutyrate, HEIB, and polymerized water-soluble oligomers of HEMA (PHEMA were investigated. It is known that expression levels of either or both of CD54 and CD86 in THP-1 cells are increased by exposure to sensitizing substances. In this study, the expression levels of CD54 and CD86, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the viability of the cells were measured after 24 h of incubation with these materials at different concentrations. The concentrations of the materials that induced the expression of both CD54 and CD86 were low in the following order: NiSO4, HEMA, and methyl methacrylate (MMA. These results indicate that these dental resin monomers have lower sensitizing potentials than NiSO4. Although HEIB, which lacks a double bond, resulted in negligible ROS production and reduced cytotoxicity than HEMA, it induced the expression of CD54 and CD86. Comparison of the results for HEMA and HEIB indicates that dental resin monomer-induced sensitization may be related not only to the oxidative stress related to the methacryloyl group but also to the structures of these compounds. Of particular interest is the result that a water-soluble PHEMA oligomer with a relatively high-molecular weight also exhibited negligible cytotoxicity, whereas the expression level of CD54 increased after exposure to PHEMA at a high concentration. This result serves as a warning that polymerized substances also have the potential to induce sensitization. This study provides insight into the nature of allergic responses to dental resin materials in clinical use and may facilitate the development of more biocompatible restorative materials in the future.

  7. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  8. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschueren, K.; Balwant Kaur

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  9. Damage evolution in a filled epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoorter, Nicolas; Coutellier, Daniel; Muzic, Markus; Berg-Pollack, Antje; Cai Ye; Zimmermann, Andre

    2006-01-01

    A method is proposed for studying damage evolution in a filled epoxy resin submitted to low-cycle fatigue loading. Transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed, which indicates a damage mechanism that corresponds well to the decreasing slope of the stress-strain hysteresis observed in strain-controlled fatigue experiments. Also, the suggested damage model appears to be suitable for the simulation of strain-controlled cyclic tests and fits the damage evolution of the filled epoxy resin fairly well [de

  10. Can CAD/CAM resin blocks be considered as substitute for conventional resins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Badra; Thieu, Minh Khai Le; Johnsen, Gaute Floer; Reseland, Janne Elin; Haugen, Håvard J

    2017-12-01

    Dentists are facing a myriad of new CAD/CAM product for dental filling therapies. Are the new materials any worthwhile using? Are they succeeding the standard filling materials? Here we compare for the first time the new resin-composite blocks (RCBs) with conventional materials (Filtek Z250 and Tetric EvoCeram). The material were tested for residual monomer elution by HPLC, thermogravimetric analysis (TG) was used to determine the percentage of fillers by weight, hardness was evaluated by Vickers method, morphology of fillers and distribution in the matrix were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis for elemental determination of the filler particles was performed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) cytotoxicity using human gingival fibroblasts and an epithelial cell line. The RBC outperformed conventional composite regarding mechanical characteristics (hardness) and monomer eluation, but showed some worrisome results regarding cytotoxicity. The cost benefit is not in favour of RBCs in comparison to conventional composites, as the cytotoxicity was found higher for RBCs. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  12. Resin elasticity and the strengthening of all-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, O; Marquis, P M; Fleming, G J P

    2007-06-01

    Resin luting of all-ceramic restorations results in increased performance; however, the strengthening mechanism and the role of the mechanical properties of the resin are not fully understood. The hypothesis tested is that ceramic strength enhancement is dependent on the elastic modulus of the resin. Three-point flexural moduli of a flowable, luting, and hybrid composite resin were characterized. Two hundred forty porcelain discs were air-abraded. One group acted as a control, and 3 additional groups were coated with 120 +/- 20 microm of each resin prior to bi-axial flexure testing. All resins significantly increased in mean strength, and the associated strength increase was related to the elastic modulus of the resin (R(2) = 0.9885), so the hypothesis was accepted. The combination of Poisson constraint and the creation of a resin-inter-penetrating layer sensitive to the elastic modulus of the resin may provide an explanation of the strengthening mechanism.

  13. A phenomenological study of the effects of clinical negligence litigation on midwives in England: the personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Judith H; Thomson, Ann M

    2014-03-01

    to explore how midwives' personal involvement in clinical negligence litigation affects their emotional and psychological well-being. descriptive phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews. in-depth interviews were conducted in participants' homes or at their place of work and focused on participants' experience of litigation. Participants were recruited from various regions of England. 22 National Health Service (NHS) midwives who had been alleged negligent. unfamiliarity with the legal process when writing statements, attending case conferences and being a witness in court provoked significant stress for midwives. This was exacerbated by the prolonged nature of maternity claims. Support ranged from good to inadequate. Participants who no longer worked for the defendant Trust felt unsupported. Stress could manifest as physical and mental ill-health. Some midwives internalised the allegations of negligence believing their whole career had become worthless. Previous knowledge of the legal process ameliorated the experience. Midwives also exhibited anger and resentment when litigation concluded and some took years to heal from the experience. midwives come from a caring and relational paradigm. When interfacing with the adversarial and contentious paradigm of tort law, midwives can abreact and suffer emotional, physical and psychological harm. Support for midwives experiencing litigation must be improved. Understanding the effects of personal involvement in litigation is important in order to improve the quality of support for this group of midwives. It will also aid development of targeted education for undergraduate, post-graduate and in-service midwives. In the longer term it may help policy makers when considering reform of clinical negligence litigation and NHS employers to structure support mechanisms for staff involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of resin coating on dentin bonding of resin cement in Class II cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shamim; Nikaido, Toru; Matin, Khairul; Ogata, Miwako; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of resin coating on the regional microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of a resin cement to the dentin walls of Class II cavities. Twenty mesio-occlusal cavities were prepared in human molars. In 10 cavities, a resin coating consisting of a self-etching primer bonding system, Clearfil SE Bond, and a low-viscosity microfilled resin, Protect Liner F, was applied. The other 10 teeth served as a non-coating group. After impression taking and temporization, they were kept in water for one day. Composite inlays were then cemented with a dual-cure resin cement, Panavia F 2.0, and stored in water for one day. Thereafter, MTBSs were measured. Two-way ANOVA (p=0.05) revealed that the MTBS of resin cement to dentin was influenced by resin coating, but not by regional difference. In conclusion, application of a resin coating to the dentin surface significantly improved the MTBS in indirect restorations.

  15. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  16. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  17. Bulk-filled posterior resin restorations based on stress-decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W.V.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    This randomized study evaluated a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in posterior restorations and compared it intraindividually with a conventional 2-mm resin composite layering technique over a 6-yr follow-up period. Thirty-eight pairs of Class II restorations and 15 pairs of Class I...... restorations were placed in 38 adults. In all cavities a single-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In the first cavity of each pair, the flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments of up to 4 mm. The occlusal part was completed with a layer of nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X...... mono). In the second cavity of each pair, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2-mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified US Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria at baseline and then annually for a time period of 6 yr. After 6 yr, 72 Class II restorations and 26...

  18. Thermal rearrangement of novolak resins used in microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ricky; Zampini, Anthony; Monaghan, Michael J.; O'Leary, Michael J.; Cardin, William J.; Eugster, Timothy J.

    1995-06-01

    Changes in phenolic-formaldehyde resin properties are described in terms of thermal exposure. At high temperature, resin molecular weight, dissolution properties and chemical composition change depending on the presence or absence of monomers. Without monomer in the resin melt at 220 degree(s)C, resin molecular weight increases with a corresponding decrease in dissolution rate. In the presence of monomer, molecular weight generally decreases. Dissolution rate may fluctuate depending on the monomer mixture. Three,five- Xylenol and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol co-monomers induced the most extreme changes in resin properties with thermal treatment. Resin degradation-recombination processes suggest a classical Friedel-Craft rearrangement mechanism.

  19. New bismaleimide matrix resins for graphite fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.; Chen, T. S.; Parker, J. A.; Heimbuch, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Two new bismaleimide resins based on the N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have been synthesized and characterized. The mixtures of the two resins gave better handling, processing, mechanical, and thermal properties in graphite composites than did the individual resins. The mechanical strength of the cured graphite composites prepared from the 1:1 copolymer of the two bismaleimide resins was excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites from the new bismaleimide matrix resin systems are compared with conventional composites based on epoxy and other bismaleimide systems. The copolymer system provides another method for improving bismaleimide resins.

  20. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Durability of resin-dentin bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Y; Terashita, M; Shimada, J; Kozono, Y; Carvalho, R M; Russell, C M; Pashley, D H

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the durability of resin-dentin bonds could be evaluated more quickly if the bond specimen was divided into 1 x 1 x 8 mm beams incubated at 37 degrees C for a 90-day period. Extracted human third molars were prepared for bonding by removing the occlusal surface near the dento-enamel junction (superficial dentin group) or near the pulp (deep dentin group). The teeth were bonded either with MacBond, One Step or Clearfil Liner Bond 2, and then builtup to form a flat resin composite crown. After 24 hours in water, each buildup was vertically divided into slabs 1 mm thick, the top half of which was resin, with the bottom half as dentin. Each slab was then vertically sectioned at 1-mm increments to create 1 x 1 x 8-mm beams of resin-bonded dentin. They were incubated for 1 day or 90 days at 37 degrees C, followed by measurement of the tensile bond strengths. The results were analyzed by the Least-Squares Means method at the 95% confidence level. MacBond gave the highest (p durability of resin-dentin bonds.

  2. Processing of exhausted resins for Trino NPP,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuto, F.; Bitetti, G.; Maggini, F.; Scarsi, G.

    2009-01-01

    Decomposition of organic compounds contained in the spent ion exchange resins is considered effective in reducing the waste volume. A system using the wet-oxidation process has been studied for the treatment of the spent resins stored at Trino Nuclear Power Plant owned by SOGIN. Compared with various processes for treating sludge and resin, the wet-oxidation system is rather simple and the process conditions are mild. Not contaminated ion exchange resin samples similar to those ones used in Trino NPP were processed by wet-oxidation and appropriate decomposition of the organic compounds was verified. After decomposition the residue can be solidified with cement for final disposal. When compared with direct solidification without decomposition, the number of waste packages can be significantly reduced. Additional measures for conditioning secondary waste products have also been studied, and their applicability to the Trino Nuclear Power Plant was verified. Some of conditions studied were specific to the Trino Nuclear Power Plant, but it is expected that the system will provide an effective solution for resin treatment at other Italian NPPs. (authors)

  3. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  4. Treatment planning and smile design using composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marus, Robert

    2006-05-01

    Recent advances in dental materials and adhesive protocols have expanded the restorative procedures available to today's clinicians. Used in combination with proper treatment planning, these innovations enable dental professionals to provide enhanced aesthetic care that achieves the increasing expectations of their patients. Using a case presentation, this article will document the steps required to harmoniously integrate smile design, material selection, and patient communication that are involved in the provisional of aesthetic dental care. This article discusses the utilization of composite resin as a tool to enhance the patient's smile. Upon reading this article, the reader should: Become familiar with a smile-enhancing technique which can be completed in one office visit. Realize the benefits that intraoral composite mockups offer in terms of prototyping and confirming patient satisfaction.

  5. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G

    2014-11-01

    Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The μ-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates.

  6. Comparative study of resin sealant and resin modified glass ionomer as pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Malek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the marginal integrity of resin modified glass ionomer cement with that of resin sealant, in vitro. Forty artificial pit and fissure cavities were prepared in occlusal surface of extracted premolar teeth by using ¼ round carbide bur. Cavities were condensed with artificial organic debris followed by cleaning with prophylaxis pumice brush and paste and then separated into two treatment groups. In Group A, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin sealant and in Group B, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant. These specimens were subjected to thermo-cycling followed by dye penetration test. The remaining 5 cavities from each group were analyzed for debris score by the SEM. The results of the microleakage test showed that the efficacy of preventing microleakage of samples sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant was higher than the samples sealed by resin sealant. However, no significant differences were found. It can be concluded that use of resin modified glass ionomer sealant is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures.

  7. Aging in CTBN modified epoxy resin stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, K.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The cause of degradation in the glass transition temperature (T/sub G/) of a partially crystallized polymer was investigated. Sample epoxy resin filled capacitors were cured at 90 0 C for 24 hours, then stored at room atmospheric conditions. These showed typical degradation in T/sub G/ after storage for one month. One set of epoxy resin castings was stored at room atmosphere and another set was stored in a dry box at 0% relative humidity and 27 0 C. The samples at room atmospheric conditions showed typical degradation in T/sub G/, while the T/sub G/ for those stored in the dry box increased. Further tests were then made on epoxy resin castings at various curing temperatures and times at both room atmosphere and 0% humidity. Resulting data indicated that absorption of moisture during storage was the predominant cause of T/sub G/ degradation, with stress relaxation another, though smaller, contributing factor

  8. Resin injection in clays with high plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowamooz, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Regarding the injection process of polyurethane resins in clays with high plasticity, this paper presents the experimental results of the pressuremeter and cone penetration tests before and after injection. A very important increase in pressure limit or in soil resistance can be observed for all the studied depths close to the injection points. An analytical analysis for cylindrical pore cavity expansion in cohesive frictional soils obeying the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was then used to reproduce the pressuremeter tests before and after injection. The model parameters were calibrated by maintaining constant the elasticity parameters as well as the friction angel before and after injection. A significant increase in cohesion was observed because of soil densification after resin expansion. The estimated undrained cohesions, derived from the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, were also compared with the cone penetration tests. Globally, the model predictions show the efficiency of resin injection in clay soils with high plasticity.

  9. Restoration of traumatized teeth with resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2018-01-01

    For a long time, the primary choice for initial restoration of a crown-fractured front tooth has been resin composite material. The restoration can in most cases be performed immediately after injury if there is no sign of periodontal injury. The method’s adhesive character is conservative to tooth......-structure and with minimal risk of pulpal complication. In addition, it offers an aesthetic solution to the patient immediately after an injury, which may bring a little comfort in a sad situation. The resin composite build-up is often changed or repaired a couple of times, before the tooth is restored with a porcelain...... present an aesthetic problem due to exposure of un-aesthetic crown-margins. The invasive permanent crown restorations are therefore often not suc-cessful on a long-term scale. On the other hand, a conservative direct restoration of an extensively fractured incisor crown with resin composite may...

  10. Investigations of toughening mechanisms of epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, T.

    1986-01-01

    Composite material technology was applied to the solid rocket booster by the development of a carbon filament-epoxy resin case which yields a net increase of 4000 lbs. in payload in the shuttle. The question of reusability of the new composite tanks has not yet been answered and will depend on the toughness of the matrix resin. The present study was aimed at providing conditions whereby test specimens of the epoxy resin (EPON/85) and curing agents of systematically varied structures could be produced in a controlled manner. Three sets of conditions were found that might allow the isolation of the structural effects on toughness from the cure effects. The kinetic methods leading to the determination of these conditions are described.

  11. Introduction to the Tort of Negligence as It Pertains to the Medical Office. Medical Law and Economics, Lesson Plan No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joan

    Designed as part of a 40-hour course in medical law and economics, this lesson plan was developed to enable students to: (1) define and give examples of the tort of negligence in the medical profession; (2) distinguish between and give examples of personal and professional negligence; (3) be able to identify, for a given situation, the three major…

  12. Effect of proximal box elevation with resin composite on marginal quality of resin composite inlays in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggendorf, Matthias J; Krämer, Norbert; Dippold, Christoph; Vosen, Vera E; Naumann, Michael; Jablonski-Momeni, Anahita; Frankenberger, Roland

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate marginal quality and resin-resin transition of lab made resin composite inlays in deep proximal cavities with and without 3 mm proximal box elevation (PBE) using resin composites before and after thermo-mechanical loading (TML). MOD cavities with one proximal box beneath the cementoenamel junction were prepared in 40 extracted human third molars. Proximal boxes ending in dentine were elevated 3 mm with different resin composites (G-Cem, Maxcem Elite as self-adhesive resin cements and Clearfil Majesty Posterior as restorative resin composite in one or three layers bonded with AdheSE), or left untreated. Clearfil Majesty Posterior inlays were luted with Syntac and Variolink II (n = 8). Marginal quality as well as the PBE-composite inlay interface was analyzed under an SEM using epoxy resin replicas before and after thermomechanical loading (100,000 × 50 N and 2500 thermocylces between +5 °C and +55 °C). Bonding resin composite inlays directly to dentine showed similar amounts of gap-free margins in dentine compared to PBE applied in three consecutive layers (p > 0.05). The groups with self-adhesive resin cements for PBE exhibited significantly more gaps in dentine (p < 0.05). With layered resin composite, PBE is effective in indirect resin composite bonding to deep proximal boxes. Self-adhesive resin cements are not suitable for this indication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On...

  14. Composite resin fillings and inlays: An 11-year evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, U.; Qvist, V.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical trial, composite resin, direct restorations, indirect restorations, long-term behaviour, posterior teeth......Clinical trial, composite resin, direct restorations, indirect restorations, long-term behaviour, posterior teeth...

  15. Development of 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxybenzyl alcohol (MBBA) resin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    step sequence under microwave irradiation involving the reaction of commercially available Merrifield resin with vanillin, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride. MBBA resin was treated with bromides in the presence of sodium hydride to ...

  16. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  17. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  18. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  19. Determination of negligible concentration threshold values for water pollution assessment; Ableitung von Geringfuegigkeitsschwellen zur Beurteilung von Grundwasserverunreinigungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenck, K.T. von der [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Roeder, R.; Slama, H. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Muenchen (Germany); Markard, C.; Kuehl, C. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    The contribution summarizes the major aspects of results and proposals elaborated by a working group: Criteria for derivation of the negligible concentration threshold, and proposed threshold values for organic and inorganic substances dangerous to water. Evaluation criteria are explained for assessing human toxicity as well as ecotoxicity, and substance-specific evaluation criteria are listed. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Hauptpunkte des Beitrags, der die Ergebnisse eines Arbeitskreises erlaeutert, sind: Ableitungskriterien fr die Geringfuegigkeitsschwelle und Vorschlag von Geringfuegigkeitsschwellen fr organische und anorganische Wasserschadstoffe. Darstellung der humantoxischen Bewertungskriterien, sowie oekotoxische Bewertungskriterien. Zusammenstellung der stoffspezifischen Bewertungskriterien. (orig./AJ)

  20. Conhecendo para evitar : a negligência nos cuidados de saúde com crianças e adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Eliane Pinheiro de; Eidt, Olga Rosaria

    1999-01-01

    A violência intra-familiar constitui-se para muitas crianças e adolescentes vivências familiares comuns. No estudo teórico-acadêmico realizado com o objetivo de trazer contribuições à prevenção das diversas formas de violência, e entre estas, as negligências, alguns elementos emergem como fundamentais para gerarem atitudes de ajuda concreta: o conhecimento, a compreensão e conseqüente reflexão de seus fatores influenciadores e/ou responsáveis. Assim, nossas experiências profissionais de enfer...

  1. Performances and improvement of copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenfen; Zhang Hao; Sun Haijun; Liu Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin is tested to examine its performances including effluent water quality and capacity of deoxidisation. By the means of changing the resin type and regeneration, the deoxidising capacity of the resin can be improved to 13 times more than before. At the same time, physical performances of the resin are also greatly improved while maintaining its velocity of deoxidisation and effluent quality. (authors)

  2. Recovery of tretrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery of the tretrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q=kC''n. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20 degree centigree. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin. (Author) 6 refs

  3. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Styrene

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Hasmukh S.; Panchal, Kumar K.

    2004-01-01

    Novel unsaturated poly (ester-amide) resins (UPEAs) were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA) and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Styrene (STY.) to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-STY. resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as a catalyst and was monitored by using a differential scanning calorimeter ...

  4. Gamma-irradiation on cured glycidyl amino-epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ting; Wei, Chengsha; Liu, Hewen

    2010-01-01

    ITER is an international project to design and build an experimental fusion reactor based on the superconductive 'tokamak' concept. Amounts of epoxy resin are used in the superconductive tokamak device as impregnant resins, insulation breaks, etc. Resistance to ionizing radiation is a demanding performance of those epoxy resins. In this work, we study the effects of γ-irradiation on the mechanical properties and chemical structures of glycidyl amino-epoxy resins

  5. Aminealkylthiol and dithiol self-assembly as adhesion promoter between copper substrate and epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denayer, J.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2011-01-01

    To improve adhesion between copper and epoxy resin in printed circuit board, a roughness treatment of copper has been widely used. Nevertheless, new adhesion promoters have to be developed to face the miniaturization and sophistication of the electronic device. Self-assembled monolayers have met increasing interest in this field by using them as coupling agent between copper and the epoxy resin. This paper presents the deposition of an epoxy resin on copper modified by amine alkylthiol and dithiol monolayers and highlights the benefit brought by the monolayer in terms of adhesion. The chemical linkage between the amine SAMs and the epoxy function has been proved by the deposition on a short epoxy fragment, the 2-(4-fluorophenoxy-methyl)oxirane. The deposition of an epoxy resin mixed with amine curing agent has then been successfully achieved on amine terminated SAMs. The resulting polymer is homogeneous and well adherent on their surface, while the adhesion is lower on bare copper and not existing on methyl terminated SAMs. The formation of chemical bond Cu-S and N-epoxy is thus essential to increase the adhesion strength between copper and the polymer.

  6. Synthesis of a boron modified phenolic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Kawamoto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resin has long been used as matrix for composites mainly because of its flame retardant behavior and high char yield after pyrolysis, which results in a self supporting structure. The addition of ceramic powders, such as SiC and B4C, as fillers to the phenolic resin, results in better thermo-oxidative stability, but as drawbacks, it has poor homogeneity, adhesion and processing difficulties during molding of the composites. The addition of single elements, such as boron, silicon and phosphorus in the main backbone of the thermo-set resin is a new strategy to obtain special high performance resins, which results in higher mechanical properties, avoiding the drawbacks of simply adding fillers, which results in enhanced thermo-oxidative stability compared to conventional phenol-formaldehyde resins. Therefore, the product can have several applications, including the use as ablative thermal protection for thermo-structural composites. This work describes the preparation of a boron-modified phenolic resin (BPR using salicyl alcohol and boric acid. The reaction was performed in refluxing toluene for a period of four hours, which produced a very high viscosity amber resin in 90% yield.The final structure of the compound, the boric acid double, substituted at the hydroxyl group of the aromatic ring, was determined with the help of the Infrared Spectroscopy, ¹H-NMR, TGA-DSC and boron elemental analysis. The absorption band of the group B-O at 1349 cm ˉ¹ can be visualized at the FT-IR spectrum. ¹H-NMR spectra showed peaks at 4.97-5.04 ppm and 3.60-3.90 ppm assigned to belong to CH2OH groups from the alcohol. The elemental analysis was also performed for boron determination.The product has also been tested in carbon and silicon fibers composite for the use in thermal structure. The results of the tests showed composites with superior mechanical properties when compared with the conventional phenolic resin.

  7. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  8. Development of amino resin for paint formulation: Copolymerization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... The moisture uptake of the different resin films was determined gravimetrically. Known weights of each of ... as the moisture intake by the resin (Barminas and Osemeahon,. 2006). All determinations were performed ... Therefore during the condensation reactions of methylol urea resins into polymer chains, ...

  9. Facile synthesis of allyl resinate monomer in an aqueous solution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as oligomer products such as inks and coatings. Com- pared with the oligomer from fossil resources such as acrylic resins and styrene resins, we believe the intro- duction of the resin structure into polymer products can provide specific mechanical properties, such as hardness and flexibility. GC analysis of each component ...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for use in a two-step dental mold fabricating... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670 Section...

  11. Evaluation of some anionic exchange resins as potential tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of resin concentration and compression force on the properties of tablets using the selected resin was investigated. In addition, the disintegrant efficacy of the selected resin in the tablet formulations containing either a basic drug, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DMP), or an acidic drug, e.g., diclofenac ...

  12. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the processing of food under the following prescribed conditions: (a...

  13. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  14. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  15. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornavoi, Denise Cremonezzi; Agnelli, José Augusto Marcondes; Panzeri, Heitor; Dos Reis, Andréa Cândido

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the color change of composite resins used in dentistry. Three composite resins were evaluated: Two microhybrids and one hybrid of higher viscosity, with different amounts and sizes of filler particles, shades C2 and B2. A total of 54 specimens were obtained (18 for each composite resin), made of a Teflon matrix (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height). The color measurements were obtained with a Spectrophotometer, (PCB 6807 BYK Gardner) before and after AAA. Data were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α >0.05), ANOVA and Tukey test (α composite resins with the same shades was analyzed. All composite resins showed unacceptable color changes after AAA (ΔE > 3). Considering the variable ∆E, it was observed that the color tone C2 was already statistically different for the microhybrid composite resin prior to AAA (P composite resins (P composite resin group, before aging the composite resin hybrid of higher viscosity B2 showed the highest color variation rate and microhybrid with zirconium/silica C2 showed the lowest. All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2) and after (B2). It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  16. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Abdul Ghani Harun

    1993-01-01

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive

  17. Resin impregnation of cellulose nanofibril films facilitated by water swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Qing; Ronald Sabo; Zhiyong Cai; Yiqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Flexible composite films were produced by impregnating aqueous phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin into water-swollen cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films. CNF films were prepared using a pressurized filtration method in combination with freeze drying. The freeze-dried films were swollen with water then impregnated with PF resin by soaking in aqueous resin solutions of varying...

  18. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as articles...

  19. 21 CFR 177.2260 - Filters, resin-bonded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a pH above 5.0. (j) Resin-bonded filters conforming with the specifications of paragraph (j) (1) of... bulk quantities of nonalcoholic, aqueous foods having a pH of 5.0 or below. (k) Resin-bonded filters...: List of Substances and Limitations (1) Fibers: Cellulose pulp. Cotton. Nylon. (From nylon resins...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P...

  2. Treatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon (Resin Infiltration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 MAR2017 1. Your paper, entitled T reatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon ( Resin ... Resin Infiltration) 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Treatment of White Spot lesions with Icon ( Resin In filtration) 7. FUNDING

  3. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be painted...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl...

  10. Development of 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxybenzyl alcohol (MBBA) resin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. 3-Methoxy-4-benzyloxybenzyl alcohol (MBBA) resin was synthesized by a two-step se- quence under microwave irradiation involving the reaction of commercially available Merrifield resin with vanillin, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride. MBBA resin was treated with bromides in the presence of sodium ...

  11. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  12. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device that consists of a water...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the...

  15. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy. DATES: Effective Date: January... from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010). However, Commerce's notice...

  16. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order of the Commission. Issued...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (PMN...

  1. Does litigation increase or decrease health care quality?: a national study of negligence claims against nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G; Spittal, Matthew J; Studdert, David M

    2013-05-01

    The tort system is supposed to help improve the quality and safety of health care, but whether it actually does so is controversial. Most previous studies modeling the effect of negligence litigation on quality of care are ecologic. To assess whether the experience of being sued and incurring litigation costs affects the quality of care subsequently delivered in nursing homes. We linked information on 6471 negligence claims brought against 1514 nursing homes between 1998 and 2010 to indicators of nursing home quality drawn from 2 US national datasets (Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system; Minimum Data Set Quality Measure/Indicator Reports). At the facility level, we tested for associations between 9 quality measures and 3 variables indicating the nursing homes' litigation experience in the preceding 12-18 months (total indemnity payments; total indemnity payments plus administrative costs; ≥ 1 paid claims vs. none). The analyses adjusted for quality at baseline, case-mix, ownership, occupancy, year, and facility and state random effects. Nearly all combinations of the 3 litigation exposure measures and 9 quality measures--27 models in all--showed an inverse relationship between litigation costs and quality. However, only a few of these associations were statistically significant, and the effect sizes were very small. For example, a doubling of indemnity payments was associated with a 1.1% increase in the number of deficiencies and a 2.2% increase in pressure ulcer rates. Tort litigation does not increase the quality performance of nursing homes, and may decrease it slightly.

  2. Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat: insights from a successfully aging species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2008-05-01

    Aging refers to a gradual deterioration in function that, over time, leads to increased mortality risk, and declining fertility. This pervasive process occurs in almost all organisms, although some long-lived trees and cold water inhabitants reportedly show insignificant aging. Negligible senescence is characterized by attenuated age-related change in reproductive and physiological functions, as well as no observable age-related gradual increase in mortality rate. It was questioned whether the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat, met these three strict criteria. Naked mole-rats live in captivity for more than 28.3 years, approximately 9 times longer than similar-sized mice. They maintain body composition from 2 to 24 years, and show only slight age-related changes in all physiological and morphological characteristics studied to date. Surprisingly breeding females show no decline in fertility even when well into their third decade of life. Moreover, these animals have never been observed to develop any spontaneous neoplasm. As such they do not show the typical age-associated acceleration in mortality risk that characterizes every other known mammalian species and may therefore be the first reported mammal showing negligible senescence over the majority of their long lifespan. Clearly physiological and biochemical processes in this species have evolved to dramatically extend healthy lifespan. The challenge that lies ahead is to understand what these mechanisms are.

  3. The importance of least restrictive care: the clinical implications of a recent High Court decision on negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Christopher James; Callaghan, Sascha; Large, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to explain the meaning and implications for practice of the High Court of Australia's finding in the negligence case, Hunter and New England Local Health District v McKenna [2014] HCA 44. The facts of the case and the law of negligence are reviewed before reporting the Court's decision. The High Court found that the obligation upon doctors to provide the least restrictive option for care that was imposed by the, then applicable, Mental Health Act 1990 (NSW) was inconsistent with an obligation that might otherwise be imposed by a common law duty to have regard to the interests of those with whom a psychiatric patient may come into contact if not detained. The Court's finding underlines the importance of clinicians documenting their clinical reasoning around why their negotiated management plan was the option least restrictive of the patient's freedom and most protective of his or her human rights. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  4. Reflectivity of stimulated back scattering in a homogeneous-slab medium in the case of negligible pump-wave damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, G.S.; Cho, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    As to the backscatter instability which is one of nonlinear three-wave resonant interactions, the reflectivity(r) in the case of homogeneous-slab medium is calculated, assuming all the three wavepackets negligible damping caused by medium. The expression has turned out such that r = tanh 2 KAsub(p)L, where K, Asub(p), and L are the constant coupling coefficient, the constant pump-wave amplitude, and the thickness of the medium engaged in the interaction each. When this result is interpreted in terms of the stimulated Brillouin back-scattering in a so-called underdense plasma in controlled fusion, we find the reflectivity twice as large as that by others in the limit of large pump-wave damping, and unfitting to former experiments in the independence on the incident laser-light intensity. We see the incompatibility rise chiefly from neglecting the damping of pump-wave in the plasma. In contrast to the former results by others in the limit of large pump-wave damping, our result might be regarded as that for cases of negligible pump-wave damping, in general stimulated back-scattering phenomena. (author)

  5. Large roomtemperature magnetocaloric effect with negligible magnetic hysteresis losses in Mn1-xVxCoGe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, S.C.; Zheng, Y.X.; Xuan, H.C.; Shen, L.J.; Cao, Q.Q.; Wang, D.H.; Zhong, Z.C.; Du, Y.W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties have been investigated in a series of Mn 1-x V x CoGe (x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.05) alloys. The substitution of V for Mn reduces the structural transformation temperature of MnCoGe alloy effectively and results in a second-order magnetic transition in Mn 0.95 V 0.05 CoGe alloys. Large room temperature magnetocaloric effect and almost zero magnetic hysteresis losses are simultaneously achieved in the alloys with x=0.01, 0.02, and 0.03. The reasons for the negligible magnetic hysteresis losses and the potential application for the roomtemperature magnetic refrigeration are discussed. - Highlights: → V-substitution for Mn reduces the structural transformation temperature of MnCoGe. → FM-PM transition presents the second-order nature in Mn0.95V0.05CoGe. → The first-order FM-PM transitions are observed for alloys with x=0.01, 0.02, and 0.03. → Large room temperature MCEs are achieved in these alloys. → Negligible magnetic HL is achieved for these alloys simultaneously.

  6. Low-melt Viscosity Polyimide Resins for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M.; Mintz, Eric A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    A series of polyimide resins with low-melt viscosities in the range of 10-30 poise and high glass transition temperatures (Tg s) of 330-370 C were developed for resin transfer molding (RTM) applications. These polyimide resins were formulated from 2,3,3 ,4 -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride endcaps along with either 3,4 - oxyaniline (3,4 -ODA), 3,4 -methylenedianiline, (3,4 -MDA) or 3,3 -methylenedianiline (3,3 -MDA). These polyimides had pot lives of 30-60 minutes at 260-280 C, enabling the successful fabrication of T650-35 carbon fiber reinforced composites via RTM process. The viscosity profiles of the polyimide resins and the mechanical properties of the polyimide carbon fiber composites will be discussed.

  7. Resin Flow in Fiber Preformed by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding with Flexible Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Shokrieh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, as a sub-branch of RTM is a method of manufacturing composite specimens. Considering the industrial development of this method, different modified techniques are designed to improve its performance. Among these techniques, using a half flexible mold is regarded as an important method. In this work, dominant equations of resin flow through the mold in polar coordinates are solved analytically. Based on this approach, closed-form solutions have been presented for different parameters such as thickness variation of preformed fiber, resin pressure, resin velocity and fiber volume fraction as functions of two variables, namely, time and the distance from injection port. After verification of the approach employed in this work, the results are presented. Important parameters influencing the quality and the rate production are studied in detail.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... condensation of 4,4′-iso-propylidenediphenol and carbonyl chloride to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant substances required in the production of the resins; or by (2) The reaction of molten 4,4′-iso-propylidenediphenol with molten diphenyl carbonate in the presence of the disodium salt of 4,4...

  9. Effect of Resin Extract from Commiphora swynnertonii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    of Commiphora swynnertonii resin on biochemical parameters in rats was investigated. Sixty rats were ... significantly elevated protein and albumin levels but had no significant effect on bilirubin and all the liver enzymes in the rats. These findings are ... hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects against high fat diet- induced ...

  10. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O.

    2001-01-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  11. Liquid Resins-Based Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Fuke

    In this review, additive manufacturing technologies using liquid resins as materials are reviewed from the perspective of printing technologies and materials. Most importantly, recent progress of new printing technologies and printers as well as novel printing materials and their applications are summarized, based on which potential future research directions are discussed at the end of this review.

  12. Evaluation of resins for use in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Luiz Claudio F.M. Garcia; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Santos, Ana Maria M.

    2011-01-01

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment where radioactive seeds or sources are placed near or directly into the tumor thus reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. Prostate cancer can be treated with interstitial brachytherapy in initial stage of the disease in which tiny radioactive seeds with cylindrical geometry are used. Several kinds of seeds have been developed in order to obtain a better dose distribution around them and with a lower cost manufacturing. These seeds consist of an encapsulation, a radionuclide carrier, and X-ray marker. Among the materials that have potential for innovation in the construction of seeds, biocompatible resins appear as an important option. In this paper, we present some characterization results with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) performed on two types of resins in which curing temperatures for each one were varied as also the results of coatings with these resins under titanium substrates. Interactions of these resins in contact with the simulated body fluid were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  13. Biodegradation of acrylic based resins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Ana F; Neves, Cristina B; de Almeida, Marise S; Pinheiro, Lídia M; Oliveira, Sofia Arantes e; Lopes, Luís P; Castro, Matilde F

    2010-05-01

    The development of different types of materials with application in dentistry is an area of intense growth and research, due to its importance in oral health. Among the different materials there are the acrylic based resins that have been extensively used either in restorations or in dentures. The objective of this manuscript was to review the acrylic based resins biodegradation phenomena. Specific attention was given to the causes and consequences of materials degradation under the oral environment. Information from scientific full papers, reviews or abstracts published from 1963 to date were included in the review. Published material was searched in dental literature using general and specialist databases, like the PubMED database. Published studies regarding the description of biodegradation mechanisms, in vitro and in vivo release experiments and cell based studies conducted on acrylic based resins or their components were evaluated. Studies related to the effect of biodegradation on the physical and mechanical properties of the materials were also analyzed. Different factors such as saliva characteristics, chewing or thermal and chemical dietary changes may be responsible for the biodegradation of acrylic based resins. Release of potential toxic compounds from the material and change on their physical and mechanical properties are the major consequences of biodegradation. Increasing concern arises from potential toxic effects of biodegradation products under clinical application thus justifying an intensive research in this area. 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Copies are available from the Office of Premarket Approval, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition... examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100...) Extractives limitations. The polyestercarbonate resins to be tested shall be ground or cut into small...

  15. Facile synthesis of hypercrosslinked resins via chloromethylation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. A sort of non-polystyrene type hypercrosslinked resin was firstly synthesized through chloromethyla- tion of simple aryl molecules (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, diphenyl), succedent continuous Friedel–Crafts alkylation polymerization and post-crosslinking reaction. The chemical and porous structures of these ...

  16. Triterpenes from the resin of Boswellia neglecta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boswellia neglecta S. Moore (Burseraceae) is found in Bale, Gamo Gofa, Hararghe and Sidamo. (Ethiopia) and also in neighbouring countries such as Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda [1]. The plant produces aromatic resins used widely as incense known as “Dakara” (Oromifa),. "Borena Etan" (Amharic) or "Borena ...

  17. Extended Resin Composite Restorations: Techniques and Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Hilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of the art of different restorative treatment procedures and techniques needed for placing extended posterior resin composite restorations. Clinical aspects related to the procedure are discussed and reviewed based on the current literature, such as the

  18. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Dept. Biotechnology, Mocow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of resins for use in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Luiz Claudio F.M. Garcia; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Santos, Ana Maria M., E-mail: ferrazw@cdtn.b, E-mail: amms@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment where radioactive seeds or sources are placed near or directly into the tumor thus reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. Prostate cancer can be treated with interstitial brachytherapy in initial stage of the disease in which tiny radioactive seeds with cylindrical geometry are used. Several kinds of seeds have been developed in order to obtain a better dose distribution around them and with a lower cost manufacturing. These seeds consist of an encapsulation, a radionuclide carrier, and X-ray marker. Among the materials that have potential for innovation in the construction of seeds, biocompatible resins appear as an important option. In this paper, we present some characterization results with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) performed on two types of resins in which curing temperatures for each one were varied as also the results of coatings with these resins under titanium substrates. Interactions of these resins in contact with the simulated body fluid were evaluated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. (author)

  20. 21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyarylate resins. 177.1555 Section 177.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... in contact with all foods except beverages containing more than 8 volume percent ethanol under...

  1. Electron-beam curing of epoxy resins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron-beam (e-beam) induced polymerization of epoxy resins proceeds via cationic mechanism in presence of suitable photoinitiator. Despite good thermal properties and significant processing advantages, epoxy-based composites manufactured using e-beam curing suffer from low compressive strength, poor ...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyetherimide resin. 177.1595 Section 177.1595 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  3. Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.

    1975-01-01

    An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)

  4. Synthesis of a Novel Phosphorus-Containing Flame Retardant Curing Agent and Its Application in Epoxy Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongkun; Xu, Miaojun; Li, Bin

    2016-03-01

    A novel phosphorus-containing compound diphenyl-(2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phosphine oxide defined as DPDHPPO was synthesized and used as flame retardant and curing agent for epoxy resins (EP). The chemical structure was well characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H, 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. The flame retardant properties, combusting performances and thermal degradation behaviors of the cured epoxy resins were investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning tests (UL-94), cone calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests. The morphologies and chemical compositions of char residues for cured epoxy resins were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The water resistant properties were evaluated by putting the samples into distilled water at 70 degrees C for 168 h. The results revealed that the EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets successfully passed UL-94 V-0 flammability rating and the LOI value was as high as 31.9%. The cone tests results revealed that the incorporation of DPDHPPO efficiently reduced the combustion parameters of epoxy resins thermosets, such as heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR) and so on. The TGA results indicated that the introduction of DPDHPPO promoted epoxy resins matrix decomposed ahead of time compared with that of pure EP and led to a higher char yield and thermal stability at high temperature. The morphological structures and analysis of XPS of char residues revealed that DPDHPPO benefited to the formation of a sufficient, compact and homogeneous char layer with rich flame retardant elements on the epoxy resins materials surface during combustion. After water resistance tests, EP/40 wt% DPDHPPO/60 wt% PDA thermosets still remained excellent flame retardancy, the moisture absorption of epoxy resins thermosets decreased with the increase of DPDHPPO contents in the thermosets due to the existing

  5. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  6. Synthesis and characterizations of melamine-based epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciotti, Laura; Roviello, Giuseppina; Tarallo, Oreste; Borbone, Fabio; Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Catauro, Michelina; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-09-05

    A new, easy and cost-effective synthetic procedure for the preparation of thermosetting melamine-based epoxy resins is reported. By this innovative synthetic method, different kinds of resins can be obtained just by mixing the reagents in the presence of a catalyst without solvent and with mild curing conditions. Two types of resins were synthesized using melamine and a glycidyl derivative (resins I) or by adding a silane derivative (resin II). The resins were characterized by means of chemical-physical and thermal techniques. Experimental results show that all the prepared resins have a good thermal stability, but differ for their mechanical properties: resin I exhibits remarkable stiffness with a storage modulus value up to 830 MPa at room temperature, while lower storage moduli were found for resin II, indicating that the presence of silane groups could enhance the flexibility of these materials. The resins show a pot life higher than 30 min, which makes these resins good candidates for practical applications. The functionalization with silane terminations can be exploited in the formulation of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials.

  7. Effects of resins on asphaltene self-association and solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarranton, H.W.; Fox, W.A.; Svrcek, W.Y. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2007-10-15

    This paper described a method of modelling the self-association and precipitation of asphaltenes and resins. Self-association was assessed using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) measurements of asphaltene and resin mixtures. A modified asphaltene self-association model was used to fit and interpret data. The molar mass distribution of the asphaltene-resin aggregates was characterized. Precipitation data were obtained by measuring asphaltenes and resins in solutions of asphaltenes, resins, toluene, and heptane. The molar mass distribution was then used as an input to the regular solution model. Results of the study suggested that resins participate in asphaltene self-association. It was concluded that both asphaltenes and resins are best characterized as a combined pseudo-component with a single molar mass distribution of the aggregated species. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. FDI report on adverse reactions to resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P L; Meyer, D M

    2007-02-01

    Resin-based restorative materials are considered safe for the vast majority of dental patients. Although constituent chemicals such as monomers, accelerators and initiators can potentially leach out of cured resin-based materials after placement, adverse reactions to these chemicals are rare and reaction symptoms commonly subside after removal of the materials. Dentists should be aware of the rare possibility that patients could have adverse reactions to constituents of resin-based materials and be vigilant in observing any adverse reactions after restoration placement. Dentists should also be cognisant of patient complaints about adverse reactions that may result from components of resin-based materials. To minimise monomer leaching and any potential risk of dermatological reactions, resin-based materials should be adequately cured. Dental health care workers should avoid direct skin contact with uncured resin-based materials. Latex and vinyl gloves do not provide adequate barrier protection to the monomers in resin-based materials.

  9. Sobre leptospirose e informação: ampliando os conceitos de negligência em saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Manuel Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando se utiliza a denominação “negligência” em saúde infere-se que não faltem recursos financeiros para lidar com determinadas doenças ou que existam tratamentos disponíveis, mas que são doenças ignoradas apesar de representarem um potencial risco ou um dano já instalado à saúde pública. O negligenciamento de uma doença possui um duplo significado. O primeiro faz menção ao discurso clássico da negligência decorrente da falta de ação dos atores centrais da saúde pública: indústria farmacêutica, governo e sistema de saúde. Já o segundo, em intrincado e concomitante arranjo, diz respeito ao negligenciamento das populações correlacionadas à pobreza, desenvolvendo um círculo vicioso que acorrenta, pelo menos, um bilhão de pessoas em todo o planeta, segundo dados da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS. Esta identifica apenas 17 doenças denominadas “negligenciadas” e que afetam populações de maior vulnerabilidade econômica e social, apesar de não incluir a leptospirose — uma zoonose emergente, endêmica e de incidência global. Tomando por proposta a ampliação do conceito de negligência em saúde, discute-se neste artigo o rompimento com o modelo hegemônico, levando-se em consideração o quanto desassistida seria a leptospirose como a antropozoonose de maior incidência mundial e com uma letalidade elevada em áreas de menor aporte econômico do planeta, apesar de não reconhecida em todo o seu potencial zoonótico por falta de dados confiáveis de carga de doença em populações humanas e animais.

  10. Presumption of Negligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    This paper is about the incentive effects of legal presumptions. We analyze three interrelated effects of legal presumptions in a tort setting: (1) incentives to invest in evidence technology; (2) incentives to invest in care-type precautions; and (3) incentives to mitigate excessive activity lev...

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey E. Krauklis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer–Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  12. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauklis, Andrey E; Gagani, Abedin I; Echtermeyer, Andreas T

    2018-04-11

    Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer-Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  13. Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Resin Composites with Resin Modified Glass Ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha NA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are controversial reports regarding physical and mechanical properties of resin composites and glass ionomer cements. Some revealed higher strength and hardness for resin composites while others showed a comparable value for glass ionomer cements. Evaluation of mechanical properties of different types of resin composites in comparison with resin modified glass ionomers is not widely studied. Objectives: To measure and compare the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of three resin composites and two resins modified glass ionomer cements before and after ageing. Materials and Methods: Three resin composites, i.e. Filtek Supreme XTE (3M ESPE, Ice (SDI, Gradia (GC, and two resins modified glass ionomers, i.e. Fuji II LC (GC and Riva Light Cure (SDI, were selected. Ten barshaped specimens were prepared for each material and cured using LED curing light. After 24 hours storage in distilled water at 37oC, the specimens were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=5. The first group was tested as a baseline and the second group was restored at 37oC for another 29 days. Flexural strength was performed by four-point bending test using universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min, and the maximum load at failure was recorded. The specimen’s halves were used for evaluating Vickers hardness, using a Digital Hardness Tester (300 g/15 sec and the Vickers hardness number (VHN was recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey’s and student’s t-test. Results: After 24 hours of immersion, the highest hardness number was found for Filtek Supreme and Ice and the highest flexural strength was obtained for Gradia. After 30 days of storage, hardness of Fuji II LC and Gradia showed a significant decrease; flexural strength of Ice and Fuji II LC revealed a significant increase while Gradia and Filtek Supreme showed a significant decrease. Conclusions: Resin modified glass ionomers showed

  14. Causation in negligence: from anti-jurisprudence to principle--individual responsibility as the cornerstone for the attribution of liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaric, Mirko; Erbacher, Sharon

    2011-06-01

    Causation is one of the most esoteric and poorly defined legal principles. The common law standards of the "but for" test and common sense are, in reality, code for unconstrained judicial choice. This leads to a high degree of unpredictability in negligence cases. Changes to the causation standard following the torts reforms have done nothing to inject principle into this area of law: the concept of "appropriateness" is no more illuminating than common sense. Despite this, the trend of recent High Court decisions offers some prospect of clarifying the test for causation. Key themes to emerge are an increased emphasis on individual responsibility and the associated concept of coherency with other legal standards. This article examines the doctrinal reasons underpinning the increasingly important role of these ideals and suggests how they can be accommodated into the test for causation to inject greater coherence and predictability into this area of law.

  15. The German Final Repository Konrad for Low and Intermediate Level Waste with Negligible Heat Generation - Water Law Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetsch, W.; Grundler, D.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    A survey on the conceptual realization of the requirements due to water law aspects within the license the KONRAD repository for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in Germany is given [1]. The regulatory decision for the implementation and operation of the repository KONRAD includes, among other things, water law issues. In particular, the KONRAD license includes waste requirements concerning non-radioactive hazardous material (waste package constituents) which have to be considered producing KONRAD waste packages. The intended philosophy of waste acceptance and waste package quality assurance measures to be considered by the KONRAD site operator as well as by the waste producer will be presented. It will demonstrate the selected procedure of the waste declaration and acceptance and describe the structure and logic of tools and aids to comply with the legal requirements of the license and its collateral clause issued under water law. (authors)

  16. Is the Diagonal Part of the Self-Energy Negligible within an Isolated Vortex in Weak-Coupling Superconductors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Noriyuki

    2018-02-01

    In the weak-coupling theory of superconductivity, the diagonal self-energy term is usually disregarded so that this term is already included in the renormalized chemical potential. Using the bulk solution, we can easily see that the term vanishes in the quasiclassical level. However, the validity of this treatment is obscured in nonuniform systems, such as quantized vortices. In this paper, we study an isolated vortex both analytically and numerically using the quasiclassical theory and demonstrate that the finite magnitude of the self-energy can emerge within a vortex in some odd-parity superconductors. We also find that the existence of diagonal self-energy can induce the breaking of the axisymmetry of vortices in chiral p-wave superconductors. This implies that the diagonal self-energy is not negligible within a vortex in odd-parity superconductors in general, even in the weak-coupling limit.

  17. Tailoring the toughness and CTE of high temperature bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thunga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to enhancing the toughness and minimizing the CTE of a special class of bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy resin by blending it with a thermoplastic toughening agent. Poly(ether sulfone was chosen as a high temperature resistant thermoplastic resin to enhance the thermo-mechanical properties of BECy. The influence of poly(ether sulfone/BECy blend composition on the morphology and phase behavior was studied using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The mechanical properties of the blends were evaluated by flexural tests, which demonstrated significant enhancement in the material’s toughness with an increase in PES concentration from 0 to 15 wt%. The coefficient of thermal expansion of pure BECy was reduced from 61 to 48 ppm/°C in the blends with PES, emphasizing the multi-functional benefits of PES as a toughening agent in BECy.

  18. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  19. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  20. Financial compensation for radiotherapy-related adverse events in a judicial system where proof of medical negligence is not required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyandoto, Paul; Muhonen, Timo; Hakala, Tapani; Dombrowski, Mitchell P.; Joensuu, Heikki

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the frequency of adverse events related to radiation therapy that lead to financial compensation in a judicial system that is not based on litigation in court but on statutory insurance where proof of medical negligence is not required for obtaining compensation. Methods and Materials: In Finland, an injured patient does not sue through the courts, but submits an insurance claim to the Patient Insurance Association. Proof of medical negligence is not required for obtaining compensation. We reviewed all filed claims associated with radiotherapy presented to the Patient Insurance Association from May 1987 to January 1999. During this time period, 1,732,000 patient visits to radiation therapy units were made, and the estimated number of radiotherapy treatments was 86,600. The data collected included descriptions of the adverse events, examination of the radiation therapy procedures followed, assessment of the causal relation of the event to radiotherapy by the therapists involved and by independent reviewers, and the sums used for compensation. Results: Only 102 patients (about 0.1%) had filed a claim for financial compensation, and in 18 (0.02%) cases the claim led to compensation. The mean national annual expenditure used for compensation was $35,200, and the sums paid in single cases ranged from $310 to $287,430 (median, $1,970). The expenditure used for compensating adverse radiation events was about $4 per treated patient, which is about 0.3% of all radiation therapy costs. Conclusions: The frequency of radiation therapy injuries that are financially compensated can remain low in an insurance-based judicial system where no litigation or attorneys are involved

  1. Does litigation increase or decrease health care quality? A national study of negligence claims against nursing homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G.; Spittal, Matthew J.; Studdert, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The tort system is supposed to help improve the quality and safety of health care, but whether it actually does so is controversial. Most previous studies modeling the effect of negligence litigation on quality of care are ecologic. Objective To assess whether the experience of being sued and incurring litigation costs affects the quality of care subsequently delivered in nursing homes. Research Design, Subjects, Measures We linked information on 6,471 negligence claims brought against 1,514 nursing homes between 1998 and 2010 to indicators of nursing home quality drawn from two U.S. national datasets (Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system; Minimum Data Set Quality Measure/Indicator Reports). At the facility level, we tested for associations between 9 quality measures and 3 variables indicating the nursing homes’ litigation experience in the preceding 12–18 months (total indemnity payments; total indemnity payments plus administrative costs; ≥1 paid claims vs. none). The analyses adjusted for quality at baseline, case-mix, ownership, occupancy, year, and facility and state random effects. Results Nearly all combinations of the 3 litigation exposure measures and 9 quality measures—27 models in all—showed an inverse relationship between litigation costs and quality. However only a few of these associations were statistically significant, and the effect sizes were very small. For example, a doubling of indemnity payments was associated with a 1.1% increase in the number of deficiencies and a 2.2% increase in pressure ulcer rates. Conclusions Tort litigation does not increase the quality performance of nursing homes, and may decrease it slightly. PMID:23552438

  2. Post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, A.U.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin using a digital microhardness tester. Change in hardness of these materials over a period of 6 months was compared to that of conventional glass ionomer cements and a composite resin. With the exception of the composite resin, all materials showed a significant increase in hardness over 24 h after their initial set. Dual-cure resin-modified glass ionomer cements showed decreased hardness with increased storage time in saline at 37 o C. Results suggest that the addition of resins to glass ionomer cements does not improve initial hardness and does not negate the acid-base reaction of conventional cements. Resin addition may, however, lead to increased water sorption and decreased hardness. (author)

  3. THEORETICAL AND CASE-LAW CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROFESSIONAL NEGLIGENCE OF DOCTORS THAT COULD RESULT IN CRIMINAL, NOT ONLY CIVIL, LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HĂRĂTĂU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed to analyze guilt, in the form of negligence, that is governed in Romanian criminal laws in Article 16 paragraph (4 of the Criminal Code, as follows:“An offence is perpetrated in negligence when the offender:a foresees the outcome of his actions but does not accept it, deeming that it is unlikely for it to occur; b does not foresee the outcome of his actions, although he should and could have.”This form of guilt applies in the case of all incriminations stipulated in the criminal law perpetrated in a negligent manner, while keeping in mind that, in accordance with Article 16 paragraph (6 of the Criminal Code “an offence committed in negligence amounts to a criminal offence when expressly provided by law”.

  4. Nanomechanical properties of dental resin-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S; Akhtar, R; Silikas, N; Watts, D C

    2012-12-01

    To determine by nanoindentation the hardness and elastic modulus of resin-composites, including a series with systematically varied filler loading, plus other representative materials that fall into the categories of flowable, bulk-fill and conventional nano-hybrid types. Ten dental resin-composites: three flowable, three bulk-fill and four conventional were investigated using nanoindentation. Disc specimens (15mm×2mm) were prepared from each material using a metallic mold. Specimens were irradiated in the mold at top and bottom surfaces in multiple overlapping points (40s each) with light curing unit at 650mW/cm(2). Specimens were then mounted in 3cm diameter phenolic ring forms and embedded in a self-curing polystyrene resin. After grinding and polishing, specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. Specimens were investigated using an Agilent Technologies XP nanoindenter equipped with a Berkovich diamond tip (100nm radius). Each specimen was loaded at one loading rate and three different unloading rates (at room temperature) with thirty indentations, per unloading rate. The maximum load applied by the nanoindenter to examine the specimens was 10mN. Dependent on the type of the resin-composite material, the mean values ranged from 0.73GPa to 1.60GPa for nanohardness and from 14.44GPa to 24.07GPa for elastic modulus. There was a significant positive non-linear correlation between elastic modulus and nanohardness (r(2)=0.88). Nonlinear regression revealed a significant positive correlation (r(2)=0.62) between elastic moduli and filler loading and a non-significant correlation (r(2)=0.50) between nanohardness and filler loading of the studied materials. Varying the unloading rates showed no consistent effect on the elastic modulus and nanohardness of the studied materials. For a specific resin matrix, both elastic moduli and nanohardness correlated positively with filler loading. For the resin-composites investigated, the group-average elastic

  5. Contact allergy to epoxy resin: risk occupations and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mortz, Charlotte G; Paulsen, Evy; Sommerlund, Mette; Veien, Niels Kren; Laurberg, Grete; Kaaber, Knud; Thormann, Jens; Andersen, Bo Lasthein; Danielsen, Anne; Avnstorp, Christian; Kristensen, Berit; Kristensen, Ove; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2012-08-01

    Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of contact allergy to epoxy resin monomer (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; MW 340) among patients with suspected contact dermatitis and relate this to occupation and work-related consequences. The dataset comprised 20 808 consecutive dermatitis patients patch tested during 2005-2009. All patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test were sent a questionnaire. A positive patch test reaction to epoxy resin was found in 275 patients (1.3%), with a higher proportion in men (1.9%) than in women (1.0%). The prevalence of sensitization to epoxy resin remained stable over the study period. Of the patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test, 71% returned a questionnaire; 95 patients had worked with epoxy resin in the occupational setting, and, of these, one-third did not use protective gloves and only 50.5% (48) had participated in an educational programme. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.

  7. Petroleum Resins: Separation, Character, and Role in Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Speight, James

    2001-01-01

    In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes are precipi......In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes...... are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the resins are adsorbed and subsequently recovered by the use of a more polar solvent, and the oils remain in solution. The resin fraction plays an important role in the stability of petroleum and prevents...... of the fact that the resin fraction is extremely important to the stability of petroleum, there is surprisingly little work reported on the characteristics of the resins. This article summarizes the work that has been carried out in determining the character and properties of the resin constituents...

  8. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  9. Sequestration Resins for Accelerating Removal of Radioactive Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattini, Paul-L.; Wells, Daniel-M.; Garcia, Susan-E.; Richard, Kohlmann; Asay, Roger; Yengoyan, Leon

    2012-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is developing sequestration resins that can be used in the treatment of nuclear plant water streams for the enhanced removal of ionic cobalt. EPRI is focusing on three key areas of success: 1. Plant safety. The resins that are synthesized must be fully tested to determine that no leachable species or decomposition products (in the event of a resin bed failure) would be introduced to the plant. 2. Acceptable system performance. The resins are currently being synthesized in a powdered form for use in the reactor water clean-up and fuel pool clean-up systems that utilize pre-coatable filter elements. The resins must have effective flocking behavior; uniform application over the underlay resin and efficient removal from the septa elements after use. Bead type resins are also under development. 3. Enhanced cobalt removal. The resins are expected to out-perform the currently used ion exchange resins in the removal of ionic cobalt. During nuclear plant maintenance or refueling outages, current ion exchange resins may require several days to reduce concentrations of cobalt (for example, radio-cobalt 60 Co and 58 Co) and other activated corrosion products to safe levels in reactor coolant streams. This performance limitation often delays key maintenance activities. EPRI's resins are expected to provide at least a three-fold increase in removal capacity in light water reactor coolants. These resins also offer the potential for higher overall removal efficiencies reducing occupational exposures and waste management costs. This paper addresses issues from the range of novel resin development for radio-cobalt removal from synthesis at the bench-top level through scale-up to demonstration of use in an actual operating nuclear power plant. (authors)

  10. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor oil with melamine resin, has been studied by DSC method with programmed heating and in isothermal mode. The results determined from dynamic DSC curves were mathematically transformed using the Ozawa isoconversional method for obtaining the isothermal data. These results, degree of curing versus time, are in good agreement with those determined by the isothermal DSC experiments. By applying the Ozawa method it is possible to calculate the isothermal kinetic parameters for the alkyd/melamine resin mixtures curing using only calorimetric data obtained by dynamic DSC runs. Depending on the alkyd resin type and ratio in mixtures the values of activation energies of curing process of resin mixtures are from 51.3 to 114 kJ mol-1. The rate constant of curing increases with increasing the content of melamine resin in the mixture and with curing temperature. The reaction order varies from 1.12 to 1.37 for alkyd based on dehydrated castor oil/melamine resin mixtures and from 1.74 to 2.03 for mixtures with alkyd based on castor oil. Based on the results obtained, we propose that dehydrated castor oil alkyd/melamine resin mixtures can be used in practice (curing temperatures from 120 to 160°C.

  11. Mechanistic understanding of fouling of protein A chromatography resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Mili; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-08-12

    This paper aims to provide a thorough understanding of how fouling of Protein A resin takes place. Binding and mass transport properties of widely used agarose-based Protein A resin, MabSelect SuRe™, have been examined to understand the mechanism of resin fouling. There could be various factors that impact resin fouling. These include product/impurity build-up due to components in the feed material and ligand degradation due to the use of harsh buffers. To unravel their contributions, cycling studies were performed with and without product loading. The results presented in this paper provide a lucid understanding of the causative factors that limit Protein A chromatographic resin lifetime. The capacity fall for protein A resin at the end of 100th cycle due to use of feed material was found to be five times greater than that without using feed material. Compared to the fresh resin, the cycled resin samples shows 24% reduction in particle porosity and 51% reduction in pore mass transfer coefficient. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to qualitatively monitor accumulation of foulants on the cycled resin. Fouled resin sample contained a dense residue in the interior and exterior of resin particle both as a film at the bead surface and as granules. The surface activation energy increased five times in the case of fouled resin sample. The major event in fouling was identified as the non-specific adsorption of the feed material components on resin, signaling that pore diffusion is the rate limiting step. It is anticipated that these findings will assist in development of a more robust and economical downstream manufacturing process for monoclonal antibody purification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Natalia Carolina Camargos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  13. Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  14. Epoxy resins in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spee, Ton; Van Duivenbooden, Cor; Terwoert, Jeroen

    2006-09-01

    Epoxy resins are used as coatings, adhesives, and in wood and concrete repair. However, epoxy resins can be highly irritating to the skin and are strong sensitizers. Some hardeners are carcinogenic. Based on the results of earlier Dutch studies, an international project on "best practices,"--Epoxy Code--with epoxy products was started. Partners were from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. The "Code" deals with substitution, safe working procedures, safer tools, and skin protection. The feasibility of an internationally agreed "ranking system" for the health risks of epoxy products was studied. Such a ranking system should inform the user of the harmfulness of different epoxies and stimulate research on less harmful products by product developers.

  15. Resin gathering in neotropical resin bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): functional and comparative morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Dimitri; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Weirauch, Christiane

    2011-02-01

    Apiomerini (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) collect plant resins with their forelegs and use these sticky substances for prey capture or maternal care. These behaviors have not been described in detail and morphological structures involved in resin gathering, transfer, and storage remain virtually undocumented. We here describe these behaviors in Apiomerus flaviventris and document the involved structures. To place them in a comparative context, we describe and document leg and abdominal structures in 14 additional species of Apiomerini that represent all but one of the 12 recent genera in the tribe. Based on these morphological data in combination with the behavioral observations on A. flaviventris, we infer behavioral and functional hypotheses for the remaining genera within the tribe Apiomerini. Setal abdominal patches for resin storage are associated with maternal care so far only documented for species of Apiomerus. Based on the occurrence of these patches in several other genera, we propose that maternal care is widespread within the tribe. Ventral abdominal glands are widespread within female Apiomerini. We propose that their products may prevent hardening of stored resins thus providing long-term supply for egg coating. Judging from the diverse setal types and arrangements on the front legs, we predict six different behavioral patterns of resin gathering within the tribe. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Four Pentasaccharide Resin Glycosides from Argyreia acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bang-Wei; Sun, Jing-Jing; Pan, Jie-Tao; Wu, Xiu-Hong; Yin, Yong-Qin; Yan, You-Shao; Hu, Jia-Yan

    2017-03-11

    Four pentasaccharide resin glycosides, acutacoside F-I ( 1 - 4 ), were isolated from the aerial parts of Argyreia acuta . These compounds were characterized as a group of macrolactones of operculinic acid A, and their lactonization site of 11 S -hydroxyhexadecanoic acid was esterified at the second saccharide moiety (Rhamnose) at C-2. The absolute configuration of the aglycone was S . Their structures were elucidated by established spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  17. Ionization radiation curable polyacrylate resin coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.S.

    1975-01-01

    A carboxylic acid chloride or bromide, a sulfonyl chloride or bromide, cyanuric chloride, calcium hypochlorite or phosphorus oxychloride and optionally a buffering pigment are combined with a liquid, acrylate ester resin curable by exposure to high-energy ionizing radiation to yield a coating composition which upon being cured in air by exposure to ionizing radition yields a coating having an essentially tack-free surface. (Patent Office Record)

  18. Rheology of Polyaniline Dispersions in Acrylic Resin

    OpenAIRE

    PLESU, Nicoleta; LIESCU, Smaranda; ILIA, Gheorghe

    2006-01-01

    Acrylic dispersions based on polyaniline were obtained and characterised. The polyaniline was obtained by chemical polymerisation of aniline in different organic acid containing phosphorous, in the presence of ammonium-peroxidisulphate as oxidant agent. The blends were obtained by mechanical dispersion of polyaniline in commercially available acrylic resin. The flow behaviour of these dispersions at different shear rates was studied. Furthermore, the resulting acrylic dispersions w...

  19. Cross-reactivity among epoxy acrylates and bisphenol F epoxy resins in patients with bisphenol A epoxy resin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han N; Pokorny, Christopher D; Law, Sandra; Pratt, Melanie; Sasseville, Denis; Storrs, Frances J

    2002-09-01

    The study's objective was 2-fold: first, to evaluate the potential cross-reactivity between Bis-A epoxy resins and epoxy acrylates and second, to study the cross reactivity between Bis-A epoxy resins and newer Bis-F epoxy resins in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to epoxy resins and had positive patch test to the standard epoxy resin based on bisphenol A. Forty-one patients were patch tested to 23 chemicals including epoxy acrylates, Bis-A epoxy resins, and Bis-F epoxy resins, as well as reactive diluents and nonbisphenol epoxy resins. Questions concerning exposure to epoxy resins, occupational history, and problems with dental work were completed. All patients included in the study had positive reactions to the standard Bis-A epoxy resin. Twenty percent (8 of 41) of the patients reacted to at least one of the epoxy acrylates; the most common reaction was to Bis-GMA. Five of 8 patients who reacted to the epoxy acrylates had dental work, but only one patient had problems from her dental work. Six of 8 patients (75%) who reacted to epoxy resins and epoxy acrylates did not react to aliphatic acrylates. Thirty-two percent (13 of 41) reacted to tosylamide epoxy resin, and none reacted to triglycidyl isocyanurate resin. In addition, all patients (100%) had positive reactions to at least one of the Bis-F epoxy resins that were tested. Most patients with sensitivity to Bis-A epoxy resins do not cross-react with epoxy acrylates. Patients with positive patch test reactions to epoxy acrylates used in dentistry usually do not have symptoms from their dental work. To our knowledge, this is the largest series of patients with sensitivity to the standard Bis-A epoxy resin that have been patch tested with the more recently introduced Bis-F epoxy resins. There is significant cross-reactivity between Bis-A and Bis-F epoxy resins, which can be explained by their structural similarity. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  20. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  1. Correlations of norbornenyl crosslinked polyimide resin structures with resin thermo-oxidative stability, resin glass transition temperature and composite initial mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.

    1988-01-01

    PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare 70 different polyimide oligomeric resins and 30 different unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide composites. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on resin thermo-oxidative stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. A linear correlation of decreasing 316 C resin weight loss/surface area versus (1) decreasing aliphatic content, or (2) increasing benzylic/aliphatic content stoichiometry ratio over a wide range of resin compositions was observed. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was also observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial composite mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength). However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining a clear correlation. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at 25, 288, and 316 C. Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the correlation study was (1) the PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins containing a wide variety of monomer modifications, (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins formulated exhibited satisfactory processing flow, and (3) that PMR resins exhibited predictable rates of 316 C weight loss/surface area based on their benzylic/aliphatic stoichiometery ratio.

  2. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... listed below. Product groups are indicated with an asterisk (*). *Alkyd Resins Dicyanodiamide Resin... thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50 Section 414.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The provisions...

  3. Assessment of cross-reactivity of new less sensitizing epoxy resin monomers in epoxy resin-allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Lina; Niklasson, Ida B; Rudbäck, Johanna; O'Boyle, Niamh M; Niklasson, Eva; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2016-09-01

    Measures to prevent occupational exposure to epoxy resins, including education, medical examination, and voluntary agreements between employers and workers, have not been effective enough to protect against skin sensitization. Therefore, alternatives to the major epoxy resin haptens that have been found to be less sensitizing in the local lymph node assay have been developed. To study the cross-reactivity of two newly designed epoxy resin monomers, with decreased skin-sensitizing potency and good technical properties as compared with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), in subjects with known contact allergy to epoxy resin of DGEBA type. Eleven individuals with previous positive patch test reactions to epoxy resin of DGEBA participated in the study. The two alternative epoxy resin monomers were synthesized and patch tested in dilution series in parallel with epoxy resin of DGEBA from the baseline series (containing 92% DGEBA). All participants reacted to epoxy resin of DGEBA on retesting. Three participants reacted to monomer 1. No reactions were seen to monomer 2. The alternative monomers studied showed little or no cross-reactivity with epoxy resin of DGEBA. Decreasing the risk of sensitization by using less sensitizing compounds is important, as contact allergy to epoxy resins is common in spite of thorough preventive measures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Protein a resin lifetime study: Evaluation of protein a resin performance with a model-based approach in continuous capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behere, Ketki; Cha, Bumjoon; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2018-01-22

    A modified shrinking core model (MSCM) has been used to describe the mechanism for the degradation of Protein A resin particles taking place under continuous chromatographic operation. The model is based on the hypothetical shrinkage of the boundary layer of the resin particles, which house the active Protein A ligands within their pores. The caustic during the sanitization phase of chromatography has been determined to cause the Protein A ligand degradation. Protein A resins provided by manufacturers possess unique caustic stability, which has been used in MSCM to appraise the ligand degradation. The kinetic model utilized semiempirical parameters including diffusion constant, rate constant, stoichiometric factor, and reaction order. The parameters were estimated from column breakthrough experiments to simulate continuous Protein A chromatography for three distinct resins. The reaction order has been identified as the key parameter for predicting the degradation kinetics. The recorded reaction orders vary for three different resins with the resin B showing the highest reaction order of 4 and lowest being 1.65 for the resin C. The model can predict the effects of caustic on resin performance and displayed that minimal degradation of the resins A and B occurred, when exposed to 0.1 N and 0.2N NaOH, retaining up to 96% binding capacity after 240 cycles. The adsorption study conducted for the resin B demonstrated the dynamic physical and chemical changes transpiring through the life cycle of the resin, further supported the degradation model. The performance data demonstrate that the resin B exhibits the desirable performance, with higher reaction order indicating slower resin degradation, higher binding capacities, and increased sustenance of this binding capacity for extended duration. The degradation model can be extended to build effective cleaning strategies for continuous downstream processing.

  5. An exploration of the effects of clinical negligence litigation on the practice of midwives in England: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Judith H; Thomson, Ann M

    2016-02-01

    to explore how midwives׳ personal involvement in clinical negligence litigation affects their midwifery practice. descriptive phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews. in 2006-2007 in-depth interviews were conducted in participants׳ homes or at their place of work and focused on participants׳ experience of litigation. Participants were recruited from various regions of England. 22 National Health Service (NHS) midwives who had been alleged negligent. clinical practice affected was an increase in documentation, fear of practising outside clinical guidelines and electronic fetal monitoring of women at low obstetric risk; these changes were not widespread. Changes in practice were sometimes perceived negatively and sometimes positively. Forming a good relationship with childbearing women was judged to promote effective midwifery care but litigation had affected the ability of a minority of midwives to advocate for women if this relationship had not been established. Litigation could result in loss of confidence leading to self-doubt, isolation, increased readiness to seek medical assistance and avoidance of working in the labour ward, perceived as an area with a high risk of litigation. A blame culture in the NHS was perceived by several midwives. In contrast an open non-punitive culture resulted in midwives readily reporting mistakes to risk managers. Litigation lowered midwifery morale and damaged professional reputations, particularly when reported in the newspapers. Some midwives expressed thoughts of leaving midwifery or taking time off work because of litigation but only one was actively seeking other employment, another took sick leave and one had left midwifery and returned to nursing. litigation can have a negative effect on midwives׳ clinical practice and morale and fosters a culture of blame within the NHS. education regarding appropriate documentation, use or non-use of electronic fetal monitoring and the legal status of clinical

  6. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  7. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute's anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

  8. Processing method of radioactive spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takayuki; Saito, Tomohisa; Kurosaka, Norio.

    1997-01-01

    Resin beads and resin powders are collected from respective reservoir tanks to a supply tank, and the resin beads and the resin powders are continuously transferred from the supply tank to a dehydrator depending on the processing performance thereof to conduct dehydration. The obtained dehydrated resin beads and the powders are formed into a solidification product by cement solidification, or by incineration followed by cement solidification of incineration ashes, or are temporary stored in a storage vessel, and then subjected to one of the solidification treatments. It is possible to eliminate a worry of forming lumpy spent ion exchange resins in a storage tank to cause troubles upon withdrawal from the tank or during transportation. (N.H.)

  9. Interacting Blends of Novel Unsaturated Polyester Amide Resin with Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmukh S. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel unsaturated poly (ester-amide resins (UPEAs were prepared by the reaction between an epoxy resin, namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol–A (DGEBA and unsaturated aliphatic bisamic acids using a base catalyst. These UPEAs were then blended with a vinyl monomer namely, Styrene (STY. to produce a homogeneous resin syrup. The curing of these UPEAs-STY. resin blends was carried out by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO as a catalyst and was monitored by using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The glass fibre reinforced composites (i.e. laminates of these UPEA-STY. resin blends were fabricated using the DSC data. The chemical, mechanical and electrical properties of the glass fibre composites have also been evaluated. The unreinforced cured samples of the UPEA-STY. resin blends were also analyzed by thermogravimetry (TGA.

  10. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables

  11. Health Problems of Epoxy Resins and Amine-curing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.; Alberman, K. B.

    1959-01-01

    Epoxy resins were first introduced about 10 years ago. Toxic effects, particularly dermatitis, have been frequently described. An investigation into the possible causes of pathological sequelae following the use of epoxy resin/amine mixtures has been undertaken. The cause of most cases of dermatitis and sensitization appears to be uncombined amine which is present in recent mixtures and persists in hardened resin for long periods. The results of experiments with two of the most commonly used resin/amine mixtures confirm this. Cold-cured resins are more dangerous and remain so even when hardened. A simple theory is suggested for the mechanism of the reaction between epoxy resins, amines, and biological systems. This theory leads logically to the handling precautions outlined. Images PMID:13651551

  12. Extruded Films From Modified Polypropylene Resin: Dielectric and Breakdown Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    antioxidants which would be normally adsorbed on powdered resin surfaces. These species would have become trapped within the PP film during melt extrusion ...AD-A261 382 SResearch and Development Technical Report SLCET-TR-91-29 EXTRUDED FILMS FROM MODIFIED POLYPROPYLENE RESIN: DIELECTRIC AND BREAKDOWN...Auq 91 ’ m u’ . .. . . -. ;M A . .. . .AS EXTRUDED FILMS FROM MODIFIED POLYPROPYLENE RESIN: PE: 61102 DIELECTRIC AND BREAKDOWN STUDIES PR: ILI B

  13. Adding Effects of Reactive Oligomers for Epoxy Resin

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 英介; 稲垣, 慎二; 岡本, 弘

    1991-01-01

    Reactive oligomers with both functional end groups were prepared by the radical telomerization and the effect of oligomers added to bisphenol-A-glycidylehter type epoxy resin was investigated by measuring mechanical properties, adhesive properties and dynamic viscoelasticities. These oligomers were high viscous liquid except the one prepared from methyl methacrylate, therefore the blend of oligomers with epoxy resin is easy. Adding oligomers, the cured epoxy resins showed the lower glass-tran...

  14. Radiopacity Of Glass-ionomer/composite Resin Hybrid Materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Hara A.T.; Serra M.C.; Rodrigues Junior A.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study visually compared the radiopacity of seven restorative materials (3 resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, 3 polyacid-modified composite resins, and 1 conventional glass-ionomer cement) to a sound tooth structure sample, and an aluminium stepwedge. All hybrid materials were more radiopaque, except for one resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, than both the tooth structure and conventional glass-ionomer cement.

  15. Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed.

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning reduces the residual monomer in acrylic resins

    OpenAIRE

    Charasseangpaisarn, Taksid; Wiwatwarrapan, Chairat; Leklerssiriwong, Nonthida

    2016-01-01

    Background/purpose: The residual monomer remaining in acrylic resin can cause an allergic reaction and is toxic to oral soft tissue. This study determined the effect of the duration of ultrasonic cleaning on the amount of residual methyl methacrylate monomer in one heat-polymerized acrylic resin, Meliodent, and three autopolymerized acrylic resins, Unifast Trad Ivory, Unifast Trad Pink, and Unifast III. Materials and methods: Thirty-six disc-shaped specimens of each brand were prepared and...

  17. Method for activation and recycling of trityl resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, Itedale Namro; Grøtli, Morten

    2012-08-17

    This note describes a rapid and mild strategy for the loading of alcohols and anilines onto a polystyrene triphenylmethyl (trityl) resin. High loadings were obtained in a matter of minutes by treating resin-bound trityl chloride with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate followed by alcohols or anilines. Yields were comparable or better than known literature methods. Recycling of the recovered resin was also possible using the developed method.

  18. Analytical applications of resins containing amide and polyamine functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orf, G.M.

    1977-12-01

    A dibutyl amide resin is used for the separation of uranium(VI), thorium(IV), and zirconium(IV) from each other and several other metal ions. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) are determined in the presence of large excesses of foreign metal ions and anions. A practical application of the amide resin is studied by determining uranium in low grade uranium ores. The amide resin is also used for the selective concentration of gold(III) from sea water

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    using thermogravimetric 28 analyzer ( TGA ) on a model Q50 TGA (TA Instruments, Inc.). About 10 mg of resins was placed in an alumina pan and heated...stability of the LCERs was investigated using a thermogravimetric analyzer ( TGA ) on a model Q50 TGA (TA Instruments, Inc.). About 10 mg of resins ...characterization of liquid crystalline epoxy resins Yuzhan Li Iowa State University Follow this and additional works at: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd Part of the

  20. Composite materials based on modified epoxy resin and carbon fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalez, Viviane; Barcia, Fabio L.; Soares, Bluma G.

    2006-01-01

    Epoxy resin networks have been modified with block copolymer of polybutadiene and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA)-based on epoxy resin. The epoxy resin modified with carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene presented improved impact resistance and outstanding mechanical performance in terms of flexural and tensile properties because of the presence of rubber particles homogeneously dispersed inside the epoxy matrix. This modified system also resulted in an improvement of mechanical properties o...

  1. Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

  2. Pulse radiolysis studies on radiation resistance of epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.; Washio, M.; Hayashi, N.; Tabata, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanisms of radiation damage in epoxy resin, especially the primary processes, have been studied by a time-resolved spectroscopic technique (pulse radiolysis). The difference between the radiation resistance of aromatic and aliphatic amine curing epoxy resin is explained by internal radiation protection effects due to energy and charge transfer on the basis of the time-resolved spectroscopic data of reactive intermediate (excited states and ions) in an irradiated epoxy resin. (orig.)

  3. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  4. Efficient Nitrogen Doping of Single-Layer Graphene Accompanied by Negligible Defect Generation for Integration into Hybrid Semiconductor Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarau, George; Heilmann, Martin; Bashouti, Muhammad; Latzel, Michael; Tessarek, Christian; Christiansen, Silke

    2017-03-22

    While doping enables application-specific tailoring of graphene properties, it can also produce high defect densities that degrade the beneficial features. In this work, we report efficient nitrogen doping of ∼11 atom % without virtually inducing new structural defects in the initial, large-area, low defect, and transferred single-layer graphene. To shed light on this remarkable high-doping-low-disorder relationship, a unique experimental strategy consisting of analyzing the changes in doping, strain, and defect density after each important step during the doping procedure was employed. Complementary micro-Raman mapping, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical microscopy revealed that effective cleaning of the graphene surface assists efficient nitrogen incorporation accompanied by mild compressive strain resulting in negligible defect formation in the doped graphene lattice. These original results are achieved by separating the growth of graphene from its doping. Moreover, the high doping level occurred simultaneously with the epitaxial growth of n-GaN micro- and nanorods on top of graphene, leading to the flow of higher currents through the graphene/n-GaN rod interface. Our approach can be extended toward integrating graphene into other technologically relevant hybrid semiconductor heterostructures and obtaining an ohmic contact at their interfaces by adjusting the doping level in graphene.

  5. Effect of bacterial antagonists on lettuce: active biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani and negligible, short-term effects on nontarget microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherwinski, Katja; Grosch, Rita; Berg, Gabriele

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the biocontrol efficacy against Rhizoctonia solani of three bacterial antagonists introduced into naturally Rhizoctonia-infested lettuce fields and to analyse their impact on the indigenous plant-associated bacteria and fungi. Lettuce seedlings were inoculated with bacterial suspensions of two endophytic strains, Serratia plymuthica 3Re4-18 and Pseudomonas trivialis 3Re2-7, and with the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens L13-6-12 7 days before and 5 days after planting in the field. Similar statistically significant biocontrol effects were observed for all applied bacterial antagonists compared with the uninoculated control. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA gene or ITS1 fragments revealed a highly diverse rhizosphere and a less diverse endophytic microbial community for lettuce. Representatives of several bacterial (Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes), fungal (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes) and protist (Oomycetes) groups were present inside or on lettuce plants. Surprisingly, given that lettuce is a vegetable that is eaten raw, species of genera such as Flavobacterium, Burkholderia, Staphylococcus, Cladosporium and Aspergillus, which contain potentially human pathogenic strains, were identified. Analysis of the indigenous bacterial and endophytic fungal populations revealed only negligible, short-term effects resulting from the bacterial treatments, and that they were more influenced by field site, plant growth stage and microenvironment.

  6. A lump-integral model based freezing and melting of a bath material onto a cylindrical additive of negligible resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh U.C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a theoretical analysis, a lump-integral model for freezing and melting of the bath material onto a cylindrical additive having its thermal resistance negligible with respect to that of the bath is developed. It is regulated by independent nondimensional parameters, namely the Stefan number, St the heat capacity ratio, Cr and the modified conduction factor, Cofm. Series solutions associated with short times for time variant growth of the frozen layer and rise in interface temperature between the additive and the frozen layer are obtained. For all times, numerical solutions concerning the frozen layer growth with its melting and increase in the interface temperature are also found. Time for freezing and melting is estimated for different values of Cr, St and Cofm. It is predicted that for lower total time of freezing and melting Cofm<2 or Cr<1 needs to be maintained. When the bath temperature equals the freezing temperature of the bath material, the model is governed by only Cr and St and gives closed-form expressions for the growth of the frozen layer and the interface temperature. For the interface attaining the freezing temperature of the bath material the maximum thickness of the frozen layer becomes ξmax-√Cr(Cr+St. The model is validated once it is reduced to a problem of heating of the additive without freezing of the bath material onto the additive. Its closed-form solution is exactly the same as that reported in the literature.

  7. A 6-Year Case-Control Study of the Presentation and Clinical Sequelae for Noninflicted, Negligent, and Inflicted Pediatric Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Zachary J; Ramaiah, Veena; Glick, Jill C; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    Inflicted burns are one of the leading causes of abuse-related fatalities in children. Between 30 and 60% of children accidentally returned to abusive homes suffer reabuse. Given the high chance for abuse recurrence and the associated morbidity/mortality, it is critical that inflicted burns are promptly identified to guide appropriate medical and child welfare management. Although previous studies proposed historical and mechanistic features using noncomparative or poorly powered data, this study utilized comparative data from a 6-year period (2009-2014) at a certified burn center along with expert analysis from Child Advocacy and Protective Services (CAPS) to provide higher level evidence supporting classical findings while elucidating new features with respect to burn severity and required interventions. A retrospective chart review of 408 pediatric burns was cross-referenced with the respective CAPS consultations to construct a multidisciplinary, deidentified database. The average age was 2.9 years (0.04-17 years) with 232 (57%) males and 330 (81%) African-Americans. CAPS investigations confirmed burn etiologies: noninflicted (346 [85%]), negligent (30 [7%]), and inflicted (32 [8%]). In comparing the three etiologies, statistical significance (P burn age, child welfare history, burn size and depth, distribution, concomitant injury rates, number of surgical interventions, infectious complications, and hospital length of stay. In addition to reaffirming classical features of abusive burns to fortify etiologic diagnoses, this study elucidated appreciable differences in burn severity, interventional sequelae, and burn-related complications, which will help guide medical and surgical interventions for future pediatric burn patients.

  8. Right-handers have negligibly higher IQ scores than left-handers: Systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntolka, Eleni; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence and handedness remains a matter of debate. The present study is a systematic review of 36 studies (totaling 66,108 individuals), which have measured full IQ scores in different handedness groups. Eighteen of those studies were further included in three sets of meta-analyses (totaling 20,442 individuals), which investigated differences in standardized mean IQ scores in (i) left-handers, (ii) non-right-handers, and (iii) mixed-handers compared to right-handers. The bulk of the studies included in the systematic review reported no differences in IQ scores between left- and right-handers. In the meta-analyses, statistically significant differences in mean IQ scores were detected between right-handers and left-handers, but were marginal in magnitude (d=-0.07); the data sets were found to be homogeneous. Significance was lost when the largest study was excluded. No differences in mean IQ scores were found between right-handers and non-right-handers as well as between right-handers and mixed-handers. No sex differences were found. Overall, the intelligence differences between handedness groups in the general population are negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  10. Modified ion exchange resins - synthesis and properties. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, F.; Klein, J.; Pohl, F.; Widdecke, H.

    1982-01-22

    Sulfomethylated resins are prepared by polymer analogous reactions, starting from macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrices. Different reaction paths are discussed and used in the synthesis. Sulfomethylation can be achieved by reaction of a chloromethylated resin with dimethyl sulfide and sodium sulfonate or alternatively by oxidation of polymer-bound thiol groups. Both methods give high conversions as shown by IR spectra and titration of the sulfonic acid groups. Poly(1-(4-hydroxysulfomethylphenyl)ethylene) (3) is obtained by reaction of poly(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene) (2) resin with formaldehyde/sodium sulfonate. The thermal stability, catalytic activity, and ion exchange equilibria of the sulfomethylated resin are investigated.

  11. [IR studies on the chloride polypropylene/alkyd resin blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-lei; Liu, Da-zhuang; Zhao, Gen-suo

    2003-06-01

    The miscibility of CPP with alkyd resin in the specified mixing ratios has been studied by FTIR spectra. The results obtained indicate that the bands of hydroxyl groups noticeably shifted in the FTIR spectra of the blends in contrast with the infrared spectrum of alkyd resin, and the blends were miscible when the weight fraction of alkyd resin in the blends of CPP and alkyd resin was less than 0.5, and immiscible when greater than 0.5, which were proved by the glossiness of their films.

  12. Pengaruh Penambahan Resin Terhadap Resistivitas Dan Porositas Campuran Pasirsemen

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Ardian

    2010-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh penambahan resin terhadap resistivitas dan porositas campuran pasir-semen. Bahan yang digunakan adalah pasir (butiran pasir), semen Padang Portland tipe 1 dan resin damar. Sampel dibuat dengan komposisi massa pasir 20 gr, 40 gr, 60 gr, 80 gr, massa resin 0 gr, 10 gr, 20 gr, 30 gr, 40 gr, dan massa semen 60 gr. Resistivitas terbesar didapatkan sebesar 0,040 Ωm pada campuran dengan massa pasir 60 gr dan massa resin 0 gr, resistivitas terkecil 0,020 Ωm...

  13. Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.; Kaszuwara, W.

    2002-01-01

    Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets were processed. Basic magnetic parameters as well as compressive strength were evaluated versus annealing temperature and volume fraction of the bonding agent. For the zinc bonded magnets phase composition was investigated. The additional NdZn 5 phase was found in the Zn bonded magnets after annealing. Comparison of the Zn and resin bonded magnets reveals higher remanence for the former and higher coercivity for the latter. For the Zn and resin bonded magnets, 15 wt.% Zn / 370 o C and 7-10 wt.% resin were chosen as the optimal processing parameters. (author)

  14. Emission and Mechanical Evaluations of Vinyl-Ester Resin Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl-ester resins (VE) are frequently used in liquid molding of composite materials for several applications including naval and army structures, commercial boat manufacturing, and building construction...

  15. Treatment method for stabilization of radioactive exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideo, Oni; Takashi, Miyake; Hitoshi, Miyamoto; Toshio, Funakoshi; Yuzo, Inagaki.

    1988-01-01

    This is a method for eluting radioactive nuclides from a radioactive ion exchange resin in which it has been absorbed. First, the Cs in this resin is extracted using a neutral salt solution which contains Na + . The Cs that has been transferred to the neutral salt solution is absorbed and expelled by inorganic ion exchangers. Then the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr in said resin are eluted using an acidic solution; the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr that have been transferred to the acidic solution are separated from that solution by means of a diffusion dialysis vat. This process is a unique characteristic of this ion exchange resin treatment method. 1 fig

  16. Synthesis and thermal degradation studies of melamine formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sami; Bustam, M A; Nadeem, M; Naz, M Y; Tan, W L; Shariff, A M

    2014-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resins have been synthesized at different reaction temperature and pH values. Different molar ratios of melamine and formaldehyde were used to synthesize the corresponding resins. The prepared resin samples were characterized by using molecular weight determination viscometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The maximum percentage of solid content (69.7%) was obtained at pH 8.5 and 75°C temperature. The molecular weight of MF resin was increased with an increase of melamine monomer concentration. The highest residual weight 14.125 wt.% was obtained with sample 10.

  17. Synthesis and Thermal Degradation Studies of Melamine Formaldehyde Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melamine formaldehyde (MF resins have been synthesized at different reaction temperature and pH values. Different molar ratios of melamine and formaldehyde were used to synthesize the corresponding resins. The prepared resin samples were characterized by using molecular weight determination viscometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The maximum percentage of solid content (69.7% was obtained at pH 8.5 and 75°C temperature. The molecular weight of MF resin was increased with an increase of melamine monomer concentration. The highest residual weight 14.125 wt.% was obtained with sample 10.

  18. Studying Room Temperature Curing of Phenolic Resin and their Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Beheshty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic resins are synthetic low molecular weight thermoset resins which are polymerized and cured to higher molecular weights by condensation method. These resins have high weathering resistance, high oxidative thermal properties and good chemical resistance. Phenolic resins can be cured thermally or by acid curing. The most common method of curing phenolic resin is by thermal curing that takes place in the range of 130-180oC. At room temperature, however, phenolic resins are cured by acid catalysts. In this paper, room temperature curing of resol phenolic resin by para toluene sulphonic acid has been investigated. The acid quantity has been determined for room temperature curing of two types of resols to achieve a reasonable hardness and gelation time. Temperature curing and thermal stability of respective resins have been investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. A glass-phenolic composite plate has been prepared and cured by these two methods. The results show that the optimum amount of acid is 20% by weight. Optimum mechanical properties, chemical resistance and thermal properties have been achieved for acid cured system. The hot cured resin, however, has better properties.

  19. Color of bulk-fill composite resin restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Çağatay; Barutcigil, Kubilay; Özarslan, Mehmet Mustafa; Dündar, Ayşe; Yilmaz, Burak

    2017-09-28

    To evaluate the color stability of novel bulk-fill composite resins. Color measurements of a nanohybrid composite resin (Z550) and 3 bulk-fill composite resins (BLK, AFX, XTF; n = 45) were performed before polymerization. After polymerization, color measurements were repeated and specimens were immersed in distilled water or red wine, or coffee. Color change [CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 )] was calculated after 24 h, 1 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). Color changes observed after polymerization were significant for all groups. Color changes observed in distilled water for Z550 and AFX were significant. Color changes after stored in red wine and coffee were significant for all groups. Bulk-fill composite resin color change increased over time for all groups in red wine and coffee (P composite resin and bulk-fill composite resins. AFX had the highest color change in distilled water. The color of tested bulk-fill composite resins significantly changed after immersion in beverages and over time. Color change observed with the nanohybrid composite resin after 1 week was stable. Clinicians should keep in mind that tested composite resins may change color when exposed to water and significantly change color immediately after they are polymerized. In addition, the color change continues over time should the patient is a coffee and/or red wine consumer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Analysis of residual stress in the resin of metal-resin adhesion structures by scanning acoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroki; Endo, Kazuhiko; Nagano-Takebe, Futami; Ida, Yusuke; Kakino, Ken; Narita, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The residual stress caused by polymerization shrinkage and thermal contraction of a heat-curing resin containing 4-META on a metal-resin structure was measured by a scanning acoustic microscope. The tensile residual stress in the resin occurred within 70 µm of the adhesion interface with a flat plate specimen. The maximum tensile stress was about 58 MPa at the interface. On a metal plate specimen with retention holes, ring-like cracks in the resin occurred around the retention holes with the adhesive specimen and many linear cracks occurred in the resin vertical to the longitudinal direction of the metal frame with the non-adhesive specimens. There was tensile residual stress on the resin surface at the center of the retention holes of the adhesion specimen, indicating that the stress in the specimen with surface treatment for adhesion was higher than in that without surface treatment.

  1. Analysis of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kováříková, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with employee benefits in the current labour market, especially from the perspective of young employees. The first part is focused on the theory of motivation and employee benefits also with their tax impact on employee's income. Employee benefits in the current labour market, employee's satisfaction and employer's attitude to this issue are analyzed in the second part of this thesis.

  2. A Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Ceramic and Resin Denture Teeth on Different Acrylic Resin Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Corsalini, Massimo; Venere, Daniela Di; Pettini, Francesco; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Catapano, Santo; Boccaccio, Antonio; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Carossa, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of different resin bases and artificial teeth made of ceramic or acrylic resin materials and whether tooth-base interface may be treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting. Experimental measurements were carried on 80 specimens consisting of a cylinder of acrylic resin into which a single tooth is inserted. An ad hoc metallic frame was realized to measure the shear bond strength at the tooth-base interface. A complete factorial pl...

  3. Dewatering of bean and powdered resin at Three Mile Island Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwer, T.

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to standardize a disposable shipping container for dewatered powdered resin and bead resin utilized at Three Mile Island, a systematic program was developed to approve a shipping container. The container in addition to meeting the free-standing dewatering requirement of 0.5% of waste volume or one gallon, whichever is less, had to meet minimum design process capabilities of 25 gallons per minute during resin transfer operation. Specifically, the program resulted in: container definition to be used with commonly supplied casks; design and fabrication of a mobile dewatering skid; design and assembly of the dewatering internals for the container; assembly instructions and procedures for equipment operation and dewatering; procurement of hardware; equipment assembly; equipment set up and check out; and process control plan. Considerable manpower and cost benefits will be realized by having this in-house radwaste dewatering capability because vendor services will be eliminated and the quantity of radwaste liners, shipments, burial fees and burial space will be reduced

  4. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Wwww of... - Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type 7 Table 7 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63 Protection... Part 63—Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type...

  5. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers *Polystyrene—Acrylic Latexes Polystyrene Impact Resins Polystyrene Latex Polystyrene, Expandable Polystyrene, Expanded *Polysulfone Resins Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl Acetate—PVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate...

  6. Preparation and Characterizations of Composite Material Based on Carbon Fiber and Two Thermoset Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouda Hany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we used two types of thermoset resins (epoxy resin and phenol formaldehyde resin with carbon fiber (CF to produce composite materials. CF/epoxy resin composite and CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite were fabricated and compared between their mechanical properties as compression, tension and flexural. it was found that mechanical properties of CF/epoxy composite higher than mechanical properties of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite such as flexural strength of CF/epoxy resin composite increased by 30 % than flexural strength of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite, tensile strength of CF/epoxy resin composite increased by 11.4 % than flexural strength of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin and axial compression strength of CF/epoxy resin composite increased by 14.5 % than flexural strength of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin.

  7. An esthetic technique for veneering anterior stainless steel crowns with composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenfeld, K R; Draughn, R A; Welford, J B

    1994-01-01

    The restoration of primary anterior teeth presents complicated esthetic and retention problems to the clinician. A technique is described for the chairside veneering of composite resin to stainless steel crowns, which results in well contoured restorations with superior durability and esthetics. A trimmed and fitted stainless steel crown can be veneered in three to five minutes. This provides the adaptability and gingival contour benefits of the stainless steel crown in conjunction with the cosmetics of the composite facings. The technique described produced composite veneers with a mean sheer bond strength of 3520 PSI (24.4 Mpa).

  8. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF ALKYL SUBSTITUTED PHENOLIC EPOXY RESIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Chaudhary*, Supriya Dadhich, Giriraj Tailor

    2017-01-01

    The present article deals with the synthesis of phenolic epoxy resin by the reaction of phenolic resin and epichlorohydrin. The synthesis of phenolic resin was carried out by using p-ethylphenol, formaldehyde and naphthol. The structures of phenolic and epoxy resins were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. The synthesized epoxy resin showed solubility in polar solvents like DMF, dioxane, acetone, DMSO, THF, ethyl acetate, and chloroform. Thermal characterization of epoxy resin was monitored ...

  9. Color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasp denture

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Dae-Eun; Lee, Ji-Young; Jang, Hyun-Seon; Lee, Jang-Jae; Son, Mee-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for the non-metal clasp dentures to those of thermoplastic polyamide and conventional heat-polymerized denture base resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three types of denture base resin, which are conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20), thermoplastic polyamide resin (Bio Tone), thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) were used as materials for this study...

  10. Preparation and Characterizations of Composite Material Based on Carbon Fiber and Two Thermoset Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Fouda Hany; Guo Lin; Elsharkawy Karim

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigation, we used two types of thermoset resins (epoxy resin and phenol formaldehyde resin) with carbon fiber (CF) to produce composite materials. CF/epoxy resin composite and CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite were fabricated and compared between their mechanical properties as compression, tension and flexural. it was found that mechanical properties of CF/epoxy composite higher than mechanical properties of CF/phenolformaldhyde resin composite such as flexural strength...

  11. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  12. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-01-01

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit

  13. Epoxy-resin adhesive and method for bonding using such an epoxy resin adhesive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Poulis, J.A.; Benedictus, R.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to an epoxy resin adhesive comprising a dotation of nano-substances, wherein the nano- substances are selected from the group comprising carbon-fibre nanotubes, carbon nano-fibres, silicate nano powders, and wherein the nano-substances are dispersed in the adhesive with a

  14. Polymerization shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements - What do we need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos José; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Rodrigues, Monise de Paula; Vilela, Andomar Bruno Fernandes; Pfeifer, Carmem Silvia; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2017-08-28

    Polymerization shrinkage stress of resin-based materials have been related to several unwanted clinical consequences, such as enamel crack propagation, cusp deflection, marginal and internal gaps, and decreased bond strength. Despite the absence of strong evidence relating polymerization shrinkage to secondary caries or fracture of posterior teeth, shrinkage stress has been associated with post-operative sensitivity and marginal stain. The latter is often erroneously used as a criterion for replacement of composite restorations. Therefore, an indirect correlation can emerge between shrinkage stress and the longevity of composite restorations or resin-bonded ceramic restorations. The relationship between shrinkage and stress can be best studied in laboratory experiments and a combination of various methodologies. The objective of this review article is to discuss the concept and consequences of polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress of composite resins and resin cements. Literature relating to polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress generation, research methodologies, and contributing factors are selected and reviewed. Clinical techniques that could reduce shrinkage stress and new developments on low-shrink dental materials are also discussed.

  15. Does Adhesive Resin Application Contribute to Resin Bond Durability on Etched and Silanized Feldspathic Ceramic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Kimpara, Estevao Tomomitsu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of adhesive application and aging on the bond durability of resin cement to etched and silanized feldspathic ceramic. Materials and Methods: Twenty blocks (6.4 x 6.4 x 4.8 mm) of feldspathic ceramic (Vita VM7) were produced. The ceramic surfaces were conditioned with

  16. Solidifying process and flame retardancy of epoxy resin cured with boron-containing phenolic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peng; Shi, Yan; Liu, Yuansen; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    For the sake of improving the charring performance and flame retardancy of epoxy resin (EP), boron-containing phenolic resin (BPR) instead of a conventional curing agent, linear phenolic resin (LPR) was employed to cure EP. Of several possible chemical structures for BPR, the existence of benzyl hydroxy groups in BPR chains has been confirmed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The resonance of these groups may reasonably explain the higher curing reactivity of BPR-cured EP than that of LPR-cured EP. Thermogravimetric analysis, observation of the morphologies of the char residues and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic were performed to characterize the charring process. Due to the presence of B2O3 produced on the char surface from decomposition of phenyl borates and the facile high self-crosslinking reaction of BPR, a more continuous and stronger char barrier was formed for BPR-cured EP compared to that for the LPR-cured EP system. Therefore the former exhibited much better flame retardancy. In addition, BPR-cured EP also displayed better dynamic mechanical properties, than those observed for LPR-cured EP. It is not subject to the significant lowering the glass transition temperature of the polymer which accompanies curing with LPR. This suggests that BPR cured resin may meet the requirement for utilization at high temperature.

  17. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  18. Maximizing the functional lifetime of Protein A resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jennifer; Siva, Sethu; Caple, Ryan; Ghose, Sanchayita; Gronke, Rob

    2017-05-01

    Protein A chromatography is currently the industry gold-standard for monoclonal antibody and Fc-fusion protein purification. The high cost of Protein A, however, makes resin lifetime and resin reuse an important factor for process economics. Typical resin lifetime studies performed in the industry usually examine the effect of resin re-use on binding capacity, yield, and product quality without answering the fundamental question of what is causing the decrease in performance. A two part mechanistic study was conducted in an attempt to decouple the effect of the two possible factors (resin hydrolysis and/or degradation vs. resin fouling) on column performance over lifetime of the most commonly used alkali-stable Protein A resins (MabSelect SuRe and MabSelect SuRe LX). The change in binding capacity as a function of sodium hydroxide concentration (rate of hydrolysis), temperature, and stabilizing additives was examined. Additionally, resin extraction studies and product cycling studies were conducted to determine cleaning effectiveness (resin fouling) of various cleaning strategies. Sodium hydroxide-based cleaning solutions were shown to be more effective at preventing resin fouling. Conversely, cold temperature and the use of stabilizing additives in conjunction with sodium hydroxide were found to be beneficial in minimizing the rate of Protein A ligand hydrolysis. An effective and robust cleaning strategy is presented here to maximize resin lifetime and thereby the number of column cycles for future manufacturing processes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:708-715, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Effect of configuration factor on gap formation in hybrid composite resin, low-shrinkage composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujeni, Parvin M; Mousavinasab, Sayyed M; Hasanli, Elham

    2015-05-01

    Polymerization shrinkage is one of the important factors in creation of gap between dental structure and composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of configuration factor (C-factor) on gap formation in a hybrid composite resin, a low shrinkage composite resin and a resin modified glass ionomer restorative material. Cylindrical dentin cavities with 5.0 mm diameter and three different depths (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm) were prepared on the occlusal surface of 99 human molars and the cavities assigned into three groups (each of 33). Each group contained three subgroups depend on the different depths and then cavities restored using resin modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC Improved) and two type composite resins (Filtek P90 and Filtek Z250). Then the restorations were cut into two sections in a mesiodistal direction in the middle of restorations. Gaps were measured on mesial, distal and pulpal floor of the cavities, using a stereomicroscope. Data analyses using Kruskal-Wallist and Mann-Whitney tests. Increasing C-factor from 1.8 to 3.4 had no effect on the gap formation in two type composite resins, but Fuji II LC Improved showed significant effect of increasing C-factor on gap formation. Taken together, when C-factor increased from 1.8 up to 3.4 had no significant effect on gap formation in two tested resin composites. Although, Filtek P90 restorations showed smaller gap formation in cavities walls compared to Filtek Z250 restorations. High C-factor values generated the largest gap formation. Silorane-based composite was more efficient for cavity sealing than methacrylate-based composites and resin modified glass ionomer. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Subsurface degradation of resin-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Rafat; Tyas, Martin J; Burrow, Michael F

    2007-08-01

    To determine the depth of a degraded subsurface layer produced in dental composites as a result of exposure to lactic acid or NaOH, by observing the penetration of AgNO(3) solution. Specimens were prepared from four resin composites; Point 4 (Kerr), Premise (Kerr), Filtek Supreme (3M/ESPE), Ceram X (Dentsply), and two polyacid-modified resin composites; Dyract (Dentsply) and F2000 (3M/ESPE). The specimens were immersed in distilled water for 1 week, transferred to one of three aqueous media at 60 degrees C for 2 weeks; distilled water, 0.01mol/L lactic acid or 0.1N NaOH, washed and immersed in 50% (w/w) aqueous silver nitrate for 10 days at 60 degrees C and placed in a photodeveloper solution. After reduction of the silver, specimens were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned and polished, coated with carbon, and examined by backscattered mode scanning electron microscopy. The depth of silver penetration into the degraded area was measured from the SEM micrographs. Energy dispersive analysis X-ray (EDAX) was used to confirm the presence of silver. NaOH produced the greatest depth of degradation and lactic acid the least. Premise showed the greatest depth of silver penetration when subjected to NaOH, and Filtek Supreme the second with peeling of the surface and cracking, whereas F2000 and Point 4 showed the least in NaOH and lactic acid. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed that the depth of silver penetration was material and solution dependent, and the differences were significant for most of the materials (P<0.05).

  1. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered.

  2. From Negligence to Perception of Complexities in Adherence to Treatment Process in People with Diabetes: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Narjes Mousavizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor adherence of patients with type 2 diabetes to treatment is one of the most complex and important clinical concerns. It is the main issue of the present decade and acknowledged as a challenge to control and treat diabetes. This study was carried out to explore and understand how adherence to treatment process occurs among Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The present study is qualitative with grounded theory approach. The data were collected from December 2015 to July 2016 in Tehran (Iran through individual semi-structured in-depth interviews, field notes, and memos from 21 patients with type 2 diabetes; combined with two members of their families and a healthcare professional. The data were analyzed based on Corbin and Strauss constant comparative analysis (2008. Results: Adherence to treatment is a transitional, interactive, and continuous process. For patients with diabetes, this process includes unperceived threat in diagnosis time (poor knowledge and skills, bottleneck of dependencies, superficial understanding of the new situation, bitter belief (downhill quality of life, physical and emotional treatment feedbacks, and adaptation to treatment (self-care dominance, regimen integration in daily activities. The process of adherence to treatment was influenced by knowledge and skill, social support, beliefs and values, psychological characteristics of people, and the nature of diabetes. Conclusion: Adherence to treatment in Iranian people with diabetes depends on the family and social context, which is challenging for the patient and leads to the negligence of health behaviors. It is vital for healthcare providers to identify these factors to encourage patients to adhere and commit to treatment in order to prevent irreversible complications of diabetes.

  3. SPT0346-52: NEGLIGIBLE AGN ACTIVITY IN A COMPACT, HYPER-STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 5.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Vieira, J. D.; Sreevani, J. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N. [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Litke, K.; Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); McDonald, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 37-582C, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Murphy, E. J., E-mail: jingzhema@ufl.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    We present Chandra ACIS-S and Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio continuum observations of the strongly lensed dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J034640-5204.9 (hereafter SPT0346-52) at z = 5.656. This galaxy has also been observed with ALMA, HST , Spitzer , Herschel , Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, and the Very Large Telescope. Previous observations indicate that if the infrared (IR) emission is driven by star formation, then the inferred lensing-corrected star formation rate (SFR) (∼4500 M {sub ☉} yr{sup −1}) and SFR surface density Σ{sub SFR} (∼2000 M {sub ☉} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}) are both exceptionally high. It remained unclear from the previous data, however, whether a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes appreciably to the IR luminosity. The Chandra upper limit shows that SPT0346-52 is consistent with being star formation dominated in the X-ray, and any AGN contribution to the IR emission is negligible. The ATCA radio continuum upper limits are also consistent with the FIR-to-radio correlation for star-forming galaxies with no indication of an additional AGN contribution. The observed prodigious intrinsic IR luminosity of (3.6 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉} originates almost solely from vigorous star formation activity. With an intrinsic source size of 0.61 ± 0.03 kpc, SPT0346-52 is confirmed to have one of the highest Σ{sub SFR} of any known galaxy. This high Σ{sub SFR}, which approaches the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure supported starburst, may be explained by a combination of very high star formation efficiency and gas fraction.

  4. SHALLOW SHELL RESIN VERSUS TRADITIONAL RESIN: A CASE STUDY FOR Cu(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Arar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on Cu2+ removal by shallow shell resin (Purolite SST 60 and traditional strongly acidic cation exchange resin (Purolite PFC 100 was performed. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of  resin  dosage and  solution pH and contact time. Ion exchange reaction showed a pH depended feature.  Maximum removal of Cu2+ achieved  pH  from 2 to 5. Sorption isothermal data is well interpreted by the Langmuir equation. Additionally, kinetic experiments showed that the pseudo first-order model was suitable for such resins. The regeneration performance of shallow shell technology (SST resin is better than PFC 100.  A solution of 2M H2SO4 performed well in regenerationof SST 60 resin. On the other han maximum regeneration reached 80% for PFC 100 resin.Özet: Bu çalışmada, klasik iyon değiştirici reçine (Purolite PFC 100 ve  sığ kabuk  reçine (Purolite SST 60  ile Cu2+ giderilmesi incelenmiştir. Yapılan kesikli çalışmalarla Cu2+ giderilmesine, reçine miktarı, çözelti pH`ı ve temas süresinin etkisi incelenmiştir. Çözelti pH`ının 2 ile 5 arasında olduğu durumda Cu2+ iyonları tamamen giderilmiştir. Denge çalışmalarında elde edilen sonuçlar Langmuir izoterm modeline daha uygun olmuştur. Kinetik çalışmalarda elde edilen sonuçlar yalancı birinci mertebe kinetik modeline uygunluk göstermişir. SST 60 reçinesinin rejenerasyon verimi PFC 100 reçinesinden daha yüksektir. 2M H2SO4 ile SST 60 reçinesi tamamen rejenere edilmiştir.

  5. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  6. Epoxy resin systems for FGD units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brytus, V.; Puglisi, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research work which is directed towards epoxy resins and curing agents which are designed to withstand aggressive environments. This work includes not only a chemical description of the materials involved, but the application testing necessary to verify the usefulness of these systems. It demonstrates that new high performance epoxy systems are superior to those which traditionally come to mind when one thinks epoxy. Finally, it discusses the results of testing designed specifically to screen candidates for use in FGD units

  7. Two pentasaccharide resin glycosides from Argyreia acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-Qin; Pan, Jie-Tao; Yu, Bang-Wei; Cui, Hong-Hua; Yan, You-Shao; Chen, Yan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Two new compounds of acutacosides 1 and 2, pentasaccharide resin glycosides were isolated from the aerial parts of Argyreia acuta. The core of the two compounds was operculinic acid A, and they were esterfied at the same position, just one substituent group was linked at C-2 of Rha. The absolute configuration of the aglycone in the two compounds was established by Mosher's method, which was (11S)-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (jalapinolic acid). Their structures were established by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  8. Physicochemical characterization of pulverized phyllite rocks to geopolymer resin synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, L.G.A. [Instituto Militar de Enegenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pires, E.F.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, R.A.; Silva, F.J. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Rio de Raneiro (IFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Geopolymeric materials have common properties considered unique, such as: early-high compressive strength, durability, high chemical resistance to acids and sulfates attacks, ability to immobilize toxic and radioactive compounds, low porosity, low permeability, and resistance to high temperatures. Together with its environmental benefits, such as low energy consumption and low carbon dioxide emissions during production, these inorganic polymers are strategic materials for sustainable development and a good alternative to Portland cement. The main objective for introducing alternative materials is to lower the associated costs of its industrial process. Thus, the use of phyllite as the geopolymer precursor, is encouraged by its abundance, low cost, and the fact that it already is applied to the ceramic industries as kaolin substitute. This paper presents a physical characterization using TEM, SEM, XRD and XRF techniques of two pulverized phyllite rocks used as geopolymer precursors for refractory applications. It was found that both phyllite rocks studied have a high quartz content of approximately 50% that can be explored as 'filler' function in the microstructure, which stabilizes residual tensions after curing. Kaolinite and muscovite minerals are present up to 40% and are responsible for the high strengths in the geopolymer resins, as determined by compressive strength tests. (author)

  9. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60??ppm range of solid-state 13C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000??cm- 1) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH2) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both 13C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition in the soil for as little as 1000??years. The Morwell

  10. Chemical modification of protein a chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol. II: Effects on resin robustness and process selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justin; Zhang, Shaojie; Kirkby, Allison; Shachar, Enosh; Carta, Giorgio; Przybycien, Todd

    2018-04-20

    We have proposed chemical modification of Protein A (ProA) chromatography ligands with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) as a strategy to increase the resin selectivity and robustness by providing the ligand with a steric repulsion barrier against non-specific binding. Here, we report on robustness and selectivity benefits for Repligen CaptivA PriMAB resin with ligands modified with 5.2 kDa and 21.5 kDa PEG chains, respectively. PEGylation of ProA ligands allowed the resin to retain a higher percentage of static binding capacity relative to the unmodified resin upon digestion with chymotrypsin, a representative serine protease. The level of protection against digestion was independent of the PEG molecular weight or modification extent for the PEGylation chemistry used. Additionally, PEGylation of the ligands was found to decrease the level of non-specific binding of fluorescently labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates to the surface of the resin particles as visualized via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The level of aggregate binding decreased as the PEG molecular weight increased, but increasing the extent of modification with 5.2 kDa PEG chains had no effect. Further examination of resin particles via CLSM confirmed that the PEG chains on the modified ligands were capable of blocking the "hitchhiking" association of BSA, a mock contaminant, to an adsorbed mAb that is prone to BSA binding. Ligands modified with 21.5 kDa PEG chains were effective at blocking the association, while ligands modified with 5.2 kDa PEG chains were not. Finally, ligands with 21.5 kDa PEG chains increased the selectivity of the resin against host cell proteins (HCPs) produced by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells by up to 37% during purification of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) from harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) using a standard ProA chromatography protocol. The combined work suggests that PEGylating ProA chromatography media is a viable pathway for

  11. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles... articles intended for repeated use in contact with nonacid food (pH above 5.0), in accordance with the...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Dracaena cinnabari resin from Soqotra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few studies showed that Dracaena cinnabari resin, collected from Soqotra Island, Yemen, has antimicrobial activity. This study is the first to investigate antimicrobial activity of the resin on both antibiotic multi-resistant human pathogens and on poly-microbial culture. Material and Methods: Antimicrobial activity ...

  13. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characteristic of warm tropical climate suggesting the prevalence of such climate during early Eocene in northeast India. 1. Introduction ... family (Dutta et al. 2009, 2011b). These are also known as dammar resins and have been classified as Class II resins (Anderson et al. 1992; Dutta et al. 2009). These have been reported ...

  14. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phenolic resin; nanometric silicon carbide; nanocomposites; friction coefficient. 1. Introduction. Phenolic resin composites have their applications in a wide range of fields ... Curing time and temperature as well as mold materials influence the resulting homogeneity, glass transition temperature and mechanical properties.

  15. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS) Resin with Polyester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    glass fibres, to produce hard and strong structural materials. The use of carbon fibre to reinforce epoxide resin is a fairly recent development. Carbon reinforced epoxy resins are extremely strong materials with a very high value of Young's. Modulus, compared with other plastic materials, and they are finding applications in ...

  16. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents a preliminary study on obtaining and characterization of phenolic resin-based com- posites modified with nanometric silicon carbide. The nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating nanometric silicon carbide (nSiC) into phenolic resin at 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% contents using ultrasonication to ...

  17. The measurement of polymerization shrinkage of composite resins with ESPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Guo Biao

    2008-09-01

    In the current study, we used the method of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) to measure polymerization shrinkage of composite resins. Standardized cavities were prepared and placed into the ESPI apparatus before the cavities were filled with composites (n=2) .The ESPI apparatus was constructed to measure the out-of-plane displacement of the resins surface during the polymerization. Experiments demonstrated that the ESPI technique was a viable method to measure the deformation of composite resins. It was responsive and sensitive to dimensional changes. We found that cavity shape, size and C- factor influenced the date of resins shrinkage. And the tooth deformation in response to polymerization of resins was measured by the ESPI too. We concluded that ESPI was a feasible method for assessing resins deformation induced by its polymerization shrinkage when it was bonded in tooth cavities. And the results were greatly influenced by the dimensions of cavities , or interface adhesive and so on. It could also measure the tooth deformation induced by shrinkage of bonded composite resins. We found that resins polymerization shrinkage date may overestimate shrinkage-induced tooth deformation.

  18. The Translucency Effect of Different Colored Resin Cements used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... [32] studied the optical effect of composite resins on ceramic crowns and noted that there are no industrial standards for resin shade classification. The results of the present study show that cements of the same shade in different systems exhibit different color parameters. In terms of opacity or translucency, ...

  19. Studies on blends of cycloaliphatic epoxy resin with varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    mechanical analysis (DMA) of the blends of cycloaliphatic epoxy (CAE) resin toughened with liquid elastomer such as carboxyl ..... ber filled epoxy composites can behave as a better damp- ing material in dynamic applications compared to brittle epoxy resin. The cross linking density of the prepared blend systems showed ...

  20. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Prosthesis to Restore Missing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fiber-reinforced composite inlay-onlay FPD was used for a single posterior tooth replacement in a patient refusing implant for psychological reasons. The FRC-FPD was made of pre-impregnated E-glass fibers (everStick, StickTeck, Turku, Finland) embedded in a resin matrix (Stick Resin, StickTeck, Turku, Finland).

  1. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  2. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-01-01

    Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

  3. Guayule resin detection and influence on guayule rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) producing crop, native to North America. Guayule also produces organic resins, complex mixtures of terpenes, triglycerides, guayulins, triterpenoids and other components. During natural rubber extraction, guayule resins can b...

  4. Evaluation of Two Olibanum Resins as Rate Controlling Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olibanum is an oleo-gum resin which is economically and culturally valuable product obtained from several species of the genus Boswellia. In this study, the resins extracted from local olibanum: Boswellia papyrifera (Tigray type) and Boswellia rivae (Ogaden type) were evaluated as matrix forming agents in sustained ...

  5. Effect of different catalysts on urea-formaldehyde resin synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi-Ning Sun; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Four catalysts (H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and NaOH/NH4OH) were studied in the preparation of melamine modified urea– formaldehyde (UFM) resins. 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of the UFM resins at different synthesis stages revealed the...

  6. Chemical tools: epoxic resins; Herramientas quimicas: resinas epoxidicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, S.; Pazos, M.; Prendes, P.

    1998-10-01

    Epoxy resins are very useful products for different applications in different fields. Due to the fact that they are a highly versatile products they can be considered as chemical tools. However the epoxy resins must be correctly formulated in order to obtain the final properties. In this article an easy and reliable method to optimise the energy formulation is presented. (Author)

  7. Method of heat decomposition for chemical decontaminating resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To make resin wastes into non-deleterious state, discharge them into a resin waste storage tank of existent radioactive waste processing facility and store and dispose them. Constitution: In the processing of chemical decontaminating resin wastes, iron exchange resins adsorbing chemical decontaminating agents comprising a solution of citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and EDTA alone or as a mixture of them are heated to dry, thermally decomposed and then separated from the ion exchange resins. That is, the main ingredients of the chemical decontaminating agents are heat-decomposed when heated and dried at about 250 deg C in air and converted into non-toxic gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 or H 2 O. Further, since combustion or carbonization of the basic materials for the resin is not caused at such a level of temperature, the resin wastes removed with organic acid and chelating agents are transferred to an existent resin waste storage tank and stored therein. In this way, facility cost and radiation exposure can remarkably be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Determination of degradation conditions of exchange resins containing technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera S, A.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.

    2014-10-01

    The quantification of Tc-99 in spent exchange resins, coming from nuclear power plants, is indispensable to define their administration. The Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter of 210000 years of half-life, volatile and of a high mobility in water and soil. For this reason, the objective of this work is to establish a digestion method of ionic exchange resins containing technetium that retains more than 95% of this radioisotope. Mineralization tests were carried out of a resin Amberlite IRN-150 by means of an oxidation heat, in acid medium, varying the resin mass, the medium volume, the media type, the temperature and the digestion time. The digested samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to estimate the grade of their degradation. The 99m Tc was used as tracer to determine the technetium percentage recovered after mineralizing the resin. The digestion process depends on the temperature and the resin mass. At higher temperature better mineralization of samples and to greater resin mass to a constant temperature, less degradation of the resin. The spectra beta of the 99m Tc and 99 Tc are presented. (Author)

  9. Infrared spectroscopic monitoring of urea addition to oriented strandboard resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Ernest Hsu; Brian K. Via; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    One of the variables in phenol formaldehyde adhesive resin formulation is the addition of urea, which allows the resin manufacturer to manipulate both product functionality and cost. Nitrogen content can be used as a measure of the level of urea addition because most of the nitrogen present is derived from urea added at the end of the preparation process. Nitrogen...

  10. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 12,000, as determined by gel permeation chromatography in comparison with polystyrene standards, and... calorimetry. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic resins identified in paragraph (a) may contain... percent by weight as a residual solvent in the finished basic resin. (c) Extractive limitations. The...

  11. Effect of photoactivation on the reduction of composite resin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Natalia A; Girotto, Luiza P S; Leite, Françoise H S; Mario, Débora N

    2017-06-01

    Composite resins are predominantly marketed in developing countries in tube form, and the contents of the tube may be used in numerous procedures for different patients. This represents a problem because of the risk of cross-contamination. This study aimed to evaluate contamination in vitro of the internal contents of composite resin tubes in the dental clinics of a higher-education institution, as well as the effect of photoactivation on the level of contamination. Twenty-five tubes containing composite resin were randomly chosen (by lottery). From each tube, two samples of approximately 2 mm of composite resin were removed, and then one sample, but not the other, was photoactivated. These samples were plated on Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI), Sabouraud and MacConkey agars, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h. Colony counting and Gram staining were performed for subsequent microscopic identification of fungi and bacteria. The non-photoactivated composite resin group presented significantly higher microbial contamination in relation to the photoactivated composite resin group. The photoactivation of camphorquinone present in composite resin produces reactive oxygen species, which might promote cell death of contaminant microorganisms. Thus, although the same tube of composite resin may be used for a number of different patients in the dental clinics of developing countries, the photoactivation process potentially reduces the risk of cross-contamination. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  12. Evaluation of resin adhesion to zirconia ceramic using some organosilanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matinlinna, Jukka P.; Heikkinen, Mo; Ozcan, Mutlu; Lassila, Lippo V. J.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    Objectives. This study evaluated and compared the effect of three trialkoxysilane coupling agents on the bond strength of a Bis-GMA-based unfilled resin and a dimethacrylate-based resin composite luting cement to a zirconia ceramics (Procera(R) AllZircon, Nobel Biocare, Goteborg, Sweden). Methods.

  13. Synthesis of nanosized barium titanate/epoxy resin composites and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barium titanate/epoxy resin composites have been synthesized and tested for microwave absorption/ transmission. Nanocrystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3 or BT) ... Anechoic chamber; barium titanate; electromagnetic interference and compatibility; epoxy resin ..... electromagnetic waves, the two port calibrations have been.

  14. Recent Advances in Adhesive Bonding - The Role of Biomolecules, Nanocompounds, and Bonding Strategies in Enhancing Resin Bonding to Dental Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Bottino, Marco C

    2017-09-01

    To present an overview on the main agents (i.e., biomolecules and nanocompounds) and/or strategies currently available to amplify or stabilize resin-dentin bonding. According to studies retrieved for full text reading (2014-2017), there are currently six major strategies available to overcome resin-dentin bond degradation: (i) use of collagen crosslinking agents, which may form stable covalent bonds with collagen fibrils, thus strengthening the hybrid layer; (ii) use of antioxidants, which may allow further polymerization reactions over time; (iii) use of protease inhibitors, which may inhibit or inactivate metalloproteinases; (iv) modification of the bonding procedure, which may be performed by using the ethanol wet-bonding technique or by applying an additional adhesive (hydrophobic) coating, thereby strengthening the hybrid layer; (v) laser treatment of the substrate prior to bonding, which may cause specific topographic changes in the surface of dental substrates, increasing bonding efficacy; and (vi) reinforcement of the resin matrix with inorganic fillers and/or remineralizing agents, which may positively enhance physico-mechanical properties of the hybrid layer. With the present review, we contributed to the better understanding of adhesion concepts and mechanisms of resin-dentin bond degradation, showing the current prospects available to solve that problematic. Also, adhesively-bonded restorations may be benefited by the use of some biomolecules, nanocompounds or alternative bonding strategies in order to minimize bond strength degradation.

  15. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  16. Analysis of Employee Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Burešová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The target of this bachelor thesis is to analyze employee benefits from the perspective of employees and to employers suggest possible ideas to improve their provision. The work is divided into two parts: theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes the overal remuneration of employees, payroll system and employee benefits. Benefits are included in the remuneration system, broken and some of them are defined. The practical part presents a survey among employees in the Czech Repub...

  17. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial orthodontic resin containing silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Min; Lee, Donghyun; Han, Seungheui; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Lim, Ho-Nam; Kwon, Il Keun

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we developed a hybrid dental resin containing silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) to eliminate periodontal disease causing bacteria such as streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus). The silver nanoparticles enables the resin to prevent oral pathogen growth during orthodontic therapy. First, AgNPs were directly synthesized in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent with a capping agent. Second, pure orthodontic primer was mixed with the synthesized AgNPs solvent-slurry followed by photocuring. The resultant material was characterized by physicochemical characterization. Finally, an in vitro antimicrobial test was carried out. The results showed that the AgNPs were fully synthesized and clearly embedded in dental resin. In the bacterial test, the dental resin containing AgNPs showed potent antimicrobial activity against two kinds of bacteria. In conclusion, our methodology may allow for the generation of a wide range of dental resin and composite products which inhibit periodontitis causing bacteria.

  18. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  19. Chemical signatures of fossilized resins and recent plant exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Anderson, Ken B

    2008-01-01

    Amber is one of the few gemstones based on an organic structure. Found over most of the world, it is the fossil form of sticky plant exudates called resins. Investigation of amber by modern analytical techniques provides structural information and insight into the identity of the ancient plants that produced the source resin. Mass spectrometric analysis of materials separated by gas chromatography has identified specific compounds that are the basis of a reliable classification of the different types of amber. NMR spectroscopy of bulk, solid amber provides a complementary classification. NMR spectroscopy also can be used to characterize modern resins as well as other types of plant exudates such as gums, gum resins, and kinos, which strongly resemble resins in appearance but have very different molecular constitutions.

  20. Evaluation of matrices for immobilizing ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Speranzini, R.A.

    1980-07-01

    Ion exchange resins make up a significant fraction of the volume of radioactive wastes generated during the operation of CANDU-PHW nuclear power stations. Since permanent disposal will eventually be required for these contaminated ion-exchange resins, some way to reduce their volume and to immobilize their radionuclides is required. An evaluation of the processes for immobilizing contaminated ion exchange resins directly into glasses, plastics, bitumens and cements is reported here. Releases of Cs-137, Co-60 and C-14 in leach testss were found to be lowest for bitumen followed by glasses, plastics and cements. Approximately 8% of the C-14 inventory on the ion-exchange resins is released into the off-gas system during glass formation and could limit use of this option. A pyrolysis method for a three-fold reduction in the volume of used ion-exchange resins is described. (auth)

  1. Antimicrobial activity of resin acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savluchinske-Feio, Sonia; Curto, Maria João Marcelo; Gigante, Bárbara; Roseiro, J Carlos

    2006-09-01

    The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents gave rise to a growing effort in the search for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives. In some of these compounds, the antimicrobial activity is associated to the presence in the molecules of functional groups such as the hydroxyl, aldehyde, and ketone or to their cis or trans configurations. The resin acid family covers a spectrum of antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms, from bacteria to fungi, in which the mode of action was studied by electron microscopy. The morphological alterations are consistent with an unspecific mode of action causing inhibition of the fungal growth or damaging the fungal cells in parallel with a mechanism of resistance based on the retention of the compound by the lipid accumulation. The sterol composition of phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Lophodermium seditiosum treated with methyl cis-7-oxo-deisopropyldehydroabietate revealed the presence of ergosterol (M+ 396) and dihydroergosterol (M+ 398) in both cultures showing that this compound did not interfere with the ergosterol metabolic pathway of both fungi.

  2. Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

    Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

  3. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolitetrademark NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900trademark, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material

  4. Has resin-based composite replaced amalgam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Gordon J; Child, Paul L

    2010-02-01

    The major health organizations in the world continue to accept amalgam use, but the "amalgam war" of the 1800s is still going on. The end is not in sight. There is little disagreement that amalgam serves well and, although controversial, it appears to have minimal to no health hazards. There is a wide variation in the relative amount of amalgam placed in developed countries, and many dentists in North America do not use it. However, amalgam is still being used at least some of the time by the majority of practitioners in North America, and most of those practitioners also place resin-based composite in Class II locations. The evolution from amalgam to tooth-colored restorations has been a slow and tumultuous journey. The acceptability of resin-based composite in Class II locations continues to be a question for some dentists, while others have concluded that amalgam is "dead." It would be highly desirable if some of dentists using the alleged poisonous properties of amalgam as a "practice building" ploy would find more legitimate methods to increase their practice activity.

  5. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  6. In vitro two-body wear of inlay-onlay composite resin restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, A R; Nicholls, J I; Brudvik, J S

    1991-02-01

    Inlay-onlay composite resin restorations have been introduced to the profession as alternatives to amalgam and direct composite resins. Two-body wear testing was performed on three inlay-onlay resins and one direct composite resins using a machine designed to produce sliding wear. The composite resins were opposed by human enamel, type III gold alloy, and porcelain. Of the investigated materials, the homogeneously microfilled inlay-onlay material showed significantly less wear. The direct composite resin showed significantly the greatest wear. The hybrid inlay-onlay resins showed intermediate wear. The hybrid inlay-onlay resins and the direct composite (small particle, heavily filled) resin created wear tracks in the opposing surfaces while the homogeneous microfill inlay-onlay resin did not. The depth of the observed wear tracks in the opposing surface was sufficiently substantial to warrant further investigation into the wear of materials that oppose composite resin restorations.

  7. Metameric effect between dental porcelain and porcelain repairing resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Rhee, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2007-03-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the metameric color and hue angle (degrees) changes between dental porcelain and porcelain repairing resin composites. Color of three shades (A2, A3, A3.5) of one brand of dental porcelain and three original shades (A2, A3, A3.5) and three combinations (A2-A3, A3-3.5, A2-A3.5) of three brands of porcelain repairing resin composites (ABT, FSP, TCR) were measured relative to the three standard illuminants (D65, A and F2). Specimen was 2mm in thickness, and 1mm of each shade was layered to make combined shades. Color differences (DeltaEab*) between each shade of dental porcelain and repairing resin composites relative to the three illuminants were calculated, and the ratios of color difference (modified metamerism index) by the change of illuminant were calculated. The ratios of hue angle changes were also compared. Differences in modified metamerism index and the ratio of hue angle changes were influenced by the porcelain shade, brand of resin composites and shade of resin composites. In all three brands of resin composites, A3.5 shade showed the smallest values in modified metamerism index regardless of the shade of porcelain. The average ratio of hue angle changes between each porcelain shade and all the shades of each resin composites showed similar trend when illuminant was changed from D65 to F2. Metameric effect between dental porcelain and repairing resin composites varied depending on the shade of porcelain, brand of resin composite and the illuminant. Therefore, shade matching between porcelain and repairing resin composite should be performed carefully. This study confirmed that shades should be matched under the light corresponding to that of use.

  8. Negligent and intentional fires in Portugal: the role of human and biophysical drivers on the spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário; Amraoui, Malik; Tedim, Fantina

    2017-04-01

    The European Mediterranean countries, such as Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece, have the higher incidence of fire. Of these countries, Portugal present the highest average number of fires (NF) and one of the highest burnt area (BA), in spite of its relatively smaller land area. The study period is focused in the recent years of 2012 - 2014, when a total of 59 257 fires were recorded and the fire cause is known for more than 50% of the fire records. All fires with known causes were then classified into intentional (40% of the total number of fires) and negligent (60%), leading to a total of 45% of fires related with human factors and activities. Taking into account these values the authors believe it's necessary to better understand the fire regime of this type of fires for a better fire prevention, firefighting and crisis management. Accordingly, the use of statistical analysis and GIS techniques were used to assess the spatial distribution of the human caused fires in each of the NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics level I, which divides Portugal in 5 basic economic regions, namely Norte, Centro, Area Metropolitana de Lisboa, Alentejo, and Algarve. The number of fires distribution increases with latitude, making north of Portugal the region with the highest number of fires. The analysis will also aims to assess the role of the most important human and biophysical drivers of the spatial distribution, namely the population density, land use land cover (LULC), distance to communication routes (roads and railways) and topographic variables (altitude, slope). The results show that: a) population density is highly and positively correlated with the agglomeration of fire ignitions, but doesn't imply highest burned area; b) burnt area increase with the distance to roads and altitude; and, c) 58% of the fires occurred on agriculture areas and 33% of fires occurred in forest and scrubs areas. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the

  9. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of conventional composite resin and nanocomposite resin to sandblasted primary anterior stainless steel crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, A; Nandlal, B

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of conventional composite resin and nanocomposite resin to sandblasted primary anterior stainless steel crown. The study samples consisted of 30 primary anterior stainless steel crowns (Unitek TM, size R4), embedded in resin blocks with crown, in test groups of 15 samples each. Mounting of the crown was done using resin block with one crown each. Sandblasting was done and the bonding agent Prime and Bond NT (Dentsply) was applied on the labial surface of the primary anterior sandblasted crown. The composite resin and nanocomposite resin were placed into the well of Teflon jig and bonded to Stainless Steel Crowns. The cured samples were placed in distilled water and stored in incubator at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. Shear bond strength was measured using universal testing machine (Hounsefield U.K. Model, with a capacity of 50 KN). Independent sample 't' test revealed a nonsignificant (P resin and nanocomposite resin had statistically similar mean shear bond strength, with nanocomposite having little more strength compared to conventional composite.

  10. Resin screening for the removal of pyridine-derivatives from waste-water by solvent impregnated resin technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The selective removal of pyridine derivatives by solvent impregnated resins has been studied. A solvent impregnated resin consists of a macro-porous particle that is impregnated with a solvent. This technology allows the use liquid–liquid extraction in fixed-bed operation, and prevents problems like

  11. A randomized controlled three year evaluation of "bulk-filled" posterior resin restorations based on stress decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a flowable resin composite (SDR) bulk fill technique in posterior restorations and to compare it intraindividually with a conventional 2mm resin composite curing technique in a 3-year....... In all cavities a single step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In one of the cavities of each pair, a flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with a nano......-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono) layer. In the second cavity, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 3 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated...

  12. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for phthalates (dibutylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthlate), with emphasis on endocrine disruptive properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Posthumus R; Vlaardingen P van; Crommentuijn T; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    This report presents maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) and negligible concentrations (NCs) are derived for di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Phthalates are often mentioned as suspected endocrine disrupters. Data with endpoints related to the endocrine or

  13. Negligible depletion solid-phase microextraction with radiolabeled analytes to study free concentrations and protein binding : an example with [3H]Estradiol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.B.; Pastor, D.; Algra, J.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hemmens, J.L.M.

    2002-01-01

    A new method is presented that enables sensitive measurement of free concentrations of radiolabeled ligands. Additionally, protein binding of radiochemicals in complex matrixes can be determined with this new technique that combines negligible depletion solid-phase microextraction (nd-SPME) with

  14. Frequent LOH at hMLH1, a highly variable SNP in hMSH3, and negligible coding instability in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arzimanoglou, I.I.; Hansen, L.L.; Chong, D.

    2002-01-01

    the mismatch DNA repair genes in ovarian cancer (OC), using a sensitive, accurate and reliable protocol we have developed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A combination of high-resolution GeneScan software analysis and automated DNA cycle sequencing was used. RESULTS: Negligible coding MSI was observed in selected...

  15. Jacob Mathew v. State of Punjab, the judgment stipulates the guidelines to be followed before launching a prosecution against a doctor for negligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattaram Visweswara Subrahmanyam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a landmark judgment, the supreme court of India laid down guidelines in cases of alleged negligence against medical practitioners in India. It clearly stated that there is a need for protecting doctors from frivolous or unjust prosecution.

  16. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  17. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  18. Who Benefits from Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochon, Daniel; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have documented the benefits of religious involvement. Indeed, highly religious people tend to be healthier, live longer, and have higher levels of subjective well-being. While religious involvement offers clear benefits to many, in this paper we explore whether it may also be detrimental to some. Specifically, we examine in detail…

  19. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  20. Nanocosmetics: benefits and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Summary Various nanomaterials/nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for the development of cosmetic products - a field so-called nanocosmetic formulations. These advanced materials offer some benefits, while their utilization in the cosmetic formulations may be associated with some risks. The main aim of this editorial is to highlight the benefits and risks of the nanomaterials used in the cosmetic products.