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Sample records for resin acid abietic

  1. C-11 Acid and the Stereochemistry of Abietic Acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    While many features, like the phenanthrene-type of fusion of the three ... thought to contain the original ring A of abietic acid, retaining the. 'nuclear methyl .... Thinking that the anhydride he had obtained by the action of heat on the C-11 acid ...

  2. The conifer biomarkers dehydroabietic and abietic acids are widespread in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maria Sofia; Rego, Adriana; Ramos, Vitor; Afonso, Tiago B.; Freitas, Sara; Preto, Marco; Lopes, Viviana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Magalhães, Catarina; Leão, Pedro N.

    2016-01-01

    Terpenes, a large family of natural products with important applications, are commonly associated with plants and fungi. The diterpenoids dehydroabietic and abietic acids are defense metabolites abundant in resin, and are used as biomarkers for conifer plants. We report here for the first time that the two diterpenoid acids are produced by members of several genera of cyanobacteria. Dehydroabietic acid was isolated from two cyanobacterial strains and its identity was confirmed spectroscopically. One or both of the diterpenoids were detected in the cells of phylogenetically diverse cyanobacteria belonging to four cyanobacterial ‘botanical orders’, from marine, estuarine and inland environments. Dehydroabietic acid was additionally found in culture supernatants. We investigated the natural role of the two resin acids in cyanobacteria using ecologically-relevant bioassays and found that the compounds inhibited the growth of a small coccoid cyanobacterium. The unexpected discovery of dehydroabietic and abietic acids in a wide range of cyanobacteria has implications for their use as plant biomarkers. PMID:26996104

  3. Analysis of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid residues in raw ducks and cooked ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Suzhen; Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Daoying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Muhan; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China and is still being used secretly in some poultry processing enterprises. Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are the major compounds of rosin. In the present study, 90 duck samples were collected for investigation of AA and DHAA residues. Abietic acid and DHAA were simultaneously detected in 13 out 40 raw ducks, 8 out of 26 water-boiled salted ducks, and 7 out of 24 roasted ducks, respectively. In positive samples, averages of AA were significantly higher than those of DHAA in positive samples of the 3 types of ducks (P ducks were significantly higher than those in positive roasted ducks (P ducks were defeathered by means of rosin-containing defeathering agent, and cooking processes could reduce the AA and DHAA residues to some extent, but could not eliminate them completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Terpenoid biotransformation in mammals. IV Biotransformation of (+)-longifolene, (-)-caryophyllene, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (-)-cyclocolorenone, (+)-nootkatone, (-)-elemol, (-)-abietic acid and (+)-dehydroabietic acid in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Y; Ishida, T; Toyota, M; Takemoto, T

    1986-08-01

    The metabolism of (+)-longifolene, (-)-caryophyllene, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (-)-cyclocolorenone, (+)-nootkatone, (-)-elemol, (-)-abietic acid and (+)-dehydroabietic acid was studied in rabbits. Each of these sesquiterpenoids was converted to primary, secondary or tertiary alcohols, among which the primary alcohol was predominant. A vinylic methyl group and an exomethylene group were easily hydroxylated and converted to a glycol via an epoxide in many cases. Eight new metabolites were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods.

  5. Prospects of an alternative treatment against Trypanosoma cruzi based on abietic acid derivatives show promising results in Balb/c mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, F; Guardia, J J; Marin, C; Messouri, I; Rosales, M J; Urbanová, K; Chayboun, I; Chahboun, R; Alvarez-Manzaneda, E J; Sánchez-Moreno, M

    2015-01-07

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is an example of extended parasitaemia with unmet medical needs. Current treatments based on old-featured benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox are expensive and do not fulfil the criteria of effectiveness, and a lack of toxicity devoid to modern drugs. In this work, a group of abietic acid derivatives that are chemically stable and well characterised were introduced as candidates for the treatment of Chagas disease. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed in order to test the effectiveness of these compounds. Finally, those which showed the best activity underwent additional studies in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of action. In vitro results indicated that some compounds have low toxicity (i.e. >150 μM, against Vero cell) combined with high efficacy (i.e. <20 μM) against some forms of T. cruzi. Further in vivo studies on mice models confirmed the expectations of improvements in infected mice. In vivo tests on the acute phase gave parasitaemia inhibition values higher those of Bz, and a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitaemia was found in the chronic phase after immunosuppression of the mice treated with one of the compounds. The morphological alterations found in treated parasites with our derivatives confirmed extensive damage; energetic metabolism disturbances were also registered by (1)H NMR. The demonstrated in vivo activity and low toxicity, together with the use of affordable starting products and the lack of synthetic complexity, put these abietic acid derivatives in a remarkable position toward the development of an anti-Chagasic agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Resin acids as the potential growth-affecting component of pine oleoresin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Wodzicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonvolatile fraction of the oleoresin of Pinus sihestris L. was found to contain substances which inhibit growth of wheat ceoleoptile and oat mesocotyl sections in standard bioassays. The inhibition is mainly confined to the fraction of resin acids. Among the seven authentic resin acids tested, the effects of dehydroabietic and abietic acids were most sifgnificant. Palustric, pimaric and isopimaric acids were not effective in the wheat coleoptile section straight growth test. None of the substances, in the amounts tested, except for extremely high concentration, exerted an inhibitory effect on natural or IAA-induced elongation of pine hypocotyl sections. Neither was an inhibitory effect discovered in the microbiological test with the Aspergillus niger van Tiegh. The results obtained with pine hypocotyl sections, allow the conclusion that resin acids interfering with the results of standard bioassays are probably not effective as inhibitory factors in the regulation of pine tissue growth.

  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF PINE RESIN, ROSIN AND TURPENTINE OIL FROM WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wiyono

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify chemical composition of merkus pine resin, rosin and turpentine oil. Initially, pine resin was separated into neutral and acidic fractions with an aqueous 4% sodium hydroxide solution. After methylation, the fraction containing turpentine oil and rosin were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC, and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS, respectively. The neutral fraction of pine resin and turpentine oil mainly consisted of a-pinene, D-3-carene and b-pinene. Based on mass spectral comparison, the major constituents of the acidic fraction and rosin were identified as sandaracopimaric acid, isopimaric acid, palustric acid, dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid, neoabietic acid, and merkusic acid. The major component of the acidic fractions was palustric acid, while that of rosin was abietic acid. Using TC (tough column 1 and TC 5 columns, levopimaric acid could not be separated from rosin or acidic fraction of pine resin of Indonesian Pinus merkusii.

  8. Uptake of actinides by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin from acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaya Mohandas; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Vijayakumar, N.; Kumar, T.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of uranium and americium from nitric acid solutions by sulphonated phosphinic acid resin has been investigated. The capacity of the sulphonated resin exceeds the capacities of phosphinic acid resin and commercial cation exchange resin. Other advantages of the sulphonated resin for uranium and americium removal include reduced sensitivity to acidity and inert salt concentration. (author)

  9. Conifer Diterpene Resin Acids Disrupt Juvenile Hormone-Mediated Endocrine Regulation in the Indian Meal Moth Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Woo; Yun, Chan-Seok; Jeon, Jun Hyoung; Kim, Ji-Ae; Park, Doo-Sang; Ryu, Hyung Won; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Shin, Yunhee; Jung, Chan Sik; Shin, Sang Woon

    2017-07-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are important components of oleoresin and greatly contribute to the defense strategies of conifers against herbivorous insects. In the present study, we determined that DRAs function as insect juvenile hormone (JH) antagonists that interfere with the juvenile hormone-mediated binding of the JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC). Using a yeast two-hybrid system transformed with Met and SRC from the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella, we tested the interfering activity of 3704 plant extracts against JH III-mediated Met-SRC binding. Plant extracts from conifers, especially members of the Pinaceae, exhibited strong interfering activity, and four active interfering DRAs (7α-dehydroabietic acid, 7-oxodehydroabietic acid, dehydroabietic acid, and sandaracopimaric acid) were isolated from roots of the Japanese pine Pinus densiflora. The four isolated DRAs, along with abietic acid, disrupted the juvenile hormone-mediated binding of P. interpunctella Met and SRC, although only 7-oxodehydroabietic acid disrupted larval development. These results demonstrate that DRAs may play a defensive role against herbivorous insects via insect endocrine-disrupting activity.

  10. Modification of Aliphatic Petroleum Resin by Peracetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bondaletov, Vladimir Grigoryevich; Bondaletova, Lyudmila Ivanovna; Hamlenko, A.; Bondaletov, Oleg Vladimirovich; Starovoit, M.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining modified aliphatic resin (PRC5) by means of petroleum resin oxidation by peracetic acid. We have experimentally determined oxidation conditions that lead to producing resin with maximum epoxy and acid numbers. Ratio of "oxidative system: PRC5" is 0.5:1, process duration is 2 hours. The modified resin structure is determined by IR and NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Exposure of Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) to a combination of resin acids and a water soluble fraction of diesel fuel oil: A model to investigate the chemical causes of pigmented salmon syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croce, B.; Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, Aberdeen; Stagg, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Pigmented salmon syndrome is a pollutant-induced hemolytic anemia and hyperbilirubinemia. As part of an investigation of this condition, S2 Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) were exposed to a diesel fuel oil, water soluble fraction (WSF) in combination with a mixture of three resin acids (isopimaric, dehydroabietic, and abietic acids) in a continuous-flow freshwater system. The total nominal concentrations of resin acids in the exposure tanks were 10, 50, and 100 microg/L; the diesel WSF was generated in situ and provided a mean hydrocarbon concentration of 2.0 ± 0.1 mg/L (n = 12) during the 9-d exposure period. Exposure to the diesel WSF alone depressed liver bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) activity and induced phenol UDPGT activity. Exposure to the diesel WSF in the absence or presence of resin acids induced liver cytochrome P4501A and increased the concentrations in the plasma of the enzymes lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. The combined exposure to diesel WSF with either 50 or 100 microg/L total resin acid caused significant elevations in the concentrations of bilirubin in the plasma and many of these fish had yellow pigmentation on the ventral surface and around the gill arches. The results demonstrate that exposure to combinations of two groups of contaminants can result in the manifestation of toxic effects not apparent from exposure to either of these chemicals in isolation

  12. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  13. Chelating ion exchange with macroreticular hydroxamic acid resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis, reactions, and analytical applications of hydroxamic acids, including chelating resins with this functional group, are reviewed. A procedure for attaching N-phenyl hydroxamic acid groups to Amberlite XAD-4 is described. The extraction of 20 metal ions from 2 M hydrochloric acid by this resin is discussed. Conditions for the quantitative extraction and back-extraction of 9 ions are reported. Results are compared with work on solvent extraction with N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid. Procedures for attaching N-methyl and N-unsubstituted hydroxamic acid groups to Amberlite XAD-4 are described. The N-phenyl, N-methyl, and N-unsubstituted hydroxamic acid resins are compared with respect to metal-ion complexation. The scope of applications for hydroxamic acid resins is investigated by studying the extraction of 19 metal ions as a function of pH. The resins are especially suitable for the extraction of zirconium(IV), titanium(IV), and uranium(IV) from strongly acidic solution. Aluminum(III) is separated from calcium and phosphate by extraction at pH 4. The use of the resins for the purification of reagents, concentration of trace constituents, and chromatographic separation is demonstrated

  14. Enhanced vanillin production from ferulic acid using adsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Song, Lifu; Lin, Shan; Zhang, Zhaobin; Deng, Zixin; Xu, Ping

    2007-03-01

    High vanillin productivity was achieved in the batch biotransformation of ferulic acid by Streptomyces sp. strain V-1. Due to the toxicity of vanillin and the product inhibition, fed-batch biotransformation with high concentration of ferulic acid was unsuccessful. To solve this problem and improve the vanillin yield, a biotransformation strategy using adsorbent resin was investigated. Several macroporous adsorbent resins were chosen to adsorb vanillin in situ during the bioconversion. Resin DM11 was found to be the best, which adsorbed the most vanillin and the least ferulic acid. When 8% resin DM11 (wet w/v) was added to the biotransformation system, 45 g l(-1) ferulic acid could be added continually and 19.2 g l(-1) vanillin was obtained within 55 h, which was the highest vanillin yield by bioconversion until now. This yield was remarkable for exceeding the crystallization concentration of vanillin and therefore had far-reaching consequence in its downstream processing.

  15. Uranium extraction from sulfuric acid solution using anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheta, M. E.; Abdel Aal, M. M.; Kandil, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium is currently recovered from sulfuric acid leach liquor using anion exchange resin as Amberlite IRA 402 (CT). This technology is based on fact that, uranium exists as anionic complexes. This takes place by controlling the pH of the solution, agitation time, temperature and resin to solution ratio (R/S). In this work, batch stirrer tank used for uranium extraction from sulfate medium and after extraction, elution process was done using 1M NaCl solution. After extraction and elution process, the resin was separated from the system and uranium was determined in the solution. (Author)

  16. Selective separation of indium by iminodiacetic acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, M.C.B.; Benedetto, J.S.; Martins, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    - Indium can be recovered by treating residues, flue dusts, slags, and metallic intermediates in zinc smelting. This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of indium and iron on an iminodiacetic acid chelating resin, Amberlite R IRC748 (Rohm and Haas Co.-USA). High concentrations of iron are always present in the aqueous feed solution of indium recovery. In addition, the chemical behaviour of iron in adsorptive systems is similar to that of indium. The metal concentrations in the aqueous solution were based on typical indium sulfate leach liquor obtained from zinc hydrometallurgical processing in a Brazilian plant. The ionic adsorption experiments were carried out by the continuous column method. Amberlite R IRC748 resin had a high affinity for indium under acidic conditions. Indium ions adsorbed onto the polymeric resin were eluted with a 0.5 mol/dm 3 sulphuric acid solution passed through the resin bed in the column. 99.5% pure indium sulfate aqueous solution was obtained using the iminodiacetic acid chelating resin Amberlite R IRC748. (author)

  17. Reactivity of Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin with Nitric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, William D.; Fondeur, Fernando F.; Wilmarth, William R.; Pettis, Myra E.

    2005-01-01

    Solid-state infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis have been used to evaluate the reactivity of resorcinol formaldehyde resin with nitric acid and characterize the solid product. Two distinct reactions were identified within the temperature range 25-55 C. The first reaction is primarily associated with resin nitration, while the second involves bulk oxidation and degradation of the polymer network leading to dissolution and off-gassing. The threshold conditions promoting reaction have been identified. Reaction was confirmed with nitric acid concentrations as low as 3 M at 25 C applied temperature and 0.625 M at 66 C. Although a nitrated resin product can be isolated under appropriate experimental conditions, calorimetry testing indicates no significant hazard associated with handling the dry material

  18. Bile acid sequestrants : more than simple resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Out, Carolien; Groen, Albert K.; Brufau, Gemma

    Purpose of review Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The last decade, bile acids are emerging as integrated regulators of metabolism via induction of various signal transduction pathways. Consequently, BAS treatment may exert

  19. Surface roughness of composite resins subjected to hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ana Carolina Cabral; Bohner, Lauren Oliveira Lima; de Godoi, Ana Paula Terossi; Colucci, Vivian; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Catirse, Alma Blásida Concepción Elizaur Benitez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hydrochloric acid on surface roughness of composite resins subjected to brushing. Sixty samples measuring 2 mm thick x 6 mm diameter were prepared and used as experimental units. The study presented a 3x2 factorial design, in which the factors were composite resin (n=20), at 3 levels: microhybrid composite (Z100), nanofilled composite (FiltekTM Supreme), nanohybrid composite (Ice), and acid challenge (n=10) at 2 levels: absence and presence. Acid challenge was performed by immersion of specimens in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) for 1 min, 4 times per day for 7 days. The specimens not subjected to acid challenge were stored in 15 mL of artificial saliva at 37 oC. Afterwards, all specimens were submitted to abrasive challenge by a brushing cycle performed with a 200 g weight at a speed of 356 rpm, totaling 17.8 cycles. Surface roughness measurements (Ra) were performed and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p≤0.05). Surface roughness values were higher in the presence (1.07±0.24) as compared with the absence of hydrochloric acid (0.72±0.04). Surface roughness values were higher for microhybrid (1.01±0.27) compared with nanofilled (0.68 ±0.09) and nanohybrid (0.48±0.15) composites when the specimens were not subjects to acid challenge. In the presence of hydrochloric acid, microhybrid (1.26±0.28) and nanofilled (1.18±0,30) composites presents higher surface roughness values compared with nanohybrid (0.77±0.15). The hydrochloric acid affected the surface roughness of composite resin subjected to brushing.

  20. Screening Analyses of Pinosylvin Stilbenes, Resin Acids and Lignans in Norwegian Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Fiksdahl; Karin Oyaas; Ingebjorg Leirset; Hanne Hovelstad

    2006-01-01

    The content and distribution of stilbenes and resin acids in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies), sampled in central Norway, have been examined. The contents of pinosylvin stilbenes in pine heartwood/living knots were 0.2-2/2-8 % (w/w). No stilbenes could be detected in spruce (Picea abies). The resin acid contents of pine sapwood/heartwood and knots were 1-4 and 5-10 % (w/w), respectively. Minor amounts of resin acids (

  1. Fatty Acid-Based Monomers as Styrene Replacements for Liquid Molding Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    fatty acid length and unsaturation level on resin and polymer properties. Fig. 2. The addition of fatty acids ( oleic acid ) to glycidyl methacylate to...the synthetic route used to form the methacrylated fatty acids (MFA). The carboxylic acid of fatty acids undergoes a simple addition reaction with... form methacrylated fatty acid monomer

  2. Usage of methyl ester of tall oil fatty acids and resinic acids as alternative diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Ali; Yasar, Abdulkadir; Guerue, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2010-01-01

    In the experimental study, tall oil fatty and resinic acids were investigated as alternative diesel fuels. The fatty acids, obtained by distilling the crude tall oil, were esterified with methanol in order to obtain tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel). Blends of the methyl ester, resinic acids and diesel fuel were prepared for test fuels. Performance and emission tests of the test fuels were carried out in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine on full load conditions. The results showed that the specific fuel consumption (SFC) with the blend fuels did not show a significant change. CO emission and smoke level decreased up to 23.91% and 19.40%, respectively. In general, NO x emissions showed on trend of increasing with the blend fuels (up to 25.42%). CO 2 emissions did not vary with the blend fuels significantly.

  3. Usage of methyl ester of tall oil fatty acids and resinic acids as alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali; Yasar, Abdulkadir [Tarsus Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In the experimental study, tall oil fatty and resinic acids were investigated as alternative diesel fuels. The fatty acids, obtained by distilling the crude tall oil, were esterified with methanol in order to obtain tall oil methyl ester (biodiesel). Blends of the methyl ester, resinic acids and diesel fuel were prepared for test fuels. Performance and emission tests of the test fuels were carried out in an unmodified direct injection diesel engine on full load conditions. The results showed that the specific fuel consumption (SFC) with the blend fuels did not show a significant change. CO emission and smoke level decreased up to 23.91% and 19.40%, respectively. In general, NO{sub x} emissions showed on trend of increasing with the blend fuels (up to 25.42%). CO{sub 2} emissions did not vary with the blend fuels significantly. (author)

  4. Studies concerning the anion ex-change resins catalyzed esterification of epichlorohydrin with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Muresan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the esterification of carboxylic acids with epichlorohydrin over two macroporous strong base anion exchange resins with different polymer matrix. For both resins, the influence of reaction parameters (temperature, catalyst loading, molar ratio on the reaction rate and the yields of the two isomeric esters were investigated.

  5. Development of melamine modified urea formaldehyde resins based o nstrong acidic pH catalyzed urea formaldehyde polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse

    2009-01-01

    To upgrade the performance of urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin bonded particleboards, melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins based on strong acidic pH catalyzed UF polymers were investigated. The study was conducted in a series of two experiments: 1) formulation of MUF resins based on a UF polymer catalyzed with strong acidic pH and 2) determination of the...

  6. Effect of pore structure on the removal of clofibric acid by magnetic anion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Yunshu; Wang, Jun; Su, Yihong; Li, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    The effect of pore structure of resin on clofibric acid (CA) adsorption behavior was investigated by using magnetic anion exchange resins (ND-1, ND-2, ND-3) with increasing pore diameter by 11.68, 15.37, 24.94 nm. Resin with larger pores showed faster adsorption rates and a higher adsorption capacity because the more opened tunnels provided by larger pores benefit the CA diffusion into the resin matrix. The ion exchange by the electrostatic interactions between Cl-type resin and CA resulted in chloride releasing to the solution, and the ratio of released chloride to CA adsorption amount decreased from 0.90 to 0.65 for ND-1, ND-2 and ND-3, indicating that non-electrostatic interactions obtain a larger proportional part of the adsorption into the pores. Co-existing inorganic anions and organic acids reduced the CA adsorption amounts by the competition effect of electrostatic interaction, whereas resins with more opened pore structures weakened the negative influence on CA adsorption because of the existence of non-electrostatic interactions. 85.2% and 65.1% adsorption amounts decrease are calculated for resin ND-1 and ND-3 by the negative influence of 1 mmol L -1 NaCl. This weaken effect of organic acid is generally depends on its hydrophobicity (Log Kow) for carboxylic acid and its ionization degree (pKb) for sulfonic acid. The resins could be reused with the slightly decreases by 1.9%, 3.2% and 5.4% after 7 cycles of regeneration, respectively for ND-1, ND-2 and ND-3, suggesting the ion exchange resin with larger pores are against its reuse by the brine solution regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A maturation method of uranium content in resins with acid dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang

    2010-01-01

    Acid dissolution method is that with intensively oxidation acid to decompose ion exchanging resins and dissolving U and Fe ion in water, then menstruate the U content by titration. Comparing with our current method of filtering wash, acid dissolution menstruation U can get more accurate result and take less time, use more simple device. (authors)

  8. A Cocatalytic Effect between Meldrum's Acid and Benzoxazine Compounds in Preparation of High Performance Thermosetting Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Lin, Liang-Kai; Chiang, Shu-Jen; Liu, Ying-Ling

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a cocatalytic effect between Meldrum's acid (MA) and benzoxazine (Bz) compounds has been explored to build up a self-promoting curing system. Consequently, the MA/Bz reactive blend exhibits a relatively low reaction temperature compared to the required temperatures for the cross-linking reactions of the pure MA and Bz components. This feature is attractive for energy-saving processing issues. Moreover, the thermosetting resins based on the MA/Bz reactive blends have been prepared. The MA component can generate additional free volume in the resulting resins, so as to trap air in the resin matrix and consequently to bring low dielectric constants to the resins. The MA-containing agent is an effective modifier for benzoxazine resins to reduce their dielectric constants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Recovery of plutonium from nitric acid containing oxalate and fluoride by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Godbole, A.G.; Swarup, R.; Vaidya, V.N.; Venugopal, V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    The sorption of Pu from nitric acid solutions containing oxalate/fluoride was studied using an indigenously available macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid (MPBPA) resin. Batch experiments were carried out to obtain the distribution data of Pu(IV) with a view to optimize conditions for its recovery from nitric acid waste solutions containing oxalate or fluoride ions. The measurements showed high distribution ratio (D) values even in the presence of strong complexing ions, like oxalate and fluoride, indicating the possibility of recovery of Pu from these types of waste solution. Column studies were carried out using this resin to recover Pu from the oxalate supernatant waste solution, which showed that up to 99% of Pu could be adsorbed on the resin. Elution of Pu loaded on the resin was studied using different eluting agents. (author)

  10. Synthesis and characterization of an N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.F.

    1977-10-01

    A chelating ion-exchange resin with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene-diaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) used as the ligand chemically bonded to XAD-4 by an ester linkage, HEDTA-4, was synthesized. It is stable under normal experimental conditions with the liquid chromatograph. The structure of the resin was confirmed by an infrared spectrum, and by potentiometric titrations. The capacity of the resin was also obtained by potentiometric titration and by a nitrogen analysis. The resin was used to pack a column of 5 mm internal diameter and 5 cm long. The effect of pH on the retention of different metal ions on the resin was studied. It was found that the resin was most selective for chromium(III), copper(II), lead(II), mercury(II), uranium(VI), zirconium(IV) and zinc(II) at a pH of less than 3. Furthermore, the resin proves to be functioning with a chelating mechanism rather than ion-exchange, and it can concentrate trace metal ions in the presence of a large excess of calcium and magnesium. This makes the resin potentially useful for purifying and analyzing drinking water

  11. Microbial activity in an acid resin deposit: Biodegradation potential and ecotoxicology in an extremely acidic hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, Karin; Schloter, Michael; Meyer, Ortwin

    2006-01-01

    Acid resins are residues produced in a recycling process for used oils that was in use in the forties and fifties of the last century. The resin-like material is highly contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons, extremely acidic and co-contaminated with substituted and aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. To determine the potential for microbial biodegradation the acid resin deposit and its surroundings were screened for microbial activity by soil respiration measurements. No microbial activity was found in the core deposit. However, biodegradation of hydrocarbons was possible in zones with a lower degree of contamination surrounding the deposit. An extreme acidophilic microbial community was detected close to the core deposit. With a simple ecotoxicological approach it could be shown that the pure acid resin that formed the major part of the core deposit, was toxic to the indigenous microflora due to its extremely low pH of 0-1. - Acidity is the major toxic factor of the extremely hydrophobic and acidic mixed contamination found in an acid resin deposit

  12. Effect of the chemical structure of anion exchange resin on the adsorption of humic acid: behavior and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Chendong; Wang, Jun; Li, Haibo; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrenic (PS) anion-exchange resin and polyacrylic (PA) anion-exchange resin were used to investigate the effect of resin chemical structure on the adsorption of humic acid (HA). Due to the rearrangement of HA to form layers that function as barricades to further HA diffusion, PS resin exhibited 12.4 times slower kinetics for the initial adsorption rate and 8.4 times for the diffusion constant in comparison to that of the PA resin. An HA layer and a spherical cluster of HA can be observed on the surface of the PS and PA resins after adsorption, respectively. The considerable difference in HA adsorption between the PS and PA resins was due to the difference in molecule shape for interaction with different resin structures, which can essentially be explained by the hydrophobicity and various interactions of the PS resin. A given amount of HA occupies more positively charged sites and hydrophobic sites on the PS resin than were occupied by the same amount of HA on the PA resin. Increased pH resulted in an increase of HA adsorption onto the PA resin but a decrease in adsorption onto PS resin, as the non-electrostatic adsorption led to electrostatic repulsion between the HA attached to the resin and the HA dissolved in solution. These results suggest higher rates of adsorption and higher regeneration efficiency for interaction of HA with more hydrophilic anion exchange materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of hemicellulose-acrylic acid graft copolymer super water absorbent resin by ultrasonic irradiation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hemicellulose super water absorbent resin is prepared by using ultrasonic irradiation technology, with the waste liquid produced during the preparation of viscose fiber which contains a large amount of hemicellulose as raw material, acrylic acid as graft monomer, N,N’-methylene bis acrylamide (NMBA as cross linking agent, and (NH42S2O8-NaHSO3 as the redox initiation system. The synthesis conditions, structure and water absorption ability of resin are discussed. The results indicate that water absorbency of the resin is 311 g/g, the tap water absorbency is 102 g/g, the normal saline absorbency is 55 g/g, and the artificial urine absorbency is 31 g/g under the optimal synthesis conditions, so the resin has great water absorption rate and water retaining capacity. The FT-IR and SEM analysis shows that the resin with honeycomb network structure is prepared. The successfully synthesized of the resin means that the hemicellulose waste liquid can be highly effectively recycled, and it provides a kind of new raw material for the synthesis of super water absorbent resin.

  14. In vitro adsorption of oxalic acid and glyoxylic acid onto activated charcoal, resins and hydrous zirconium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, R.; Scholten, J.; de Koning, H. W.; Tijssen, J.; ten Hoopen, H. W.; Olthuis, F. M.; Feijen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Patients suffering from primary hyperoxaluria show elevated plasma concentrations of oxalic acid and glyoxylic acid. The in vitro adsorption of these compounds into activated charcoal, a series of neutral and ion exchange resins and onto hydrous zirconium oxide has been investigated. Hydrous

  15. Influence of a peracetic acid-based immersion on indirect composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Fracaro, Gisele Baggio; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Campregher, Ulisses Bastos

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of immersion in a 0.2% peracetic acid-based disinfectant on the three-point flexural strength, water sorption and water solubility of an indirect composite resin. Specimens were produced according to ISO 4049:2000 specifications and were divided in two groups: Control group, with no disinfection and Disinfected group, with three 10 min immersions in the peracetic acid intercalated with 10 min immersions in sterile distilled water. All evaluations were conducted in compliance with ISO specifications. Three-point flexural strength, water sorption and solubility of indirect composite resin before and after immersion showed no statistical significant differences (p > 0.05) and met ISO standard requirements. Immersion in peracetic acid solution showed no influence in indirect composite resin tested properties.

  16. Affinity resins as new tools for identifying target proteins of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Yuji; Nishino, Kohei; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Ito, Hideyuki; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Tai, Akihiro

    2018-02-12

    l-Ascorbic acid (AA) has diverse physiological functions, but little is known about the functional mechanisms of AA. In this study, we synthesized two types of affinity resin on which AA is immobilized in a stable form to identify new AA-targeted proteins, which can provide important clues for elucidating unknown functional mechanisms of AA. To our knowledge, an affinity resin on which AA as a ligand is immobilized has not been prepared, because AA is very unstable and rapidly degraded in an aqueous solution. By using the affinity resins, cytochrome c (cyt c) was identified as an AA-targeted protein, and we showed that oxidized cyt c exhibits specific affinity for AA. These results suggest that two kinds of AA-affinity resin can be powerful tools to identify new target proteins of AA.

  17. Sorption of Pu(IV) from nitric acid by bifunctional anion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Elshani, S.; Zhao, W.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.; Chamberlin, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Anion exchange is attractive for separating plutonium because the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is very strongly sorbed and few other metal ions form competing anionic nitrate complexes. The major disadvantage of this process has been the unusually slow rate at which the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is sorbed by the resin. The paper summarizes the concept of bifunctional anion-exchange resins, proposed mechanism for Pu(IV) sorption, synthesis of the alkylating agent, calculation of K d values from Pu(IV) sorption results, and conclusions from the study of Pu(IV) sorption from 7M nitric acid by macroporous anion-exchange resins including level of crosslinking, level of alkylation, length of spacer, and bifunctional vs. monofunctional anion-exchange resins

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Epoxy Resins by Silicic Acid Tetraethyl Ester and Nano-SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 张之圣

    2004-01-01

    A kind of modified epoxy resins was obtained by condensation of epoxy resin with silicic acid tetraethyl ester(TEOS) and nano-SiO2. The reactions were performed with hydrochloric acid as a catalyst at 63 °C.The structure, thermal stability and morphological characteristics of the modified epoxy resins were studied through infrared spectra(FT-IR) analysis, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and scanning electron microscopy respectively. It has been found from the IR and TG study that modified epoxy resins have greater thermal stability than epoxy resins, and its thermal stability has been improved by the formation of inter-crosslinked network structure. The modified epoxy resins exhibit heterogeneous morphology and heterogeneity increases with more TEOS feeding, which in turn confirms the formation of inter-crosslinked network structure in modified epoxy resins.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and applications of a new cation exchanger tamarind sulphonic acid (TSA) resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A V; Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Rathore, Abhay S

    2012-01-01

    A new composite cation exchanger, tamarind sulphonic acid (TSA) resin has been synthesized. The chemically modified TSA ion exchange resin has been used for the removal and preconcentration of Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe2+, Co2+ and Cu2+ ions in aqueous solution and effluent from the Laxmi steel plant in Jodhpur, India. This type of composite represents a new class of hybrid ion exchangers with good ion exchange capacity, stability, reproducibility and selectivity for toxic metal ions found in effluent from the steel industry. The characterization of the resin was carried out by determining the ion-exchange capacity, elemental analysis, pH titration, Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermal analysis. The distribution coefficients (K(d)) of toxic metal ions were determined in a reference aqueous solution and the steel plant effluent at different pH values; the absorbency of different metal ions on the TSA resin was studied for up to 10 cycles. The adsorption of different metal ions on TSA resin follows the order: Co2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Fe2+ > Cd2+. The ion exchange capacity of TSA resin is 2.87%.

  20. Thermoanalytical Study and Kinetics of New 8-Hydroxyquinoline 5-sulphonic Acid-Oxamide-Formaldehyde Terpolymer Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh N. Singru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The terpolymer resins (8-HQ5-SAOF have been synthesized by the condensation of 8-hydroxyquinoline 5-sulphonic acid (8-HQ5-SA and oxamide (O with formaldehyde (F in the presence of acid catalyst and using varied molar proportion of the reacting monomers. The synthesized terpolymer resins have been characterized by different physico-chemical techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis of all terpolymer resins in present study have been carried out by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis technique in which sample is subjected to condition of continuous increase in temperature at linear rate. Thermal study of the resins was carried out to determine their mode of decomposition and relative thermal stabilities. Thermal decomposition curves were studied carefully with minute details. The Freeman-Carroll and Sharp-Wentworth methods have been used in the present investigation to calculate thermal activation energy and different kinetic parameter of the terpolymer resins. Thermal activation energy (Ea calculated with above two mentioned methods are in close agreement. The advantage of Freeman-Carroll method is to calculate both the order of reaction (n and energy of activation in one single stage by keeping heating rate constant. By using data of thermogravimetric analysis, various thermodynamic parameters like frequency factor (Z, entropy change (Δ S, free energy change (Δ F and apparent entropy (S* have been determined using Freeman-Carroll method.

  1. A convenient procedure for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids on PEGA resins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandurkar, Nitin Subhash; Petersen, Rico; Qvortrup, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    An efficient method for the solid-phase synthesis of hydroxamic acids is described. The method comprises the nucleophilic displacement of esters immobilized on PEGA resins with hydroxylamine/sodium hydroxide in isopropanol. The hydroxyaminolysis protocol is compatible with a broad range of PEGA...

  2. Influence of the Functionalization Degree of Acidic Ion-Exchange Resins on Ethyl Octyl Ether Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guilera, J.; Hanková, Libuše; Jeřábek, Karel; Ramírez, E.; Tejero, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 78, MAY (2014), s. 14-22 ISSN 1381-5148 Grant - others:SEURDO(ES) CTQ2010-16047 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : acidic ion - exchange resin * sulfonation degree * ISEC Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2014

  3. Biophysical study of resin acid effects on phospholipid membrane structure and properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien; Barker, Robert; Topgaard, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic resin acids (RAs) are synthesized by conifer trees as part of their defense mechanisms. One of the functions of RAs in plant defense is suggested to be the perturbation of the cellular membrane. However, there is a vast diversity of chemical structures within this class of molecules, ...

  4. Glucose-lowering effects and mechanisms of the bile acid-sequestering resin sevelamer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønden, Andreas; Mikkelsen, Kristian; Sonne, David P

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Sevelamer, a non-absorbable amine-based resin used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, has been demonstrated to hold a marked bile acid-binding potential alongside beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the glucose-lowering effect and me...

  5. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  6. Eco-friendly Crosslinking Agent for Acid Functional Acrylic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from J. multifida was extracted and it was first converted into N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl Jatropha fatty amide (HEJFA. HEJFA has been synthesized by reaction between Jatropha oil and diethanol amine in presence of zinc oxide as a catalyst. The reaction is relatively rapid and proceeded to high yield at 200±5 OC. The resulting HEJFA was used to formulate thermosetting coating compositions. Films were cured at ambient (air drying and elevated (stove drying temperatures using N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl Jatropha fatty amide (HEJFA as eco-friendly crosslinking agent for acrylic resin. The coating performance of the various compositions was tested by measurement of scratch hardness, impact strength and chemical resistance. The results show better performance of the HEJFA based compositions compared to butylated melamine formaldehyde (MF based compositions.

  7. Adsorption of uranium ions by crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemal Oezeroglu; Niluefer Metin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the crosslinked polyester resin containing acrylic acid functional groups was used for the adsorption of uranium ions from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the crosslinked polyester resin of unsaturated polyester in styrene monomer (Polipol 353, Poliya) and acrylic acid as weight percentage at 80 and 20%, respectively was synthesized by using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKp, Butanox M60, Azo Nobel)-cobalt octoate initiator system. The adsorption of uranium ions on the sample (0.05 g copolymer and 5 mL of U(VI) solution were mixed) of the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid was carried out in a batch reactor. The effects of adsorption parameters of the contact time, temperature, pH of solution and initial uranium(VI) concentration for U(VI) adsorption on the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid were investigated. The adsorption data obtained from experimental results depending on the initial U(VI) concentration were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity and free energy change were determined by using D-R isotherm. The obtained experimental adsorption data depending on temperature were evaluated to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of enthalpy (ΔH o ), entropy (ΔS o ) and free energy change (ΔG o ) for the U(VI) adsorption on the crosslinked polyester resin functionalized with acrylic acid from aqueous solutions. The obtained adsorption data depending on contact time were analyzed by using adsorption models such as the modified Freundlich, Elovich, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. (author)

  8. Investigation into sorption of uranium fron its high-concentrated nitric acid solutions on resin AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'eva, V.I.; Sudarikov, B.N.; Kireeva, G.N.; Ryzhkova, V.N.; Kandaryuk, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    Sorption of uranium has been studied on strongly basic anion-exchange resin from nitric acid solutions with concentration in metal 10-150 g/l in presence of sodium, calcium, and aluminium nitrates. Sorption of uranium from solutions has been performed by the static method with the aid of contacting the initial solution with airdry resin for 4 hours, resin to solution ratio being 1:12.5. It has been established that sorption of uranium increases with a rise in concentration of salting out agents in the following order: Al(NO 3 ) 3 > Ca(NO 3 ) 2 > Na(NO 3 ). It has been shown spectrophotometricatly that in solutions of nitrates and HNO 3 with a concentration 3 exceeds 6 mol/l

  9. Acidic resin-catalysed conversion of fructose into furan derivatives in low boiling point solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Cao, Quan; Li, Chunhu; Mu, Xindong

    2011-09-27

    Conversion of fructose into furan derivatives 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 5-methoxymethylfurfural (MMF) is performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and methanol-organic solvent systems, catalysed by an acidic resin Amberlyst-15. The melted fructose can be converted into HMF on the surface of the solid resin catalyst in the presence of THF as an extracting phase, which is a good solvent for HMF and other by-products. The solid resin catalyst can be reused eleven times without losing its catalytic ability, with an average HMF yield of approximately 50%. Upon the addition of methanol, the generated HMF can further react with methanol to form MMF, and the total yield of HMF and MMF could be promoted to 65%. GC-MS analysis confirms the formation of a small amount of methyl levulinate in methanolorganic solvent system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions using an extractive scintillating resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, J E; DeVol, T A

    2002-11-01

    An extractive scintillating resin was evaluated for the simultaneous separation and detection of actinides in acidic solutions. The transuranic extractive scintillating (TRU-ES) resin is composed of an inert macroporous polystyrene core impregnated with organic fluors (diphenyloxazole and 1,4-bis-(4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene) and an extractant (octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tributyl phosphate). The TRU-ES resin was packed into FEP Teflon tubing to produce a flow cell (0.2-mL free column volume), which is placed into a scintillation detection system to obtain pulse height spectra and time series data during loading and elution of actinides onto/from the resin. The alpha-particle absolute detection efficiencies ranged from 77% to 96.5%, depending on the alpha energy and quench. In addition to the on-line analyses, off-line analyses of the effluent can be conducted using conventional detection methods. The TRU-ES resin was applied to the quantification of a mixed radionuclide solution and two actual waste samples. The on-line characterization of the mixed radionuclide solution was within 10% of the reported activities whereas the agreement with the waste samples was not as good due to sorption onto the sample container walls and the oxidation state of plutonium. Agreement between the on-line and off-line analyses was within 35% of one another for both waste samples.

  11. Separation and concentration of lead, uranium and copper using polystyrene resins functionalised with azobenzylphosphonic acid ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazumasa; Sato, Yuko; Yoshimura, Osamu; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu

    1988-01-01

    Two polystyrene resins functionalised with azobenzylphosphonic acid ligands were synthesised and applications for the concentration, separation and determination of micro- or milligram concentrations of metal ions were studied. Physical and chemical properties such as specific mass, water content and ion-exchange capacity were measured and the characteristics of the resins were examined. The resins were especially useful for the concentration of Pbsup(II), Usup(VI) and Cusup(II) by batch and column operations, and effective separations of Pbsup(II) from Group VIII and IIB ions could be achieved by selecting the eluents. Trace amounts of Pbsup(II), Usup(VI), Cusup(II), Mnsup(II), Znsup(II) and Fesup(III) were quantitatively retained on the resin columns at neutral pH and easily recovered by elution with 2M HCl and 2M HNO 3 . The resins were successfully applied to the concentration of trace amounts of metals in river and sea waters prior to spectroscopic determinations. (author)

  12. Sorption Efficiency of a New Sorbent towards Cadmium(II: Methylphosphonic Acid Grafted Polystyrene Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Ferrah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new chelating polymeric sorbent has been developed using polystyrene resin grafted with phosphonic acid. After characterization by FTIR and elementary analysis, the new resin has been investigated in liquid-solid extraction of cadmium(II. The results indicated that phosphonic resin could adsorb Cd(II ion effectively from aqueous solution. The adsorption was strongly dependent on the pH of the medium and the optimum pH value level for better sorption was between 3.2 and 5.2. The influence of other analytical parameters including contact time, amount of resin, metal ion concentration, and the presence of some electrolytes was investigated. The maximum uptake capacity of Cd(II ions was 37,9 mg·g−1 grafted resin at ambient temperature, at an initial pH value of 5.0. The overall adsorption process was best described by pseudo second-order kinetic. When Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were tested, the latter had a better fit with the experimental data. Furthermore, more than 92% of Cd(II could be eluted by using 1.0 mol·L−1 HCl in one cycle.

  13. Esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oils (WCO): Role of ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalan Ozbay; Nuray Oktar; N. Alper Tapan [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Although WCO plays a crucial role for the economical production of biodiesel, free fatty acid (FFA) level in the nature of WCO cause saponification problems during transesterification. Acidic ion-exchange resins can be used to decrease WCO free fatty acid level. In this study, activities of resins (Amberlyst-15 (A-15), Amberlyst-35 (A-35), Amberlyst-16 (A-16) and Dowex HCR-W2) in direct FFA esterification were examined in the temperature range of 50-60{sup o}C and the effect of catalyst amount (1-2 wt%) on FFA conversion was also analyzed. FFA conversion increased with increasing reaction temperature and catalyst amount. Order of catalytic activities was found as A-15 > A-35 > A-16 > Dowex HCR-W2. This was related to the size of average pore diameters and magnitude of BET surface area. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Adsorption Equilibrium Equation of Carboxylic Acids on Anion-Exchange Resins in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Urano, Kohei; Kokado, Naohiro; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni

    2001-06-01

    The adsorption of propionic acid and benzoic acid on anion-exchange resins was analyzed, and an adsorption equilibrium equation of carboxylic acids was proposed. The adsorption of carboxylic acids on the anion-exchange resins was considered to be the sum of the physical adsorption of the molecule and the ion-exchange adsorption of the ion, which were independent of each other. For the physical adsorption of carboxylic acids, it was conformed to the Freundlich equation. For the ion-exchange adsorption of carboxylate ions, the equilibrium equation corresponded well with the experimental results for wide ranges of concentration and pH. The equation contains a selectivity coefficient S(A)(Cl) for the chloride ion versus the carboxylate ion, which was considered essentially a constant. The influent of the bicarbonate ion from carbon dioxide in air could also be expressed by the additional equilibrium equation with the selectivity coefficient S(HCO(3))(Cl) for the chloride ion versus the bicarbonate ion. Consequently, an adsorption equilibrium equation can estimate the equilibrium adsorption amounts. Even the effect of a coexisting bicarbonate ion is inconsequential when the parameters of the Freundlich isotherm equation and the selectivity coefficients of the carboxylate ion and the bicarbonate ion in each resin are determined in advance. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Study of plutonium IV elution from macromolecular anion exchange resin by 0.5 M nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, M.N.; Mayankutty, P.C.; Pillai, N.S.; Shinde, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary studies indicated that macroreticular resins possess more or less the same capacities and absorption characteristics for thorium, uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solutions as the conventional resins. Detailed studies were, then, conducted. It was found that Pu(IV) can be loaded on the macroreticular anion exchange resin, Amberlyst A-26 from 7.2 M nitric acid in much the same way as Dowex 1x4. It was also observed that the elution of Pu(IV) from Amberlyst A-26 by 0.5 M nitric acid is much more rapid and quantitative than from Dowex 1x4. (author)

  16. Synthesis of a chelate resin with amido and phosphoric acid and its character in uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Yueshuang; Zhang Jianguo; Feng Yu; Zhao Chaoya

    2013-01-01

    A chelate resin (D814) with amido and phosphoric acid functional group was synthetized by means of the reactions of stytene-divinyl benzene chloromethylated sphere with ethylenedianmine and orth-phosphorous acid and formaldehyde. This resin can be used to adsorb uranium from leaching solution with high chloride ion in the rang of pH l.33-9.05, and the adsorption rate of uranium was above 95%. D814 resin had a good ability resistant to high chloride ion. The loading capacity for uranium was not apparently effected when chlorid ion concentration in solution was 60 g/L. The results of the adsorption experiment show that when the ratio of saturation volume to breakthrough volume was l.82, the uranium saturation capacity of D814 was 40.5 mg/g dry resin. NaCl + NaHCO 3 was used for eluting agent, and the eluting rate of uranium was 96.7%. Adsorption uranium mechanism by D814 was also discussed. (authors)

  17. Oxidative degradation of ion-exchange resins in acid medium. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Ghattas, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Volume reduction of spent ion-exchange resins used in nuclear facilities receive increasing importance due to the increase in storage cost, unstable physical and chemical properties and their relatively high specific activity (in some cases up to 1 Ci per liter). The present study is part of research program on the treatment and immobilization of radioactive spent ion-exchange resins simulate; hydrogen peroxide was used for the oxidative degradation of spent ion-exchange resins simulate in sulphuric acid medium. Five liters ring digester developed in Karlsruhe nuclear research center-(KFK)- in germany was the chosen option to perform the oxidation process. The work reported focused on the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation process. Heating the organic resins in sulphuric acid results in its carbonization and partial oxidation of only 1.7% of the carbon added. Results show that the oxidation reaction is a relatively slow process of first order with K value in the order of 10 -4 min -1 , and the main oxidation product was carbon dioxide. The production of carbon oxide in the off gas stream increased sharply by the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the hot sulphuric acid-resin mixture. The results obtained show that more than 97% of the carbon added was oxidized to carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The rate constant value (K) of this reaction was calculated to be (1.69±0.13) x 10 -2 min -1 . The results of gas chromatographic analysis indicate that no significant amounts of hazardous organic materials were detected in the off-gas streams. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in TEHDGA-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saipriya, G.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities, Kalpakkam (India). Kalpakkam Reprocessing Plant; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-07-01

    The extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium was studied in the solvent impregnated resins containing extractants such as tetra-bis(2-ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (TEHDGA) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of TEHDGA+HDEHP. The rate of extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from 1 M nitric acid and the effect of various parameters, such as the concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and concentration of TEHDGA and HDEHP in resin phase, on the distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in HDEHP-impregnated resin decreased and that in TEHDGA-impregnated resin increased, with increase in the concentration of nitric acid. However, in (TEHDGA+HDEHP) - impregnated resin, synergic extraction was observed at lower nitric acid concentration and antagonism at higher nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of Am(III) and Eu(III) extraction in the combined resin was investigated by slope analysis method. The extraction of various metal ions present in the fast reactor simulated high-level liquid waste was studied. The separation factor of Am(III) over Eu(III) was studied using citrate-buffered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) solution.

  19. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with various cation-exchange resin columns and sulfuric acid as eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Fujimoto, Chuzo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryoo, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2003-05-16

    The application of various hydrophilic cation-exchange resins for high-performance liquid chromatography (sulfonated silica gel: TSKgel SP-2SW, carboxylated silica gel: TSKgel CM-2SW, sulfonated polymethacrylate resin: TSKgel SP-5PW, carboxylated polymethacrylate resins: TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) as stationary phases in ion-exclusion chromatography for C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic, caproic, 2-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, trimellitic, hemimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic, salicylic acids and phenol) was carried out using diluted sulfuric acid as the eluent. Silica-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-2SW and TSKgel CM-2SW) were very suitable for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids was achieved on a TSKgel SP-2SW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 17 min using a 2.5 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.4 as the eluent. Polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-5PW, TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) acted as advanced stationary phases for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these C1-C7 acids was achieved on a TSKgel CM-5PW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 32 min using a 0.05 mM sulfuric acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent.

  20. Aminolysis of resin-bound N-nosylaziridine-2-carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian A; Christensen, Caspar; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    [Structure: see text] Solid-phase synthesis is a rapidly developing area of organic chemistry, of particular importance for medicinal chemistry and chemical biology. Aziridines have previously only rarely been applied in solid-phase synthesis. In the present work, aminolysis of resin-bound, sprin......-loaded N-nitrobenzenesulfonyl-activated aziridine-2-carboxylic acids has been optimized and employed in the synthesis of a number of open-chain and heterocyclic scaffolds, including enantiopure products....

  1. Extraction behaviour of Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid medium in CMPO-HDEHP impregnated resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saipriya, K.; Kumar, T. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities (India). Kalpakkam Reproscessing Plants; Kumaresan, R.; Nayak, P.K.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2016-05-01

    Chromatographic resin containing extractants such as octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) or bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) or mixture of extractants (CMPO + HDEHP) in an acrylic polymer matrix was prepared and studied for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) over a range of nitric acid concentration. The effect of various parameters such as concentration of nitric acid in aqueous phase and the concentration of CMPO and HDEHP in the resin phase was studied. The distribution coefficient of Am(III) and Eu(III) in the impregnated resin increased with increased in the concentration of nitric acid for CMPO-impregnated resin, whereas a reverse trend was observed in HDEHP impregnated resin. In case of resin containing both the extractants, synergism was observed at low nitric acid concentration and antagonism at high nitric acid concentration. The mechanism of extraction was probed by slope analysis method at 0.01 and 2 M nitric acid concentrations. Citrate-buffered DTPA was used for the selective separation of Am(III), and a separation factor of 3-4 was obtained at pH 3.

  2. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-01-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO 4 /l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U 3 O 8 ) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  3. Synthesis of iminodi(methylphosphonic acid)-type chitosan resin and its adsorption behavior for trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Satoko; Oshita, Koji; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Oshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2004-01-01

    A chitosan-based resin possessing the iminodi(methyphosphonic acid) moiety (IDP-type chitrosan resin) was synthesized by using cross-linked chitosan as a base material. The adsorption behavior of trace metal ions on the IDP-type chitosan resin was systematically investigated using a mini-column (1 ml of the resin) packed with the resin. The concentrations of metal ions in the effluents were measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The resin could adsorb four metals, such as In(III), Sn(II), Th(IV), and U(VI), by almost 100% over a wide pH range (1-7). Uranium(VI) and thorium could not be eluted with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (1-6 M); other metal ions were easily and readily eluted with 1 M nitric acid. The IDP-type chitosan resin synthesized in this work can be applied to the separation of U(VI) and Th(IV) from other metal ions. (author)

  4. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghattas, N K; Eskander, S B [Radioisotope dept., atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Correlation and prediction of ion exchange equilibria on weak-acid resins by means of the surface complex formation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, J.

    1988-11-01

    The present work summarizes investigations of the equilibrium of the exchange of protons, copper, zinc, calcium, magnesium and sodium ions on two weak-acid exchange resins in hydrochloric and carbonic acid bearing solutions at 25 0 C. The description of the state of equilibrium between resin and solution is based on the individual chemical equilibria which have to be adjusted simultaneously. The equilibrium in the liquid phase is described by the mass action law and the condition of electroneutrality using activity coefficients calculated according to the theory of Debye and Hueckel. The exchange equilibria are described by means of a surface complex formation model, which was developed by Davis, James and Leckie for activated aluminia and which has been applied to weak-acid resins. The model concept assumes the resin as a plane surface in which the functional groups are distributed uniformly. (orig./RB) [de

  7. Biodiesel production from acid oils and ethanol using a solid basic resin as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Errazu, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    In the search of an alternative fuel to substitute diesel fuel, biodiesel appears as one of the most promising sources of energy for diesel engines because of its environmental advantages and also due to the evolution of the petroleum market. Refined oil is the conventional raw material for the production of this biofuel; however, its major disadvantage is the high cost of its production. Therefore, frying oils, waste oils, crude oils and/or acid oils are being tested as alternative raw materials; nevertheless, there will be some problems if a homogeneous basic catalyst (NaOH) is employed due to the high amount of free fatty acid present in the raw oil. In this work, the transesterification reaction of acid oil using solid resin, Dowex monosphere 550 A, was studied as an alternative process. Ethanol was employed to have a natural and sustainable final product. The reaction temperature's effects, the initial amount of free fatty acid, the molar ratio of alcohol/oil and the type of catalyst (homogeneous or heterogeneous) over the main reaction are analyzed and their effects compared. The results obtained show that the solid resin is an alternative catalyst to be used to produce fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by a transesterification reaction with a final conversion over 90%. On the other hand, the time required to achieve this conversion is bigger than the one required using conventional technology which employs a homogeneous basic catalyst. This reaction time needs to be optimized. (author)

  8. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g"−"1 does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  9. Biogenic glutamic acid-based resin: Its synthesis and application in the removal of cobalt(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamiu, Zakariyah A.; Saleh, Tawfik A.; Ali, Shaikh A., E-mail: shaikh@kfupm.edu.sa

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel resin embedded with metal chelating glutamic acid was synthesized. • The biogenic amino acid residues imparted remarkable efficacy to remove Co(II). • The resin showed excellent ability to remove various metals from wastewater. - Abstract: Inexpensive biogenic glutamic acid has been utilized to synthesize a cross-linked dianionic polyelectrolyte (CDAP) containing metal chelating ligands. Cycloterpolymerization, using azoisobutyronitrile as an initiator, of N,N-diallylglutamic acid hydrochloride, sulfur dioxide and a cross-linker afforded a pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid (CPZA) which upon basification with NaOH was converted into CDAP. The new resin, characterized by a multitude of spectroscopic techniques as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analyses, was evaluated for the removal of Co(II) as a model case under different conditions. The adsorption capacity of 137 mg g{sup −1} does indeed make the resin as one of the most effective sorbents in recent times. The resin leverages its cheap natural source and ease of regeneration in combination with its high and fast uptake capacities to offer a great promise for wastewater treatment. The resin has demonstrated remarkable efficiency in removing toxic metal ions including arsenic from a wastewater sample.

  10. Raman spectroscopic study of the aging and nitration of actinide processing anion-exchange resins in concentrated nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscher, C. T.; Donohoe, R. J.; Mecklenburg, S. L.; Berg, J. M.; Tait, C. D.; Huchton, K. M.; Morris, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of two types of anion exchange resins, Dowex 11 and Reillex HPQ, from the action of concentrated nitric acid (4 to 12 M) and radiolysis [from depleted uranium as UO 2 2+ nitrate species and 239 Pu as Pu(IV) nitrate species] was followed as a function of time with Raman vibrational spectroscopy. Elevated temperatures (∼50 degree sign C) were used in the absence of actinide metal loading to simulate longer exposures of the resin to a HNO 3 process stream and waste storage conditions. In the absence of actinide loading, only minor changes in the Dowex resin at acid concentrations ≤10 M were observed, while at 12 M acid concentration, the emergence of a Raman peak at 1345 cm-1 indicates the addition of nitro functional groups to the resin. Similar studies with the Reillex resin show it to be more resistant to nitric acid attack at all acid concentrations. Incorporation of weakly radioactive depleted uranium as the UO 2 2+ nitrate species to the ion-exchange sites of Dowex 11 under differing nitric acid concentrations (6 to 12 M) at room temperature showed no Raman evidence of resin degradation or nitration, even after several hundred days of contact. In contrast, Raman spectra for Dowex 11 in the presence of 239 Pu as Pu(IV) nitrate species reveal numerous changes indicating resin alterations, including a new mode at 1345 cm-1 consistent with a Pu(IV)-nitrate catalyzed addition of nitro groups to the resin backbone. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  11. Uranium(VI) adsorption properties of a chelating resin containing polyamine-substituted methylphosphonic acid moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masaaki; Akiyoshi, Yoshirou

    1991-01-01

    Uranium(VI) adsorption and desorption properties of a chelating resin containing polyamine-substituted methylphosphonic acid moiety of 2.29 mmol/g-resin (APA) were examined. Uranium(VI) adsorption properties of several ion exchange resins and extractant agents which were known as excellent adsorbents for uranium(VI), were examined together for a comparison with those of APA. Uranium(VI) adsorption capacity of APA at the concentration of 100 mg·dm -3 -uranium(VI) in 100 g·dm -3 -H 2 SO 4 aq. soln., 190 g·dm -3 -H 3 PO 4 aq. soln. and uranium enriched sea water, was 0.2, 0.05 and 0.05 mmol·g -1 respectively. The adsorption capacity of APA for uranium(VI) in these solutions was larger than that of another adsorbents, except the adsorption of uranium(VI) in enriched sea water on ion exchange resin containing phosphoric acid moiety (adsorption capacity ; 0.2 mmol·g -1 ). Uranium(VI) adsorption rate on APA was high and the relation between treatment time (t : min) and uranium(VI) concentration (y : mg·dm -3 ) in 100 g·dm -3 H 2 SO 4 aq. soln. after treatment, was shown as following equation, y=20 0.048t+1.90 (0≤t≤30). The adsorbed uranium(VI) on APA was able to be eluted with a mixed aq. soln. of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide and also was able to be eluted with an aq. alkaline soln. dissolved reduction agents such as sodium sulfite and hydrazine. From these results, it was thought that uranium(VI) adsorbed on APA was eluted due to the reduction to uranium(VI) by these eluents. (author)

  12. Esterification of Palmitic Acid with Methanol in the Presence of Macroporous Ion Exchange Resin as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Qarina Yaakob and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied in a batch reactor using macro porous ion exchange resin Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. Methyl palmitate was produced from the reaction between palmitic acid and methanol in the presence of catalyst. The effects of processing parameters, molar ratio of alcohol to acid M, (4-10, catalyst loading (0-10 g cat/liter, water inhibition (0-2 mol/liter, agitator speed (200-800 rpm and reaction temperature (343-373K were studied. The experimental kinetic data were correlated using homogenous as well as heterogeneous models (based on single as well as dual site mechanisms. The activation energy of the reaction was 11.552 kJ/mol for forward reaction whilst 5.464 kJ/mol for backward reaction. The experimental data fitted well with the simulated data obtained from the kinetic models. Keywords: Palmitic Acid, Methanol, Esterification, Ion Exchange Resin, Kinetics.

  13. Evaluation and improvement of gamma-ray stability of chelating resins containing oxy-acid groups of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyo, Akinori; Yamabe, Kazunori; Shuto, Taketomi

    1998-01-01

    Chelating resins containing oxy-acid groups of phosphorus, such as phosphonic and phosphoric acid groups have been studied from the point of view of solvent extraction processes for the separation of nuclear fuel elements as well as of fission product ones. The present work was planned to evaluate the effect of gamma-ray on properties of the resins and to obtain directional information for design of the resins having high stability to gamma-ray. It was clarified that gamma-ray stability of the resins is not high; tolerance limit is ca. 2.3x10 3 C/kg. The present work also clarified that polymers crosslinked with divinylbenzene have much higher gamma-ray stability than ones crosslinked with dimetacrylate esters of oligo (ethylene glycol)s. (J.P.N.)

  14. Application of 10% Ascorbic Acid Improves Resin Shear Bond Stregth in Bleached Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamizar Kamizar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Restoration of the teeth immediately after bleaching with H2O2 35% is contraindicated due to the remnants of free radical that will stay inside dentin for 2-3 weeks which will compromise the adhesiveness of composite resin. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 10% ascorbic acid on shear bond strength of composite placed on bleached dentin. Methods:Twenty seven samples were divided equally into three groups. Group 1: dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid; Group 2: dentin was bleached with 35% H2O2 followed by etching with 35% phosphoric acid; Group 3: dentin was bleached with 35% H2O2, followed by application of 10% ascorbic acid and etched with 35% phosphoric acid. All samples were then stored at 370C for 24 hours. The Universal Testing Machine was used to measure shear bond strength and the results were analyzed with Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Results: After nine independent experiments, 10% ascorbic acid application on bleached dentin resulted in highest increased in bond stregth (56.04±11.06MPa compared to Group 2 (29.09±7.63MPa and Group 1 (25.55±2.22MPa and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Application of 10% ascorbic acid to the bleached dentin improved the shear bond strength of resin composite.

  15. Uranium adsorption from the sulphuric acid leach liquor containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Wang Zhaoguo; Chi Renqing; Niu Xuejun

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of uranium adsorption was studied from the sulphuric acid leach liquor of a uranium ore containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406. The influence of some factors on uranium adsorption was investigated. It was shown that the resin possesses better selectivity, stability and higher capacity. It can be effectively used to recovery uranium from leach liquors of uranium ores containing more chlorides

  16. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  17. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalinska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    1987-01-01

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60 Co radiation. (author)

  18. HTGR fuel development: investigations of breakages of uranium-loaded weak acid resin microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.A. Jr.

    1977-11-01

    During the HTGR fuel development program, a high percentage of uranium-loaded weak acid resin microspheres broke during pneumatic transfer, carbonization, and conversion. One batch had been loaded by the UO 3 method; the other by the ammonia neutralization method. To determine the causes of failure, samples of the two failed batches were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron beam microprobe, and other techniques. Causes of failure are postulated and methods are suggested to prevent recurrence of this kind of failure

  19. Fission product behavior in HTGR fuel particles made from weak-acid resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Henson, T.J.

    1979-04-01

    Fission product retention and behavior are of utmost importance in HTGR fuel particles. The present study concentrates on particles made from weak-acid resins, which can vary in composition from 100% UO 2 plus excess carbon to 100% UC 2 plus excess carbon. Five compositions were tested: UC 4 58 O 2 04 , UC 3 68 O 0 01 , UC 4 39 O 1 72 , UC 4 63 O 0 97 , and UC 4 14 O 1 53 . Metallographically sectioned particles were examined with a shielded electron microprobe. The distributions of the fission products were determined by monitoring characteristic x-ray lines while scanning the electron beam over the particle surface

  20. HTGR fuel development: loading of uranium on carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins using solvent extraction of nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1975-09-01

    The reference fuel kernel for recycle of 233 U to HTGR's (High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) is prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. The purified 233 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solution from a fuel reprocessing plant contains excess HNO 3 (NO 3 - /U ratio of approximately 2.2). The reference flowsheet for a 233 U recycle fuel facility at Oak Ridge uses solvent extraction of nitrate by a 0.3 M secondary amine in a hydrocarbon diluent to prepare acid-deficient uranyl nitrate. This nitrate extraction, along with resin loading and amine regeneration steps, was demonstrated in 14 runs. No significant operating difficulties were encountered. The process is controlled via in-line pH measurements for the acid-deficient uranyl nitrate solutions. Information was developed on pH values for uranyl nitrate solution vs NO 3 - /U mole ratios, resin loading kinetics, resin drying requirements, and other resin loading process parameters. Calculations made to estimate the capacities of equipment that is geometrically safe with respect to control of nuclear criticality indicate 100 kg/day or more of uranium for single nitrate extraction lines with one continuous resin loading contactor or four batch loading contactors. (auth)

  1. Direct injection analysis of fatty and resin acids in papermaking process waters by HPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valto, Piia; Knuutinen, Juha; Alén, Raimo

    2011-04-01

    A novel HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/MS (HPLC-APCI/MS) method was developed for the rapid analysis of selected fatty and resin acids typically present in papermaking process waters. A mixture of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, and dehydroabietic acids was separated by a commercial HPLC column (a modified stationary C(18) phase) using gradient elution with methanol/0.15% formic acid (pH 2.5) as a mobile phase. The internal standard (myristic acid) method was used to calculate the correlation coefficients and in the quantitation of the results. In the thorough quality parameters measurement, a mixture of these model acids in aqueous media as well as in six different paper machine process waters was quantitatively determined. The measured quality parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy, clearly indicated that, compared with traditional gas chromatographic techniques, the simple method developed provided a faster chromatographic analysis with almost real-time monitoring of these acids. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin by elution with benzoic acid-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masanobu; Xu, Qun; Helaleh, Murad I H; Ikedo, Mikaru; Taoda, Hiroshi; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Fritz, James S; Haddad, Paul R

    2003-05-16

    In this study, an aqueous solution consisting of benzoic acid with low background conductivity and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) of hydrophilic nature and the inclusion effect to benzoic acid were used as eluent for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids with different pKa values and hydrophobicity on a polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+ form. With increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in the eluent, the retention times of the carboxylic acids decreased due to the increased hydrophilicity of the polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resin surface from the adsorption of OH groups of beta-cyclodextrin. Moreover, the eluent background conductivity decreased with increasing concentration of beta-cyclodextrin in 1 mM benzoic acid, which could result in higher sensitivity for conductimetric detection. The ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of carboxylic acids with high resolution and sensitivity was accomplished successfully by elution with a 1 mM benzoic acid-10 mM cyclodextrin solution without chemical suppression.

  3. Efficient transformation of corn stover to furfural using p-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid-formaldehyde resin solid acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingwei; Li, Wenzhi; An, Shengxin; Huang, Feng; Li, Xinzhe; Liu, Jingrong; Pei, Gang; Liu, Qiying

    2018-05-24

    In this work, p-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid-formaldehyde resin acid catalyst (MSPFR), was synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and employed for the furfural production from raw corn stover. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N 2 adsorption-desorption, elemental analysis (EA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the MSPFR. The effects of reaction time, temperature, solvents and corn stover loading were investigated. The MSPFR presented high catalytic activity for the formation of furfural from corn stover. When the MSPFR/corn stover mass loading ratio was 0.5, a higher furfural yield of 43.4% could be achieved at 190 °C in 100 min with 30.7% 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) yield. Additionally, quite importantly, the recyclability of the MSPFR for xylose dehydration is good, and for the conversion of corn stover was reasonable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. (Yale Univ. School of medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  5. Influence of ozone and paracetic acid disinfection on adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Orhun; Ozkomur, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of paracetic acid (PAA) and ozone disinfection on the tensile bond strength (TBS) of silicone-based resilient liners to acrylic resins. One hundred and twenty dumbbell shaped heat-polymerized acrylic resins were prepared. From the mid segment of the specimens, 3 mm of acrylic were grinded off and separated parts were reattached by resilient liners. The specimens were divided into 2 control (control1, control7) and 4 test groups of PAA and ozone disinfection (PAA1, PAA7, ozone1 and ozone7; n=10). While control groups were immersed in distilled water for 10 min (control1) and 7 days (control7), test groups were subjected to PAA (16 g/L) or ozone rich water (4 mg/L) for 1 cycle (10 min for PAA and 60 min for ozone) per day for 7 days prior to tensile tests. Measurements of the TBS were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Adhesive strength of Mollosil decreased significantly by application of ozone disinfection. PAA disinfection had no negative effect on the TBS values of Mollosil and Molloplast B to acrylic resin. Single application of ozone disinfection did not have any negative effect on TBS values of Molloplast B, but prolonged exposure to ozone decreased its adhesive strength. The adhesion of resilient liners to acrylic was not adversely affected by PAA disinfection. Immersion in ozonated water significantly decreased TBS of Mollosil. Prolonged exposure to ozone negatively affects adhesion of Molloplast B to denture base materials.

  6. Impact of pH and application time of meta-phosphoric acid on resin-enamel and resin-dentin bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, A F M; Siqueira, F S F; Bandeca, M C; Costa, S O; Lemos, M V S; Feitora, V P; Reis, A; Loguercio, A D; Gomes, J C

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the immediate microshear resin-enamel bond strength (μSBS) and the immediate and 6-month microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage (NL) of the adhesive interface performed by different pHs of 40% meta-phosphoric acid (MPA) were compared with conventional 37% ortho-phosphoric acid (OPA) under different application times. Additionally, the enamel etching patterns were evaluated and the chemical/morphological changes induced by these differents groups were evaluated. One hundred and ninety-eight extracted human molars were randomly assigned into experimental groups according to the combination of independent variables: Acid [37% ortho-phosphoric acid (OPA), 40% meta-phosphoric acid (MPA) at pHs of: 0.5, 1 and 2] and Application Time [7, 15 and 30s]. Enamel-bond specimens were prepared and tested under μSBS. Resin-dentin beams were tested under μTBS tested immediately or after 6-months of water storage. Nanoleakage was evaluated using bonded-beams of each tooth/time-period. Enamel etching pattern and chemical and ultra-morphology analyses were also performed. The μSBS (MPa) data were subjected to a two-way repeated measures ANOVA (Acid vs. Application time). For μTBS, Acid vs application time vs storage time data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). MPA pH 0.5 showed μTBS similar to OPA, independently of the application time on enamel (p>0.05) or dentin (p>0.05). OPA provided higher nanoleakage values than MPA (p = 0.003). Significant decreases in TBS and increases in NL were only observed for OPA after 6 months (p = 0.001). An increase in the application time resulted in a more pronounced etching pattern for MPA. Chemical analysis showed that dentin demineralized by MPA depicted peaks of brushite and octacalcium phosphate. MPA exposed less collagen than OPA. However, optimal results for MPA were dependent on pH/application time. The use of 40% meta-phosphoric acid with a pH of 0.5 is an alternative acid

  7. Ion-exchange Resin Catalyzed Esterification of Lactic Acid with Isopropanol: a Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit P. Toor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic behavior of esterification of lactic acid with isopropanol over an acidic cation exchange resin, Amberlyst 15, was studied under isothermal condition. Isopropyl lactate synthesized in this reaction is an important pharmaceutical intermediate. The experiments were carried out in a stirred batch reactor in the temperature range of 323.15 to 353.15 K. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, molar ratio and catalyst loading was studied. Variation in parameters on rate of reaction demonstrated that the reaction was intrinsically controlled. Kinetic modeling was performed using Eley-Rideal model which acceptably fits the experimental data. The activation energy was found to be 22.007 kJ/mol and frequency factor was 0.036809 l2 g-1 mol-1 min-1 for forward reaction. The value of entropy for the forward reaction was found to be 182.317 J K-1 mol-1 . © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 19th January 2011, Revised: 16th March 2011; Accepted: 16th March 2011[How to Cite: A.P. Toor, M. Sharma, S. Thakur, and R. K. Wanchoo. (2011. Ion-exchange Resin Catalyzed Esterification of Lactic Acid with Isopropanol: a Kinetic Study. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 39-45. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.791.39-45][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.791.39-45 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/791 ] | View in  

  8. Novel bioactive polyester scaffolds prepared from unsaturated resins based on isosorbide and succinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Śmiga-Matuszowicz, Monika, E-mail: monika.smiga-matuszowicz@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Janicki, Bartosz; Jaszcz, Katarzyna; Łukaszczyk, Jan [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, M. Strzody Street 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kaczmarek, Marcin [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Biomaterials and Medical Devices Engineering, de Gaulle' a Street 66, 41-800 Zabrze (Poland); Lesiak, Marta; Sieroń, Aleksander L. [Medical University of Silesia, Department of General and Molecular Biology and Genetics, Medyków Street 18, 40-752 Katowice (Poland); Simka, Wojciech [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Inorganic Technology and Fuels, B. Krzywoustego Street 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Mierzwiński, Maciej; Kusz, Damian [Medical University of Silesia, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ziołowa Street 45, 40-635 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-12-01

    In this study new biodegradable materials obtained by crosslinking poly(3-allyloxy-1,2-propylene succinate) (PSAGE) with oligo(isosorbide maleate) (OMIS) and small amount of methyl methacrylate were investigated. The porous scaffolds were obtained in the presence of a foaming system consisted of calcium carbonate/carboxylic acid mixture, creating in situ porous structure during crosslinking of liquid formulations. The maximum crosslinking temperature and setting time, the cured porous materials morphology as well as the effect of their porosity on mechanical properties and hydrolytic degradation process were evaluated. It was found that the kind of carboxylic acid used in the foaming system influenced compressive strength and compressive modulus of porous scaffolds. The MTS cytotoxicity assay was carried out for OMIS using hFOB1.19 cell line. OMIS resin was found to be non-toxic in wide range of concentrations. On the ground of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and energy X-ray dispersive analysis (EDX) it was found that hydroxyapatite (HA) formation at the scaffolds surfaces within short period of soaking in phosphate buffer solution occurs. After 3 h immersion a compact layer of HA was observed at the surface of the samples. The obtained results suggest potential applicability of resulted new porous crosslinked polymeric materials as temporary bone void fillers. - Highlights: • Isosorbide-based resin was used as a component of biodegradable scaffolds. • CAC/carboxylic acid system was proven as facile method to obtain porous scaffolds. • Porous scaffolds displayed the formation of hydroxyapatite at their surfaces.

  9. Kinetic investigation of the immobilization of chromotropic acid derivatives onto anion exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasmina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption kinetics of pyrazol- (РАСА and imidazol-azo-chromo-tropic acid (IACA onto Dowex 1-X8 resin, as a function of the dye concentration and temperature were investigated at pH 4.5. The pseudo-first- and second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the obtained kinetic data. The adsorption rate constants were found to be in the order of magnitude 10-2 min-1 for all of the used kinetics models. The adsorption capacity increases with increasing initial dye concentration. The study of adsorption kinetics at different temperatures (in the range from 5 to 25 °C reveals an increase in the rate of adsorption and adsorption capacity with increasing temperature. The activation energy (in the case of РАСА 16.6 kJ/mol, and for IACA 11.3 kJ/mol was determined using the Arrhenius dependence. Electrostatic interactions between the dye and resin beads were shown to be the adsorption mechanism.

  10. Uranium loss from BISO-coated weak-acid-resin HTGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, R.L.; Lindemer, T.B.

    1977-02-01

    Recycle fuel for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) contains a weak-acid-resin (WAR) kernel, which consists of a mixture of UC 2 , UO 2 , and free carbon. At 1900 0 C, BISO-coated WAR UC 2 or UC 2 -UO 2 kernels lose a significant portion of their uranium in several hundred hours. The UC 2 decomposes and uranium diffuses through the pyrolytic coating. The rate of escape of the uranium is dependent on the temperature and the surface area of the UC 2 , but not on a temperature gradient. The apparent activation energy for uranium loss, ΔH, is approximately 90 kcal/mole. Calculations indicate that uranium loss from the kernel would be insignificant under conditions to be expected in an HTGR

  11. Modeling Breakthrough Curves of Citric Acid Adsorption onto Anionic Resins in an Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrabali Ghorbanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakthrough curves for citric acid adsorption from aqueous solution onto ion-exchange resin at 20, 35, and 55°C have been investigated. To predict breakthrough curves, three mathematical models have been analyzed based on the values of the least square method parameters, Durbin-Watson test, and mean relative percent error and, finally, appropriate models have been achieved. Models are in good agreement with experimental data based on the results. To examine models reliabilities and accuracy, models have been compared by various breakthrough curve data obtained by other investigators. The results show appropriate agreement and in some cases regression errors have been reduced to less than 1.0 percent.

  12. Low pressure process for continuous fiber reinforced polyamic acid resin matrix composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyun, Darleen A. (Inventor); Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Kidder, Paul W. (Inventor); Reddy, Rakasi M. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A low pressure processor was developed for preparing a well-consolidated polyimide composite laminate. Prepreg plies were formed from unidirectional fibers and a polyamic acid resin solution. Molding stops were placed at the sides of a matched metal die mold. The prepreg plies were cut shorter than the length of the mold in the in-plane lateral direction and were stacked between the molding stops to a height which was higher than the molding stops. The plies were then compressed to the height of the stops and heated to allow the volatiles to escape and to start the imidization reaction. After removing the stops from the mold, the heat was increased and 0 - 500 psi was applied to complete the imidization reaction. The heat and pressure were further increased to form a consolidated polyimide composite laminate.

  13. Miscibility and specific interactions in blends of poly(n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and acid functional polyester resins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senatore, D.; Berix, M.J.A.; Laven, J.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; With, de G.; Mezari, B.; Magusin, P.C.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Miscibility and intermol. interactions of novel blends of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and acid functional polyester resins (APE) were studied by use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform IR (ATR-FTIR), Cross-Polarization Magic Angle Spinning

  14. Selective recovery of a pyridine derivative from an aqueous waste stream containing acetic acid and succinonitrile with solvent impregnated resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, J.; Visser, T.J.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Solvent impregnated resins (SIRs) were evaluated for the recovery of pyridine derivatives from an aqueous waste-stream containing also acetic acid and succinonitrile. For this purpose, a new solvent was developed, synthesized and impregnated in Amberlite XAD4. Sorption studies were used to determine

  15. SOLVENT EFFECTS IN THE LIQUID-PHASE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A MACROPOROUS STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo first order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion exchange resin, macroporous Amberlite XE 307, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. A decrease by a factor of 3 and 6 is observed in the experimentally measured

  16. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER CATALYZED BY ACIDIC ION-EXCHANGE RESINS - INFLUENCE OF THE PROTON ACTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1995-01-01

    The catalytic activity of various strong acid ion-exchange resins on the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) from methanol and isobutene has been investigated. Relative to Amberlyst 15, Kastel CS 381 and Amberlyst CSP have similar rate constants, whereas Duolite ES 276 and Amberlyst XE 307

  17. Improvement of epoxy resin properties by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles surface modified with gallic acid esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoman, Tijana S.; Džunuzović, Jasna V.; Jeremić, Katarina B.; Grgur, Branimir N.; Miličević, Dejan S.; Popović, Ivanka G.; Džunuzović, Enis S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposites of epoxy resin and TiO 2 nanoparticles surface modified with gallates. • The T g of epoxy resin was increased by incorporation of surface modified TiO 2 . • WVTR of epoxy resin decreased in the presence of surface modified TiO 2 nanoparticles. • WVTR of nanocomposites was reduced with increasing gallates hydrophobic chain length. • Modified TiO 2 nanoparticles react as oxygen scavengers, inhibiting steel corrosion. - Abstract: Epoxy resin/titanium dioxide (epoxy/TiO 2 ) nanocomposites were obtained by incorporation of TiO 2 nanoparticles surface modified with gallic acid esters in epoxy resin. TiO 2 nanoparticles were obtained by acid catalyzed hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide and their structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Three gallic acid esters, having different hydrophobic part, were used for surface modification of the synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles: propyl, hexyl and lauryl gallate. The gallate chemisorption onto surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, while the amount of surface-bonded gallates was determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The influence of the surface modified TiO 2 nanoparticles, as well as the length of hydrophobic part of the gallate used for surface modification of TiO 2 nanoparticles, on glass transition temperature, barrier, dielectric and anticorrosive properties of epoxy resin was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, water vapor transmission test, dielectric spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization measurements. Incorporation of surface modified TiO 2 nanoparticles in epoxy resin caused increase of glass transition temperature and decrease of the water vapor permeability of epoxy resin. The water vapor transmission rate of epoxy/TiO 2 nanocomposites was reduced with increasing hydrophobic part chain length of

  18. Releasing Pattern of Applied Phosphorus and Distribution Change of Phosphorus Fractions in the Acid Upland Soils with Successive Resin Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Hartono

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The releasing pattern of applied P in the acid upland soils and the soil properties influencing the pattern were studied. Surface horizons of six acid upland soils from Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan were used in this study. The releasing pattern of applied P (300 mg P kg-1 of these soils were studied by successive resin extraction. P fractionation was conducted to evaluate which fractions released P to the soil solution after successive resin extraction. The cumulative of resin-Pinorganic (Pi release of soils was fitted to the first order kinetic. Regression analyses using factor scores obtained from the previous principal components analyses was applied to determine soil properties influencing P releasing pattern. The results suggested that the maximum P release was significantly (P < 0.05 increased by acidity plus 1.4 nm mineral-related factor (PC2 i.e. exchangeable Al and 1.4 nm minerals (smectite and vermiculite and decreased by oxide related factor (PC1 i.e. aluminum (Al plus 1/2 iron (Fe (by ammonium oxalate, crystalline Al and Fe oxides, cation exchange capacity, and clay content. P fractionation analysis after successive resin extraction showed that both labile and less labile in the form of NaHCO3-Pi and NaOH-Pi fractions, respectively, can be transformed into resin-Pi when in the most labile resin-Pi is depleted. Most of P released in high oxides soils were from NaOH-Pi fraction while in low oxides soils were from NaHCO3-Pi. P release from the former fraction resulted in the maximum P release lower than that of the latter one. When NaHCO3-Pi was high, NaOH-Pi was relatively more stable than NaHCO3-Pi despite resin-Pi removal. NaHCO3-Pi and NaOH-Pi are very important P fractions in replenishing resin-Pi in these acid upland soils.

  19. Characterization of hydroxybenzoic acid chelating resins: equilibrium, kinetics, and isotherm profiles for Cd(II and Pb(II uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHAVNA A. SHAH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chelating ion-exchange resins were synthesized by polycondensation of ortho/para hydroxybenzoic acid with resorcinol/catechol employing formaldehyde as cross-linking agent at 80±5 °C in DMF. The resins were characterized by FTIR and XRD. The uptake behaviour of synthesized resins for Cd(II and Pb(II ions have been studied depending on contact time, pH, metal ion concentration and temperature. The sorption data obtained at optimized conditions were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Experimental data of all metal–resin system were best represented by the Freundlich isotherm. The maximum obtained sorption capacity for cadmium was 69.53 mg g-1 and 169.32 mg g-1 for Lead. The adsorption process follows first order kinetics and the specific rate constant Kr was obtained by the application of the Lagergan equation. Thermodynamic parameters ∆Gads, ∆Sads and ∆Hads were calculated for the metal–resin systems. The external diffusion rate constant (KS and the intra-particle diffusion rate constant (Kid were calculated by the Spahn–Schlunder and Weber–Morris models, respectively. The sorption process was found to follow an intra-particle diffusion phenomenon.

  20. Fabrication of micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin on aluminum by AFM probe processing and electrophoretic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakairi, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin were fabricated on aluminum by anodizing, atomic force microscope (AFM) probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition. Barrier type anodic oxide films of 15 nm thickness were formed on aluminum and then the specimen was scratched with an AFM probe in a solution containing acrylic acid/melamine resin nano-particles to remove the anodic oxide film locally. After scratching, the specimen was anodically polarized to deposit acrylic acid/melamine resin electrophoretically at the film-removed area. The resin deposited on the specimen was finally cured by heating. It was found that scratching with the AFM probe on open circuit leads to the contamination of the probe with resin, due to positive shifts in the potential during scratching. Scratching of the specimen under potentiostatic conditions at -1.0 V, however, resulted in successful resin deposition at the film-removed area without probe contamination. The rate of resin deposition increased as the specimen potential becomes more positive during electrophoretic deposition. Arrays of resin dots with a few to several tens μm diameter and 100-1000 nm height, and resin walls with 100-1000 nm height and 1 μm width were obtained on specimens by successive anodizing, probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition

  1. Fabrication of micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin on aluminum by AFM probe processing and electrophoretic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Sakairi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)], E-mail: takahasi@elechem1-mc.eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2008-11-30

    Micro-dot arrays and micro-walls of acrylic acid/melamine resin were fabricated on aluminum by anodizing, atomic force microscope (AFM) probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition. Barrier type anodic oxide films of 15 nm thickness were formed on aluminum and then the specimen was scratched with an AFM probe in a solution containing acrylic acid/melamine resin nano-particles to remove the anodic oxide film locally. After scratching, the specimen was anodically polarized to deposit acrylic acid/melamine resin electrophoretically at the film-removed area. The resin deposited on the specimen was finally cured by heating. It was found that scratching with the AFM probe on open circuit leads to the contamination of the probe with resin, due to positive shifts in the potential during scratching. Scratching of the specimen under potentiostatic conditions at -1.0 V, however, resulted in successful resin deposition at the film-removed area without probe contamination. The rate of resin deposition increased as the specimen potential becomes more positive during electrophoretic deposition. Arrays of resin dots with a few to several tens {mu}m diameter and 100-1000 nm height, and resin walls with 100-1000 nm height and 1 {mu}m width were obtained on specimens by successive anodizing, probe processing, and electrophoretic deposition.

  2. Metal binding characterization and conformational studies using Raman microscopy of resin-bound poly(aspartic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stair, Jacqueline L; Holcombe, James A

    2007-03-01

    The metal binding capacities, conditional stability constants, and secondary structure of immobilized polyaspartic acid (PLAsp) (n = 6, 20, and 30) on TentaGel resin were determined when binding Mg2+, Co2+, Cd2+, and Ni2+. Metal binding to the synthesized peptides was evaluated using breakthrough curves from a packed microcolumn and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) detection. The metal capacities reached values of 590, 2160, and 3710 mumol of metal/g of resin for the 6-mer, 20-mer, and 30-mer, respectively, and this resulted in 2-3 residues per metal for all peptides and metals tested. Surprisingly, the concentrated environment of the resin along with the spatial distribution of attachment groups allowed for most residues to participate in metal binding regardless of the peptide length. Conditional stability constants calculated using single metal binding isotherms indicated that binding strength decreased as the chain length increased on the resin. Raman microscopy on single beads was used to determine PLAsp secondary structure, and all peptides were of a mixed conformation (i.e., beta-sheets, alpha-helices, random chain, etc.) during neutral conditioning and metal binding. Uniquely, the longer 20-mer and 30-mer peptides showed a distinct change from a mixed conformation to beta-sheets and alpha-helices during metal release with acid. This study confirms that metal release by longer immobilized peptides is often assisted by a conformational change, which easily spoils the binding cavity, while shorter peptides may release metal primarily by H+ displacement.

  3. Surface Engineering of PAMAM-SDB Chelating Resin with Diglycolamic Acid (DGA) Functional Group for Efficient Sorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) from Aqueous Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaiyaraja, P.; Venkatraman, B., E-mail: chemila07@gmail.com [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Deb, A.K. Singha [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ponraju, D. [Safety Engineering Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Ali, Sk. Musharaf [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A new DGA-PAMAM-SDB chelating resin has been synthesized for actinide sorption. • Maximum sorption capacities of resin are 682 and 544.2 mg g{sup −1}for U(VI) and Th(IV). • DGA-PAMAM-SDB chelating resin could be regenerated and reused. • DFT calculation of actinides interaction with resin corroborates the experimental. • Resin is effective for sorption of actinides from both aqueous and HNO{sub 3} medium. - Abstract: A novel chelating resin obtained via growth of PAMAM dendron on surface of styrene divinyl benzene resin beads, followed by diglycolamic acid functionalization of the dendrimer terminal. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, nitric acid concentration, amount of adsorbent, shaking time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature on U(VI) and Th(IV) adsorption efficiency. Diglycolamic acid terminated PAMAM dendrimer functionalized styrene divinylbenzene chelating resin (DGA-PAMAM-SDB) is found to be an efficient candidate for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions from aqueous (pH > 4) and nitric acid media (> 3 M). The sorption equilibrium could be reached within 60 min, and the experimental data fits with pseudo-second-order model. Langmuir sorption isotherm model correlates well with sorption equilibrium data. The maximum U(VI) and Th(IV) sorption capacity onto DGA-PAMAMG{sub 5}-SDB was estimated to be about 682 and 544.2 mg g{sup −1} respectively at 25 °C. The interaction of actinides and chelating resin is reversible and hence, the resin can be regenerated and reused. DFT calculation on the interaction of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions with chelating resin validates the experimental findings.

  4. Distribution of 14 elements from two solutions simulating Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY (acid-dissolved sludge and acidified supernate) on four cation exchange resins and five anion exchange resins having different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated a series of cation exchange and anion exchange resins for their ability to remove hazardous components from radioactive high-level waste (HLW). The anion exchangers were Reillex TM HPQ, a polyvinyl pyridine resin, and four strong-base polystyrene resins having trimethyl, tri ethyl, tri propyl, and tributyl amine as their respective functional groups. The cation exchange resins included Amberlyst TM 15 and Amberlyst tM XN-1010 with sulfonic acid functionality, Duolite TM C-467 with phosphonic acid functionality, and poly functional Diphonix TM with di phosphonic acid, sulfonic acid, and carboxylic acid functionalities. We measured the distributions of 14 elements on these resins from solutions simulating acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6) and acidified supernate (pH 3.5) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, USA. To these simulants, we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of the 252 element/resin/solution combinations, distribution coefficients (Kds) were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours to obtain information about sorption kinetics from these complex media. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate which unwanted elements are most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of special interest. On the basis of these 756 measured Kd values, we conclude that some of the tested resins appear suitable for partitioning hazardous components from Hanford HLW. (author). 10 refs., 11 tabs

  5. Separation of Mn(II) in presence of Al(III) in acid drainage from an Uranium mine with the use of chelating resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eliane Pavesi B.; Gomes, Viviane T.; Vaitsman, Delmo S.

    2011-01-01

    The acid drainage of Osamu Utsumi mine is the main environmental impact from mining activities in Pocos de Caldas - MG - Brazil. The water produced in this process is characterized by high acidity and heavy metal concentration. To minimize this environmental impact, new technologies directed towards treatment of acid drainage of mine (ADM) have been studied. However, due to the presence of Al 3+ (which has a high charge) in the ADM, these resins get quickly saturated, preventing stripping of divalent cations like Mn 2+ . This study proposes the synthesis of chelating resins that provide preferential retention of Mn 2+ instead of Al 3+ . It was synthesized resins functionalized with amidoxime and dithiocarbamate. The capacity of retention of Mn 2+ e Al 3+ ions at different pH values was assessed for each resin. The stripping of Mn 2+ at 2, 3 and 4 (pH ADM range) by studied resins was not preferential for Mn 2+ in relation to Al 3+ , probably due to the strong electrostatic interaction between this last type of high charge density and the active sites from extractor agents and resins. However at pH 6 (stated by environmental norms for liquid effluents discharge) the synthesized resins had a good retention capacity for Mn 2+ . So it is proposed that the extraction technique using chelating resins could be employed to strip Mn 2+ from ADM at pH 6,0, since at this condition , Al 3+ is precipitated as Al(OH) 3 . (author)

  6. Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, T J; Croft, M Y; Murby, E J; Wells, R J

    1997-10-17

    A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric and citric acids which are readily separated by GC. Using this procedure low concentrations of one acid can be detected and quantitated in the presence of very high concentrations of another. This new method detects tartaric acid at levels of 10 ppm in juices containing 10,000 ppm citric acid. Quantitation was performed either by using GC-FID with triethyl citrate or diethyl tartrate as internal standards or with the element specific calibration capability of the GC-AED. A simple new technique for the determination of citric/isocitric acid ratio is now available. Also, in contrast to HPLC methods, the identity of an analyte is readily confirmed by GC-MS.

  7. Efficient in situ separation and production of L-lactic acid by Bacillus coagulans using weak basic anion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitong; Qian, Zijun; Liu, Peng; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2018-02-01

    To get rid of the dependence on lactic acid neutralizer, a simple and economical approach for efficient in situ separation and production of L-lactic acid was established by Bacillus coagulans using weak basic anion-exchange resin. During ten tested resins, the 335 weak basic anion-exchange resins demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity and selectivity for lactic acid recovery. The adsorption study of the 335 resins for lactic acid confirmed that it is an efficient adsorbent under fermentation condition. Langmuir models gave a good fit to the equilibrium data at 50 °C and the maximum adsorption capacity for lactic acid by 335 resins was about 402 mg/g. Adsorption kinetic experiments showed that pseudo-second-order kinetics model gave a good fit to the adsorption rate. When it was used for in situ fermentation, the yield of L-lactic acid by B. coagulans CC17 was close to traditional fermentation and still maintained at about 82% even after reuse by ten times. These results indicated that in situ separation and production of L-lactic acid using the 335 resins were efficient and feasible. This process could greatly reduce the dosage of neutralizing agent and potentially be used in industry.

  8. [Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the surface morphology and bonding effectiveness of lithium disilicate glass ceramics to resin composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailan, Qian; Lingyan, Ren; Rongrong, Nie; Xiangfeng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) in varied concentrations on the surface morphology of lithium disilicate glass ceramics and bond durability between resin composites and post-treated lithium disilicate glass ceramics. After being sintered, ground, and washed, 72 as-prepared specimens of lithium disilicate glass ceramics with dimensions of 11 mm×13 mm×2 mm were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was treated with acid solution [32% phosphoric acid (PA) or 4% or 9.5% HF] for 20 s. Then, four acidified specimens from each group were randomly selected. One of the specimens was used to observe the surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy, and the others were used to observe the surface roughness using a surface roughness meter (including Ra, Rz, and Rmax). After treatment with different acid solutions in each group, 20 samples were further treated with silane coupling agent/resin adhesive/resin cement (Monobond S/Multilink Primer A&B/Multilink N), followed by bonding to a composite resin column (Filtek™ Z350) with a diameter of 3 mm. A total of 20 specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups, which were used for measuring the microshear bond strength, with one of them subjected to cool-thermal cycle for 20 000 times. The surface roughness (Ra, Rz, and Rmax) of lithium disilicate glass ceramics treated with 4% or 9.5% HF was significantly higher than that of the ceramic treated with PA (Pglass ceramics treated with 9.5% HF also demonstrated better surface roughness (Rz and Rmax) than that of the ceramics treated with 4% HF. Cool-thermal cycle treatment reduced the bond strength of lithium disilicate glass ceramics in all groups (Pglass ceramics treated with HF had higher bond strength than that of the ceramics treated with PA. The lithium disilicate glass ceramics treated with 4% HF had higher bond strength than that of the ceramics treated with 9.5% HF (Pglass ceramics treated with 4

  9. Adsorption characteristics of 14C-labeled alanine, aspartic acid and adenosine triphosphate by metal-chelating resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Toshio; Matsunami, Tadao; Shibata, Setsuko; Honda, Yoshihide.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Adsorption properties of 14 C-alanine, 14 C-ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and 14 C-aspartic acid on the metal-chelating resins were determined and found that the Cu(II)-Chelex 100 and Fe(III)-Unicellex UR10, Fe(III)-Chelex 100 chelating resins were highly effective for the adsorption of 14 C-alanine and 14 C-ATP, respectively. (2) Desorption rate of 14 C-ATP from the Fe(III)-Unicellex UR10 and Fe(III)-Chelex 100 resins was somewhat higher than the case of 14 C-alanine, probably because the coordination bonds of Cu-alanine might be stronger than those of Fe-ATP. Thus, 14 C-labeled organic compounds such as 14 C-alanine and 14 C-ATP of a low activity concentration (3.7 mBq/ml) (1 x 10 -7 μCi/ml) in aqueous solution may be measured with liquid scintillation counter after pre-concentration by use of the Fe(III)- and Cu(II)-chelating resin columns. (author)

  10. Recovery of lactic acid from the pretreated fermentation broth based on a novel hyper-cross-linked meso-micropore resin: Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingkai; Jiao, Pengfei; Qin, Taotao; Jiang, Kangkang; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Yong; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Chenjie; Chen, Xiaochun; Ying, Hanjie; Wu, Jinglan

    2017-10-01

    An innovative benign process for recovery lactic acid from its fermentation broth is proposed using a novel hyper-cross-linked meso-micropore resin and water as eluent. This work focuses on modeling the competitive adsorption behaviors of glucose, lactic acid and acetic acid ternary mixture and explosion of the adsorption mechanism. The characterization results showed the resin had a large BET surface area and specific pore structure with hydrophobic properties. By analysis of the physicochemical properties of the solutes and the resin, the mechanism of the separation is proposed as hydrophobic effect and size-exclusion. Subsequently three chromatographic models were applied to predict the competitive breakthrough curves of the ternary mixture under different operating conditions. The pore diffusion was the major limiting factor for the adsorption process, which was consistent with the BET results. The novel HD-06 resin can be a good potential adsorbent for the future SMB continuous separation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uranium dispersion in the coating of weak-acid-resin-deprived HTGR fuel microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.W.; Beatty, R.L.; Tennery, V.J.; Lackey, W.J. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    The current reference HTGR recycle fuel particle is a UO 2 /UC 2 kernel with a Triso coating comprising a low-density pyrocarbon (PyC) buffer, a high-density PyC inner LTI coating, SiC, and a high-density PyC outer LTI. The kernel is fabricated from a weak-acid ion exchange resin (WAR). Microradiographic examination of coated WAR particles has demonstrated that considerable U can be transferred from the kernel to the buffer coating during fabrication. Investigation of causes of fuel dispersion has indicated several different factors that contribute to fuel redistribution if not properly controlled. The presence of a nonequilibrium UC/sub 1-x/O/sub x/ (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.3) phase had no significant effect on initiating fuel dispersion. Gross exposure of the completed fuel kernel to ambient atmosphere or to water vapor at room temperature produced very minimal levels of dispersion. Exposure of the fuel to perchloroethylene during buffer and inner LTI deposition produced massive redistribution. Fuel redistribution observed in Triso-coated particles results from permeation of the inner LTI by HCl during SiC deposition. As the decomposition of CH 3 Cl 3 Si is used to deposit SiC, chlorine is readily available during this process. The permeability of the inner LTI coating has a marked effect on the extent of this mode of fuel dispersion. LTI permeability was determined by chlorine leaching studies to be a strong function of density, coating gas dilution, and coating temperature but relatively unaffected by application of a seal coat, variations in coating thickness, and annealing at 1800 0 C. Mechanical attrition of the kernels during processing was identified as a potential source of U-bearing fines that may be incorporated into the coating in some circumstances

  12. Adsorption and removal of clofibric acid and diclofenac from water with MIEX resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xian; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Chen, Juxiang; Zhang, Yansen; Wang, Qiongfang; Lu, Yuqi

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrates the use of MIEX resin as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF). The adsorption performance of CA and DCF are investigated by a batch mode in single-component or bi-component adsorption system. Various factors influencing the adsorption of CA and DCF, including initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial solution pH, agitation speed, natural organic matter and coexistent anions are studied. The Langmuir model can well describe CA adsorption in single-component system, while the Freundlich model gives better fitting in bi-component system. The DCF adsorption can be well fitted by the Freundlich model in both systems. Thermodynamic analyses show that the adsorption of CA and DCF is an endothermic (ΔH(o) > 0), entropy driven (ΔS(o) > 0) process and more randomness exists in the DCF adsorption process. The values of Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o)  0) for CA adsorption. The kinetic data suggest the adsorption of CA and DCF follow the pseudo-first-order model in both systems and the intra-particle is not the unique rate-limiting step. The adsorption process is controlled simultaneously by external mass transfer and surface diffusion according to the surface diffusion modified Biot number (Bis) ranging from 1.06 to 26.15. Moreover, the possible removal mechanism for CA and DCF is respectively proposed based on the ion exchange stoichiometry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on composite resins containing ursolic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyeon; Song, Minju; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Park, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid (UA)-containing composites on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm. Materials and Methods Composite resins with five different concentrations (0.04, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) of UA (U6753, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared, and their flexural strengths were measured according to ISO 4049. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate source on biofilm formation, either glucose or sucrose was used as a nutrient source, and to investigate the effect of saliva treatment, the specimen were treated with either unstimulated whole saliva or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For biofilm assay, composite disks were transferred to S. mutans suspension and incubated for 24 hr. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed with PBS and sonicated. The colony forming units (CFU) of the disrupted biofilm cultures were enumerated. For growth inhibition test, the composites were placed on a polystyrene well cluster, and S. mutans suspension was inoculated. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was recorded by Infinite F200 pro apparatus (TECAN). One-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction were used for the data analyses. Results The flexural strength values did not show significant difference at any concentration (p > 0.01). In biofilm assay, the CFU score decreased as the concentration of UA increased. The influence of saliva pretreatment was conflicting. The sucrose groups exhibited higher CFU score than glucose group (p composite showed inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and growth. PMID:23741708

  14. Properties of cyclodextrins. V. Inclusion isotherm and kinetics of inclusion of benzoic acid and m-chlorobenzoic acid on b-E 25 cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedenhof, N.; Trieling, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The previous paper showed that b-E 25 resins have an affinity for aromatic compds., e.g. BZOH and m-ClC6H4CO2H; mainly the undissocd. acids are involved. The isothermal inclusion of undissocd. BZOH is described by a Langmuir isotherm, but that of m-ClC6H4CO2H follows a Freundlich isotherm. The

  15. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-butanol and isobutanol Catalyzed by Ion Exchange Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Pal Toor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Esters are an important pharmaceutical intermediates and very useful perfumery agents. In this study the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol and iso-butanol over an acidic cation exchange resin, Amberlyst 15 were carried out. The effects of certain parameters such as temperature, catalyst loading, initial molar ratio between reactants on the rate of reaction were studied. The experiments were conducted in a stirred batch reactor in the temperature range of 351.15 K to 366.15K.Variation of parameters on rate of reaction demonstrated that the reaction was intrinsically controlled.The activation energy for the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol and iso butanol is found to be 28.45 k J/mol and 23.29 kJ/mol respectively. ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 16th December 2010, Revised: 19th March 2011; Accepted: 7th April 2011[How to Cite: A.P. Toor, M. Sharma, G. Kumar, and R. K. Wanchoo. (2011. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-butanol and isobutanol Catalyzed by Ion Exchange Resin. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 23-30. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.665.23-30][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.665.23-30 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/665 ] | View in 

  16. Effects of the peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite on the colour stability and surface roughness of the denture base acrylic resins polymerised by microwave and water bath methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Flavio H C N; Orsi, Iara A; Villabona, Camilo A

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness (Ra) and color stability of acrylic resin colors (Lucitone 550, QC-20 and Vipi-Wave) used for fabricating bases for complete, removable dentures, overdentures and prosthetic protocol after immersion in chemical disinfectants (1% sodium hypochlorite and 2% peracetic acid) for 30 and 60 minutes. Sixty specimens were made of each commercial brand of resin composite, and divided into 2 groups according to the chemical disinfectants. Specimens had undergone the finishing and polishing procedures, the initial color and roughness measurements were taken (t=0), and after this, ten test specimens of each commercial brand of resin composite were immersed in sodium hypochlorite and ten in peracetic acid, for 30 and 60 minutes, with measurements being taken after each immersion period. These data were submitted to statistical analysis. There was evidence of an increase in Ra after 30 minutes immersion in the disinfectants in all the resins, with QC-20 presenting the highest Ra values, and Vipi-Wave the lowest. After 60 minutes immersion in the disinfectants all the resins presented statistically significant color alteration. Disinfection with 1% sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid altered the properties of roughness and color of the resins. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. An Efficient Protocol for Preparation of Gallic Acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb by Combination of Macroporous Resin and Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Denglang; Chen, Tao; Chen, Chen; Li, Hongmei; Liu, Yongling; Li, Yulin

    2016-08-01

    In this article, macroporous resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography were applied for preparation of gallic acid from Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. In the first step, six kinds of resins were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests and AB-8 macroporous resin was selected for the enrichment of gallic acid. As a result, 20 g of gallic acid at a purity of 71% could be separated from 100 g of crude extract in which the content of gallic acid was 16.7% and the recovery of gallic acid reached 85.0%. In the second step, preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was selected to purify gallic acid. As a result, 640 mg of gallic acid at a purity of 99.1% was obtained from 1 g of sample in 35 min. The results demonstrated that macroporous resin coupled with preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was suitable for preparation of gallic acid from T. bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Calcium isotope fractionation in liquid chromatography with benzo-18-crown-6 resin in aqueous hydrobromic acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takuya; Oi, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Liquid chromatography operated in a breakthrough mode was employed to study calcium isotope fractionation in the aqueous hydrobromic acid medium. Highly porous silica beads, the inner pores of which were embedded with a benzo-18-crown-6 ether resin, were used as column packing material. Enrichment of heavier isotopes of calcium was observed in the frontal part of respective calcium chromatograms. The values of the isotope fractionation coefficient were on the order of 10 -3 . The observed isotope fractionation coefficient was dependent on the concentration of hydrobromic acid in the calcium feed solution; a higher HBr concentration resulted in a smaller fractionation coefficient value. The present calcium isotope effects were most probably mass-dependent, indicating that they mostly came from isotope effects based on molecular vibration. Molecular orbital calculations supported the present experimental results in a qualitative fashion. Chromatography operated in aqueous HBr media is a better system of Ca isotope separation than that operated in aqueous HCl media. (author)

  19. Polymer-inorganic composite resins for recovery of radioactive cesium from acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.I.; Kim, J.S.; Jo, A.; Jang, E.; Park, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, our objectives are as follow: i) the development of a method to produce polymer-ammonium molybdophosphate composite resins with the size range ideal for column operations, ii) the preparation of a different type of polymer-AMP granules, other than polyacrylonitrile, with good physical and chemical stability, and iii) the investigation of sorption and recovery properties of the composite potentially useful for radioactive cesium. (author)

  20. Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2001-07-10

    Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

  1. Esterification of oleic acid in a three-phase, fixed-bed reactor packed with a cation exchange resin catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sung Mo; Kimura, Hiroko; Kusakabe, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Esterification of oleic acid was performed in a three-phase fixed-bed reactor with a cation exchange resin catalyst (Amberlyst-15) at high temperature, which was varied from 80 to 120 °C. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields in the fixed-bed reactor were increased with increases in the reaction temperature, methanol flow rate and bed height. Moreover, the FAME yields were higher than those obtained using a batch reactor due to an equilibrium shift toward the product that resulted from continuous evaporation of the produced water. In addition, there was no catalyst deactivation during the esterification of oleic acid. However, addition of sunflower oil to the oleic acid reduced the FAME yield obtained from simultaneous esterification and transesterification. The FAME yield was 97.5% at a reaction temperature of 100 °C in the fixed-bed with a height of 5 cm when the methanol and oleic acid feed rates were 8.6 and 9.0 mL/h, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE RESIN TO DENTAL ENAMEL CONDITIONED WITH PHOSPHORIC ACID OR Nd: YAG LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO Carlos de Paula

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been focused on a comparison between the shear bond strength of a composite resin attached to dental enamel surface, after a 35% phosphoric acid etching and after a Nd:YAG laser irradiation with 165.8 J/cm2 of energy density per pulse. After etching and attaching resin to these surfaces, the specimens were thermocycled and then underwent the shearing bond strength tests at a speed of 5 mm/min. The results achieved, after statistical analysis with Student's t-test, showed that the adhesion was significantly greater in the 35% phosphoric acid treated group than in the group treated with the Nd:YAG laser, thus demonstrating the need for developing new studies to reach the ideal parameters for an effective enamel surface conditioning as well as specific adhesives and composite resins when Nd:YAG laser is used

  3. Purification of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from fermentation of defatted rice bran extract by using ion exchange resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Nha, Vi; Phung, Le Thi Kim; Dat, Lai Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Rice bran is one of the significant byproducts of rice processing with 10 %w/w of constitution of whole rice grain. It is rich in nutrient compounds, including glutamic acid. Thus, it could be utilized for the fermentation with Lactobateria for synthesis of GABA, a valuable bioactive for antihypertensive effects. However, the concentration and purity of GABA in fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract is low for production of GABA drug. This research focused on the purification of GABA from the fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract by using cation exchange resin. The results indicate that, the adsorption isotherm of GABA by Purelite C100 showed the good agreement with Freundlich model, with high adsorption capacity. The effects of pH and concentration of NaCl in eluent on the elution were also investigated. The obtained results show that, at the operating conditions of elution as follows: pH 6.5, 0.8 M of NaCl in eluent, 0.43 of bed volume; concentration of GABA in accumulative eluent, the purity and recovery yield of GABA were 743.8 ppm, 44.0% and 84.2%, respectively. Results imply that, it is feasible to apply cation exchange resin for purification of GABA from fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract.

  4. In vivo effects of two acidic soft drinks on shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets with and without resin infiltration treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shaza M; Enan, Enas T

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the in vivo effects of two acidic soft drinks (Coca-Cola and Sprite) on the shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets with and without resin infiltration treatment. In addition, the enamel surface was evaluated, after debonding, using a scanning electron microscope. Sixty noncarious maxillary premolars, scheduled for extraction in 30 orthodontic patients, were used. Patients were randomly divided into two groups according to the soft drink tested (Coca-Cola or Sprite). In each group, application of resin infiltration (Icon. DMG, Hamburg, Germany) was done on one side only before bonding of brackets. Patients were told to rinse their mouth with their respective soft drink at room temperature for 5 minutes, three times a day for 3 months. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine. After shearing test, a scanning electron microscope was used to evaluate enamel erosion. Statistical analysis was performed by twoway analysis of variance followed by the least significant difference test. The Coca-Cola group without resin infiltration showed the lowest resistance to shearing forces. Scanning electron micrographs of both groups after resin application showed a significant improvement compared with results without resin use, as the enamel appeared smoother and less erosive. Pretreatment with the infiltrating resin has proved to result in a significant improvement in shear bond strength, regardless of the type of soft drink consumed.

  5. Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

    2012-02-21

    somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent

  6. Use of a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column and propionic acid as an eluent in ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We developed an ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography (IEAC) method employing a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (PS-WCX) column with propionic acid as the eluent for the simultaneous determination of multivalent aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples. The PS-WCX column well resolved mono-, di-, and trivalent carboxylic acids in the acidic eluent. Propionic acid as the eluent gave a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and enabled sensitive conductimetric detection of analyte acids. We found the optimal separation condition to be the combination of a PS-WCX column and 20-mM propionic acid. Practical applicability of the developed method was confirmed by using a short precolumn with a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form connected before the separation column; this was to remove cations from food samples by converting them to hydrogen ions. Consequently, common carboxylic acids and ethanol in beer, wine, and soy sauce were successfully separated by the developed method.

  7. Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampoothiri K. Madhavan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value, the maximum conversion yield (~34% was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3% conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate. The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode. Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2.

  8. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  9. SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN .3. EFFECT OF SULFOLANE ON THE EQUILIBRIUM CONVERSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo-first-order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. Macroporous Amberlite XE 307 was used because of its superior catalytic activity. Chemical equilibrium

  10. SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN .2. EFFECT OF SULFOLANE ON THE REACTION-KINETICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    The kinetics of the' hydration of cyclohexene, catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, have been studied in a packed bed reactor at temperatures between 353 and 413 K and a pressure of 20 bar. The kinetic rate constants were measured as a function of temperature and solvent composition (0-90

  11. Catalytic Upgrading of bio-oil using 1-octene and 1-butanol over sulfonic acid resin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Qingwen; Tripathi, Prabhat; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-02-04

    Raw bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass must be refined before it can be used as a transporation fuel, a petroleum refinery feed or for many other fuel uses. Raw bio-oil was upgraded with the neat model olefin, 1-octene, and with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures over sulfonic acid resin catalysts frin 80 to 150 degrees celisus in order to simultaneously lower water content and acidity and to increase hydrophobicity and heating value. Phase separation and coke formation were key factors limiting the reaction rate during upgrading with neat 1-octene although octanols were formed by 1-octene hydration along with small amounts of octyl acetates and ethers. GC-MS analysis confirmed that olefin hydration, carboxylic acid esterification, acetal formation from aldehydes and ketones and O- and C-alkylations of phenolic compounds occurred simultaneously during upgrading with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures. Addition of 1-butanol increased olefin conversion dramatically be reducing mass transfer restraints and serving as a cosolvent or emulsifying agent. It also reacted with carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones to form esters, and acetals, respectively, while also serving to stabilize bio-oil during heating. 1-Butanol addition also protected the catalysts, increasing catalyst lifetime and reducing or eliminationg coking. Upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, polyhydric alcohols and organic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rise from 2.5 to >3.0), removed the uppleasant ordor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content decreased from 37.2% to < 7.5% dramatically and calorific value increased from 12.6 MJ kg to about 30.0 MJ kg.

  12. Adsorption and purification of radiogallium in hydrochloric acid and metal chloride solutions by non-ionic resin of macro-reticular type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kiyoko; Watari, Kazuo; Ohno, Shigeru; Ohmiya, Toshinobu; Kuroda, Emi; Izawa, Masami.

    1986-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of radiogallium ( 67 Ga, 68 Ga) on non-ionic MR resin (XAD-7) from hydrochloric acid, lithium chloride and other metal chloride solutions, and purification of 68 Ga by this resin were studied. Radiogallium was adsorbed on XAD-7 rapidly and quantitatively from the solution of higher chloride concentration than 6M. The adsorption behavior is similar to that obtained with 59 Fe and 195 Au previously. Based on adsorption data, elimination of trace amount of 68 Ge commonly contained in 68 Ga milked from a 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator was tried. When 68 Ga-6M hydrochloric acid solution containing 68 Ge was passed through a XAD-7 column, all the activity was transferred on the column. After eliminating 68 Ge fraction with 3M hydrochloric acid, 68 Ga was obtained in high purity by eluting with 0.1M hydrochloric acid. (author)

  13. Radiation curable epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najvar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    A carboxyl containing polymer is either prepared in the presence of a polyepoxide or reacted with a polyepoxide. The polymer has sufficient acid groups to react with only about 1 to 10 percent of the epoxide (oxirane) groups. The remaining epoxide groups are reacted with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid such as acrylic or methacrylic acid to form a radiation curable resin

  14. The impact of hydrofluoric acid etching followed by unfilled resin on the biaxial strength of a glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posritong, Sumana; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel; Eckert, George J; Bottino, Marco A; Bottino, Marco C

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the null hypotheses that hydrofluoric (HF) acid etching time would neither decrease the biaxial flexural strength of a glass-based veneering ceramic nor enhance it after silane and unfilled resin (UR) applications. Disc-shaped IPS e.max ZirPress specimens were allocated into 12 groups: G1-control (no-etching), G2-30 s, G3-60 s, G4-90 s, G5-120 s, G6-60 s+60 s. Groups (G7-G12) were treated in the same fashion as G1-G6, but followed by silane and UR applications. Surface morphology and roughness (Ra and Rq) of the ceramics were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry, respectively. Flexural strength was determined by biaxial testing. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and the Sidak test (α=0.05). Weibull statistics were estimated and finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to verify the stress concentration end areas of fracture. The interaction (etching time vs. surface treatment) was significant for Ra (p=0.008) and Rq (0.0075). Resin-treated groups presented significantly lower Ra and Rq than non-treated groups, except for the 60s group (pceramic microstructure and that the UR was able to penetrate into the irregularities. A significant effect of etching time (p=0.029) on flexural strength was seen. G7-G12 presented higher strength than G1-G6 (pceramic flexural strength. Moreover, the flexural strength could be enhanced after UR treatment. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction of domoic acid from seawater and urine using a resin based on 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Villoslada, Fernando Navarro; Chianella, Iva; Bossi, Alessandra; Karim, Kal; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A; Doucette, Gregory J; Ramsdell, John S

    2008-03-03

    A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) matrix with high affinity for the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) was designed and tested. A computational modelling study led to the selection of 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid (TFMAA) as a functional monomer capable of imparting affinity towards domoic acid. Polymeric adsorbents containing TFMAA were synthesised and tested in high ionic strength solutions such as urine and seawater. The TFMAA-based polymers demonstrated excellent performance in solid-phase extraction of domoic acid, retaining the toxin while salts and other interfering compounds such as aspartic and glutamic acids were removed by washing and selective elution. It was shown that the TFMAA-based polymer provided the level of purification of domoic acid from urine and seawater acceptable for its quantification by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) without any additional pre-concentration and purification steps.

  16. Determination of airborne, volatile amines from polyurethane foams by sorption onto a high-capacity cation-exchange resin based on poly(succinic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, G; Buchmeiser, M R; Bonn, G K; Bertsch, T

    1998-06-05

    A high-capacity carboxylic acid-functionalized resin prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization based on cross-linked endo,endo-poly(norborn-2-ene-5,6-dicarboxylic acid) was used for the sampling of volatile, airborne amines from polyurethane (PU) foams. Six tertiary amines which represent commonly used promotors for the formation of PUs from diisocyanates and polyols, namely pentamethyldiethylenetriamine, diazabicyclooctane, N-methylmorpholine, N-ethylmorphine, 1,4-dimethylpiperazine and N,N-dimethylethanolamine, were sorbed onto the new resin. The sorption behavior of the new material was investigated in terms of loading capacities, the influence of concentration, flow-rate as well as of the amount of resin. Breakthrough curves were recorded from each single component as well as of mixtures thereof. Finally, the resin was used for the sampling of amines evaporating from PU foams applied in buildings. Further information about time dependent concentration profiles were obtained using a combination of GC-MS and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy.

  17. Statins, fibrates, nicotinic acid, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, anion-exchange resins, omega-3 fatty acids: which drugs for which patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Heinz

    2009-12-01

    Classes of lipid lowering drugs differ strongly with respect to the types of lipids or lipoproteins they predominantly affect. Statins inhibit the de-novo synthesis of cholesterol. Consequently, the liver produces less VLDL, and the serum concentration primarily of LDL cholesterol (but, to a lesser extent, also of triglycerides) is lowered. Further, statins somewhat increase HDL cholesterol. There is abundant evidence that statins lower the rate of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular risk reduction is the better, the lower the LDL cholesterol values achieved with statin therapy are. Some evidence is available that anion exchange resins which also decrease LDL cholesterol decrease vascular risk, too. This is not the case for the ezetimibe, which strongly lowers LDL cholesterol: its potential to decrease vascular risk remains to be proven. In contrast evidence for cardiovascular risk reduction through the mainly triglyceride lowering fibrates as well as for niacin is available. Niacin is the most potent HDL increasing drug currently available and besides increasing HDL cholesterol efficaciously lowers triglycerides and LDL cholesterol. Large ongoing trials address the decisive question whether treatment with fibrates and niacin provides additional cardiovascular risk reduction when given in addition to statin treatment.

  18. The weak acid resin process: a dustless conversion route for the synthesis of americium bearing-blanket precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S.; Gauthe, A.; Parant, P.; Remy, E.; Jobelin, I.; Pomared, J.M.; Grangaud, P.; Dauby, J.; Delahaye, T.; Caisso, M.; Bataille, M.; Bayle, J.P.; Frost, C.; Delage, C.; Martin, C.L.; Ayral, E.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Conversion and fabrication processes are currently developed to make those materials in the form of dense and homogeneous oxide ceramic pellets or dense granulates incorporating uranium and americium. Their development points out the need of a simplified and optimized process which could lower hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds and facilitate material transfer in remote handling operations. This reason motivated the development of innovative 'dustless' route such as the Weak Acid Resin route (WAR) which provides the oxide precursors in the form of sub-millimeter-sized microspheres with optimal flowability and limits dust generation during conversion and fabrication steps. This study is thus devoted to the synthesis of mixed uranium-americium oxide microspheres by the WAR process and to the characterization of such precursors. This work also deals with their application to the fabrication of dense or porous pellets and with their potential use as dense spherules to make Sphere-Pac fuel. (authors)

  19. The weak acid resin process: a dustless conversion route for the synthesis of americium bearing-blanket precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Gauthe, A.; Parant, P.; Remy, E.; Jobelin, I.; Pomared, J.M.; Grangaud, P.; Dauby, J.; Delahaye, T. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Caisso, M.; Bataille, M.; Bayle, J.P. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DTEC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Frost, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Institut Europeen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM, CC47, University of Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Delage, C. [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DEC, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Martin, C.L. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ayral, E. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, CNRS-ENSCM-UM, CC47, University of Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France)

    2016-07-01

    Mixed uranium-americium oxides are one of the materials envisaged for Americium Bearing Blankets dedicated to transmutation in fast neutron reactors. Conversion and fabrication processes are currently developed to make those materials in the form of dense and homogeneous oxide ceramic pellets or dense granulates incorporating uranium and americium. Their development points out the need of a simplified and optimized process which could lower hazards linked to dust generation of highly contaminating and irradiating compounds and facilitate material transfer in remote handling operations. This reason motivated the development of innovative 'dustless' route such as the Weak Acid Resin route (WAR) which provides the oxide precursors in the form of sub-millimeter-sized microspheres with optimal flowability and limits dust generation during conversion and fabrication steps. This study is thus devoted to the synthesis of mixed uranium-americium oxide microspheres by the WAR process and to the characterization of such precursors. This work also deals with their application to the fabrication of dense or porous pellets and with their potential use as dense spherules to make Sphere-Pac fuel. (authors)

  20. Wear-resistant and electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of oleic acid post-modified ferrite-filled epoxy resin composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2015-03-01

    The post-modified Mn-Zn ferrite was prepared by grafting oleic acid on the surface of Mn-Zn ferrite to inhibit magnetic nanoparticle aggregation. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the particle surfaces. The friction and electromagnetic absorbing properties of a thin coating fabricated by dispersing ferrite into epoxy resin (EP) were investigated. The roughness of the coating and water contact angle were measured using the VEECO and water contact angle meter. Friction tests were conducted using a stainless-steel bearing ball and a Rockwell diamond tip, respectively. The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the composite coating were studied in the low frequency (10 MHz-1.5 GHz). Surface modified ferrites are found to improve magnetic particles dispersion in EP resulting in significant compatibility between inorganic and organic materials. Results also indicate that modified ferrite/EP coatings have a lower roughness average value and higher water contact angle than original ferrite/EP coatings. The enhanced tribological properties of the modified ferrite/EP coatings can be seen from the increased coefficient value. The composite coatings with modified ferrite are observed to exhibit better reflection loss compared with the coatings with original ferrite.

  1. Mathematical simulation of equilibria in the Pr(3) chloride-iminodiacetic acid - cation exchange resin system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanova, G.N.; Krivenko, S.V.; Martynenko, L.I.; Evseev, A.M.; Spitsyn, V.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-01-01

    Multiresponse adequate mathematical model is constructed that describes the composition of phases in the complex ion exchange system r.e.e. (PrCl/sub 3/)-complexon (iminodiacetic acid)-cationite-H/sub 2/O-KOH. The model is constructed on the basis of the law of acting masses in combination with equations of material balance and electroneutrality equations. The considerable effect on the state of the sorption system of metal complexonates is proved. The account of absorption of praseodymium iminodiacetates is necessary for complete description of the system and control of chromatographic process.

  2. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.

    2010-01-01

    Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy is not su......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...... few enhanced Raman lines. SERS spectra with 514-nm excitation with Ag colloids were also relatively weak. The best SERS spectrawere obtained with 785-nm excitation on a novel nanostructured substrate, 'black silicon' coated with a 400-nm gold layer. The spectra showed clear differences...

  3. Use of a phenolic-carboxylic acid cation resin in the treatment of low-level liquid waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilton, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    The loading capacity of CS-100 resin, using plant waste as feed, was found to be significantly reduced after 20 loading-elution cycles; one-fourth or less of the original capacity was retained after 30 cycles. No important differences were noted between an untreated column and a column that had been reconverted to the sodium form in the regeneration step. Omission of the sodium regeneration could not be adopted as a routine procedure because it produced a packing effect in the plant beds; however, reconversion to the sodium form is now achieved by using a stoichiometric amount of caustic rather than a 100% excess, as was previous practice. Since the distribution coefficients for calcium and strontium are about six times greater than that for cesium, no loss of 90 Sr would be expected while 137 Cs is loading. Laboratory results obtained by using plant conditions and feed indicate that a typical bed would remove 96% of 90 Sr in the feed. Cobalt-60 is generally the greatest contributor to the radioactivity of the plant effluent. Laboratory tests indicate that this 60 Co is present as a mixture of a soluble anionic complex and insoluble colloids. The anionic complex could be removed by placing an anion exchange column in the effluent from the CS-100 resin bed. In studies of the dynamics of loading on CS-100 resin, the contact time in plant operation (3 to 4 min per column volume) was found to be more than adequate to obtain the desired results. Effects of flow velocity were not investigated. Data from a series of laboratory experiments show that CS-100 resin can be eluted satisfactorily with 0.5 to 1.0 M formic or acetic acid, although a larger volume is required than for elution with 0.5 M nitric acid

  4. Addition of phosphotungstic acid to ethanol for dehydration improves both the ultrastructure and antigenicity of pituitary tissue embedded in LR White acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuko; Hosaka, Masahiro; Hira, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2005-12-01

    Although hydrophilic acrylic resins including LR White have been widely utilized as embedding media for immunocytochemical use, the constituents of tissues are often extracted by the resin monomer during the infiltration process of the embedment, resulting in a discernible impairment of the ultrastructure when the tissue is weakly fixed only with aldehydes. To minimize the extraction by the resin monomer, the embedding procedure with LR White resin was reexamined in the present study. Among the treatments tested, a partial dehydration with 70% ethanol containing 2% phosphotungstic acid (PTA) well preserved the ultrastructure of the pituitary tissue without spoiling the antigenicity of LHbeta and other representative markers for the Golgi apparatus. In addition, treatment with 1% tannic acid (TA) prior to the dehydration described above synergistically improved both the ultrastructure and antigenicity of the tissue so that the orientation of the Golgi apparatus could be determined by double immunogold labeling with commercially available anti-GM130 and anti-TGN38 antibodies. The ultrathin sections from the LR White-embedded tissue treated with TA and dehydrated in 70% ethanol containing 2% PTA also enhanced contrast without conventional heavy-metal staining with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. Our findings further suggest that the precipitation of TA and PTA protected the tissue from being extracted during the embedment, probably because an insoluble complex was transiently formed with the constituents of the tissue. This simple modification of the LR White embedment can extend the application of post-embedding immunocytochemistry as an alternative to pre-embedding immunolabeling with frozen ultrathin sections.

  5. Ion exchange removal of chromium (iii) from tannery wastes by using a strong acid cation exchange resin amberlite ir-120 h+ and its hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.

    2014-01-01

    A strong acid cation exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 H+ and its hybrids with Mn(OH)/sub 2/, Cu(OH)/sub 2/ and Fe(OH)/sub 3/ are used for the removal of chromium (III) from spent tannery bath. The experimental data give good fits with the Langmuir sorption model. The thermodynamic parameters entropy (delta S), enthalpy (delta H) and free energy (delta G) changes are computed, which reveal that the chromium removal from tannery wastes by ion exchangers is an endothermic, physical sorption and entropically driven process. The rate of sorption is found to increase with the increase of resin dosage, stirring speed and temperature. Different kinetic models such as film diffusion, particle diffusion and Lagergren pseudo first order are used to evaluate the mechanism of the process. It is found that the hybrid ion exchange resins have better removal capacity as compared to the parent ion exchanger. The increase in the removal capacity is found to be in the order of the corresponding PZC values of the hybrid ion exchangers. Further, it is suggested that the higher exchange capacity is the result of Donnan effect and specific adsorption of chromium by the oxides / hydroxides present inside the matrix of the organic cation exchanger. (author)

  6. Adsorption kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamics studies of acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acids (AKBA) from Boswellia serrata extract using macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niphadkar, Sonali S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2017-09-14

    An acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is potent anti-inflammatory agent found in Boswellia serrata oleogum resin. Adsorption characteristics of AKBA from B. serrata were studied using macroporous adsorbent resin to understand separation and adsorption mechanism of targeted molecules. Different macroporous resins were screened for adsorption and desorption of AKBA and Indion 830 was screened as it showed higher adsorption capacity. The kinetic equations were studied and results showed that the adsorption of AKBA on Indion 830 was well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model. The influence of two parameters such as temperature (298, 303, and 308 K) and pH (5-8) on the adsorption process was also studied. The experimental data was further investigated using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models. It was observed that Langmuir isotherm model was found to be the best fit for AKBA adsorption by Indion 830 and highest adsorption capacity (50.34 mg/g) was obtained at temperature of 303 K. The values of thermodynamic parameters such as the change of Gibbs free energy (ΔG*), entropy (ΔS*), and enthalpy (ΔH*), indicated that the process of adsorption was spontaneous, favourable, and exothermic.

  7. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins; Karboxylatjonbytarmassans egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Boren, Hans [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden); Torstenfelt, Boerje [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  8. Kinetics of soybean oil epoxidation with peracetic acid formed in situ in the presence of an ion exchange resin: Pseudo-homogeneous model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Milovan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model was proposed for the epoxidation of vegetable oils with peracetic acid formed in situ from acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an acidic ion exchange resin as a catalyst. The model is pseudo-homogeneous with respect to the catalyst. Besides the main reactions of peracetic acid and epoxy ring formation, the model takes into account the side reaction of epoxy ring opening with acetic acid. The partitioning of acetic acid and peracetic acid between the aqueous and organic phases and the change in the phases’ volumes during the process were considered. The temperature dependency of the apparent reaction rate coefficients is described by a reparameterized Arrhenius equation. The constants in the proposed model were estimated by fitting the experimental data obtained for the epoxidations of soybean oil conducted under defined reaction conditions. The highest epoxy yield of 87.73% was obtained at 338 K when the mole ratio of oil unsaturation:acetic acid:hydrogen peroxide was 1:0.5:1.35 and when the amount of the catalyst Amberlite IR-120H was 4.04 wt.% of oil. Compared to the other reported pseudo-homogeneous models, the model proposed in this study better correlates the change of double bond and epoxy group contents during the epoxidation process. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III45022

  9. Uranium recovery and uranium remove from acid mine waters by ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina com resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos R.L. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao do Laborarorio; Fatibello Filho, Orlando [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-11-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of few processes capable of reducing contaminants in effluents to very low levels according to environmental legislation. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The presence of pyrite in the waste rock piles, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants. Including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by an anionic exchanger. Studies of uranium sorption without treatment, and with lime pretreatment of water to precipitate the iron and recovery uranium as commercial product, are presented. Uranium elution was done with NaCl solutions. Saline concentration and retention time were the parameters studied. the uranium decontaminations level in the effluents from acid mine water was 94%. (author) 10 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. Studying the Efficiency of XAD-7HP Anionic Resin in the Extraction of Humic Acid from Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Results: The average extraction efficiency for XAD-7HP was 77% and HA concentration determined in all seasons ranges from 0.15 to 0.29 mg/L in raw water. Conclusions: From the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the use of XAD-7HP is a proper and effective method for the extraction of HS and its extraction efficiency is more influenced by pH and turbidity than other parameters. It can also be deduced from this study that XAD-7HP resin was most efficient at a pH of 2 and an increase in turbidity resulted in a corresponding decrease in the efficiency of resin.

  11. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  12. Study of the behavior of AX-55 resin when used for recovering uranium from solutions formed by attacking low grade minerals with sulfuric acid; Etude du comportement de la resine ax-55 pour la recuperation de l'uranium des solutions d'attaque sulfurique de mineraux a faible teneur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parly, B; Pottier, P; Rigaud, A

    1959-03-01

    Uranium is recuperated on the anionic resin ACFI AX-55 from solution formed by attacking a Vendean mineral with sulfuric acid. This solution contains 373 mg of uranium acid 15,4 g of SO{sub 4} per litre. The pH is 1,5. The object of the text is on the one hand to study the behaviour of the resin AX,-55 during several absorption and desorption cycles and on the other hand to see whether this resin can be used industrially. The following conclusions are: 1) at the flow rate of 6,6 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}.h which was employed the resin AX-55 can be used industrially; 2) Its principal advantage is to furnish an concentrated elutriation liquor containing: 15,84 g/1 of U; 3) It has the disadvantage of having a low capacity (approximately 60 per cent of that of Deacidit 'FF'). (author) [French] On recupere sur la resine anionique ACFI AX-55 l'uranium d'une solution d'attaque sulfurique d'un minerai de Vendee. Cette solution contient 373 mg d'uranium et 15,4 g de SO{sub 4} par litre. Son pH est 1,5. Le but de l'essai est, d'une part d'etudier le comportement de la resine AX 55 au cours de plusieurs cycles, d'autre part de verifier que son utilisation est possible industriellement. Les conclusions sont les suivantes: 1) au debit de 6,6 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}.h utilise, la resine AX 55 peut etre utilisee industriellement; 2) son principal avantage est de fournir une liqueur d'elution concentree: 15,84 g/1 en U; 3) son inconvenient est sa capacite faible (environ 60 pour cent de celle de la Deacidit 'FF'). (auteur)

  13. Effect of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid on the surface roughness of acrylic resin polymerized by heated water for short and long cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczepanski, Felipe; Sczepanski, Claudia Roberta Brunnquell; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin submitted to chemical disinfection via 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or 1% peracetic acid (C2H4O3). The disc-shaped resin specimens (30 mm diameter ×4 mm height) were polymerized by heated water using two cycles (short cycle: 1 h at 74°C and 30 min at 100°C; conventional long cycle: 9 h at 74°C). The release of substances by these specimens in water solution was also quantified. Specimens were fabricated, divided into four groups (n = 10) depending on the polymerization time and disinfectant. After polishing, the specimens were stored in distilled deionized water. Specimens were immersed in 1% NaClO or 1% C2H4O3 for 30 min, and then were immersed in distilled deionized water for 20 min. The release of C2H4O3 and NaClO was measured via visual colorimetric analysis. Roughness was measured before and after disinfection. Roughness data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. There was no interaction between polymerization time and disinfectant in influencing the average surface roughness (Ra, P = 0.957). Considering these factors independently, there were significant differences between short and conventional long cycles (P = 0.012), but no significant difference between the disinfectants hypochlorite and C2H4O3 (P = 0.366). Visual colorimetric analysis did not detect release of substances. It was concluded that there was the difference in surface roughness between short and conventional long cycles, and disinfection at acrylic resins polymerized by heated water using a short cycle modified the properties of roughness.

  14. Effect of sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid on the surface roughness of acrylic resin polymerized by heated water for short and long cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczepanski, Felipe; Sczepanski, Claudia Roberta Brunnquell; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the surface roughness of acrylic resin submitted to chemical disinfection via 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or 1% peracetic acid (C2H4O3). Materials and Methods: The disc-shaped resin specimens (30 mm diameter ×4 mm height) were polymerized by heated water using two cycles (short cycle: 1 h at 74°C and 30 min at 100°C; conventional long cycle: 9 h at 74°C). The release of substances by these specimens in water solution was also quantified. Specimens were fabricated, divided into four groups (n = 10) depending on the polymerization time and disinfectant. After polishing, the specimens were stored in distilled deionized water. Specimens were immersed in 1% NaClO or 1% C2H4O3 for 30 min, and then were immersed in distilled deionized water for 20 min. The release of C2H4O3 and NaClO was measured via visual colorimetric analysis. Roughness was measured before and after disinfection. Roughness data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: There was no interaction between polymerization time and disinfectant in influencing the average surface roughness (Ra, P = 0.957). Considering these factors independently, there were significant differences between short and conventional long cycles (P = 0.012), but no significant difference between the disinfectants hypochlorite and C2H4O3 (P = 0.366). Visual colorimetric analysis did not detect release of substances. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was the difference in surface roughness between short and conventional long cycles, and disinfection at acrylic resins polymerized by heated water using a short cycle modified the properties of roughness. PMID:25512737

  15. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: A potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Teng, E-mail: zhangteng@mail.iee.ac.cn; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Sulfonated magnetic microsphere was prepared as one strong acid cation-exchange resin. • Cd and Te can be removed directly from the highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. • Good chemical stability, fast adsorbing rate and quick magnetic separation in strong acidic media. • A potential path for recycling CdTe photovoltaic waste. - Abstract: Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste.

  16. Resistance to fracture of endodontically treated premolars restored with glass ionomer cement or acid etch composite resin: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ranga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Due to the weakness of endodontically treated posterior teeth requires more strengthened restoration to withstand occlusal forces. The purpose of the present study was to determine and compare the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated maxillary 1 st premolars restored with different materials in mesio-occluso-distal (MOD cavity preparations. Materials and Methods: MOD cavity preparations in 80 endodontically treated maxillary 1 st premolars were restored using four different methods. Fiber rings were filled with stone plaster and the teeth were placed into the plaster up to the level of cemento-enamel junction. The teeth were grouped according to restorative method, mounted in an Instrom T.T. machine, and the buccal walls subjected to a slowly increasing compressive force until fracture occurred. Result: The force of fracture of the walls of each tooth was recorded and the results in the various groups compared. All teeth fractured in a similar manner irrespective of the restorative method used. Conclusion: The resistance to the fracture of the teeth was the same when they were stored with glass ionomer cement as a base over which composite resin was placed. When the entire cavities were filled with glass ionomer cement, the resistance to fracture of the teeth decreased significantly compared with the acid etch resin technique.

  17. The absorption of plutonium by anion resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, R. W.; Mills, R.

    1961-10-15

    Equilibrium experiments have shown Pu{sup +4} to be absorbed from nitric acid onto an anion resin as a complex anion Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -2}. The amount of absorption is dependent on the plutonium and nitric acid concentrations in the equilibrium solution with a maximum at 7N to 8N HNO{sub 3}. A low cross-linked resin has a higher capacity and reaches equilibrium more rapidly than the normally supplied resin. Saturation capacity of one per cent cross-linked Nalcite SBR (Dowex 1), 50 -- 100 mesh, is 385 mg Pu/gram dry resin. (author)

  18. Photocurable bioactive bone cement based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate-poly(acrylic/maleic) acid resin and mesoporous sol gel-derived bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesaraki, S., E-mail: S-hesaraki@merc.ac.ir

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on strong and bioactive bone cement based on ternary bioactive SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass particles and a photocurable resin comprising hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(acrylic/maleic) acid. The as-cured composite represented a compressive strength of about 95 MPa but it weakened during soaking in simulated body fluid, SBF, qua its compressive strength reached to about 20 MPa after immersing for 30 days. Biodegradability of the composite was confirmed by reducing its initial weight (~ 32%) as well as decreasing the molecular weight of early cured resin during the soaking procedure. The composite exhibited in vitro calcium phosphate precipitation in the form of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite, which indicates its bone bonding ability. Proliferation of calvarium-derived newborn rat osteoblasts seeded on top of the composite was observed during incubation at 37 °C, meanwhile, an adequate cell supporting ability was found. Consequently, it seems that the produced composite is an appropriate alternative for bone defect injuries, because of its good cell responses, high compressive strength and ongoing biodegradability, though more in vivo experiments are essential to confirm this assumption. - Highlights: • Light cure cement based on SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass and polymer-like matrix was formed. • The matrix includes poly(acrylic/maleic acid) and poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate). • The cement is as strong as polymethylmethacrylate bone cement. • The cement exhibits apatite formation ability in simulated body fluid. • The cement is biodegradable and supports proliferation of osteoblastic cells.

  19. Bacillus sp. PS35 Lipase-Immobilization on Styrene-Divinyl Benzene Resin and Application in Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Kanmani; Kuppamuthu, Kumaresan; Jeyaseelan, Aravind

    2015-09-01

    Lipase is an enzyme with immense application potential. Ester synthesis by lipase catalysis in organic media is an area of key industrial relevance. Enzymatic preparations with traits that cater to the needs of this function are hence being intensely researched. The objectives of the study were to immobilize the lipase from Bacillus sp. PS35 by cross-linking and adsorption onto styrene-divinyl benzene (Sty-Dvb) hydrophobic resin and to comparatively characterize the free and immobilized lipase preparations. The work also aimed to apply the immobilized lipase for catalysing the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) synthesis from palm oil and optimize the process parameters for maximizing the yield. In this study, the purified lipase from Bacillus sp. PS35 was immobilized by adsorption onto styrene-divinyl benzene hydrophobic resin with gluteraldehyde cross-linking. The immobilized enzyme showed better pH and temperature stabilities than the free lipase. Organic solvent stability was also enhanced, with the relative activity in the presence of methanol being shifted from 53% to 81%, thereby facilitating the enzyme's application in fatty acid methyl ester synthesis. It exhibited remarkable storage stability over a 30-day period and after 20 repetitive uses. Cross-linking also reduced enzyme leakage by 49%. The immobilized lipase was then applied for biodiesel production from palm oil. Methanol and oil molar ratio of 5:1, three step methanol additions, and an incubation temperature of 50°C were established to be the ideal conditions favoring the transesterification reaction, resulting in 97% methyl ester yield. These promising results offer scope for further investigation and process scale up, permitting the enzyme's commercial application in a practically feasible and economically agreeable manner.

  20. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  1. Comparative study of the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel treated with acid etchant and erbium, chromium: Yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Sulaiman Alagl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this investigation is in vitro comparison of the shear bond strength (SBS of composite resin bonded to enamel pretreated with an acid etchant against enamel etched with erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er, Cr:YSGG laser. Materials and Methods: Sixty premolars were sectioned mesiodistally and these 120 specimens were separated into two groups of 60 each (Groups A and B. In Group A (buccal surfaces, enamel surface was etched using 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s. In Group B (lingual surfaces, enamel was laser-etched at 2W for 10 s by Er, Cr:YSGG laser operational at 2780 nm with pulse duration of 140 μs and a frequency of 20 Hz. After application of bonding agent on all test samples, a transparent plastic cylinder of 1.5 mm × 3 mm was loaded with composite and bonded by light curing for 20 s. All the samples were subjected to SBS analysis using Instron Universal testing machine. Failure modes were observed under light microscope and grouped as adhesive, cohesive, and mixed. Failure mode distributions were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: SBS values obtained for acid-etched enamel were in the range of 7.12–28.36 megapascals (MPa and for laser-etched enamel were in the range of 6.23–23.35 MPa. Mean SBS for acid-etched enamel was 15.77 ± 4.38 MPa, which was considerably greater (P < 0.01 than laser-etched enamel 11.24 ± 3.76 MPa. The Chi-square test revealed that the groups showed no statistically significant differences in bond failure modes. Conclusions: We concluded that the mean SBS of composite with acid etching is significantly higher as compared to Er, Cr: YSGG (operated at 2W for 10 s laser-etched enamel.

  2. Effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel etched with hydrochloric or phosphoric acid combined with conventional adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu; Wegehaupt, Florian Just; Wiegand, Annette; Eden, Ece; Attin, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of a low-viscosity adhesive resin (Icon) applied after either hydrochloric (HCl) or phosphoric acid (H3PO4) on the adhesion of metal brackets to enamel. Failure types were analyzed. The crowns of bovine incisors (N = 20) were sectioned mesio-distally and inciso-gingivally, then randomly assigned to 4 groups according to the following protocols to receive mandibular incisor brackets: 1) H3PO4 (37%)+TransbondXT (3M UNITEK); 2) H3PO4 (37%)+Icon+TransbondXT; 3) HCl (15%)+Icon (DMG)+TransbondXT 4) HCl (15%)+Icon+Heliobond (Ivoclar Vivadent)+TransbondXT. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and thermocycled (5000x, 5°C to 55°C). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure types were classified according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Contact angles of adhesive resins were measured (n = 5 per adhesive) on ceramic surfaces. No significant difference in SBS was observed, implying no difference between combinations of adhesive resins and etching agents (p = 0.712; ANOVA). The Weibull distribution presented significantly lower Weibull modulus (m) of group 3 (m = 2.97) compared to other groups (m = 5.2 to 6.6) (p group 1 (45.4 ± 7.9) > group 2 (44.2 ± 10.6) > group 3 (42.6 ± 15.5). While in groups 1, 3, and 4 exclusively an ARI score of 0 (no adhesive left on tooth) was observed, in group 2, only one specimen demonstrated score 1 (less than half of adhesive left on tooth). Contact angle measurements were as follows: Icon (25.86 ± 3.81 degrees), Heliobond (31.98 ± 3.17 degrees), TransbondXT (35 ± 2.21 degrees). Icon can be safely used with the conventional adhesives tested on surfaces etched with either HCl or H3PO4.

  3. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies on sorption of uranium and thorium from aqueous solutions by a selective impregnated resin containing carminic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani-Sani, Abolfazl; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad; Hosseini, Seyyed-Hossein; Kharghani, Keivan; Zarei, Hossein; Rastegar, Ayoob

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The objective of the study is to investigate the potential application of a selective EIR for sorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions. • The effects of several physiochemical parameters were investigated. • The sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms were used to explain the sorption mechanism. • The thermodynamic studies showed the feasibility of sorption process. • The EIR beads showed a great potential for effective removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions. - Abstract: In this work, the removal of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solutions was studied by solid–liquid extraction using an advantageous extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) prepared by loading carminic acid (CA) onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. Batch sorption experiments using CA/XAD-16 beads for the removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions were carried out as a function of several parameters, like equilibration time, metal ion concentration, etc. The equilibrium data obtained from the sorption experiments were adjusted to the Langmuir isotherm model and the calculated maximum sorption capacities in terms of monolayer sorption were in agreement with those obtained from the experiments. The experimental data on the sorption behavior of both metal ions onto the EIR beads fitted well in both Bangham and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models, indicating that the intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step. The thermodynamic studies at different temperatures revealed the feasibility and the spontaneous nature of the sorption process for both uranium and thorium ions

  4. Distributed Drug Discovery, Part 2: Global Rehearsal of Alkylating Agents for the Synthesis of Resin-Bound Unnatural Amino Acids and Virtual D3 Catalog Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Distributed Drug Discovery (D3) proposes solving large drug discovery problems by breaking them into smaller units for processing at multiple sites. A key component of the synthetic and computational stages of D3 is the global rehearsal of prospective reagents and their subsequent use in the creation of virtual catalogs of molecules accessible by simple, inexpensive combinatorial chemistry. The first section of this article documents the feasibility of the synthetic component of Distributed Drug Discovery. Twenty-four alkylating agents were rehearsed in the United States, Poland, Russia, and Spain, for their utility in the synthesis of resin-bound unnatural amino acids 1, key intermediates in many combinatorial chemistry procedures. This global reagent rehearsal, coupled to virtual library generation, increases the likelihood that any member of that virtual library can be made. It facilitates the realistic integration of worldwide virtual D3 catalog computational analysis with synthesis. The second part of this article describes the creation of the first virtual D3 catalog. It reports the enumeration of 24 416 acylated unnatural amino acids 5, assembled from lists of either rehearsed or well-precedented alkylating and acylating reagents, and describes how the resulting catalog can be freely accessed, searched, and downloaded by the scientific community. PMID:19105725

  5. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  6. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  7. Evaluation of some anionic exchange resins as potential tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of resin concentration and compression force on the properties of tablets using the selected resin was investigated. In addition, the disintegrant efficacy of the selected resin in the tablet formulations containing either a basic drug, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DMP), or an acidic drug, e.g., diclofenac ...

  8. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Dahlan; Harun, Abdul Ghani [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive.

  9. Development of radiation-curable resin based on natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Abdul Ghani Harun

    1993-01-01

    A new radiation curable resin based on natural rubber has been developed. The resin was based on the reaction between low molecular weight epoxidised natural rubber and acrylic acid. When formulated with reactive monomers and photoinitiator, it solidified upon irradiation with UV light. The resin may find applications in coating for cellulosic-based substrates and pressure-sensitive adhesive

  10. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  11. Recovery of tretrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery of the tretrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q=kC''n. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20 degree centigree. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin. (Author) 6 refs

  12. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  13. Preparation and characterization of molecularly-imprinted polymers for extraction of sanshool acid amide compounds followed by their separation from pepper oil resin derived from Chinese prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Jin, Xinkai; Li, Yao; Chen, Guangjing; Chen, Kewei; Kan, Jianquan

    2018-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared using the molecular structure analogs of sanshool as template molecule, 2-vinylpyridine and β-cyclodextrin as double functional monomers, ethylene dimethacrylate as cross linker, and azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. The structural characteristics of the polymers were determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Dynamic adsorption and isothermal adsorption were also investigated. The molecularly imprinted polymers were used to prepare a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction column in order to separate acid amide components from pepper oil resin derived from Chinese prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum). After eluting, the percentage of acid amide components was enhanced to 92.40 ± 1.41% compared with 23.34 ± 1.21% in the initial pepper oil resin, indicating good properties of purification of molecularly imprinted polymers and potential industrial application. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Feasibility study of solidification for low-level liquid waste generated by sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tooru; Higuchi, Natsuko; Horikawa, Yoshihiko

    2007-01-01

    Low-level liquid waste with relatively high levels of radioactivity is generated by the sulfuric acid elution treatment of spent ion exchange resin used in water purification systems of nuclear power plants. We studied cement-like solidification process for this type waste that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. For this type waste, it is important that the sulfate ion should not dissolve from the solid waste because it forms ettringite on reaction with minerals in the concrete, and this leads to cracking during repository storage. It is also preferable that the pH of pore water of the solid waste be low, because the bentonite of the repository changes in quality on exposure to alkaline solution. Our solidification process has two procedures: conversion into insoluble sulfate from sodium sulfate (CIS) and formation of low pH cement-like solid (FLS). In the CIS procedure, BaSO 4 precipitation occurs with addition of Ba(OH) 2 ·8H 2 O to the liquid waste when the Ba/SO 4 molar ratio > 1. In the FLS procedure, silica fume and blast furnace slag are added to the liquid wastes containing Ba S O 4 precipitate. The CIS reaction yield is over 98% and the pH of pore water of the solid waste is 11.5 or less. Therefore, we think that our solidification process is one of the best methods for treating liquid waste that contains a high concentration of sodium sulfate. (author)

  15. The bile acid-sequestering resin sevelamer eliminates the acute GLP-1 stimulatory effect of endogenously released bile acids in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønden, Andreas; Albér, Anders; Rohde, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The discovery of the specific bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) in enteroendocrine L cells has prompted research focusing on the impact of bile acids on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and glucose metabolism. The aim of t...

  16. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina por resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-07-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO{sub 4}/l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  17. Processing large-diameter poly(L-lactic acid) microfiber mesh/mesenchymal stromal cell constructs via resin embedding: an efficient histologic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Alessandro, Delfo; Danti, Serena; Pertici, Gianni; Moscato, Stefania; Metelli, Maria Rita; Petrini, Mario; Danti, Sabrina; Berrettini, Stefano; Nesti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we performed a complete histologic analysis of constructs based on large diameter ( > 100 μm) poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) microfibers obtained via dry-wet spinning and rat Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (rMSCs) differentiated towards the osteogenic lineage, using acrylic resin embedding. In many synthetic polymer-based microfiber meshes, ex post processability of fiber/cell constructs for histologic analysis may face deterring difficulties, leading to an incomplete investigation of the potential of these scaffolds. Indeed, while polymeric nanofiber (fiber diameter = tens of nanometers)/cell constructs can usually be embedded in common histologic media and easily sectioned, preserving the material structure and the antigenic reactivity, histologic analysis of large polymeric microfiber/cell constructs in the literature is really scant. This affects microfiber scaffolds based on FDA-approved and widely used polymers such as PLLA and its copolymers. Indeed, for such constructs, especially those with fiber diameter and fiber interspace much larger than cell size, standard histologic processing is usually inefficient due to inhomogeneous hardness and lack of cohesion between the synthetic and the biological phases under sectioning. In this study, the microfiber/MSC constructs were embedded in acrylic resin and the staining/reaction procedures were calibrated to demonstrate the possibility of successfully employing histologic methods in tissue engineering studies even in such difficult cases. We histologically investigated the main osteogenic markers and extracellular matrix molecules, such as alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, TGF-β1, Runx2, Collagen type I and the presence of amorphous, fibrillar and mineralized matrix. Biochemical tests were employed to confirm our findings. This protocol permitted efficient sectioning of the treated constructs and good penetration of the histologic reagents, thus allowing distribution and expression of

  18. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded with Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Cement to Bleached Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Khosravanifard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Bleaching can considerably reduce shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets bonded with composite adhesives. Application of antioxidants is a method to reverse the negative effect of bleaching on compositeto-enamel bond. However, the efficacy of antioxidants in increasing the SBS of brackets bonded using resin-modified glassionomer cement (RMGIC has not been studied, which was the aim of this study. Materials and methods. Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary first premolars were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office Bleaching, SDI. Sodium ascorbate 10% was applied to the experimental specimens (n=25. All the specimens were etched with 37% phosphoric acid (Ivoclar/Vivadent and bonded using RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC, GC. The specimens were subjected to incubation (37°C, 24h and thermocycling (1000 cycles, 5-55°C, dwell time = 1 min. The SBS was measured at 0.5 mm/min debonding crosshead speed. The adhesive remnant index (ARI was scored under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, one- and independent-samples t-test, and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05. Results. The mean SBS of experimental and control groups were 11.97 ± 4.49 and 7.7 ± 3.19 MPa, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.000 by t-test. SBS of both control (P=0.014 and experimental (P=0.000 groups were significantly higher than the minimum acceptable SBS of 6 MPa, according to one-sample t-test. Conclusion. Application of ascorbic acid can guarantee a strong bond when RMGIC is to be used. However, RMGIC might tolerate the negative effect of bleaching with minimum SA treatments (or perhaps without treatments, which deserves further studies.

  19. The effect of varying air injection rates on tall oil soap skimming efficiency for low fatty acid/resin acid ratio soaps produced by pulping mountain pine beetle-infected wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uloth, V.; Guy, E. [FPInnovations, Prince George, BC (Canada). PAPRICAN Div.

    2009-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of higher air injection rates on the skimmer performance of an evaporator soap skimmer at a mill in British Columbia (BC). Tests previously indicated that only 13 to 38 percent of the total soap in the feed liquor was skimmed for low acid number and low fatty acid and resin acid ratio soaps. A 2-day trial demonstrated that there were extended periods when soap skimming stopped completely and soap levels in the liquor equalled or exceeded levels observed in the feed liquor. Higher air injection rates had little impact on soap-skimming efficiency. The higher air injection rates decreased soap density by approximately 8 percent, and increased black liquor entrainment in the skimmed soap by approximately 35 percent. The use of higher air injection rates was not recommended, as high percentages of black liquor are known to cause high H{sub 2}S emissions during soap acidulation. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project. Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1998-06-01

    Approximately 73 m 3 of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process

  1. Decomposing method for ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Takeshi; Sato, Shinshi; Akai, Yoshie; Moniwa, Shinobu; Yamada, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of decomposing ion exchange resins generated in a nuclear power plant to carbon dioxide reliably in a short period of time. (1) The ion exchange resins are mixed with water, and then they are kept for a predetermined period of time in the presence of an inert gas at high temperature and high pressure exceeding the critical point of water to decompose the ion exchange resins. (2) The ion exchange resins is mixed with water, an oxidant is added and they are kept for a predetermined time in the presence of an inert gas at a high temperature and a high pressure exceeding a critical point of water of an inert gas at a high temperature to decompose the ion exchange resins. (3) An alkali or acid is added to ion exchange resins and water to control the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution and the ion exchange resins are decomposed in above-mentioned (1) or (2). Sodium hydroxide is used as the alkali and hydrochloric acid is used as the acid. In addition, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or ozone is used as an oxidant. (I.S.)

  2. Bacterial growth on ion exchange resin - investigations with a strong cationic exchanger. Pt. 3. Disinfection with peracetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemming, H.C.

    1984-12-01

    The suitability of peracetic acid (PAA) for the disinfection of ion exchangers was investigated. 0.02% PAA is suitable for satisfactory disinfection. In this way corrosive effects are strongly reduced. Ca/sup 2+/-ions seem to protect the bacteria, therefore the disinfection should be done with the Na/sup +/-form. The disinfection has no remanent effect and therefore is not suitable for preventing bacterial aftergrowth during off-periods. A combination of silver and disinfectant can accomplish this, until a new, silver-tolerant microflora has evolved. In this case the use of 0.02% PAA is imperative, because higher concentrations will dissolve the silver. As a principle the effectiveness of disinfection procedure should be monitored bacteriologically.

  3. Selective extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III) from acidic matrix solutions and environmental samples using chemically modified Amberlite XAD-16 resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakaran, D.; Subramanian, M.S. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, 600 036, Chennai (India)

    2004-06-01

    A new grafted polymer has been developed by the chemical modification of Amberlite XAD-16 (AXAD-16) polymeric matrix with [(2-dihydroxyarsinoylphenylamino)methyl]phosphonic acid (AXAD-16-AsP). The modified polymer was characterized by a combination of {sup 13}C CPMAS and {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Fourier transform-NIR-FIR-Raman spectroscopy, CHNPS elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The distribution studies for the extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III) from acidic solutions were performed using an AXAD-16-AsP-packed chromatographic column. The influences of various physiochemical parameters on analyte recovery were optimized by both static and dynamic methods. Accordingly, even under high acidities (>4 M), good distribution ratio (D) values (10{sup 2}-10{sup 4}) were achieved for all the analytes. Metal ion desorption was effective using 1 mol L{sup -1} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. From kinetic studies, a time duration of <15 min was sufficient for complete metal ion saturation of the resin phase. The maximum metal sorption capacities were found to be 0.25, 0.13, and 1.49 mmol g{sup -1} for U(VI); 0.47, 0.39, and 1.40 mmol g{sup -1} for Th(IV); and 1.44, 1.48, and 1.12 mmol g{sup -1} for La(III), in the presence of 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3}, 2 mol L{sup -1} HCl, and under pH conditions, respectively. The analyte selectivity of the grafted polymer was tested in terms of interfering species tolerance studies. The system showed an enrichment factor of 365, 300, and 270 for U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III), and the limit of analyte detection was in the range of 18-23 ng mL{sup -1}. The practical applicability of the polymer was tested with synthetic nuclear spent fuel and seawater mixtures, natural water, and geological samples. The RSD of the total analytical procedure was within 4.9%, thus confirming the reliability of the developed method. (orig.)

  4. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1985-12-01

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation

  5. Evolution of Conifer Diterpene Synthases: Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis in Lodgepole Pine and Jack Pine Involves Monofunctional and Bifunctional Diterpene Synthases1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E.; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L.; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

  6. Evolution of conifer diterpene synthases: diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in lodgepole pine and jack pine involves monofunctional and bifunctional diterpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs.

  7. Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.

    1975-01-01

    An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)

  8. Morphology of resin-dentin interfaces after Er,Cr:YSGG laser and acid etching preparation and application of different bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Franziska; Buchmair, Alfred; Körpert, Wolfram; Marvastian, Leila; Wernisch, Johann; Moritz, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to show the modifications in the ultrastructure of the dentin surface morphology following different surface treatments. The stability of the adhesive compound with dentin after laser preparation compared with conventional preparation using different bonding agents was evaluated. An Er,Cr:YSGG laser and 36% phosphoric acid in combination with various bonding systems were used. A total of 100 caries-free human third molars were used in this study. Immediately after surgical removal teeth were cut using a band saw and 1-mm thick dentin slices were created starting at a distance of 4 mm from the cusp plane to ensure complete removal of the enamel. The discs were polished with silicon carbide paper into rectangular shapes to a size of 6 × 4 mm (±0,2 mm).The discs as well as the remaining teeth stumps were stored in 0.9% NaCl at room temperature. The specimens were divided into three main groups (group I laser group, group II etch group, group III laser and etch group) and each group was subdivided into three subgroups which were allocated to the different bonding systems (subgroup A Excite, subgroup B Scotchbond, subgroup C Syntac). Each disc and the corresponding tooth stump were treated in the same way. After preparation the bonding composite material was applied according to the manufacturers' guidelines in a hollow tube of 2 mm diameter to the disc as well as to the corresponding tooth stump. Shear bond strength testing and environmental scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the morphology and stability of the resin-dentin interface. The self-etching bonding system showed the highest and the most constant shear values in all three main groups, thus enabling etching with phosphoric acid after laser preparation to be avoided. Thus we conclude that laser preparation creates a surface texture that allows prediction of the quality of the restoration without the risk of negative influences during the following treatment steps. This

  9. Thermal behavior of halogenated imidebismaleimide resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, A.; Al-Halim, N.Z.

    1995-01-01

    Several new poly-halogenated malecimides, bismaleimides and therir copoly resins were synthessised thermally from their corresponding amic acids. The synthesis was accomplished by two way method (amic acid-polimide) instead of the well-known three way method (amic acid-imide-polyimide). Thermal characterization of monomers and their cured resins was achieved using differential thermal analysis (DTA), dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA). The effect of halogen substituent, especially in the ortho postion, is clear in the imidization proces, while polymerization proceeds almost equally in all systems. Thermal properties of homo and copolymers were correlated with their chemical structures. (author). 15 refs., 4

  10. Treatment method for stabilization of radioactive exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideo, Oni; Takashi, Miyake; Hitoshi, Miyamoto; Toshio, Funakoshi; Yuzo, Inagaki.

    1988-01-01

    This is a method for eluting radioactive nuclides from a radioactive ion exchange resin in which it has been absorbed. First, the Cs in this resin is extracted using a neutral salt solution which contains Na + . The Cs that has been transferred to the neutral salt solution is absorbed and expelled by inorganic ion exchangers. Then the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr in said resin are eluted using an acidic solution; the Co, Fe, Mn and Sr that have been transferred to the acidic solution are separated from that solution by means of a diffusion dialysis vat. This process is a unique characteristic of this ion exchange resin treatment method. 1 fig

  11. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper

  12. The effect of dentine pre-treatment using bioglass and/or polyacrylic acid on the interfacial characteristics of resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy; Moscardó, Agustin Pascual; Luzi, Arlinda; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Banerjee, Avijit

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of load-cycle aging and/or 6 months artificial saliva (AS) storage on bond durability and interfacial ultramorphology of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) applied onto dentine air-abraded using Bioglass 45S5 (BAG) with/without polyacrylic acid (PAA) conditioning. RMGIC (Ionolux, VOCO) was applied onto human dentine specimens prepared with silicon-carbide abrasive paper or air-abraded with BAG with or without the use of PAA conditioning. Half of bonded-teeth were submitted to load cycling (150,000 cycles) and half immersed in deionised water for 24 h. They were cut into matchsticks and submitted immediately to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing or 6 months in AS immersion and subsequently μTBS tested. Results were analysed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). Fractographic analysis was performed using FE-SEM, while further RMGIC-bonded specimens were surveyed for interfacial ultramorphology characterisation (dye-assisted nanoleakage) using confocal microscopy. RMGIC applied onto dentine air-abraded with BAG regardless PAA showed no significant μTBS reduction after 6 months of AS storage and/or load cycling (p > 0.05). RMGIC-dentine interface showed no sign of degradation/nanoleakage after both aging regimens. Conversely, interfaces created in PAA-conditioned SiC-abraded specimens showed significant reduction in μTBS (p air-abrasion might be a suitable strategy to enhance the bonding performance and durability of RMGIC applied to dentine. The use of PAA conditioner in smear layer-covered dentine may increase the risk of degradation at the bonding interface. A combined dentine pre-treatment using bioglass followed by PAA may increase the bond strength and maintain it stable over time. Conversely, the use of PAA conditioning alone may offer no significant contribute to the immediate and prolonged bonding performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, A.U.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the post-irradiation hardness of resin-modified glass ionomer cements and a polyacid-modified composite resin using a digital microhardness tester. Change in hardness of these materials over a period of 6 months was compared to that of conventional glass ionomer cements and a composite resin. With the exception of the composite resin, all materials showed a significant increase in hardness over 24 h after their initial set. Dual-cure resin-modified glass ionomer cements showed decreased hardness with increased storage time in saline at 37 o C. Results suggest that the addition of resins to glass ionomer cements does not improve initial hardness and does not negate the acid-base reaction of conventional cements. Resin addition may, however, lead to increased water sorption and decreased hardness. (author)

  14. Ontario Hydro Research Division's program for treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.; Dodd, D.J.R.

    1981-09-01

    A brief review of the evolution of work programmes for chemical treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in Ontario Hydro's Research Division is presented. Attention has been focussed on pre-treatment processes for the treatment of the spent resins prior to encapsulation of the products in solid matrices. Spent Resin Regeneration and Acid Stripping processes were considered in some detail. Particular attention was paid to carbon-14 on spent resins, its determination in and removal from the spent resins (with the acid stripping technique). The use of separate cation and anion resin beds instead of mixed bed resins was examined with a view to reducing the volume of resin usage and consequently the volume of waste radioactive ion-exchange resin generated. (author)

  15. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  16. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  17. USE OF STRONG ACID RESIN PUROLITE C100E FOR REMOVING PERMANENT HARDNESS OF WATER – FACTORS AFFECTING CATIONIC EXCHANGE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN BANDRABUR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates the performance and capacity of Purolite C100E commercial resin recommended for water softening applications in the food industry. The practical ion exchange capacity and the softening process efficiency are studied in batch mode as a function of the sorption specific process factors. Optimum operation conditions were determined as initial pH 7.1, resin dose 8 g dry resin•L-1, temperature 25 oC, contact time of 360 min, and in those conditions the retention capacity for the Ca2+ ions is 17.18 mg•g-1 that corresponds to a removal efficiency equal to 85.7%.

  18. Method of heat decomposition for chemical decontaminating resin waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To make resin wastes into non-deleterious state, discharge them into a resin waste storage tank of existent radioactive waste processing facility and store and dispose them. Constitution: In the processing of chemical decontaminating resin wastes, iron exchange resins adsorbing chemical decontaminating agents comprising a solution of citric acid, oxalic acid, formic acid and EDTA alone or as a mixture of them are heated to dry, thermally decomposed and then separated from the ion exchange resins. That is, the main ingredients of the chemical decontaminating agents are heat-decomposed when heated and dried at about 250 deg C in air and converted into non-toxic gases such as CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 or H 2 O. Further, since combustion or carbonization of the basic materials for the resin is not caused at such a level of temperature, the resin wastes removed with organic acid and chelating agents are transferred to an existent resin waste storage tank and stored therein. In this way, facility cost and radiation exposure can remarkably be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Modified ion exchange resins - synthesis and properties. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, F.; Klein, J.; Pohl, F.; Widdecke, H.

    1982-01-22

    Sulfomethylated resins are prepared by polymer analogous reactions, starting from macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrices. Different reaction paths are discussed and used in the synthesis. Sulfomethylation can be achieved by reaction of a chloromethylated resin with dimethyl sulfide and sodium sulfonate or alternatively by oxidation of polymer-bound thiol groups. Both methods give high conversions as shown by IR spectra and titration of the sulfonic acid groups. Poly(1-(4-hydroxysulfomethylphenyl)ethylene) (3) is obtained by reaction of poly(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene) (2) resin with formaldehyde/sodium sulfonate. The thermal stability, catalytic activity, and ion exchange equilibria of the sulfomethylated resin are investigated.

  20. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH 2 BO 3 -H 3 BO 3 solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  1. Color test for selective detection of secondary amines on resin and in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Mirsharghi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Resins for solid-phase synthesis give orange to red-brown resin beads selectively when secondary amines are present on the resin when treated with a solution of acetaldehyde and an Fmoc-amino acid in NMP. The method shows good specificity and gives colorless beads when exposed to a variety of oth...

  2. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G

    2014-11-01

    Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The μ-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates.

  3. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  4. Removal of Uranium by Exchanger Resins from Soil Washing Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on AM-resin resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a batch-type washing with a 60 .deg. C heated 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions. If the uranium selectively removed from the waste solution, a very small amount of the 2nd waste would be generated. Thus, selective sorption of uranium by ion exchange resins was examined in this study.

  5. Study and application on lean resin converting in uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shaoxi; Huang Qijin; Zhu Shuguang; Yi Faqing; Du Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    The field test about sulphuric acid used to convert lean resin was finished. The results indicated sulphuric acid could replace chlorin in lean resin and could be reclaimed to desorption procedure. The consumption of NaCl decreased, the chlorin concentration of tailing decreased too. Both of uranium loss and waste water volume were reduced. The uranium concentration of tailing decreased and energy saving and emission reduction can be achieved. (authors)

  6. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge - engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation

  7. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  8. On-line preconcentration using a resin functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid for the determination of trace elements in biological samples by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Valfredo A.; Bezerra, Marcos A.; Amorim, Fabio A.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, an on-line preconcentration procedure for determination of cadmium, copper and zinc by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) is proposed. Amberlite XAD-4 functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (XAD4-DHB) packed in a minicolumn was used as sorbent material. The metals were retained on the XAD-DHB resin, from which it could be eluted directly to the thermospray flame furnace system. The detection limits were 28 (Cd), 100 (Cu) and 77 ng L -1 (Zn) for 60 s preconcentration time, at a sample flow rate of 7.0 mL min -1 . Enrichment factors were 102, 91 and 62, for cadmium, copper and zinc, respectively. The procedure has been applied successfully to metal determination in biological standard reference materials

  9. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  10. Treatment of Simulated Soil Decontamination Waste Solution by Ferrocyanide-Anion Exchange Resin Beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Min Gil; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Park, Jin Ho; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Preparation of ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin and adsorption test of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion were performed. Adsorption capability of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion in the simulated citric acid based soil decontamination waste solution was 4 times greater than that of the commercial cation exchange resin. Adsorption equilibrium of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion reached within 360 minutes. Adsorption capability on the Cs{sup -} ion became to decrease above the necessary Co{sup 2-} ion concentration in the experimental range. Recycling test of the spent ion exchange resin by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine was also performed. It was found that desorption of Cs{sup -} ion from the resin occurred to satisfy the electroneutrality condition without any degradation of the resin.

  11. Bio-phenolic resin from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zuhaili; Zakaria, Sarani; Roslan, Rasidi; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Amran, Umar Adli

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) in the production of bio-phenolic resin is an alternative way to reduce the dependency of petroleum-based phenol. In this study, resol type bio-phenolic resin (BPR) was synthesized from EFB fibers using sulfuric acid as the catalyst to produce liquefied empty fruit bunches (LEFB) followed by resinification reaction with formaldehyde in alkaline condition. The SEM image of LEFB residue showed separation of fiber bundles into individual fibers. This indicate that lignin was destroyed during the liquefaction process. The increased of formaldehyde/LEFB molar ratio has resulted an increase of viscosity, solid content and pH of the resin. The obtained FTIR spectra confirmed that functional groups of BPR resins was almost similar with commercial resin.

  12. Color test for selective detection of secondary amines on resin and in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Ulrik; Mirsharghi, Sahar

    2014-11-21

    Resins for solid-phase synthesis give orange to red-brown resin beads selectively when secondary amines are present on the resin when treated with a solution of acetaldehyde and an Fmoc-amino acid in NMP. The method shows good specificity and gives colorless beads when exposed to a variety of other functional groups. Furthermore, the acetaldehyde/Fmoc amino acid method can be used as a selective colorimetric test for secondary amines in solution.

  13. Development, design, and preliminary operation of a resin-feed processing facility for resin-based HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Drago, J.P.; Million, D.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel kernels for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. Resin-feed processing was developed and a facility was designed, installed, and operated to control the kernel size, shape, and composition by processing the resin before adding uranium. The starting materials are commercial cation exchange resins in the sodium form. The size separations are made by vibratory screening of resin slurries in water. After drying in a fluidized bed, the nonspherical particles are separated from spherical particles on vibratory plates of special design. The sized, shape-separated spheres are then rewetted and converted to the hydrogen form. The processing capacity of the equipment tested is equivalent to about 1 kg of uranium per hour and could meet commercial recycle plant requirements without scale-up of the principal process components

  14. Study on dehydrochlorination of waste poly (vinyl chloride) resins by microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Saburo; Qian, Qingrong; Sunohara, Satoshi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    Waste poly (vinyl chloride: PVC) resins are experimentally dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation. The following unique results are obtained: (1) plasticizer in PVC resin absorbs microwave power more effectively than PVC polymer. The higher the plasticizer content in PVC resin, the higher is the dehydrochlorination reaction (2) low PVC polymer content materials such as cushion floor require high microwave irradiation power to secure a high dehydrochlorination yield, (3) calcium carbonate in PVC resin reacts with released hydrochloric acid gas and results calcium chloride during microwave irradiation, (4) additives in PVC resin strongly influence dehydrochlorination yield, (5) it is evidenced that the PVC copolymer is also dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation.

  15. Determination of degradation conditions of exchange resins containing technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera S, A.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.

    2014-10-01

    The quantification of Tc-99 in spent exchange resins, coming from nuclear power plants, is indispensable to define their administration. The Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter of 210000 years of half-life, volatile and of a high mobility in water and soil. For this reason, the objective of this work is to establish a digestion method of ionic exchange resins containing technetium that retains more than 95% of this radioisotope. Mineralization tests were carried out of a resin Amberlite IRN-150 by means of an oxidation heat, in acid medium, varying the resin mass, the medium volume, the media type, the temperature and the digestion time. The digested samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to estimate the grade of their degradation. The 99m Tc was used as tracer to determine the technetium percentage recovered after mineralizing the resin. The digestion process depends on the temperature and the resin mass. At higher temperature better mineralization of samples and to greater resin mass to a constant temperature, less degradation of the resin. The spectra beta of the 99m Tc and 99 Tc are presented. (Author)

  16. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ∼336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin

  17. Purification of degraded TBP solvent using macroreticular anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Kutty, P.V.E.; Janaradanan, C.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with a suitable diluent is commonly used for solvent extraction in Purex process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuels. This solvent gets degraded due to various factors, the main degradation product being dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). A solvent cleanup step is generally incorporated in the process for removing the degradation products from the used solvent. A liquid-liquid cleanup system using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide solution is routinely used. Considering certain advantages, like the possibility of loading the resin almost to saturation capacity and the subsequent disposal of the spent resin by incineration and the feasibility of adopting it to the process, a liquid-solid system has been tried as an alternate method, employing various available macroreticular anion exchange resins in OH - form for the sorption of HDBP from TBP. After standardizing the various conditions for the satisfactory removal of HDBP from TBP using synthetic mixtures, resins were tested with process solvent in batch contacts. The parameters studied were (1) capacity of different resins for HDBP sorption (2) influence of acidity, uranium and HDBP on the sorption behaviour of the latter (3) removal of fission products from the solvent by the resin and (4) regeneration and recycling of the resin. (author). 2 figs., 13 tabs., 17 refs

  18. Method of pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Masami; Kawamura, Fumio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the generation of noxious sulfur oxide and ammonia on the pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins discharged from nuclear power plants. Method: In the case where the pyrolysis is made for the cationic exchange resins having sulfonic acids as the ion-exchange group, alkali metals or alkaline earth metals capable of reacting with sulfonic acid groups to form solid sulfates are previously deposited by way of ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. In another case of the anionic exchange resins having quarternary ammonium groups as the ion-exchange groups, halogenic elements capable of reacting with the ammonium groups to form solid ammonium salts are deposited to the ion-exchange resins through ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. As a result, the amount of the binders used can be reduced, and this method can be used in a relatively simple processing facility. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Separation of boron isotopes using NMG type anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Takaharu; Kosuge, Masao; Fukuda, Junji; Fujii, Yasuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    Ion exchange separation of boron isotopes (B-10 and B-11) has been studied by using a special boron selective ion exchange resin; NMG (n-methyl glucamine)-type anion exchange resin. The resin has shown a large isotope separation coefficient of 1.02 at the experimental conditions of temperature, 80degC, and boric acid concentration, 0.2 M (mole/dm 3 ). Enriched B-10 (92%) was obtained after the migration of 1149 m by a recyclic operation of ion exchange columns in a merry-go-round method. (author)

  20. Lysine purification with cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayati, GH.; Mottaghi Talab, M.; Hamooni Hagheeghat, M.; Fatemi, M.

    2003-01-01

    L-lysine is an essential amino acid for the growth most of animal species and the number one limiting amino acid for poultry. After production and biomass removal by filtration and centrifugation, the essential next step is the lysine purification and recovery. There are different methods for lysine purification. The ion exchange process is one of the most commonly used purification methods. Lysine recovery was done from broth by ion exchange resin in three different ways: repeated passing, resin soaking and the usual method. Impurities were isolated from the column by repeated wash with distilled water. Recovery and purification was done with NH 4 OH and different alcohol volumes respectively. The results showed that repeated passing is the best method for lysine absorption (maximum range 86.21 %). Washing with alkali solution revealed that most of lysine is obtained in the first step of washing. The highest degree of lysine purification was achieved with the use of 4 volumes of alcohol

  1. Laboratory studies on enhancing the throughput of demineraliser units by proper selection of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S V; Unny, V K.P.; Shetiya, R S [Reactor Services and Maintenance Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    In water treatment plants of nuclear reactors, type I strong base anion resins are extensively used in anion units along with strong acid cation resins in cation units for demineralisation of water. There is another kind of strong base anion resin called type II resin which is chemically slightly different from type I resin. Type II resins differ from the type I in that one of the methyl groups in the quaternary ammonium functional group of the latter, is replaced by an ethanol group. This results in lower basicity of the resin and hence, higher regeneration efficiency. However, the resin is not like a weak base resin in its properties since it is capable of removing silica from water, though not with the same efficiency as that of the type I strong base resin. Studies were carried out to compare the performance of presently used type I resins with that of type II resins supplied by local manufacturers to assess the suitability of the latter for use in the DM plants of Trombay reactors. This paper discusses the results of the studies. (author). 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Study on removing chlorin by conversion-aborption of chlorin resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yunbai; Zhao Jinfang; Tang Zhijuan; Huang Qijin; Deng Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Theon version of chlorin resin and the reclamation of acid and uranium in converting solution were investigated. The results indicated the residual chlorin can meet the requirement after converting, acid and uranium in converting solution can be reclaimed. (authors)

  3. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  4. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  5. Chromatography of metal ions with a triazine chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.N.

    1979-05-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and some analytical applications of a new triazine resin are described. Separation of group IB, IIB, VIB, and VIIB metal ions from group VIII metal ions is achieved by this PDT-4 resin. Calcium(II) and magnesium(II) are taken up at pH = 6, 0.1 M acetate and are eluted at pH = 6, 0.1 M sodium nitrate. Copper(II) is retained at pH = 6, 0.1 M acetate and pH = 1 hydrochloric acid and is eluted subsequently by 5 M perchloric acid. Molybdenum(VI) is sorbed selectively from 0.1 N sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid and is eluted in a tight band by 0.1 N sodium hydroxide. Numerous rapid column chromatographic separations are reported using this new resin, including analysis of NBS standard samples

  6. Ion exchange resin fouling of molybdenum in recovery uranium processess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Zhao Guirong

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between anion exchange resin fouling and molybdic acid polymerization was studied. By using potentiometer titration and laser-Raman spectroscopy the relationship of molybdic acid polymerization and the pH value of solution or the molybdenum concentration was determined. It was shown that as the concentration of initial molybdenum in solution decreases from 0.2 mol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, the pH value of starting polymerization decreased from 6.5 to 4.5. The experimental results show that the fouling of 201 x 7 resin in the acidic solution is mainly caused by the adsorbing of Mo 3 O 26 4- ion and occupying the exchange radical site of the resin. Under the leaching conditions the molybdenum and phosphate existing in the leaching liquor can form 12-molybdo-phosphate ion. It also leads to resin fouling. The molybdenum on the fouled resin can synergically be desorbed by mixed desorbents containing ammonium hydroxide and ammonium sulfate. The desorbed resin can be used for uranium adsorption and the desorbed molybdenum can be recovered by ion exchange method

  7. Separation of actinium-227 from its daughter products by cationic resins technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasi, M.J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method for separating actinium-227 from its daughter products based on ion exchange principle is shown. Radionuclides mixture in perchloric acid 8,5 N and chloridric acid 0,5 N medium pass by a cationic resin column. Thorium-227 and actinium-227, which are retained by the resin, are eluted with nitric acid 6 N which releases actinium-227 while oxalic acid 7% is used for thorium-227 elution [pt

  8. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O.

    2001-01-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  9. Loading ion exchange resins with uranium for HTGR fuel kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Greene, C.W.

    1976-12-01

    Uranium-loaded ion exchange beads provide an excellent starting material in the production of uranium carbide microspheres for nuclear fuel applications. Both strong-acid (sulfonate) and weak-acid (carboxylate) resins can be fully loaded with uranium from a uranyl nitrate solution utilizing either a batch method or a continuous column technique

  10. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity Effects of Oleo-Gum-Resin and Its Essential Oil of Ferula assa-foetida and Ferulic Acid on 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Asl, Amir Abdian; Shams, Ali; Mirghanizadeh-Bafghi, Seyyed Ali; Hafizibarjin, Zeynab

    2017-01-01

    Cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality and is a major public health problem worldwide. Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women, and the incidence is also on the rise in the entire world. Medicinal plants have been an important source of several clinically useful anticancer agents. In this study, we studied the growth inhibitory effect of asafoetida and its essential oil and ferulic acid on antitumor activity using mouse breast cancer cell line. For this aim, cells were exposed to these components at different concentrations and for different time durations. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was carried out to characterize the cytotoxicity of the constituents used. Our results showed that all three constituents could inhibit 4T1 cell proliferation. Our MTT assay results showed a significant cytotoxicity effect in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. It also demonstrated that essential oil of asafoetida has a stronger effect in decreasing viability breast cancer cells. Ferulic acid showed a significant effect only at a dose of 500 μg/ml. Based on the results of cellular carried out in this study, we could demonstrate that asafoetida and its essential oil and ferulic acid have inhibitory effect on the growth of breast cancer cell line. As evidenced from these preliminary results, asafoetida and its derivative constituents may be considered as attractive alternatives to serve as lead compounds in drug development for breast cancer as an adjuvant therapy. However, much remains to be done before such agent could be introduced to the clinic.

  11. Embedding in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de

    1985-01-01

    Medium activity waste coming either from nuclear power plants in operation such as evaporator concentrates, spent resins, filter cartridges or the dismantling of installations are embedded in order to obtain a product suitable for long term disposal. Embedding in thermosetting resins (polyester or epoxy) is one among currently used techniques; it is being developed by the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and Technicatome (subsidiary of CEA and EDF). The process is easy to operate and yields excellent results particularly as far as volume reduction and radioelement containment (cesium particularly) are concerned. The process has already been in operation in four stationary plants for several years. Extension of the process to mobile units has been completed by Technicatome in collaboration with the CEA [fr

  12. Diphonix trademark Resin: A review of its properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The recently developed Diphonix trademark resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. It has potential applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. Influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results studies on the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions

  13. Device for processing regenerative wastes of ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Osamu; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Sankichi

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the operation and maintenance of a processing device by dividing radioactive wastes produced in the regenerative process of ion exchange resin into a regenerated usable recovery liquid and wastes. Constitution: Sulfuric acid is recovered by a diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing sulfuric acid that are generated in the regenerative process of cation-exchange resin and also caustic soda is recovered by the diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing caustic soda that are generated in the regenerative process of anion-exchange resin. The sulfuric acid and caustic soda thus recovered are used for the regeneration of ion-exchange resin. A concentrator is provided for concentrating the sulfuric acid and caustic soda water solution to concentration suitable for the regeneration of these ion-exchange resins. Also provided is a recovery device for recovering water generated from the concentrator. This device is of so simple a constitution that its operation and maintenance can be performed very easily, thereby greatly reducing the quantity of waste liquid required to be stored in drums. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF PINE RESIN, ROSIN AND TURPENTINE OIL FROM WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyono Bambang; Tachibana Sanro; Djaban Tinambunan

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify chemical composition of merkus pine resin, rosin and turpentine oil. Initially, pine resin was separated into neutral and acidic fractions with an aqueous 4% sodium hydroxide solution. After methylation, the fraction containing turpentine oil and rosin were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The neutral fraction of pine resin and turpentine oil mainly consisted of a-pinene, D-3-carene and b-p...

  15. Quantitative analysis of PMR-15 polyimide resin by HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Lauver, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of individual components and of total solids of 50 wt pct PMR-15 resin solutions was determined using reverse-phase HPLC to within + or - 8 percent accuracy. Acid impurities, the major source of impurities in 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid (BTDE), were eliminated by recrystallizing the BTDE prior to esterification. Triester formation was not a problem because of the high rate of esterification of the anhydride relative to that of the carboxylic acid. Aging of PMR-15 resin solutions resulted in gradual formation of the mononadimide and bisnadimide of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, with the BTDE concentration remaining constant. Similar chemical reactions occurred at a reduced rate in dried films of PMR-15 resin.

  16. Preparation of extractive resins for producing terbium-161

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz B, C. C.; Monroy G, F.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a methodology for extractive resins preparation to base of HDEHP, which allows to separation of Tb from Gd generating an own technology of preparation of these resins. The study included the extractive resins preparation from 6 different supports: kieselguhr Dg, alumina, red volcanic rock, chiluca, quarry and fluorite; two treatment types of of supports and varied concentrations of HDEHP extractant (di(2-etil hexyl) orthophosphoric acid), in order to determine which resin has improved efficiency of Gd and Tb separation, and radionuclide purity of 161 Tb. Resins were prepared to base of kieselguhr to determine the most appropriate silicon deposition process. Two silicon deposition treatments were realized: treatment I , by contact with silicon deposition solution (dimethyldichlorosilane / heptane 1:30) and treatment II by contact with vapors of dimethyldichlorosilane in vacuum. The extractant retention was carried out to different concentrations of HDEHP / acetone: 1:4, 1:8, 1:15, 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40. According to the results, there is not direct relation of HDEHP concentration used in extractive resins preparation to base of kieselguhr over the efficiency of Gd and Tb separation and of radionuclide purity of 161 Tb. The effect of support in the efficiency of Gd and Tb separation was studied to prepare resins with the supports kieselguhr, alumina, quarry, chiluca, volcanic rock and fluorite, using the silicon deposition treatment II for the supports and a concentration of HDEHP / acetone 1:20, for extractant retention. Only resins based on kieselguhr could separate to Gd from Tb quantitatively, the resin at a concentration of HDEHP / Acetone 1:20 was the best results obtained in Gd and Tb separation, achieving a separation efficiency greater than 90% and a radionuclide purity higher than 99%. (Author)

  17. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  18. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken...

  19. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    Background. Epoxy resin monomers are strong skin sensitizers that are widely used in industrial sectors. In Denmark, the law stipulates that workers must undergo a course on safe handling of epoxy resins prior to occupational exposure, but the effectiveness of this initiative is largely unknown...... in an educational programme. Conclusion. The 1% prevalence of epoxy resin contact allergy is equivalent to reports from other countries. The high occurrence of epoxy resin exposure at work, and the limited use of protective measures, indicate that reinforcement of the law is required....

  20. [Effect of soil phenolic acids on soil microbe of coal-mining depressed land after afforestation restoration by different tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Yang, Li Xue

    2017-12-01

    Phenolic acids are one of the most important factors that influence microbial community structure. Investigating the dynamic changes of phenolic acids and their relationship with the microbial community structure in plantation soils with different tree species could contribute to better understanding and revealing the mechanisms of microbial community changes under afforestation restoration in coal-mining subsidence areas. In this study, plantations of three conifer and one deciduous species (Pinus koraiensis, Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, and Populus ussuriensis) were established on abandoned coal-mining subsidence areas in Baoshan District, Shuangyashan City. The contents of soil phenols, 11 types of phenolic acids, and microbial communities in all plots were determined. The results showed that the contents of soil complex phenol in plantations were significantly higher than that of abandoned land overall. Specifically, soils in larch and poplar plantations had higher contents of complex phenol, while soils in larch and Korean pine plantations had greater contents of total phenol. Moreover, soil in the P. koraiensis plantation had a higher content of water-soluble phenol compared with abandoned lands. The determination of 11 phenolic acids indicated that the contents of ferulic acid, abietic acid, β-sitosterol, oleanolic acid, shikimic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid were higher in plantation soils. Although soil phenol contents were not related with soil microbial biomass, the individual phenolic acids showed a significant relationship with soil microbes. Ferulic acid, abietic acid, and β-sitosterol showed significant promoting effects on soil microbial biomass, and they showed positive correlations with fungi and fungi/bacteria ratio. These three phenolic acids had higher contents in the poplar plantation, suggesting that poplar affo-restation had a beneficial effect on soil quality in coal-mining subsidence areas.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63 Protection of...—Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride 1. Scope This method was... hydrochloric acid that is liberated when hydroxylamine hydrochloride reacts with formaldehyde to form...

  2. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    to a neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl) ester, added to the oil as a stabilizer. None of the patients had positive reactions to the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin...... product is essential....

  3. Use of the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin for microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieronymaki, Matthaia; Androutsou, Maria Eleni; Pantelia, Anna; Friligou, Irene; Crisp, Molly; High, Kirsty; Penkman, Kirsty; Gatos, Dimitrios; Tselios, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    A fast and efficient microwave (MW)-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol using the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin and the Fmoc/tBu methodology, has been developed. The established protocol combines the advantages of MW irradiation and the acid labile 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin. The effect of temperature during the MW irradiation, the degree of resin substitution during the coupling of the first amino acids and the rate of racemization for each amino acid were evaluated. The suggested solid phase methodology is applicable for orthogonal peptide synthesis and for the synthesis of cyclic peptides. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Resin regenerating device in condensate desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Hiroo; Oosumi, Katsumi; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Norikazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the accuracy in the separation of anionic and cationic exchange resins. Constitution: Resins transferred from a condensate desalting column are charged in a cationic exchange resin column. The temperature of water for separating and transferring the resins is measured by a temperature detector disposed in a purified water injection line, and water is adjusted to a suitable flow rate for the separation and transfer of the resins by an automatic flow rate control valve, and then is injected. The resins are separated into cationic exchange resins and anionic exchange resins, in which only the anionic exchange resins are transferred, through an anionic exchange transfer line, into an anionic exchange resin column. By controlling the flow rate depending on the temperature of the injected water, the developing rate of the resin layer is made constant to enable separation and transfer of the resins at high accuracy. (Seki, T.)

  5. Study of phosphorous based resins for the uptake of plutonium from H2SO4 based analytical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, H.; Mohandas, Jaya; Srinivasan, S.; Kumar, T.; Rajan, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    This study indicates that phosphorous based resins can be conveniently employed for the uptake of plutonium from analytical wastes even in strong acid media and also in the presence of diverse ions like silver and chromium. It is also evident that phosphorous based resins have proved to be efficient even in sulphuric acid medium

  6. Radiation effects on ion-exchange resins. Part II. Gamma irradiation of Dowex 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Horrell, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The effects were determined of gamma radiation on the anion exchange resin, Dowex 1. Part I on Dowex 50W was reported May 10, 1974. The exchange capacity (both strong and weak base), moisture content, radiolysis products, and physical deterioration of the resin were analyzed after irradiation with doses up to 6.9 x 10 8 rads. The resin capacity decreased approximately 50 percent after a radiation dose of 4 x 10 8 rads. Resin irradiated, when air dried in the nitrate form, showed more stability than resin irradiated in 7N nitric acid (HNO 3 ), which in turn showed more stability than resin irradiated when air dried in the chloride form. Radiation decreased the strong base capacity to a greater extent than the total capacity. The result indicates that some of the quarternary ammonium groups were transformed to secondary and tertiary amine groups that have weak base ion-exchange capability. (U.S.)

  7. Marginal adaptation of composite resins under two adhesive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dačić, Stefan; Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Mitić, Aleksandar; Nikolić, Marija; Cenić, Milica; Dačić-Simonović, Dragica

    2016-11-01

    In the present research, different adhesive techniques were used to set up fillings with composite resins. After the application of etch and rinse or self etch adhesive technique, marginal adaptation of composite fillings was estimated by the length of margins without gaps, and by the microretention of resin in enamel and dentin. The study material consisted of 40 extracted teeth. Twenty Class V cavities were treated with 35% phosphorous acid and restored after rinsing by Adper Single Bond 2 and Filtek Ultimate-ASB/FU 3M ESPE composite system. The remaining 20 cavities were restored by Adper Easy One-AEO/FU 3M ESPE composite system. Marginal adaptation of composite fillings was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The etch and rinse adhesive technique showed a significantly higher percentage of margin length without gaps (in enamel: 92.5%, in dentin: 57.3%), compared with the self-etch technique with lower percentage of margin length without gaps, in enamel 70.4% (p resin tugs in interprismatic spaces of enamel, while the dentin microretention was composed of adhesive and hybrid layers with resin tugs in dentin canals. In the second technique, resin tugs were rarely seen and a microgap was dominant along the border of restoration margins. The SEM analysis showed a better marginal adaptation of composite resin to enamel and dentin with better microretention when the etch and rinse adhesive procedure was applied. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  9. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A chemoviscosity model, which describes viscosity rise profiles accurately under various cure cycles, and correlates viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with structural transformations of the thermosetting resin system during cure, was established. Work completed on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins is reported.

  10. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  11. An Efficient Solid-phase Parallel Synthesis of 2-Amino and 2-Amidobenzo[d]oxazole Derivatives via Cyclization Reactions of 2-Hydroxyphenylthiourea Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Selin; Kim, Seulgi; Lee, Geehyung; Gong, Youngdae

    2012-01-01

    An efficient solid-phase methodology has been developed for the synthesis of 2-amino and 2-amidobenzo[d]-oxazole derivatives. The key step in this procedure involves the preparation of polymer-bound 2-aminobenzo-[d]oxazole resins 4 by cyclization reaction of 2-hydroxyphenylthiourea resin 3. The resin-bound 2-hydroxy-phenylthiourea 3 is produced by the addition of 2-aminophenol to the isothiocyanate-terminated resin 2 and serve as a key intermediate for the linker resin. This core skeleton 2-aminobenzo[d]oxazole resin 4 undergoes functionalization reaction with various electrophiles, such as alkylhalides and acid chlorides to generate 2-amino and 2-amidobenzo[d]oxazole resins 5 and 6 respectively. Finally, 2-amino and 2-amidobenzo[d]oxazole derivatives 7 and 8 are then generated in good yields and purities by cleavage of the respective resins 5 and 6 under trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in dichloromethane (CH 2 Cl 2 )

  12. Zinc incorporation improves biological activity of beta-tricalcium silicate resin-based cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Raquel; Yamauti, Monica; Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Tim F; Toledano, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition may improve endodontic treatment prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if zinc incorporation into experimental resin cements containing bioactive fillers may modulate MMP-mediated collagen degradation of dentin. Human dentin samples untreated and demineralized using 10% phosphoric acid or 0.5 mol/L EDTA were infiltrated with the following experimental resins: (1) unfilled resin, (2) resin with Bioglass 45S5 particles (OSspray, London, UK), (3) resin with beta-tricalcium silicate particles (βTCS), (4) resin with zinc-doped Bioglass 45S5, and (5) resin with zinc-doped βTCS particles. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva (for 24 hours, 1 week, and 4 weeks) and submitted to radioimmunoassay to quantify C-terminal telopeptide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was also undertaken on dentin samples after 4 weeks of storage. Collagen degradation was prominent both in phosphoric acid and EDTA-treated dentin. Resin infiltration strongly reduced MMP activity in demineralized dentin. Resin containing Bioglass 45S5 particles exerted higher and stable protection of collagen. The presence of zinc in βTCS particles increases MMP inhibition. Different mineral precipitation was attained in dentin infiltrated with the resin cements containing bioactive fillers. MMP degradation of dentin collagen is strongly reduced after resin infiltration of dentin. Zinc incorporation in βTCS particles exerted an additional protection against MMP-mediated collagen degradation. However, it did not occur in resin containing Bioglass 45S5 particles, probably because of the formation of phosphate-zinc compounds. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urea-formaldehyde resins: production, application, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, A.; Risnasari, I.; Sucipto, T.; Heri Iswanto, A.; Rosmala Dewi, R.

    2017-07-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, one of the most important formaldehyde resin adhesives, is a polymeric condensation product of formaldehyde with urea, and being widely used for the manufacture of wood-based composite panels, such as plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard. In spite of its benefits such as fast curing, good performance in the panels (colorless), and lower cost; formaldehyde emission (FE) originated from either UF resin itself or composite products bonded by UF resins is considered a critical drawback as it affects human health particularly in indoor environment. In order to reduce the FE, lowering formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio in the synthesis of the UF resin was done. In this study, synthesis of UF resins was carried out following the conventional alkaline-acid two-step reaction with a second addition of urea, resulting in F/U mole ratio around 1.0, namely 0.95; 1.05, and 1.15. The UF resins produced were used as binder for particleboard making. The board was manufactured in the laboratory using shaving type particle of Gmelina wood, 8% UF resin based on oven dry particle, and 1% NH4Cl (20%wt) as hardener for the resin. The target of the thickness was 10 mm and the dimension was 25 cm x 25 cm. The resulted particleboard then was evaluated the physical and the mechanical properties by Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Further, the resulted particleboard also was used for the mice cage’s wall in order to mimic the real living environment. After four weeks exposure in the cages, the mice then were evaluated their mucous organs as well as their blood. The experiment results were as follows: 1) It was possible to synthesis UF resins with low F/U mole ratio; 2) However, the particleboard bonded UF resins with low F/U mole ratio showed poor properties, particularly on the thickness swelling and modulus of elasticity; 3) There was no significant differences among the mucous organs of the mice after a month exposure FE originated from

  14. Epoxy resin-inspired reconfigurable supramolecular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Balkenende Diederik; Olson Rebecca; Balog Sandor; Weder Christoph; Montero de Espinosa Lucas

    2016-01-01

    With the goal to push the mechanical properties of reconfigurable supramolecular polymers toward those of thermoset resins we prepared and investigated a new family of hydrogen bonded polymer networks that are assembled from isophthalic acid terminated oligo(bisphenol A co epichlorohydrin) and different bipyridines. These materials display high storage moduli of up to 3.9 GPa can be disassembled upon heating to form melts with a viscosity of as low as 2.1 Pa·s and fully reassemble upon coolin...

  15. Electrodeposition properties of modified cational epoxy resin-type photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong He; Yunlong Zhang; Feipeng Wu; Miaozhen Li; Erjian Wang

    1999-01-01

    Multi-component cationic epoxy and acrylic resin system for ED photoresist was used in this work, since they can provide better storage stability for ED emulsion and better physical and chemical properties of deposited film than one-component system. The cationic main resin (AE) was prepared from amine modified epoxy resins and then treated with acetic acid. The amination degree was controlled as required. The synthetic procedure of cationic main resins is described in scheme I. The ED photoresist (AME) is composed of cationic main resin (AE) and nonionic multifunctional acrylic crosslinkers (PETA), in combination with suitable photo-initiator. They can easily be dispersed in deionized water to form a stable ED emulsion. The exposed part of deposited film upon UV irradiation occurs crosslinking to produce an insoluble semi-penetrating network and the unexposed part remains good solubility in the acidic water solution. It is readily utilized for fabrication of fine micropattern. The electrodeposition are carried out on Cu plate at room temperature. To evaluate the electrodeposition properties of ED photoresist (AME), the different influences are examined

  16. 21 CFR 177.2260 - Filters, resin-bonded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Potassium. Sodium. Triethanolamine. Fatty acid (C10-C18) mono- and diesters of polyoxyethylene glycol.... (3) Resins: Acrylic polymers produced by polymerizing ethyl acrylate alone or with one or more of the... contain at least 70 weight percent of polymer units derived from ethyl acrylate, no more than 2 weight...

  17. Constituents from the bark resin of Schinus molle

    OpenAIRE

    Malca-García,Gonzalo Rodolfo; Hennig,Lothar; Ganoza-Yupanqui,Mayar Luis; Piña-Iturbe,Alejandro; Bussmann,Rainer W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A total of five terpenes was isolated from the bark resin of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon terebinthene showed significant growth inhibitory activity against human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, terebinthene and pinicolic acid (5) also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  18. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  19. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  20. SHALLOW SHELL RESIN VERSUS TRADITIONAL RESIN: A CASE STUDY FOR Cu(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Arar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on Cu2+ removal by shallow shell resin (Purolite SST 60 and traditional strongly acidic cation exchange resin (Purolite PFC 100 was performed. Batch experiments were carried out as a function of  resin  dosage and  solution pH and contact time. Ion exchange reaction showed a pH depended feature.  Maximum removal of Cu2+ achieved  pH  from 2 to 5. Sorption isothermal data is well interpreted by the Langmuir equation. Additionally, kinetic experiments showed that the pseudo first-order model was suitable for such resins. The regeneration performance of shallow shell technology (SST resin is better than PFC 100.  A solution of 2M H2SO4 performed well in regenerationof SST 60 resin. On the other han maximum regeneration reached 80% for PFC 100 resin.Özet: Bu çalışmada, klasik iyon değiştirici reçine (Purolite PFC 100 ve  sığ kabuk  reçine (Purolite SST 60  ile Cu2+ giderilmesi incelenmiştir. Yapılan kesikli çalışmalarla Cu2+ giderilmesine, reçine miktarı, çözelti pH`ı ve temas süresinin etkisi incelenmiştir. Çözelti pH`ının 2 ile 5 arasında olduğu durumda Cu2+ iyonları tamamen giderilmiştir. Denge çalışmalarında elde edilen sonuçlar Langmuir izoterm modeline daha uygun olmuştur. Kinetik çalışmalarda elde edilen sonuçlar yalancı birinci mertebe kinetik modeline uygunluk göstermişir. SST 60 reçinesinin rejenerasyon verimi PFC 100 reçinesinden daha yüksektir. 2M H2SO4 ile SST 60 reçinesi tamamen rejenere edilmiştir.

  1. Primary study on synthesis and characterization of the new type EB curable resins. Pt.2: Alkyd resins modified by LFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Min; Wei Jinshan; Li Jun; Wang Ruiyu; Ha Hongfei

    1995-01-01

    The authors have synthesized a new type of EB curable resin by using oil fatty acid. The preparation method of coating and the performance of EB curing coating film were described. The synthesis process has been simplified and the price of the raw materials was lower

  2. Carbon dioxide capture using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, YuPo J.; Snyder, Seth W.; Trachtenberg, Michael S.; Cowan, Robert M.; Datta, Saurav

    2015-09-08

    The present invention provides a resin-wafer electrodeionization (RW-EDI) apparatus including cathode and anode electrodes separated by a plurality of porous solid ion exchange resin wafers, which when in use are filled with an aqueous fluid. The apparatus includes one or more wafers comprising a basic ion exchange medium, and preferably includes one or more wafers comprising an acidic ion exchange medium. The wafers are separated from one another by ion exchange membranes. The fluid within the acidic and/or basic ion exchange wafers preferably includes, or is in contact with, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme to facilitate conversion of bicarbonate ion to carbon dioxide within the acidic medium. A pH suitable for exchange of CO.sub.2 is electrochemically maintained within the basic and acidic ion exchange wafers by applying an electric potential across the cathode and anode.

  3. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  4. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Dentin Using New Universal Bonding Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    and acidic simplified adhesives is a well-studied phenomenon (Kanehira et al., 2006). A chemical incompatibility may occur in the oxygen-inhibited...not completely eliminate this incompatibility (Tay et al., 2003). Recently, new “universal adhesives ” have been introduced. These universal...potential incompatibilities with self-curing resin materials. Low bond strength between self-curing resin materials and acidic simplified adhesives is

  5. Effects of blood contamination on resin-resin bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksson, Sigurdur O; Pereira, Patricia N R; Swift, Edward J; Heymann, Harald O; Sigurdsson, Asgeir

    2004-02-01

    Incremental placement and curing of resin composites has been recommended. However, this requires longer operating time, and therefore, increased risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination on microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) between resin interfaces and to determine the best decontamination method to re-establish the original resin-resin bond strength. The top surfaces of 64, 4-mm composite blocks (Z-250, Renew, APX, Pertac II) were untreated as the control, or were treated as follows: blood applied and dried on the surface (Treatment 1), blood applied, rinsed, dried (Treatment 2), blood applied, rinsed, and an adhesive applied (Single Bond, One-Step, Clearfil SE, Prompt L-Pop) (Treatment 3). Fresh composite was applied and light-cured in 2-mm increments. After 24 h storage in water, the specimens were sectioned into 0.7-mm thick slabs, trimmed to a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2), and loaded to failure at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min using an Instron universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (pcontamination resulted in resin-resin bond strengths of only 1.0-13.1 MPa. Rinsing raised bond strengths to over 40 MPa for each material. Use of an adhesive further increased bond strengths except for Pertac II. Rinsing blood from contaminated surfaces increases the resin-resin bond strength significantly and the application of an appropriate adhesive increases the bond strength to control levels.

  6. Column chromatographic separation of Y3+ from Sr2+ by polymeric ionizable crown ether resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.J.; Elshani, S.; Wai, C.M.; Bartsch, R.A.; Huntley, M.; Hartenstein, S.

    1993-01-01

    Condensation polymers containing subunits of crown ether carboxylic acid monomers are effective stationary phases for the chromatographic separation of Y 3+ and Sr 2+ . The pH range and metal loading capacities for the resins have been determined under equilibrium conditions. The resin can be regenerated for repeated use without losing its separation capability. Altering the molecular structure of the monomer (sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyacetic acid) by an alkyl substitution on the macrocyclic cavity decreases the loading capacity of the resin

  7. Gastroprotective effect of the Mapuche crude drug Araucaria araucana resin and its main constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania

    2005-10-03

    The resin from the tree Araucaria araucana (Araucariaceae) has been used since pre-columbian times by the Mapuche amerindians to treat ulcers. The gastroprotective effect of the resin was assessed in the ethanol-HCl-induced gastric ulcer in mice showing a dose-dependent gastroprotective activity at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg per os. The main three diterpene constituents of the resin, namely imbricatolic acid, 15-hydroxyimbricatolal and 15-acetoxyimbricatolic acid were isolated and evaluated for gastroprotective effect at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. A dose-related gastroprotective effect with highly significant activity (PMapuche culture.

  8. Release of organics from BWR condensate demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohira, Taku; Furukawa, Makoto; Sekiguchi, Masahiko; Takiguchi, Hideki; Deguchi, Tatsuya; Ino, Takao; Izumi, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    In BWRs, one of major factors to affect water chemistry in reactor is the organics leaching from condensate demineralizer. Especially, the organics from cation ion exchange resin (described CER hereafter) is intaken to reactor and changes to the sulfuric acid due to thermal decomposition and radiolysis, because CER contains sulfuric groups. In this paper, the influence of environmental parameters and structure of ion exchange resin (described IER hereafter) on the organics leaching are clarified by using 'the new method' developed for accurate measurement organics leaching from IER. Based on these results, the mechanism of the organics leaching from IER is discussed. (author)

  9. Heliotropium huascoense resin exudate: chemical constituents and defensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, L; Torres, R; Urzúa, A; Reina, M; Cabrera, R; González-Coloma, A

    2001-09-01

    From the resinous exudate of Heliotropium huascoense a new compound, rel-(8R,9R)-carrizaloic acid, (1) (3-[rel-(8R,9R-9-hydroxy-9,13,13-trimethyl-12-oxo-10-cyclohexenyl)methyl]-4-methoxybenzoic acid), and three known flavonoids, [3-methylgalangin, 3,7-dimethylgalangin, and (-)-alpinone] have been isolated. The structure of 1 was determined by spectral and chemical methods. Several plant defensive properties of 1 (insecticidal and antifungal) have been evaluated.

  10. Effects of the spaces available for cations in strongly acidic cation-exchange resins on the exchange equilibria by quaternary ammonium ions and on the hydration states of metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuya; Ohnaka, Kenji; Fujita, Saki; Kishi, Midori; Yuchi, Akio

    2011-10-01

    The spaces (voids) available for cations in the five exchange resins with varying exchange capacities and cross-linking degrees were estimated, on the basis of the additivity of molar volumes of the constituents. Tetraalkylammonium ions (NR(4)(+); R: Me, Et, Pr) may completely exchange potassium ion on the resin having a larger void radius. In contrast, the ratio of saturated adsorption capacity to exchange capacity of the resin having a smaller void radius decreased with an increase in size of NR(4)(+) ions, due to the interionic contacts. Alkali metal ions could be exchanged quantitatively. While the hydration numbers of K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) were independent of the void radius, those of Li(+) and Na(+), especially Na(+), decreased with a decrease in void radius. Interionic contacts between the hydrated ions enhance the dehydration. Multivalent metal ions have the hydration numbers, comparable to or rather greater than those in water. A greater void volume available due to exchange stoichiometry released the interionic contacts and occasionally promoted the involvement of water molecules other than directly bound molecules. The close proximity between ions in the conventional ion-exchange resins having higher exchange capacities may induce varying interactions.

  11. Studies on indigenous ion exchange resins: alkali metal ions-hydrogen ion exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, S.; Kumar, Surender; Venkataramani, B.

    2001-01-01

    With a view to select a suitable ion exchange resin for the removal of radionuclides (such as cesium, strontium etc.) from low level radioactive effluents, alkali metal ion -H' exchanges on nine indigenous gel- and macroporous-type and nuclear grade resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm .3 (in the case ofCs' -H' exchange it was 0.05 mol dm .3 ). The expected theoretical capacities were not attained by all the resins for the alkali metal ions. The water content (moles/equiv.) of the fully swollen resins for different alkali metal ionic forms do not follow the usual sequence of greater the tendency of the cation to hydrate the higher the water uptake, but a reverse trend. The ion exchange isotherms (plots of equivalent fractions of the ion in resin phase, N M1 to that in solution, N M ) were not satisfactory and sorption of cations, for most of the resins, was possible only when the acidity of the solution was lowered. The variations of the selectivity coefficient, K, with N M show that the resins are highly cross linked and the selectivity sequence: Cs + >K + >Na + >Li + , obtained for all the resins indicate that hydrated ions were involved in the exchange process. However, the increase in the selectivity was not accompanied by the release of water, but unusual uptake of water, during the exchange process. The characteristics of macroporous resins were not significantly different from those of the gel-type resins. The results are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in the polymer net work, improper sulphonation process resulting in the formation of functional groups at inaccessible sites with weak acidic character and the overall lack of control in the preparation of different resins. (author)

  12. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  13. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Kamiya, Kunio.

    1975-01-01

    Object: In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant, to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Structure: Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  15. Mechanism for transporting used resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Kamiya, K

    1975-01-16

    In the operation of a light water reactor type atomic power plant the objectives is to permit transport and reuse of used ion exchange resin used for the filtering or cleaning of cooling water or the desalting of radioactive exhaust liquid through an ejector. Used ion exchange resin within a desalter having high radioactivity is withdrawn through the action of an ejector and led to a solid-liquid separator for separation into used resin and water. The separated resin is directly collected in a storage tank while the separated water is forced through a circulating pump to a gas-liquid separator for separation into gas having radioactivity and water. The separated gas is led to a radioactive gas treatment station while the water deprived of the gas is recirculated by a drive water pump for repeated use.

  16. Cement matrix for immobilisation of spent anionic resins in borate form arising from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2005-11-01

    In water cooled reactors boron is added as boric acid to control nuclear reactor power levels. The boric acid concentration in coolant/moderator water, is controlled by using strongly basic anionic resins in borate (H 2 BO 3 - ) form. The spent anionic resins in borate form contain 131 Iodine, 99 Technitium and 137 Cesium activities. Direct immobilisation of anionic resins in borate form in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Slag Cement was investigated using vermiculite, bentonite, calcium oxide and silica as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cesium leached and 137 Cesium leach rate for slag cement matrix were 0.029 and 0.00064 g.cm 2 .d -1 respectively for 95 days of leaching. The volume reduction factor achieved by direct immobilisation of anionic resins in borate form was 0.48. Immobilisation of pyrolysis residues from these resins in OPC matrix was also studied. Leaching of matrix blocks was carried out for 180 days in DM water to optimise the matrix formulation. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cesium leached and 137 Cesium leach rate were 0.076 and 0.00054 respectively for 180 days leaching. The volume reduction factor achieved by immobilisation of pyrolysis residues was 2.4. OPC is non compatible to cationic resins loaded with alkali in absence of specific admixtures. Hence cationic resins loaded with alkali and anionic resins in borate form can not be immobilised together. (author)

  17. Accurate determination of 129I concentrations and 129I/137Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-01-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 129 I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of 129 I/ 137 Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 129 I in spent resins using accelerator mass spectrometry. • The treatment procedure included microwave acid digestion of samples, iodine extraction by CL resins and AgI precipitation. • Developed first on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • 129 I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g of dry resin. • Results are in agreement with previous measurements and support reference values currently used for nuclear resin management

  18. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  19. Waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resin obtained by miniemulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Murillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Four waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resins (HBRAA were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization from a hyperbranched alkyd resin (HBR, methyl methacrylate (MMA, butyl acrylate (BA and acrylic acid (AA, by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO and ammonium persulfate (AP as initiators. The reaction between HBR and acrylic monomers was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The conversion percentage, glass transition temperature (Tg, content of acrylic polymer (determined by soxhlet extraction and molecular weight increased with the content of acrylic monomers used in the synthesis. The main structure formed during the synthesis was the HBRAA. The analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS showed that the particle size distribution of HBRAA2, HBRAA3 and HBRAA4 resins were mainly monomodal. The film properties (gloss, flexibility, adhesion and drying time of the HBRAA were good.

  20. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies with Duolite-162, a type-II resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The selection of resin plays an important role in the process of separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography. The determination of (i) ion exchange capacity of Duolite-162 resin for hydroxyl - chloride exchange, (ii) hydroxyl - borate exchange, (iii) isotopic exchange separation factor by batch method and (iv) effect of concentration of boric acid on isotopic exchange separation factor to test the suitability of the above resin for this process are discussed in this report. (author)

  1. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  2. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  3. Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

  4. Modification of (DGEBA epoxy resin with maleated depolymerised natural rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DEGBA type epoxy resin has been modified with maleated depolymerised natural rubber (MDPR. MDPR was prepared by grafting maleic anhydride onto depolymerised natural rubber. MDPR has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. MDPR was blended with epoxy resin at three different ratios (97/3, 98/2 and 99/1, by keeping the epoxy resin component as the major phase and maleated depolymerised natural rubber component as the minor phase. The reaction between the two blend components took place between the acid/anhydride group in the MDPR and the epoxide group of the epoxy resin. The proposed reaction schemes were supported by the FT-IR spectrum of the uncured Epoxy/MDPR blends. The neat epoxy resin and Epoxy/MDPR blends were cured by methylene dianiline (DDM at 100°C for three hours. Thermal, morphological and mechanical properties of the neat epoxy and the blends were investigated. Free volume studies of the cured, neat epoxy and Epoxy/MDPR blends were correlated with the morphological and mechanical properties of the same systems using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Studies.

  5. Dissolution of ion exchange resin by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    The resin dissolution process was conducted successfully in full-scale equipment at the SRL Semiworks. A solution containing 0.001M Fe 2+ , or Fe 3+ , and 3 vol % H 2 O 2 in 0.1M HNO 3 is sufficient to dissolve up to 40 vol % resin slurry (Dowex 50W-X8). Foaming and pressurization can be eliminated by maintaining the dissolution temperature below 99 0 C. The recommended dissolution temperature range is 85 to 90 0 C. Premixing hydrogen peroxide with all reactants will not create a safety hazard, but operating with a continual feed of hydrogen peroxide is recommended to control the dissolution rate. An air sparging rate of 1.0 to 1.5 scfm will provide sufficient mixing. Spent resin from chemical separation contains DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) residue, and the resin must be washed with 0.1M NH 4 OH to remove excess DTPA before dissolution. Gamma irradiation of resin up to 4 kW-hr/L did not change the dissolution rate significantly

  6. System for processing ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onaka, Noriyuki; Tanno, Kazuo; Shoji, Saburo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To reduce the quantity of radioactive waste to be solidified by recovering and repeatedly using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide which constitute the ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid. Structure: Cation exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to an anion exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sulfuric acid through separation from impurity cations, while at the same time anion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to a cation exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sodium hydroxide through separation from impurity anions. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide thus recovered are condensed by a thermal condenser and then, after density adjustment, repeatedly used for the regeneration of the ion exchange resin. (Aizawa, K.)

  7. The influence of plutonium concentration and solution flow rate on the effective capacity of macroporous anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    The principal aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. Previous studies with gel-type anion exchange resin have shown an inverse relationship between plutonium concentration in the feed solution and the optimum flow rate for this process. Because gel-type resin has been replaced with macroporous resin at Los Alamos, the relationship between plutonium concentration and solution flow rate was reexamined with the selected Lewatit MP-500-FK resin using solutions of plutonium in nitric acid and in nitric acid with high levels of added nitrate salts. Our results with this resin differ significantly from previous data obtained with gel-type resin. Flow-rate variation from 10 to 80 liters per hour had essentially no effect on the measured quantities of plutonium sorbed by the macroporous resin. However, the effect of plutonium concentration in the feed solutions was pronounced, as feed solutions that contained the highest concentrations of plutonium also produced the highest resin loadings. The most notable effect of high concentrations of dissolved nitrate salts in these solutions was an increased resin capacity for plutonium at low flow rates. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. [Bonding strength of resin and tooth enamel after teeth bleaching with cold plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-meng; Wang, Guo-min; Sun, Ke; Li, Ying-long; Pan, Jie

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the immediate bond strength and surface structure of resin and the tooth enamel which treated by cold plasma. In the study, 40 bovine incisors were divided into two equal parts. In this sense, all enamel adhesive samples were prepared and then randomly divided into 4 groups (n =20). group 1: acid + single bond 2+resin composite (control group); group 2:beyond bleaching+ acid+single bond 2+resin composite; group 3: treated by cold plasma for 5 minutes+ acid+single bond 2+resin composite; group 4: treated by cold plasma for 5 minutes+single bond 2+resin composite. Single bond 2 bonding system and Filtek Z250 resin were used in this experiment. The shear bond strength was tested by universal testing machine. The surface of the enamel in different processes was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analyses by the single factor analysis of variance and multiple pairwise comparisons were performed with SPSS 17.0 . The shear bond strength of group 4 (8.60 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the other three groups (Penamel treated by cold plasma had slight molten form, which was different from etched enamel surface.The fractured surface of group 3 was mix fracture, which was similar to the control group (group 1). Compared with the conventional clinic bleaching, immediate bond strength of resin-enamel that treated by cold plasma has not been affected.

  9. Irradiation effects in the storage and disposal of radioactive ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swyler, K.J.; Dodge, C.E.; Dayal, R.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Research is under way to characterize the effects of self-irradiation on radwastes which may be generated when organic ion-exchange media are used in water demineralization or decontamination operations at nuclear facilities. External factors affecting the relation between laboratory evaluations and field performance are emphasized. Initial experiments do not yet indicate substantial radiation dose-rate effects on radiolytic gas yields or acid product formation, when (fully swollen) sulfonic acid resins are irradiated in a sealed air environment. At the same time, oxygen gas is removed from the environment of irradiated resins. Interaction between mild steel coupons and acidic species produced in the irradiation induced decomposition of sulfonic acid resin results in irradiation enhanced corrosion. Corrosion rates depend on radiation dose rate, moisture content and resin chemical loading. In some cases, corrosion rates decrease with time, suggesting depletion of acidic species within the resin bed, or a synergistic interaction between resin and corrosion coupon. Implications of these and other results on evaluating field behavior of radwaste containing ion-exchange media are discussed. 4 figures, 2 tables

  10. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ''Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,'' proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process''. Engineering study BNF-3128, ''Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,'' Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge's non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column's ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge

  11. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  12. The effect of loading solution and dissolution media on release of Diclofenac from ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Atyabi F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Drugs can be loaded on ion exchange resins in order to control their release. Loading of diclofenac sodium on the resin beads not only sustain its release but also reduce its gastrointestinal mucosal injury. In this study the effect of loading solution and concentration of diclofenac in loading solution on total amount of drug loaded on the resin beads (Amberlite IRA-900 and the release characteristic of drug in different media were examined. Results showed that diclofenac resin complex did not release their drug content in simulated gastric fluid but released it in simulated intestinal fluid independent of exposure time in acidic conditions. The effect of a number of parameters such as ionic strength and pH on the release characteristic of drug - resin complexes were also examined. Results showed that although ionic strength is an important factor, drug release is more affected by the pH of the media. NO ABSTRACT

  13. Development of production methods of volume source by the resinous solution which has hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Motoki, R

    2002-01-01

    Volume sources is used for standard sources by radioactive measurement using Ge semiconductor detector of environmental sample, e.g. water, soil and etc. that require large volume. The commercial volume source used in measurement of the water sample is made of agar-agar, and that used in measurement of the soil sample is made of alumina powder. When the plastic receptacles of this two kinds of volume sources were damaged, the leakage contents cause contamination. Moreover, if hermetically sealing performance of volume source made of agar-agar fell, volume decrease due to an evaporation off moisture gives an error to radioactive measurement. Therefore, we developed the two type methods using unsaturated polyester resin, vinilester resin, their hardening agent and acrylicresin. The first type is due to dispersing the hydrochloric acid solution included the radioisotopes uniformly in each resin and hardening the resin. The second is due to dispersing the alumina powder absorbed the radioisotopes in each resin an...

  14. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebra, Martha A.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  15. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  16. Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan in Support of BNFL Part B: Studies of Ion Exchange Resin Integrity under Flowsheet Extremes: Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    This task will address four items related to ion exchange stability: (1) process upset evaluation of resin in contact with 1 molar sodium permanganate at 25 and 40 degrees C, (2) accelerated aging with nitric acid solution used during normal regeneration operations, (3) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with 5 molar nitric acid at room temperature, and (4) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with deionized water at 60 plus/minus 5 degrees C

  17. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  18. Supercritical water oxidation of ion exchange resins: Degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A. [CEA Marcoule, DEN DTCD SPDE LFSM, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Guichardon, P. [Ecole Cent Marseille, F-13451 Marseille 20 (France); Boutin, O. [Aix Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS 6181, F-13545 Aix En Provence 4 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Spent ion exchange resins are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation could offer a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins and contain radioactivity. IER degradation experiments were carried out in a continuous supercritical water reactor. Total organic carbon degradation rates in the range of 95-98% were obtained depending on operating conditions. GC-MS chromatography analyses were carried out to determine intermediate products formed during the reaction. Around 50 species were identified for cationic and anionic resins. Degradation of poly-styrenic structure leads to the formation of low molecular weight compounds. Benzoic acid, phenol and acetic acid are the main compounds. However, other products are detected in appreciable yields such as phenolic species or heterocycles, for anionic IERs degradation. Intermediates produced by intramolecular rearrangements are also obtained. A radical degradation mechanism is proposed for each resin. In this overall mechanism, several hypotheses are foreseen, according to HOO center dot radical attack sites. (authors)

  19. Pilot Plant for treating of spent exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Alberto M.; Raffo Calderon, Maria del C.; Varani, Jose L.

    2004-01-01

    Spent exchange resins that have been accumulating during the last operational 30 years in Atucha I nuclear power plant (NPP) are a 'problematic' waste. These spent resins conform an intermediate level waste due to the total content of alpha, beta and gamma emitters (some samples of spent resins were analyzed in 2003). For this reason its treatment is more expensive since it is necessary to add more safety barriers for its final disposition and also for the radioprotection actions that are involved. Using sulfuric acid solutions it is possible to elute from the spent resins the ions that are retained. In the same operation are eluted Cobalt, Cesium and alpha emitters since that all these elements react as cations in aqueous solution. Decontamination by electrochemical methods was analyzed as an interesting method to apply after elution operation to these spent resins since that with the decontamination process it is possible to obtain a solid without activity and concentrate the activity in cells that are small in volume and its manipulation doesn't present any extra complication. Experiments made with active samples taken from the deposit were successful. Because of these results it was built a small plant to treat a batch of 100 dm 3 of wet spent exchange resins. Some problems with the material that was in the deposit together with spent resins caused that we had to plan a more complex strategy to obtain a complete decontamination of the spent resins (in this stage we used the cobalt retention cell that was described in other paper to retain Cobalt and alpha emitters and a sample of zeolites from Argentina ores to retain Cesium). Due to alpha emitters act electrochemically like cations it was possible to retain altogether with ionic Cobalt on the copper amalgam electrode. Working in the non-active lab with alcoholic solutions it was possible to retain ionic Cesium on a copper electrode (copper is covered by mercury fine film which forms a solid amalgam) with a

  20. Fixation of metallic sulfosalicylate complexes on an anionic exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahuzac, S.

    1969-06-01

    Since sulfosalicylate ions have acid-base properties, sulfosalicylate complexes have an apparent stability which varies with the ph. As a result, the fixation of sulfo-salicylates on an anionic exchange resin depends on the ph of the solution in equilibrium with the resin. This research has been aimed at studying the influence of the ph on the fixation on an anionic exchange resin (Dowex 1 x 4) of sulfosalicylate anions on the one hand, and of metallic sulfosalicylate complexes on the other hand. In the first part of this work, a determination has been made, by frontal analysis of the distribution of sulfosalicylate ions in the resin according to the total sulfosalicylate I concentration in the aqueous solution in equilibrium with the resin. The exchange constants of these ions between the resin and the solution have been calculated. In the second part, a study has been made of the fixation of anionic sulfosalicylate complexes of Fe(III), Al(III), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Mn(II), Cd(II), Fe(II) and UO 2 2+ . By measuring the partition coefficients of these different elements between the resin and the solution it has been possible to give interpretation for the modes of fixation of the metallic ions, and to calculate their exchange constant between the resin and the solution. The relationship has been established for each metallic element studied, between its partition coefficient, the ph and the total concentration of the complexing agent in solution. Such a relationship makes it possible to predict, for given conditions, the nature of the species in solution and in the resin, as well as the partition coefficient of a metallic, element. Finally, in the third part of the work, use has been made of results obtained previously, to carry out some separations (Ni 2+ - Co 2+ ; Ni 2+ - Co 2+ - Cu 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Fe 3+ ; UO 2 2+ - Cr 3+ ; UO 2 2+ - Cu 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Ni 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Co 2+ ; UO 2 2+ - Mn 2+ and UO 2 2+ - Cd 2+ ), as well as the purification

  1. Experimental resin cements containing bioactive fillers reduce matrix metalloproteinase-mediated dentin collagen degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Raquel; Yamauti, Monica; Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Thimoty F; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Collagen dentin matrix may represent a suitable scaffold to be remineralized in the presence of bioactive materials. The purpose of this study was to determine if experimental resin cements containing bioactive fillers may modulate matrix metalloproteinase-mediated collagen degradation of etched dentin. Human dentin beams demineralized using 10% phosphoric acid or 0.5 mol/L EDTA were infiltrated with the following experimental resins: (1) unfilled resin, (2) resin with Bioglass 45S5 particles (Sylc; OSspray Ltd, London, UK), and (3) resin with β-tricalcium phosphate-modified calcium silicate cement (HCAT-β) particles. The filler/resin ratio was 40/60 wt%. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva, and the determination of C-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) was performed by radioimmunoassay after 24 hours, 1 week, and 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of dentin surfaces after 4 weeks of storage was also executed. Collagen degradation was prominent both in phosphoric acid and EDTA-treated dentin. Resin infiltration strongly reduced the MMP activity in demineralized dentin. Resin-containing Bioglass 45S5 particles exerted higher and more stable protection of collagen at all tested dentin states and time points. HCAT-β induced collagen protection from MMPs only in EDTA-treated specimens. Dentin remineralization was achieved when dentin was infiltrated with the resin cements containing bioactive fillers. MMP degradation of dentin collagen is strongly reduced in resin-infiltrated dentin. The inclusion of Bioglass 45S5 particles exerted an additional protection of collagen during dentin remineralization. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 177.2280 - 4,4′-Isopropyl-idenedi-phenol-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with mixed dimers and trimers of unsaturated C18 monobasic fatty acids derived from animal and... basic thermosetting epoxy resin is made by reacting 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol with epi-chloro-hydrin...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin basic resin and limited to use in contact with alcoholic beverages containing not...

  3. Polymerization and curing kinetics of furan resins under conventional and microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez de Vergara, Unai; Sarrionandia, Mariasun; Gondra, Koldo; Aurrekoetxea, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The furan resin structure was investigated using IR and RMN techniques. • The polymerization of furan resins was developed based on multistage kinetics. • Vyazovkin numerical analysis was found the most accurate kinetic method. • Microwave curing of furan resins was much faster than thermal curing. - Abstract: The challenge of this work is the microwave curing study of low free-furfuryl alcohol content furan resins. The chemical characterization of the furan resins has been made by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the resin and its reactions with p-toluensulfonic acid are proposed, with the aim of understanding the mechanism responsible for the main reactions. The results show the presence of methyl and ether bridges between the furan rings, and the formation of ketone and conjugated structures. Furthermore, the curing kinetics of the furan resins has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Different methods have been applied in order to obtain and compare the activation energy of the process. Vyazovkin numerical analysis was found the most accurate method. Finally, microwave and conventional curing processes has been compared. The analysis showed that microwave curing of furan resins was twice faster than thermal curing

  4. Polymerization and curing kinetics of furan resins under conventional and microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Vergara, Unai, E-mail: bergara@gaiker.es [Plastics and Composites Department, Gaiker IK4 Research Centre, Parque Tecnológico, Ed. 202, 48170 Zamudio Spain (Spain); Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Manufacturing Department, Mondragón Unibertsitatea, Loramendi 4, 20500 Mondragón Spain (Spain); Sarrionandia, Mariasun [Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Manufacturing Department, Mondragón Unibertsitatea, Loramendi 4, 20500 Mondragón Spain (Spain); Gondra, Koldo [Plastics and Composites Department, Gaiker IK4 Research Centre, Parque Tecnológico, Ed. 202, 48170 Zamudio Spain (Spain); Aurrekoetxea, Jon [Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Manufacturing Department, Mondragón Unibertsitatea, Loramendi 4, 20500 Mondragón Spain (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The furan resin structure was investigated using IR and RMN techniques. • The polymerization of furan resins was developed based on multistage kinetics. • Vyazovkin numerical analysis was found the most accurate kinetic method. • Microwave curing of furan resins was much faster than thermal curing. - Abstract: The challenge of this work is the microwave curing study of low free-furfuryl alcohol content furan resins. The chemical characterization of the furan resins has been made by infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the resin and its reactions with p-toluensulfonic acid are proposed, with the aim of understanding the mechanism responsible for the main reactions. The results show the presence of methyl and ether bridges between the furan rings, and the formation of ketone and conjugated structures. Furthermore, the curing kinetics of the furan resins has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Different methods have been applied in order to obtain and compare the activation energy of the process. Vyazovkin numerical analysis was found the most accurate method. Finally, microwave and conventional curing processes has been compared. The analysis showed that microwave curing of furan resins was twice faster than thermal curing.

  5. Fatigue of the Resin-Enamel Bonded Interface and the Mechanisms of Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin; Mutluay, Mustafa Murat; Majd, Hessam; Ryou, Heonjune; Arola, Dwayne

    2013-01-01

    The durability of adhesive bonds to enamel and dentin and the mechanisms of degradation caused by cyclic loading are important to the survival of composite restorations. In this study a novel method of evaluation was used to determine the strength of resin-enamel bonded interfaces under both static and cyclic loading, and to identify the mechanisms of failure. Specimens with twin interfaces of enamel bonded to commercial resin composite were loaded in monotonic and cyclic 4-point flexure to failure within a hydrated environment. Results for the resin-enamel interface were compared with those for the resin composite (control) and values reported for resin-dentin adhesive bonds. Under both modes of loading the strength of the resin-enamel interface was significantly (p≤0.0001) lower than that of the resin composite and the resin-dentin bonded interface. Fatigue failure of the interface occurred predominately by fracture of enamel, adjacent to the interface, and not due to adhesive failures. In the absence of water aging or acid production of biofilms, the durability of adhesive bonds to enamel is lower than that achieved in dentin bonding. PMID:23571321

  6. Speciation and surface interactions of actinides on aged ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Buscher, C.T.; Donohoe, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is presently faced with the stabilization and safe disposition of hundreds of metric tons of residue materials resulting from 50+ years of nuclear weapons production activities. These residues encompass a broad range of substrates and radionuclides and include both solid and liquid materials. Combustible residues constitute a significant fraction of the total residue inventory, and an important constituent within the combustible category is spent anion ion-exchange resins. These resins are typically utilized for the separation of plutonium from other radionuclides under strongly acidic nitric or hydrochloric acid solution conditions which favor the formation and partitioning of anionic Pu(IV) nitrato or chloride species. The spent resins are usually rinsed prior to storage as residues to reduce both acid and radionuclide concentrations, but significant radionuclide concentrations remain in these resins, and the long-term effects of concentrated acid and radiolysis on the resin integrity are relatively unexplored. Thus, new research is needed to assess the stability of these resin residues and address the need for further treatment to ensure stability prior to long-term disposal

  7. Processing ix spent resin waste for C-14 isotope recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, F. H.; Woodall, K. B.; Sood, S. K.; Vogt, H. K.; Krochmainek, L. S.

    1991-01-01

    -213 Ci/m 3 for the Moderator spent resins generated by CANDU reactors. For an estimated average C-14 activity level of 100 Ci/m 3 , a total of 400 Ci of C-14 can be produced each year. Based on the current market value of the C-14 isotope, the cost of the demonstration plant can be recovered in less than two years. Upon successful demonstration, the process can be scaled up. The volume of resin wastes produced by the stations can readily supply a full scale production of 2000 Ci or more per annum. Several alternative routes have been considered for this process which include: thermal stripping vs. acid stripping of the spent resins, laser enrichment vs. cryogenic distillation for the enrichment of the gaseous intermediate product, and direct gas phase reaction vs. liquid phase ionic precipitation of the final product. Analysis of the experimental results obtained at Ontario Hydro Research Division and also those reported in the literature has led to the selection of the following process: The C-14 is first removed by acid stripping the resins to form carbon dioxide. The gas is then separated from the carrier gas and converted by reaction with zinc to carbon monoxide, which is cryogenically distilled. Essentially pure C-14 monoxide is obtained and oxidized to produce C-14 dioxide. The gas is then reacted with a suitable hydroxide to produce the desired carbonate product

  8. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolitetrademark NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900trademark, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material

  9. Preparation of minor actinides targets or blankets by the means of Ionic Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Mokhtari, H.; Ramiere, I.; Jobelin, I. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Process Department, Actinides Chemistry Laboratory, BP17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    The objective of our R and D work is the elaboration by the use of ionic exchange resin of minor actinide precursors for target or blanket dedicated to their transmutation in sodium fast reactor. From the beginning, the resin process called WAR (acronym of Weak Acid Resin) was developed in the 70's at the ORNL for the making of uranium carbide kernels for the high temperature gas reactor [1] [2]. By now, our aim is to extend this concept to the manufacturing of minor actinides oxide mixed with uranium oxides [3]. More precisely, this process can be divided in two major steps: the loading of the resin and the thermal treatment of the fully loaded resin driving either to oxide or carbide phases depending on the gas atmosphere. The difficulty stems from the preparation of the loading solutions which must fulfill precise conditions of pH in presence of actinides cations prone to hydrolysis. Furthermore, the proportions of uranium and minor actinides in solutions must be adjusted to fit the right ratio in the solid. The study presented here will then focus on the experiments and tests which enable us to optimize the fixing of minor actinides on ionic exchange resin and their carbonization in oxide. [1] G. W. Weber, R. L. Beatty et V. J. Tennery, Nuclear Technology, 35, 217-226, (1977), 'Processing and composition control of weak-acid-resin derived fuel microspheres'. [2] K. J. Notz, P. A. Haas, J. H. Shaffer, Radiochimica Acta, 25, 153-160, (1978). 'The preparation of HTGR Fissile Fuel Kernels by Uranium Loading of Ion Exchange Resin'. [3] S. Picart, H. Mokhtari, I. Ramiere, 'Plutonium Futures, The Science 2008', 7-11 july 2008, Dijon, France. 'Modelling of the ionic Exchange between a weak acid resin in its ammonium form and a minor actinide'. (authors)

  10. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  11. Flowsheet Validation For The Permanganate Digestion Of REILLEX(trademark) HPQ Anion Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyser, E.

    2009-01-01

    The flowsheet for the digestion of Reillex(trademark) HPQ was validated both under the traditional alkaline conditions and under strongly acidic conditions. Due to difficulty in performing a pH adjustment in the large tank where this flowsheet must be performed, the recommended digestion conditions were changed from pH 8-10 to 8 M HNO 3 . Thus, no pH adjustment of the solution is required prior to performing the permanganate addition and digestion and the need to sample the digestion tank to confirm appropriate pH range for digestion may be avoided. Neutralization of the acidic digestion solution will be performed after completion of the resin digestion cycle. The amount of permanganate required for this type of resin (Reillex(trademark) HPQ) was increased from 1 kg/L resin to 4 kg/L resin to reduce the amount of residual resin solids to a minimal amount ( 2 ) solids (1.71 kg/L resin) and involves the generation of a significant liquid volume due to the low solubility of permanganate. However, since only two batches of resin (40 L each) are expected to be digested, the total waste generated is limited.

  12. On-line gross alpha radiation monitoring of natural waters with extractive scintillating resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Lara; De Vol, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Extractive scintillating resins, which are used to simultaneously separate and quantify radioactivity in aqueous solutions, were developed for low-level alpha radiation monitoring of natural waters. Resins were investigated with bis(2-ethylhexyl)methane-diphosphonic acid (H 2 DEH[MDP], Dipex[reg]) extractant, which has a strong affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides in dilute acids. Extractive scintillating resins were manifested (1) as a mixed bed of scintillating resin and extraction chromatographic resin and (2) by diffusing the organic fluor 2-(1-naphtyl)-5-phenyloxazole into macroporous polystyrene chromatographic resin, then coating with H 2 DEH[MDP], or by coating H 2 DEH[MDP] on scintillating polyvinyltoluene beads. The scintillation light was detected with a modified Hidex Triathler to allow for continuous flow measurements. The average detection efficiencies were 51.7±2.6% and 65.8±10.1% for natural uranium and 241 Am, respectively, for the extractant coated scintillator. The resin was stable for solution flow of up to 1000 ml resulting in rapid real-time quantification of natural uranium in groundwater down to 30 μg/ml

  13. Substitution determination of Fmoc‐substituted resins at different wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Markus; Bächle, Dirk; Loidl, Günther; Meier, Thomas; Samson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In solid‐phase peptide synthesis, the nominal batch size is calculated using the starting resin substitution and the mass of the starting resin. The starting resin substitution constitutes the basis for the calculation of a whole set of important process parameters, such as the number of amino acid derivative equivalents. For Fmoc‐substituted resins, substitution determination is often performed by suspending the Fmoc‐protected starting resin in 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF to generate the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct that is quantified by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The spectrometric measurement is performed at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct, that is, at 301.0 nm. The recorded absorption value, the resin weight and the volume are entered into an equation derived from Lambert–Beer's law, together with the substance‐specific molar absorption coefficient at 301.0 nm, in order to calculate the nominal substitution. To our knowledge, molar absorption coefficients between 7100 l mol−1 cm−1 and 8100 l mol−1 cm−1 have been reported for the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct at 301.0 nm. Depending on the applied value, the nominal batch size may differ up to 14%. In this publication, a determination of the molar absorption coefficients at 301.0 and 289.8 nm is reported. Furthermore, proof is given that by measuring the absorption at 289.8 nm the impact of wavelength accuracy is reduced. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28635051

  14. Substitution determination of Fmoc-substituted resins at different wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Stefan; Kley, Markus; Bächle, Dirk; Loidl, Günther; Meier, Thomas; Samson, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In solid-phase peptide synthesis, the nominal batch size is calculated using the starting resin substitution and the mass of the starting resin. The starting resin substitution constitutes the basis for the calculation of a whole set of important process parameters, such as the number of amino acid derivative equivalents. For Fmoc-substituted resins, substitution determination is often performed by suspending the Fmoc-protected starting resin in 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF to generate the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct that is quantified by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The spectrometric measurement is performed at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct, that is, at 301.0 nm. The recorded absorption value, the resin weight and the volume are entered into an equation derived from Lambert-Beer's law, together with the substance-specific molar absorption coefficient at 301.0 nm, in order to calculate the nominal substitution. To our knowledge, molar absorption coefficients between 7100 l mol -1  cm -1 and 8100 l mol -1  cm -1 have been reported for the dibenzofulvene-piperidine adduct at 301.0 nm. Depending on the applied value, the nominal batch size may differ up to 14%. In this publication, a determination of the molar absorption coefficients at 301.0 and 289.8 nm is reported. Furthermore, proof is given that by measuring the absorption at 289.8 nm the impact of wavelength accuracy is reduced. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  16. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  17. Going greener: Synthesis of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters for styrene crosslinked resins with enhanced thermomechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. M. F. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was the development of fully biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs that upon crosslinking with unsaturated monomers (UM could lead to greener unsaturated polyester resins (UPRs with similar thermomechanical properties to commercial fossil based UPR. After the successful synthesis of the biobased UPs, those were crosslinked with styrene (Sty, the most commonly used monomer, and the influence of the chemical structure of the UPs on the thermomechanical characteristics of UPRs were evaluated. The properties were compared with those of a commercial resin (Resipur 9837©. The BioUPRs presented high gel contents and contact angles that are similar to the commercial resin. The thermomechanical properties were evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and it was found that the UPR synthesized using propylene glycol (PG, succinic acid (SuAc and itaconic acid (ItAc presented very close thermomechanical properties compared to the commercial resin.

  18. Synthesis and properties of hydroxy acrylic resin with high solid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Hu, Mingguang; Cui, Han; Xiao, Jijun

    2017-10-01

    Manufacturers of automotive repair finishes are tending to reduce more and more the level of volatile organic compounds in their paints in order to comply with increasingly strict environmental legislation. A high solid hydroxy acrylic resin was synthesised using CARDURA E10 and a type of hydroxyacrylic acid resin, its' acid value, hydroxylvalue, viscosity, structure, morphology was measured and film-forming properties after curing were characterised. The results show that the addition of CARDURA E10 in the copolymer composition significantly reduced the viscosity of the polymer system, improved the solid content of the resin and the physical properties of the coating. The hydroxyl acrylate resin with solid content of 90% and excellent comprehensive performance were successfully prepared by controlling the initiator dosage, polymerization temperature and monomer ratio.

  19. Solvent impregnated resin for isolation of U(VI) from industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karve, M.; Rajgor, R.V.

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase extraction method based upon impregnation of Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl)mono-thio-phosphinic acid) on Amberlite XAD-2 resin is proposed for isolation of U(VI) from uranmicrolite ore tailing samples and industrial effluent samples. U(VI) was sorbed from nitric acid media on the solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) and was recovered completely with 1.0 M HCl. Based upon sorption behavior of U(VI) with Cyanex 302, it was quantitatively sorbed on the SIR in a dynamic method, while the other metal ions were not sorbed by the modified resin. The preparation of impregnated resin is simple, based upon physical interaction of the extractant and solid support, has good sorption capacity for U(VI), and is also reliable for detection of traces of U(VI). (authors)

  20. Method for removing cesium from aqueous liquid, method for purifying the reactor coolant in boiling water and pressurized water reactors and a mixed ion exchanged resin bed, useful in said purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, J.N.A.; Liebmann, D.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for removing cesium from an aqueous liquid, and to a resin bed containing a mixture of an anion exchange resin and cation exchange resin useful in said purification. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention is a method for purifying the reactor coolant of a presurized water or boiling water reactor. Said method, which is particularly advantageously employed in purifying the reactor coolant in the primary circuit of a pressurized reactor, comprises contacting at least a portion of the reactor coolant with a strong base anion exchange resin and the strong acid cation exchange resin derived from a highly cross-linked, macroporous copolymer of a monovinylidene aromatic and a cross-linking monomer copolymerizable therewith. Although the reactor coolant can sequentially be contacted with one resin type and thereafter with the second resin type, the contact is preferably conducted using a resin bed comprising a mixture of the cation and anion exchange resins. 1 fig., refs

  1. Analysis of potential hazards associated with 241Am loaded resins from nitrate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Rubin, Jim; Fife, Keith William; Ricketts, Thomas Edgar; Tappan, Bryce C.; Chavez, David E.

    2016-01-01

    LANL has been contacted to provide possible assistance in safe disposition of a number of 241 Am-bearing materials associated with local industrial operations. Among the materials are ion exchange resins which have been in contact with 241 Am and nitric acid, and which might have potential for exothermic reaction. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and define the resin forms and quantities to the extent possible from available data to allow better bounding of the potential reactivity hazard of the resin materials. An additional purpose is to recommend handling procedures to minimize the probability of an uncontrolled exothermic reaction.

  2. Analysis of potential hazards associated with 241Am loaded resins from nitrate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rubin, Jim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fife, Keith William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ricketts, Thomas Edgar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tappan, Bryce C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chavez, David E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-19

    LANL has been contacted to provide possible assistance in safe disposition of a number of 241Am-bearing materials associated with local industrial operations. Among the materials are ion exchange resins which have been in contact with 241Am and nitric acid, and which might have potential for exothermic reaction. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and define the resin forms and quantities to the extent possible from available data to allow better bounding of the potential reactivity hazard of the resin materials. An additional purpose is to recommend handling procedures to minimize the probability of an uncontrolled exothermic reaction.

  3. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu; Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.)

  4. Resin for processing radioactive waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan); Kiba, Hideaki; Kubota, Hirohisa; Sawada, Shintaro

    1995-11-07

    The present invention concerns an anionic exchange resin having a long service life with less radiation degradation. The resin is an anionic exchange resin in which a trimethyl ammonium group is introduced to a copolymer of 4-bromo-butoxymethyl styrene and divinyl benzene. The resin is excellent in economic performance, and can reduce the frequency for the exchange of cross-linked anionic exchangers. (T.M.).

  5. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of the...

  6. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  7. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  8. Unsaturated polyester resin composition curable with ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tsutomu; Murata, Koichiro.

    1971-01-01

    An unsaturated polyester resin composition curable with ionizing radiations and excellent in weather resistance is provided. The composition is obtained by reacting 10-12 moles of a polyhydric alcohol (e.g. ethylene glycol) with 10 moles of an acid mixture (25.45% by mole of endo-cis-bicyclo (2,2,1)-5-heptene-2-3-dicarboxylic acid (A), 20-40% of unsaturated dibasic acid and 15-55% of saturated dibasic acid) so that the acid value reaches 4-11. The composition is useful as coating, laminating and molding materials. As a coating material it is excellent in surface hardening property. The ionizing radiation used is preferably β-, α-rays or electron beams. In one example, and unsaturated polyester was prepared by reacting 3 moles of fumaric acid, 2 moles of phthalic anhydride, 3 moles of adipic acid 3, moles of (A), 10 moles of neopentyl glycol and 1 mole of trimethylolpropane. The resin was dissolved into a mixture of styrene, methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate (50:8:42) and incorporated with titanium white. An ABS plate was coated with the enamel thus obtained and irradiated with electron beams (12 Mrad). In exposure test at 60 0 C, luster of the film was 92 before exposure and 83 after 30 months. In a comparative run in which (A) was not used, luster of the film decreased from 90 to 45 in 30 months. (Sakaichi, S.)

  9. Constituents from the bark resin of Schinus molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Rodolfo Malca-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A total of five terpenes was isolated from the bark resin of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon terebinthene showed significant growth inhibitory activity against human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, terebinthene and pinicolic acid (5 also showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633.

  10. Resins production: batch plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banti, M.; Mauri, G.

    1996-01-01

    Companies that look for automation in their plants without external resources, have at their disposal flexible, custom and easy to use DCS, open towards PLC. In this article it is explained why Hoechts has followed this way of new plants for resins production automation

  11. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  12. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite to resin-modified glass-ionomer cement using three different resin adhesives vs. glass-ionomer based adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical success of sandwich technique depends on the strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC bonding to both dentin and resin composite. Therefore, the shear bond strength (SBS of resin composite bonded to RMGIC utilizing different resin adhesives versus a GIC-based adhesive was compared. Materials and methods: In this in vitro study, 84 holes (5×2 mm were prepared in acrylic blocks, randomly divided into seven groups (n=12 and filled with RMGIC (Light-Cured Universal Restorative, GC. In the Group I; no adhesive was applied on the RMGIC. In the Group II, non-etched and Group III was etched with phosphoric acid. In groups II and III, after rinsing, etch-and-rinse adhesive (OptiBond Solo Plus; in the Group IV; a two-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond XTR and in Group V; a one-step self-etch (OptiBond All-in-One were applied on the cement surfaces. Group VI; a GIC-based adhesive (Fuji Bond LC was painted over the cement surface and cured. Group VII; the GIC-based adhesive was brushed over RMGIC followed by the placement of resin composite and co-cured. Afterward; resin composite (Point 4 cylinders were placed on the treated cement surfaces. The specimens were placed in 100% humidity at 37 ± 1°C and thermo cycled. The shear bond test was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min and calculated in MPa; the specimens were examined to determine mode of failure. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The maximum (24.62±3.70 MPa and minimum (18.15±3.38 MPa SBS mean values were recorded for OptiBond XTR adhesive and the control group, respectively. The pairwise comparisons showed no significant differences between the groups that bonded with different adhesives. The adhesive failure was the most common failure mode observed. Conclusion: This study suggests that GIC-based adhesive could be applied over RMGIC as co-cure technique for sandwich restorations in lieu of employing the resin

  13. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings

  14. Characterization of the sorption of uranium(VI) on different complexing resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesavento, Maria; Biesuz, Raffaela; Alberti, Giancarla; Sturini, Michela

    2003-01-01

    The sorption of uranium(VI) on two cationic resins containing different complexing groups, the iminodiacetic resin Chelex 100 and the weak carboxylic resin Amberlite CG-50, was investigated. The Gibbs-Donnan model was used to describe and to predict the sorption through the determination of the intrinsic complexation constants. These quantities, even though non-thermodynamic, characterize the sorption as being independent of experimental conditions. The sorption mechanism of the metal on the complexing resins was also studied by adding a competitive soluble ligand that shifts the sorption curves to higher pH values. The ligand competes with the resin for the complexation with the metal ion. Uranium is also strongly sorbed on Chelex 100 at very acid pH, through formation of two complexes in the resin phase: ML with logβ 110i =-1.16, in more acidic solution, and ML 2 with log β 120i =-5.72. Only the presence of the competitive ligand in solution makes the determination of the second complex possible. Also on Amberlite CG-50 the sorption is strong and involves the formation of the complex ML 2 , in more acidic solution, with log β 120i =-3.16. In the presence of the ligand EDTA, the complex ML 2 (OH) 2 was characterized with log β 12-2i =-5.15. In all the experiments the hydrolysis reaction in the aqueous phase was quantitatively considered. (orig.)

  15. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  16. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, ion exchange resins are used for purification of aqueous streams. The major contaminants of the resins are usually the radioactive materials that are removed from the aqueous streams. The use of the ion exchange resins creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resin often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposal alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  17. Campuran kitosan dengan resin akrilik sebagai bahan gigi tiruan penghambat Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Ismiyati

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of acrylic resin and chitosan as denture material to inhibit Candida albicans. The inhibition of Candida albicans in denture resin has an important role to prevent the development of denture stomatitis. Chitosan is a natural polymer compound derived from shrimp waste which can function as an antifungal Acrylik resin cannot be mixed with chitosan. To obtain a homogeneous mixture, the mixture was added a coupling agen acrylic acid and acetone. The research objective was to study the mixture of acrylic resin and chitosan with solvent acrylic acid and acetone as a denture that can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Methods: The samples used discs in 10 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness, made from heat cured acrylic resin mixed with chitosan dissolved in acrylat acid and acetone. They were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was acrylic resin without chitosan as a control, group 2, 3 and 4 were the mixture of acrylic resin and 5 ml chitosan in 0.5%, 1%, and 2% concentration respectively. The fourier transform irfrared spectroscopy (FTIR and the digital optical microscope were used to synthesize and analyze. The Kruskal Wallis was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the mixture of acrylic resin with chitosan significantly inhibited the growth of Candida albicans. Conclusion: a mixture of acrylic resins and chitosan can be fungistatic, so it can be developed as an antifungal denture material.   ABSTRAK Penghambatan Candida albicans pada gigi tiruan resin akrilik dapat memainkan peran penting dalam mencegah perkembangan denture stomatitis. Kitosan adalah senyawa polimer alam yang berasal dari limbah udang yang dapat berfungsi sebagai antijamur. Resin akrilik tidak dapat bercampur dengan kitosan. Untuk mendapatkan campuran yang homogen, campuran tersebut ditambah coupling agent asam akrilat dan aseton. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji campuran resin akrilik dan kitosan dan asam akrilat pelarut aseton sebagai bahan gigi

  18. Influence of the Hardener on the Emission of Harmful Substances from Moulding Sands with Furan Resin in the Pyrolysis Process

    OpenAIRE

    Holtzer M.; Kmita A.; Żymankowska-Kumon S.; Bobrowski A.; Dańko R.

    2016-01-01

    The furan resin offers advantages such as high intensity, low viscosity, good humidity resistance and is suitable for cast different casting alloys: steel, cast iron and non-ferrous metal casting. For hardening furan resins are used different hardeners (acid catalysts). The acid catalysts have significant effects on the properties of the cured binder (e,g. binding strength and thermal stability) [1 - 3]. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were performed according t...

  19. The effect of the conditions of amidoximation on the adsorptive characteristics of amide oxime resin for uranium recovery from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Takahiro; Furusaki, Shintaro; Sugo, Takanobu; Okamoto, Jiro.

    1987-01-01

    A hollow-fiber type chelating resin containing the amide oxime group for the recovery of uranium from seawater was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization. The effect of the conditions of amidoximation on the amount and/or distribution of the functional groups and on the durability to the recycle adsorption was investigated. The amount of adsorbed copper on the resin increased with the reaction time of the amidoximation, but that of adsorbed hydrochloric acid gradually decreased after reaching the maximum. From the results of elemental analysis, infrared adsorption spectra, visible light and ultraviolet adsorption spectra and the observation of coloration of the resin by alkaline treatment, the amidoximation was found to be a consecutive reaction. The results also suggested that, after the introduction of the amide oxime group, the acidic amide, hydroxamic acid and/or cyclic functional groups were formed. From the measurement of the distribution of adsorbed copper by X-ray microanalyzer, it was confirmed that the amidoximation occured uniformly across the resin. An experiment was carried out on the recycle adsorption of the amide oxime resin using natural seawater, and the sufficient durability was recognized for the case that the resin was taken out from the hydroxylamine solution at the time when the amount of adsorbed hydrochloric acid reached the maximum. In this case the resin contained the largest amount of the amide oxime group and least amount of the by-products formed from the secondary reactions. (author)

  20. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  1. An investigation of the applicability of the new ion exchange resin, Reillex{trademark}-HPQ, in ATW separations. Milestone 4, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, K.R.; Ball, J.; Grissom, M.; Williamson, M.; Cobb, S.; Young, D.; Wu, Yen-Yuan J.

    1993-09-07

    The investigations with the anion exchange resin Reillex{trademark}-HPQ is continuing along several different paths. The topics of current investigations that are reported here are: The sorption behavior of chromium(VI) on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ from nitric acid solutions and from sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate solutions; sorption behavior of F{sup {minus}} on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin in acidic sodium nitrate solution; sorption behavior of Cl{sup {minus}} on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin in acidic sodium nitrate solution; sorption behavior of Br{sup {minus}} on Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin in acidic sodium nitrate solution; and the Honors thesis by one of the students is attached as Appendix II (on ion exchange properties of a new macroperous resin using bromide as the model ion in aqueous nitrate solutions).

  2. Complex ion kinetics. Reaction rates on ion-exchange resins compared to those in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, I.B.; Murmann, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the rates in water and on an ion-exchange resin for the aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ and for the 18 O isotopic exchange of water with [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ and ReO 4 - . The rate of water exchange on [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ was not changed by association with Dowex 50W resins. Aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and water exchange on ReO 4 - had modified pH dependencies when associated with a resin. With the cobalt complex the rates were faster on the resin in the acidic region and slower on the resin in the basic region. A new term in the rate equation was observed when ReO 4 - was on the resin, first order in H + , while the other terms appear to be unchanged. Aquation of [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ was much slower when it was absorbed on the resin. This was related to the known ionic strength effect of the reaction. (auth)

  3. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    at room temperature, 4 °C and - 20 °C for up to 4 years. Acidic THC degrades exponentially via decarboxylation with concentration halve-lives of approximately 330 and 462 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. The degradation of neutral THC seems to occur somewhat slower. When cannabinoids were...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken...

  4. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  5. Studies on the Use of Gamma Radiation-Induced for Preparation of Some Modified Resins for the Separation of Some Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Zahra, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    The work carried out in the present thesis is based on preparation, characterization and applications of some modified resins such as: poly(acrylamide)/poly(maleic acid) P(AAm)/P(MA) interpolymer complex (resin), poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid-amidoxime) P(AAm-AA-AO) resin and poly(hydroxamic acid) P(HA) resin. Poly(acrylamide)/poly(maleic acid) P(AAm)/P(MA) interpolymer complex (resin) was prepared by template polymerization of maleic acid (MA) monomer on poly(acrylamide) P(AAm) hydrogel as a template polymer in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (NMBA) as a crosslinker using gamma radiation-induced technique. Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid-amidoxime) P(AAm-AA-AO) resin was prepared by template polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and acrylonitrile (AN) monomers on P(AAm) hydrogel as a template polymer in the presence of NMBA as a crosslinker using gamma radiation-induced technique. The conversion of nitrile group to amidoxime one was carried out by the treatment of the prepared resin with an alkaline solution of hydroxylamine. Poly(hydroxamic acid) P(HA) resin was prepared from the reaction of the corresponding water-soluble P(AAm) previously prepared by gamma radiation-induced with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in an alkaline medium. The functional groups on the prepared polymeric resins were confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were performed to evaluate the properties of the prepared polymeric resins, free or complexed with metal ions such as Cu 2+ metal ions.

  6. Extraction of high quality DNA from seized Moroccan cannabis resin (Hashish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abdelaziz El Alaoui

    Full Text Available The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004 adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances.

  7. Chemical Characterization of Beer Aging Products Derived from Hard Resin Components in Hops (Humulus lupulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Makiko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Matsukura, Yasuko; Shindo, Kazutoshi

    2015-11-25

    The bitter taste of beer originates from resins in hops (Humulus lupulus L.), which are classified into two subtypes (soft and hard). Whereas the nature and reactivity of soft-resin-derived compounds, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are well studied, there is only a little information on the compounds in hard resin. For this work, hard resin was prepared from stored hops and investigated for its compositional changes in an experimental model of beer aging. The hard resin contained a series of α-acid oxides. Among them, 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones were unstable under beer storage conditions, and their transformation induced primary compositional changes of the hard resin during beer aging. The chemical structures of the products, including novel polycyclic compounds scorpiohumulinols A and B and dicyclohumulinols A and B, were determined by HRMS and NMR analyses. These compounds were proposed to be produced via proton-catalyzed cyclization reactions of 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones. Furthermore, they were more stable than their precursor 4'-hydroxyallohumulinones during prolonged storage periods.

  8. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Separation of metal ions using an o-hydroxypropiophenoxime resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.N.

    1977-12-01

    A chelating ion-exchange resin incorporating an o-hydroxypropiophenoxime functional group onto an XAD-4 polymer matrix has been synthesized. This resin has been used for the separation and quantitative determination of both copper and molybdenum by high-speed liquid chromatography. Iron, uranium, citrate, and fluoride were found to interfere in the determination of copper. Of the ions tested, none were found to interfere with the determination of molybdenum. Several NBS Standard samples were successfully analyzed for copper and molybdenum. The new method is both accurate and fast. Most samples can be analyzed in less than ten minutes. Bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dithiocarbamate was shown to be superior to PAR as a color-forming reagent for the continuous spectrophotometric detection of copper. Thiolactic acid was shown to be adaptable to the continuous spectrophotometric detection of molybdenum. Both dyes gave linear responses when peak height was plotted against micrograms of metal

  11. Biodiesel purification methodology produced in the RECOPE experimental plant, using ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Hernandez, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    A methodology was proposed for the biodisel purification of crude palm oil produced in a plant located on the Refinadora Costarricense de Petroleo (RECOPE) campus in Alto de Ochomogo, using ion exchange resins. A comparison between two resins was carried out: the USF C-211H, which had been acquired together with the RECOPE experimental plant and the PD206 resin, which was in the process of being acquired at the time of starting the project. The biodisel was eluted by glass columns packed with each resin, to determine the saturation of the same. The percentage of free and bound glycerin and the presence of soaps were analyzed as response variables. With the results obtained, it was determined that the PD206 resin is more efficient in the removal of glycerin, soaps and methanol than the resin USF C-211H. However, neither of the two resins diminishes the acidity of the biodisel. A biodisel sample was eluted by the PD206 resin and the quality of the obtained product was analyzed. A flash point of 145 degrees was obtained. A total acid number of 0.82 mg KOH / G was shown, no presence of water or sediment was observed. The percentage value of carbon residue was 0.01% m / m, the cloud point was 12 degrees, the density at 15 degrees was 0.8713 g / cm 3 , the viscosity at 40 degrees was 2.75 mm 2 /s; the stability to oxidation was 14.5 h, the percentage of free glycerin was 0.01% m / m and the percentage of total glycerin was 0.06% m / m, finally a percentage of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAME) of 98,6%. Of the analyzed parameters, all are within the limits established in the Reglamento Tecnico Centroamericano except the acidity value, which exceeds the maximum value of 0.05 mg KOH / g sample. An economic analysis was carried out to evaluate which resin provides the best option to complete the purification process of the biodisel produced. The PD206, despite being more expensive, purifies a larger volume of biodiesel, so for a better negotiation in the purchase price, this

  12. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  13. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  14. Development of Highly Nano-Dispersed NiO/GDC Catalysts from Ion Exchange Resin Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Caravaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel NiO/GDC (Gadolinium-doped Ceria cermet catalysts were developed by the Weak Acid Resin (WAR method using an ion exchange resin template. In addition, the specific surface area of these tunable materials was enhanced by NiO partial dissolution in aqueous acid solution. The whole procedure highly improved the micro-structural properties of these materials compared to previous studies. Catalysts with high metal loadings (≥10%, small Ni nanoparticles (<10 nm, and high specific surface areas (>70 m2/g were achieved. These properties are promising for catalytic applications such as methane steam reforming for H2 production.

  15. Highly efficient synthetic method onpyroacm resin using the boc SPPS protocol for C-terminal cysteine peptide synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvekar, Vinayak; Kim, Kang Tae; Gong, Young Dae [Innovative Drug Library Research Center, Dept. of Chemistry, College of Science, Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    A very effective process on Pyroacm resin was developed for solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal cysteine and cysteine ester peptides. The process uses cysteine side chain anchoring to the Pyroacm resin and the Boc protocol for SPPS. The Pyroacm resin showed remarkable stability under standard trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) cleavage condition. TFMSA cleavage of protecting groups generates a peptide-linked resin, which can be subjected to peptide modification reactions. Finally, the peptide can be cleaved from the resin using methoxycarbonylsulfenyl chloride. The utility of this protocol was demonstrated by its applications to the synthesis of model peptides, key intermediates in the preparation of natural products riparin 1.2 and a-factor.

  16. Removal of radiocesium using cation exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita-Murase, Yuko; Mizumura, Ryosuke; Tachibana, Yoshitaka; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2013-01-01

    Cation exchange resins (calcium polystyrene sulfonate, Ca-resin and sodium polystyrene sulfonate, Na-resin) have been used as agents to improve hyperkerlemia. For removing 137 Cs from the human body, the adsorption ability of the resin for 137 Cs was examined and evaluated. Resin (0.03 g) and 137 Cs (ca.1 kBq) were introduced into 3 mL of water, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 1st fluid for a dissolution test (pH 1.2) and 2nd fluid (pH 6.8), respectively, and shaken. After 1-3 hours, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was 99% in water, 60% in a pH 1.2 fluid and, 66% in a pH 6.8 fluid. By adding potassium, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Ca-resin was reduced. However, the 137 Cs adsorption (%) of Na-resin was almost unchanged. These results show that both resins have adsorption ability for 137 Cs in the stomach and the intestines. Therefore, the proposed method will be an effective means in the case of a radiological emergency due to 137 Cs. (author)

  17. Use of Anion Exchange Resins for One-Step Processing of Algae from Harvest to Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Poenie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Some microalgae are particularly attractive as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production due to their rapid growth, high content of triacylglycerols, and ability to be grown on non-arable land. Unfortunately, obtaining oil from algae is currently cost prohibitive in part due to the need to pump and process large volumes of dilute algal suspensions. In an effort to circumvent this problem, we have explored the use of anion exchange resins for simplifying the processing of algae to biofuel. Anion exchange resins can bind and accumulate the algal cells out of suspension to form a dewatered concentrate. Treatment of the resin-bound algae with sulfuric acid/methanol elutes the algae and regenerates the resin while converting algal lipids to biodiesel. Hydrophobic polymers can remove biodiesel from the sulfuric acid/methanol, allowing the transesterification reagent to be reused. We show that in situ transesterification of algal lipids can efficiently convert algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters while allowing the resin and transesterification reagent to be recycled numerous times without loss of effectiveness.

  18. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.H.; Kuan, Y.-C.; Chern, J.-M.

    2006-01-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 deg. C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results

  19. Removal of plutonium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions using anion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasar, U.M.; Pawar, S.M.; Joshi, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    An anion exchange method using Amberlyst A-26 (MP) resin was developed for removal of Pu from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions without destroying oxalate. The method consists of sorption of Pu(IV) on Amberlyst A-26, a macroporous anion exchange resin, from nitric acid-oxalic acid medium in the presence of Al(NO 3 ) 3 . Pu(IV) breakthrough capacity of Amberlyst A-26 using synthetic feed solution was determined. (author)

  20. Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) resin increases water demands and reduces energy availability in desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Antonio M; Dearing, M Denise; Karasov, William H

    2004-07-01

    Although many plant secondary compounds are known to have serious consequences for herbivores, the costs of processing them are generally unknown. Two potential costs of ingestion and detoxification of secondary compounds are elevation of the minimum drinking water requirement and excretion of energetically expensive metabolites (i.e., glucuronides) in the urine. To address these impacts, we studied the costs of ingestion of resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) on desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida). The following hypotheses were tested: ingestion of creosote resin by woodrats (1) increases minimum water requirement and (2) reduces energy available by increasing fecal and urinary energy losses. We tested the first hypothesis, by measuring the minimum water requirement of woodrats fed a control diet with and without creosote resin. Drinking water was given in decreasing amounts until woodrats could no longer maintain constant body mass. In two separate experiments, the minimum drinking water requirement of woodrats fed resin was higher than that of controls by 18-30% (about 1-1.7 ml/d). We tested several potential mechanisms of increased water loss associated with the increase in water requirement. The rate of fecal water loss was higher in woodrats consuming resin. Neither urinary water nor evaporative water loss was affected by ingestion of resin. Hypothesis 2 was tested by measuring energy fluxes of woodrats consuming control vs. resin-treated diets. Woodrats on a resin diet had higher urinary energy losses and, thus, metabolized a lower proportion of the dietary energy than did woodrats on control diet. Fecal energy excretion was not affected by resin. The excretion of glucuronic acid represented almost half of the energy lost as a consequence of resin ingestion. The increased water requirement and energy losses of woodrats consuming a diet with resin could have notable ecological consequences.

  1. Use of water as displacing agent in ion exchange chromatographic separation of isotope of boron using weak base ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Mohanakrishnan, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Krishna Prabhu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to study the feasibility of using weakly basic anion exchange resin for enrichment of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography and water as eluent. The results of experiments carried out to determine total chloride capacity (TCC), strong base capacity (SBC) of the resin at different concentrations of boric acid and enrichment profiles are reported in this paper. (author)

  2. Determination of degradation conditions of exchange resins containing technetium; Determinacion de condiciones de degradacion de resinas de intercambio conteniendo tecnecio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera S, A.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E., E-mail: aa_1190@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The quantification of Tc-99 in spent exchange resins, coming from nuclear power plants, is indispensable to define their administration. The Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter of 210000 years of half-life, volatile and of a high mobility in water and soil. For this reason, the objective of this work is to establish a digestion method of ionic exchange resins containing technetium that retains more than 95% of this radioisotope. Mineralization tests were carried out of a resin Amberlite IRN-150 by means of an oxidation heat, in acid medium, varying the resin mass, the medium volume, the media type, the temperature and the digestion time. The digested samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to estimate the grade of their degradation. The {sup 99m}Tc was used as tracer to determine the technetium percentage recovered after mineralizing the resin. The digestion process depends on the temperature and the resin mass. At higher temperature better mineralization of samples and to greater resin mass to a constant temperature, less degradation of the resin. The spectra beta of the {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Tc are presented. (Author)

  3. Accurate determination of 41Ca concentrations in spent resins from the nuclear industry by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bourlès, Didier; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2013-01-01

    The radiological characterisation of nuclear waste is essential for managing storage sites. Determining the concentration of Long‐Lived RadioNuclides (LLRN) is fundamental for their long-term management. This paper focuses on the measurement of low 41 Ca concentrations in ions exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). 41 Ca concentrations were successfully measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) after the acid digestion of resin samples, followed by radioactive decontamination and isobaric suppression through successive hydroxide, carbonate, nitrate and final CaF 2 precipitations. Measured 41 Ca concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 ng/g, i.e. from 0.06 to 0.09 Bq/g. The 41 Ca/ 60 Co activity ratios obtained were remarkably reproducible and in good agreement with the current ratio used for resins management. - Highlights: • In the context of radioactive waste management, this study aimed at measuring 41 Ca in spent resins using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. • A chemical treatment procedure was developed to quantitatively recover calcium in solution and selectively extract it. • Developed firstly on synthetic matrices, the chemical treatment procedure was then successfully applied to real resin samples. • Accelerator mass spectrometry allowed measuring concentrations of 41 Ca in spent resins as low as 0.02 ng/g of dry resin. • Final results are in agreement with current data used for spent resins management

  4. The effects of fouled anion resin on condensate polishing plant performance at Dungeness B power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The return to power, after an outage, at Dungeness B Power Station was delayed because of problems in achieving an in-specification feedwater acid conductivity. Dungeness B has a full flow cation/mixed bed condensate polishing plant (CPP). Investigations showed that the acid conductivity was produced by carbon dioxide and organic impurities both by-passing the CPP and slipping through it. Resin analysis showed that the anion resin had severely impaired sulfate removal kinetics. The paper covers the work done to try and identify the nature and source of the organics and their effect on the anion resin. One significant finding was that the carbonate removal kinetics were as impaired as those for sulfate removal; this had not been previously experienced in the CPP at any British Energy plant. (orig.)

  5. Development of solvent-free offset ink using vegetable oil esters and high molecular-weight resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Min; Kim, Young Han; Kim, Sung Bin

    2013-01-01

    In the development of solvent-free offset ink, the roles of resin molecular weight and used solvent on the ink performance were evaluated by examining the relationship between the various properties of resin and solvent and print quality. To find the best performing resin, the soy-oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was applied to the five modified-phenolic resins having different molecular weights. It is found from the experimental results that the ink made of higher molecular weight and better solubility resin gives better printability and print quality. It is because larger molecular weight resin with better solubility gives higher rate of ink transfer. From the ink application of different esters to high molecular weight resin, the best printing performance was yielded from the soy-oil fatty acid butyl ester (FABE). It is due to its high kinematic viscosity resulting in the smallest change of ink transfer weight upon multiple number of printing, which improves the stability of ink quality.

  6. Aspects of bonding between resin luting cements and glass ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Tsoi, James Kit-Hon; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Burrow, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    The bonding interface of glass ceramics and resin luting cements plays an important role in the long-term durability of ceramic restorations. The purpose of this systematic review is to discuss the various factors involved with the bond between glass ceramics and resin luting cements. An electronic Pubmed, Medline and Embase search was conducted to obtain laboratory studies on resin-ceramic bonding published in English and Chinese between 1972 and 2012. Eighty-three articles were included in this review. Various factors that have a possible impact on the bond between glass ceramics and resin cements were discussed, including ceramic type, ceramic crystal structure, resin luting cements, light curing, surface treatments, and laboratory test methodology. Resin-ceramic bonding has been improved substantially in the past few years. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching followed by silanizaiton has become the most widely accepted surface treatment for glass ceramics. However, further studies need to be undertaken to improve surface preparations without HF because of its toxicity. Laboratory test methods are also required to better simulate the actual oral environment for more clinically compatible testing. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resin Viscosity Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2018-06-01

    Viscosity of the liquid resin effects the chemical and mechanical properties of the pultruded composite. In resin injection pultrusion manufacturing the liquid resin is injected into a specially designed tapered injection chamber through the injection slots present on top and bottom of the chamber. The resin is injected at a pressure so as to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements inside the tapered injection chamber. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the center of chamber causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to efficaciously penetrate through the compacted fibers and achieve complete wetout. The impact of resin viscosity on resin flow, fiber compaction, wetout and on the final product is further discussed. Injection chamber design predominantly effects the resin flow inside the chamber and the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. Therefore, a desirable injection chamber design is such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures and at low internal pressures inside the injection chamber.

  8. Overview on resins available in microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, B.; Schue, F.; Montginoul, C.; Giral, L.

    1985-01-01

    Lithographic equipments using electrons and X radiation are developed. Velocity and resolution requirements fix the nature of the material to irradiate. Circuit making principles are recalled here; resists (organic polymers) are employed for it. The different types of resins and then needed characteristics are reviewed here. In the scope of electron sensitive resins methyl polymethacrylate and derivative and its copolymers (and copolymers of methacrylonitrile) and reticulated copolymers are studied. Polysulfones are also presented (poly(buten-1 sulfone), poly(styrene sulfone), poly(methyl-1 cyclopentene-1 sulfone). The interest in photosensitive resins (such as AZ) as electron sensitive resins is recalled. In the field of negative resins, the polyepoxyds, polystyrene and halogenated derivates from polystyrene (CMS and PCMS), the poly(vinyl-2 naphtalene) and its derivatives (PSTTF) are presented. The X radiation sensitive resins are also reviewed: the methyl polymethacrylate and its halogenated derivates, the acrylic homopolymers and copolymers (example of poly(acrylate of chlorinated alcoyls). The resins developable by plasma are mentioned. At last, for photosensitive resins, the diazide polydiene systems are presented together with systems diazo-2 2H-naphtalenone-1. The systems with salt photolysis are just recalled [fr

  9. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disodium salt of 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol is made to react with 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone in such a... Limitations Dimethyl sulfoxide Not to exceed 50 parts per million as residual solvent in finished basic resin... residual solvent in finished basic resin in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone Not to...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...′-iso-propylidenediphenol with molten diphenyl carbonate in the presence of the disodium salt of 4,4... chloride Monochlorobenzene Not to exceed 500 p.p.m. as residual solvent in finished resin. Pentaerythritol...-88-3) Not to exceed 800 parts per million as residual solvent in finished resin. Triethylamine (c...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of an article... substances required in the production of basic resins or finished food-contact articles. The optional... and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2440 - Polyethersulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2440 Polyethersulfone resins. Polyethersulfone resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended... Petition Control (HFS-215), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 1110 Vermont Ave. NW., suite 1200...

  13. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  14. Measurement of opalescence of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lu, Huan; Powers, John M

    2005-11-01

    Opalescence is an optical property, where there is light scattering of the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum, giving the material a bluish appearance under reflected light and an orange/brown appearance under transmitted light. The objective of this study was to determine the opalescence of resin composites with a color measuring spectrophotometer. Colors of A2 and enamel or translucent shades of four resin composites and of an unfilled resin measured in the reflectance and transmittance modes were compared, and the opalescence parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in blue-yellow coordinate (Deltab*) and red-green parameter (Deltaa*) between the reflected and transmitted colors of 1-mm thick specimens. The masking effect was calculated as the color difference between the color of a black background and the color of specimen over the black background. The range of OP in resin composites was 5.7-23.7, which was higher than that of the unfilled resin. However, there were significant differences among the brands and shades of the resin composites. Opalescence varied by brand and shade of the resin composites, and contributed to the masking of background color along with translucency parameter. Some of the resin composites actually displayed opalescence.

  15. Influence of surface conditions and silane agent on the bond of resin to IPS Empress 2 ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohr, Ana Maria; Sobrinho, Lourenço Correr; Consani, Simonides; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments on the tensile bond strength between IPS Empress 2 ceramic framework and Rely X adhesive resin cement, with or without the application of a silane coupling agent. One hundred twenty disks were made, embedded in resin, and randomly divided into six groups: group 1 = sandblasting (100 microm), no silanation; group 2 = sandblasting (100 microm), silane treatment; group 3 = sandblasting (50 microm), no silanation; group 4 = sandblasting (50 microm), silane treatment; group 5 = hydrofluoric acid etching, no silanation; and group 6 = hydrofluoric acid etching, silane treatment. The disks were bonded into pairs with adhesive resin cement. All samples were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and then thermocycled. The samples were submitted to tensile testing. The use of silane improved the bond strength in relation to the groups in which silane was not applied (P Empress 2 ceramic framework and resin agent.

  16. Inverse-Frontal Chromatography studies on enrichment of Boron-10 using quaternery 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejawada, Venki; Mohapatra, C.; Rao, A.S.; Prasad, K.L.; Murthy, P.K.; Rao, A.K.; Singh, H.P.; Vithal, G.K.; Kumar, Sangita D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to enrich 10 B, band migration of boric acid-mannitol with hydrochloric acid solution was performed by inverse frontal chromatography on a porous, 25% crosslinked, 38% quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene resin (py-resin). The work was initiated to replace the existing strong base anion exchange resin type-II (SBA-II) which is used in Boron Enrichment Plant (BEP) of heavy water plant Manuguru. Before its application in BEP, it is mandatory to evaluate py-resin for its performance. The studies showed that maximum of 40% 10 B enrichment observed after 13 m band movement and there was no further improvement, hence profile sampling carried out after 28 m. (author)

  17. Characterizing Corrosion Effects of Weak Organic Acids Using a Modified Bono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqin; Turbini, Laura J.; Ramjattan, Deepchand; Christian, Bev; Pritzker, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To meet environmental requirements and achieve benefits of cost-effective manufacturing, no-clean fluxes (NCFs) or low-solids fluxes have become popular in present electronic manufacturing processes. Weak organic acids (WOAs) as the activation ingredients in NCFs play an important role, especially in the current lead-free and halogen-free soldering technology era. However, no standard or uniform method exists to characterize the corrosion effects of WOAs on actual metallic circuits of printed wiring boards (PWBs). Hence, the development of an effective quantitative test method for evaluating the corrosion effects of WOAs on the PWB's metallic circuits is imperative. In this paper, the modified Bono test, which was developed to quantitatively examine the corrosion properties of flux residues, is used to characterize the corrosion effects of five WOAs (i.e., abietic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and malic acid) on PWB metallic circuits. Experiments were performed under three temperature/humidity conditions (85°C/85% RH, 60°C/93% RH, and 40°C/93% RH) using two WOA solution concentrations. The different corrosion effects among the various WOAs were best reflected in the testing results at 40°C and 60°C. Optical microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the corroded copper tracks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) characterization was performed to determine the dendrite composition.

  18. Comparative study using different resins to determine thorium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Silva, Paulo S.C.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: my_linhares@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratório de Pocos de Caldas; Cheberle, Luan T.V., E-mail: luancheberle@gmail.com [Ambientis Radioproteção, Barueri, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive element that is widely distributed in the crust of the Earth. This element is very common in mineral formations in regions with high levels of natural radioactivity, therefore, its determination in environmental samples is important. Thorium isotopes ({sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th) were determined in a reference material, the IAEA Soil 327 sample, to validate the two methods employed using different resins. The initial preparation with acid dissolution is the same to both, in the first is used anion exchange resin (DOWEX 1 x 2) and electrodeposition in silver planchets. And in the second method is used a specific chromatographic resin (TEVA) and cerium fluoride microprecipitation. At the end both analysis are quantified by alpha spectrometry. The two methods the results obtained were satisfactory for the reference material used, with relative error of less than 4% for {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 232}Th. The main differences found between them were spectrums resolutions, time and cost of analysis. (author)

  19. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  20. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  1. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  2. Influence of Bleaching Agents on Color and Translucency of Aged Resin Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Maristela; Mozzaquatro, Lisandra R; Rodrigues, Camila; Kaizer, Marina R; Mallmann, André; Jacques, Letícia B

    2017-09-01

    Evaluate the influence of two bleaching agents (16% carbamide peroxide-CP and 35% hydrogen peroxide-HP) on color and translucency of one resin composite (Filtek Z350 XT) in two opacities (enamel and dentin) previously aged in deionized water or red wine. Sixty specimens of each material were divided in two groups (n = 30): aged in water or red wine for 14 days. Then the specimens were divided in three subgroups (n = 10): control/no treatment, treated with 16% carbamide peroxide (Mix Night), treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Mix One). Color readings were performed 24 hours after polishing (baseline); after the 14 days of aging; and after bleaching treatment. Color coordinates CIE L*a*b* were measured using a spectrophotometer (SP60 X-Rite). Color change (CIEDE2000) and translucency parameter were calculated. Data were analyzed with repeated measures two-way ANOVA, and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (5%). Bleaching decreased color change in stained resin composites (aged in red wine), whereas increased it in non-stained enamel resin composites (aged in water). CP had better bleaching results with stained resin composites than HP. Translucency of non-stained dentin resin composite decreased with aging, but did not change with bleaching. For stained resin composites, aging caused reduced translucency, whereas bleaching increased it. Effective bleaching of discolored resin composites aged in an acidic and alcoholic media rich in staining agents was achieved, improving color and translucency. Carbamide peroxide showed better performance than hydrogen peroxide for the bleaching of stained resin composites. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:368-377, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  4. Assessment of Tensile Bond Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Resin to Enamel Using Two Types of Resin Cements and Three Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Ghaffari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resin-bonded bridgework with a metal framework is one of the most conservative ways to replace a tooth with intact abutments. Visibility of metal substructure and debonding are the complications of these bridgeworks. Today, with the introduction of fiber-reinforced composite resins, it is possible to overcome these complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite resin materials (FRC to enamel. Methods: Seventy-two labial cross-sections were prepared from intact extracted teeth. Seventy-two rectangular samples of cured Vectris were prepared and their thickness was increased by adding Targis. The samples were divided into 3 groups for three different surface treatments: sandblasting, etching with 9% hydrofluoric acid, and roughening with a round tapered diamond bur. Each group was then divided into two subgroups for bonding to etched enamel by Enforce and Variolink II resin cements. Instron universal testing machine was used to apply a tensile force. The fracture force was recorded and the mode of failure was identified under a reflective microscope. Results: There were no significant differences in bond strength between the three surface treatment groups (P=0.53. The mean bond strength of Variolink II cement was greater than that of Enforce (P=0.04. There was no relationship between the failure modes (cohesive and adhesive and the two cement types. There was some association between surface treatment and failure mode. There were adhesive failures in sandblasted and diamond-roughened groups and the cohesive failure was dominant in the etched group. Conclusion: It is recommended that restorations made of fiber-reinforced composite resin be cemented with VariolinkII and surface-treated by hydrofluoric acid.   Keywords: Tensile bond strength; surface treatment methods; fiber-reinforced composite resin

  5. Adhesion of resin composite core materials to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, K L; Powers, J M

    2001-01-01

    This study determined (1) the effect of polymerization mode of resin composite core materials and dental adhesives on the bond strength to dentin, and (2) if dental adhesives perform as well to dentin etched with phosphoric acid as to dentin etched with self-etching primer. Human third molars were sectioned 2 mm from the highest pulp horn and polished. Three core materials (Fluorocore [dual cured], Core Paste [self-cured], and Clearfil Photo Core [light cured]) and two adhesives (Prime & Bond NT Dual Cure and Clearfil SE Bond [light cured]) were bonded to dentin using two dentin etching conditions. After storage, specimens were debonded in microtension and bond strengths were calculated. Scanning electron micrographs of representative bonding interfaces were analyzed. Analysis showed differences among core materials, adhesives, and etching conditions. Among core materials, dual-cured Fluorocore had the highest bond strengths. There were incompatibilities between self-cured Core Paste and Prime & Bond NT in both etched (0 MPa) and nonetched (3.0 MPa) dentin. Among adhesives, in most cases Clearfil SE Bond had higher bond strengths than Prime & Bond NT and bond strengths were higher to self-etched than to phosphoric acid-etched dentin. Scanning electron micrographs did not show a relationship between resin tags and bond strengths. There were incompatibilities between a self-cured core material and a dual-cured adhesive. All other combinations of core materials and adhesives produced strong in vitro bond strengths both in the self-etched and phosphoric acid-etched conditions.

  6. Uranium isotopic effect studies on cation and anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarpal, S.K.; Gupta, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    Uranium isotope effects in exchange reactions involving hexavalent and tetravalent uranium, on ion exchange resins, have been re-examined. The earlier work on uranium isotope effects in electron exchange reactions involving hexavalent and tetravalent uranium, has been critically reviewed. New experimental data on these systems in hydrochloric acid medium, has been obtained, using break-through technique on anion-exchange columns. The isotope effects in these break-through experiments have been reinterpreted in a way which is consistent with the anion exchange behaviour of the various uranium species in these systems. (author)

  7. Concentrating cesium-137 from seawater using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin for radioecological monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorin, Andrei; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Avramenko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Palamarchuk, Marina; Marinin, Dmitry [Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    A method of preconcentrating cesium-137 from seawater using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, which enables one to optimize the ecological monitoring procedure, has been suggested. Studies of sorption of cesium-137 from seawater by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin have been performed, and it has been demonstrated that the cation exchanger is characterized by high selectivity with respect to cesium-137. It was found that the selectivity depended on the temperature of resin solidification and the seawater pH value. The maximal value of the cesium-137 distribution coefficient is equal to 4.1-4.5 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Under dynamic conditions, the ion-exchange resin capacity is 310-910 bed volumes depending on the seawater pH, whereas the efficiency of cesium removal exceeds 95%. The removal of more than 95% of cesium-137 has been attained using 1-3 M solutions of nitric acid: here, the eluate volume was 8-8.4 bed volumes. Application of 3 M solution of nitric acid results in resin degradation with the release of gaseous products.

  8. Radiochemical study of Re/W adsorption behavior on a strongly basic anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, Matthew D.; Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO; Ballard, Beau D.; Redman, Lindsay N.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium-186g is a radionuclide with a high potential for therapeutic applications. It emits therapeutic β - particles accompanied by low energy γ-rays, which allows for in-vivo tracking of the radiolabeled compound and dosimetry estimates. The current reactor production pathway 185 Re(n,γ) 186g Re produces low specific activity 186g Re, thereby limiting its therapeutic application. Work is underway to develop an accelerator-based, charged particle induced production method for high specific activity 186g Re from targets of enriched 186 W. To optimize the chemical 186g Re recovery method, batch studies have been performed to characterize the adsorption behavior of Re and W on a strongly basic anion exchange resin. An in-depth physicochemical profile was developed for the interaction of Re with resin material, which showed the reaction to be endothermic and spontaneous. Basic (NaOH) and acidic (HNO 3 ) matrices were used to determine the equilibrium distribution coefficients for Re and W. The resin exhibits the best affinity for Re at slightly basic conditions and little affinity above moderately acidic concentrations. Tungsten has low affinity for the resin above moderately basic concentrations. A study was performed to examine the effect of W concentration on Re adsorption, which showed that even a high ionic WO 4 2- strength of up to 1.9 mol kg -1 does not significantly compromise ReO 4 - retention on the resin. (orig.)

  9. Metal Catalysis with Nanostructured Metals Supported Inside Strongly Acidic Cross-linked Polymer Frameworks: Influence of Reduction Conditions of AuIII-containing Resins on Metal Nanoclusters Formation in Macroreticular and Gel-Type Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calore, L.; Cavinato, g.; Canton, P.; Peruzzo, L.; Banavali, R.; Jeřábek, Karel; Corain, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 391, AUG 30 (2012), s. 114-120 ISSN 0020-1693 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : strongly acidic cross-linked polymer * frameworks * gold(0) nanoclusters Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2012

  10. Possible mechanisms for the interaction of polymeric composite resins with Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhhar, A.A.; Abdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between the active groups of polymeric composite resins such as Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)-ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid disodium salt P(AM-AA)EDTANa 2 , Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)- montmorillonite P(AM-AA)-montmorillonite, and Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)-potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate P(AM-AA)-KNiHCF, with copper sulfate as a test ion has been studied. The spectroscopic studies show that the mechanism of interaction between polymeric composite resins and copper sulfate is a bond formation between the active groups of polymeric chains and copper ion. The bond formation depends on nature of polymeric chains. It was also found that the amide groups form complexes with hydrated cations, while carboxylate group interact by ion exchange mechanism through complex formation. Montmorillonite and hexacyanoferrate of the resins interact with metal ions by ion exchange mechanism

  11. Thermosetting resins with high fractions of free volume and inherently low dielectric constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Kai; Hu, Chien-Chieh; Su, Wen-Chiung; Liu, Ying-Ling

    2015-08-18

    This work demonstrates a new class of thermosetting resins, based on Meldrum's acid (MA) derivatives, which have high fractions of free volume and inherently low k values of about 2.0 at 1 MHz. Thermal decomposition of the MA groups evolves CO2 and acetone to create air-trapped cavities so as to reduce the dielectric constants.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Surface-Charged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate as Denture Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang E. Park

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of a new surface-modified denture resin for its suitability as denture base material. This experimental resin is made by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA to poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA to produce a negative charge. Four experimental groups consisted of Orthodontic Dental Resin (DENTSPLY Caulk as a control and three groups of modified PMMA (mPMMA produced at differing ratios of methacrylic acid (5 : 95, 10 : 90, and 20 : 80 MA : MMA. A 3-point flexural test using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp. measured force-deflection curves and a complete stress versus strain history to calculate the transverse strength, transverse deflection, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe Post-test were performed on the data. Resins with increased methacrylic acid content exhibited lower strength values for the measured physical properties. The most significant decrease occurred as the methacrylic acid content was increased to 20% mPMMA. No significant differences at P<.05 were found in all parameters tested between the Control and 5% mPMMA.

  13. Enhancing the quality of alkyd resins using methyl esters of rubber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the alkyd samples were fairly resistant to brine, acid and water but poorly resistant to alkali. However, the MERSO alkyds were observed to have a better resistance than the RSO alkyd resins. The scratch/gouge pencil hardness shows that the hardness of the alkyd films decreases with the oil length. Keywords: Alkyd ...

  14. Linkers, resins, and general procedures for solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shelton, Anne Pernille Tofteng; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    and linkers for solid-phase synthesis is a key parameter for successful peptide synthesis. This chapter provides an overview of the most common and useful resins and linkers for the synthesis of peptides with C-terminal amides, carboxylic acids, and more. The chapter finishes with robust protocols for general...

  15. Purification of bioactive phenolics from Phanerochaete chysosporium biomass extract on selected macroporous resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Z. M.; Dzahir, M. I. H. M.; Jamal, P.; Barkat, A. A.; Xian, R. L. W.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, two different types of macroporous resins known as XAD-7HP and HP-20 were evaluated for the adsorption and desorption properties against bioactive phenolics extracted from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. From the previous static sorption studies, it was found that the adsorption capacity for both resins had has no significant difference. Then, the kinetic adsorption data were analyzed with both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations and the later performed better. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well by both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Meanwhile in desorption study, HP-20 and XAD-7HP gave 90.52% and 88.28% recoveries, respectively. Considering the desorption results of the macroporous resins, HP-20 and XAD-7HP were packed in chromatography column to further purify the phenolics. For dynamic adsorption, breakthrough capacity of HP-20 (0.522) was found to be higher than XAD-7HP (0.131). Different ethanol concentrations (30% to 50% (v/v)) were investigated at fixed flowrate (1 ml/min) on phenolics recovery from both types of resins. The highest recovery of bioactive phenolics was 94.3% using XAD-7HP resins at 50% (v/v) of ethanol. Only 77.1% of bioactive phenolics were recovered using HP-20 resin at the same experimental conditions. The purified extract subsequently was analyzed using HPLC. The results showed that three phenolics (gallic acid 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) were identified with higher concentrations as compared to non-purified extract. Finally, the purified extract was tested for scavenging activity against DPPH, and it showed that the activity increased significantly to 90.80% from 59.94% in non-purified extract.

  16. Characterization of the sorption of uranium(VI) on different complexing resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesavento, Maria; Biesuz, Raffaela; Alberti, Giancarla; Sturini, Michela [Dipartimento di Chimica Generale dell' Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Via Taramelli 12, 27100, Pavia (Italy)

    2003-08-01

    The sorption of uranium(VI) on two cationic resins containing different complexing groups, the iminodiacetic resin Chelex 100 and the weak carboxylic resin Amberlite CG-50, was investigated. The Gibbs-Donnan model was used to describe and to predict the sorption through the determination of the intrinsic complexation constants. These quantities, even though non-thermodynamic, characterize the sorption as being independent of experimental conditions. The sorption mechanism of the metal on the complexing resins was also studied by adding a competitive soluble ligand that shifts the sorption curves to higher pH values. The ligand competes with the resin for the complexation with the metal ion. Uranium is also strongly sorbed on Chelex 100 at very acid pH, through formation of two complexes in the resin phase: ML with log{beta}{sub 110i}=-1.16, in more acidic solution, and ML{sub 2}with log {beta}{sub 120i}=-5.72. Only the presence of the competitive ligand in solution makes the determination of the second complex possible. Also on Amberlite CG-50 the sorption is strong and involves the formation of the complex ML {sub 2}, in more acidic solution, with log {beta}{sub 120i}=-3.16. In the presence of the ligand EDTA, the complex ML {sub 2}(OH) {sub 2}was characterized with log {beta}{sub 12-2i}=-5.15. In all the experiments the hydrolysis reaction in the aqueous phase was quantitatively considered. (orig.)

  17. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  18. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  19. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the products' properties. (author)

  20. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives up an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (orig.)

  1. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Yokota, Rikio

    1985-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure like CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics for use as nuclear track detectors. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been obtained. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives us an important clue for the development of highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. They will also be useful for observations of ultra-heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (author)

  2. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  3. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use

  4. Thermosetting behavior of pitch-resin from heavy residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingfang, Z.; Yansheng, G.; Baohua, H.; Yuzhen, Z. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong (China). State Key LAboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Heavy Oil Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Thermosetting resins are widely employed as a basic matrix for c/c composites in carbon materials production. A new type of synthesized thermosetting resin is called pitch resin. Pitch resin is a cheaper resin and possesses a potential opportunity for future use. However, the thermosetting behavior of pitch resin is not very clear. The hardening process and conditions for thermosetting are very important for future use of pitch resin. B-stage pitch resin is a soluble and meltable inter-media condensed polymer, which is not fully reacted and is of a low molecular weight. The insoluble and unmelted pitch resin can only be obtained from synthesized B-stage resin after a hardening stage. This paper presented an experiment that synthesized B-stage pitch resin with a link agent (PXG) under catalyst action from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of the slurry's aromatic enriched component (FCCDF). The paper discussed the experiment, including the synthesis of pitch resin and thermosetting of pitch resin. Two kinds of thermosetting procedures were used in the study called one-step thermosetting and two-step thermosetting. It was concluded that the B-stage pitch resin could be hardened after a thermosetting procedure by heat treatment. The thermosetting pitch resin from 2-step thermosetting possesses was found to have better thermal resistant properties than that of the 1-step thermosetting pitch resin. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Condensate-polisher resin-leakage quantification and resin-transport studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, C.C.; Doss, P.L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this program were to: (1) determine the extent of resin leakage from current generation condensate polisher systems, both deep bed and powdered resin design, during cut-in, steady-state and flow transient operation, (2) analyze moisture separator drains and other secondary system samples for resin fragments and (3) document the level of organics in the secondary system. Resin leakage samples were obtained from nine-power stations that have either recirculating steam generators or once through steam generators. Secondary system samples were obtained from steam generator feedwater, recirculating steam generator blowdown and moisture separator drains. Analysis included ultraviolet light examination, SEM/EDX, resin quantification and infrared analysis. Data obtained from the various plants were compared and factors affecting resin leakage were summarized

  6. The mechanism of uranium adsorption on Resin 508 and isoelectric point of the resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Qingping; Lu Weichang; Su Huijuan; Hu Jinbo; Zhang Liqin; Chen Banglin

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption process of uranium by Resin 508 at the solid-liquid interface was investigated and the mechanism of uranium adsorption including adsorption dynamics, adsorption thermodynamics and isoelectric point of resin was studied. The results are as follows: The maximum of uranium adsorption is attained at pH5-7; Uranium adsorption isotherm by Resin 508 in experimental conditions agrees with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm, the maximum of uranium adsorbed (Vm) is 716 mg U/g-dried resin; The adsorption of uranium by Resin 508 is an endothermic reaction and ΔH = 16.87 kJ/mol; The exchange-adsorption rate is mainly controlled by liquid film diffusion; The isoelectric points of Resin 508 before and after uranium adsorption are found to be pH7.5 and pH5.7 respectively. It is a specific adsorption for uranium

  7. Development of an extractive-scintillating chromatographic resin for the detection of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, A.; Halasz, L.; Solymosi, J.; Molnar, A.; Safrany, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a new-type of resin is presented, which contains selective complexing and scintillating molecules in a chemically bonded form. The resin material is produced via radiation polymerization of a solution of 2-(4-allyloxy-phenyl)-5-phenyl oxazole, 5-(allyloxyphenyl)- 2-[4-(5-phenyl-oxazole-2-il)-phenyl] oxazole, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGMA), styrene and the allyl derivative of a 18C6 crown ether-dicarbolic acid complexing agent. The product is a macroporous polymer matrix that shows fluorescent properties and ion binding capacity excellent for radioanalytical purposes. (author)

  8. The development of 126Sn separation procedure by means of TBP resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andris, Boris; Bena, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Separation possibilities of 126 Sn with a new extraction-chromatographic material TBP Resin were studied. Suitable conditions for tin separation were determined in hydrochloric acid medium. 126 Sn was concentrated on TBP resin from 6 mol L -1 HCl and was eluted with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl. A purification step to remove 137 Cs with AMP-PAN column was necessary to obtain sufficiently purified samples which were directly measured with gamma spectrometry for 126 Sn activity. Separation of 126 Sn from a raw sludge sample was done according to proposed procedure, 126 Sn was detected and its activity was determined. (author)

  9. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Resins and Essential Oil From Pine (Pinus merkusii, Pinuso ocarpa, Pinus insularis and Agathis (Agathis loranthifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardho Tillah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The most common human pathogen that colonizes in a third of healthy people around the world are Staphylococcus aureus, and one of the materials allegedly able to overcome the pathogen is resin. Resin has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years to treat diseases. The antimicrobial activity of natural resins can be associated with a variety of organic compounds contained in them such as diterpenoids and triterpenoids. This research aimed to explore the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Pinus merkusii, P. oocarpa, P. insularis, Agathis loranthifolia resins and essential oil. Resin was separated by distillation process to get essential oil and the residue was extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and methanol (MeOH. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH (1,1diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The antibacterial activity of resins and essential oil of the samples determined using the disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the yield of resin extract was ranging from 8.44 % to 95.56%. All extracts and essential oil could not inhibit E coli growth but inhibit the S. aureus growth. This experiment concluded that resin n-hexane extract from P.oocarpa was the most potent as antibacterial activity against S. aureus. All of the samples used had less potential antioxidant activity compared to positive control ascorbic acid. Result of this study show that pine resin from Indonesia has potential as an antibacterial agent. 

  10. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  11. Nanosilica Modification of Elastomer-Modified VARTM Epoxy Resins for Improved Resin and Composite Toughness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Jason; Bujanda, Andres; DeSchepper, Daniel; Dibelka, Jessica; Costanzo, Philip; Jensen, Robert; McKnight, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Recent publications have reported a synergy between rubber and silica in modified epoxy resins that results in significantly improved fracture toughness without reductions in other material properties...

  12. Fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural over solid acid catalysts in a biphasic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordomskiy, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Different acidic heterogeneous catalysts like alumina, aluminosilicate, zirconium phosphate, niobic acid, ion-exchange resin Amberlyst-15, and zeolite MOR have been studied in fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The acidity of these materials was characterized using

  13. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  14. A method for producing a hydrocarbon resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsachev, A B; Andonov, K S; Igliyev, S P

    1980-11-25

    Rock coal resin (KS), for instance, with a relative density of 1,150 to 1,190 kilograms per cubic meter, which contains 8 to 10 percent naphthaline, 1.5 to 2.8 percent phenol and 6 to 15 percent substances insoluble in toluene, or its mixture with rock coal or oil fractions of resin are subjected to distillation (Ds) in a pipe furnace with two evaporators (Is) and a distillation tower with a temperature mode in the second stage of 320 to 360 degrees and 290 to 340 degrees in the pitch compartment. A hydrocarbon resin is produced with a high carbon content, especially for the production of resin and dolomite refractory materials, as well as fuel mixtures for blast furnace and open hearth industry.

  15. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  16. Integrating Porous Resins In Enzymatic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Haque, Naweed

    . Screening resins for moderately hydrophobic multi-component systems is challenging. Often it is found that the capacity of the resin is inversely related with product selectivity. Therefore a tradeoff has to be made between these parameters which can be crucial from an economic point of view. A low resin...... procedure. The screening therefore becomes a multi-objective task that has to be solved simultaneously. Such an approach has been applied in the method formulated in this framework. To overcome these challenges, different process strategies are required to obtain high yields. A number of different...... inhibition, has gained considerable recognition. The resins act as a reservoir for the inhibitory substrate and a sink for the inhibitory product and simultaneously attain the required high substrate loading to make the process economically feasible. In this way the potential benefit of the enzyme can...

  17. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas; Wilkes, Marty

    2012-01-01

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  18. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  19. Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Two laboratory-scale runs have recently been completed to test the feasibility of a single-step incineration/vitrification process for Three Mile Island EPICOR II resins. The process utilizes vitrification equipment, specifically a 15-cm-dia in-can melter, and a specially designed feed technique. Two process tests, each conducted with 1.2 kg of EPICOR II resins loaded with nonradioactive cesium and strontium, showed excellent operational characteristics. Less than 0.8 wt% of the resins were entrained with the gaseous effluents in the second test. Cesium and strontium losses were controlled to 0.71 wt% and less. In addition, all the carbonaceous resins were converted completely to CO 2 with no detectable CO. Future activities are being directed to longer-term tests in laboratory-scale equipment to determine attainable volume reduction, process rates, and material conformance to processing conditions

  20. The resin-in-pulp process and its application to ores from Brosses ''BRS 10''; Le procede resin in pulp et son application aux minerais des Brosses ''BRS 10''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, M

    1959-03-01

    The resin-in-pulp process is a technical variant of the recovery process of uranium in dilute solution by means of ion exchanger resins. An anion resin, XE 123, of a well-defined grain size is placed in direct contact with the pulp produced by sulfuric acid attack on ore with a low uranium content. This process is of particular value in the treatment of pulps that cannot be filtered or decanted, such as those obtained with ore from Brosses. The preparation of the pulp, the elution of the uranium, and its fixation, as well as the various factors encountered in these operations, are discussed. (author) [French] Le procede ''resin in pulp'' est une variante technique du procede de recuperation de l'uranium en solution diluee par les resines echangeuses d'ions. Une resine anionique, la 'XE 123' a granulometrie bien determinee, est mise en contact direct avec la pulpe provenant de l'attaque a l'acide sulfurique d'un minerai d'uranium a faible teneur. Ce procede est particulierement interessant dans le cas de pulpes infiltrables ou indecantables, telles que celles obtenues dans l'attaque du minerai des Brosses. La preparation de la pulpe, la fixation et l'elution de l'uranium, ainsi que les facteurs intervenant dans ces diverses operations sont etudies dans le present rapport. (auteur)

  1. A medicated polycarboxylate cement to prevent complications in composite resin therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Y.; Shintani, H.; Yamaki, M.

    1990-01-01

    Preparative treatment is the preferred method to protect the dentin and pulp from complications in composite resin therapy. This study investigated the in vivo effects of the polycarboxylate cement containing zinc fluoride and tannic acid in composite resin restorations. Scanning electron micrographs established that the composite resin failed to contact the axial wall. The gaps varied from 10 to 60 microns. However, this polycarboxylate cement was shown to provide excellent adaptation to dentin when used as a base and its chemical adhesion allowed it to make close contact with the unetched dentin. The newly developed electron probe x-ray microanalyzer revealed that the in vivo penetration of fluoride and zinc occurred through the dentinal tubules. When this polycarboxylate cement was used, the orifices of dentinal tubules were partially occluded, possibly with the smear layer fixed by tannic acid. In addition, by releasing the components, this polycarboxylate cement adds acid resistance to dentin and increases the resistance of dentin collagen to proteolytic enzymes. As such this polycarboxylate cement offers advantages as a base to composite resin therapy

  2. Photopolymerizable silicone monomers, oligomers, and resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobine, A.F.; Nakos, S.T.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to acquaint the general photopolymer researcher with the historical development of the chemistry and technology of photopolymerizable silicone monomers, fluids, and resins. The current status of research in these areas is assessed. The focus of this chapter is not only on the polymer chemistry and application of this technology, but also on important aspects of the synthetic chemistry involved in the preparation of UV-curable silicone monomers, oligomers, and resins. 236 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschueren, K.; Balwant Kaur

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  4. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  5. Investigation of the photoluminescence properties of composite optical resins containing high lanthanide content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongmei; Wang Fuxiang; Peng Weixian

    2012-01-01

    Novel composite optical resins with high lanthanide content have been synthesized through a free radical copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA), styrene (St) and Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals. We characterized the structure, the thermal properties, dimensions and photoluminescence properties of Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals. Our results indicated that the diameters of the Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals were within the range of 30 to 300 nm. These materials exhibited characteristic europium ion luminescence. The europium-bearing nanocrystals and were then incorporated into the copolymer systems of MA/St and luminescence functional optical resins with high lanthanide content (50 wt%) were obtained. The combination of these particles and optical resins is facile because the diameter of Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O is decreased. These copolymer-based optical resins not only possess good transparency and mechanical performance, but also exhibit an intense narrow band emission of lanthanide complexes and longer fluorescence lifetimes under UV excitation at room temperature. - Highlights: ► Novel composite optical resins with high lanthanide content have been synthesized. ► The Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals were within the range of 30 to 300 nm. ► Fluorescent resins with high lanthanide content (50 wt%) were obtained. ► Resins exhibit intense emission of lanthanide and longer fluorescence lifetimes. ► Variety properties of Eu(DBM) 3 ·H 2 O nanocrystals were characterized.

  6. Mechanical properties of dental resin composites by co-filling diatomite and nanosized silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua; Zhu Meifang; Li Yaogang; Zhang Qinghong; Wang Hongzhi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical property effects of co-filling dental resin composites with porous diatomite and nanosized silica particles (OX-50). The purification of raw diatomite by acid-leaching was conducted in a hot 5 M HCl solution at 80 deg. C for 12 h. Both diatomite and nanosized SiO 2 were silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The silanized inorganic particles were mixed into a dimethacrylate resin. Purified diatomite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. Silanized inorganic particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical properties of the composites were tested by three-point bending, compression and Vicker's microhardness. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show the cross-section morphologies of the composites. Silanization of diatomite and nanosized silica positively reinforced interactions between the resin matrix and the inorganic particles. The mechanical properties of the resin composites gradually increased with the addition of modified diatomite (m-diatomite). The fracture surfaces of the composites exhibited large fracture steps with the addition of m-diatomite. However, when the mass fraction of m-diatomite was greater than 21 wt.% with respect to modified nanosized silica (mOX-50) and constituted 70% of the resin composite by weight, the mechanical properties of the resin composites started to decline. Thus, the porous structure of diatomite appears to be a crucial factor to improve mechanical properties of resin composites.

  7. Mechanical properties of dental resin composites by co-filling diatomite and nanosized silica particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hua; Zhu Meifang [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li Yaogang [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang Qinghong, E-mail: zhangqh@dhu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang Hongzhi, E-mail: wanghz@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical property effects of co-filling dental resin composites with porous diatomite and nanosized silica particles (OX-50). The purification of raw diatomite by acid-leaching was conducted in a hot 5 M HCl solution at 80 deg. C for 12 h. Both diatomite and nanosized SiO{sub 2} were silanized with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The silanized inorganic particles were mixed into a dimethacrylate resin. Purified diatomite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and an N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm. Silanized inorganic particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical properties of the composites were tested by three-point bending, compression and Vicker's microhardness. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show the cross-section morphologies of the composites. Silanization of diatomite and nanosized silica positively reinforced interactions between the resin matrix and the inorganic particles. The mechanical properties of the resin composites gradually increased with the addition of modified diatomite (m-diatomite). The fracture surfaces of the composites exhibited large fracture steps with the addition of m-diatomite. However, when the mass fraction of m-diatomite was greater than 21 wt.% with respect to modified nanosized silica (mOX-50) and constituted 70% of the resin composite by weight, the mechanical properties of the resin composites started to decline. Thus, the porous structure of diatomite appears to be a crucial factor to improve mechanical properties of resin composites.

  8. Dental Cements for Luting and Bonding Restorations: Self-Adhesive Resin Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Adriana P; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2017-10-01

    Self-adhesive resin cements combine easy application of conventional luting materials with improved mechanical properties and bonding capability of resin cements. The presence of functional acidic monomers, dual cure setting mechanism, and fillers capable of neutralizing the initial low pH of the cement are essential elements of the material and should be understood when selecting the ideal luting material for each clinical situation. This article addresses the most relevant aspects of self-adhesive resin cements and their potential impact on clinical performance. Although few clinical studies are available to establish solid clinical evidence, the information presented provides clinical guidance in the dynamic environment of material development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tests of a Higgins contactor for the engineering-scale resin loading of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The loading of uranium on weak-acid ion exchange resin is a basic step in the production of fuel particles for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In the work reported here, an engineering-scale continuous resin loader (2-in.-ID Higgins contactor) was tested with existing engineering-scale process equipment. The Higgins contactor was first successfully used to convert Na + -form resin to the H + -form; then it was evaluated as a uranium loader. Results show that the 2-in.-ID Higgins contactor can easily load 25 kg of uranium per day, indicating that a 4-in.-ID contactor could load 100 kg/day. Process control was achieved by monitoring and controlling the density, pH, and inventory volume of the uranium feed solution. This control scheme is amenable to remote operation

  10. Flame Retardance and Physical Properties of Novel Cured Blends of Unsaturated Polyester and Furan Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur Kandola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel blends of two furan resins with an unsaturated polyester have been prepared and cured by parallel free radical (for the unsaturated polyester and acid-catalysed crosslinking (for the furan resin to give co-cured composite materials. Although these materials have inferior physical properties, such as low Tg and low storage modulus compared with those of unsaturated polyester and furan resins alone, they show markedly improved flame retardance compared with that of the normally highly flammable unsaturated polyester. This increased flame retardance arises from a condensed phase mechanism in which the furanic component forms a semi-protective char, reducing rates of thermal degradation and total heat release and heat of combustion. The blends also burn with reduced smoke output compared with that from unsaturated polyester alone.

  11. Waterborne hyperbranched alkyd-acrylic resin obtained by mini emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo, Edwin, E-mail: edwinalbertomurillo@gmail.com [Grupo de Investigacion en Materiales Polimericos (GIMAPOL), Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, San Jose de Cucuta (Colombia); Lopez, Betty [Grupo de Investigacion en Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle, Medellin (Colombia)

    2016-10-15

    Four waterborne hyper branched alkyd-acrylic resins (HBRAA) were synthesized by mini emulsion polymerization from a hyper branched alkyd resin (HBR), methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA) and acrylic acid (AA), by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ammonium persulfate (AP) as initiators. The reaction between HBR and acrylic monomers was evidenced by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The conversion percentage, glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), content of acrylic polymer (determined by soxhlet extraction) and molecular weight increased with the content of acrylic monomers used in the synthesis. The main structure formed during the synthesis was the HBRAA. The analysis by dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that the particle size distribution of HBRAA2, HBRAA3 and HBRAA4 resins were mainly mono modal. The film properties (gloss, flexibility, adhesion and drying time) of the HBRAA were good. (author)

  12. Solid phase extraction of copper(II) by fixed bed procedure on cation exchange complexing resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Maria; Sturini, Michela; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Biesuz, Raffaela

    2010-02-19

    The efficiency of the metal ion recovery by solid phase extraction (SPE) in complexing resins columns is predicted by a simple model based on two parameters reflecting the sorption equilibria and kinetics of the metal ion on the considered resin. The parameter related to the adsorption equilibria was evaluated by the Gibbs-Donnan model, and that related to the kinetics by assuming that the ion exchange is the adsorption rate determining step. The predicted parameters make it possible to evaluate the breakthrough volume of the considered metal ion, Cu(II), from different kinds of complexing resins, and at different conditions, such as acidity and ionic composition. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Immobilisation in cement of ion exchange resins arising from the purification of reagents used for the decontamination of reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.; Lee, D.J.

    1988-04-01

    The aim of the programme is to show that ion exchange resins used to remove activity from decontaminating agents used in water reactors can be successfully immobilised in cement. To achieve this, blends of Ordinary Portland Cement and ground granulated Blast Furnace Slag (ratio 9:1) have been used. Improvements in the properties of the product and the waste loading of 50 w/o damp resin can be achieved using microsilica, a finely divided form of silicon dioxide, as an additive to the blended cement. This report contains data on the effects of anion resins, and mixed anion/cation resins, on the performance of the cemented product. The effects of organic acids, especially picolinic and formic acids, bound to anion resins have also been investigated. In addition, formulations developed have been assessed at commercial scale (200 litres of cemented product) for their process and product characteristics. The final part of the report deals with the long-term product performance of samples prepared from cation resins which are now nearly one year old. (author)

  14. Proton-conducting membrane based on epoxy resin-poly(vinyl alcohol)-sulfosuccinic acid blend and its nanocomposite with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes for fuel-cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, Nitul; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A blend of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGB) in the presence of sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) was investigated as hydrolytically-stable proton-conducting membrane. The PVA modification was carried out by varying the DGB:SSA ratio (20:20, 10:20, and 5:20). A nanocomposite of the blend (20:20) was prepared with sulfonated multiwall carbon nanotubes (viz., 1, 3 and 5 wt%). The water uptake behavior and the proton conductivity of the prepared membranes were evaluated. The ionic conductivity of the membranes and the water uptake behavior depended on the s-MWCNT and the DGB contents. The ionic conductivity showed an enhancement for the blend and for the nanocomposite membrane as compared to the pristine polymer.

  15. Resin-based preparation of HTGR fuels: operation of an engineering-scale uranium loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1977-10-01

    The fuel particles for recycle of 233 U to High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are prepared from uranium-loaded carboxylic acid ion exchange resins which are subsequently carbonized, converted, and refabricated. The development and operation of individual items of equipment and of an integrated system are described for the resin-loading part of the process. This engineering-scale system was full scale with respect to a hot demonstration facility, but was operated with natural uranium. The feed uranium, which consisted of uranyl nitrate solution containing excess nitric acid, was loaded by exchange with resin in the hydrogen form. In order to obtain high loadings, the uranyl nitrate must be acid deficient; therefore, nitric acid was extracted by a liquid organic amine which was regenerated to discharge a NaNO 3 or NH 4 NO 3 solution waste. Water was removed from the uranyl nitrate solution by an evaporator that yielded condensate containing less than 0.5 ppM of uranium. The uranium-loaded resin was washed with condensate and dried to a controlled water content via microwave heating. The loading process was controlled via in-line measurements of the pH and density of the uranyl nitrate. The demonstrated capacity was 1 kg of uranium per hour for either batch loading contractors or a continuous column as the resin loading contractor. Fifty-four batch loading runs were made without a single failure of the process outlined in the chemical flowsheet or any evidence of inability to control the conditions dictated by the flowsheet

  16. Phosphorus recovery as struvite from eutropic waters by XDA-7 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanwen; Ye, Zhiping; Lin, Ying; Wang, Fengying

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus releases into aquatic environment and its subsequent contribution to eutrophication have resulted in a widespread global pollution issue. However, phosphorus is a non-renewable source. The potential supplies of phosphorus are decreasing worldwide. Therefore, removal and recovery of phosphorus from the eutropic waters is important, emergent and necessary. In this research, experiments for recovering phosphate from eutropic waters by anion exchange combined with struvite precipitation were conducted. The results indicated that the prepared XDA-7 resin was an effective adsorbent for phosphate. The adsorption isotherm of XDA-7 resin was found to be a modified Freundlich type. The maximum phosphate adsorption (20.9 mg/g) occurred in the pH range of 6.0-8.0. Phosphate adsorbed on the XDA-7 resin was effectively desorbed with 8% NaCl solution, and the resin was able to be regenerated with 3% NaClO and 4% NaOH solutions. Phosphate desorbed from the resin was recovered as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite). The obtained struvite was analyzed by acid dissolution method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The struvite precipitate was found to be 75.8% in purity, a high-value fertilizer.

  17. Determination of radionuclide levels in rainwater using ion exchange resin and γ-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungck, Matthias H.A.; Andrey, Jean-Louis; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of radioactivity accidentally released into the atmosphere involves determining the radioactivity levels of rainwater samples. Rainwater scavenges atmospheric airborne radioactivity in such a way that surface contamination can be deduced from rainfall rate and rainwater radioactivity content. For this purpose, rainwater is usually collected in large surface collectors and then measured by γ-spectrometry after such treatments as evaporation or iron hydroxide precipitation. We found that collectors can be adapted to accept large surface (diameter 47 mm) cartridges containing a strongly acidic resin (Dowex AG 88) which is able to quantitatively extract radioactivity from rainwater, even during heavy rainfall. The resin can then be measured by γ-spectrometry. The detection limit is 0.1 Bq per sample of resin (80 g) for 137 Cs. Natural 7 Be and 210 Pb can also be measured and the activity ratio of both radionuclides is comparable with those obtained through iron hydroxide precipitation and air filter measurements. Occasionally 22 Na has also been measured above the detection limit. A comparison between the evaporation method and the resin method demonstrated that 2/3 of 7 Be can be lost during the evaporation process. The resin method is simple and highly efficient at extracting radioactivity. Because of these great advantages, we anticipate it could replace former rainwater determination methods. Moreover, it does not necessitate the transportation of large rainwater volumes to the laboratory

  18. Influence of microhybrid resin and etching times on bleached enamel for the bonding of ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Macedo Firoozmand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS of polycrystalline ceramic brackets (PCB bonded after bleaching treatment using different composite resins and enamel etching times. A total of 144 bovine incisors were randomly divided into two study groups (n = 72, each as follows: G1, enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide, and G2 (control group, enamel unbleached. After the bleaching treatment, the samples were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days. These groups were further divided into two subgroups (n = 36, each as follows: GA, brackets bonded with Transbond XT (3M and GB, brackets bonded with Filtek Z250 (3M. For each resin used, three different etching times with 37% phosphoric acid (15, 30 and 60 seconds were tested. SBS tests were performed using a universal testing machine (EMIC, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI score was verified. Significant differences among the three experimental conditions and interactions between the groups were observed. The type of composite resin accounted for 24% of the influence on the bond strength, whereas the etching time and bleaching treatment accounted for 14.5% and 10% of the influence on bond strength, respectively. The ARI revealed that the most common area of adhesion failure was at the composite resin-bracket interface. The type of composite resin, etching time and external bleaching significantly influenced the SBS of PCB on enamel, even after 14 days of saliva storage.

  19. Effect of the Alkyl Chain Length on the Adsorption Properties of Malonamide Chelating Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.M.; Nogami, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of the alkyl chain length of malonamide chelating resins on the rate of uptake of U(VI) ions and Ce(III) Ions, lV,N,N',N'-tetraethyl malonamide (TEMA), N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-propyl malonamide (TPrMA), lV,lV,N',N'-tetra-n-butyl malonamide (TBMA) and N,l V,N',N'-tetra-n-pentyl malonamide (Tamp) chelating resins were synthesized by chemically bonding these function groups to CMS-DVB co-polymer beads. N,lV,N',N'-tetraphenyl malonamide (TPhMA) chelating resin was also investigated and the results of these resins were compared with those of N,lY,N',N-tetra methylmalonamide (TMMA) previously reported. The batch technique was used to study the thermodynamic equilibrium, in terms of distribution coefficient, and the kinetics of the adsorption U(VI) and Ce(III) ions from 3 M HNO 3 , Acid, and 3 M NaNO 3 + 0.05 M HNO 3 , Salt, media. The introduction ratio of the function group into the polymer base and the uptake of U(VI) ions and C(III) ions were found to decrease with the increase in the alkyl chain length. The uptake was found to diminish in case of TPhMA resin due to the decrease of the function group ratio and the steric-hinder effect

  20. Kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to levulinic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girisuta, B.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Heeres, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    A variety of interesting bulk chemicals is accessible by the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose. An interesting example is levulinic acid, a versatile precursor for fuel additives, polymers, and resins. A detailed kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose to levulinic acid is

  1. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  2. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  3. Preparation of Polymeric Resin Beads Using Gamma Irradiation and Chemical Processes for Use in the Recovery of Some Alkali Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nahas, H. H.; Khalil, F. H.; Ibrahim, G. M.; El-Gammal, B.

    2007-01-01

    Syntheses of resin beads from unsaturated polyester and urea-formaldehyde were carried out by dispersion polymerization. The reaction was performed through gamma irradiation and chemical processing. Factors affecting the reaction and syntheses parameters that are the type and viscosity of dispersant, irradiation dose and agitation rate on the resin beads size were thoroughly investigated. The resulting resin beads were smooth on their spherical surface and the beads diameters were in the range 2-200μm. Some measurements such as beads diameter, surface hardness and scanning electron microscopy were studied. The bead diameter was generally decreased with increasing concentration and viscosity of the dispersant and agitation rate. A comparison study between irradiation and chemical processes for resin beads synthesis was discussed to identify the suitable process for preparing a resin beads in a pilot scale. The different methods of preparation were tried to be applied in the recovery of Li + , Na+, k + and Cs + ions from acidic media.

  4. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part V: Nickel(II/H+/Dowex C400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Alguacil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The cationic exchange resin Dowex C400 was used to remove nickel(II from aqueous solutions of different pH values and under various experimental conditions: stirring speed of the aqueous solution/resin system, temperature, resin dosage and aqueous ionic strength. The selectivity of the resin was investigated against the presence of various metals in the aqueous solution, and the removal of nickel(II from aqueous solutions was also compared with results obtained using multiwalled carbon nanotubes or functionalized (carboxylic groups multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents. According to batch experimental data, best fit of the results is obtained with the Freundlich model, whereas the ion exchange process is best explained by the pseudo-first order model. Experimental data fit well to the moving boundary controlled model. Elution of the nickel(II loaded onto Dowex C400 resin is fully possible using acidic solutions.

  5. Bond strength of orthodontic light-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiang Yu; Chen, Chien Hsiu; Li, Chuan Li; Tsai, Hung Huey; Chou, Ta Hsiung; Wang, Wei Nan

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strengths and debonded interfaces achieved with light-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and conventional light-cured composite resin. In addition, the effects of acid etching and water contamination were examined. One hundred human premolars were randomly divided into five equal groups. The mini Dyna-lock upper premolar bracket was selected for testing. The first four groups were treated with light-cured RMGIC with or without 15 per cent phosphoric acid-etching treatment and with or without water contamination preceding bracket bonding. The control samples were treated with the conventional light-cured Transbond composite resin under acid etching and without water contamination. Subsequently, the brackets were debonded by tensile force using an Instron machine. The modified adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were assigned to the bracket base of the debonded interfaces using a scanning electron microscope. The bond strength and modified ARI scores were determined and analysed statistically by one-way analysis of variance and chi-square test. Under all four conditions, the bond strength of the light-cure RMGIC was equal to or higher than that of the conventional composite resin. The highest bond strength was achieved when using RMGIC with acid etching but without water contamination. The modified ARI scores were 2 for Fuji Ortho LC and 3 for Transbond. No enamel detachment was found in any group. Fifteen per cent phosphoric acid etching without moistening the enamel of Fuji Ortho LC provided the more favourable bond strength. Enamel surfaces, with or without water contamination and with or without acid etching, had the same or a greater bond strength than Transbond.

  6. Synthesis and curing of alkyd enamels based on ricinoleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Mirjana C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of an alkyd resin with a melamine-formaldehyde resin gives a cured enamel film with the flexibility of the alkyd constituent and the high chemical resistance and hardness of the melamine resin at the same time. The melamine resin is a minor constituent and plays the role of a crosslinking agent. In this paper, alkyd resins of high hydroxyl numbers based on trimethylolpropane, ricinoleic acid and phthalic anhydride were synthesized. Two alkyds having 30 and 40 wt% of ricinoleic acid were formulated by calculation on alkyd constant. Alkyds were characterized by FTIR and by the determination of acid and hydroxyl numbers. Then synthesized alkyds were made into baking enamels by mixing with melamine-formaldehyde resins (weight ratio of 70:30 based on dried mass. Two types of commercial melamine resins were used: threeisobutoxymethyl melamine-formaldehyde resin (TIMMF and hexamethoxymethyl melamine resin (HMMMF. Prepared alkyd/melamine resin mixtures were cured in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC under non-isothermal mode. Apparent degree of curing as a function of temperature was calculated from the curing enthalpies. Kinetic parameters of curing were calculated using Freeman-Carroll method. TIMMF resin is more reactive with synthesized alkyds than HMMMF resin what was expected. Alkyd resin with 30 wt% of ricinoleic acid is slightly more reactive than alkyd with 40 wt% of ricinoleic acid, probably because it has the high contents of free hydroxyl and acid groups. The gel content, Tg, thermal stability, hardness, elasticity and impact resistance of coated films cured at 150°C for 60 min were measured. Cured films show good thermal stability since the onset of films thermal degradation determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA is observed at the temperatures from 281 to 329°C. Films based on alkyd 30 are more thermal stable than those from alkyd 40, with the same melamine resin. The type of alkyd resin has no significant

  7. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Histopathological Study of Direct Pulp Capping with Adhesive Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salhenejad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recently, it has been proposed that different adhesive materials can be used for direct pulp capping. Previous studies have demonstrated that multi steps dentin adhesives could form reparative dentin similar to calcium hydroxide (CH.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological pulp response of ninety mechanically exposed cat pulps to two adhesive resins (Scotch Bond MP and Single Bond 3M were compared with a calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal, Dentsply.Materials and Methods : Class V facial cavities with similar pulpal exposures were prepared in canines. In the experimental groups phosphoric acid was used to etch the enamel and dentin and pulp exposure, and after it dentin adhesives was applied. The exposure point of the control group was capped with Dycal then the remainder of the cavities was etched and a dentin adhesive (single bond was applied. All of the cavities were restored with a composite resin (Z 100 in usual manner. The animals were scarified after 7, 30 and 60 days (n=30, and the pulp evaluated histologically, statistical analysis was carried out with Kruskal- Wallis test (a=0.05.Results: The data showed that most of the cases had mild inflammation of pulp tissue.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp by Dycal and two adhesive systems, severe inflammatory reaction of pulp was observed only in most of the 30- day Single Bond group. Soft tissue organization of dentin bridge was less than ScotchBond and Dycal groups, the differentiation of dentin bridge was less than Scotch Bond group after 7 days.Conclusion: Slight inflammatory cell infiltration was the main reaction of exposed pulp when two commercially available adhesive resins were placed directly on the exposed pulp.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp between Dycal and two adhesive systems after 7 days and 60 days. After 7 days most of the specimens showed an amount of predentin

  9. Hot dewatering and resin encapsulation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, J.; Birch, D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the processes involved in the hot dewatering and encapsulation of alumino-ferric hydroxide floc in epoxide resin have been studied. Pretreatment of the floc to reduce resin attack and hydrolysis and to increase the dimensional stability of the solidified wasteform has been evaluated. It has been demonstrated that removal of ammonium nitrate from the floc and control of the residual water in the resin are important factors in ensuring dimensional stability of the solidified resin. Resin systems have been identified which, together with the appropriate waste pretreatment have successfully encapsulated a simulated magnox sludge producing a stable wasteform having mechanical and physical properties comparable with the basic resin. (author)

  10. Composite Properties of Polyimide Resins Made From "Salt-Like" Solution Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Weiser, Erik S.; SaintClair, Terry L.; Echigo, Yoshiaki; Kaneshiro, Hisayasu

    1997-01-01

    Recent work in high temperature materials at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC (trademark)) have led to the development of new polyimide resin systems with very attractive properties. The majority of the work done with these resin systems has concentrated on determining engineering mechanical properties of composites prepared from a poly(amide acid) precursor. Three NASA Langley-developed polyimide matrix resins, LaRC (trademark) -IA, LaRC (trademark) -IAX, and LaRC (trademark) -8515, were produced via a salt-like process developed by Unitika Ltd. The 'salt-like' solutions (sixty-five percent solids in NMP) were prepregged onto Hexcel IM7 carbon fiber using the NASA LaRC Multipurpose Tape Machine. Process parameters were determined and composite panels fabricated. Mechanical properties are presented for these three intermediate modulus carbon fiber/polyimide matrix composites and compared to existing data on the same polyimide resin systems and IM7 carbon fiber manufactured via poly(amide acid) solutions (thirty-five percent solids in NMP). This work studies the effects of varying the synthetic route on the processing and mechanical properties of polyimide composites.

  11. Green Thermosetting Factory: Novel Star-Shaped Biobased Systems and Their Thermosetting Resins; Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandideh, Arash

    Increasing attentions toward sustainable development, economic and environmental issues have led to many attempts at replacing the petroleum-based materials with renewables. Substitution of petroleum-based platforms with green alternative technologies is beneficiary in different ways. Using bio-renewables reduces the dependency of the national plastic industry to the petroleum resources and substantially promotes the environmental profile and sustainability of the product. It is expected that the emergence of the corn-based thermosetting industry generates substantial profits for the corn production sector. Developments in the emerging biobased thermosets are spectacular from a technological point of view. However, there are still several disadvantages associated with the current biobased thermosetting resins, e.g. low processability, environmental issues, expensive sources and poor thermomechanical properties. Use of natural fibers not only contributes to the production of a more environmentally friendly product, but also has advantages such as low-weight product and low manufacturing costs. The results of this study show a possibility of production of biocomposites made from natural fibers and star-shaped resin, synthesized from corn-based materials (lactic acid and itaconic acid) and different multihydroxyl core molecules. These resins were synthesized via two-steps strategy: polycondensation of the monomers with the core molecules followed by end-functionalization of the branches by methacrylic anhydride or itaconic acid. The results have shown that these resin are capable of competing with or even surpassing fossil fuel based resins in terms of cost and eco-friendliness aspect. Inexpensive biobased raw material, better environmental profile, low viscosity, and better processability of the matrix along with better thermomechanical properties of the produced biocomposites are of advantages expected for these systems.

  12. Characterization of Polyimide Matrix Resins and Prepregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximovich, M. G.; Galeos, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/polyimide composite materials are attractive candidates for a wide range of aerospace applications. They have many of the virtues of graphite/epoxies, i.e., high specific strengths and stiffness, and also outstanding thermal/oxidative stability. Yet they are not widely used in the aerospace industry due to problems of procesability. By their nature, modern addition polyimide (PI) resins and prepregs are more complex than epoxies; the key to processing lies in characterizing and understanding the materials. Chemical and rheological characterizations are carried out on several addition polyimide resins and graphite reinforced prepregs, including those based on PMR-15, LARC 160 (AP 22), LARC 160 (Curithane 103) and V378A. The use of a high range torque transducer with a Rheometrics mechanical spectrometer allows rheological data to be generated on prepreg materials as well as neat resins. The use of prepreg samples instead of neat resins eliminates the need for preimidization of the samples and the data correlates well with processing behavior found in the shop. Rheological characterization of the resins and prepregs finds significant differences not readily detected by conventional chemical characterization techniques.

  13. Effect of Silanization on Microtensile Bond Strength of Different Resin Cements to a Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gré, Cristina Parise; de Ré Silveira, Renan C; Shibata, Shizuma; Lago, Carlo Tr; Vieira, Luiz Cc

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a silane-coupling agent on the bond strength of a self-adhesive cement and a conventional resin cement to a lithium disilicate glass ceramic. A total of eight ceramic blocks were fabricated and divided into four groups (n = 2). In groups 1 and 3, ceramic surfaces were etched with hydrofluoric acid 10% for 20 seconds, rinsed for 30 seconds, and air-dried. One layer of a silane agent was applied onto all ceramic specimens and air-dried for 30 seconds. In groups 2 and 4, ceramic surfaces were etched with hydrofluoric acid, rinsed, and air-dried without application of the silane-coupling agent. The ceramic blocks were bonded to a block of composite with a self-adhesive resin cement or with a conventional resin cement, according to the manufacturer's instructions. After 24 hours in distilled water at 37°C, the specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the bonding interface area to obtain beams with a bonding area of 0.8 mm(2) and submitted to a microtensile bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and the Games-Howell post hoc test (p = 0.05). Fractured specimens were examined under optical microscopy at 40x magnification. Silanization resulted in higher microtensile bond strength compared to groups without silane. No significant differences were found between the conventional resin cement and the self-adhesive resin cement with silane agent (p = 0.983), and without silane agent (p = 0.877). Silanization appears to be crucial for resin bonding to a lithium disilicate-based ceramic, regardless of the resin cement used. The self-adhesive resin cement performed as well as the conventional resin cement. Applying one layer of a silane-coupling agent after etching the ceramic surface with hydrofluoric acid 10% enhanced the bond strength between resin cements and a glass ceramic.

  14. Ion chromatography for the analysis of salt splitting capacities of cation and anion resin in premixed resin sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Satinath; Kumar, Rakesh; Tripathy, M.K.; Dhole, K.; Sharma, R.S.; Varde, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    Mixed bed ion exchange resin is commonly used in various plants including nuclear reactors for the purpose of fine polishing. The analysis of ion exchange capacities of cation and anion resin in resin mixture is therefore an agenda in the context of purchasing of premixed resin from the manufacturer. An ion chromatographic method for assaying ion exchange capacities of pure as well as mixed resin has been optimized. The proposed method in contrast to the conventional ASTM method has been found to be quite encouraging to consider it as an alternate method for the analysis of premixed resin. (author)

  15. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  16. Method for coating a resinous coating material. [electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, T; Fujioka, S; Mibae, J; Takahashi, M

    1968-07-13

    The strength, flexibility and durability of a vinyl chloride resin, acryl resin and the like are improved. This method of application comprises the steps of applying and thereafter radically curing a mixture composed of a polymer (II) having double bond(s) on its side chain and an ethylenic unsaturated monomer, said polymer (II) being obtained by the reaction between an unsaturated carboxylic acid or anhydride represented by the formula XCH = CHY (X = (CH/sub 2/)sub(n)COOH, where 0 <= n <= 2, Y = COOR/sub 1/ or R/sub 2/(R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are hydrogen or an alkyl group having from 1 to 10 atoms of carbon)) and the acrylic copolymer (I), containing a hydroxyl group, obtained by copolymerization of 10 to 50% by weight of at least one selected from the group of beta-hydroxy alkyl acrylate, beta-hydroxy alkyl methacrylate, N-methylol acrylamide and N-methylol methacryl amide with at least one selected from the group of acrylic ester, methacrylic ester and stylene. The copolymer (I) can be obtained by the usual radical polymerization such as bulk polymerization, solution polymerization, suspension polymerization or the like. The polymer (II) is dissolved in the ethylenic unsaturated monomer and radically cured with radical polymerization catalysts or electron beams, etc. The energy range of the electron beams may be 0.1 to 3 MeV. Any type of electron accelerator may be used.

  17. PETIs as High-Temperature Resin-Transfer-Molding Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, John N.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Compositions of, and processes for fabricating, high-temperature composite materials from phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) oligomers by resin-transfer molding (RTM) and resin infusion have been developed. Composites having a combination of excellent mechanical properties and long-term high-temperature stability have been readily fabricated. These materials are particularly useful for the fabrication of high-temperature structures for jet-engine components, structural components on highspeed aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. Phenylethynyl-terminated amide acid oligomers that are precursors of PETI oligomers are easily made through the reaction of a mixture of aromatic diamines with aromatic dianhydrides at high stoichiometric offsets and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) as an end-capper in a polar solvent such as N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP). These oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated -- for example, by heating the solution in the presence of toluene to remove the water by azeotropic distillation to form low-molecular-weight imide oligomers. More precisely, what is obtained is a mixture of PETI oligomeric species, spanning a range of molecular weights, that exhibits a stable melt viscosity of less than approximately 60 poise (and generally less than 10 poise) at a temperature below 300 deg C. After curing of the oligomers at a temperature of 371 deg C, the resulting polymer can have a glass-transition temperature (Tg) as high as 375 C, the exact value depending on the compositions.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the interaction pattern between dentin and resin after cavity preparation using Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schein, Marcelo Thome

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the interaction pattern formed between dentin and resin on cavities prepared with an erbium laser (Er:YAG). The morphological aspect of the irradiated dentin after acid etching was also observed. Ten dentin disks were obtained from fresh extracted third molars. Each disk received two cavities, one prepared with a conventional high-speed drill, while the other cavity was obtained by the use of an Er:YAG laser (KaVo KEY Laser, KaVo Co.). The laser treatment was performed with 250 mJ/pulse, 4 Hz, non contact mode, focused beam, and a fine water mist was used. Five disks were prepared for morphological analysis of the acid etched dentin. The other five disks had their cavities restored with Single Bond (3M) followed by Z100 resin (3M). The specimens were observed under scanning electron microscopy after dentin-resin interface demineralization and deproteinization. It was observed that the morphological characteristics of the acid-etched irradiated dentin were not favorable to the diffusion of monomers through the collagen network. The dentin resin interfacial aspect of irradiated dentin, after acid etching, showed thin tags and scarce hybridization zones, which agreed with the morphology of the irradiated and acid-etched dentin substrate observed. (author)

  19. Thermosetting resins for nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Yokota, R.

    1986-01-01

    Several new thermosetting resins with a three dimensional network structure similar to that of CR-39 were polymerized to study their characteristics as nuclear track detectors. The comparison of the molecular structures of these resins gives us an important clue to develop highly sensitive polymeric track detectors. For example, butanediol bis allylcarbonate (BuAC) shows the sensitivity about ten times higher than diallyl and adipate (DAA). This suggests the carbonate groups in the BuAC molecule provide a much higher sensitivity than the ester groups in the DAA. During the course of this study, thermosetting resins with good etching properties and various sensitivities have been developed. Though the sensitivity of DAA is low, it will be useful for observations of ultra heavy cosmic rays and heavily ionizing particles at low energies. (author)

  20. Aging in CTBN modified epoxy resin stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, K.E. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The cause of degradation in the glass transition temperature (T/sub G/) of a partially crystallized polymer was investigated. Sample epoxy resin filled capacitors were cured at 90 0 C for 24 hours, then stored at room atmospheric conditions. These showed typical degradation in T/sub G/ after storage for one month. One set of epoxy resin castings was stored at room atmosphere and another set was stored in a dry box at 0% relative humidity and 27 0 C. The samples at room atmospheric conditions showed typical degradation in T/sub G/, while the T/sub G/ for those stored in the dry box increased. Further tests were then made on epoxy resin castings at various curing temperatures and times at both room atmosphere and 0% humidity. Resulting data indicated that absorption of moisture during storage was the predominant cause of T/sub G/ degradation, with stress relaxation another, though smaller, contributing factor

  1. Restoration of traumatized teeth with resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2018-01-01

    For a long time, the primary choice for initial restoration of a crown-fractured front tooth has been resin composite material. The restoration can in most cases be performed immediately after injury if there is no sign of periodontal injury. The method’s adhesive character is conservative to tooth...... present an aesthetic problem due to exposure of un-aesthetic crown-margins. The invasive permanent crown restorations are therefore often not suc-cessful on a long-term scale. On the other hand, a conservative direct restoration of an extensively fractured incisor crown with resin composite may......-structure and with minimal risk of pulpal complication. In addition, it offers an aesthetic solution to the patient immediately after an injury, which may bring a little comfort in a sad situation. The resin composite build-up is often changed or repaired a couple of times, before the tooth is restored with a porcelain...

  2. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  3. Comparative study of resin sealant and resin modified glass ionomer as pit and fissure sealant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Malek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the marginal integrity of resin modified glass ionomer cement with that of resin sealant, in vitro. Forty artificial pit and fissure cavities were prepared in occlusal surface of extracted premolar teeth by using ¼ round carbide bur. Cavities were condensed with artificial organic debris followed by cleaning with prophylaxis pumice brush and paste and then separated into two treatment groups. In Group A, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin sealant and in Group B, 15 fissure cavities were sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant. These specimens were subjected to thermo-cycling followed by dye penetration test. The remaining 5 cavities from each group were analyzed for debris score by the SEM. The results of the microleakage test showed that the efficacy of preventing microleakage of samples sealed by resin modified glass ionomer sealant was higher than the samples sealed by resin sealant. However, no significant differences were found. It can be concluded that use of resin modified glass ionomer sealant is a good alternative for sealing pits and fissures.

  4. Enhanced vanillin production from recombinant E. coli using NTG mutagenesis and adsorbent resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang-Hwal; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Das, Amitabha; Lee, Sook-Hee; Li, Cui; Ryu, Hee-Kyoung; Choi, Myung-Suk; Seo, Weon-Taek; Kim, Seon-Won

    2007-01-01

    Vanillin production was tested with different concentrations of added ferulic acid in E. coli harboring plasmid pTAHEF containing fcs (feruloyl-CoA synthase) and ech (enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase) genes cloned from Amycolatopsis sp. strain HR104. The maximum production of vanillin from E. coli DH5alpha harboring pTAHEF was found to be 1.0 g/L at 2.0 g/L of ferulic acid for 48 h of culture. To improve the vanillin production by reducing its toxicity, two approaches were followed: (1) generation of vanillin-resistant mutant of NTG-VR1 through NTG mutagenesis and (2) removal of toxic vanillin from the medium by XAD-2 resin absorption. The vanillin production of NTG-VR1 increased to three times at 5 g/L of ferulic acid when compared with its wild-type strain. When 50% (w/v) of XAD-2 resin was employed in culture with 10 g/L of ferulic acid, the vanillin production of NTG-VR1 was 2.9 g/L, which was 2-fold higher than that obtained with no use of the resin.

  5. Separation and determination of arsenic species in water by selective exchange and hybrid resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, Nureddin Ben [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic-Ognjanovic, Vladana N. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, Belgrade (Serbia); Marinkovic, Aleksandar D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia); Rajakovic, Ljubinka V., E-mail: ljubinka@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of arsenic species. {yields} A new hybrid resin HY-AgCl is effective for iAs and oAs analytical separation. {yields} SBAE resin was convenient for the separation of As(III) from As(V) and oAs species. {yields} HY-Fe resin was convenient for the separation of DMAs(V). - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and organic arsenic (oAs) in drinking, natural and wastewater was developed. If arsenic is present in water prevailing forms are inorganic acids of As(III) and As(V). oAs can be found in traces as monomethylarsenic acid, MMA(V), and dimethylarsenic acid, DMAs(V). Three types of resins: a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) and two hybrid (HY) resins: HY-Fe and HY-AgCl, based on the activity of hydrated iron oxides and a silver chloride were investigated. It was found that the sorption processes (ion exchange, adsorption and chemisorptions) of arsenic species on SBAE (ion exchange) and HY resins depend on pH values of water. The quantitative separation of molecular and ionic forms of iAs and oAs was achieved by SBAE and pH adjustment, the molecular form of As(III) that exists in the water at pH <8.0 was not bonded with SBAE, which was convenient for direct determination of As(III) concentration in the effluent. HY-Fe resin retained all arsenic species except DMAs(V), which makes possible direct measurements of this specie in the effluent. HY-AgCl resin retained all iAs which was convenient for direct determination of oAs species concentration in the effluent. The selective bonding of arsenic species on three types of resins makes possible the development of the procedure for measuring and calculation of all arsenic species in water. In order to determine capacity of resins the preliminary investigations were performed in batch system and fixed bed flow system. Resin capacities were calculated according to breakthrough

  6. Technological aspects of vegetable oils epoxidation in the presence of ion exchange resins: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchert Eugeniusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review paper of the technology basics of vegetable oils epoxidation by means of peracetic or performic acid in the presence of acidic ion exchange resins has been presented. The influence of the following parameters: temperature, molar ratio of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation, catalyst loading, stirring intensity and the reaction time on a conversion of ethylenic unsaturation, the relative percentage conversion to oxirane and the iodine number was discussed. Optimal technological parameters, mechanism of epoxidation by carboxylic peracids and the possibilities of catalyst recycling have been also discussed. This review paper shows the application of epoxidized oils.

  7. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  8. Multi-podant diglycolamides and room temperature ionic liquid impregnated resins: An excellent combination for extraction chromatography of actinides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, R B; Ansari, S A; Verboom, W; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-05-27

    Extraction chromatography resins, prepared by impregnating two multi-podant diglycolamide ligands, viz. diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (RTIL: C4mimTf2N) on Chromosorb-W (an inert solid support), gave excellent results for the removal of trivalent actinides from acidic waste solutions. Distribution coefficient measurements on several metal ions showed selective sorption of Am(III) over hexavalent uranyl ions and other fission product elements such as strontium and cesium. The sorbed metal ions could be efficiently desorbed with a complexing solution containing guanidine carbonate and EDTA buffer. The sorption of Am(III) on both resins followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics with rate constants of 1.37×10(-6) and 6.88×10(-7)g/cpmmin for T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The metal sorption on both resins indicated the Langmuir monolayer chemisorption phenomenon with Eu(III) sorption capacities of 4.83±0.21 and 0.52±0.05mg per g of T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The results of column studies show that these resins are of interest for a possible application for the recovery of hazardous trivalent actinides from dilute aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ions-modified nanoparticles affect functional remineralization and energy dissipation through the resin-dentin interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Medina-Castillo, Antonio Luis; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the mechanical and chemical behavior, and bonding ability at dentin interfaces infiltrated with polymeric nanoparticlesstandard deviations and modes of failure are (NPs) prior to resin application. Dentin surfaces were treated with 37% phosphoric acid followed by application of an ethanol suspension of NPs, Zn-NPs or Ca-NPs followed by the application of an adhesive, Single Bond (SB). Bonded interfaces were stored for 24h, submitted to microtensile bond strength test, and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. After 24h and 21 d of storage, the whole resin-dentin interface adhesive was evaluated using a Nano-DMA. Complex modulus, storage modulus and tan delta (δ) were assessed. AFM imaging and Raman analysis were performed. Bond strength was not affected by NPs infiltration. After 21 d of storage, tan δ generally decreased at Zn-NPs/resin-dentin interface, and augmented when Ca-NPs or non-doped NPs were used. When both Zn-NPs and Ca-NPs were employed, the storage modulus and complex modulus decreased, though both moduli increased at the adhesive and at peritubular dentin after Zn-NPs infiltration. The phosphate and the carbonate peaks, and carbonate substitution, augmented more at interfaces promoted with Ca-NPs than with Zn-NPs after 21 d of storage, but crystallinity did not differ at created interfaces with both ions-doped NPs. Crosslinking of collagen and the secondary structure of collagen improved with Zn-NPs resin-dentin infiltration. Ca-NPs-resin dentin infiltration produced a favorable dissipation of energy with minimal stress concentration trough the crystalline remineralized resin-dentin interface, causing minor damage at this structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solidification of ion-exchange resins by hydrothermal hot-pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, M.

    1993-01-01

    The solidification reaction which easily occurs while continuously keeping the mixture of cation and anion exchange resins compressed under hydrothermal conditions has been demonstrated. Dehydration was considered to occur between sulphonic acid (-SO 3 H) from the cation exchange resin and quaternary ammonium [-CH 2 -N(CH 3 ) 3 OH] from anion-exchange resin-on terminal groups. The cation-and anion-exchange resins were mixed in a 1:1 weight ratio, put in a hot-pressing autoclave and compressed between pistons from the top and bottom at 600 kg cm -2 pressure. The material was continuously compressed during hydrothermal treatment at 200 kg cm -2 by a hydraulic jack and heated to a desired temperature with an induction heater. This system could be used for rapid temperature increasing up to 30 o c min -1 . The pressure and temperature were kept constant for 10 min. The autoclave was cooled to room temperature after the hydrothermal treatment. After the specimen was taken out, the ion-exchange radical reactions were estimated and the product structures were examined. The cation- and anion-exchange resin mixture was solidified. The resultant solidified body at a 300 o C reaction condition for 10 min had a 1.0 g cm -3 density and 700 kg cm -2 compressive strength, and the weight loss did not change in distilled water for 2 weeks. On the other hand, a solidification reaction did not occur at below 250 o C when only the cation or anion was solidified, but they were decomposed. These results suggest that a mixture of cation- and anion-exchange resins causes a solidification reaction under hydrothermal hot-pressing conditions at 300 o C. (author)

  11. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five... revocation of the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely...

  12. Development of amino resin for paint formulation: Copolymerization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... IR spectroscopy and macro phase separation techniques. At a given TEA ... form aldehyde emission from urea formaldehyde resin through one step ..... of resin molecules (Barminas and Osemeahon, 2007;. Sekaran et al.

  13. Composite resin fillings and inlays: An 11-year evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, U.; Qvist, V.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical trial, composite resin, direct restorations, indirect restorations, long-term behaviour, posterior teeth......Clinical trial, composite resin, direct restorations, indirect restorations, long-term behaviour, posterior teeth...

  14. Effect of Various Surface Treatment on Repair Strength of Composite Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alizade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: In some clinical situations, repair of composite restorations is treatment of choice. Improving the bond strength between one new and old composite usually requires increased surface roughness to promote mechanical interlocking sincechemical bonding might not be adequate. Similarly, the treatment of a laboratory fabricated resin composite restoration involves the same procedures, and there is a need to create the strongest possible bond of a resin cement to a previously polymerized composite.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the shear bond strength of repaired to aged composite resin.Materials and Methods: Eighty four cylindrical specimens of a composite resin were fabricated and stored in distilled water for 100 days prior to surface treatment. Surface treatment of old composite was done in 6 groups as follow:1- Air abrasion with CoJet sand particles with micoretcher + silane + dentin bonding agent2- Air abrasion with 50μm Al2O3 particles+ phosphoric acid+ silane+ dentin bonding agent3- Air abrasion with 50μm Al2O3 particles + phosphoric acid + dentin bonding agent4- Diamond bur + phosphoric acid + silane + dentin bonding agent5- Diamond bur + phosphoric acid + dentin bonding agent6- Diamond bur + phosphoric acid + composite activator + dentin bonding agentThen fresh composite resin was bonded to treated surfaces. Twelve specimens were also fabricated as control group with the same diameter but with the height twice as much as other specimens. All of the specimens were thermocycled prior to testing for shear bondstrength. The bond strength data were analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA test, t test and Duncan's grouping test.Results: One-way ANOVA indicated no significant difference between 7 groups (P=0.059. One-way ANOVA indicated significant difference between the three diamond bur groups (P=0.036. Silane had a significant effect on the repair bond

  15. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  16. Understanding of the color in composite resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Park

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In clinic, esthetic restoration of a defective natural tooth with composite resin is challenging procedure and needs complete understanding of the color of tooth itself and materials used. The optical characteristics of the composites are different because the chemical compositions and microstructures are not same. This review provided basic knowledge of the color and the color measurement devices, and analyze the color of the natural tooth. Further, the accuracy of the shade tab, color of the composite resins before and after curing, effect of the water, food and bleaching agent, and translucency, opalescence, and fluorescence effects were evaluated.

  17. Highly hydrated poly(allylamine)/silica magnetic resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Andrew K.; Kaczor, Jozef; Han, Hongmei; Kaur, Maninder; Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng; Qiang, You; Paszczynski, Andrzej J.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of multifunctional nanomaterials by combining organic and inorganic components is a growing trend in nanoscience. The unique size-dependent properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) make them amenable to numerous applications such as carriers of expensive biological catalysts, in magnetically assisted chemical separation of heavy metals and radionuclides from contaminated water sources. The separation of minor actinides from high-level radionuclide waste requires a sorbent stable in acidic pH, with ease of surface functionalization, and a high capacity for binding the molecules of interest. For the described experiments, the MNPs with 50 nm average size were used (size distribution from 20 to 100 nm and an iron content of 80–90 w/w%). The MNPs that have been double coated with an initial silica coating for protection against iron solubilization and oxidation in nitric acid solution (pH 1) and a second silica/polymer composite coating incorporating partially imbedded poly(allylamine) (PA). The final product is magnetic, highly swelling, containing >95% water, with >0.5 mmol amines g −1 available for functionalization. The amine groups of the magnetic resin were functionalized with the chelating molecules diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) for separation of minor actinides from used nuclear fuel.

  18. Acid decomposition processing system for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomine, Toshimitsu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To perform plutonium recovery at a low energy consumption irrespective of the plutonium density within the wastes. Method: In a decomposing and volume-reducing device for combustible or less combustible wastes containing transuranic elements using an acid, the wastes are in contact with nitric acid before feeding to a reactor. Then, the transuranic elements are transferred into the nitric acid, which is then in contact with ion exchange resins. After adsorbing the transuranic elements to the ion exchange resins, the nitric acid removed with the transuranic elements is caused to flow into a reaction vessel or heating vessel and used as a decomposing and oxidizing agent. (Seki, T.)

  19. Study on the Novel Dicyanate Ester Resin Containing Naphthalene Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Qiang YAN; Hong Yun PENG; Li JI; Guo Rong QI

    2004-01-01

    The novel dicyanate ester resin containing naphthalene unit (DNCY) was synthesized, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and elemental analysis (EA).The thermal properties of DNCY resin was studied by thermal degradation analysis at a heating rate of 10 (C /min-1 in N2 and air. The DNCY resin exhibited better thermal and thermal-oxidative stability than bisphenol A dicyanate (BACY) resin.

  20. Performances and improvement of copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenfen; Zhang Hao; Sun Haijun; Liu Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin is tested to examine its performances including effluent water quality and capacity of deoxidisation. By the means of changing the resin type and regeneration, the deoxidising capacity of the resin can be improved to 13 times more than before. At the same time, physical performances of the resin are also greatly improved while maintaining its velocity of deoxidisation and effluent quality. (authors)

  1. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  2. Evaluation of an Experimental Adhesive Resin for Orthodontic Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgesh, B. H.; Alkheraif, A. A.; Pavithra, D.; Hashem, M. I.; Alkhudhairy, F.; Elsharawy, M.; Divakar, D. D.; Vallittu, P. K.; Matinlinna, J. P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of an experimental adhesive resin for orthodontic bonding by measuring some the chemical and mechanical properties. The resin demonstrated increased values of nanohardness and elastic modulus, but the differences were not significant compared with those for the Transbond XT adhesives. The experimental adhesive resin could be a feasible choice or a substitute for the traditional bis-GMA-based resins used in bonding orthodontic attachments.

  3. Bonding efficacy of new self-etching, self-adhesive dual-curing resin cements to dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Paula; Fernandes, Virgílio Vilas; Torres, Carlos Rocha; Pagani, Clovis

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the union between two new self-etching self-adhesive resin cements and enamel using the microtensile bond strength test. Buccal enamel of 80 bovine teeth was submitted to finishing and polishing with metallographic paper to a refinement of #600, in order to obtain a 5-mm2 flat area. Blocks (2 x 4 x 4 mm) of laboratory composite resin were cemented to enamel according to different protocols: (1) untreated enamel + RelyX Unicem cement (RX group); (2) untreated enamel + Bifix SE cement (BF group); (3) enamel acid etching and application of resin adhesive Single Bond + RelyX Unicem (RXA group); (4) enamel acid etching and application of resin adhesive Solobond M + Bifix SE (BFA group). After 7 days of storage in distillated water at 37°C, the blocks were sectioned for obtaining microbar specimens with an adhesive area of 1 mm2 (n = 120). Specimens were submitted to the microtensile bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results (in MPa) were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Enamel pre-treatment with phosphoric acid and resin adhesive (27.9 and 30.3 for RXA and BFA groups) significantly improved (p ≤ 0.05) the adhesion of both cements to enamel compared to the union achieved with as-polished enamel (9.9 and 6.0 for RX and BF). Enamel pre-treatment with acid etching and the application of resin adhesive significantly improved the bond efficacy of both luting agents compared to the union achieved with as-polished enamel.

  4. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50 Section 414.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The provisions... the products classified under SIC 28214 thermosetting resins including those resins and resin groups...

  5. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  6. A comparative effect of various surface chemical treatments on the resin composite-composite repair bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaloo Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was an attempt to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength between pre-existing composite and repair composite resin. Materials and Methods: Forty acrylic blocks were prepared in a cuboidal mould. In each block, a well of 5 mm diameter and 5 mm depth was prepared to retain the composite resin (Filtek™ Z350, 3M/ESPE. Aging of the composite discs was achieved by storing them in water at 37°C for 1 week, and after that were divided into 5 groups (n = 8 according to surface treatment: Group I- 37% phosphoric acid, Group II-10% hydrofluoric acid, Group III-30% citric acid, Group IV-7% maleic acid and Group V- Adhesive (no etchant. The etched surfaces were rinsed and dried followed by application of bonding agent (Adper™ Single Bond 2. 3M/ESPE. The repair composite was placed on aged composite, light-cured for 40 seconds and stored in water at 37°C for 1 week. Shear bond strength between the aged and the new composite resin was determined with a universal testing machine (crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical Analysis: The compressive shear strengths were compared for differences using ANOVA test followed by Tamhane′s T2 post hoc analysis. Results: The surface treatment with 10% hydrofluoric acid showed the maximum bond strength followed by 30% citric acid, 7% maleic acid and 37% phosphoric acid in decreasing order. Conclusion: The use of 10% hydrofluoric acid can be a good alternative for surface treatment in repair of composite resin restoration as compared to commonly used 37% orthophosphoric acid.

  7. Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing reaction of bisphenol-A based benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin and the properties of the cured thermosetting resin were investigated. The cure behavior of benzoxazine with cyanate ester resin was monitored by model reaction using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. As a result of the model reaction, the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring and thermal self-cyclotrimerization of cyanate ester group occurred, and then the phenolic hydoroxyl group generated by the ring opening reaction of benzoxazine ring co-reacted with cyanate ester group. The properties of the cured thermosetting resin were estimated by mechanical properties, electrical resistivity, water resistance and heat resistance. The cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and cyanate ester resin showed good heat resistance, high electrical resistivity and high water resistance, compared with the cured thermosetting resin from benzoxazine and epoxy resin.

  8. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device that consists of a water...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the...

  11. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for use in a two-step dental mold fabricating... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670 Section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  14. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface of molded...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlorinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyether resins, chlorinated. 177.2430 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use in...

  16. Color change of composite resins subjected to accelerated artificial aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: All composite resins presented unacceptable color changes after 382 h of aging and different composite resins with same hue, presented different colors before being subjected to the aging process (B2 and C2 and after (B2. It was also observed color difference within a group of the same composite resin and same hue.

  17. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended...

  18. Adsorption of Monobutyl Phthalate from Aqueous Phase onto Two Macroporous Anion-Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwen Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As new emerging pollutants, phthalic acid monoesters (PAMs pose potential ecological and human health risks. In the present study, adsorption performance of monobutyl phthalate (MBP onto two macroporous base anion-exchange resins (D-201 and D-301 was discussed. It was found that the adsorption isotherms were best fitted by the Langmuir equation while the adsorption kinetics were well described by pseudo-first-order model. Analyses of sorption isotherms and thermodynamics proved that the adsorption mechanisms for DBP onto D-201 were ion exchange. However, the obtained enthalpy values indicate that the sorption process of MBP onto D-301 is physical adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption capacities and adsorption rates of DBP on two different resins increased with the increasing temperature of the solution. D-301 exhibited a higher adsorption capacity of MBP than D-201. These results proved that D-301, as an effective sorbent, can be used to remove phthalic acid monoesters from aqueous solution.

  19. Spectrophotometric flow injection catalytic determination of molybdenum in plant digest using ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.

    1987-03-01

    A spectrophotometric flow injection analytical method based on the catalytic action of molybdenum on the oxidation of iodide by hydrogen peroxide in acidic medium is proposed for the molybdenum determination in plant digests. A cation exchange resin column is incorporated into a flow injection system for removal of interferents. The following system variables were investigated and optimized: reagent concentrations, sample injection volume, mixing and reaction coil lengths, temperature, sampling time, pumping rate and concentration of eluting agents. The effects of interfering species and of the acidity of samples on the molybdenum retention by the ion exchange resin column were investigated. The proposed method is characterized by good precision (r.s.d. (2.0%), a sampling rate of about 40 samples per hour, and permits the determination of molybdenum in plant digests in the range 1.0 to 40.0 μg/l. The results compare well with those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. (author) [pt

  20. Extraction and Separation of Uranium (VI) and Thorium (IV) Using Tri-n-dodecylamine Impregnated Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.; Saleh, A.Sh.; El-Naggar, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from chloride and nitrate solutions with tri-n- dodecylamine impregnated on Amberlite XAD4, was investigated. The distribution of U(VI) and Th(IV) was studied at different concentrations of acid, salting-out agent, extractant, aqueous metal ion and other parameters. Absorption spectral studies have been investigated for uranium species in both aqueous HCl solution and the resin phase. From these studies, it is suggested that the tetrachloro complex of U(VI) is formed in the extraction of uranium (VI) from hydrochloric acid solutions by TDA impregnated resin. Stripping of the extracted U(VI) and Th(IV) was assayed with HCl and HNO 3 . Finally, the separation of uranium from thorium and fission products in HCl media was achieved