WorldWideScience

Sample records for resilient supporting means

  1. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.

    2018-03-01

    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  2. Does resilient mean eco-inefficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    , because the redundant connections between elements of a system make it less efficient but also more flexible and adaptable and allow to perform a function even if some connections are interrupted or missing. Balancing between resilience and efficiency seems to be the key for sustainability intended...... as long-term perfomance. Resilience is not explicitly taken into account within life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA determines the eco-efficiency of product systems, i.e. the ratio between the function provided by the product and its impact on the environment. The question is whether a product system which...... structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will not only be more inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when studied by means of LCA. In this work a two steps approach is proposed to study resilience of product systems: 1) assessment of disturbance conditions and their inclusion within the scope...

  3. Focusing the Meaning(s of Resilience: Resilience as a Descriptive Concept and a Boundary Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the variety of definitions proposed for "resilience" within sustainability science and suggests a typology according to the specific degree of normativity. There is a tension between the original descriptive concept of resilience first defined in ecological science and a more recent, vague, and malleable notion of resilience used as an approach or boundary object by different scientific disciplines. Even though increased conceptual vagueness can be valuable to foster communication across disciplines and between science and practice, both conceptual clarity and practical relevance of the concept of resilience are critically in danger. The fundamental question is what conceptual structure we want resilience to have. This article argues that a clearly specified, descriptive concept of resilience is critical in providing a counterbalance to the use of resilience as a vague boundary object. A clear descriptive concept provides the basis for operationalization and application of resilience within ecological science.

  4. Relationships Between Emotional Stability, Psychosocial Mentoring Support and Career Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhi Arora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigates the mediating role of psychosocial mentoring support on emotional stability personality disposition and career resilience relationship. In addition, this research also focuses on estimating the interrelationship between emotional stability, psychosocial mentoring support and career resilience. The results show substantive direct relations between emotional stability and psychosocial mentoring as well as between emotional stability and career resilience. Psychosocial mentoring is also seen as a significant predictor of career resilience. Further, it mediates partially the relationship between emotional stability personality and career resilience. Future and practical implications of research have also been provided.

  5. Helping Children Develop Resiliency: Providing Supportive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Katharine C.; Malley, Catherine Robertson

    2005-01-01

    Helping children develop resiliency begins with positive, meaningful connections between teachers and students. This article defines the importance of encouraging children to develop characteristics related to resiliency including confidence in their ability to bounce back from setbacks, overcome challenges and frustrations. Furthermore, critical…

  6. On Decision Support for Sustainability and Resilience of Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Qin, J.; Miragliaa, S.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of selected contributions across the different sciences to sustainability and resilience research is provided and discussed. A general frame-work for supporting decisions for sustainable and resilient design and management of societal infrastructures is then proposed taking basis...

  7. What does resilience mean for urban water services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åse Johannessen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disasters and climate change impacts, as well as increased water demand, pose serious risks to the provision of sustainable urban water services, e.g., drinking water, sanitation, and safe drainage, especially in cities. These challenges call for a transition toward improved water management, including considerations of "resilience." However, because the resilience concept has multidisciplinary origins it is open to multiple interpretations, which poses a challenge to understanding and operationalizing the concept. We explore how resilience thinking can be translated into urban water practice to develop the conceptual understanding of transitions toward sustainability. The study is based on a literature review, interviews with water experts, as well as four case studies in South Africa, India, Sweden, and the Philippines. We identify seven key principles or attributes of urban water resilience and the related transition process. We find that resilience building needs to discern between and manage three levels (i.e., socioeconomic, external hazard considerations, and larger social-ecological systems to be sustainable. In addition, we find that human agency is a strong driver of transition processes, with a certain level of risk awareness and risk perception providing one threshold and a certain capacity for action to implement measures and reorganize in response to risks being another. The difficulty of achieving "knowledge to action" derives from the multiple challenges of crossing these two types of identified thresholds. To address long-term trends or stressors, we find an important role for social learning to ensure that the carrying capacity of urban water services is not exceeded or unwanted consequences are created (e.g., long-term trends like salinization and water depletion. We conclude that the resilience term and related concepts add value to understanding and addressing the dynamic dimension of urban water transitions if the key

  8. Resilient Systemics to Telehealth Support for Clinical Psychiatry and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Reliably expanding our clinical practice and lowering our overhead with telepsychiatry, telepsychology, distance counseling and online therapy, requires resilient and antifragile system and tools. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include more reliable treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The wise and proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding social results. We present, as an example, the main steps to achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support, devoted to psychiatry and psychology application. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.

  9. Resilience and burden in caregivers of older adults: moderating and mediating effects of perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Lin; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Fauziana, Restria; Tan, Min-En; Chong, Siow Ann; Goveas, Richard Roshan; Chiam, Peak Chiang; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2018-01-31

    The burden of caring for an older adult can be a form of stress and influence caregivers' daily lives and health. Previous studies have reported that resilience and social support play an important role in reducing physical and psychological burden in caregivers. Thus, the present study aimed to examine whether perceived social support served as a possible protective factor of burden among caregivers of older adults in Singapore using moderation and mediation effects' models. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 285 caregivers providing care to older adults aged 60 years and above who were diagnosed with physical and/or mental illness in Singapore. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience and burden was measured by the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure perceived social support. Hayes' PROCESS macro was used to test moderation and mediation effects of perceived social support in the relationship between resilience and burden after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Indirect effects were tested using bootstrapped confidence intervals (CI). The mean scores observed were CD-RISC: 70.8/100 (SD = 15.1), MSPSS: 62.2/84 (SD = 12.2), and ZBI: 23.2/88 (SD = 16.0) respectively. While perceived social support served as a full mediator between resilience and caregiver burden (β = - 0.14, 95% CI -0.224 to - 0.072, p < 0.05), it did not show a significant moderating effect. Perceived social support mediates the association between resilience and caregiver burden among caregivers of older adults in Singapore. It is crucial for healthcare professionals, particularly those who interact and deliver services to assist caregivers, to promote and identify supportive family and friends' network that may help to address caregiver burden.

  10. Meaning in life, resilience, and psychological well-being among children affected by parental HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2017-11-01

    Meaning in life has been posited to improve psychological well-being. People facing adversities can reduce psychological distress through pursuing a sense of purpose in life. However, the effectiveness of meaning in life in promoting psychological well-being has been found varied, and what factors may affect the function of meaning in life remain unclear. In this paper, the authors suggest that resilience, the positive adaptation during or following significant adversity, can strengthen the protective effects of meaning in life on psychological well-being. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed data from a sample of 518 vulnerable children of parents living with HIV about their meaning in life, resilience, depression, and loneliness. Results showed that resilience moderated the relationship between meaning in life and depression, and between meaning in life and loneliness. Meaning in life was associated with lower levels of depression and loneliness among children high in resilience, in comparison to children low in resilience. Future interventions targeting meaning in life and well-being should consider children's resilience, which can allow for better individualization of the treatment.

  11. Physician resilience: what it means, why it matters, and how to promote it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ronald M; Krasner, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    Resilience is the capacity to respond to stress in a healthy way such that goals are achieved at minimal psychological and physical cost; resilient individuals "bounce back" after challenges while also growing stronger. Resilience is a key to enhancing quality of care, quality of caring, and sustainability of the health care workforce. Yet, ways of identifying and promoting resilience have been elusive. Resilience depends on individual, community, and institutional factors. The study by Zwack and Schweitzer in this issue of Academic Medicine illustrates that individual factors of resilience include the capacity for mindfulness, self-monitoring, limit setting, and attitudes that promote constructive and healthy engagement with (rather than withdrawal from) the often-difficult challenges at work. Cultivating these specific skills, habits, and attitudes that promote resilience is possible for medical students and practicing clinicians alike. Resilience-promoting programs should also strive to build community among clinicians and other members of the health care workforce. Just as patient safety is the responsibility of communities of practice, so is clinician well-being and support. Finally, it is in the self-interest of health care institutions to support the efforts of all members of the health care workforce to enhance their capacity for resilience; it will increase quality of care while reducing errors, burnout, and attrition. Successful organizations outside of medicine offer insight about institutional structures and values that promote individual and collective resilience. This commentary proposes methods for enhancing individuals' resilience while building community, as well as directions for future interventions, research, and institutional involvement.

  12. Resilience and Quality of Life: Exploring the Mediator Role of Social Support in Patients with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Qinghua; Cao, Peiye; Ren, Guosheng

    2017-12-17

    BACKGROUND The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can provoke a series of negative emotional changes in patients, further affecting their quality of life. It has been shown that patients with higher resilience have better quality of life. Social support systems are important protective factors that are necessary for the process of resilience to occur. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the role of social support in the relationship between resilience and quality of life among Chinese patients with breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS A demographic-disease survey, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 25, Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Breast Cancer Version 3 were used to interview 98 patients with breast cancer from a teaching hospital in Chongqing, China. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics, independent-sample t test, one-way ANOVA, and regression analyses. RESULTS The mean scores of resilience, social support, and quality of life were 54.68, 61.73, and 80.74 respectively, which were in the moderate range. Participants with stronger social support had higher resilience and better quality of life. Social support played a partial mediator role in the relationship between resilience and quality of life. The mediation effect ratio was 28.0%. CONCLUSIONS Social support is essential for the development of resilience and the improvement of quality of life in Chinese patients with breast cancer. Health professionals should provide appropriate guidelines to help patients seek effective support and enhance their resilience to improve their quality of life after breast cancer.

  13. Global resistance and resilience of primary production following extreme drought are predicted by mean annual precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, E. J.; De Boeck, H. J.; Lemoine, N. P.; Gough, C. M.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Mänd, P.; Jentsch, A.; Schmidt, I. K.; Bahn, M.; Lloret, F.; Kreyling, J.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Stampfli, A.; Anderegg, W.; Classen, A. T.; Smith, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme drought is increasing globally in frequency and intensity, with uncertain consequences for the resistance and resilience of key ecosystem functions, including primary production. Primary production resistance, the capacity of an ecosystem to withstand change in primary production following extreme climate, and resilience, the degree to which primary production recovers, vary among and within ecosystem types, obscuring global patterns of resistance and resilience to extreme drought. Past syntheses on resistance have focused climatic gradients or individual ecosystem types, without assessing interactions between the two. Theory and many empirical studies suggest that forest production is more resistant but less resilient than grassland production to extreme drought, though some empirical studies reveal that these trends are not universal. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of sixty-four grassland and forest sites, finding that primary production resistance to extreme drought is predicted by a common continuum of mean annual precipitation (MAP). However, grasslands and forests exhibit divergent production resilience relationships with MAP. We discuss the likely mechanisms underlying the mixed production resistance and resilience patterns of forests and grasslands, including different plant species turnover times and drought adaptive strategies. These findings demonstrate the primary production responses of forests and grasslands to extreme drought are mixed, with far-reaching implications for Earth System Models, ecosystem management, and future studies of extreme drought resistance and resilience.

  14. Complex interplay between health and successful aging: role of perceived stress, resilience, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Eyler, Lisa T; Mausbach, Brent T; Zlatar, Zvinka Z; Thompson, Wesley K; Peavy, Guerry; Fazeli, Pariya L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2015-06-01

    Psychological and psychosocial resources, including resilience and social support, have traditionally been studied in the context of the stress paradigm and, more recently, in the context of successful aging. This study used moderated mediation analyses to examine the role of perceived stress in the relationships between physical and mental health functioning and self-rated successful aging (SRSA) and whether differences between people in level of resilience and social support changes the role of perceived stress in these relationships. A cross-sectional study of 1,006 older adults (mean age: 77 years) completed scales addressing SRSA, physical and mental health functioning, perceived stress, resilience, and social support. Results indicated that the strength of relationships between both physical and mental health functioning and SRSA were reduced after accounting for variation in level of perceived stress. The role of perceived stress in the association between mental health functioning and SRSA was found to be stronger among participants with the highest levels of resilience, and the influence of perceived stress on the degree of relationship between physical health functioning and SRSA was stronger among those with greatest social support. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce perceived stress may help break the link between disability and poor well-being in older adults. The findings further suggest that the impact of such interventions might differ depending on psychological resources (i.e., resilience) for mental health disabilities and external resources (i.e., social support) for those with physical health problems. The complex interplay of these factors should be taken into account in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and performance of compliant thrust bearing with spiral-groove membranes on resilient supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, L.; Anderson, W. J.; Doroff, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Novel thrust bearings with spiral-groove flexible membranes mounted on resilient supports were designed and their performance demonstrated. Advantages of surface compliance were combined with the superior load-capacity of the spiral-groove geometry. Loads of 127-150N were supported on an area 42 sq cm, at speeds of 43,000-45,000 rpm and mean clearances of 15-20 microns. Support-worthiness was proved when tested in conjunction with foil journal-bearings and a 19N rotor, excited in a pitching mode by a total unbalance of 43 micron-N.

  16. Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  17. The effect of social support, gratitude, resilience and satisfaction with life on depressive symptoms among police officers following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanlies, Erin C; Gu, Ja Kook; Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M

    2018-02-01

    Police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges following Hurricane Katrina. This cross-sectional study examined the effect of social support, gratitude, resilience and satisfaction with life on symptoms of depression. A total of 86 male and 30 female police officers from Louisiana participated in this study. Ordinary least-square (OLS) regression mediation analysis was used to estimate direct and indirect effects between social support, gratitude, resilience, satisfaction with life and symptoms of depression. All models were adjusted for age, alcohol intake, military experience and an increase in the number of sick days since Hurricane Katrina. Mean depressive symptom scores were 9.6 ± 9.1 for females and 10.9 ± 9.6 for males. Mediation analyses indicates that social support and gratitude are directly associated with fewer symptoms of depression. Social support also mediated the relationships between gratitude and depression, gratitude and satisfaction with life, and satisfaction with life and depression. Similarly, resilience mediated the relationship between social support and fewer symptoms of depression. Social support, gratitude and resilience are associated with higher satisfaction with life and fewer symptoms of depression. Targeting and building these factors may improve an officer's ability to address symptoms of depression.

  18. An Extension of the Meaning Making Model Using Data From Chinese Cancer Patients: The Moderating Effect of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Wenju

    2017-10-05

    Meaning making refers to the process of integrating the appraised meaning of a traumatic event into one's global belief system to reduce cognitive discrepancy. Park and Folkman (1997) proposed the renowned "meaning-making model," which was a major contribution to trauma research from a positive psychology viewpoint. This concept is important for understanding the trauma of cancer patients, as searching for meaning is fairly common after a cancer diagnosis. However, the original model did not incorporate individual differences in resilience, which might account for the fact that research on this model has produced contradictory results. This study recruited 146 Chinese cancer patients and used different scales to measure each stage of the meaning-making process, resilience, posttraumatic growth (PTG), and anxiety/depression symptoms. A follow-up study was conducted after 6 months. A structural equation model was constructed; meaning discrepancy triggered meaning making, predicted changes in situational and global beliefs, and ultimately resulted in better mental health outcomes. The moderating effect of resilience was noteworthy; the indirect effect of meaning making on the relationship between meaning discrepancy (Time 1 [T1]) and mental health outcomes (Time 2 [T2]) was significant in the low resilience group, but nonsignificant in the high resilience group. These results suggest that the effects of meaning-making processes may differ based on individual factors, such as resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Of Models and Meanings: Cultural Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Crane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling has emerged as a key technology in analysis of social-ecological systems. However, the tendency for modeling to focus on the mechanistic materiality of biophysical systems obscures the diversity of performative social behaviors and normative cultural positions of actors within the modeled system. The fact that changes in the biophysical system can be culturally constructed in different ways means that the perception and pursuit of adaptive pathways can be highly variable. Furthermore, the adoption of biophysically resilient livelihoods can occur under conditions that are subjectively experienced as the radical transformation of cultural systems. The objectives of this work are to: (1 highlight the importance of understanding the place of culture within social-ecological systems, (2 explore the tensions between empirical and normative positions in the analysis of social-ecological resilience, and (3 suggest how empirical modeling of social-ecological systems can synergistically interact with normative aspects of livelihoods and lifeways.

  20. Resilience as a mediator in emotional social support's relationship with occupational psychology health in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, Miguel; Botia, José Manuel

    2016-08-01

    This study's objective is to examine the relationship between emotional demands and emotional social support at work, and the impact of resilience on health. A cross-sectional study of 156 firefighters was conducted. Descriptive analyses of the study's variables were performed, along with structural equation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The results suggest statistically significant relationships among the study's variables. Social support from one's boss and intense emotional demands were found to have an interaction effect on firefighters' resilience. The findings confirm the mediating role of resilience and the relationship with emotional social support from the boss on firefighters' occupational health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Resilience and unmet supportive care needs in patients with cancer during early treatment: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, C; De Maria, J; Hoeppli, C; Betticher, D C; Eicher, M

    2015-10-01

    The concept of resilience is gaining increasing importance as a key component of supportive care but to date has rarely been addressed in studies with adult cancer patients. The purpose of our study was to describe resilience and its potential predictors and supportive care needs in cancer patients during early treatment and to explore associations between both concepts. This descriptive study included adult cancer patients under treatment in ambulatory cancer services of a Swiss hospital. Subjects completed the 25-item Connor-Davidson-Resilience Scale and the 34-item Supportive Care Needs Survey. Descriptive, correlational and regression analysis were performed. 68 patients with cancer were included in the study. Compared to general population, resilience scores were significantly lower (74.4 ± 12.6 vs. 80.4 ± 12.8, p = .0002). Multiple regression analysis showed predictors ("age", "metastasis", "recurrence" and "living alone") of resilience (adjusted R2 = .19, p resilience scores were significantly and strongly associated with higher levels of unmet psychological needs (Rho = -.68, p resilience express fewer unmet needs. Further work is needed to elucidate the mechanism of the observed relationships and if interventions facilitating resilience have a positive effect on unmet needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Active Coping and Perceived Social Support Mediate the Relationship Between Physical Health and Resilience in Liver Transplant Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Amelia; Geller, Jessica; DeMartini, Kelly; Fernandez, Anne; Fehon, Dwain

    2018-03-15

    Without a transplant, end-stage liver disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Transplant candidates endure physical and psychological stress while awaiting surgery, yet little is known about the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience during the wait-list period. This study examined predictors of psychological resilience and mediators of the relationship between physical health and psychological resilience in liver transplant candidates. Wait-listed candidates (N = 120) from a single Northeast transplant center completed assessments of physical functioning, coping, perceived social support, and resilience. Findings revealed that physical functioning, active coping, and perceived social support were positively associated with resilience; maladaptive coping was negatively associated with resilience. Perceived social support and active coping partially mediated the relationship between physical functioning and resilience. Transplant center care providers should promote active coping skills and reinforce the importance of effective social support networks. These interventions could increase psychological resilience among liver transplant candidates.

  3. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...

  4. Resilience Processes Supporting Adolescents With Intellectual Disability: A Multiple Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Anna-Marié; Theron, Linda C

    2016-02-01

    Resilience, or the process of adjusting well to risk, relies on constructive collaboration between youths and their social ecologies. Although the literature details the risks of an intellectual disability (ID), there is little explanation of why some young people cope well despite these risks. Accordingly, we report a multiple case study that affords insight into the resilience of 24 adolescents with ID. Using a draw-and-talk methodology, these young people explained their resilience as enabled primarily by supportive social ecologies (which facilitated behavioral and emotional regulation, encouraged mastery, treated them as agentic beings, and offered safe spaces). Adolescents' positive orientation to their life-worlds co-facilitated their resilience. These insights advance effective ways to champion the resilience of young people with ID.

  5. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11

  6. Mediating Effects of Positive Thinking and Social Support on Suicide Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matel-Anderson, Denise M; Bekhet, Abir K; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio

    2018-02-01

    Suicide has been the second leading cause of death for 18- to 24-year-olds in the United States since 2011. The stress experienced by undergraduate college students has the potential to increase one's risk for suicide. Resilience theory was used as a theoretical framework to examine the interplay between risk and protective factors. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used to assess the mediating effects of positive thinking and/or social support on suicide resilience in 131 college students 18 to 24 years old who completed an online survey. The study found an indirect effect of self-esteem on suicide resilience through positive thinking and social support indicating that as self-esteem increases, positive thinking and social support also increase, which leads to an increase in resilience. The study also found a direct effect of self-esteem, positive thinking, and social support on suicide resilience. The findings inform the development of tailored interventions to build suicide resilience in college students.

  7. [Resilience in Individuals with Gender Dysphoria: Association with Perceived Social Support and Discrimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Koray; Öz, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress associated with discrimination is proposed to have an indirect effect on the development of mental disorders, through its negative influence on individual's cognitive, affective and social coping strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between resilience, perceived social support, and perceived discrimination in individuals with gender dysphoria. Individuals with gender dysphoria were assessed with Turkish validated forms of Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Perceived Discrimination Scale (PDS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Diagnoses of mental disorders, history of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self injury were assessed with clinical interviews. Self-report forms were used to obtain demographic information and gender transition related features. Participants' (n=116, 88 trans men) median age was 25. Significantly low RSA scores, indicating poor resilience, were obtained in participants with lifetime (59.5 %) and present (27.6 %) diagnosis of any mental disorder, history of suicide attempt (23.3 %). There was significant direct correlation between RSA and MSPSS scores, inverse correlation with BDI and personal PDS scores, but not with group PDS. Regression analysis revealed that only friends domain score in MSPSS predicted better resilience, whereas personal perceived discrimination score predicted poor resilience. Findings support the association between poor resilience and vulnerability to mental and behavioral problems in individuals with gender dysphoria. The associations reveal the significance of addressing discrimination and assisting individuals with gender dysphoria in developing strategies to obtain peer support in providing mental health services.

  8. Resilience Mediates the Longitudinal Relationships Between Social Support and Mental Health Outcomes in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmel, Emily; Hughes, Abbey J; Alschuler, Kevin N; Ehde, Dawn M

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to examine resilience as a mediator between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in this population. Observational, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were assessed at 4 time points over 12 months in the context of a previously reported randomized controlled trial. Telephone-based measures administered to community-based participants. Individuals (N=163) with MS and 1 or more of the following symptoms: depression, fatigue, and pain. Not applicable. Mental health outcomes included (1) depressive symptomatology, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9; (2) anxious symptomatology, assessed using the short form of the Emotional Distress-Anxiety Scale from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; and (3) general mental health status, assessed using the Mental Component Summary score from the Short Form-8 Health Survey. Resilience was assessed using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. At any given time, social support from significant others, family members, and friends was significantly associated with subsequent mental health outcomes for all 3 measures assessed (all P values social support significantly mediated the relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes. After controlling for resilience, most of the direct relationships between social support and mental health outcomes were no longer significant. There are significant longitudinal relationships between social support, resilience, and mental health outcomes for people with MS. Given the mediating role of resilience in supporting better mental health outcomes, future clinical research and practice may benefit from an emphasis on resilience-focused psychological interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Keystone characteristics that support cultural resilience in Karen refugee parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susan G.

    2016-12-01

    This participatory action research study used the conceptual framework of social-ecological resilience to explore how Karen (pronounced Ka·rén) refugee parents re-construct cultural resilience in resettlement. The funds of knowledge approach helped to define essential knowledge used by Karen parents within their own community. Framing this study around the concept of resilience situated it within an emancipatory paradigm: refugee parents were actors choosing their own cultural identity and making decisions about what cultural knowledge was important for the science education of their children. Sustainability science with its capacity to absorb indigenous knowledge as legitimate scientific knowledge offered a critical platform for reconciling Karen knowledge with scientific knowledge for science education. Photovoice, participant observation, and semi-structured interviews were used to create visual and written narrative portraits of Karen parents. Narrative analysis revealed that Karen parents had constructed a counter-narrative in Burma and Thailand that enabled them to resist assimilation into the dominant ethnic culture; by contrast, their narrative of life in resettlement in the U.S. focused on the potential for self-determination. Keystone characteristics that contributed to cultural resilience were identified to be the community garden and education as a gateway to a transformed future. Anchored in a cultural tradition of farming, these Karen parents gained perspective and comfort in continuity and the potential of self-determination rooted in the land. Therefore, a cross-cultural learning community for Karen elementary school students that incorporates the Karen language and Karen self-sustaining knowledge of horticulture would be an appropriate venue for building a climate of reciprocity for science learning.

  10. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between social support and posttraumatic growth among colorectal cancer survivors with permanent intestinal ostomies: A structural equation model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoling; Li, Guopeng; Liu, Chunlei; Kong, Linghua; Fang, Yueyan; Kang, Xiaofei; Li, Ping

    2017-08-01

    Information on posttraumatic growth (PTG) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors with permanent intestinal ostomies is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the occurrence of PTG among CRC survivors with permanent intestinal ostomies and its association with perceived social support and resilience. This study was conducted with 164 CRC survivors with permanent intestinal ostomies at least one month after surgery. Participants completed questionnaires assessing socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, perceived social support, resilience and PTG. The mean total score on the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory was 66.74 (SD = 13.99). Perceived social support (r = 0.450) and resilience (r = 0.545) were significantly positively correlated with PTG. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that resilience mediated the relationship between perceived social support and PTG in which the indirect effect of perceived social support on PTG through resilience was 0.203 (P resilience might be scientific intervention strategies for promoting PTG among CRC survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Depressive Symptoms, Social Support, and Violence Exposure among Urban Youth: A Longitudinal Study of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisman, Andria B.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Heinze, Justin; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious mental health concern among adolescents. Violence exposure is a potent risk factor for depression. Social support may help reduce depression risk, even when adolescents are exposed to violence. Using a compensatory model of resilience, we investigate the influence of violence exposure and social support on depression over…

  12. Supporting Lesotho Teachers to Develop Resilience in the Face of the HIV and AIDS Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley; Ntaote, Grace Makeletso; Theron, Linda

    2012-01-01

    HIV and AIDS threaten to erode the wellbeing of teachers who are faced with an increasing number of children rendered vulnerable by the pandemic. This article explores the usefulness of a supportive group intervention, Resilient Educators (REds), in supporting Lesotho teachers to respond to the HIV and AIDS-related challenges. A time-series pre-…

  13. Resilience and Quality of Life: Exploring the Mediator Role of Social Support in Patients with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Qinghua; Cao, Peiye; Ren, Guosheng

    2017-01-01

    Background The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can provoke a series of negative emotional changes in patients, further affecting their quality of life. It has been shown that patients with higher resilience have better quality of life. Social support systems are important protective factors that are necessary for the process of resilience to occur. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the role of social support in the relationship between resilience and quality of life among Chines...

  14. Collective Learning and Path Plasticity as Means to Regional Economic Resilience: The Case of Stuttgart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Rüdiger; Kirchner, Laura; Koch, Florian; Speda, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper links two strands of literature (collective learning and resilience) by looking at experiences with collective learning as precondition of regional economic resilience. Based on a qualitative empirical study, the emergence of collective learning structures in the Stuttgart region after a macroeconomic and structural crisis at the…

  15. The Relationship of Acculturation Strategies to Resilience: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Qiang Ethnicity following the 2008 Chinese Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    Full Text Available International research has mostly confirmed the positive association between acculturation strategies and resilience in ethnic groups, but the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relationships are still under-investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between acculturation strategies (based on two cultural identities and resilience of 898 Qiang ethnicity volunteers (mean age = 29.5, especially exploring the mediating and moderating effects of personality, spiritual belief and social support on the relationship between acculturation strategy (using two cultural identities as latent variables in model analysis and resilience following the occurrence of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, taking such mechanisms into account. Results were as follows: (1 All variable presented significant positive correlations; (2 Consistent with the mediating hypotheses, personality and spiritual beliefs played a partial mediating role in the relationship between two cultural identities and resilience; (3 High or low level of perceived social support had a moderating effect on cultural identities and resilience; (4 The integration strategy was the most optimal style to promote the development of resilience, but marginalization was the least effective style.

  16. The Relationship of Acculturation Strategies to Resilience: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Qiang Ethnicity following the 2008 Chinese Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Berry, John W; Zheng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    International research has mostly confirmed the positive association between acculturation strategies and resilience in ethnic groups, but the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relationships are still under-investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between acculturation strategies (based on two cultural identities) and resilience of 898 Qiang ethnicity volunteers (mean age = 29.5), especially exploring the mediating and moderating effects of personality, spiritual belief and social support on the relationship between acculturation strategy (using two cultural identities as latent variables in model analysis) and resilience following the occurrence of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, taking such mechanisms into account. Results were as follows: (1) All variable presented significant positive correlations; (2) Consistent with the mediating hypotheses, personality and spiritual beliefs played a partial mediating role in the relationship between two cultural identities and resilience; (3) High or low level of perceived social support had a moderating effect on cultural identities and resilience; (4) The integration strategy was the most optimal style to promote the development of resilience, but marginalization was the least effective style.

  17. A social assessment of urban parkland: Analyzing park use and meaning to inform management and resilience planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen; Nancy Falxa Sonti; Michelle L. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Globally, municipalities are tackling climate adaptation and resilience planning. Urban green space has crucial biophysical buffering capacities, but also affects social interactions and human well-being. This paper considers the social dimension of urban green space, through an assessment focused on park use, function, and meanings, and compares results to categories...

  18. Chinese Adolescents' Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Social Support, and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shitao

    2017-01-01

    The constructs of emotional intelligence, perceived social support and resilience have been primarily developed in a Western, individual-oriented societal context. The application of these constructs in Eastern cultures requires further investigation. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among trait emotional intelligence,…

  19. Effects of Perceived Social Support and Psychological Resilience on Social Media Addiction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Okan; Tas, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of perceived social support and psychological resilience on social media addiction among university students. The research group was composed of 503 university students. The ages of participant students varied between 17 and 31 years old. 340 (67.6%) of the participants are female and 163 (32.4%) of them are…

  20. A model of resilience and meaning after military deployment: personal resources in making sense of war and peacekeeping experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schok, Michaela L; Kleber, Rolf J; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty J L M

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the specific personal resources of self-esteem, optimism and perceived control, combined in the latent variable called 'resilience', were associated with cognitive processing of war-zone experiences. Data were collected by questionnaires from a sample of 1.561 veterans who had participated in various war or peacekeeping operations. Structural equation modelling was performed to assess the expected relationships between the observed and latent variables. The construct of resilience was well-defined and proved to be strongly associated with both construals of meaning, comprehensibility versus personal significance, after military deployment. According to our model, higher resilience predicted less distrust in others and the world, more personal growth and less intrusions and avoidance after military deployment.

  1. Means for supporting fuel elements in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Harry N.; Keller, Herbert W.

    1980-01-01

    A grid structure for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a plurality of connecting members forming at least one longitudinally extending opening peripheral and inner fuel element openings through each of which openings at least one nuclear fuel element extends, said connecting members forming wall means surrounding said each peripheral and inner fuel element opening, a pair of rigid projections longitudinally spaced from one another extending from a portion of said wall means into said each peripheral and inner opening for rigidly engaging said each fuel element, respectively, yet permit individual longitudinal slippage thereof, and resilient means formed integrally on and from said wall means and positioned in said each peripheral and inner opening in opposed relationship with said projections and located to engage said fuel element to bias the latter into engagement with said rigid projections, respectively

  2. A Comparative Study on Resilience, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness Among Cancer Patients Treated with Curative and Palliative Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Ravindran Ottilingam; Devamani, Kiran A

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Psychological distress is common among patients affected by cancer. In this study, we examined the relationship between resilience, social support, and hopelessness among cancer patients treated with curative and palliative care. Patients and Methods: Sixty cancer patients in the age range of 18–65 years were randomly selected and divided into two groups based on their treatment intent namely, curative care (n = 30) and palliative care (n = 30). Both groups were assessed by the following instruments: Bharathiar University Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Results: Resilience was significantly associated with less hopelessness and higher levels of perceived social support. Conclusion: Cancer patients are found to be resilient, and the role of social support and hopelessness on promoting resilience cannot be ignored. PMID:27162423

  3. A Comparative Study on Resilience, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness Among Cancer Patients Treated with Curative and Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Ravindran Ottilingam; Devamani, Kiran A

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common among patients affected by cancer. In this study, we examined the relationship between resilience, social support, and hopelessness among cancer patients treated with curative and palliative care. Sixty cancer patients in the age range of 18-65 years were randomly selected and divided into two groups based on their treatment intent namely, curative care (n = 30) and palliative care (n = 30). Both groups were assessed by the following instruments: Bharathiar University Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Resilience was significantly associated with less hopelessness and higher levels of perceived social support. Cancer patients are found to be resilient, and the role of social support and hopelessness on promoting resilience cannot be ignored.

  4. Relationship between resilience, social support as well as anxiety/depression of lung cancer patients: A cross-sectional observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjie Hu

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Lower psychological anxiety and depression would be experienced by lung cancer patients with higher resilience and social support. The level of anxiety and depression would be indirectly affected by social support through the mediation of resilience.

  5. Resilience, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Posttraumatic Growth in Chinese Adolescents After a Tornado: The Role of Mediation Through Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangzhe; Xu, Wei; Liu, Zhen; An, Yuanyuan

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that resilience is associated with lower severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and more posttraumatic growth (PTG) in people who have experienced traumatic events. The present study investigated the ways in which resilience is related to PTSD symptoms and to PTG in Chinese traumatized adolescents by considering the role of perceived social support. A total of 247 Chinese adolescents who had experienced a severe tornado 3 months before this study were recruited for this study. The results showed that our model fitted the data very well (χ = 195.691; df = 96; χ/df = 2.038; root mean square error of approximation = 0.065; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.959; comparative fit index = 0.967) and reveal that perceived social support partially mediates the relationship between resilience, PTSD severity, and PTG. The clinical implications and limitations of our research and the recommendations for future research are discussed in this article.

  6. Supportive College Environment for Meaning Searching and Meaning in Life among American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joo Yeon; Steger, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether American college students who perceive their college environment as supportive for their meaning searching report higher levels of meaning in life. We also examined whether students' perception of college environmental support for meaning searching moderates the relation between the presence of and search for meaning. Students'…

  7. Prioritizing key resilience indicators to support coral reef management in a changing climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim R McClanahan

    Full Text Available Managing coral reefs for resilience to climate change is a popular concept but has been difficult to implement because the empirical scientific evidence has either not been evaluated or is sometimes unsupportive of theory, which leads to uncertainty when considering methods and identifying priority reefs. We asked experts and reviewed the scientific literature for guidance on the multiple physical and biological factors that affect the ability of coral reefs to resist and recover from climate disturbance. Eleven key factors to inform decisions based on scaling scientific evidence and the achievability of quantifying the factors were identified. Factors important to resistance and recovery, which are important components of resilience, were not strongly related, and should be assessed independently. The abundance of resistant (heat-tolerant coral species and past temperature variability were perceived to provide the greatest resistance to climate change, while coral recruitment rates, and macroalgae abundance were most influential in the recovery process. Based on the 11 key factors, we tested an evidence-based framework for climate change resilience in an Indonesian marine protected area. The results suggest our evidence-weighted framework improved upon existing un-weighted methods in terms of characterizing resilience and distinguishing priority sites. The evaluation supports the concept that, despite high ecological complexity, relatively few strong variables can be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics. This is the first rigorous assessment of factors promoting coral reef resilience based on their perceived importance, empirical evidence, and feasibility of measurement. There were few differences between scientists' perceptions of factor importance and the scientific evidence found in journal publications but more before and after impact studies will be required to fully test the validity of all the factors. The methods here will

  8. Prioritizing key resilience indicators to support coral reef management in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Tim R; Donner, Simon D; Maynard, Jeffrey A; MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph; Baker, Andrew C; Alemu I, Jahson B; Beger, Maria; Campbell, Stuart J; Darling, Emily S; Eakin, C Mark; Heron, Scott F; Jupiter, Stacy D; Lundquist, Carolyn J; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Paddack, Michelle J; Selig, Elizabeth R; van Woesik, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Managing coral reefs for resilience to climate change is a popular concept but has been difficult to implement because the empirical scientific evidence has either not been evaluated or is sometimes unsupportive of theory, which leads to uncertainty when considering methods and identifying priority reefs. We asked experts and reviewed the scientific literature for guidance on the multiple physical and biological factors that affect the ability of coral reefs to resist and recover from climate disturbance. Eleven key factors to inform decisions based on scaling scientific evidence and the achievability of quantifying the factors were identified. Factors important to resistance and recovery, which are important components of resilience, were not strongly related, and should be assessed independently. The abundance of resistant (heat-tolerant) coral species and past temperature variability were perceived to provide the greatest resistance to climate change, while coral recruitment rates, and macroalgae abundance were most influential in the recovery process. Based on the 11 key factors, we tested an evidence-based framework for climate change resilience in an Indonesian marine protected area. The results suggest our evidence-weighted framework improved upon existing un-weighted methods in terms of characterizing resilience and distinguishing priority sites. The evaluation supports the concept that, despite high ecological complexity, relatively few strong variables can be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics. This is the first rigorous assessment of factors promoting coral reef resilience based on their perceived importance, empirical evidence, and feasibility of measurement. There were few differences between scientists' perceptions of factor importance and the scientific evidence found in journal publications but more before and after impact studies will be required to fully test the validity of all the factors. The methods here will increase the feasibility

  9. Families as Partners: Supporting Family Resiliency through Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Rebecca; Hansen, Sarah Grace; Squires, Jane; Machalicek, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Child development occurs within the context of the child's family, neighborhood, and community environment. Early childhood providers support positive outcomes, not only for the children with whom they directly work with but also for their families. Families of children with developmental delays often experience unique challenges. A family…

  10. The use of van Kaam's psychophenomenological method to interpret the meaning of resilience in the experiences of people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumskis, Sue; Moxham, Lorna Jane

    2017-12-18

    Phenomenology is a suitable method for investigating people's experiences and van Kaam's psychophenomenological model (PPM) is increasingly being used in nursing research. To describe the use of PPM to interpret the meaning of resilience in the experiences of people with schizophrenia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 14 people with schizophrenia. Analysis of data conformed to van Kaam's PPM. This asserts that while people experience phenomena differently, there will be essential structures of an experience that are the same for individuals sharing it and aims to identify these common elements. The elements must be explicitly expressed by some of the sample, be implicitly or explicitly expressed by most, and be compatible with the whole. An embedded dynamic of support and challenge in 11 important elements was identified. PPM is a suitable model for interpreting experiences. However, it is hard for researchers wanting to use the method to find examples of using PPM for analysis. This paper contributes to building original research examples of PPM. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  11. Mental health nursing in Australia: resilience as a means of sustaining the specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Jackson, Debra; Hungerford, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    As a concept, resilience is continuing to attract considerable attention and its importance across various life domains is increasingly recognised. Few studies, however, have defined or considered the notion of the group or collective resilience of a profession, including the capacity of that profession to withstand adversity and continue to develop positively in the face of change. This article considers the notion of resilience from the perspective of the specialty of mental health nursing, including the ways the specialty has adapted--and continues to develop--to changes experienced since deinstitutionalisation. Insights are drawn from a national Delphi study undertaken in Australia to develop a Scope of Practice for Mental Health Nurses, with responses used as a springboard to consider the impact of the perceived loss of professional identity on the collective resilience of the profession. Recommendations for a way forward for the profession are considered, including the ways in which a collective professional resilience could be developed to sustain and strengthen the professional identity of mental health nursing in Australia and across the globe.

  12. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  13. Effects of Adult Romantic Attachment and Social Support on Resilience and Depression in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Zane; Driver, Simon; Warren, Ann Marie; Riggs, Shelley; Clark, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause psychological consequences that negatively affect quality of life. It is increasingly recognized that factors such as resilience and social support may produce a buffering effect and are associated with improved health outcomes. However the influence of adult attachment style on an individual's ability to utilize social support after SCI has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between adult romantic attachment perceived social support depression and resilience in individuals with SCI. In addition we evaluated potential mediating effects of social support and adult attachment on resilience and depression. Participants included 106 adults with SCI undergoing inpatient rehabilitation. Individuals completed measures of adult attachment (avoidance and anxiety) social support resilience and depression. Path analysis was performed to assess for presence of mediation effects. When accounting for the smaller sample size support was found for the model (comparative fit index = .927; chi square = 7.86, P = .01; β = -0.25, standard error [SE] = -2.93, P effect of social support on the association between attachment avoidance and resilience was the only hypothesized mediating effect found to be significant (β = -0.25, SE = -2.93, P < .05). Results suggest that individuals with SCI with higher levels of attachment avoidance have lower perceived social support which relates to lower perceived resilience. Assessing attachment patterns during inpatient rehabilitation may allow therapists to intervene to provide greater support.

  14. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-01-01

    Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the...

  15. Resilient cities: meaning, models, and metaphor for integrating the ecological, socio-economic, and planning realms

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.T.A. Pickett; M.L. Cadenasso; J.M. Grove

    2004-01-01

    Urban designers, ecologists, and social scientists have called for closer links among their disciplines. We examine a promising new tool for promoting this linkage—the metaphor of "cities of resilience." To put this tool to best use, we indicate how metaphor fits with other conceptual tools in science. We then present the two opposing definitions of...

  16. Climate Data Initiative: A Geocuration Effort to Support Climate Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Bugbee, Kaylin; Tilmes, Curt; Pinheiro Privette, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Curation is traditionally defined as the process of collecting and organizing information around a common subject matter or a topic of interest and typically occurs in museums, art galleries, and libraries. The task of organizing data around specific topics or themes is a vibrant and growing effort in the biological sciences but to date this effort has not been actively pursued in the Earth sciences. In this paper, we introduce the concept of geocuration and define it as the act of searching, selecting, and synthesizing Earth science data/metadata and information from across disciplines and repositories into a single, cohesive, and useful compendium We present the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) project as an exemplar example. The CDI project is a systematic effort to manually curate and share openly available climate data from various federal agencies. CDI is a broad multi-agency effort of the U.S. government and seeks to leverage the extensive existing federal climate-relevant data to stimulate innovation and private-sector entrepreneurship to support national climate-change preparedness. We describe the geocuration process used in CDI project, lessons learned, and suggestions to improve similar geocuration efforts in the future.

  17. Regional climate response collaboratives: Multi-institutional support for climate resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Derner, Justin D.; Dilling, Lisa; Guerrero, Rafael; Joyce, Linda A.; McNeeley, Shannon; McNie, Elizabeth; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Ojima, Dennis; O'Malley, Robin; Peck, Dannele; Ray, Andrea J.; Reeves, Matt; Travis, William

    2018-01-01

    Federal investments by U.S. agencies to enhance climate resilience at regional scales grew over the past decade (2010s). To maximize efficiency and effectiveness in serving multiple sectors and scales, it has become critical to leverage existing agency-specific research, infrastructure, and capacity while avoiding redundancy. We discuss lessons learned from a multi-institutional “regional climate response collaborative” that comprises three different federally-supported climate service entities in the Rocky Mountain west and northern plains region. These lessons include leveraging different strengths of each partner, creating deliberate mechanisms to increase cross-entity communication and joint ownership of projects, and placing a common priority on stakeholder-relevant research and outcomes. We share the conditions that fostered successful collaboration, which can be transferred elsewhere, and suggest mechanisms for overcoming potential barriers. Synergies are essential for producing actionable research that informs climate-related decisions for stakeholders and ultimately enhances climate resilience at regional scales.

  18. Analysing urban resilience through alternative stormwater management options: application of the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System model at the neighbourhood scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsells, M; Barroca, B; Amdal, J R; Diab, Y; Becue, V; Serre, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in cities and their environments, caused by rapid urbanisation and climate change, have increased both flood probability and the severity of flooding. Consequently, there is a need for all cities to adapt to climate and socio-economic changes by developing new strategies for flood risk management. Following a risk paradigm shift from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future urban development, one of the main emerging tasks for city managers becomes the development of resilient cities. However, the meaning of the resilience concept and its operability is still not clear. The goal of this research is to study how urban engineering and design disciplines can improve resilience to floods in urban neighbourhoods. This paper presents the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System (DS3) model which we consider a relevant tool to analyse and then implement resilience into neighbourhood design. Using this model, we analyse and discuss alternative stormwater management options at the neighbourhood scale in two specific areas: Rotterdam and New Orleans. The results obtained demonstrate that the DS3 model confirmed in its framework analysis that stormwater management systems can positively contribute to the improved flood resilience of a neighbourhood.

  19. K-means clustering for support construction in diffractive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattanda, Shunsuke; Shioya, Hiroyuki; Maehara, Yosuke; Gohara, Kazutoshi

    2014-03-01

    A method for constructing an object support based on K-means clustering of the object-intensity distribution is newly presented in diffractive imaging. This releases the adjustment of unknown parameters in the support construction, and it is well incorporated with the Gerchberg and Saxton diagram. A simple numerical simulation reveals that the proposed method is effective for dynamically constructing the support without an initial prior support.

  20. Supporting resilience in war-affected children: How differential impact theory is useful in humanitarian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Michael G

    2017-12-15

    This paper examines the utility of the Differential Impact Theory for child protection practitioners who work in humanitarian settings, with a focus on war-affected children. A primary advantage of DIT is that it focuses efforts to strengthen children's resilience on improving children's social ecologies at different levels. This ecological focus is more likely to address the sources of children's suffering and resilience and also helps to avoid the problems associated with an individualized focus. It also shows how DIT provides a differentiated view of war-affected children and stimulates multiple interventions at different ecological levels, avoiding the common error of taking a one size fits all approach to intervention. In keeping with DIT, it suggests that child protection practice would benefit from addressing macro-level risks such as poverty and discrimination that are drivers of various harms to children and from more systematic linkages between macro- and micro-levels. It concludes that DIT serves as a critical lens for viewing current work on child protection in humanitarian settings and also for illuminating ways to develop more comprehensive supports for children's resilience. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Linked hydrologic and social systems that support resilience of traditional irrigation communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, A.; Guldan, S.; Boykin, K.; Cibils, A.; Gonzales, M.; Hurd, B.; Lopez, S.; Ochoa, C.; Ortiz, M.; Rivera, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Steele, C.

    2015-01-01

    Southwestern US irrigated landscapes are facing upheaval due to water scarcity and land use conversion associated with climate change, population growth, and changing economics. In the traditionally irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico, these stresses, as well as instances of community longevity in the face of these stresses, are apparent. Human systems have interacted with hydrologic processes over the last 400 years in river-fed irrigated valleys to create linked systems. In this study, we ask if concurrent data from multiple disciplines could show that human-adapted hydrologic and socioeconomic systems have created conditions for resilience. Various types of resiliencies are evident in the communities. Traditional local knowledge about the hydrosocial cycle of community water management and ability to adopt new water management practices is a key response to disturbances such as low water supply from drought. Livestock producers have retained their irrigated land by adapting: changing from sheep to cattle and securing income from outside their livestock operations. Labor-intensive crops decreased as off-farm employment opportunities became available. Hydrologic resilience of the system can be affected by both human and natural elements. We find, for example, that there are multiple hydrologic benefits of traditional irrigation system water seepage: it recharges the groundwater that recharges rivers, supports threatened biodiversity by maintaining riparian vegetation, and ameliorates impacts of climate change by prolonging streamflow hydrographs. Human decisions to transfer water out of agriculture or change irrigation management, as well as natural changes such as long-term drought or climate change, can result in reduced seepage and the benefits it provides. We have worked with the communities to translate the multidisciplinary dimensions of these systems into a common language of causal loop diagrams, which form the basis for modeling future scenarios to

  2. Ageism, resilience, coping, family support, and quality of life among older people living with HIV/AIDS in Nanning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfang; Lin, Xinqin; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yanfen; Liu, Hongjie

    2018-05-01

    Although the HIV epidemic continues to spread among older adults over 50 years old in China, little empirical research has investigated the interrelationships among ageism, adaptability, family support, and quality of life among older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). In this cross-sectional study, among 197 older PLWHAs over 50 years old, path analytic modelling was used to assess the interrelationships among ageism, resilience, coping, family support, and quality of life. Compared with female PLWHAs, male PLWHAs had a higher level of resilience and coping. There were no significant differences in the scores of quality of life, ageism, family support, HIV knowledge, and duration since HIV diagnosis between males and females. The following relationships were statistically significant in the path analysis: (1) family supportresilience [β (standardised coefficient) = 0.18], (2) resilience → ageism (β = -0.29), (3) resilience → coping (β = 0.48), and (4) coping → quality of life (β = 0.24). In addition, male PLWHAs were more resilient than female PLWHAs (β = 0.16). The findings indicate that older PLWHAs do not only negatively accept adversity, but build their adaptability to positively manage the challenges. Family-based interventions need take this adaptability to adversity into consideration.

  3. Citizen Science to Support Community-based Flood Early Warning and Resilience Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J. D.; Buytaert, W.; Allen, S.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A.; Bhusal, J.; Cieslik, K.; Clark, J.; Dewulf, A.; Dhital, M. R.; Hannah, D. M.; Liu, W.; Nayaval, J. L.; Schiller, A.; Smith, P. J.; Stoffel, M.; Supper, R.

    2017-12-01

    In Disaster Risk Management, an emerging shift has been noted from broad-scale, top-down assessments towards more participatory, community-based, bottom-up approaches. Combined with technologies for robust and low-cost sensor networks, a citizen science approach has recently emerged as a promising direction in the provision of extensive, real-time information for flood early warning systems. Here we present the framework and initial results of a major new international project, Landslide EVO, aimed at increasing local resilience against hydrologically induced disasters in western Nepal by exploiting participatory approaches to knowledge generation and risk governance. We identify three major technological developments that strongly support our approach to flood early warning and resilience building in Nepal. First, distributed sensor networks, participatory monitoring, and citizen science hold great promise in complementing official monitoring networks and remote sensing by generating site-specific information with local buy-in, especially in data-scarce regions. Secondly, the emergence of open source, cloud-based risk analysis platforms supports the construction of a modular, distributed, and potentially decentralised data processing workflow. Finally, linking data analysis platforms to social computer networks and ICT (e.g. mobile phones, tablets) allows tailored interfaces and people-centred decision- and policy-support systems to be built. Our proposition is that maximum impact is created if end-users are involved not only in data collection, but also over the entire project life-cycle, including the analysis and provision of results. In this context, citizen science complements more traditional knowledge generation practices, and also enhances multi-directional information provision, risk management, early-warning systems and local resilience building.

  4. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the method of interviewing by questionnaires was applied. The sample survey was conducted among undergraduate students, teachers and staff of the Teacher Training Faculty in Uzice.

  5. Resilience Among Medical Students: The Role of Coping Style and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gwen; McBride, Rosanne B; Hosford, Charles C; Halaas, Gwen

    2016-01-01

    Although medical students begin medical school with better mental health than their peers, during medical school students have a higher prevalence of psychological distress. Medical students often do not seek help for mental health concerns. The use of approach coping strategies and social support has been shown in other populations to be related to mental health resiliency. The rates of depression and burnout in this medical student population are expected to be high, with the majority not seeking help for their psychological distress in accordance with studies of medical students across the nation. Perceptions of stigma are hypothesized to be a potential source of this lack of care-seeking behavior. Approach coping strategies and social support are speculated to have an inverse relationship with the prevalence of depression and burnout in the medical student population. Validated measures of depression and burnout along with items pertaining to diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues, specific coping strategies used during stressful times, and perceptions of social support were used in a cross-sectional study of students at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences (UND SMHS). The overall survey response rate was 64%. Seventeen percent had moderate to severe depression, and 49% had burnout. Of depressed respondents, 81% were undiagnosed. When asked why depression develops, 23% responded that it was due to an inability to cope. A significantly greater risk of depression was associated with inadequate support from family and friends (p = .002), fellow medical students (p = .01), and the UND SMHS (p = .003). Greater use of approach-oriented coping strategies than avoidant-oriented strategies was associated with significantly decreased risk of burnout (p = .02) and was inversely correlated with depression (rs = -0.27, n = 153, p = .001). This study outlines associations among approach-oriented coping strategies, social support, and

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study in Germany, Russia, and China: Are Resilient and Social Supported Students Protected Against Depression, Anxiety, and Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovskaia, Julia; Schönfeld, Pia; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Bieda, Angela; Kochetkov, Yakov; Margraf, Jürgen

    2018-04-01

    This study cross-culturally investigated resilience and social support as possible protective factors for mental health. The values of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, resilience and social support were collected from German (N = 4433), Russian (N = 3774), and Chinese students (N = 4982). The samples were split (two-thirds vs. one-third) to cross-validate the results. In all samples, resilience and social support were significantly negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. While in Germany those associations were stronger for social support, in Russia and in China stronger associations were found for resilience. Furthermore, in all samples, resilience was found to mediate the association between social support and the negative mental health variables significantly. In conclusion, resilience and social support are universal interrelated protective factors for mental health independently of historical, cultural, social, and geographical conditions of a country.

  7. The Comparison of Resiliency, Identity Styles, Spirituality and Perceived Social Support in Addicts, Non-Addicts, and Recovered Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ali HosseiniAlmadani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was comparing of resiliency, identity styles, spirituality, and perceived social support in addicts, non-addicts, and recovered addicts. Method: In this causal-comparative study, by available sampling, 30 addicts, 30 non-addicts, and 30 recovered addicts were selected of adolescents. All participants completed the resiliency, identity styles, spirituality, and perceived social support questionnaires. Results: The results of comparing of identity styles indicated that on informational and normative styles, non-addicts had significantly higher scores than addicts and recovered addicts. On avoidant/disoriented style, non addicts had significantly lower levels than two other addict groups. The results of comparing of resiliency showed that non-addicts had significantly higher scores than two other groups. Also recovered addicts were significantly more resilient than addicts. In comparing of spirituality component, non addicts and recovered addicts had significantly higher scores than addicts. By Comparing of perceived social support, non-addicts and recovered addicts had significantly higher levels than addicts. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, participating in NA groups and perception of social support increased the resiliency of recovered addicts. Also, identity is relatively consistent component that by participating in treatment process, does not change significantly.

  8. Relationship between resilience, social support as well as anxiety/depression of lung cancer patients: A cross-sectional observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingjie; Xiao, Jian; Peng, Juan; Kuang, Xiao; He, Bixiu

    2018-01-01

    The mood of patients with lung carcinoma would be greatly influenced by the diagnosing and treating processes. This study was aimed to explore the effects of resilience between social assistance and anxiety/depression of patients with lung cancer, which may assist in clinical intervention. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted on lung cancer patients at Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, China. A total of 289 patients aged 25-81 years were included in this study. Correlational analyses revealed that anxiety/depression was negatively associated with psychological resilience and each dimension of social assistance, including subjective support, objective support along with the supports utilization (P resilience was positively related to subjective support (P resilience could partially mediate the relation between anxiety and subjective support and totally mediate the relationship between support utilization and anxiety. On the other hand, resilience could totally mediate the relation between depression and subjective support and partially mediate the relation between support utilization and depression. However, resilience did not play an intermediary role between anxiety/depression and objective support. Lower psychological anxiety and depression would be experienced by lung cancer patients with higher resilience and social support. The level of anxiety and depression would be indirectly affected by social support through the mediation of resilience.

  9. Role of resilience and social support in alleviating depression in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yueh-Min Liu,1 Hong-Jer Chang,2 Ru-Hwa Wang,3 Li-King Yang,4 Kuo-Cheng Lu,4 Yi-Chou Hou4 1Department of Nursing, Ching Kuo Institute of Management and Health, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Long-Term Care, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei City, Taiwan; 3Department of Nursing, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei, Taiwan Background: Patients who undergo hemodialysis encounter challenges including role changes, physical degeneration, and difficulty in performing activities of daily living (ADLs and self-care. These challenges deteriorate their physiological and psychosocial conditions, resulting in depression. High resilience (RES and social support can alleviate stress and depression. This study evaluated the importance of RES and social support in managing depression in elderly patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Patients and methods: In this descriptive, correlational study, 194 older patients undergoing HD were enrolled from the HD centers of three hospitals in northern Taiwan. The Barthel ADL Index, RES scale, Inventory of Socially Supportive Behavior, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were used. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to evaluate the interaction of RES and social support with illness severity, demographics, and ADLs. Results: Of the total participants, 45.9% experienced depressive symptoms. Demographic analysis showed that men and those with high educational level and income and financial independence had less depression (p<0.01. Patients with a higher Barthel Index (n=103, RES scale (n=33, and social support (n=113 showed less depressive symptoms (p<0.01. We found a significant negative correlation between depressive symptoms and social support (r=-0.506, p<0.01 and RES (r=-0.743, p<0.01. Hierarchical regression analysis showed

  10. Towards Resilient Telehealth Support for Clinical Psychiatry and Psychology: A Strategic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have increasingly shown a willingness to adopt Internet, mHealth and telehealth applications as a part of managing their health. Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The major issue in such a development is whether online interventions will be structured or unstructured. The proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding results. We present a strategic review and, as an example, the main steps to develop and achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.

  11. The resilience of migrant workers in Shanghai China: the roles of migration stress and meaning of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Song, He Xue

    2008-03-01

    In China, more than 10 million rural migrants move to cities every year. Because of the Household Registration System, migrant workers are not entitled to subsidised housing, education, social security or medical benefits. Using a resilience perspective, this study attempted to explore not only the migration stress that is experienced by migrant workers, but also the protective function of meaning of migration in helping migrant workers withstand the stress of migration. A survey design with multistage cluster sampling was used and 475 migrant workers were recruited. The questionnaire contained demographic data, the Brief Symptom Inventory, a migration stress scale and meaning of migration scale. Financial and employment difficulties stood out as the most stressful issues for migrant workers. More financial and material gains and personal aspirations and achievement were the most common reasons for living in Shanghai. Regression analyses revealed that financial and employment difficulties and interpersonal tensions and conflicts significantly predicted the mental health of both male and female migrant workers. In addition, while marital status significantly predicted the mental health of male migrant workers, the subscale 'more financial and material gains' in the meaning of migration scale predicted the mental health of female migrant workers. Finally, there was a moderating effect of meaning of migration on the mental health of female migrant workers. There is a need to consolidate and develop policies to protect the rights of migrant workers in China. Mental health counselling for migrant workers who are experiencing difficulties living in Shanghai should be introduced.

  12. Peripubertal Stress With Social Support Promotes Resilience in the Face of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Narasimhan, Sneha; Fein, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    The peripubertal period of development is a sensitive window, during which adverse experiences can increase the risk for presentation of cognitive and affective dysfunction throughout the lifespan, especially in women. However, such experiences in the context of a supportive social environment can actually ameliorate this risk, suggesting that resilience can be programmed in early life. Affective disorders and cognitive deficits commonly emerge during aging, with many women reporting increased difficulty with prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive functions. We have developed a mouse model to examine the interaction between peripubertal experience and age-related changes in cognition and stress regulation. Female mice were exposed to peripubertal chronic stress, during which they were either individually housed or housed with social interaction. One year after this stress experience, mice were examined in tasks to access their cognitive ability and flexibility in stress reactive measures. In a test of spatial memory acquisition and reversal learning where aged females normally display a decreased performance, the females that had experienced stress with social interaction a year earlier showed improved performance in reversal learning, a measure of cognitive flexibility. Because peripuberty is a time of major PFC maturation, we performed transcriptomic and biochemical analysis of the aged PFC, in which long-term changes in microRNA expression and in myelin proteins were found. These data suggest that stress in the context of social support experienced over the pubertal window can promote epigenetic reprogramming in the brain to increase the resilience to age-related cognitive decline in females. PMID:26943365

  13. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  14. Coping Styles, Social Support, Relational Self-Construal, and Resilience in Predicting Students' Adjustment to University Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, Enes; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how well coping styles, social support, relational self-construal, and resilience characteristics predict first year university students' ability to adjust to university life. Participants consisted of 527 at-risk students attending a state university in Turkey. The Personal Information Form, Risk…

  15. Resilience and social support promote posttraumatic growth of women with infertility: the mediating role of positive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongju; Peng, Li; Chen, Long; Long, Ling; He, Wei; Li, Min; Wang, Tao

    2014-02-28

    According to previous research, clinical experience with individuals facing infertility has demonstrated that positive psychological changes can arise from the struggle involved (Paul et al., 2010), which is called posttraumatic growth (PTG). However, little knowledge has been gained about the relationships between PTG and its facilitating factors. The present study examined whether resilience and social support could predict PTG in women with infertility. The role of positive coping as a potential mediator was also assessed. Using a cross-sectional design, all members of a convenience sample of 182 women with infertility completed self-report measures of PTG, resilience, perceived social support, positive coping and background information. It was found that resilience, social support and positive coping positively correlated with PTG, which explained 34.0% of the total variance. The results suggested that positive coping partially mediated the impact of resilience on PTG while it totally mediated the relationship between social support and PTG. These findings demonstrated that, in clinical settings, improving positive coping in women with infertility may be helpful for the attainment of PTG. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

  16. Trauma exposure, resilience, social support, and PTSD construct validity among former prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P B; Engdahl, B E; Eberly, R E; Blake, R J; Page, W F; Frueh, B C

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of persistent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to examine the construct validity of PTSD in a national sample of 270 World War II and Korean Conflict prisoners of war (POWs). POWs were interviewed at two points in time (1965 and 1990). Predictors included PTSD symptomatology measured in 1965 by items from the Cornell Medical Index (CMI), severity of captivity trauma, resilience factors, and post-trauma social support. The criterion, symptomatology in the early 1990s, was evaluated with the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). The CMI provided only partial coverage of PTSD criteria and appeared to provide only a general index of distress. Clustering of SCID items in two-dimensional space via multidimensional scaling analysis offers some construct validation for the DSM's differentiation of PTSD symptoms into criterion groups, although there was not a perfect match. Trauma severity is best related to PTSD symptomatology experienced in 1990, mitigated in part by greater education level and age at the time of trauma exposure. Surprisingly, 1965 distress added only a modest amount to the prediction of current distress, while post-trauma social support added none. These findings support previous work showing the severe psychological sequelae of POW status 40-50 years after captivity, and indicate that trauma severity during captivity is the best predictor of current PTSD symptomatology. Results also add to our understanding of the conceptual differentiation of PTSD symptoms into separate and distinct symptom clusters.

  17. Participatory modelling to support group decision making processes in Climate Resilient Urban Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, E.W.L.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in climate resilience is growing worldwide among policy makers, urban planners, citizens and scientists. Climate Resilient Urban Design (CRUD) relates to the (re-)design of urban areas in such a way that cities and citizens become less vulnerable to climate change. Weather phenomena like

  18. Perceived social support buffers the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior: implications into suicide resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, M; Gooding, P A; Taylor, P J; Tarrier, N

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of identifying resilience factors against suicidal behavior. However, no previous study has investigated potential resilience factors among individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived social support buffered the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. Fifty-six individuals who had previously been exposed to a traumatic event and reported PTSD symptoms in the past month (n = 34, 60.7% participants met the full criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis) completed a range of self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms, perceived social support and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived social support moderates the effects of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. The results showed that perceived social support moderated the impact of the number and severity of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. For those who perceived themselves as having high levels of social support, an increased number and severity of PTSD symptoms were less likely to lead to suicidal behavior. The current findings suggest that perceived social support might confer resilience to individuals with PTSD and counter the development of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The milieu of social support potentially provides an area of further research and an important aspect to incorporate into clinical interventions for suicidal behavior in PTSD or trauma populations. © 2013.

  19. Association between social support and health-related quality of life among Chinese rural elders in nursing homes: the mediating role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menglian; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Xia; Sun, Yaoyao; Xie, Hui; Jia, Jihui; Su, Yonggang; Li, Yuqin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to confirm the relationship between social support and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among rural Chinese elders in nursing homes, and to examine the mediating role of resilience in the impact of social support on HRQOL. A cross-sectional survey of 205 elders aged 60 and above was conducted in five rural public nursing homes. Sociodemographic characteristics, the SF-36 questionnaire, and information about social support and resilience were collected. The researchers administered the questionnaires to the participants in a face-to-face setting. Descriptive analysis and a correlation matrix were used to indicate characteristics of the participants and bivariate correlations, respectively. The mediation analyses, composed of regression analysis and PROCESS analysis, were preformed to test both direct and indirect effects of social support on HRQOL, namely the mediating role of resilience. Social support was positively related to HRQOL (β = 0.303, p resilience in the relationship between social support and HRQOL was confirmed (a*b bootstrapped 95% confidence interval = [0.098, 0.257]), which revealed that social support had an indirect effect on HRQOL through resilience. Resilience partially mediates the relationship between social support and HRQOL. The mediation model provides a better understanding of how social support and resilience work together to affect HRQOL, and it could guide the interventions in health care for promoting HRQOL among Chinese rural elders in nursing homes.

  20. Resilience and marginalized youth: making a case for personal and collective meaning-making as part of resilience research in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Lisa Marin; DiFluvio, Gloria; Burke, Tracey K

    2009-08-01

    The public health research community has long recognized the roles of discrimination, institutional structures, and unfair economic practices in the production and maintenance of health disparities, but it has neglected the ways in which the interpretation of these structures orients people in overcoming them and achieving positive outcomes in their lives. In this call for researchers to pay more - and more nuanced - attention to cultural context, we contend that group identity-as expressed through affiliation with an oppressed group-can itself prompt meaningful role-based action. Public health's study of resilience, then, must consider the ways that individuals understand and, in turn, resist discrimination. In this article, we briefly outline the shortcomings of current perspectives on resilience as they pertain to the study of marginalized youth and then consider the potential protection offered by ideological commitment. To ground our conceptual argument, we use examples from two different groups with whom the authors have worked for many years: indigenous and sexual minority youth. Though these groups are dissimilar in many ways, the processes related to marginalization, identity and resilience are remarkably similar. Specifically, group affiliation can provide a context to reconceptualize personal difficulty as a politicized collective struggle, and through this reading, can create a platform for ideological commitment and resistance.

  1. Resilience among urban American Indian adolescents: exploration into the role of culture, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S C

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was accounted for by enculturation, self-esteem, and social support, while 34% of the variance in resilience was contributed by enculturation, subjective well-being, and social support. However, social support from friends remained the strongest predictor.

  2. Weighted K-means support vector machine for cancer prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SungHwan

    2016-01-01

    To date, the support vector machine (SVM) has been widely applied to diverse bio-medical fields to address disease subtype identification and pathogenicity of genetic variants. In this paper, I propose the weighted K-means support vector machine (wKM-SVM) and weighted support vector machine (wSVM), for which I allow the SVM to impose weights to the loss term. Besides, I demonstrate the numerical relations between the objective function of the SVM and weights. Motivated by general ensemble techniques, which are known to improve accuracy, I directly adopt the boosting algorithm to the newly proposed weighted KM-SVM (and wSVM). For predictive performance, a range of simulation studies demonstrate that the weighted KM-SVM (and wSVM) with boosting outperforms the standard KM-SVM (and SVM) including but not limited to many popular classification rules. I applied the proposed methods to simulated data and two large-scale real applications in the TCGA pan-cancer methylation data of breast and kidney cancer. In conclusion, the weighted KM-SVM (and wSVM) increases accuracy of the classification model, and will facilitate disease diagnosis and clinical treatment decisions to benefit patients. A software package (wSVM) is publicly available at the R-project webpage (https://www.r-project.org).

  3. HIV Stigma and Physical Health Symptoms: Do Social Support, Adaptive Coping, and/or Identity Centrality Act as Resilience Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Shawn M.; Lippitt, Margaret; Jin, Harry; Chaudoir, Stephenie R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate it at the societal level, HIV stigma persists and continues to threaten the health of people living with HIV (PLWH). We tested whether social support, adaptive coping, and/or HIV identity centrality act as resilience resources by buffering people from the negative impact of enacted and/or anticipated stigma on stress and ultimately HIV symptoms. Ninety-three PLWH completed a survey, and data analyses tested for evidence of mediation and moderation. Results demonstrated that instrumental social support, perceived community support, and HIV identity centrality buffered participants from the association between anticipated stigma and HIV symptoms. That is, anticipated stigma was associated with HIV symptoms via stress only at low levels of these resources. No resources buffered participants from the impact of enacted stigma. Identifying and enhancing resilience resources among PLWH is critical for protecting PLWH from the harmful effects of stigma. PMID:24715226

  4. HIV stigma and physical health symptoms: do social support, adaptive coping, and/or identity centrality act as resilience resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lang, Shawn M; Lippitt, Margaret; Jin, Harry; Chaudoir, Stephenie R

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate it at the societal level, HIV stigma persists and continues to threaten the health of people living with HIV (PLWH). We tested whether social support, adaptive coping, and/or HIV identity centrality act as resilience resources by buffering people from the negative impact of enacted and/or anticipated stigma on stress and ultimately HIV symptoms. Ninety-three PLWH completed a survey, and data analyses tested for evidence of mediation and moderation. Results demonstrated that instrumental social support, perceived community support, and HIV identity centrality buffered participants from the association between anticipated stigma and HIV symptoms. That is, anticipated stigma was associated with HIV symptoms via stress only at low levels of these resources. No resources buffered participants from the impact of enacted stigma. Identifying and enhancing resilience resources among PLWH is critical for protecting PLWH from the harmful effects of stigma.

  5. Capturing Data Connections within the Climate Data Initiative to Support Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Bugbee, K.; Weigel, A. M.; Tilmes, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Climate Data Initiative (CDI) focuses on preparing the United States for the impacts of climate change by leveraging existing federal climate-relevant data to stimulate innovation and private-sector entrepreneurship supporting national climate-change preparedness. To achieve these goals, relevant data was curated around seven thematic areas relevant to climate change resiliency. Data for each theme was selected by subject matter experts from various Federal agencies and collected in Data.gov at http://climate.data.gov. While the curation effort for each theme has been immensely valuable on its own, in the end, the themes essentially become a long directory or a list. Establishing valuable connections between datasets and their intended use is lost. Therefore, the user understands that the datasets in the list have been approved by the CDI subject matter experts but has less certainty when making connections between the various datasets and their possible applications. Additionally, the intended use of the curated list is overwhelming and can be difficult to interpret. In order to better address the needs of the CDI data end users, the CDI team has been developing a new controlled vocabulary that will assist in capturing connections between datasets. This new vocabulary will be implemented in the Global Change Information System (GCIS), which has the capability to link individual items within the system. This presentation will highlight the methodology used to develop the controlled vocabulary that will aid end users in both understanding and locating relevant datasets for their intended use.

  6. Subsurface ecosystem resilience: long-term attenuation of subsurface contaminants supports a dynamic microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, J.M.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Ripp, J.A.; Mauro, D.M.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-01-15

    The propensity for groundwater ecosystems to recover from contamination by organic chemicals (in this case, coal-tar waste) is of vital concern for scientists and engineers who manage polluted sites. The microbially mediated cleanup processes are also of interest to ecologists because they are an important mechanism for the resilience of ecosystems. In this study we establish the long-term dynamic nature of a coal-tar waste-contaminated site and its microbial community. We present 16 years of chemical monitoring data, tracking responses of a groundwater ecosystem to organic contamination (naphthalene, xylenes, toluene, 2-methyl naphthalene and acenaphthylene) associated with coal-tar waste. In addition, we analyzed small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from two contaminated wells at multiple time points over a 2-year period. Principle component analysis of community rRNA fingerprints (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP)) showed that the composition of native microbial communities varied temporally, yet remained distinctive from well to well. After screening and analysis of 1178 cloned SSU rRNA genes from Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, we discovered that the site supports a robust variety of eukaryotes (for example, alveolates (especially anaerobic and predatory ciliates), stramenopiles, fungi, even the small metazoan flatworm, Suomina) that are absent from an uncontaminated control well. This study links the dynamic microbial composition of a contaminated site with the long-term attenuation of its subsurface contaminants.

  7. Mainstreaming Low-Carbon Climate-Resilient growth pathways into Development Finance Institutions' activities. A research project on the standards, tools and metrics to support transition to the low-carbon climate-resilient development models. Paper 1 - Climate and development finance institutions: linking climate finance, development finance and the transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient economic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschalier, Claire; Cochran, Ian; Deheza, Mariana; Risler, Ophelie; Forestier, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Development finance institutions (DFIs) are in a position to be key actors in aligning development and the 2 deg. challenge. One of the principal challenges today is to scale-up the financial flows to the trillions of dollars per year necessary to achieve the 2 deg. C long-term objectives. Achieving this transition to a low-carbon, climate resilient (LCCR) economic model requires the integration or 'mainstreaming' of climate issues as a prism through which all investment decisions should be made. This paper presents an overview of the opportunities and challenges of linking a LCCR transition with the objectives of development finance. It first presents the two-fold challenge of climate change and development for countries around the world. Second, the paper explores the role of development finance institutions and their support for the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economic model. Finally, it examines a necessary paradigm shift to integrate climate and development objectives to establish a 'LCCR development model' able to simultaneously tackling development priorities and needs for resilient, low-carbon growth. This will necessitate a move from focusing on a 'siloed' vision of climate finance to a means of aligning activities across the economy with the LCCR objectives to ensure that the majority of investments are coherent with this long-term transition. (authors)

  8. Personal resilience resources predict post-stem cell transplant cancer survivors' psychological outcomes through reductions in depressive symptoms and meaning-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A; Wu, Lisa M; Austin, Jane; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Rini, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether post-transplant cancer survivors (N = 254, 9 months to 3 years after stem cell transplant treatment) with greater personal resilience resources demonstrated better psychological outcomes and whether this could be attributed to reductions in depressive symptoms and/or four meaning-making processes (searching for and finding reasons for one's illness; searching for and finding benefit from illness). Hierarchical linear regression analyses examined associations of survivors' baseline personal resilience resources (composite variable of self-esteem, mastery, and optimism), which occurred an average of 1.7 years after transplant, and 4-month changes in psychological outcomes highly relevant to recovering from this difficult and potentially traumatic treatment: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and purpose in life. Boot-strapped analyses tested mediation. Greater personal resilience resources predicted decreases in PTSD stress symptoms (b = -0.07, p = 0.005), mediated by reductions in depressive symptoms (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.027, -0.003) and in searching for a reason for one's illness (b = -0.01, 95% CI: -0.034, -0.0003). In addition, greater resilience resources predicted increases in purpose in life (b = 0.10, p meaning-making (searching for a reason for one's illness) was also important for reducing PTSD symptoms.

  9. Wide-ranging impacts reported by NZ cancer survivors: is supporting cancer survivor resilience a health sector role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Inga; Signal, Louise; Sarfati, Diana

    2018-04-01

    Cancer survivor numbers are on the rise but little is known about New Zealand (NZ) survivors' experiences with management of cancer-related impacts and vulnerability. This study explored the experiences and resilience of NZ cancer survivors and the experiences of healthcare practitioners who work with cancer survivors. There is a focus on indigenous Māori survivors. This study used qualitative methods to explore survivors and healthcare practitioners' views on cancer-related impact and management strategies. Two focus groups were conducted with mainly colorectal cancer survivors residing in the central regions of NZ. There was one Māori-only group (n = 6 participants) and one multicultural group (n = 18 participants). The Māori-only focus group was purposefully organised to provide a culturally safe setting for the research. In addition, 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with healthcare practitioners between October 2011 and March 2012. Wide-ranging survivorship impacts were described by survivors across physical, emotional, spiritual and social domains. Shame resilience and relationships, particularly with healthcare practitioners, were indicated as useful supports. Healthcare practitioners' time constraints and role priorities were identified as barriers to their ability to provide survivorship support. This study generated qualitative data on survivorship impacts and components of survivor resilience in NZ. It also provided insights into the need for better strategies and pathways to help the NZ health system be more responsive to both Māori and non-Māori survivors. Survivor impacts create vulnerabilities that are experienced and described differently by individuals and groups in NZ. Tailored survivor support that can enhance resilience and support relationships is needed in NZ.

  10. Designing a spatial decision-support system to improve urban resilience to floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzlef, Charlotte; Ganz, François; Becue, Vincent; Serre, Damien

    2017-04-01

    Since Hurricane Katrina (2005), the scientific-political-urban attention is focusing on urban resilience to floods. To prevent the recurrence of such a deadly and costly event ( 82 billion, Serre et al, 2014), experts began to question pre- and post- disaster management. Until now, managers and urban planners have been working on flood risk, according to the paradigm of prevention. However, following Katrina, a new approach was gradually integrated and the concept of resilience applied to urban areas (Serre, 2011). The resilience concept, used in ecology and defined by Holling (1973), refers to the ability of a system to keep its own variables despite changes and analyses the capacity of an (eco)system to tolerate disturbances without changing its state. To link it with flood risk management, this concept takes more into account water and would lead to technical, architectural, social, urban and political innovation (Serre et al, 2016). However, despite 12 years after Katrina, very few concrete actions have been made (Barroca and Serre, 2013). Based on this argument, and several abortive studies, we wish to re-address the operationalization of resilience by redefining its objectives and expectations. While in Europe some studies have been done to build up vulnerability indicators (Barroca et al, 2006; Opach et al, 2016; Wiréhn et al, 2016), few still talk about resilience. When some do (Folke et al, 2010; Lhomme et al, 2011; Nguyen et al, 2013; Suarez et al, 2016), they mainly speak about technical resilience without integrating social resilience. Our objective is thus to imagine a system facilitating the understanding of this concept, its integration in management and development policies. We started on the methodology of information systems, organized system for collection, organization, storage and communication of information, and more precisely on observatories, information systems using the methodology of observation. These last years, we assist to an

  11. Abrindo caminho para o futuro: redes de apoio social e resiliência em autobiografias de jovens socioeconomicamente vulneráveis Paving the way to the future: social support networks and resilience in autobiographies of socioeconomically vulnerable youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idilva Maria Pires Germano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute processos de resiliência e redes de apoio social a partir de entrevistas narrativas realizadas com jovens socioeconomicamente desfavorecidos de escolas públicas de Fortaleza. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar como contavam suas histórias de vida, especialmente como enfrentavam adversidades em busca de recursos promotores de saúde e bem-estar. Os relatos foram analisados temática e narrativamente a fim de compreender como os jovens recrutam recursos pessoais, familiares, comunitários e culturais disponíveis e como esses recursos e as formas de manejo atuam de modo protetivo. Considerando que a resiliência também implica a disponibilidade dos recursos buscados pelo jovem, atenção especial foi dada à capacidade de suas comunidades em fornecê-los apropriadamente. Um resultado significativo é sua percepção do poder público como ineficaz ou ausente. Frente ao declínio da esfera pública, o jovem tende a refugiar-se na família e em seus próprios recursos pessoais para enfrentar o futuro.This work discusses resilience processes and social support networks among youth based on narrative interviews with socioeconomically disadvantaged students from public schools in Fortaleza (Brazil. The aim of the study was to analyze how they told their life stories, particularly how they dealt with adversities, navigating their way to health-sustaining resources and well-being. Thematic and narrative analysis were applied to understand the way youth achieve personal, family, community and cultural resources and how these resources and strategies have a protective effect. Considering that resilience also refers to the availability of the resources sought special attention was directed to their communities' capacity to properly provide them. A meaningful result is their perception of public politics and services as ineffective or absent. Facing the decline of the public sphere, youth tend to take refuge in the family and in

  12. Experimental evaluation of foil-supported resilient-pad gas-lubricated thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1977-01-01

    A new type of resilient-pad gas thrust bearing was tested to determine the feasibility of the design. The bearing consists of carbon graphite pads mounted asymmetrically on foil beams. Two bearing configurations were tested at thrust loads from 27 to 80 newtons at speeds to 9000 rpm. The outside diameter of the bearing was 8.9 centimeters.

  13. Science synthesis to support socioecological resilience in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Lenya Quinn-Davidson; Carl N. Skinner

    2014-01-01

    A team of scientists integrated recent research to inform forest managers, stakeholders, and interested parties concerned with promoting socioecological resilience in the Sierra Nevada, southern Cascade Range, and Modoc Plateau. Among the focal topics were forest and fire ecology; soils; aquatic ecosystems; forest carnivores including Pacific fisher, marten, and...

  14. Strengthening Resiliency in Coastal Watersheds: An Ecosystem Services and Ecological Integrity Decision Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To promote and strengthen the resiliency of coastal watersheds in the face of climate change and development, ecological outcomes as well as economic, social, and environmental justice issues need to be considered. An integrated assessment framework is being developed to help wat...

  15. A Decision Support System for the Resilience of Critical Transport Infrastructure to Extreme Weather Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.; Petiet, P.J.; Nieuwenhuis, A.; Peters, T.; Ruiten, K. van

    2016-01-01

    Resilience of critical transport infrastructure to extreme weather events, such as heavy rainfall, drought or icing, is one of the most demanding challenges for both government and society. Extreme weather is a phenomenon that causes threats to the well-functioning of the infrastructure. The impacts

  16. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD in adolescent victims of sexual abuse: resilience and social support as protection factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hébert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This analysis examined the contribution of personal, family (maternal and paternal support; sibling support and extra-familiar (peer support; other adults resilience to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in adolescents reporting sexual abuse. Controls were established for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity and multiple abuse in a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec. A total of 15.2% of adolescent females and 4.4% adolescent males in high school reported a history of sexual abuse in childhood. Sexually abused adolescent females (27.8% were more likely than adolescent males (14.9% to achieve scores with high clinical levels of PTSD. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience factors (maternal and peer support contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD attaining the clinical threshold. Alternative intervention and prevention practices geared to adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed.

  17. Rural-urban differences in mental health, resilience, stigma, and social support among young Australian gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Hosking, Warwick; Rozbroj, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are common among young gay men, particularly in comparison with their heterosexual counterparts. Little is known about the mental health and well-being of those living in rural areas, where access to support and opportunities for connecting with other gay men may be relatively limited. We examined differences in the well-being of young rural and urban Australian gay men, including mental health, resilience, stigma-related challenges, and social support. A national online survey was conducted involving 1,034 Australian gay-identified men aged 18-39 years. All analyses adjusted for sociodemographic differences between the rural and urban samples. On average, rural men had significantly lower self-esteem, lower life satisfaction, lower social support, and were significantly more likely to be psychologically distressed, concerned about acceptance from others, and to conceal their sexual orientation compared to urban gay men. While resilience among the rural group was lower, this was no longer significant following sociodemographic adjustment. An examination of psychosocial predictors of psychological distress in the rural sample revealed that lower education and lower tangible support independently predicted greater distress. Young rural Australian gay men appear to be at a considerable disadvantage with regard to mental health and well-being compared with their urban counterparts, and they may need particular attention in mental health prevention and treatment programs. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  18. ECONOMIC RESILIENCE AND CROWDSOURCING PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra L. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased interdependence and complexity of modern societies have increased the need to involve all members of a community into solving problems. In times of great uncertainty, when communities face threats of different kinds and magnitudes, the traditional top-down approach where government provides solely for community wellbeing is no longer plausible. Crowdsourcing has emerged as an effective means of empowering communities with the potential to engage individuals in innovation, self-organization activities, informal learning, mutual support, and political action that can all lead to resilience. However, there remains limited resource on the topic. In this paper, we outline the various forms of crowdsourcing, economic and community resilience, crowdsourcing and economic resilience, and a case study of the Nepal earthquake. his article presents an exploratory perspective on the link can be found between crowdsourcing and economic resilience. It introduces and describes a framework that can be used to study the impact of crowdsourcing initiatives for economic resilience by future research. An initial a set of indicators to be used to measure the change in the level of resilience is presented.

  19. Resilience among Urban American Indian Adolescents: Exploration into the Role of Culture, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was…

  20. Effects of social support, hope and resilience on quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Lie

    2016-05-06

    Improvement of quality of life has been one of goals in health care for people living with bladder cancer. Meanwhile, positive psycho-social variables in oncology field have increasingly received attention. However, the assessment of quality of life of bladder cancer patients and the integrative effects of positive psycho-social variables has limited reporting. The aim of this study was to assess quality of life as well as the integrative effects of social support, hope and resilience on quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, China. A total of 365 bladder cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic variables, FACT-BL, Perceived Social Support Scale, Adult Hope Scale, and Resilience Scale-14 during July 2013 to July 2014. The average score of FACT-BL was 87.60 ± 16.27 (Mean ± SD). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that social support, hope and resilience as a whole accounted for 30.3 % variance of quality of life. Under standardized estimate (β) sequence, social support, hope and resilience significantly and positively associated with quality of life, respectively. Quality of life for bladder cancer patients was at a low level in China, which should receive more attention in Chinese medical institutions. More importantly, efforts to increase social support, hope and resilience might be useful to support the quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients.

  1. Precise bearing support ditherer with piezoelectric drive means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assard, G. L.; Moorcroft, A. L.

    1985-06-01

    A relatively solid mounting surface, which may be part of a leveling gimbal, supports a piezoelectric bearing mount which has the properties of an acoustic transducer. The transducer has electrodes thereon which are powered from multi-phase electrical sources causing the bearing mount, and a bearing jewel which is rigid therewith, to move so as to dither the jewel in a rotary or other preselected fashion, thereby reducing bearing friction. Bandwidth, level and phasing sequence of the power sources are adjustable permitting optimized average dynamic motion and corresponding increased readout accuracy.

  2. A work-based educational intervention to support the development of personal resilience in nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Glenda; Jackson, Debra; Wilkes, Lesley; Vickers, Margaret H

    2012-05-01

    A work-based educational programme was the intervention used in a collective case study aiming to develop, strengthen and maintain personal resilience amongst fourteen nurses and midwives. The participants attended six, monthly workshops and formed a participatory learning group. Post-intervention, participants reported positive personal and professional outcomes, including enhanced self-confidence, self-awareness, communication and conflict resolution skills. They strengthened relationships with their colleagues, enabling them to build helpful support networks in the workplace. The intervention used new and innovative ways of engaging nurses and midwives exhibiting the effects of workplace adversity - fatigue, pressure, stress and emotional labour. Participants were removed from their usual workplace environment and brought together to engage in critical reflection, experiential learning and creativity whilst also learning about the key characteristics and strategies of personal resilience. Participants' experiences and skills were valued and respected; honest airing of the differences within the group regarding common workplace issues and concerns was encouraged. The new contribution of this intervention for nursing and midwifery education was supporting the learning experience with complementary therapies to improve participants' wellbeing and reduce stress. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Evolving the US Climate Resilience Toolkit to Support a Climate-Smart Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, C.; Niepold, F., III; Fox, J. F.; Herring, D.; Dahlman, L. E.; Hall, N.; Gardiner, N.

    2015-12-01

    Communities, businesses, resource managers, and decision-makers at all levels of government need information to understand and ameliorate climate-related risks. Likewise, climate information can expose latent opportunities. Moving from climate science to social and economic decisions raises complex questions about how to communicate the causes and impacts of climate variability and change; how to characterize and quantify vulnerabilities, risks, and opportunities faced by communities and businesses; and how to make and implement "win-win" adaptation plans at local, regional, and national scales. A broad coalition of federal agencies launched the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit (toolkit.climate.gov) in November 2014 to help our nation build resilience to climate-related extreme events. The site's primary audience is planners and decision makers in business, resource management, and government (at all levels) who seek science-based climate information and tools to help them in their near- and long-term planning. The Executive Office of the President assembled a task force of dozens of subject experts from across the 13 agencies of the U.S. Global Change Research Program to guide the site's development. The site's ongoing evolution is driven by feedback from the target audience. For example, based on feedback, climate projections will soon play a more prominent role in the site's "Climate Explorer" tool and case studies. The site's five-step adaptation planning process is being improved to better facilitate people getting started and to provide clear benchmarks for evaluating progress along the way. In this session, we will share lessons learned from a series of user engagements around the nation and evidence that the Toolkit couples climate information with actionable decision-making processes in ways that are helping Americans build resilience to climate-related stressors.

  4. Finding Meaning in Loss: The Mediating Role of Social Support between Personality and Two Construals of Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Guler; Horne, Sharon G.; Sayger, Thomas V.

    2012-01-01

    Dimensions of personality may shape an individual's response to loss both directly and indirectly through its effects on other variables such as an individual's ability to seek social support. The mediating effect of social support on the relationship between personality (i.e., extraversion and neuroticism) and 2 construals of meaning (i.e.,…

  5. The Impacts of Household Financial Stress, Resilience, Social Support, and Other Adversities on the Psychological Distress of Western Sydney Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of psychological distress among parents in Western Sydney households and examined its relationship with household financial, family and life stressors, and potential resilience factors. As part of a longer-term study, parents from Western Sydney, New South Wales (NSW, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI in May 2011 (N=439. Respondents were primary caregivers of at least one child (aged 4–16. Responses were weighted to reflect the Western Sydney population. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between parent experiences of stressor and resilience factors and reported psychological distress. Overall, 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8, 14.5 reported experiencing high/very high levels of psychological distress. Multivariate analysis indicated that financial hardship factors formed the strongest associations with psychological distress particularly housing and job security factors and, specifically, inability to meet mortgage/rent payments (OR=5.15, 95% CI: 1.74–15.25, p=0.003, poor self-rated health (OR=4.48, 95% CI: 1.88–10.64, p=0.001, adult job loss (OR=3.77, 95% CI: 1.33–10.66, p=0.013, and other family/life events (OR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.03, p=0.037. High personal resilience was common within this parent population and was a significant protective factor for high psychological distress (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34, p<0.001. The findings support the development of targeted interventions to promote parent coping strategies in the context of household financial hardship.

  6. Building Resilience in Families, Communities, and Organizations: A Training Program in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Jack; Simon, Winnifred

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the Summer Institute in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support, a brief immersion training program for mental health, health, and allied professionals who work with populations that have endured severe adversities and trauma, such as domestic and political violence, extreme poverty, armed conflict, epidemics, and natural disasters. The course taught participants to apply collaborative and contextually sensitive approaches to enhance social connectedness and resilience in families, communities, and organizations. This article presents core training principles and vignettes which illustrate how those engaging in such interventions must: (1) work in the context of a strong and supportive organization; (2) appreciate the complexity of the systems with which they are engaging; and (3) be open to the possibilities for healing and transformation. The program utilized a combination of didactic presentations, hands-on interactive exercises, case studies, and experiential approaches to organizational team building and staff stress management. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  7. Correlates of VA mental health treatment utilization among OEF/OIF/OND veterans: Resilience, stigma, social support, personality, and beliefs about treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeViva, Jason C; Sheerin, Christina M; Southwick, Steven M; Roy, Alicia M; Pietrzak, Robert H; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

    2016-05-01

    Veterans of Operations Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom/New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) tend not to engage in mental health care. Identifying modifiable factors related to mental health service utilization could facilitate development of interventions to increase utilization. The current study examined the relationship between mental health care utilization and measures of PTSD symptoms, resilience, stigma, beliefs about mental health care, perceived barriers to mental health care, posttraumatic growth and meaning, social support, and personality factors in a sample of 100 OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD symptoms referred to VA mental health care. Participants who received psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy (PP) scored higher on measures of PTSD symptoms, stigma, and adaptive beliefs about mental health treatment, and lower on measures of resilience, postdeployment social support, emotional stability, and conscientiousness, than participants who received no treatment (NT). Participants who received psychotherapy only (PT) scored higher on a measure of PTSD symptoms than NT participants. PT participants scored higher on an emotional stability measure and lower on measures of PTSD symptoms and stigma than PP participants. Multinomial logistic regression including all variables significantly related to treatment utilization indicated that PTSD symptoms and adaptive beliefs about psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy were higher in the PT and PP groups than in the NT group, and concerns about discrimination were higher in the PP group than the NT group. Interventions targeting beliefs about mental health care could increase mental health treatment utilization among OEF/OIF/OND veterans. Concerns about stigma may affect the utilization process differently at different decision points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  9. New resilience instrument for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Liang, Mu Zi; Li, Peng Fei; Sun, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Hu, Guang Yun; Yu, Yuan Liang; Wang, Shu Ni; Qiu, Hong Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Resilience is an important concept in the cancer literature and is a salient indicator of cancer survivorship. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new resilience instrument that is specific to patients with cancer diagnosis (RS-SC) in Mainland China. First, a resilience framework was constructed for patients with cancer diagnosis. Second, items were formulated based on the framework to reflect different aspects of resilience. Third, two rounds of expert panel discussion were performed to select important and relevant items. Finally, two cross-sectional studies were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Fifty-one items were generated based on the resilience framework and the final 25-item RS-SC resulted in a five-factor solution including Generic Elements, Benefit Finding, Support and Coping, Hope for the Future and Meaning for Existence, accounting for 64.72% of the variance. The Cronbach's α of the RS-SC was 0.825 and the test-retest reliability was 0.874. The RS-SC is a brief and specific self-report resilience instrument for Chinese patients with cancer and shows sound psychometric properties in this study. The RS-SC has potential applications in both clinical practice and research with strength-based resiliency interventions.

  10. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  11. Social Support Is a Predictor of Lower Stress and Higher Quality of Life and Resilience in Brazilian Patients With Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Lucia Siqueira; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; Damiani, Lucas Petri; Silva, Rodrigo Marques da; Jarrett, Monica E

    The well-being of patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC) is affected by psychological effects associated with cancer treatment. However, little is known about the impact of these psychological factors in Brazilian patients with CRC. The aim of this study was to determine whether perceived stress, social support, and resilience are associated with quality of life in urban Brazilian patients receiving chemotherapy treatment for CRC. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 144 Brazilian CRC patients in an ambulatory oncology clinic. The participants completed 5 questionnaires: Demographics, Perceived Stress Scale 14, Social Support Satisfaction Scale, Resilience Scale, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires (C30 and CR29). Confirmatory factor analysis modeling and Cronbach's α were used to examine construct validity and internal consistency. We used the MPlus 3.0 to construct and validate the structural model. There was a moderate and positive effect of resilience on the physical, social, and emotional aspects of quality of life. Social support had a strong and positive direct effect on quality of life (ie, social, physical, social, and emotional). Social support had a negative effect on stress perception. Resilience was also negatively related to stress perception. Family support and professional social support are important factors for Brazilian CRC patients. Resilience is an important ally for patients. It is important for nurses to consider this when developing educational and psychological interventional strategies to reduce stress and ultimately improve quality of life in this population. Psychological factors that improve quality of life should be evaluated in patients undergoing treatment for cancer.

  12. Association between regular physical exercise and depressive symptoms mediated through social support and resilience in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisho Yoshikawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical exercise has been reported to reduce depressive symptoms. Several lines of evidence suggest that physical exercise may prevent depression by promoting social support or resilience, which is the ability to adapt to challenging life conditions. The aim of this study was to compare depressive symptoms, social support, and resilience between Japanese company workers who engaged in regular physical exercise and workers who did not exercise regularly. We also investigated whether regular physical exercise has an indirect association with depressive symptoms through social support and resilience. Methods Participants were 715 Japanese employees at six worksites. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale, social support with the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, and resilience with the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14. A self-report questionnaire, which was extracted from the Japanese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, was used to assess whether participants engage in regular physical exercise, defined as more than 20 min, three or more times per week. The group differences in CES-D, SSQ, and RS-14 scores were investigated by using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Mediation analysis was conducted by using Preacher and Hayes’ bootstrap script to assess whether regular physical exercise is associated with depressive symptoms indirectly through resilience and social support. Results The SSQ Number score (F = 4.82, p = 0.03, SSQ Satisfaction score (F = 6.68, p = 0.01, and RS-14 score (F = 6.01, p = 0.01 were significantly higher in the group with regular physical exercise (n = 83 than in the group without regular physical exercise (n = 632 after adjusting for age, education, marital status, and job status. The difference in CES-D score was not significant (F = 2.90, p = 0

  13. Association between regular physical exercise and depressive symptoms mediated through social support and resilience in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-07-12

    Regular physical exercise has been reported to reduce depressive symptoms. Several lines of evidence suggest that physical exercise may prevent depression by promoting social support or resilience, which is the ability to adapt to challenging life conditions. The aim of this study was to compare depressive symptoms, social support, and resilience between Japanese company workers who engaged in regular physical exercise and workers who did not exercise regularly. We also investigated whether regular physical exercise has an indirect association with depressive symptoms through social support and resilience. Participants were 715 Japanese employees at six worksites. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, social support with the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), and resilience with the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14). A self-report questionnaire, which was extracted from the Japanese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, was used to assess whether participants engage in regular physical exercise, defined as more than 20 min, three or more times per week. The group differences in CES-D, SSQ, and RS-14 scores were investigated by using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mediation analysis was conducted by using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script to assess whether regular physical exercise is associated with depressive symptoms indirectly through resilience and social support. The SSQ Number score (F = 4.82, p = 0.03), SSQ Satisfaction score (F = 6.68, p = 0.01), and RS-14 score (F = 6.01, p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the group with regular physical exercise (n = 83) than in the group without regular physical exercise (n = 632) after adjusting for age, education, marital status, and job status. The difference in CES-D score was not significant (F = 2.90, p = 0.09). Bootstrapping revealed significant negative indirect

  14. A pilot study examining the impact of care provider support program on resiliency, coping, and compassion fatigue in military health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Christopher P; Ugarriza, Doris N

    2015-03-01

    The Care Provider Support Program (CPSP) was created as a way to improve the resiliency of military health care providers. The purpose of this pilot study was to update what is currently known about the resiliency, coping, and compassion fatigue of military and civilian registered nurses, licensed practical nurses (LPNs), and medics who treat wounded Soldiers and whether these factors can be improved over a sustained period of time. A prospective cohort pilot study was implemented to investigate the long-term effects of CPSP training on military and civilian nurses, LPNs, and medics (n = 93) at an Army Medical Center utilizing the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and Professional Quality of Life Questionnaire. Twenty-eight participants returned follow-up questionnaires. CPSP was significant in reducing burnout as measured by the Professional Quality of Life questionnaire, leading to decreased compassion fatigue. CPSP training did not affect resiliency scores on the Connor-Davidson resilience scale or coping scores as measured by the Ways of Coping Questionnaire. on the basis of the results of this study, CPSP training was effective in reducing burnout, which often leads to decreased compassion fatigue in a group of military and civilian registered nurses, LPNs, and medics. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. How Resilience Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at coping skills that carry people through life and why some have them and others do not. Suggests that resilience is a reflex, a way of facing and understanding the world, and that resilient people and companies face reality with staunchness, make meaning out of hardship, and improvise. (JOW)

  16. Homeless Education: Supporting Student and Family Resilience in the Face of Poverty and Hardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspar, Michele Christine

    2010-01-01

    In 2005-2006, close to one million homeless children in our nation faced unprecedented challenges trying to access and succeed in public schools. Fortunately, legislation was enacted to support this special needs population. The types of support mentioned in the McKinney-Vento Act include: transportation to and from school, immediate enrollment in…

  17. How school ecologies facilitate resilience among adolescents with intellectual disability: Guidelines for teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Marié Hall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global prioritisation of the inclusion of learners with disabilities, and of vulnerable young people's resilience, means that teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID. To provide such insight, we conducted a secondary data analysis of a multiple case study of resilient adolescents with ID attending special schools in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The visual and narrative data that inform this case study were generated by resilient adolescents with ID (n = 24, and their teachers (n = 18. Four school-related themes emerge from their accounts of resilience-supporting factors associated with their schools for the physically and severely intellectually disabled (SPSID. From these, we distill three uncomplicated actions mainstream school ecologies can execute in order to enable the resilience of included adolescents with ID. Their simplicity and ordinariness potentiate universally useful ways for mainstream teachers to champion the resilience of included adolescents with ID.

  18. Connecting older grandmothers raising grandchildren with community resources improves family resiliency, social support, and caregiver self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Littlewood, Kerry; Cooper, Larry; McCrae, Julie; Rosenthal, Michelle; Day, Angelique; Hernandez, Liliana

    2018-03-06

    Custodial grandparenting can be especially challenging for older grandmothers facing age specific issues. Kinship navigator programs are social service delivery programs intended to inform grandparents and other relatives raising children about available resources and services, provide information specific to their individual needs, and help families navigate service systems. Our study utilizes self-report data from one kinship navigator federal demonstration project, which used a randomized control trial, to examine demographic characteristics for grandmothers under and over 55 years of age, whether grandmother caregivers (≥55 years) improve family resilience, social support, and caregiver self-efficacy, and which interventions improved outcomes for grandmothers (≥55 years). Each participant was randomly assigned to one of four groups: Usual Care (traditional child welfare services), Standard Care (family support and case management), Peer-to-Peer Care Only, and Full Kin Tech Care (peer navigators with computer access and interdisciplinary team). Thirty-nine percent of grandmothers (55-75 years) were mostly living in poverty, predominantly Caucasian, with 36% identifying as African American/Black, with at least one to two children at home. Repeated-measures ANOVAs for each subscale showed statistically significant within- and between-group differences for Family Functioning, Social Supports, Concrete Supports, Child Development, and Nurturing and Attachment, with the exception of Usual Care, which showed a decline in protective factors consistently across subscales. Future research with kinship families could qualitatively examine the experiences for older women in navigator programs and replication of kinship navigator programs could build capacity in data collection and maintenance systems to gain better perspective about how systems of care impact families.

  19. Supportive Romantic Relationships as Predictors of Resilience Against Early Adolescent Maternal Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Hessel, Elenda T; Allen, Joseph P

    2017-02-01

    Negativity in parent-child relationships during adolescence has been viewed as a risk factor for teens' future personal and interpersonal adjustment. This study examined support from romantic partners and close friends during late adolescence as protective against maternal negativity experienced during early adolescence. A combination of observational, self-report, and peer-report measures were obtained from a community sample of 97 youth (58 % female), their mothers, closest friends, and romantic partners assessed at ages 13, 18, and 20. Moderating effects suggested a protective effect of romantic support against maternal negativity across a variety of psychosocial outcomes, including depressive symptoms, self-worth, social withdrawal, and externalizing behavior. Protective effects were found even after controlling for initial levels of outcome behavior and observed support from close friends throughout adolescence. Receiving support from a romantic partner may provide teens with new, positive ways of coping with adversity and help them avoid more serious distress that may be predicted from maternal negativity when such support is not available.

  20. The effect object paradigm--a means to support medication safety with clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patapovas, Andrius; Pfistermeister, Barbara; Tarkhov, Aleksey; Terfloth, Lothar; Maas, Renke; Fromm, Martin F; Kornhuber, Johannes; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Bürkle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, officially approved drug information known as summary of product characteristics (SPC) is mostly available in text form, which cannot be used for Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS). It may be essential however to substantiate CDSS advice with such legally binding text snippets. In an attempt to link various drug data sources including SPC towards a CDSS to support medication safety in psychiatric patients we arrived at the notion of an effect object. A requirements analysis revealed data items and data structure which are needed from the patient and from the drug information source for the CDSS functionality. Published drug data modelling approaches were analyzed and found unsuitable. A conceptional database modeling approach using top down and bottom up modeling was performed. The schema based data model implemented within the django framework centered on SPC "effect objects" which comprise all SPC data required for the respective CDSS function such as search for contraindications in the proposed medication. Today six effect objects have been defined for contraindications and warnings, missing indications, adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, dosing and pharmacokinetics. The transformation of SPC data to a database-driven "effect objects" structure permits decoupling between the CDSS functions and different underlying data sources and supports the design of reusable, stable and verified CDSS functions.

  1. Community resilience to climate change: an evidence review

    OpenAIRE

    Twigger-Ross, Clare; Brooks, Katya; Papadopoulou, Liza; Orr, Paula; Sadauskis, Rolands; Coke, Alexia; Simcock, Neil; Stirling, Andrew; Walker, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    The concept of community resilience to climate change in the UK has a diverse range of meanings and associated activities. This review of evidence and practice explores this varied and contested field to build the evidence base and help support the development of community resilience to climate change.\\ud \\ud The report shows:\\ud \\ud •the variety of actions being carried out across the UK that can be classed as improving resilience of communities to climate change;\\ud \\ud •the barriers and fa...

  2. Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    The second world to be considered concerns Meaning. In contrast to Reality and Play, this world relates to the people, disciplines, and domains that are focused on creating a certain value. For example, if this value is about providing students knowledge about physics, it involves teachers, the learning sciences, and the domains education and physics. This level goes into the aspects and criteria that designers need to take into account from this perspective. The first aspect seems obvious when we talk of “games with a serious purpose.” They have a purpose and this needs to be elaborated on, for example in terms of what “learning objectives” it attempts to achieve. The subsequent aspect is not about what is being pursued but how. To attain a value, designers have to think about a strategy that they employ. In my case this concerned looking at the learning paradigms that have come into existence in the past century and see what they have to tell us about learning. This way, their principles can be translated into a game environment. This translation involves making the strategy concrete. Or, in other words, operationalizing the plan. This is the third aspect. In this level, I will further specifically explain how I derived requirements from each of the learning paradigms, like reflection and exploration, and how they can possibly be related to games. The fourth and final aspect is the context in which the game is going to be used. It matters who uses the game and when, where, and how the game is going to be used. When designers have looked at these aspects, they have developed a “value proposal” and the worth of it may be judged by criteria, like motivation, relevance, and transfer. But before I get to this, I first go into how we human beings are meaning creators and what role assumptions, knowledge, and ambiguity have in this. I will illustrate this with some silly jokes about doctors and Mickey Mouse, and with an illusion.

  3. Regulatory T Cells As Supporters of Psychoimmune Resilience: Toward Immunotherapy of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ellul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that inflammation plays a role in major depressive disorder (MDD. As the main role of regulatory T cells (Tregs is to control inflammation, this might denote a Treg insufficiency in MDD. However, neither a qualitative nor a quantitative defect of Tregs has been ascertained and no causality direction between inflammation and depression has been established. Here, after reviewing the evidence supporting a relation between Treg insufficiency and MDD, we conclude that a novel therapeutic approach based on Treg stimulation could be valuable in at least the subset of patients with inflammatory MDD. Low-dose interleukin-2 appears to be a good candidate as it is not only a safe stimulator of Tregs in humans but also an inhibitor of pro-inflammatory Th17 lymphocytes. Here, we discuss that a thorough immune investigation as well as immunotherapy will be heuristic for deciphering the pathophysiology of MDD.

  4. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Hill Clarvis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilience thinking that have emerged from scholarship on social-ecological system resilience as a lens through which to assess investing in disaster risk reduction (DRR for resilience. It draws on an established framework of resilience principles and examples of resilience investments to explore how resilience principles can actually inform decisions around DRR and resilience investing. It proposes some key lessons for diversifying sources of finance in order to, in turn, enhance “financial resilience”. In doing so, it suggests a series of questions to align investments with resilience building, and to better balance the achievement of the resilience principles with financial requirements such as financial diversification and replicability. It argues for a critical look to be taken at how resilience principles, which focus on longer-term systems perspectives, could complement the focus in DRR on critical and immediate stresses.

  5. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  6. Identifying Resilient and Non-Resilient Middle-Adolescents in a Formerly Black-Only Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Bouwer, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non-resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient and non-resilient…

  7. Terrorism as war by other means: national security and state support for terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Ekmekci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional approach in the discipline of International Relations is to treat terrorist organizations as "non-state" actors of international relations. However, this approach is problematic due to the fact that most terrorist organizations are backed or exploited by some states. In this article, I take issue with the non-stateness of terrorist organizations and seek to answer the question of why so many states, at times, support terrorist organizations. I argue that in the face of rising threats to national security in an age of devastating wars, modern nation states tend to provide support to foreign terrorist organizations that work against their present and imminent enemies. I elaborate on my argument studying three cases of state support for terrorism: Iranian support for Hamas, Syrian support for the PKK, and American support for the MEK. The analyses suggest that, for many states, terror is nothing but war by other means.

  8. OPTIMALISASI SUPPORT VEKTOR MACHINE (SVM UNTUK KLASIFIKASI TEMA TUGAS AKHIR BERBASIS K-MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman Somantri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty in determining the classification of students final project theme often experienced by each college. The purpose of this study is to provide a decision support for policy makers in the study program so that each student can be achieved in accordance with their own competence. From the research that has been done text mining algorithms using Support Vector Machine ( SVM and K -Means as the technology used was produced a better accuracy rate with an accuracy rate of 86.21 % when compared to the SVM without K -Means is 85 , 38 %

  9. Supporting Resilience in the Academic Setting for Student Soldiers and Veterans as an Aspect of Community Reintegration: The Design of the Student Veteran Project Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa M. Smith-Osborne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Post 9/11 GI Bill is leading an increasing proportion of wounded warriors to enter universities. This paper describes the design and development of an adapted supported education intervention for veterans. The intervention trial was one of two projects which grew out of a participatory action research process aimed at supporting reintegration of returning veterans into the civilian community. This intervention is being tested in a foundation-funded randomized controlled trial in a large southwestern university, with participation now extended to student-veterans at colleges around the country. Some protective mechanisms which were found in theory and in prior research were also supported in early results. SEd intervention was associated with the protective mechanisms of support network density, higher mood, and resilience. Practitioners may benefit from the lessons learned in the development of this supported education intervention trial when considering implementation of this complementary intervention for veterans reintegrating into civilian life

  10. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Bassett, G.W.; Buehring, W.A.; Collins, M.J., III; Folga, S.M.; Petit, F.D.; Phillips, J.A.; Verner, D.R.; Whitfield, R.G. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-03

    the most critical asset-level components about which the least is known. Implementation of the strategies outlined here to assess resilience will facilitate the following four objectives: (1) Develop a methodology and supporting products to assess resilience at the asset/facility level, (2) Develop a methodology and supporting products to assess resilience at the critical infrastructure sector level, (3) Provide resilience-related information to critical infrastructure owners/operators to facilitate risk-based resource decision making, and (4) Provide resilience-related information to State and local mission partners to support their risk-based resource decision making.

  11. Toward a digital resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn J. Wright

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As we contend with human impacts on the biosphere, there is rightfully a great emphasis now on community adaptation and resilience to climate change. Recent innovations in information technologies and analyses are helping communities to become more resilient. However, not often discussed in this vein is a path toward digital resilience. If mapping and information tools are to help communities, it stands to reason that they must be resilient themselves, as well as the data that they are based on. In other words, digital tools can help make communities resilient by providing data, evidence-based advice on community decisions, etc., but the resilience of the tools themselves can also be an issue. Digital resilience means that to the greatest extent possible, data and tools should be freely accessible, interchangeable, operational, of high quality, and up-to-date so that they can help give rise to the resilience of communities or other entities using them. Given the speed at which humans are altering the biosphere, the usefulness and effectiveness of these technologies must keep pace. This article reviews and recommends three fundamental digital practices, particularly from the standpoint of geospatial data and for community resilience and policy-making. These are: (1 create and implement a culture that consistently shares not only data, but workflows and use cases with the data, especially within maps and geographic information systems or GIS; (2 use maps and other visuals to tell compelling stories that many different kinds of audiences will understand and remember; and (3 be more open to different kinds of partnerships to reduce project costs, yield better results, and foster public awareness and behavioral change.

  12. Resilient ledelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rygh, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Master i styring og ledelse Denne masteroppgaven bygger på litteraturanalyse og intervju med forskere, lederutviklere, ledere og tillitsvalgte. Oppgaven utvikler en hypotese om en resilient lederstil, diskuterer om og hvordan ledere kan bidra til å bedre resiliens hos underordnede, samt identifiserer hva som kan kjennetegne resilient ledelse. Resilient ledelse kan defineres som det en leder gjør for å bedre de underordnedes evne til å få mer psykologisk motstandskraft, det vil si gjør d...

  13. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolander, Catarina; Ahlstrom, Gerd

    2012-09-17

    To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study's empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Seventeen family members with a relative who 8-14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could encourage nurses and other health-care professionals to focus on family members

  14. The meaning and validation of social support networks for close family of persons with advanced cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjolander Catarina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To strengthen the mental well-being of close family of persons newly diagnosed as having cancer, it is necessary to acquire a greater understanding of their experiences of social support networks, so as to better assess what resources are available to them from such networks and what professional measures are required. The main aim of the present study was to explore the meaning of these networks for close family of adult persons in the early stage of treatment for advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. An additional aim was to validate the study’s empirical findings by means of the Finfgeld-Connett conceptual model for social support. The intention was to investigate whether these findings were in accordance with previous research in nursing. Methods Seventeen family members with a relative who 8–14 weeks earlier had been diagnosed as having lung or gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed. The data were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis and validated by means of identifying antecedents and critical attributes. Results The meaning or main attribute of the social support network was expressed by the theme Confirmation through togetherness, based on six subthemes covering emotional and, to a lesser extent, instrumental support. Confirmation through togetherness derived principally from information, understanding, encouragement, involvement and spiritual community. Three subthemes were identified as the antecedents to social support: Need of support, Desire for a deeper relationship with relatives, Network to turn to. Social support involves reciprocal exchange of verbal and non-verbal information provided mainly by lay persons. Conclusions The study provides knowledge of the antecedents and attributes of social support networks, particularly from the perspective of close family of adult persons with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer. There is a need for measurement instruments that could

  15. Resilience dimensions and mental health outcomes in bipolar disorder in a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echezarraga, A; Calvete, E; González-Pinto, A M; Las Hayas, C

    2018-02-01

    The individual process of resilience has been related to positive outcomes in mental disorders. We aimed (a) to identify the resilience domains from the Resilience Questionnaire for Bipolar Disorder that are associated cross sectionally and longitudinally with mental health outcomes in bipolar disorder (BD) and (b) to explore cross-lagged associations among resilience factors. A clinical adult sample of 125 patients diagnosed with BD (62.10% female, mean age = 46.13, SD = 10.89) gave their informed consent and completed a battery of disease-specific tools on resilience, personal recovery, symptomatology, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life, at baseline and at follow-up (n = 63, 58.10% female, mean age = 45.13, SD = 11.06, participation rate = 50.40%). Resilience domains of self-management of BD, turning point, self-care, and self-confidence were significantly associated with mental health indicators at baseline. In addition, self-confidence at baseline directly predicted an increase in personal recovery at follow-up, and self-confidence improvement mediated the relationship between interpersonal support and self-care at baseline and personal recovery at follow-up. These findings highlight that resilience domains are significantly associated with positive mental health outcomes in BD and that some predict personal recovery at follow-up. Moreover, some resilience factors improve other resilience factors over time. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Resilience in aging: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-05-01

    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging.

  17. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what

  18. From resilience thinking to Resilience Planning: Lessons from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellberg, M M; Ryan, P; Borgström, S T; Norström, A V; Peterson, G D

    2018-04-14

    Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Resilience Planning practitioners from nine organizations and reviewed strategic planning documents to investigate: 1) the key contributions of the approach to their existing strategic planning, and 2) what enabled and hindered the practitioners in applying and embedding the new approach in their organizations. Our results reveal that Resilience Planning contributed to developing a social-ecological systems perspective, more adaptive and collaborative approaches to planning, and that it clarified management goals of desirable resource conditions. Applying Resilience Planning required translating resilience thinking to practice in each unique circumstance, while simultaneously creating support among staff, and engaging external actors. Embedding Resilience Planning within organizations implied starting and maintaining longer-term change processes that required sustained multi-level organizational support. We conclude by identifying four lessons for successfully applying and embedding resilience practice in an organization: 1) to connect internal "entrepreneurs" to "interpreters" and "networkers" who work across organizations, 2) to assess the opportunity context for resilience practice, 3) to ensure that resilience practice is a learning process that engages internal and external actors, and 4) to develop reflective strategies for managing complexity and uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  19. Physical resilience of older cancer survivors: An emerging concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan-Porter, Wei; Cohen, Harvey J; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Sloane, Richard; Pendergast, Jane F; Snyder, Denise C; Morey, Miriam C

    2016-11-01

    To characterize factors contributing to physical resilience in older cancer survivors, as demonstrated by resistance to decline or recovery (resilience). We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of cancer survivors ≥65years old and ≥5years from cancer diagnoses. Physical function was assessed quarterly over 2years, with Short-Form 36 physical function subscale. Participants with ≥2 follow-up assessments (n=594) were evaluated for physical resilience: 1) Resistance was defined as lack of any decline, where decline was a drop of ≥13 points, and 2) resilience (i.e., recovery) was defined as regaining ≥50% of lost function, subsequent to decline. Mean age was 73.1years and 89.1% were Caucasian. Forty-nine percent (n=289) were resistant to decline in function; these individuals were younger, had higher education and income, were more likely to be Caucasian, and had higher baseline physical function (mean difference [MD] 7.8 points, 95% CI 5.0-10.8) and general health (MD 7.5 points, 95% CI 4.9-10.1). Fifty-seven percent (n=137 of 239) demonstrated resilience, with 91.2% (n=125) recovering within 6months of declines; these participants had higher baseline physical function (MD 6.6 points, 95% CI 1.8-11.4), but similar pre-decline function. More participants who were resistant, and more who showed resilience, reported high self-efficacy and social support. The majority of older cancer survivors exhibited physical resilience; this was associated with high baseline health, physical function, self-efficacy, and social support. Assessing and targeting psychosocial factors may be important for interventions seeking to promote physical resilience. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Supporting therapy selection in computerized clinical guidelines by means of decision theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Stefania; Terenziani, Paolo; Bottrighi, Alessio

    2007-01-01

    Supporting therapy selection is a fundamental task for a system for the computerized management of clinical guidelines (GL). The goal is particularly critical when no alternative is really better than the others, from a strictly clinical viewpoint. In these cases, decision theory appears to be a very suitable means to provide advice. In this paper, we describe how algorithms for calculating utility, and for evaluating the optimal policy, can be exploited to fit the GL management context.

  1. Striving for meaning-Life in supported housing for people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin, Rosita; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael; Syrén, Susanne; Sandgren, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a grounded theory about people with psychiatric disabilities, living in supported housing. Interviews as well as observations during the interviews were analyzed together with secondary analyses of quantitative and qualitative material from previous studies. Being deprived of self-determination emerged as the main concern for residents in supported housing and striving for meaning emerged as the pattern of behavior through which this group resolves their main concern. Striving for meaning involves living in the present, striving for self-determination, strengthening self-esteem, emotional processing and resting from the present. The strategies facilitate each other and are used singly, together simultaneously, or alternately. If they are successful, a meaning in the present is perceived. If all the strategies fail repeatedly, escaping from the present is used in order to deal with being deprived of self-determination. The implications of the findings suggest prioritizing a reduction of the institutional nature of the social and physical environment, and to support the residents' self-determination.

  2. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  3. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF GIFTED STUDENTS FROM CARPATHIAN MOUNTAIN AREAS BY MEANS OF FOLK ART CRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kozlovska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented at the Conference Plenary the possibilities of pedagogical support of gifted students from vocational schools, living in the mountainous areas of the Carpathians. Education of talented and gifted students requires pedagogical support. The specific conditions, in which Carpathian students live, require the development of pedagogical support of their abilities. New approaches to teaching science, which led to the selection of topics of this article are described. Gifted personalities differ from their peers by same criterias. The social aspect of the problem remains in the shadow: not to be ashamed of your talent and not to compare it with cliches. And goals of educators and psychologists have to be slightly different as is common. Widespread  Carpathian crafts include: embroidery, artistic textiles producing, carpet manufacture, carving, pottery, metalworking, fabric painting, knitting, lace, artistic weaving, artistic working of  leather, stones, bones and horns. Nowadays, some detachment of mountainous regions has significantly reduced due to new means of communication, including the Internet. The possibilities of colleges in mountainous regions still cannot reach the level of the colleges in capital. In Carpathian and Prykrpattya regions there is a number of vocational schools of art direction. During the execution of creative work in class industrial training necessary for students to comply with the rules of relationships form and decoration in various ways: decorative motif obeys the functional form, enriching it artistic and creative solutions, utilitarian function obeys the decorative motif Products, the form of the product can be extremely decorative, artistic and creative product solutions focused on practical value and decorative value of the product. Pedagogical support of gifted students from art colleges in the Carpathian region has extremely wide range of opportunities. The problem of finding and nurturing

  4. Building Coastal Resilience to sea-level rise and storm hazards: supporting decisions in the NE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and eastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, C.; Beck, M. W.; Gilmer, B.; Ferdana, Z.; Raber, G.; Agostini, V.; Whelchel, A.; Stone, J.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to coastal hazards including storm surge and sea level rise. We describe the use of Coastal Resilience, an approach to help support decisions to reduce socio-economic and ecological vulnerability to coastal hazards. We provide examples of this work from towns and cities around Long Island Sound (NY, CT) and the Gulf of Mexico (FL, AL, MS, LA, TX) in the USA and from the Eastern Caribbean (Grenada, St. Vincent and the Grenadines). All of these shores are densely populated and have significant coastal development only centimetres above the sea. This makes people and property very vulnerable and threatens coastal wetlands (marsh, mangrove) and reefs (oyster, coral) that provide habitat and natural buffers to storms while providing other ecosystem services. We describe this work specifically and then offer broader perspectives and recommendations for using ecological habitats to reduce vulnerability to coastal hazards. The Nature Conservancy's Coastal Resilience approach is driven by extensive community engagement and uses spatial information on storm surge, sea level rise, ecological and socio-economic variables to identify options for reducing the vulnerability of human and natural communities to coastal hazards (http://www.coastalresilience.org). We have worked with local communities to map current and future coastal hazards and to identify the vulnerable natural resources and human communities. Communities are able to visualize potential hazard impacts and identify options to reduce them within their existing planning and regulatory frameworks.

  5. Resilience processes in sexually abused adolescent girls: A scoping review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiyya Haffejee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood sexual abuse is often associated with a number of deleterious psychological and behavioural outcomes for survivors. However, some research suggests that this impact is variable and that some survivors adapt positively. An ability to adapt positively to adversity, under any circumstances, has been termed resilience. Drawing on a socio-ecological understanding of resilience, the aim of this scoping review was to comprehensively map existing empirical studies on resilience processes in sexually abused adolescent girls and to summarise emerging resilience-enabling factors. We also considered the implications of the findings for practice and research. A total of 11 articles met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Findings from these studies suggest that internal factors (meaning making, optimistic future orientation, agency and mastery and contextual factors (supportive family, social and educational environments function interdependently to enable resilience in sexually abused adolescent girls. Practitioners should leverage these complementary and interdependent resilience-enabling mechanisms by encouraging greater involvement of girls in the planning of interventions and by assisting girls in developing meaningful narratives about their abuse experiences. Interventions should also encourage greater involvement from supportive structures, while challenging social and cultural norms that inhibit resilience. Resilience researchers should be cognisant of the paucity of research focusing on resilience processes in sexually abused adolescent girls as well as the absence of innovative, participatory methods of data collection. Significance: The review adds to a body of literature on resilience processes with implications for resilience researchers. The findings have implications for a range of practitioners (psychologists, social workers, teachers etc. who work with sexually abused girls.

  6. Optimal Resilient Dynamic Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    updates in $O(\\log n+\\delta)$ amortized time. Our dynamic dictionary also supports range queries in $O(\\log n+\\delta+t)$ worst case time, where $t$ is the size of the output. Finally, we show that every resilient search tree (with some reasonable properties) must take~$\\Omega(\\log n + \\delta)$ worst...

  7. Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, B.; Whelchel, A.; Newkirk, S.; Beck, M.; Shepard, C.; Ferdana, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound’s private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea levels and other coastal hazards. These impacts also threaten wetlands and other coastal ecosystems that provide habitat, natural buffers to storms, and other ecosystem services. Despite a growing awareness of global climate change, local decision makers still lack the tools to examine different management objectives as sea levels rise and coastal hazards increase. The Coastal Resilience project provides tools and information to better inform decision-making with a primary goal of identifying vulnerable human and natural communities, while illustrating the important role that ecosystems will play in the face of sea level rise and increased storm intensity. This study focuses on The Nature Conservancy’s use of innovative spatial analysis techniques and community engagement to identify and plan for the protection of vulnerable coastal communities and ecosystems, natural resource migration, and economic risk. This work is intended to help identify ecosystem based adaptation solutions in the face of global climate change. The Nature Conservancy, working with multiple partners such as the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, deliver this information via the internet to help local decision makers keep the environment and public safety in mind.

  8. Impact of stress, coping, social support, and resilience of families having children with autism: A North East India-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamanta; Das, Bornali; Nath, Kakoli; Dutta, Arunima; Bora, Priyanka; Hazarika, Mythili

    2017-08-01

    Children with autism (CWA) is a segment of population in North East India who are marginalized due to lack of resources like skilled manpower and perceived stress. In comparison to other states and countries whether these children are unique in terms of care and rehabilitation from adult caregivers was the focus of our study. The study assessed level of parental stress, social support, coping mechanisms used by family and resilience in meeting the challenges as caregivers. Parents were selected by simple random sampling from a multi-specialty center dedicated to CWA. They were assessed with the help of structured tools like the Parental Stress Scale, the social support appraisals scale, the coping self-efficacy scale, and the Family Resilience Assessment Scale. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and findings suggest definite stress among the parents of CWA. Personal time constraint was noticed in majority of parents, which had adversely affected their professional lives. Despite wide array of stress factors, family members had satisfactory coping skills to work in harmony in adverse circumstances. Regarding secondary social support in terms of family, friends, and neighbors, responses were mixed; religious and spirituality were often resorted avenues. Social desirability, fatigue and the sample being restricted to only one center were though the limitations but, this study throws light on pertinent issues related to families with CWA from a region where specialty centers are a rarity. The future implication could focus on CWA's future, rehabilitation, care and parental concerns which are grossly neglected in North East India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Resilience in nursing students: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Jean; Revell, Susan Hunter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this integrative review was to investigate the state of knowledge on resilience in nursing students. Specifically the authors sought to define and describe the concept, and identify factors that affect and evaluate strategies to promote resilience in nursing students. Integrative literature review. Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL), Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and PsychINFO electronic databases were searched for publications between 1990 and 2014. Search terms included resilience, student, nurse, nursing student, hardiness, emotional resilience, research, resili*, and nurse*. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative approach was utilized to conduct the methodological review. Each article was assessed with an appraisal tool. The search resulted in the inclusion of nine articles. The majority of the literature utilized definitions of resilience from the discipline of psychology. One exception was a definition developed within nursing specific to nursing students. Factors that affect resilience were grouped into three themes: support, time, and empowerment. Strategies to promote resilience in nursing students were found in three of the nine articles, but their methods and findings were disparate. This review provides information about the concept of resilience in nursing students. Faculty awareness of the importance of resilience in nursing students can better prepare students for the role of the professional nurse. Support from family, friends and faculty impact a student's resilience. Through closely working with students in advisement, the clinical arena and the classroom faculty can promote resilience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Support Vector Data Descriptions and k-Means Clustering: One Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Nico; Lima, Luiz Alberto; Muller, Klaus-Robert; Kloft, Marius; Nakajima, Shinichi

    2017-09-27

    We present ClusterSVDD, a methodology that unifies support vector data descriptions (SVDDs) and k-means clustering into a single formulation. This allows both methods to benefit from one another, i.e., by adding flexibility using multiple spheres for SVDDs and increasing anomaly resistance and flexibility through kernels to k-means. In particular, our approach leads to a new interpretation of k-means as a regularized mode seeking algorithm. The unifying formulation further allows for deriving new algorithms by transferring knowledge from one-class learning settings to clustering settings and vice versa. As a showcase, we derive a clustering method for structured data based on a one-class learning scenario. Additionally, our formulation can be solved via a particularly simple optimization scheme. We evaluate our approach empirically to highlight some of the proposed benefits on artificially generated data, as well as on real-world problems, and provide a Python software package comprising various implementations of primal and dual SVDD as well as our proposed ClusterSVDD.

  11. Creating Meanings and Supportive Networks on the Spiritual Internet Forum "The Nest of Angels"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Uibu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the ethnographic study of Estonian spiritual Internet forum The Nest of Angels, the article observes the process of sharing virtual social support and creating-confirming spiritual meanings. The forum, explicitly opposing the consumeristic side of new spirituality, has become popular and demonstrates the nature and various roles of contemporary spiritual angels. The study identifies two main modes in which the Nest and the presence of angels might be useful for users. Firstly, emotional support is shared, either by fellow users directly or by confirmations that angels will definitely help. Secondly, the Nest allows people to acquire knowledge both on spiritual and practical issues. As the Nest is dialogical, users can pose questions and find confirmations for their otherwise deviant experiences. Discussions in the Nest encourage everybody to interpret some situations and objects (like feathers as signs from angels. This interpreting process might change people’s perceptions of the world by adding a layer of positive emotions. The study demonstrates how the angelic presence (or at least endeavour towards the presence helps to establish and keep the tonality of benevolence which functions as the cornerstone of this virtual space. The Nest supports a specific epistemological stance manifested in the angelic, traditional ‘feminine’ values of empathy, softness, and caring. Angels and the idea of angelic presence is the main factor helping to keep the ‘high-vibrational’ and benevolent atmosphere of the forum and empowering the users inside the traditional understanding of ‘feminine softness’.

  12. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  13. Oyster Reefs Support Coastal Resilience by Altering Nearshore Salinity: An Observational and Modeling Study to Quantify a "Keystone" Ecosystem Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. A.; Olabarrieta, M.; Frederick, P.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2016-12-01

    Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water "dams". We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a "keystone" ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i.e., brackish) conditions in the near-shore environment. In this work, we investigated the effects of shore-parallel reefs on near-shore salinity using field data and hydrodynamic modeling in a degraded reef complex in Suwannee Sound (Florida, USA). Results suggested that freshwater detention by long linear chains of oyster reefs plays an important role in modulating salinities, not only in the oysters' local environment, but over extensive estuarine areas (tens of square kilometers). Field data confirmed the presence of salinity differences between landward and seaward sides of the reef, with long-term mean salinity differences of >30% between sides. Modeled results expanded experimental findings by illustrating how oyster reefs affect the lateral and offshore extent of freshwater influence. In general, the effects of simulated reefs were most pronounced when they were highest in elevation, without gaps, and when riverine discharge was low. Taken together, these results describe a poorly documented ecosystem service provided by oyster reefs; provide an estimate of the magnitude and spatial extent of this service; and offer quantitative information to help guide future oyster reef restoration.

  14. Comprehensive modeling of monthly mean soil temperature using multivariate adaptive regression splines and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2017-07-01

    Soil temperature (T s) and its thermal regime are the most important factors in plant growth, biological activities, and water movement in soil. Due to scarcity of the T s data, estimation of soil temperature is an important issue in different fields of sciences. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the accuracy of multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and support vector machine (SVM) methods for estimating the T s. For this aim, the monthly mean data of the T s (at depths of 5, 10, 50, and 100 cm) and meteorological parameters of 30 synoptic stations in Iran were utilized. To develop the MARS and SVM models, various combinations of minimum, maximum, and mean air temperatures (T min, T max, T); actual and maximum possible sunshine duration; sunshine duration ratio (n, N, n/N); actual, net, and extraterrestrial solar radiation data (R s, R n, R a); precipitation (P); relative humidity (RH); wind speed at 2 m height (u 2); and water vapor pressure (Vp) were used as input variables. Three error statistics including root-mean-square-error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and determination coefficient (R 2) were used to check the performance of MARS and SVM models. The results indicated that the MARS was superior to the SVM at different depths. In the test and validation phases, the most accurate estimations for the MARS were obtained at the depth of 10 cm for T max, T min, T inputs (RMSE = 0.71 °C, MAE = 0.54 °C, and R 2 = 0.995) and for RH, V p, P, and u 2 inputs (RMSE = 0.80 °C, MAE = 0.61 °C, and R 2 = 0.996), respectively.

  15. Association between morningness and resilience in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Jin; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Cheol-Soon; Cha, Boseok; Lee, Yu Jin; Soh, Minah; Park, Jin Ah; Young, Park So; Song, Eun Hye

    2016-01-01

    Circadian typology and sleep quality may be essential factors associated with the promotion of resilience. However, previous studies investigating the association between circadian typology and resilience did not analyze the effects of sleep quality on resilience. Thus, the present study evaluated the association between circadian typology and resilience in Korean college students after controlling for sleep quality. Additionally, this study investigated several sleep-related variables, including sleep duration, social jetlag and sunlight exposure during the daytime, to examine the modifiable behavioral features of morningness and also investigated whether the findings regarding morningness-related modifiable habits were associated with resilience. This study included 1094 participants (947 males and 147 females) between 19 and 29 years of age (22.8 ± 1.9 years) who completed the 10-item Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), the Korean version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Korean version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a survey about social jetlag that determined misalignments between weekday and weekend times of awakening and activity duration under conditions of sunlight between 10:00 and 15:00. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sleep duration, mean daily sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 15:00 and age were positive predictors of morningness, whereas social jetlag was a negative predictor of morningness. Of these morningness-related modifiable behavioral features, mean daily sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 15:00 significantly predicted greater resilience. An additional multiple linear regression analysis revealed that morningness was a positive predictor of resilience after controlling for age, sex, depression, anxiety and sleep quality. These results support the idea that morningness and better sleep quality are

  16. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011. Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many researches. Of all this recent and varied range of literature, our focus is on those texts that combine resilience with strategies, processes and models for resilient cities, communities and regions. Starting from the resilience strategies developed as response for risks mitigation, the paper thus explores other approaches and experiences on cities resilience that have been conducted: the aim is to compare and identify innovation in the planning process towards risks mitigation. In this paper we present a summary of the initial survey stage of our research, with three main aims: understanding the approaches to resilience developed so far and identifying which aspects these approaches share (or not;understanding which strategies are being proposed for resilient regions, cities or social-ecological systems;understanding whether proposed resilience strategies involve innovations in urban and regional development disciplines. The aim is to understand whether the proposed concept of resilience, or rather strategies, constitute progress and contribute to innovation in the areas of urban planning and design in relation to risk mitigation. Three main families of literature have been identified from the recent literature promoting resilience as a key strategy. The first aim of the research is to understand which particular concept and which aspects of resilience are used, which resilience strategies are proposed, how the term ‘city’ is defined and interpreted

  17. Additional safety assessment of common means or support of the Marcoule centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report first presents some characteristics of the Marcoule centre: location and environment, base nuclear installations and other installations, technical installations and installations classified for protection of the environment which could affect the safety of nearby installations, demographic and industrial environment and risks generated for the site's installations, general description of crisis management means. The second part addresses situations to be considered, functional needs related to additional safety assessments, needs in terms of support functions, and critical structures and equipment. The next parts address the seismic risk (structure and equipment sizing, margin assessment, flooding due to an earthquake, loss of electric supply due to an earthquake), the flooding risk (flooding sources, main alarm measures, structure and equipment sizing and availability for crisis management during a flooding from different origins), other extreme phenomena (lightning, hail, wind, external fire), the loss of electric supplies and the loss of cooling systems, the organisation of accident management, and subcontracting practices

  18. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David

    2018-04-25

    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. The support of local farming communities and crop production resilience to climate change through the cultivation of giant reed (Arundo donax sp.). An Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Impagliazzo, Adriana; Fiorentino, Nunzio; Langella, Giuliano; Mori, Mauro; Fagnano, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    (SDG) of United Nations: (i) SDG 2 on food security and sustainable agriculture, (ii) SDG 7 on reliable, sustainable and modern energy and (iii) SDG 13 on action to combat climate change and its impacts. Therefore, in order to support the resilience of local farming communities and food production, a mitigation action to face climate change can be bases on the assessment of the possible increase of farmers' incomes derived by the cultivation of bioenergy crops in their marginal areas. On these premises, we have evaluated the giant reed responses in the marginal areas of an agricultural district of southern Italy (Destra Sele) and evaluated the expected farmers' income in a near future (2021-2050) through a simulation model application. In order to realize this applicative and pro-active approach to farmer support, the normalized water productivity index of giant reed has been determined, through the use of agro-hydrological model SWAP, calibrated and validated on two years of long term field experiment on giant reed, realized within of study area. Keywords: Climate Change; SWAP; giant reed;water productivity (WP); Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)

  20. Stroke localization and classification using microwave tomography with k-means clustering and support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Abbosh, Amin

    2018-05-01

    For any chance for stroke patients to survive, the stroke type should be classified to enable giving medication within a few hours of the onset of symptoms. In this paper, a microwave-based stroke localization and classification framework is proposed. It is based on microwave tomography, k-means clustering, and a support vector machine (SVM) method. The dielectric profile of the brain is first calculated using the Born iterative method, whereas the amplitude of the dielectric profile is then taken as the input to k-means clustering. The cluster is selected as the feature vector for constructing and testing the SVM. A database of MRI-derived realistic head phantoms at different signal-to-noise ratios is used in the classification procedure. The performance of the proposed framework is evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The results based on a two-dimensional framework show that 88% classification accuracy, with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 87%, can be achieved. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:312-324, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Framework To Support Management Of HIVAIDS Using K-Means And Random Forest Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Iseu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare industry generates large amounts of complex data about patients hospital resources disease management electronic patient records and medical devices among others. The availability of these huge amounts of medical data creates a need for powerful mining tools to support health care professionals in diagnosis treatment and management of HIVAIDS. Several data mining techniques have been used in management of different data sets. Data mining techniques have been categorized into regression algorithms segmentation algorithms association algorithms sequence analysis algorithms and classification algorithms. In the medical field there has not been a specific study that has incorporated two or more data mining algorithms hence limiting decision making levels by medical practitioners. This study identified the extent to which K-means algorithm cluster patient characteristics it has also evaluated the extent to which random forest algorithm can classify the data for informed decision making as well as design a framework to support medical decision making in the treatment of HIVAIDS related diseases in Kenya. The paper further used random forest classification algorithm to compute proximities between pairs of cases that can be used in clustering locating outliers or by scaling to give interesting views of the data.

  2. Robust Least-Squares Support Vector Machine With Minimization of Mean and Variance of Modeling Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinjiang; Liu, Wenbo; Zhou, Chuang; Huang, Minghui

    2017-06-13

    The least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is a popular data-driven modeling method and has been successfully applied to a wide range of applications. However, it has some disadvantages, including being ineffective at handling non-Gaussian noise as well as being sensitive to outliers. In this paper, a robust LS-SVM method is proposed and is shown to have more reliable performance when modeling a nonlinear system under conditions where Gaussian or non-Gaussian noise is present. The construction of a new objective function allows for a reduction of the mean of the modeling error as well as the minimization of its variance, and it does not constrain the mean of the modeling error to zero. This differs from the traditional LS-SVM, which uses a worst-case scenario approach in order to minimize the modeling error and constrains the mean of the modeling error to zero. In doing so, the proposed method takes the modeling error distribution information into consideration and is thus less conservative and more robust in regards to random noise. A solving method is then developed in order to determine the optimal parameters for the proposed robust LS-SVM. An additional analysis indicates that the proposed LS-SVM gives a smaller weight to a large-error training sample and a larger weight to a small-error training sample, and is thus more robust than the traditional LS-SVM. The effectiveness of the proposed robust LS-SVM is demonstrated using both artificial and real life cases.

  3. Multidimensional Resilience in Urban Children Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Deborah A.; Schwab-Stone, Mary E.; Muyeed, Adaline Z.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how parent, school, and peer support differentially affected resilience among urban sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-graders. Findings indicated that both parent and school support factors positively related to resilience in children who had been exposed to community violence; however, peer support negatively related to resilience in…

  4. Relationship among resilience, self-esteem, depression, and coping

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Kodama, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Relationship among resilience, self-esteem, depression, and coping was investigated. University students (n = 277) completed four questionnaires that measured the above variables. Resilience means a psychological trait for maintaining mental health during stressful events. Results indicated the following. (1) There was no gender difference in resilience. (2) There was a positive correlation between resilience and self-esteem. (3) There was a negative correlation between resilience and depress...

  5. Resilience and hope during advanced disease: a pilot study with metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Joao Paulo Consentino; da Silva, Amanda Gomes; Soares, Ivan Agurtov; Ashmawi, Hazem Adel; Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    2016-08-02

    The balance between hope-hopelessness plays an important role in the way terminally ill patients report quality of life, and personal resilience may be related to hope at the end of life. The objective of this study was to explore associations between personal resilience, hope, and other possible predictors of hope in advanced cancer patients. A cross-sectional pilot study was carried out with metastatic colorectal cancer patients in a tertiary hospital. The patients answered the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Herth Hope Index, Barthel Index, an instrument addressing family and social support, visual-numeric scales for pain and suffering, a two-item screening for depression, socio-demographic and socio-economic information about the family. Forty-four patients were interviewed (mean age 56 years; range 29-86). A strong correlation was noted between resilience and hope (0.63; p resilience (p = 0.005) and hope (p = 0.003), and higher scores of suffering (p resilience and hope kept stable after adjusting for age, gender, and presence of depression (p resilience is a dynamic, changeable path that can improve hope, resilience-fostering interventions should be most valued in palliative care settings and should be commenced as soon as possible with cancer patients. Patients with advanced stages of non-malignant conditions would also probably benefit from such interventions.

  6. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  7. Post-Traumatic Growth and Resilience in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greup, Suzanne R; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Thong, Melissa S Y; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Prins, Judith B; Husson, Olga

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Qualitative interview studies showed that AYA cancer patients report PTG and resilience: PTG is described by AYA cancer patients in terms of benefit finding, including changing view of life and feeling stronger and more confident, whereas resilience is described as a balance of several factors, including stress and coping, goals, optimism, finding meaning, connection, and belonging. Quantitative studies showed that sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were not associated with PTG. Enduring stress was negatively, and social support positively, associated with PTG. Symptom distress and defensive coping were negatively and adaptive cognitive coping was positively associated with resilience. Both PTG and resilience were positively associated with satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Resilience was found to be a mediator in the relationship between symptom distress and HRQoL. Two interventions aiming to promote resilience, a stress management and a therapeutic music video-intervention, were not successful in significantly increasing overall resilience. Most AYA cancer patients report at least some PTG or resilience. Correlates of PTG and resilience, including symptom distress, stress, coping, social support, and physical activity, provide further insight to improve the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting these positive outcomes and potentially buffer negative outcomes.

  8. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  9. Using clinical decision support as a means of implementing a universal postpartum depression screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Holly; Nentin, Farida; Silverman, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    A major barrier to the diagnosis of postpartum depression (PPD) includes symptom detection. The lack of awareness and understanding of PPD among new mothers, the variability in clinical presentation, and the various diagnostic strategies can increase this further. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of adding clinical decision support (CDS) to the electronic health record (EHR) as a means of implementing a universal standardized PPD screening program within a large, at high risk, population. All women returning to the Mount Sinai Hospital OB/GYN Ambulatory Practice for postpartum care between 2010 and 2013 were presented with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in response to a CDS "hard stop" built into the EHR. Of the 2102 women who presented for postpartum care, 2092 women (99.5 %) were screened for PPD in response to a CDS hard stop module. Screens were missing on ten records (0.5 %) secondary to refusal, language barrier, or lack of clarity in the EHR. Technology is becoming increasingly important in addressing the challenges faced by health care providers. While the identification of PPD has become the recent focus of public health concerns secondary to the significant social burden, numerous barriers to screening still exist within the clinical setting. The utility of adding CDS in the form of a hard stop, requiring clinicians to enter a standardized PPD mood assessment score to the patient EHR, offers a sufficient way to address a primary barrier to PPD symptom identification at the practitioner level.

  10. [Means of support, fertility, and social reproduction among peasants: three approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, O

    1991-01-01

    This article examines interpretations regarding the relationship between means of support and fertility, taking into account views on social reproduction among peasants, with emphasis on the way they are expressed in terms of indicators. The author begins with a brief summary of theories put forth by Malthus, and then examines Neo-Malthusian models which use as an independent variable, the amount of land and as a dependent variable, the number of children. He notes the existence of a positive ratio between these variables, and then demonstrates that in Chayanov's model, the number of children is used as an independent variable, while the idea of a positive ratio with the amount of land is still maintained. He compares these assumptions with those of Palerm, who suggests the existence of an inverse ratio between the amount of land available and fertility; this leads to policy implications contrary to those arising from neo-Malthusian models. The paper ends with a discussion of assumptions about the rationality, motivations, and guiding values the different approaches attribute to economic and demographic behavior among peasants.

  11. Children's resilience and trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy: Comparing resilience as an outcome, a trait, and a process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happer, Kaitlin; Brown, Elissa J; Sharma-Patel, Komal

    2017-11-01

    Resilience, which is associated with relatively positive outcomes following negative life experiences, is an important research target in the field of child maltreatment (Luthar et al., 2000). The extant literature contains multiple conceptualizations of resilience, which hinders development in research and clinical utility. Three models emerge from the literature: resilience as an immediate outcome (i.e., behavioral or symptom response), resilience as a trait, and resilience as a dynamic process. The current study compared these models in youth undergoing trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy. Results provide the most support for resilience as a process, in which increase in resilience preceded associated decrease in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. There was partial support for resilience conceptualized as an outcome, and minimal support for resilience as a trait. Results of the models are compared and discussed in the context of existing literature and in light of potential clinical implications for maltreated youth seeking treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Resilience among asylum seekers living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orton Lois

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small body of evidence demonstrates the challenges faced by migrant communities living with HIV but has yet to consider in-depth the experience of asylum seekers whose residency status is undetermined. The overall aim of our study was to explore the experiences of those who are both living with HIV and seeking asylum. This paper focuses on the stressors precipitated by the HIV diagnosis and by going through the asylum system; as well as participants’ resilience in responding to these stressors and the consequences for their health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted an ethnographic study. Fieldwork took place in the UK between 2008–2009 and included: 350 hours of observation at voluntary services providing support to black and minority ethnic groups living with HIV; 29 interviews and four focus group discussions with those who were seeking asylum and living with HIV; and 15 interviews with their health and social care providers. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Results There were three main stressors that threatened participants’ resilience. First, migration caused them to leave behind many resources (including social support. Second, stigmatising attitudes led their HIV diagnosis to be a taboo subject furthering their isolation. Third, they found themselves trapped in the asylum system, unable to influence the outcome of their case and reliant on HIV treatment to stay alive. Participants were, however, very resourceful in dealing with these experiences. Resilience processes included: staying busy, drawing on personal faith, and the support received through HIV care providers and voluntary organisations. Even so, their isolated existence meant participants had limited access to social resources, and their treatment in the asylum system had a profound impact on perceived health and wellbeing. Conclusions Asylum seekers living with HIV in the UK show immense resilience. However, their isolation

  13. Resilience among asylum seekers living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A small body of evidence demonstrates the challenges faced by migrant communities living with HIV but has yet to consider in-depth the experience of asylum seekers whose residency status is undetermined. The overall aim of our study was to explore the experiences of those who are both living with HIV and seeking asylum. This paper focuses on the stressors precipitated by the HIV diagnosis and by going through the asylum system; as well as participants’ resilience in responding to these stressors and the consequences for their health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted an ethnographic study. Fieldwork took place in the UK between 2008–2009 and included: 350 hours of observation at voluntary services providing support to black and minority ethnic groups living with HIV; 29 interviews and four focus group discussions with those who were seeking asylum and living with HIV; and 15 interviews with their health and social care providers. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Results There were three main stressors that threatened participants’ resilience. First, migration caused them to leave behind many resources (including social support). Second, stigmatising attitudes led their HIV diagnosis to be a taboo subject furthering their isolation. Third, they found themselves trapped in the asylum system, unable to influence the outcome of their case and reliant on HIV treatment to stay alive. Participants were, however, very resourceful in dealing with these experiences. Resilience processes included: staying busy, drawing on personal faith, and the support received through HIV care providers and voluntary organisations. Even so, their isolated existence meant participants had limited access to social resources, and their treatment in the asylum system had a profound impact on perceived health and wellbeing. Conclusions Asylum seekers living with HIV in the UK show immense resilience. However, their isolation means they are often unable

  14. Immediate integration of novel meanings: N400 support for an embodied view of language comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chwilla, D.J.; Kolk, H.H.J.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    A substantial part of language understanding depends on our previous experiences, but part of it consists of the creation of new meanings. Such new meanings cannot be retrieved from memory but still have to be constructed. The goals of this article were: first, to explore the nature of new meaning

  15. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Matzka

    Full Text Available Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships.A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10, social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL. Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables.Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163 = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]. Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59, and positively associated with activity level (β = .20. The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33 but not social support (β = .10, p = .12.Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  16. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Martin; Mayer, Hanna; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Moses-Passini, Christina; Dubey, Catherine; Jahn, Patrick; Schneeweiss, Sonja; Eicher, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships. A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables. Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163) = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI) = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]). Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59), and positively associated with activity level (β = .20). The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33) but not social support (β = .10, p = .12). Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are

  17. Building resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2011-04-01

    Failure is a familiar trauma in life, but its effects on people differ widely. Some reel, recover, and move on with their lives; others get bogged down by anxiety, depression, and fear of the future. Seligman, who is known as the father of positive psychology, has spent three decades researching failure, helplessness, and optimism. He created a program at the University of Pennsylvania to help young adults and children overcome anxiety and depression, and has worked with colleagues from around the world to develop a program for teaching resilience. That program is being tested by the U.S. Army, an organization of 1.1 million people where trauma is more common and more severe than in any corporate setting. Nevertheless, businesspeo-ple can draw lessons from resilience training, particularly in times of failure and stagnation. The program is called Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, and it has three components: the Global Assessment Tool, a test for psychological fitness (administered to more than 900,000 soldiers to date); self-improvement courses following the test; and "master resilience training" (MRT) for drill sergeants. MRT focuses on enhancing mental toughness, highlighting and honing strengths, and fostering strong relationships-core competencies for any successful manager.

  18. Quantifying resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  19. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta L Timpane-Padgham

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9, population- (6, community- (7, ecosystem- (7, or process-level attributes (16. Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1 including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2 considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3 certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to

  20. Intertextuality and Multimodal Meanings in High School Physics: Written and Spoken Language in Computer-Supported Collaborative Student Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kok-Sing; Tan, Seng-Chee

    2017-01-01

    The study in this article examines and illustrates the intertextual meanings made by a group of high school science students as they embarked on a knowledge building discourse to solve a physics problem. This study is situated in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment designed to support student learning through a science…

  1. Adolescent Resilience in Northern Uganda: The Role of Social Support and Prosocial Behavior in Reducing Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura K.; Bolton, Paul; Betancourt, Theresa; Bass, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between prosocial behavior, perceived social support, and improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms over 6 months among 102 Acholi adolescent (14-17 years, 58% female adolescents) survivors of war and displacement in Northern Uganda. Adolescents were assessed using a locally developed screener. Regression analyses…

  2. Functional Assessment and Positive Support Strategies for Promoting Resilience: Effects on Teachers and High-Risk Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoiber, Karen Callan; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an experimental analysis of teachers' use of functional assessment (FA) and positive behavior support (PBS) for addressing challenging behaviors in young children. A group of 35 experimental teachers participated in professional development designed to provide step-by-step training and guided implementation…

  3. Assessment instruments of urban resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Saporiti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to highlight the aspects related to the resilient capacity of a neoecosistema. Clarifying what does it means to speak about a resilient neoecosistema and which are the specific characters that make him capable of change and adaptation when facing an environmental, social or economic threat, it will be possible to understand the efficacy related to the model of urban development. From the individuation of perturbing factors of this capacity, it will be possible to generate a panel of the resilient capacity linked to three different ambits that represent the three characteristic elements of natural ecosystems: its physic structure, the persons and the interaction processes between them so we would be able to make explicit the specific characters of resilience distinguished from those of sustainability and urban quality.  

  4. Resilience | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widely accepted (Gunderson 2000, cited under Original Definition). Currently, the concept is commonplace in academics, management, and policy. Although the idea has quantitative roots in the ecological sciences and was proposed as a measurable quality of ecosystems, the broad use of resilience led to an expansion of definitions and applications. Holling’s original definition, presented in 1973 (Holling 1973, cited under Original Definition), was simply the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain. Ecological resilience, therefore, emphasizes that the dynamics of complex systems are nonlinear, meaning that these systems can transition, often abruptly, between dynamic states with substantially different structures, functions, and processes. The transition of ecological systems from one state to another frequently has important repercussions for humans. Recent definitions are more normative and qualitative, especially in the social sciences, and a competing definition, that of engineering resilience, is still often used. Resilience is an emergent phenomenon of complex systems, which means it cannot be deduced from the behavior of t

  5. Social Networks, Engagement and Resilience in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Rosa; Fulgueiras-Carril, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of social networks may be a useful tool for understanding the relationship between resilience and engagement, and this could be applied to educational methodologies, not only to improve academic performance, but also to create emotionally sustainable networks. This descriptive study was carried out on 134 university students. We collected the network structural variables, degree of resilience (CD-RISC 10), and engagement (UWES-S). The computer programs used were excel, UCINET for network analysis, and SPSS for statistical analysis. The analysis revealed results of means of 28.61 for resilience, 2.98 for absorption, 4.82 for dedication, and 3.13 for vigour. The students had two preferred places for sharing information: the classroom and WhatsApp. The greater the value for engagement, the greater the degree of centrality in the friendship network among students who are beginning their university studies. This relationship becomes reversed as the students move to later academic years. In terms of resilience, the highest values correspond to greater centrality in the friendship networks. The variables of engagement and resilience influenced the university students’ support networks. PMID:29194361

  6. Social Networks, Engagement and Resilience in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fernández-Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of social networks may be a useful tool for understanding the relationship between resilience and engagement, and this could be applied to educational methodologies, not only to improve academic performance, but also to create emotionally sustainable networks. This descriptive study was carried out on 134 university students. We collected the network structural variables, degree of resilience (CD-RISC 10, and engagement (UWES-S. The computer programs used were excel, UCINET for network analysis, and SPSS for statistical analysis. The analysis revealed results of means of 28.61 for resilience, 2.98 for absorption, 4.82 for dedication, and 3.13 for vigour. The students had two preferred places for sharing information: the classroom and WhatsApp. The greater the value for engagement, the greater the degree of centrality in the friendship network among students who are beginning their university studies. This relationship becomes reversed as the students move to later academic years. In terms of resilience, the highest values correspond to greater centrality in the friendship networks. The variables of engagement and resilience influenced the university students’ support networks.

  7. Social Networks, Engagement and Resilience in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Elena; Andina-Díaz, Elena; Fernández-Peña, Rosario; García-López, Rosa; Fulgueiras-Carril, Iván; Liébana-Presa, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of social networks may be a useful tool for understanding the relationship between resilience and engagement, and this could be applied to educational methodologies, not only to improve academic performance, but also to create emotionally sustainable networks. This descriptive study was carried out on 134 university students. We collected the network structural variables, degree of resilience (CD-RISC 10), and engagement (UWES-S). The computer programs used were excel, UCINET for network analysis, and SPSS for statistical analysis. The analysis revealed results of means of 28.61 for resilience, 2.98 for absorption, 4.82 for dedication, and 3.13 for vigour. The students had two preferred places for sharing information: the classroom and WhatsApp. The greater the value for engagement, the greater the degree of centrality in the friendship network among students who are beginning their university studies. This relationship becomes reversed as the students move to later academic years. In terms of resilience, the highest values correspond to greater centrality in the friendship networks. The variables of engagement and resilience influenced the university students' support networks.

  8. Assessment of the vulnerability and the resilience of the population at risk of multi-hazard: a support to geo-risk management in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michellier, Caroline; Kervyn, François; Tréfon, Théodore; Wolff, Eléonore

    2013-04-01

    GeoRisCA is a project which aims at studying the geo-risk in the Kivu region (DRC, Rwanda, Burundi), in order to support risk management. The approach developed in GeoRisCA combines methodologies from various disciplines, which will allow the analyses of seismic, volcanic and mass-movement hazards and the vulnerability assessment of the threatened elements. Vulnerability is a complex concept which is commonly defined as the susceptibility of the population, the infrastructures and the natural ecosystems to suffer from damages if a hazard occurs. The densely populated area extended from the North Kivu province in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to North Burundi and East Rwanda is vulnerable to several geohazards, such as landslides triggered by geodynamical processes (climate, seismicity, volcanism) and possibly worsen by anthropic actions. Located in the East African rift valley, the region is also characterized by a strong seismicity, with increasing people and infrastructure exposed. In addition, east DRC hosts the two most active African volcanoes: Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira. Their activity can have serious impacts, as in 2002 when Nyiragongo directly endangers the ~800.000 inhabitants of Goma city, located ~15 km to the south. Linked to passive volcanic degassing, SO2 and CO2 discharge may also increase the population vulnerability(morbidity, mortality). Focusing specifically on this region, the vulnerability assessment methodology developed in GeoRisCA takes into account "exposure to perturbations" and "adaptive capacity or resilience" of the vulnerable systems. On one hand, the exposure is identified as the potential degree of loss of a given element or set of elements at risk; i.e., the susceptibility of people, infrastructures and buildings with respect to a hazard (social vulnerability). It focuses mainly on land use, and on demographic and socio-economic factors that increase or attenuate the impacts of hazards events on local populations. On the

  9. Collaboration in Action: Working with Indigenous peoples and Tribal communities to navigate climate decision support organizations and programs to assist Tribal communities in addressing climate resilience and sustainability efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Creating opportunities and appropriate spaces with Tribal communities to engage with western scientists on climate resiliency is a complex endeavor. The shifting of seasons predicted by climate models and the resulting impacts that climate scientists investigate often verify what Traditional knowledge has already revealed to Indigenous peoples as they continue to live on, manage, and care for the environment they have been a part of for thousands of years. However, this convergence of two ways of knowing about our human environmental relationships is often difficult to navigate because of the ongoing impacts of colonialism and the disadvantage that Tribes operate from as a result. Day to day priorities of the Tribe are therefore reflective of more immediate issues rather than specifically considering the uncertainties of climate change. The College of Menominee Nation Sustainable Development Institute has developed a climate resilience program aimed at combining western science methodologies with indigenous ways of knowing as a means to assist Tribes in building capacity to address climate and community resiliency through culturally appropriate activities led by the Tribes. The efforts of the Institute, as guided by the SDI theoretical model of sustainability, have resulted in a variety of research, education and outreach projects that have provided not only the Menominee community, but other Tribal communities with opportunities to address climate resiliency as they see fit.

  10. The Effect of Social Support and Meaning of Life on the Quality-of-Life Care for Terminally Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobríková, Patricia; Pčolková, Dušana; AlTurabi, Layla Khalil; West, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effect of 2 indicators on quality of life (QOL): social support and meaning of life for terminally ill patients. These 2 indicators are very important from a psychological and spiritual point of view. The findings suggest that there is a statistically significant correlation between meaning of life and QOL (r = .610, P life fulfillment for dying patients. A significant relationship exists in survival of life meaningfulness and satisfaction with social support. In conclusion, experiencing one's life as meaningful is positively related to the well-being for dying patients. Social support provided by a close relative had a positive influence on the patient's meaning of life and overall life satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  12. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change

  13. Word and Nonword Processing without Meaning Support in Korean-Speaking Children with and without Hyperlexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee; Hwang, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlexia is a syndrome of reading without meaning in individuals who otherwise have pronounced cognitive and language deficits. The present study investigated the quality of word representation and the effects of deficient semantic processing on word and nonword reading of Korean children with hyperlexia; their performances were compared to…

  14. Coping and resilience resources in early adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karaffová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2012), s. 240-240 ISSN 0887-0446. [Conference of European Health Psychology Society: Resilience and Health /26./. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * coping * adolescents Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. Supporting Telecom Business Processes by means of Workflow Management and Federated Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, Wim; Jonker, Willem; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    This report addresses the issues related to the use of workflow management systems and federated databases to support business processes that operate on large and heterogeneous collections of autonomous information systems. We discuss how they can enhance the overall IT-architecture. Starting from

  16. DIDACTIC SUPPORT OF STUDENTS' RETRIEVAL ACTIVITIES AS A MEANS OF THEIR INFORMATION LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Tatiana E. Nalivayko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of students’ information searching activities and shows the structure of the personal information literacy. The author substantiates the importance of providing didactic support of students’ retrieval activities to develop their information literacy.

  17. Hydrology in Lichens: How Biological Architecture is Used to Regulate Water Access to Support Drought Resilience and Nutrient Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Dismukes, G. C.; Ananyev, G.

    2017-12-01

    Lichens are Nature's masters at controlling water and air flux within a symbiotic organism comprised of an algal photobiont and its fungal host. Here we investigated the equilibrium partitioning and kinetic transport of water between the symbionts in the lichen flavoparmelia species. Lichens have developed a unique strategy to recover after deep dehydration, that otherwise would kill the majority of free living phototrophs. By measuring both kinetics of water content and chlorophyll fluorescence emission (indicative of algal charge separation and water oxidation) during dehydration, we identified 3 distinct temporal stages and mapped these to physical zones by confocal microscopy using a combination of hydro-philic/-phobic dyes. Below a critical level of water content, controlled by the greater hydrophilicity of fungal tissues, algal photosynthesis rapidly turns off. We show that the distinct stages in dehydration mirror the 3D architecture of lichen tissue (the thallus). We provide evidence that control of water distribution is achieved by capillary forces within ordered zones of physical space possessing different hydro-phobic/-philic characteristics. This strategy ensures that photosynthetic capacity is protected from and can quickly recover after desiccation. The fungal host controls the onset and extent of photosynthesis in the enslaved alga, presumably to ensure transport of algal derived sugars and oxygen (O2) to the fungal host only when sufficient water exists for transport. Lichen architecture provides Nature's solution to gas-water transport that is self-regulated by humidity. It offers novel lessons for designing practical devices such as fuel cell membranes and dialysis membranes. Supported by the US Dept of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Physical Biosciences Division.

  18. Religion's effect on mental health in schizophrenia: examining the roles of meaning-making and seeking social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Naomi T; Weisman de Mamani, Amy

    2014-07-01

    While a growing body of research suggests that religion offers mental health benefits for individuals with schizophrenia, few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying this effect. The present study investigated two potential mediators (seeking social support and meaning-making coping) that may elucidate the nature of this relationship. The sample included 112 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether religion was related to symptom severity and quality of life (QoL), and whether seeking social support and meaning-making coping mediated these effects. As expected, meaning-making coping significantly mediated the effect of intrinsic religion (use of religion as a framework to understand life) on QoL. While extrinsic religion (use of religion as a social convention) was associated with seeking social support, it did not relate to either outcome variable. Findings offer insight into the ways in which religion may improve the mental health of patients with schizophrenia. Results suggest that the adaptive elements of intrinsic religion seen in prior research may be explained by the meaning that religion offers. Clinical interventions that encourage patients to find meaning amidst adversity may improve QoL in this population. Future research would benefit from further investigation of the meaning-making process in individuals with schizophrenia.

  19. The meaning of web-based communication for support: from the patients' perspective within a hematological healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Karin M; Stockelberg, Dick; Sandman, Lars; Broström, Anders; Nyström, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Being critically ill with a hematological disease is a challenge, sometimes causing a need for support in the adjustment to the stressful life situation. By providing Web-based communication for support from a nurse, patients get access to an alternative and untraditional way to communicate their issues. The aim was to describe the meaning of using Web-based communication for support from a patient perspective. A comprehensive randomized pilot study (n = 30) was conducted, allowing 15 patients in the experimental group to have access to the Web-based communication, to evaluate feasibility. Of these 15 participants, 10 were interviewed, focusing on their experiences. An empirical hermeneutical approach was used and the interpretive analysis focused on the meanings. Web-based communication for support means a space for patients to have their say, consolidation of a matter, an extended caring relationship, access to individual medical assessment, and an opportunity for emotional processing. The main interpretation indicates that the patient's influence on the communication strengthens according to the asynchronous, faceless, and written communication. The increased, and in some sense constant, access to an individual medical and caring assessment, in turn, implies a feeling of safety. Web-based communication for support seems to have the potential to enhance patients' participation on their own terms. To achieve the possible advantages of Web-based communication for support, nurses must acquire knowledge about caring writing. It requires respect for the patient and articulated accuracy and attention in the response given.

  20. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  1. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  2. Supporting the Development of Environmentally Sustainable PSS by Means of the Ecodesign Maturity Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    best practice for ecodesign implementation and management. The Ecodesign Maturity Model (EcoM2) is a management framework that supports manufacturing companies to consistently and systematicallyimplement ecodesign, based on a step-by-step approach. EcoM2 contains a database containing more than 600...... for the integration of the new practices for PSS development into the EcoM2. In total, 17 best practices for PSS development were identified in this research, and integrated into the EcoM2. The proposed EcoM2 for PSS model has the potential to support the development of environmentally sustainable PSS.......Despite their substantial potential for enabling increased environmental performance, product/service-systems (PSS) are not intrinsically environmentally sustainable. In order to ensure increased sustainability performance, PSSand related business models needs to be developed taking into account...

  3. Equipping lay facilitators to support emotionally wounded children in Africa by means of healing communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Coetsee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many children in Africa are emotionally wounded by circumstances and experiences not supporting their overall well-being and healthy development, and are in need of effective support. It seems that the church’s educational ministry and pastoral care based on individualistic pastoral practices do not address this need effectively. Beginning with an orientation to the problem, the article then focused on the development of lay facilitators for healing communities as an alternative way of ministering to children who experience emotional suffering. With reference to an illustrative narrative of a camp with deprived children, some elements contributing to the success of the camp were highlighted and linked to the effective functioning of healing communities. Thereafter the process used to equip lay people to facilitate such healing communities was described. The article concluded with challenges to the church in Africa to develop a new ministry to serve emotionally wounded children.

  4. Building resilience: A qualitative study of Spanish women who have suffered intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fuentes, Iratxe; Calvete, Esther

    2015-07-01

    The scientific literature reveals the importance of the resilience process in females who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). However, despite the importance of the cultural context in the process of resilience, there are no investigations exploring this phenomenon in Spain. This study used grounded theory to explore the factors that contribute to building resilience in Spanish women who have undergone IPV. A sample of 22 women who had experienced IPV participated in the study (mean age = 46.45 years, SD = 10.49). Findings revealed that these women were capable of using various factors, both individual and external, that promoted resilience. The women employed the following individual factors: physical activity, rediscovering oneself, altruism, control over one's life, creativity, spirituality, focus on the present, sense of humor, introspection, optimism, and projects and goals. The external resilience factors were housing, informal social support, and formal social support. Findings indicate that these factors can vary from one woman to the next and that some of these factors promoted the use of other factors in the development of resilience. The implications for clinical interventions with survivors are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Protocol for the Mindful Student Study: a randomised controlled trial of the provision of a mindfulness intervention to support university students' well-being and resilience to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Geraldine; Benton, Alice; Howarth, Emma; Vainre, Maris; Croudace, Timothy J; Stochl, Jan; Jones, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Levels of stress in UK university students are high, with an increase in the proportion of students seeking help in recent years. Academic pressure is reported as a major trigger. Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress and is popular among students, but its effectiveness in this context needs to be ascertained. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that the provision of a preventative mindfulness intervention in universities could reduce students' psychological distress during the examination period (primary outcome), improve their resilience to stress up to at least 1 year later, reduce their use of mental health support services and improve academic performance. Methods and analysis At least 550 University of Cambridge students free from active crises or severe mental illness will be randomised to joining an 8-week mindfulness course or to mental health provision as usual (one-to-one allocation rate). Psychological distress will be measured using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure at baseline, postintervention, examination term and 1-year follow-up. Other outcomes are use of mental health services, inability to sit examinations or special circumstance requests, examination grades, well-being, altruism and coping measured with ecological momentary assessment. Outcome assessment and intention-to-treat primary analysis using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline scores will be blind to intervention allocation. We will also conduct per-protocol, subgroup and secondary outcome analyses. An Independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee will be set up. We will systematically monitor for, and react to, possible adverse events. An advisory reference group will comprise student representatives, members of the University Counselling Service and other student welfare staff. Ethics and dissemination Approval has been obtained from Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee (PRE.2015

  6. Resilience and smoking: the implications for general practitioners and other primary healthcare practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Annie; Ward, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cessation counselling is a key component of medical treatment and health promotion activities performed by general practitioners (GPs); however, GPs are often left wondering why their patients continue to smoke in spite of being given information about the damaging health effects and medical treatments. The concept of resilience to smoking is an emerging idea that offers an innovative perspective to smoking cessation. To understand why some people continue to smoke in spite of well-known adverse health effects, what and how resilience factors impact on people's smoking, and the role and limitations of the GP in fostering resilience to smoking. A qualitative study of 22 oral-history interviews was conducted in Adelaide, South Australia. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed for emergent themes. The main themes of most relevance to GPs are the resilience to health messages, resilience factors associated with smoking abstinence and the common pathways that lead to successful smoking cessation. Understanding smoking and resilience can assist the GP to provide more effective and supportive smoking cessation assistance. The GP may assist in the process by fostering the adoption of resilience factors, much of which is already part of routine GP work but may not yet be considered part of a holistic smoking cessation strategy. Through this holistic approach, smoking cessation is likely to be just one of many physical and social benefits, and avoids victim blaming. Broad system change to increase the levels of resilience within individuals and communities may then mean that smokers can stop more easily with brief interventions. Such changes are beyond the limits of a single GP, but provide opportunities to lobby government for future public health programmes aimed at promoting both the internal traits and external resources that are required for resilience building.

  7. Effective educator–student relationships in nursing education to strengthen nursing students’ resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Froneman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little research has been conducted in private nursing schools with regard to the educator–student relationship to strengthen the resilience of nursing students and to improve the educator–student relationship. An effective educator–student relationship is a key factor to ensure a positive learning climate where learning can take place and resilience can be strengthened. Purpose: The purpose was to explore and describe nursing students’ view on the basic elements required for an effective educator–student relationship to strengthen their resilience and the educator–student relationship. Method: This study followed an explorative, descriptive and contextual qualitative design in a private nursing education institution in the North West Province. Purposive sampling was used. The sample consisted of 40 enrolled nursing auxiliary students. The World Café Method was used to collect data, which were analysed by means of content analysis. Results: The following five main themes were identified and included: (1 teaching–learning environment, (2 educator–student interaction, (3 educator qualities, (4 staying resilient and (5 strategies to strengthen resilience. Conclusion: Students need a caring and supportive environment; interaction that is constructive, acknowledges human rights and makes use of appropriate non-verbal communication. The educator must display qualities such as love and care, respect, responsibility, morality, patience, being open to new ideas, motivation, willingness to ‘go the extra mile’ and punctuality. Students reported on various ways how they manage to stay resilient. It thus seems that basic elements required in an effective educator–student relationship to strengthen the resilience of students include the environment, interaction, educator and student’s qualities and resilience. Keywords: Educator-student relationship, nursing education, nursing education institution (NEI, nursing student

  8. Resilient Women Educational Leaders in Turbulent Times: Applying the Leader Resilience Profile® to Assess Women's Leadership Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Diane E.; Blaine, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Women leaders across the world confront a common challenge: extremely turbulent times that challenge even the most skillful leaders. The paper begins with a brief overview of the meaning of leader resilience and describes the resilience cycle that all leaders experience when adversity strikes. Five phases of the resilience cycle discussed are:…

  9. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  10. Product Configurators as a means to support the Exchange of Knowledge in Company Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Malis, Martin

    2002-01-01

    as regards customer service orientation and customization. There are several ways in which this can be obtained. In this paper one of the essential means to reach these demands will be described. Research has been carried out at the Centre for Product Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark in order...... to develop and implement a structured procedure for building product models. In the following focus will be on the adaption of product modelling techniques when dealing with companies in a network. Four different network types will be introduced. They will be used to describe different product model...

  11. A systematic review of implant-supported maxillary overdentures after a mean observation period of at least 1 year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Wim; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Slater, James J. Huddleston; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    P>Aim The aim of the present systematic review of implant-supported maxillary overdentures was to assess the survival of implants, survival of maxillary overdentures and the condition of surrounding hard and soft tissues after a mean observation period of at least 1 year. Material and methods

  12. A Means of Honorable Support: Art and Music in Women's Education in the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    "The value of the Art Education becomes more and more apparent as a means of honorable support and of high culture and enjoyment," stated the catalog of Ingham University in western New York State in 1863. The Art Department there would prepare "pupils for Teachers and Practical Artists." This statement reveals some of the…

  13. Evaluation of Web-Based Training Courses by Means of Criteria on Learning Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisser, R.; Keefer, F.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, due to the widespread use of digital media and the internet, more and more traditional education and training measures have been replaced or enhanced by elearning. In the context of the nuclear industry, however, with its stringent demand for well qualified and motivated human resources, it is very important to know to what extent these new learning formats will contribute to effective education and training. In cooperation with AREVA and within the scope of a master thesis, it was first investigated as to which factors greatly support the effectiveness of learning by using digital media, from a learner’s point of view in particular. Then, several criteria were developed that could be used to evaluate web based training courses. Next, these criteria were applied to three courses that have already been implemented at AREVA for different target groups and training objectives. The investigation has shown that factors which support the effectiveness of learning are not well known and not systematically applied in the training development process. Consequently, the success of training implementation depends to a great extent on the competence of external suppliers for e-learning programming. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of Web-Based Training Courses by Means of Criteria on Learning Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisser, R.; Keefer, F.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, due to the widespread use of digital media and the internet, more and more traditional education and training measures have been replaced or enhanced by elearning. In the context of the nuclear industry, however, with its stringent demand for well qualified and motivated human resources, it is very important to know to what extent these new learning formats will contribute to effective education and training. In cooperation with AREVA and within the scope of a master thesis, it was first investigated as to which factors greatly support the effectiveness of learning by using digital media, from a learner’s point of view in particular. Then, several criteria were developed that could be used to evaluate web based training courses. Next, these criteria were applied to three courses that have already been implemented at AREVA for different target groups and training objectives. The investigation has shown that factors which support the effectiveness of learning are not well known and not systematically applied in the training development process. Consequently, the success of training implementation depends to a great extent on the competence of external suppliers for e-learning programming. (Author)

  15. RESILIENCE AND ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE IN SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that SMEs need to embrace the drivers of resilience and that a well-defined and readily available Enterprise Architecture (EA supports enterprise integration by enabling the common view of business processes, data and systems across the enterprise and its partners, we can say that EA is one of the tracks making resilience predictable and it should support and collaborate with other resilience tracks. However, the EA frameworks do not give relevance to the activities that contribute most to business resilience, so this paper aims to clarify the dimensions and the activities related to the development of an EA and the touching points with other enterprise wide processes in order to guarantee that resilience requirements are met in SMEs. For this I propose an approach of ecological adaptation, and four architectures: business, organizational, information, and technological, although this paper only presents the Business and Organizational Architectures.

  16. The meaning and experience of stress among supported employment clients with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Christine; Poremski, Daniel; Laliberté, Vincent; Latimer, Eric

    2017-12-13

    Many clinicians are concerned that competitive work may cause excessive stress for people with severe mental health problems. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is acknowledged as the most effective model of supported employment for this population. The manner in which IPS clients define and experience employment-related stress is poorly understood. This qualitative study aims to explore how people with mental health problems receiving IPS services define and experience employment-related stress. We purposively sampled and interviewed 16 clients of an IPS programme, who had been competitively employed for more than 1 month. Data were collected between September 2014 and July 2015 in Montreal, Canada. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews were analysed using grounded theory methodology. IPS clients often defined stress similar to its common understanding: the result of experiencing prolonged or/and cumulative strains, or of an incongruence between efforts and rewards, hopes and reality. Stress experienced in this way could exacerbate psychiatric symptoms, especially depression or psychotic symptoms. However, when maintained at a more manageable level, stress stimulated learning and improved planning of tasks. Participants described different coping mechanisms, such as sharing their experiences and difficulties with others, focusing on problem resolution and avoidance. The first two of these helped IPS clients remain at work and bolstered their confidence. Work-related stress has potentially positive as well as negative consequences for IPS clients. In order to maximise the potential beneficial effects of stress, employment specialists can help clients anticipate potential stressors and plan how they might cope with them. Further research on the most effective ways of helping clients cope with stress is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Optimisation of quality in environmental education by means of software support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Čekanová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this article is based on the fact that environmental education and edification have got an irreplaceable and preferred position within the framework of a sustainable socio-economic development. Environmental education, which is performed at technical universities, has to offer professional and methodical knowledge concerning questions of environment for students of various technical branches. This education is performed in such way that the graduates, after entering the practical professional life, will be able to participate in solutions to the new actual problems that are related to environment and its protection, as well. Nowadays, during the educational proces it is also necessary to introduce technical development in a more extended rate. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned facts it is possible to say that the educational support for environmental studies is a relevant aspect, which should be integrated into the university educational process. It is a positive development trend that greater emphasis is focused on the quality of university education for the environmental engineers. Our society requires an increasing number of environmentally educated engineers who are able to participate in qualitative academic preparation, i.e. the so-called environmentalists. But the worldwide phenomena of technical development and globalisation also pose high claims for quality of their preparations including devices and computers skills. The Department of Process and Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University in Košice, the Slovak Republic is the institution specified and intended for quality optimisation. This Department introduced into the study programmes (“Environmental Management” and “Technology of Environmental Protection” study subjects with software support, which are oriented towards the indoor and outdoor environment and in this way the Department of Process and

  18. Perceived Social Support, Depression and Life Satisfaction as the Predictor of the Resilience of Secondary School Students: The Case of Burdur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin Baltaci, Hülya; Karatas, Zeynep

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement: It has been observed that there are a limited number of studies on the resilience of primary and secondary school students in Turkey. However, it is acknowledged that secondary school students with difficult conditions of life also have to cope with rapid physical, psychological and social changes brought about by adolescence.…

  19. Four concepts for resilience and the implications for the future of resilience engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of system resilience is important and popular—in fact, hyper-popular over the last few years. Clarifying the technical meanings and foundations of the concept of resilience would appear to be necessary. Proposals for defining resilience are flourishing as well. This paper organizes the different technical approaches to the question of what is resilience and how to engineer it in complex adaptive systems. This paper groups the different uses of the label ‘resilience’ around four basic concepts: (1) resilience as rebound from trauma and return to equilibrium; (2) resilience as a synonym for robustness; (3) resilience as the opposite of brittleness, i.e., as graceful extensibility when surprise challenges boundaries; (4) resilience as network architectures that can sustain the ability to adapt to future surprises as conditions evolve. - Highlights: • There continues to be a wide diversity of definitions of the label resilience. • Research progress points to 4 basic concepts underneath diverse uses of. • Each of the four core concepts defines different research agendas. • The 4 concepts provide guides on how to engineer resilience for safety

  20. Promoting resilience among nursing students in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Jean; Asselin, Marilyn

    2018-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to overcome adversity and grow stronger from the experience. Increased resilience has been shown to positively impact nurses in practice. With this knowledge, recommendations to incorporate resilience training into nursing education have been made. Research, integrative reviews and a theoretical model of resilience in nursing students are explored in this paper. The authors posit that facilitating resilience is important in the setting of clinical education. Through incorporating resilience training in the clinical setting, educators can better prepare students for challenges in their educational environment and ultimately for nursing practice. Specific strategies for clinical educators to incorporate resilience training are suggested. Strategies are organized into three categories, support, education and reflection. The position of facilitating resilience in clinical education may open a discussion for future educational practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spirituality and personality: understanding their relationship to health resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Melissa N; Labbé, Elise E; Cochran, C Ryan

    2013-06-01

    A growing body of research suggests there are important relationships among spirituality, certain personality traits, and health (organismic) resilience. In the present study, 83 college students from two southeastern universities completed a demographic questionnaire, the NEO Five Factor Inventory, and the Resilience Questionnaire. The Organismic resilience and Relationship with something greater subscales of the Resilience Questionnaire were used for analyses. Health resilience was associated with four of the Big Five personality variables and the spirituality score. Health resilience was positively correlated with ratings of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and spirituality and negatively correlated with neuroticism. Forty-three percent of the variance of the health resilience score was accounted for by two of the predictor variables: spirituality and neuroticism. These findings are consistent with the literature and provide further support for the idea that spirituality and health protective personality characteristics are related to and may promote better health resilience.

  2. Does continuous trusted adult support in childhood impart life-course resilience against adverse childhood experiences - a retrospective study on adult health-harming behaviours and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hardcastle, Katie; Ford, Kat; Hughes, Karen; Ashton, Kathryn; Quigg, Zara; Butler, Nadia

    2017-03-23

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including child abuse and household problems (e.g. domestic violence) increase risks of poor health and mental well-being in adulthood. Factors such as having access to a trusted adult as a child may impart resilience against developing such negative outcomes. How much childhood adversity is mitigated by such resilience is poorly quantified. Here we test if access to a trusted adult in childhood is associated with reduced impacts of ACEs on adoption of health-harming behaviours and lower mental well-being in adults. Cross-sectional, face-to-face household surveys (aged 18-69 years, February-September 2015) examining ACEs suffered, always available adult (AAA) support from someone you trust in childhood and current diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and mental well-being were undertaken in four UK regions. Sampling used stratified random probability methods (n = 7,047). Analyses used chi squared, binary and multinomial logistic regression. Adult prevalence of poor diet, daily smoking and heavier alcohol consumption increased with ACE count and decreased with AAA support in childhood. Prevalence of having any two such behaviours increased from 1.8% (0 ACEs, AAA support, most affluent quintile of residence) to 21.5% (≥4 ACEs, lacking AAA support, most deprived quintile). However, the increase was reduced to 7.1% with AAA support (≥4 ACEs, most deprived quintile). Lower mental well-being was 3.27 (95% CIs, 2.16-4.96) times more likely with ≥4 ACEs and AAA support from someone you trust in childhood (vs. 0 ACE, with AAA support) increasing to 8.32 (95% CIs, 6.53-10.61) times more likely with ≥4 ACEs but without AAA support in childhood. Multiple health-harming behaviours combined with lower mental well-being rose dramatically with ACE count and lack of AAA support in childhood (adjusted odds ratio 32.01, 95% CIs 18.31-55.98, ≥4 ACEs, without AAA support vs. 0 ACEs, with AAA support). Adverse childhood experiences

  3. From vulnerability to resilience: improving humanitarian response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pearce

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lessons from responses to the Syrian displacement crisis can inform broader discussions on how to build responses that better address vulnerability, support resilience and include displaced women, children and young people in all their diversity.

  4. Of resilient places: planning for urban resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmood, Abid

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that resilience of a place cannot necessarily be associated only with the level of its vulnerability to the environment or security. A place-based perspective to resilience helps understand the capacity of communities to withstand or adapt with change. Resilience of a place does not only refer to contingencies—such as formulating immediate responses to crisis situations or incidents such as earthquakes, floods or other disasters in vulnerable areas—but also considers long-te...

  5. Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen

    2011-02-01

    The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.

  6. Protocol for the Mindful Student Study: a randomised controlled trial of the provision of a mindfulness intervention to support university students' well-being and resilience to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Julieta; Dufour, Geraldine; Benton, Alice; Howarth, Emma; Vainre, Maris; Croudace, Timothy J; Wagner, Adam P; Stochl, Jan; Jones, Peter B

    2016-11-09

    Levels of stress in UK university students are high, with an increase in the proportion of students seeking help in recent years. Academic pressure is reported as a major trigger. Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress and is popular among students, but its effectiveness in this context needs to be ascertained. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that the provision of a preventative mindfulness intervention in universities could reduce students' psychological distress during the examination period (primary outcome), improve their resilience to stress up to at least 1 year later, reduce their use of mental health support services and improve academic performance. At least 550 University of Cambridge students free from active crises or severe mental illness will be randomised to joining an 8-week mindfulness course or to mental health provision as usual (one-to-one allocation rate). Psychological distress will be measured using the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure at baseline, postintervention, examination term and 1-year follow-up. Other outcomes are use of mental health services, inability to sit examinations or special circumstance requests, examination grades, well-being, altruism and coping measured with ecological momentary assessment. Outcome assessment and intention-to-treat primary analysis using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline scores will be blind to intervention allocation. We will also conduct per-protocol, subgroup and secondary outcome analyses. An Independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee will be set up. We will systematically monitor for, and react to, possible adverse events. An advisory reference group will comprise student representatives, members of the University Counselling Service and other student welfare staff. Approval has been obtained from Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee (PRE.2015.060). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. A lay

  7. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social-ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

  8. State Revolving Funds: Financing Drought Resilient Water Infrastructure Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report highlights innovative funding policies and programmatic actions that states are using to support drought resilient investment and operations through incentives, state requirements, and technical assistance.

  9. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  10. Resilience engineering and the built environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The possible relations between resilience engineering and built environments are explored. Resilience engineering has been concerned with the safe and efficient functioning of large and small industrial systems. These may be described as built systems or artefacts. The resilience engineering...... approach argues that if the performance of systems is to be resilient, then they must be able to respond, monitor, learn and anticipate. The last ability in particular means that they must be able to consider themselves vis-a-vis their environment, i.e. be sentient and reflective systems. In practice...... important to understand the range of conditions about why and how the system functions in the desired' mode as well as unwanted' modes. Resilience is the capacity to sustain operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. The unexpected conditions are not only threats but also opportunities....

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  12. Building Resilience in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to succeed in life. That is why Kenneth Ginsburg, M.D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing ... resilience in children, teens, and young adults. Dr. Ginsburg has identified seven “C”s of resilience, recognizing that “ ...

  13. Resiliant Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task goal is to develop and demonstrate an innovative software architecture, the “Resilient Spacecraft Executive”, that will enable highly-resilient...

  14. Developing the resilience typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in resilience in internal crisis management and crisis communication. How an organization can build up resilience as a response to organisational crisis, at a time when the amount of crises seem only to increase, is more relevant than ever before. Nevertheless resilience...... is often perceived in the literature as something certain organisations have by definition, without further reflection on what it is that creates this resiliency. This article explores what it is that creates organisational resilience, and in view of the different understandings of the resilience...... phenomenon, develops a typology of resilience. Furthermore the resilience phenomenon is discussed against the definition of a crisis as a cosmological episode, and implications for future research is discussed and summarized....

  15. Effective educator-student relationships in nursing education to strengthen nursing students' resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froneman, Kathleen; Du Plessis, Emmerentia; Koen, Magdelene P

    2016-06-10

    Little research has been conducted in private nursing schools with regard to the educator-student relationship to strengthen the resilience of nursing students and to improve the educator-student relationship. An effective educator-student relationship is a key factor to ensure a positive learning climate where learning can take place and resilience can be strengthened. The purpose was to explore and describe nursing students' view on the basic elements required for an effective educator-student relationship to strengthen their resilience and the educator-student relationship. This study followed an explorative, descriptive and contextual qualitative design in a private nursing education institution in the North West Province. Purposive sampling was used. The sample consisted of 40 enrolled nursing auxiliary students. The World Café Method was used to collect data, which were analysed by means of content analysis. The following five main themes were identified and included: (1) teaching-learning environment, (2) educator-student interaction, (3) educator qualities, (4) staying resilient and (5) strategies to strengthen resilience. Students need a caring and supportive environment; interaction that is constructive, acknowledges human rights and makes use of appropriate non-verbal communication. The educator must display qualities such as love and care, respect, responsibility, morality, patience, being open to new ideas, motivation, willingness to 'go the extra mile' and punctuality. Students reported on various ways how they manage to stay resilient. It thus seems that basic elements required in an effective educator-student relationship to strengthen the resilience of students include the environment, interaction, educator and student's qualities and resilience.

  16. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience —A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas depending...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just...the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of

  17. Recognition of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in microscopic images using k-means clustering and support vector machine classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Morteza Moradi; Kermani, Saeed; Talebi, Ardeshir; Oghli, Mostafa Ghelich

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common form of pediatric cancer which is categorized into three L1, L2, and L3 and could be detected through screening of blood and bone marrow smears by pathologists. Due to being time-consuming and tediousness of the procedure, a computer-based system is acquired for convenient detection of Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Microscopic images are acquired from blood and bone marrow smears of patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and normal cases. After applying image preprocessing, cells nuclei are segmented by k-means algorithm. Then geometric and statistical features are extracted from nuclei and finally these cells are classified to cancerous and noncancerous cells by means of support vector machine classifier with 10-fold cross validation. These cells are also classified into their sub-types by multi-Support vector machine classifier. Classifier is evaluated by these parameters: Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy which values for cancerous and noncancerous cells 98%, 95%, and 97%, respectively. These parameters are also used for evaluation of cell sub-types which values in mean 84.3%, 97.3%, and 95.6%, respectively. The results show that proposed algorithm could achieve an acceptable performance for the diagnosis of Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its sub-types and can be used as an assistant diagnostic tool for pathologists.

  18. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...... and resources. This poster will present the conceptual framework for this project focusing on species resilience....

  19. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  20. Resilience of primary healthcare professionals: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Burton, Christopher; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter; Porteous, Terry; Matheson, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    Background Modern demands and challenges among healthcare professionals can be particularly stressful and resilience is increasingly necessary to maintain an effective, adaptable, and sustainable workforce. However, definitions of, and associations with, resilience have not been examined within the primary care context. Aim To examine definitions and measures of resilience, identify characteristics and components, and synthesise current evidence about resilience in primary healthcare professionals. Design and setting A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies relating to the primary care setting. Method Ovid®, Embase®, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched in December 2014. Text selections and data extraction were conducted by paired reviewers working independently. Data were extracted on health professional resilience definitions and associated factors. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria: eight were quantitative, four qualitative, and one was an intervention study. Resilience, although multifaceted, was commonly defined as involving positive adaptation to adversity. Interactions were identified between personal growth and accomplishment in resilient physicians. Resilience, high persistence, high self-directedness, and low avoidance of challenges were strongly correlated; resilience had significant associations with traits supporting high function levels associated with demanding health professional roles. Current resilience measures do not allow for these different aspects in the primary care context. Conclusion Health professional resilience is multifaceted, combining discrete personal traits alongside personal, social, and workplace features. A measure for health professional resilience should be developed and validated that may be used in future quantitative research to measure the effect of an intervention to promote it. PMID:27162208

  1. Psychosocial facets of resilience: implications for preventing posttrauma psychopathology, treating trauma survivors, and enhancing community resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Iacoviello

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a range of potential responses to stress and trauma. Whereas, on one extreme, some respond to stress and trauma by developing psychiatric disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD, on the other extreme are the ones who exhibit resilience. Resilience is broadly defined as adaptive characteristics of an individual to cope with and recover from adversity. Objective: Understanding of the factors that promote resilience is warranted and can be obtained by interviewing and learning from particularly resilient individuals as well as empirical research. In this paper, we discuss a constellation of factors comprising cognitive, behavioral, and existential elements that have been identified as contributing to resilience in response to stress or trauma. Results: The psychosocial factors associated with resilience include optimism, cognitive flexibility, active coping skills, maintaining a supportive social network, attending to one's physical well-being, and embracing a personal moral compass. Conclusions: These factors can be cultivated even before exposure to traumatic events, or they can be targeted in interventions for individuals recovering from trauma exposure. Currently available interventions for PTSD could be expanded to further address these psychosocial factors in an effort to promote resilience. The cognitive, behavioral, and existential components of psychosocial factors that promote individual resilience can also inform efforts to promote resilience to disaster at the community level.

  2. A hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis with K-means clustering and support vector regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chi-Jie; Chang, Chi-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting plays an important role in operating a business since it can be used to determine the required inventory level to meet consumer demand and avoid the problem of under/overstocking. Improving the accuracy of sales forecasting has become an important issue of operating a business. This study proposes a hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis (ICA) with K-means clustering and support vector regression (SVR). The proposed scheme first uses the ICA to extract hidden information from the observed sales data. The extracted features are then applied to K-means algorithm for clustering the sales data into several disjoined clusters. Finally, the SVR forecasting models are applied to each group to generate final forecasting results. Experimental results from information technology (IT) product agent sales data reveal that the proposed sales forecasting scheme outperforms the three comparison models and hence provides an efficient alternative for sales forecasting.

  3. A Hybrid Sales Forecasting Scheme by Combining Independent Component Analysis with K-Means Clustering and Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jie Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting plays an important role in operating a business since it can be used to determine the required inventory level to meet consumer demand and avoid the problem of under/overstocking. Improving the accuracy of sales forecasting has become an important issue of operating a business. This study proposes a hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis (ICA with K-means clustering and support vector regression (SVR. The proposed scheme first uses the ICA to extract hidden information from the observed sales data. The extracted features are then applied to K-means algorithm for clustering the sales data into several disjoined clusters. Finally, the SVR forecasting models are applied to each group to generate final forecasting results. Experimental results from information technology (IT product agent sales data reveal that the proposed sales forecasting scheme outperforms the three comparison models and hence provides an efficient alternative for sales forecasting.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH CAPITAL, FRAILTY AND AGING AMONG OLD PEOPLE WITH AND WITHOUT MEANS OF SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauregui JR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This work is a comparative analysis of health capital, frailty and ageing among old people with and without means of support. Material and Methods: Target population are individuals older than 50 years old, Intervention Group have lower socio-economic status and live in slums. Control Group belong to a higher social clas living in an urban population with all the material resources. Results: The data analyzed corresponds to a sample of 448 people. Comparison between both groups was not rendered as significant. Conclusions: In Our observation, populations exposed to hostile environments evidence for decades to be functionally apt to defend themselves from it.

  5. Meaning in work and emerging work identities of housing support workers: A quest for a comprehensible plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Ulf; Ehliasson, Kent; Bengtsson Tops, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Work and employees are often marginalized in studies on community-based psychiatric care and support systems. This paper highlights the role of the worker at congregated supported housing for people with severe mental illness (SMI). Housing support workers (HSW) are a fairly new professional role and have developed as a result of major changes in Swedish mental health care and services. The development of new roles is not unproblematic and raises intriguing questions. The purpose of this article is to describe housing support workers' experiences of meaning in their work, and in addition illuminate how the work identity of HSWs can be negotiated and constructed. Four focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 25 participants. Additionally, three follow up sessions were conducted with the same participants. The material consists of employees from four different sites. The intepretation of the material was inspired by a constructionist approach. The analysis generated three themes: to do a good job, everyday needs and the formal role. The work identity for HSWs is complex and not easily interpreted. The experience of an unclear assignment affects the description of what is meaningful and important-the work identity and significant affiliations for HSWs. In the long run, this fragmented world can have negative implications for the HSW.

  6. Resilience and vision impairment in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetford, Clare; Bennett, Kate M; Hodge, Suzanne; Knox, Paul C; Robinson, Jude

    2015-12-01

    Some people fare better than others when faced with adversity; they appear to be more 'resilient'. This article explores the concept of resilience in the context of vision impairment using two linked sets of narrative interview data from 2007 to 2010. Three case studies were analysed in detail using a framework approach based upon a social-ecological model of resilience and vision impairment. Within the model a range of assets and resources are identified which influence an individual's capacity for resilience. A set of criteria were used to establish the extent to which each individual appeared to be resilient at each point in time. Analysis revealed that it is not merely the presence or absence of individual, social, and community resources - but how these resources interact with each other - that influences resilience and can create a risk to wellbeing. To possess only some of these resources is not sufficient; there is a co-dependency between these resources which requires the presence of other resources for resilience to be achieved. Resilience is not a fixed state; individuals can become more or less resilient as their circumstances and resources change over time. We suggest that the concept of resilience has much to offer the field of vision impairment as it allows the identification of enablers as well as areas of barriers to improving people's health and wellbeing and suggests further opportunities for service providers to engage with clients, even those who appear to be supported, as people's social, economic and emotional landscapes continue to change over time, rather than identifying deficit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  8. Detection of sensor degradation using K-means clustering and support vector regression in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Inyong; Ha, Bokam; Lee, Sungwoo; Shin, Changhoon; Lee, Jaeyong; Kim, Seongjun

    2011-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant (NPP), periodic sensor calibrations are required to assure sensors are operating correctly. However, only a few faulty sensors are found to be rectified. For the safe operation of an NPP and the reduction of unnecessary calibration, on-line calibration monitoring is needed. In this study, an on-line calibration monitoring called KPCSVR using k-means clustering and principal component based Auto-Associative support vector regression (PCSVR) is proposed for nuclear power plant. To reduce the training time of the model, k-means clustering method was used. Response surface methodology is employed to efficiently determine the optimal values of support vector regression hyperparameters. The proposed KPCSVR model was confirmed with actual plant data of Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 which were measured from the primary and secondary systems of the plant, and compared with the PCSVR model. By using data clustering, the average accuracy of PCSVR improved from 1.228×10 -4 to 0.472×10 -4 and the average sensitivity of PCSVR from 0.0930 to 0.0909, which results in good detection of sensor drift. Moreover, the training time is greatly reduced from 123.5 to 31.5 sec. (author)

  9. SUPPLY CHAIN RESILIENCE ANALYSIS: A BRAZILIAN AUTOMOTIVE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain (SC resilience and flexibility are important research topics receiving growing attention. However, the academic literature needs empirical studies on SC resilience capable of investigating the inter-organizational components of flexibility along different tiers. Therefore, this paper analyzes the main lack of flexibilities in three Brazilian automotive SCs that limit their resilience and therefore their capacity to better support and meet the demand changes in the marketplace. A multi-tier case study approach is adopted. Research findings identify lack of flexibilities in different tiers that inhibit the SC resilience as well as manufacturing and SC flexibilities that build SC resilience. The findings also highlight that the same SC may have the flexibility to be resilient for one of its products but not for another product, what sheds new lights on the academic literature. Finally, flexible SCs should be designed to increase SC resilience to cope with mishaps as significant demand changes.

  10. Resilience and well-being of university nursing students in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka Ming; Tang, Wing Ki Fiona; Chan, Wing Han Carmen; Sit, Wing Hung Janet; Choi, Kai Chow; Chan, Sally

    2018-01-12

    University nursing students experience higher levels of academic stress than those of other disciplines. Academic stress leads to psychological distress and has detrimental effects on well-being. The ability to overcome such adversity and learn to be stronger from the experience is regarded as resilience. Resilience is found to have an impact on learning experience, academic performance, course completion and, in the longer term, professional practice. Resilience and positive coping strategies can resist stress and improve personal well-being. However, the relationship between resilience and well-being remains unexplored in nursing students, which are significant attributes to their academic success and future career persistence. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. Inclusion criteria for recruitment was students studying pre-registration nursing programmes at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) and World Health Organisation-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5) were used to measure resilience and psychological well-being respectively. A convenience sample of 678 university nursing students was recruited from a university. The mean score of CD-RISC-10 was 24.0. When comparing the resilience levels of undergraduate and postgraduate students, the total scores were found to be 23.8 and 24.9 respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = .020). With regard to perceived well-being, the mean score of WHO-5 was 15.5. There was no significant difference between undergraduates and postgraduates (p = .131). Bivariate analysis showed that self-reported resilience had a medium, positive correlation with perceived well-being (r = .378, p = .000), and senior students had significantly higher level of perceived well-being than junior students (16.0 vs 15.1, p = .003). Multivariable regression analysis on perceived well-being indicated

  11. Investigations of perspective technologies, equipment and sanitary - hygienic means for Life-Support System of new generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I. V.

    Creation of optimal sanitary - hygienic conditions allows to keep health and capacity of the crewmembers work at increase of space flight duration. There is a wide application experience of means, methods and equipment for sanitary - hygienic supply, which were developed and experimentally tested for space flights. However, about 800 kg personal hygiene means (napkins and towels are made with water and delivered with the Earth) are necessary for 3 crewmembers per one year. For long orbital and interplanetary flights (without an opportunity of stocks updating) it is necessary to increase a degree of Life-Support System isolation and optimization of goods turnover. Washing combined with water regeneration system is most perspective for sanitary - hygienic procedures. Therefore, creation of space equipment for washing with sanitary - hygienic water (SHW) regeneration system is especially important. The researches have shown, that to processes, which can be applied for SHW regeneration in space conditions and require insignificant quantity of additional materials (as against sorption), concern membrane methods (reverse osmosis, nanofiltration etc.). Two-step membrane unit for SHW regeneration recovered no less than 85 % of permeate with the organic and inorganic selectivity of 82-95 %. The tests of two-step membrane unit for SHW regeneration carried out on mock up solutions and real SHW, containing detergents really used in space flight conditions. The researches on a substantiation of an opportunity of clothing washing, clothing drying and the estimation of an opportunity of application of various detergents for clothing washing are urgent. The tests of water extraction technology from textile materials are carried out. Is established, that at conditional time of contact 1s, humidity of a leaving air flow from clothing drying unit comes nearer to 100 %. It is necessary to solve the problem for creation of Life-Support System of new generation for long-term space

  12. Data in support of environmental controls on the characteristics of mean number of forest fires and mean forest area burned (1987–2007 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire frequency and size are two important parameters describing fire characteristics. Exploring the spatial variation of fire characteristics and understanding the environmental controls are indispensable to fire prediction and sustainable forest landscape management. To illustrate the spatial variation of forest fire characteristics over China and to quantitatively determine the relative contribution of each of the environmental controls to this variation, forest fire characteristic data (mean number of forest fires and mean burned forest area and environmental data (climate, land use, vegetation type and topography at provincial level were derived. These data sets can potentially serve as a foundation for future studies relating to fire risk assessment, carbon emission by forest fires, and the impact of climate change on fire characteristics. This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “Environmental controls on the characteristics of mean number of forest fires and mean forest area burned (1987–2007 in China” by chang et al. [1].

  13. Adventure Education and Resilience: The Double-Edged Sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, James T.; Dias, Katica L.

    2001-01-01

    All 41 young adults who finished a 22-day Australian Outward Bound program showed large positive changes in resilience scores. Perceived social support was strongly related to resilience gains, with ratings of the least supportive group member being the best predictor. Recommendations concerning group process are offered to group leaders.…

  14. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  15. Evaluating Community Partnerships Addressing Community Resilience in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm V. Williams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience has grown in importance in national disaster response and recovery efforts. However, measurement of community resilience, particularly the content and quality of relationships aimed at improving resilience, is lacking. To address this gap, we used a social network survey to measure the number, type, and quality of relationships among organizations participating in 16 coalitions brought together to address community resilience in the Los Angeles Community Disaster Resilience project. These coalitions were randomized to one of two approaches (community resilience or preparedness. Resilience coalitions received training and support to develop these partnerships and implement new activities. Both coalition types received expert facilitation by a public health nurse or community educator. We also measured the activities each coalition engaged in and the extent to which partners participated in these activities at two time points. We found that the community resilience coalitions were initially larger and had lower trust among members than the preparedness communities. Over time, these trust differences dissipated. While both coalitions grew, the resilience community coalitions maintained their size difference throughout the project. We also found differences in the types of activities implemented by the resilience communities; these differences were directly related to the trainings provided. This information is useful to organizations seeking guidance on expanding the network of community-based organizations that participate in community resilience activities.

  16. Resilience and Coping After Hospital Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cynthia; Calo, Oriana; Harrison, Georgia; Mahoney, Kathleen; Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience and coping in frontline nurses working in a healthcare system that has recently undergone a merger. Hospital mergers are common in the current healthcare environment. Mergers can provide hospital nurses the opportunity to use and develop positive coping strategies to help remain resilient during times of change. An anonymous-survey, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study design was used. Data were obtained from an electronic survey that was made available to all nurses working in a 3-hospital system located in the northeast. Overall, the results showed that, when nurses reported using positive coping strategies, they report higher levels of resilience. The levels of resilience also varied from campus to campus. The campus that has been through 2 recent mergers reported the highest levels of resilience. This study suggests that, during times of change in the workplace, if nurses are encouraged to use positive coping strategies, they may have higher levels of resilience. This changing environment provides the clinical nurse specialists/clinical nurse educators the opportunity to foster and support frontline nurses in the use of healthy coping strategies and to help improve and maintain a high level of resilience, which is critical in today's healthcare environment.

  17. Resilience in patients with psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozikas, V; Parlapani, E

    2016-01-01

    comprise the so called "phenomenological resilience" that can be measured by scales.4,5 Originally, research focused on resilience in relation to post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Recently, resilience was proven a significant predictor of depressive episode recurrence in bipolar disorder.6 Low resilience levels were also established in individuals at clinical high risk state for development of psychosis. Interestingly, individuals at high risk that developed a full-blown psychosis had shown significantly lower resilience levels compared with non-converters. Additionally, high resilience levels in individuals at high risk for psychosis related to less severe negative, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as higher social functioning.7,8 Schizophrenia patients with higher resilience levels and optimism showed higher levels of happiness that associated in turn with lower perceived stress and higher personal mastery,9 while resilience was a significant predictor of functioning in a subgroup of non-medicated schizophrenia patients.10 In light of evidence supporting a positive association between resilience and schizophrenia outcome and based on the fact that resilience is modifiable and could improve with treatment,5 resilience studies are particularly meaningful, specifically within the first 3-5 years after schizophrenia onset,11 and could lead to interventions that aim at harnessing resilience during this "critical period". Diverse positive psychology interventions aim at improving psychological well-being by developing and nourishing positive feelings, behaviours and cognitions. Lately, positive psychotherapy was adapted for schizophrenia patients and was proven a feasible intervention that might contribute to improvement in functioning.12 Conclusively, sustained improvement in social and occupational functioning remains the most important indicator of recovery from schizophrenia. Still, such an improvement may not be accomplished in all patients by

  18. Political Subculture: A Resilience Modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A RESILIENCE MODIFIER by Gordon S. Hunter September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr. Second Reader...Approved by: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr., DPA Thesis Advisor Lauren S. Fernandez, DSc Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chair...addition, I must acknowledge the continued support, guidance, and encouragement of Dr. Sam Clovis and Dr. Lauren Fernandez who have led me on the path to

  19. Individual resilience in rural people: a Queensland study, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, D G; Buikstra, E; Baker, P; Rogers-Clark, C; Pearce, S; Ross, H; King, C; Watson-Luke, A

    2007-01-01

    resilient people and shapers of resilience (environmental influences that increase personal resilience). The findings of this study support existing theoretical concepts of resilience, with an added dimension not previously reported. The major finding of this study is that connection to the land, which is strongly embedded in the literature on Indigenous peoples (eg human ecology) and acknowledged as part of Indigenous culture and cosmology, may also be a factor that enhances the resilience of non-Indigenous people who have built up a relationship with the land over time. The extent of this connection and its impact on individual and community resilience was, however, not established in this study, but should also be a major focus of future research.

  20. Visibility and meanings of partnership in health care for older people who need support to live at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anna; Mackintosh, Shylie; Kumar, Saravana; Grech, Carol

    2017-11-24

    Problems experienced by older people with complex needs to live at home have been reported in the literature. This qualitative study builds on previous research and investigates enduring issues older people face when interacting with healthcare services. To gain an in-depth understanding of what is involved in providing good quality health care for older people who need support to live at home. We adopted an interpretive descriptive approach and conducted semi-structured interviews with older people (n = 7), carers (n = 8) and key informants (n = 11). Initial and secondary analysis of qualitative data was completed. Major themes emerged about meanings of partnership in health care, and invisibility of the older person as a partner in health care. Partnership in health care was understood to mean being treated as an equal, being involved in decision-making, and making contributions which impact on health care and health systems. The metaphorical concept of 'invisibility' related to the older person not being seen and heard as a partner in health care, as well as being a recipient of care. We concluded that older people who need support to live at home are not highly visible to health providers, policymakers and researchers as a central partner and consumer to be meaningfully engaged in shaping their health care. Opportunities to address persistent issues with quality of health care may in future be achieved through stronger partnerships between older people and health providers, to find new ways to improve the quality of care for older people. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Resilient moves: Tinkering with practice theory to generate new ways of thinking about using resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Kay; Hart, Angie

    2015-07-01

    Recent public health policies have re-endorsed the key role all health and social care professionals have in tackling the social determinants of health inequalities. With inequalities firmly entrenched, and much theorising focused on reproduction rather than transformation, sustaining practitioner commitment and engagement with this work and maintaining confidence in achieving change is challenging. One increasingly popular way to intervene in practice to begin to address inequalities has been the use of resilience, even though resilience is frequently critiqued for its collusion with neoliberal imperatives in favouring individualised rather than socio-political responses. This article examines these concerns through the use of the practice turn and specifically 'slim-line' practice theory and 'tinkering' to explore the potential for reframing resilience theory and practice. Using an original data set derived from evaluations of resilience-based programmes, held with parents and practitioners between 2008 and 2012, this article re-examines participants' understandings of resilience. We show how practice theory reveals entangled and emergent meanings, competencies and materials that constitute resilience as a social practice comprised of resilient moves. The implications of this reframing are discussed in relation to ontology, agency and change; but also for resilience theory and practice and public health practices more generally. In conclusion, we argue practice theory's attention to context as more than mere backdrop to action helps shift inequality theorising beyond the individual and reproduction towards deeper, detailed social understandings of transformation and change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  3. Oncologic Therapy Support Via Means of a Dedicated Mobile App (OPTIMISE-1): Protocol for a Prospective Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shafie, Rami A; Bougatf, Nina; Sprave, Tanja; Weber, Dorothea; Oetzel, Dieter; Machmer, Timo; Huber, Peter E; Debus, Jürgen; Nicolay, Nils H

    2018-03-06

    The increasing role of consumer electronics and Web-enabled mobile devices in the medical sector opens up promising possibilities for integrating novel technical solutions into therapy and patient support for oncologic illnesses. A recent survey carried out at Heidelberg University Hospital suggested a high acceptance among patients for an additional approach to patient care during radiotherapy based on patient-reported outcomes by a dedicated mobile app. The aim of this trial (OPTIMISE-1: Oncologic Therapy Support Via Means of a Dedicated Mobile App - A Prospective Feasibility Evaluation) is to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of employing a mobile app for the systematic support of radiooncological patients throughout the course of their radiotherapy by monitoring symptoms and patient performance, and facilitating the background-exchange of relevant information between patient and physician. The present single-center, prospective, exploratory trial, conducted at Heidelberg University Hospital, assesses the feasibility of integrating an app-based approach into patient-care during radiotherapy. Patients undergoing curative radiotherapy for thoracic or pelvic tumors will be surveyed regarding general performance, treatment-related quality of life (QoL) and symptoms, and their need to personally consult a physician by means of a mobile app during treatment. The primary endpoint of feasibility will be reached when 80% of the patients have successfully answered 80% of their respective questions scheduled for each treatment day. Furthermore, treatment-related patient satisfaction and health-related QoL is assessed by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (PSQ-18) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaires at the beginning (baseline) and end of radiotherapy, and at the first follow-up. This trial will recruit 50 patients over a period of 12 months. Follow-up will be completed after 18 months, and publication

  4. Medical student resilience and stressful clinical events during clinical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpy, Jennifer C; Lee, Wei Wei; Woodruff, James N; Pincavage, Amber T

    2017-01-01

    Medical students face numerous stressors during their clinical years, including difficult clinical events. Fostering resilience is a promising way to mitigate negative effects of stressors, prevent burnout, and help students thrive after difficult experiences. However, little is known about medical student resilience. To characterize medical student resilience and responses to difficult clinical events during clinical training. Sixty-two third-year (MS3) and 55 fourth-year (MS4) University of Chicago medical students completed surveys in 2016 assessing resilience (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC 10), symptoms of burnout, need for resilience training, and responses to difficult clinical events. Medical student mean resilience was lower than in a general population sample. Resilience was higher in males, MS4s, those without burnout symptoms, and students who felt able to cope with difficult clinical events. When students experienced difficult events in the clinical setting, the majority identified poor team dynamics among the most stressful, and agreed their wellbeing was affected by difficult clinical events. A majority also would prefer to discuss these events with their team later that day. Students discussed events with peers more than with attendings or residents. Students comfortable discussing stress and burnout with peers had higher resilience. Most students believed resilience training would be helpful and most beneficial during MS3 year. Clinical medical student resilience was lower than in the general population but higher in MS4s and students reporting no burnout. Students had some insight into their resilience and most thought resilience training would be helpful. Students discussed difficult clinical events most often with peers. More curricula promoting medical student resilience are needed.

  5. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  6. The psychobiology of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2009-02-01

    Although adverse environments are well known to be a risk factor for psychopathology, many individuals respond adaptively to such environments. There is growing interest in the underlying mechanisms involved in such resilience. Several cognitive-affective processes may be involved, and these may be mediated by particular neuronal circuits and neurochemical systems. This article summarizes some of the relevant work on the role of fear conditioning, reward processing, and social behavior in resilience. There is a growing body of data on how particular gene-environment interactions affect these processes, and thus underpin resilience. Ultimately, a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning resilience may lead to novel interventions.

  7. Linking Resilience of Aquatic Species to Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Watershed condition means different things to different people. From the perspective of aquatic ecology, watershed condition may be interpreted to mean the capacity of a watershed to support life history diversity of native species. Diversity in expression of life history is thought to confer resilience allowing portions of the broader population to survive stressful conditions. Different species have different life history strategies, many of which were developed through adaptation to regional or local environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes. By reviewing adaptation strategies for species of interest at regional scales, characteristics of watersheds that confer resilience may be determined. Such assessments must be completed at multiple levels of spatial organization (i.e. sub-watershed, watershed, region) allowing assessments to be inferred across broad spatial extents. In a project on the Wenatchee River watershed, we guided models of wildfire effects on bull trout and spring Chinook from a meta-population perspective to determine risks to survival at local and population scales over multiple extents of spatial organization. In other work in the Oregon Coast Range, we found that historic landslides continue to exert habitat-forming pressure at local scales, leading to patchiness in distribution of habitats for different life stages of coho salmon. Further, climate change work in Oregon estuaries identified different vulnerabilities in terms of juvenile rearing habitat depending on the species of interest and the intensity of future changes in climate. All of these studies point to the importance of considering physical conditions in watersheds at multiple spatial extents from the perspective of native aquatic species in order to understand risks to long-term survival. The broader implications of watershed condition, from this perspective, is the determination of physical attributes that confer resilience to native biota. This may require

  8. A metric and frameworks for resilience analysis of engineered and infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, Royce; Bekera, Behailu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have reviewed various approaches to defining resilience and the assessment of resilience. We have seen that while resilience is a useful concept, its diversity in usage complicates its interpretation and measurement. In this paper, we have proposed a resilience analysis framework and a metric for measuring resilience. Our analysis framework consists of system identification, resilience objective setting, vulnerability analysis, and stakeholder engagement. The implementation of this framework is focused on the achievement of three resilience capacities: adaptive capacity, absorptive capacity, and recoverability. These three capacities also form the basis of our proposed resilience factor and uncertainty-weighted resilience metric. We have also identified two important unresolved discussions emerging in the literature: the idea of resilience as an epistemological versus inherent property of the system, and design for ecological versus engineered resilience in socio-technical systems. While we have not resolved this tension, we have shown that our framework and metric promote the development of methodologies for investigating “deep” uncertainties in resilience assessment while retaining the use of probability for expressing uncertainties about highly uncertain, unforeseeable, or unknowable hazards in design and management activities. - Highlights: • While resilience is a useful concept, its diversity in usage complicates its interpretation and measurement. • We proposed a resilience analysis framework whose implementation is encapsulated within resilience metric incorporating absorptive, adaptive, and restorative capacities. • We have shown that our framework and metric can support the investigation of “deep” uncertainties in resilience assessment or analysis. • We have discussed the role of quantitative metrics in design for ecological versus engineered resilience in socio-technical systems. • Our resilience metric supports

  9. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC): Linking Climate Literacy, Resilience Thinking and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and

  10. Measuring county resilience after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Lam, N.; Qiang, Y.; Li, K.; Yin, L.; Liu, S.; Zheng, W.

    2015-01-01

    The catastrophic earthquake in 2008 has caused serious damage to Wenchuan County and the surrounding area in China. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the resilience of the affected area. This study applied a new framework, the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model, to quantify and validate the community resilience of 105 counties in the affected area. The RIM model uses cluster analysis to classify counties into four resilience levels according to the exposure, damage, and recovery conditions, and then applies discriminant analysis to quantify the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on the county resilience. The analysis results show that counties located right at the epicenter had the lowest resilience, but counties immediately adjacent to the epicenter had the highest resilience capacities. Counties that were farther away from the epicenter returned to normal resiliency. The socioeconomic variables, including sex ratio, per capita GDP, percent of ethnic minority, and medical facilities, were identified as the most influential socio-economic characteristics on resilience. This study provides useful information to improve county resilience to earthquakes and support decision-making for sustainable development.

  11. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  12. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    . Whereas current safety approaches primarily aim to reduce or eliminate the number of things that go wrong, Resilient Health Care aims to increase and improve the number of things that go right. Just as the WHO argues that health is more than the absence of illness, so does Resilient Health Care argue...... rights reserved....

  13. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  14. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature...

  15. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...

  16. The Resilient Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  17. Analysis for Drought Resilience of Monoculture on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seungkwon; Kang, Hyunjoong; Maeng, Seungjin

    2015-04-01

    Damage occur frequently around the world on climate change, and Korea is no exception. Drought of natural disasters caused by climate change is having a significant impact on crops. Therefore, established for adaptation measures of drought are needed. Recently resilience concept is based on the study to analyze the natural disaster has conducted actively. Uses a different definition for each researcher because of the complexity of resilience concept on the studies of the natural disaster and commonly contains the meaning of "Ability to resist changes in pressure by external force. In this study, the cabbage-growing areas in the Chungcheong utilizing Statistical Annual Report(2013) from past 2007 to 2012 were analyzed by region per unit area yield of Chinese cabbage. Determination of the occurrence and intensity of the drought were utilizing SPEI(Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration). Configure the drought scenario was based on the result that SPEI index, cabbage yield per unit area (kg/10a) analyzed the regional drought resilience for a single crop by comparison. As a result, the average Chinese cabbage yield per unit area is the same when drought occurs Cheongyang, YeSan, SeoSan, Asan, GongJu, CheongJu came out in the order, Chungnam Chinese cabbage yield (kg / 10a) was higher than 10% of the value of Chungbuk in Republic of Korea. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (12-TI-C01) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  18. From Risk to Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    This thesis investigates unpredictability in contemporary disaster and emergency management. The thesis traces the shift from risk thinking towards the resilience approach that has recently characterized the field. It asks how resilience manifests itself in practice and discusses how to incorporate...... this approach into preparedness planning to improve the ability of socio-technological systems to cope with unexpected disruptions. Those working in the field understand resilience as a broad umbrella term linked to risk thinking and concerned with flexible systems that are able to absorb and adapt...... resilience and complexity discourses in an attempt to conjoin the two concepts. This broad discussion leads into a case study of resilience thinking in contemporary disaster and emergency management: preparedness planning for long-term disruptions of the Øresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden. Through...

  19. Zoogeomorphology and resilience theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Anzah, Faisal; Goff, Paepin D.; Villa, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Zoogeomorphology, the study of animals as geomorphic agents, has been largely overlooked in the context of resilience theory and biogeomorphic systems. In this paper, examples are provided of the interactions between external landscape disturbances and zoogeomorphological agents. We describe cases in which naturally occurring zoogeomorphological agents occupy a landscape, and examine whether those zoogeomorphic agents provide resilience to a landscape or instead serve as a landscape stress capable of inducing a phase-state shift. Several cases are described whereby the presence of exotic (introduced) zoogeomorphic agents overwhelms a landscape and induce collapse. The impact of climate change on species with zoogeomorphological importance is discussed in the context of resilience of a landscape. We conclude with a summary diagram illustrating the relationships existing between zoogeomorphic impacts and landscape resilience in the context of our case studies, and speculate about the future of the study of zoogeomorphology in the framework of resilience theory.

  20. Incorporating the Rule of Law in Resiliency Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, John R.; Lewis, Paul; Martinez-Moyano, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, the United Nations (UN) World Conference on Disaster Reduction convened in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, with the goal of developing a 10-year strategy to guide countries in fostering resiliency to natural disasters.1 The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) established five priorities to enhance community resiliency, emphasizing improvements in the rule of law as it relates to communities’ governing systems. The end of the first 10-year period of the HFA presents an opportunity for policymakers to examine how the rule of law could be incorporated in the analyses of progress toward the resiliency goals articulated in the HFA priorities. This paper discusses the relationship between the rule of law and resiliency, presents a case study of how the rule of law could be analyzed in the context of community resiliency based on the HFA priorities, and proposes a model of how the rule of law supports the community system activities necessary to achieve the resiliency enhancements described in the HFA.

  1. Individual and collective dimensions of resilience within political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy A; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Feldman, Guy; Lee, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    Research has documented a link between political violence and the functioning of individuals and communities. Yet, despite the hardships that political violence creates, evidence suggests remarkable fortitude and resilience within both individuals and communities. Individual characteristics that appear to build resilience against political violence include demographic factors such as gender and age, and internal resources, such as hope, optimism, determination, and religious convictions. Research has also documented the protective influence of individuals' connection to community and their involvement in work, school, or political action. Additionally, research on political violence and resilience has increasingly focused on communities themselves as a unit of analysis. Community resilience, like individual resilience, is a process supported by various traits, capacities, and emotional orientations toward hardship. This review addresses various findings related to both individual and community resilience within political violence and offers recommendations for research, practice, and policy.

  2. Sustainable resilience in property maintenance: encountering changing weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Rimante Andrasiunaite; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to develop a methodological approach for project management to integrate sustainability and resilience planning in property maintenance as an incremental strategy for upgrading existing properties to meet new standards for sustainable and climate resilient...... buildings. Background: Current maintenance practice is focused on the technical standard of buildings, with little consideration of sustainability and resilience. There is a need to develop tools for incorporating sustainable resilience into maintenance planning. Approach: The study is primarily theoretical......, developing the concept of sustainable resilience for changing weather conditions Results: The paper suggests a decision support methodology that quantifies sustainable resilience for the analytical stages of property maintenance planning. Practical Implications: The methodology is generic and expected users...

  3. Resilience and Treatment Adhesion in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Daniella Antunes Pousa; Revoredo, Luciana Silva; Vilar, Maria José; Eulália Maria Chaves, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, rheumatic inflammatory disease that can cause significant morbidity with evident psychological impacts and obvious harm to quality-of-life that require the patient to adapt treatment. Objective: Assessment of resilience and the self-reported treatment adhesion behaviors of patients with SLE, investigating which of these factors are associated to resilience. Method: Cross-sectional study of 40 women with SLE. A questionnaire with social demographic data, health history and the Wagnild Young Resilience Scale were used. Results: 62.5% followed the medical treatment properly but 55% found it difficult. 27.5% of the patients presented low resilience, 57.5% medium and 15% high resilience. Resilience was associated in the chi-square test (p-value individual capacities to learn how to tackle with the disease for which psychological support of family and doctors can play a significant role. PMID:24665352

  4. Research on the resilience of husbandry economy to snow disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Snow disaster always makes adverse influence on the pastoral economy in alpine area. Resilience theory could efficiently enhance the capacities of resisting disaster and mitigating loss of animal husbandry economy. In order to distinguish the weak parts of existed resilience system and strengthen the construction of disaster mitigating in the source of Changjiang-Yellow River, this paper has developed two methods of comprehensive index and relationship model to measure the resilience from 1980 to 2014. The comprehensive index method is based on the conceptual framework of resilience assessment. And relationship model is derived from the internal relationship between vulnerability and resilience. Through the index system of resilience, this paper also summarizes the mean influencing indicator to husbandry economy resilience. The results show:(1)From time dimension, the resilience of snow disaster in Changjiang-Yellow River is rising with fluctuations. Based on the rate, the changes could be divided into slow(1980-1996) and fast(1997-2014) growing phases. The disaster-mitigating capacity of livestock has been markedly improved; (2)From spatial dimension, the magnitude and frequency of snow disaster change weakly. But the gap of resilience in Changjiang-Yellow River has shrunk in 35 years and the resilience in source of Changjiang is distinctly better than Yellow River; (3)Among all the indicators, snow disaster plays a decisive role in the changes of resilience. The resisting capacity including infrastructure construction makes significant effects on resilience and the reducing measures consisted of income, education and agricultural finance could effectively regulate the level. Key words: husbandry economy; snow disaster; resilience; mitigation

  5. The geomorphology of wetlands in drylands: Resilience, nonresilience, or …?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Over the last decade, much attention has focused on wetland resilience to disturbances such as extreme weather events, longer climate change, and human activities. In geomorphology and cognate disciplines, resilience is defined in various ways and has physical and socioeconomic dimensions but commonly is taken to mean the ability of a system to (A) withstand disturbance, (B) recover from disturbance, or (C) adapt and evolve in response to disturbance to a more desirable (e.g., stable) configuration. Most studies of wetland resilience have tended to focus on the more-or-less permanently saturated humid region wetlands, but whether the findings can be readily transferred to wetlands in drylands remains unclear. Given the natural climatic variability and overall strong moisture deficit characteristic of drylands, are such wetlands likely to be more resilient or less resilient? Focusing on wetlands in the South African drylands, this paper uses existing geomorphological, sedimentological, and geochronological data sets to provide the spatial (up to 50 km2) and temporal (late Quaternary) framework for an assessment of geomorphological resilience. Some wetlands have been highly resilient to environmental (especially climate) change, but others have been nonresilient with marked transformations in channel-floodplain structure and process connectivity having been driven by natural factors (e.g., local base-level fall, drought) or human activities (e.g., channel excavation, floodplain drainage). Key issues related to the assessment of wetland resilience include channel-floodplain dynamics in relation to geomorphological thresholds, wetland geomorphological 'life cycles', and the relative roles of natural and human activities. These issues raise challenges for the involvement of geomorphologists in the practical application of the resilience concept in wetland management. A key consideration is how geomorphological resilience interfaces with other dimensions of resilience

  6. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  7. Breaking Resilience for a Sustainable Future: Thoughts for the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Glaser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Strong resilience of a system usually enables the protection of a status quo. Most resilience studies assume that resilience-building is the central objective of sustainability work. Even though transformation has become a central theme in development and social-ecological debates, questions surrounding the weakening resilience of undesired system states are rarely analyzed. We suggest that resilience studies not only serve to protect systems and feedbacks we want to maintain, but may also help to understand and overcome chronic, undesirable,—and thus wicked—resilience. This contribution focuses on reef fisheries in the Spermonde Island Archipelago in Indonesia, based on social and ecological studies between 2004 and 2016. We identify a number of interlocking wickedly resilient vicious cycles as predominant drivers of the impoverishment of fishing households and the overexploited, polluted and degraded state of the coral reefs that fishers' livelihoods depend on. We argue that, more often than not in the Anthropocene, breaking resilience has a central role in the pursuit of sustainable human-nature relations. Therefore, the link between the resilience and the transformation debates needs to be much more explicitly made. Breaking interlocking, wicked resilience at multiple levels is needed to move toward sustainable human-nature relations from the local to the global level. There are lacunae in debate, literature, and research practice as to when, where and how wicked resilience might need to be weakened. A more complete resilience lens is particularly needed under Anthropocene conditions to support the unmaking of chronically resilient, anthropogenic systems.

  8. Racial Discrimination, Cultural Resilience, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Nicholas D; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; George, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Racial discrimination is a social determinant of health for First Nations people. Cultural resilience has been regarded as a potentially positive resource for social outcomes. Using a compensatory model of resilience, this study sought to determine if cultural resilience (compensatory factor) neutralized or offset the detrimental effect of racial discrimination (social risk factor) on stress (outcome). Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013 (N = 340) from adult members of the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation community in Ontario, Canada. The outcome was perceived stress; risk factor, racial discrimination; and compensatory factor, cultural resilience. Control variables included individual (education, sociability) and family (marital status, socioeconomic status) resilience resources and demographics (age and gender). The model was tested using sequential regression. The risk factor, racial discrimination, increased stress across steps of the sequential model, while cultural resilience had an opposite modest effect on stress levels. In the final model with all variables, age and gender were significant, with the former having a negative effect on stress and women reporting higher levels of stress than males. Education, marital status, and socioeconomic status (household income) were not significant in the model. The model had R(2) = 0.21 and adjusted R(2) = 0.18 and semipartial correlation (squared) of 0.04 and 0.01 for racial discrimination and cultural resilience, respectively. In this study, cultural resilience compensated for the detrimental effect of racial discrimination on stress in a modest manner. These findings may support the development of programs and services fostering First Nations culture, pending further study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  10. How school ecologies facilitate resilience among adolescents with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global prioritisation of the inclusion of learners with disabilities, and of vulnerable young people's resilience, means that teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID). To provide such insight, we conducted a secondary data ...

  11. Object-based delineation and classification of alluvial fans by application of mean-shift segmentation and support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipaud, Isabel; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2017-09-01

    In the field of geomorphology, automated extraction and classification of landforms is one of the most active research areas. Until the late 2000s, this task has primarily been tackled using pixel-based approaches. As these methods consider pixels and pixel neighborhoods as the sole basic entities for analysis, they cannot account for the irregular boundaries of real-world objects. Object-based analysis frameworks emerging from the field of remote sensing have been proposed as an alternative approach, and were successfully applied in case studies falling in the domains of both general and specific geomorphology. In this context, the a-priori selection of scale parameters or bandwidths is crucial for the segmentation result, because inappropriate parametrization will either result in over-segmentation or insufficient segmentation. In this study, we describe a novel supervised method for delineation and classification of alluvial fans, and assess its applicability using a SRTM 1‧‧ DEM scene depicting a section of the north-eastern Mongolian Altai, located in northwest Mongolia. The approach is premised on the application of mean-shift segmentation and the use of a one-class support vector machine (SVM) for classification. To consider variability in terms of alluvial fan dimension and shape, segmentation is performed repeatedly for different weightings of the incorporated morphometric parameters as well as different segmentation bandwidths. The final classification layer is obtained by selecting, for each real-world object, the most appropriate segmentation result according to fuzzy membership values derived from the SVM classification. Our results show that mean-shift segmentation and SVM-based classification provide an effective framework for delineation and classification of a particular landform. Variable bandwidths and terrain parameter weightings were identified as being crucial for consideration of intra-class variability, and, in turn, for a constantly

  12. The relationship between intelligence and creativity: New support for the threshold hypothesis by means of empirical breakpoint detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauk, Emanuel; Benedek, Mathias; Dunst, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence and creativity has been subject to empirical research for decades. Nevertheless, there is yet no consensus on how these constructs are related. One of the most prominent notions concerning the interplay between intelligence and creativity is the threshold hypothesis, which assumes that above-average intelligence represents a necessary condition for high-level creativity. While earlier research mostly supported the threshold hypothesis, it has come under fire in recent investigations. The threshold hypothesis is commonly investigated by splitting a sample at a given threshold (e.g., at 120 IQ points) and estimating separate correlations for lower and upper IQ ranges. However, there is no compelling reason why the threshold should be fixed at an IQ of 120, and to date, no attempts have been made to detect the threshold empirically. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between intelligence and different indicators of creative potential and of creative achievement by means of segmented regression analysis in a sample of 297 participants. Segmented regression allows for the detection of a threshold in continuous data by means of iterative computational algorithms. We found thresholds only for measures of creative potential but not for creative achievement. For the former the thresholds varied as a function of criteria: When investigating a liberal criterion of ideational originality (i.e., two original ideas), a threshold was detected at around 100 IQ points. In contrast, a threshold of 120 IQ points emerged when the criterion was more demanding (i.e., many original ideas). Moreover, an IQ of around 85 IQ points was found to form the threshold for a purely quantitative measure of creative potential (i.e., ideational fluency). These results confirm the threshold hypothesis for qualitative indicators of creative potential and may explain some of the observed discrepancies in previous research. In addition, we obtained

  13. Shaping a Stories of Resilience Model from urban American Indian elders' narratives of historical trauma and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Attakai, Agnes; Kahn, Carmella B; Whitewater, Shannon; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    American Indians (AIs) have experienced traumatizing events but practice remarkable resilience to large-scale and long-term adversities. Qualitative, community-based participatory research served to collect urban AI elders' life narratives on historical trauma and resilience strategies. A consensus group of 15 elders helped finalize open-ended questions that guided 13 elders in telling their stories. Elders shared multifaceted personal stories that revealed the interconnectedness between historical trauma and resilience, and between traditional perceptions connecting past and present, and individuals, families, and communities. Based on the elders' narratives, and supported by the literature, an explanatory Stories of Resilience Model was developed.

  14. Personality characteristics related to resilience in the Czech university sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Kebza, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2012), s. 121-121 ISSN 0887-0446. [ Resilience and Health: 26th Conference of the European Health Psychology Society. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * two-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  15. Resilient Communities: From Sustainable to Secure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, Clifford R.

    2009-07-01

    A sustainable biosphere is an absolute necessity to support the world's growing population, (now exceeding 6.2 billion persons), as civilization advances through the 21st century. Sustainability primarily refers to a bio-physical environment that is not a risk, which can provide the necessary support system for both plant and human habitat involving the earth's lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. However, that alone will not provide the necessary protection, since our human habitat must also be safe and secure. A more operable term should be resilient, rather than sustainable, since a climate positive community, with an on-site CO2 emission near zero, does not mean the population is protected from both natural and manmade disasters. Effective neoteric planning of our biosphere is necessary as it involves spatial, temporal, and sensory aspects of the community habitat. Two-dimensional planning that addresses just the surface (e.g., land), fails to be comprehensive, since both aerial and subsurface features are omitted. Effective neoteric planning of our biosphere is necessary as it involves spatial, temporal, and sensory aspects of the community habitat. Two-dimensional planning that addresses just the surface (e.g., land), is not comprehensive, since aerial and subsurface features are omitted. A three dimensional approach is needed, which involves the combination of the x, y and z axis, in order to be spatially accurate. Our personal transportation based mobility systems, along with its accompanying infrastructure, has resulted in a drive-thru society that is becoming supersized. Urban obesity in terms of modes of transport and today's living environment has resulted in McMansions and mega-vehicles have created an energy demand that if unchecked could create a carhenge by the year 3000. Infrastructure gridlock besides global warming is costing the world's economy, approximately 6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Impaired global mobility which threatens

  16. The influence of township schools on the resilience of their learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many learners living in townships require protection and resilience to overcome obstacles and adversities in their context of development. The literature on resilience indicates strongly that resilience is embedded systemically. In the absence of constructive and supportive conditions in the home environment, the school ...

  17. Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies. How can populations become resilient to climate change while pursuing economic growth? This question is at the heart of a research project designed to support climate-resilient economic development in semi-arid lands. It will do so by addressing the conditions for ...

  18. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  19. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: protective processes and pathways to resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain 'invulnerable' children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental health consequences of war-related violence and loss, the focus on trauma alone has resulted in inadequate attention to factors associated with resilient mental health outcomes. This paper presents key studies in the literature that address the interplay between risk and protective processes in the mental health of war-affected children from an ecological, developmental perspective. It suggests that further research on war-affected children should pay particular attention to coping and meaning making at the individual level; the role of attachment relationships, caregiver health, resources and connection in the family, and social support available in peer and extended social networks. Cultural and community influences such as attitudes towards mental health and healing as well as the meaning given to the experience of war itself are also important aspects of the larger social ecology.

  1. Review Paper: Aspects related to Resilience in People with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rahmani Rasa

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion Resilience in spinal cord injury needs psychologically more attempt than the physical aspects, because it needs more time to adapt after a sudden accident. Spirituality, stress management strategies, optimism, and social support from family members and friends facilitate resilience. As resilience is impacted by the culture and environment, more studies on the explanation of the aspects related to the resilience of Iranian population is recommended.

  2. Does spirituality facilitate adjustment and resilience among individuals and families after SCI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate; Simpson, Grahame Kenneth; Briggs, Lynne; Dorsett, Pat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to investigate the role of spirituality in facilitating adjustment and resilience after spinal cord injury (SCI) for the individual with SCI and their family members. METHOD-DATA SOURCES: Peer reviewed journals were identified using PsychInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and Sociological Abstracts search engines. After duplicates were removed, 434 abstracts were screened applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected 28 studies were reviewed in detail and grouped according to methodological approach. Of the 28 studies relating to spirituality and related meaning-making constructs, 26 addressed the adjustment of the individual with SCI alone. Only two included family members as participants. Quantitative studies demonstrated that spirituality was positively associated with life satisfaction, quality of life, mental health and resilience. The utilisation of meaning-making and hope as coping strategies in the process of adjustment were highlighted within the qualitative studies. Clinical implications included recommendations that spirituality and meaning-making be incorporated in assessment and interventions during rehabilitation. The use of narratives and peer support was also suggested. Spirituality is an important factor in adjustment after SCI. Further research into the relationship between spirituality, family adjustment and resilience is needed. Higher levels of spirituality were associated with improved quality of life, life satisfaction, mental health, and resilience for individuals affected by spinal cord injury. Health professionals can enhance the role that spirituality plays in spinal rehabilitation by incorporating the spiritual beliefs of individuals and their family members into assessment and intervention. By drawing upon meaning-making tools, such as narrative therapy, incorporating peer support, and assisting clients who report a decline in spirituality, health professionals can provide additional support

  3. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  4. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean-variance approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean-variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums....... Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same...

  5. Stochastic measures of network resilience: applications to waterway commodity flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroud, Hiba; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E; Barker, Kash; Rocco, Claudio M

    2014-07-01

    Given the ubiquitous nature of infrastructure networks in today's society, there is a global need to understand, quantify, and plan for the resilience of these networks to disruptions. This work defines network resilience along dimensions of reliability, vulnerability, survivability, and recoverability, and quantifies network resilience as a function of component and network performance. The treatment of vulnerability and recoverability as random variables leads to stochastic measures of resilience, including time to total system restoration, time to full system service resilience, and time to a specific α% resilience. Ultimately, a means to optimize network resilience strategies is discussed, primarily through an adaption of the Copeland Score for nonparametric stochastic ranking. The measures of resilience and optimization techniques are applied to inland waterway networks, an important mode in the larger multimodal transportation network upon which we rely for the flow of commodities. We provide a case study analyzing and planning for the resilience of commodity flows along the Mississippi River Navigation System to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed metrics. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Social ecology of resilience and Sumud of Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of theoretical perspectives and practical research knowledge in relation to 'resilience', the resilience of Palestinians in particular and the related concept of 'Sumud'. 'Sumud' is a Palestinian idea that is interwoven with ideas of personal and collective resilience and steadfastness. It is also a socio-political concept and refers to ways of surviving in the context of occupation, chronic adversity, lack of resources and limited infrastructure. The concept of 'resilience' has deep roots, going back at least to the 10th century when Arabic scholars suggested strategies to cope with life adversity. In Europe, research into resilience extends back to the 1800s. The understanding of resilience has developed over four overlapping waves. These focus on individual traits, protective factors, ecological assets and (in the current wave) social ecological factors. The current wave of resilience research focuses on the contribution of cultural contextualisation and is an approach that is discussed in this article, which draws on Arabic and English language literature located through a search of multiple databases (CINAHL, British Nursing Index, ASSIA, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE). Findings suggest that 'Sumud' is linked to the surrounding cultural context and can be thought of as an innovative, social ecological, approach to promoting resilience. We show that resilience is a prerequisite to 'Sumud', meaning that the individual has to be resilient in order to stay and not to leave their place, position or community. We close by pressing the case for studies which investigate resilience especially in underdeveloped countries such as Palestine (occupied Palestinian territories), and which reveal how resilience is embedded in pre-existing cultural contexts.

  7. Building community resilience to climate change through public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajayo, Rachael

    2012-04-01

    Nillumbik Shire Council, in partnership with La Trobe University, used the Municipal Public Health Planning process to develop an approach for building the resilience of local communities to climate-related stressors. The objective was to define an approach for building community resilience to climate change and to integrate this approach with the 'Environments for Health' framework. Key published papers and reports by leading experts the field were reviewed. Literature was selected based on its relevance to the subjects of community resilience and climate change and was derived from local and international publications, the vast majority published within the past two decades. Review of literature on community resilience revealed that four principal resource sets contribute to the capacity of communities to adapt in times of stress, these being: economic development; social capital; information and communication; and community competence. On the strength of findings, a framework for building each resilience resource set within each of the Environments for Health was constructed. This paper introduces the newly constructed 'Community Resilience Framework', which describes how each one of the four resilience resource sets can be developed within social, built, natural and economic environments. The Community Resilience Framework defines an approach for simultaneously creating supportive environments for health and increasing community capacity for adaptation to climate-related stressors. As such, it can be used by Municipal Public Health Planners as a guide in building community resilience to climate change.

  8. Mainstreaming Low-Carbon Climate-Resilient growth pathways into Development Finance Institutions' activities. A research program on the standards, tools and metrics to support transition to the low-carbon climate-resilient development models. Paper 2 - Lessons from the use of climate-related decision-making standards and tools by DFIs to facilitate the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, Ian; Eschalier, Claire; Deheza, Mariana

    2015-10-01

    The integration or 'mainstreaming' of climate change into development finance decisions poses a broad number of operational challenges. Drawing from the current practice of Development Finance Institutions (DFIs), this paper first identifies three families of tools and metrics used by DFIs to integrate both mitigation and adaptation objectives into investment decision making. Based on this analysis, it then establishes a framework for integrating carbon standards and tools into the upstream strategic and downstream assessment stages of investment decision making. It principally considers the integration into the assessment of direct project finance and investment, but also looks at budget support, programmatic and indirect interventions. Finally, the paper identifies the next steps to build on existing tools and indicators that currently focus on climate finance tracking to those that foster the alignment of long-term development with the 2 deg. C climate objective. This alignment implies moving from 'static' assessment tools - that identify whether or not emissions are reduced or resiliency is increased by an action - to a 'dynamic' process within which the 'transition impact' is assessed. (authors)

  9. "I Feel I Mean Something to Someone:" Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Support Groups for Bullied Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how bullied schoolchildren experience solution-focused brief therapy support groups, and to examine how members of the support group experience their participation in the group. An explorative qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19…

  10. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    flood but also to restart as fast as possible (for example, the clearing of roads is a prerequisite for electricity's restoration which is a vital network for territory's functioning). While the waste management is a main stage of post crisis, these questions are still without answer. The extend of this network influence also leads us to think about the means to prevent from waste production and service's dysfunction. How to develop the territory to limit the floods' impact on the waste management network? Are there techniques or equipments allowing stakeholders to limit these impacts? How to increase population's, entrepreneur's or farmer's awareness to get ready to face floods, to limit the waste production, but also to react well during and after the floods? Throughout means of prevention and thanks to actor's technical and organizational adaptations towards the waste network, or by raising population's awareness and preparation, economic and institutional actors of urban territories might improve the waste's network flood resilience, and thus, cities' flood resilience. Through experience feedbacks about countries recently affected by large-extended floods and field reflection with local actors, the stakes of this PhD research are thus to think about means (1) to maintain the activity out of flood plains during a flood, (2) to increase the waste management network's activity in post crisis period in order to be able to deal with a new waste production both by its quality and its quantity, but also (3) to study the means to prevent this new production. This work will use the concept of urban system to describe urban territory because it allows us to study both its behaviour and functioning. The interest of this methodological choice is to take into account the impacts of the disruption of waste management networks on cities' functioning, and thus, on cities' flood resilience.

  11. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  12. Adaptive, dynamic, and resilient systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suri, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of today's networked computer systems grows, they become increasingly difficult to understand, predict, and control. Addressing these challenges requires new approaches to building these systems. Adaptive, Dynamic, and Resilient Systems supplies readers with various perspectives of the critical infrastructure that systems of networked computers rely on. It introduces the key issues, describes their interrelationships, and presents new research in support of these areas.The book presents the insights of a different group of international experts in each chapter. Reporting on r

  13. Resilient Diffusive Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS TRUSTEES OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE FEBRUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...To) SEP 2011 – SEP 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-11-2-0257 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM...diversified virtual machines. The concepts lead to a view of cloud computing in which vulnerabilities are different at every host, attackers cannot

  14. Resilience and reworking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus; Fold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    of this article is to shed light on the agency of individual workers involved in rapid industrialization processes. In this endeavor we draw inspiration from recent contributions that have integrated Cindi Katz's threefold categorization of agency as reworking, resilience and resistance. In combination...... and resilience can be conceptualized as transformative trajectories - workers’ situated knowledge and practices evolve and change over time and is conditioned by the specific labor market contexts through which the individual moves....

  15. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    addresses concrete problems in the design of resilient systems. The complete catalog of resilience design patterns provides designers with reusable design elements. We also define a framework that enhances a designer's understanding of the important constraints and opportunities for the design patterns to be implemented and deployed at various layers of the system stack. This design framework may be used to establish mechanisms and interfaces to coordinate flexible fault management across hardware and software components. The framework also supports optimization of the cost-benefit trade-offs among performance, resilience, and power consumption. The overall goal of this work is to enable a systematic methodology for the design and evaluation of resilience technologies in extreme-scale HPC systems that keep scientific applications running to a correct solution in a timely and cost-efficient manner in spite of frequent faults, errors, and failures of various types.

  16. Dynamics of resilience in forced migration: a 1-year follow-up study of longitudinal associations with mental health in a conflict-affected, ethnic Muslim population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2015-02-16

    The concept of 'resilience' is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. A prospective follow-up study of 1 year. Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20 years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity, resilience was more strongly and robustly associated with economic and

  17. "Sometimes you just have to walk alone"--meanings of emotional support among Danish-born and migrant cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-01-01

    The study explores differences and similarities in needs for and experiences with emotional support among Danish-born and migrant cancer patients. Qualitative narrative interviews with 18 adult cancer patients were conducted. Analysis was inspired by phenomenological methods. Migrant patients...

  18. Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovac, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    ISBN: 978-94-6257-443-4 Author: Catarina C. Jakovac Title: Resilience of Amazonian landscapes to agricultural intensification Swidden cultivation is the traditional agricultural system in riverine Amazonia, which supports local livelihoods and

  19. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  20. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  1. The vulnerability and resilience of historic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 8-12 ISSN 1842-5631 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : emergency situations * vulnerability * resilience * maintenance * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Architecture engineering

  2. Sustaining Emotional Resilience for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the country's need to compete in a global economy, the UK government is imposing rapid and relentless educational change on schools. School leaders face the challenge of managing the impact of externally driven change and supporting others' resilience while frequently paying scant attention to their own. Six semi-structured interviews…

  3. Resilience and development: mobilizing for transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Bousquet

    2016-09-01

    Social transformations and scientific approaches are coconstructed. For the last decades, development has been conceived as a modernization process supported by scientific rationality and technical expertise. The definition of a new perspective on development goes with a negotiation on a new scientific approach. Resilience is presently at the center of this negotiation on a new science for development.

  4. Meanings intrafamilial sexual abuse for female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hilario Maranhão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.

  5. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  6. Making medical treatments resilient to technological disruptions in telemedicine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Telemedicine depends on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support remote treatment of patients. This dependency requires the telemedicine system design to be resilient for ICT performance degradation or subsystem failures. Nevertheless, using telemedicine systems create a dependency

  7. Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies (PRISE)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rlarbey

    . Support the emergence of a new cadre of policy-oriented researchers working on climate resilient development, engaged with key Southern institutions. ... Inception Phase (Year 1) brings macro-level analysis of global semi-arid lands.

  8. The relationship between trait emotional intelligence, resiliency, and mental health in older adults: the mediating role of savouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Claire A; Saklofske, Donald H

    2018-05-01

    The present study explores savouring, defined as the process of attending to positive experiences, as a mediator in the relationships between resiliency, trait emotional intelligence (EI), and subjective mental health in older adults. Following Fredrickson's Broaden and Build Theory of positive emotions, the present study aims to extend our understanding of the underlying processes that link resiliency and trait EI with self-reported mental health in older adulthood. A sample of 149 adults aged 65 and over (M = 73.72) were recruited from retirement homes and community groups. Participants completed measures of resiliency, savouring, trait EI, and subjective mental health either online or in a paper format. Path analysis revealed that savouring fully mediated the relationship between resiliency and mental health. However, trait EI did not significantly predict mental health in this sample. These findings provided partial support for the Broaden and Build Theory of positive emotions. As anticipated, savouring imitated the broadening effect of positive emotions by mediating the relationship between resiliency and mental health. However, savouring failed to reflect the undoing effect of positive emotions and did not mediate the relationship between EI and mental health. These findings have implications for positive psychology exercises and may be a simple, yet effective means of improving the life quality of older adults.

  9. Relation between resiliency and post-traumatic growth in a group of paramedics: The mediating role of coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the research is to investigate the mediating role of coping strategies for stress in the relation between resiliency and post-traumatic growth in a group of paramedics. Material and Methods: Data of 80 paramedics who have experienced traumatic event at their worksites was analyzed. The age range of the participants was 21–67 years old (mean: 35.47, standard deviation: 10.21. The Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, the Assessment Resiliency Scale and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies for Stress – Mini-Cope were used in the study. Results: Venting of negative emotions and denial appeared as suppressors in analyzing the relation, while planning plays mediating role between resiliency and post-traumatic growth. Conclusions: In the process of post-traumatic growth, both avoidance and problem-focused strategies are important. Moreover, controlling such strategies as Venting and Denial may result in a high level of posttraumatic growth in the study group. The data supports that resiliency may have direct or indirect impact on post-traumatic changes. The results allow to understand the mechanisms of resiliency better, that relationship with post-traumatic growth is ambiguous.

  10. Associations of perceived social support and positive psychological resources with fatigue symptom in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, NeiLi; Zhao, Shuai; Xue, HongXia; Fu, WenYi; Liu, Li; Zhang, TianQi; Huang, Rui; Zhang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support (PSS) and fatigue and the roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience as mediators or moderators on PSS-fatigue association among Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients in China. A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted withinpatients diagnosed with RA in northeast China, in which 305 eligible inpatients were enrolled. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Test Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Ego-Resiliency Scale were completed. The associations of PSS, hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience with fatigue and the moderating roles of these positive psychological constructs were tested by hierarchical linear regression. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were utilized to assess the mediating roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience. The mean score of the MFI was 57.88 (SD = 9.50). PSS, hope, optimism and resilience were negatively associated with RA-related fatigue, whereas DAS28-CRP was positively associated. Only resilience positively moderated the PSS-fatigue association (B = 0.03, β = 0.13, P<0.01). Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association between PSS and fatigue symptoms (hope: a*b = -0.16, BCa 95%CI: -0.27, -0.03; optimism: a*b = -0.20, BCa 95%CI: -0.30, -0.10; resilience: a*b = -0.12, BCa 95%CI: -0.21-0.04). Fatigue is a severe symptom among RA patients. Resilience may positively moderate the PSS-fatigue association. Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association. PSS, hope, optimism and resilience may contribute as effective recourses to alleviate fatigue, upon which PSS probably has the greatest effect.

  11. Associations of perceived social support and positive psychological resources with fatigue symptom in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NeiLi Xu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support (PSS and fatigue and the roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience as mediators or moderators on PSS-fatigue association among Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA patients in China.A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted withinpatients diagnosed with RA in northeast China, in which 305 eligible inpatients were enrolled. The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Test Revised, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Ego-Resiliency Scale were completed. The associations of PSS, hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience with fatigue and the moderating roles of these positive psychological constructs were tested by hierarchical linear regression. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were utilized to assess the mediating roles of hope, optimism, general self-efficacy and resilience.The mean score of the MFI was 57.88 (SD = 9.50. PSS, hope, optimism and resilience were negatively associated with RA-related fatigue, whereas DAS28-CRP was positively associated. Only resilience positively moderated the PSS-fatigue association (B = 0.03, β = 0.13, P<0.01. Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association between PSS and fatigue symptoms (hope: a*b = -0.16, BCa 95%CI: -0.27, -0.03; optimism: a*b = -0.20, BCa 95%CI: -0.30, -0.10; resilience: a*b = -0.12, BCa 95%CI: -0.21-0.04.Fatigue is a severe symptom among RA patients. Resilience may positively moderate the PSS-fatigue association. Hope, optimism and resilience may act as partial mediators in the association. PSS, hope, optimism and resilience may contribute as effective recourses to alleviate fatigue, upon which PSS probably has the greatest effect.

  12. The resilience in illness model, part 1: exploratory evaluation in adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Joan E; Kintner, Eileen K; Monahan, Patrick O; Robb, Sheri L

    2014-01-01

    Resilience is a positive health outcome identified by the Committee on Future Direction for Behavioral and Social Sciences as a research priority for the National Institutes of Health. The Resilience in Illness Model (RIM) was developed from a series of qualitative and quantitative studies, to increase understanding of how positive health protective factors (ie, social integration, family environment, courageous coping, and derived meaning) may influence resilience outcomes. The RIM also includes 2 risk factors: illness-related distress and defensive coping. The purpose of this 2-part article was to report on evaluation of the RIM for adolescents/young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Here, in part 1, our purpose was to describe the exploratory RIM evaluation, and in part 2 we describe the confirmatory RIM evaluation. An exploratory evaluation of RIM was done using exploratory latent variable structural equation modeling with a combined sample from 2 studies of preadolescents and AYAs with cancer aged 10 to 26 years (n = 202). Results, including goodness-of-fit indices, support the RIM as a theory with a high level of explained variance for outcomes of resilience (67%) and self-transcendence (63%). Variance explained for proximal outcomes ranged from 18% to 76%. Findings indicate that, following confirmatory testing, the RIM may be a useful guide to developing targeted interventions that are grounded in the experiences of the AYAs. Understanding of the AYA cancer experience to improve holistic care is increased.

  13. Resilience and trajectories of posttraumatic stress among youth exposed to disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Graham, Rebecca A

    2014-02-01

    Multiple trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are hypothesized following disaster in a number of theoretical perspectives. Increasingly, those with rapidly declining, transient, or stable low symptoms are defined as resilient. This article examines trajectories to understand acute reactions to disaster, and explores the need to define resilience as more than just symptom trajectories. An urban school-based sample of youth exposed to both hurricanes Katrina and Gustav (n=141; grades 4 through 8) were assessed for PTS symptoms at 12 months and 6 months pre-Gustav (Times 1 and 2); and then again at 1 month post-Gustav (Time 3). Data indicated that there were significant decreases in mean PTS symptoms post-Gustav, but individual trajectories were identified consistent with theory. Whereas an ostensibly resilient group was identified (stable low symptoms), results suggest that the group was heterogeneous in terms of disaster experiences, and that those with low symptoms but relatively high Katrina disaster exposure had a unique coping style. Results provide prospective data to support theories of multiple trauma exposure trajectories, and highlight the importance of empirically identifying resilient youth in terms of both functioning and level of risk exposure in disaster samples.

  14. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Excel database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  15. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI JPEG Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  16. Portfolios as "Learning Companions" for Children and a Means to Support and Assess Language Learning in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the idea of portfolios as a way to collect evidence of pupils' learning and achievement in their language learning in the primary school. The emphasis is on portfolio work as an active and reflective process to underpin and support learning and to show evidence of achievement and progression. Pupil choice and reflexivity are…

  17. Geocraft as a means to support the development of smart cities, getting the people of the place involved - youth included -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Henk; Fruijtier, Steven; Dias, Eduardo; Hettinga, Sanne; Opmeer, Mark; van Leeuwen, Willemijn S.; Linde, Marianne; Bos, Steven; Vaughan, Rubio; van Kaam, Heidy; van Manen, Niels; Fruijtier, Ceciel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper we present Geocraft, a Geo-ICT framework meant to provide the information needed to support the development of smart cities in an accessible and user-friendly way. We explored whether Geocraft could be an effective way to get the people of the place, especially youth, involved

  18. The Importance of Resilience for Well-Being in Retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Nalin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.

  19. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  20. Promoting resilience among parents and caregivers of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Baker, K Scott; Syrjala, Karen L; Back, Anthony L; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Promoting resilience is an aspect of psychosocial care that affects patient and whole-family well-being. There is little consensus about how to define or promote resilience during and after pediatric cancer. The aims of this study were (1) to review the resilience literature in pediatric cancer settings; (2) to qualitatively ascertain caregiver-reported perceptions of resilience; and (3) to develop an integrative model of fixed and mutable factors of resilience among family members of children with cancer, with the goal of enabling better study and promotion of resilience among pediatric cancer families. The study entailed qualitative analysis of small group interviews with eighteen bereaved parents and family members of children with cancer treated at Seattle Children's Hospital. Small-group interviews were conducted with members of each bereaved family. Participant statements were coded for thematic analysis. An integrative, comprehensive framework was then developed. Caregivers' personal appraisals of the cancer experience and their child's legacy shape their definitions of resilience. Described factors of resilience include baseline characteristics (i.e., inherent traits, prior expectations of cancer), processes that evolve over time (i.e., coping strategies, social support, provider interactions), and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., post-traumatic growth and lack of psychological distress). These elements were used to develop a testable model of resilience among family members of children with cancer. Resilience is a complex construct that may be modifiable. Once validated, the proposed framework will not only serve as a model for clinicians, but may also facilitate the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in family members of children with cancer.

  1. Determinants of resilience to cigarette smoking among young Australians at risk: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikocka-Walus Antonina A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous researchers studied risk factors associated with smoking uptake, however, few examined protective factors associated with smoking resilience. This study therefore aims to explore determinants of smoking resilience among young people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who are at risk of smoking. Methods Overall, 92 out of 92 vocational education students accepted invitation to participate in this exploratory study. The Adelaide Technical and Further Education (TAFE Arts campus was chosen for the study given the focus on studying resilience in young people of lower socioeconomic status i.e. resilient despite the odds. A self-report questionnaire comprising a measure of resilience: sense of coherence, sense of humour, coping styles, depression, anxiety and stress, and family, peers and community support, was distributed among participants aged 15 to 29. Additional factors researched are parental approval and disapproval, course type, and reasons for not smoking. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 13.0, analyses were undertaken using frequencies, means, standard deviations, independent sample t-tests, correlations, analysis of variance, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results Twenty five (27% out of 92 students smoked. Young people with peer support tended to smoke (p Conclusions The current study showed that most students chose 'health and fitness' as the reason for not smoking. Single anti-smoking messages cannot be generalised to all young people, but should recognise that people within different contexts, groups and subcultures will have different reasons for choosing whether or not to smoke. Future studies should use larger samples with a mixed methods design (quantitative and qualitative.

  2. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  3. FORUM: Effective management of ecological resilience – are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Bryan M.; Ives, Stephen C.; Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Birk, Sebastian; Carvalho, Laurence; Cavers, Stephen; Daunt, Francis; Morton, R. Daniel; Pocock, Michael J. O.; Rhodes, Glenn; Thackeray, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological resilience is developing into a credible paradigm for policy development and environmental management for preserving natural capital in a rapidly changing world. However, resilience emerges from complex interactions, limiting the translation of theory into practice.Main limitations include the following: (i) difficulty in quantification and detection of changes in ecological resilience, (ii) a lack of empirical evidence to support preventative or proactive management and (iii) difficulties in managing processes operating across socio-ecological systems that vary in space and time.We highlight recent research with the potential to address these limitations including new and/or improved indicators of resilience and tools to assess scale as a driver of resilience.Synthesis and applications. Effective resilience-based management must be adaptive in nature. To support this, we propose an operational model using resilience-based iterative management actions operating across scales.

  4. Resilience Attributes of Social-Ecological Systems: Framing Metrics for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Kerner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If resilience theory is to be of practical value for policy makers and resource managers, the theory must be translated into sensible decision-support tools. We present herein a set of resilience attributes, developed to characterize human-managed systems, that helps system stakeholders to make practical use of resilience concepts in tangible applications. In order to build and maintain resilience, these stakeholders must be able to understand what qualities or attributes enhance—or detract from—a system’s resilience. We describe standardized resilience terms that can be incorporated into resource management plans and decision-support tools to derive metrics that help managers assess the current resilience status of their systems, make rational resource allocation decisions, and track progress toward meeting goals. Our intention is to provide an approachable set of terms for both specialists and non-specialists alike to apply to programs that would benefit from a resilience perspective. These resilience terms can facilitate the modeling of resilience behavior within systems, as well as support those lacking access to sophisticated models. Our goal is to enable policy makers and resource managers to put resilience theory to work in the real world.

  5. Why resilience is unappealing to social science: Theoretical and empirical investigations of the scientific use of resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lennart; Jerneck, Anne; Thoren, Henrik; Persson, Johannes; O’Byrne, David

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is often promoted as a boundary concept to integrate the social and natural dimensions of sustainability. However, it is a troubled dialogue from which social scientists may feel detached. To explain this, we first scrutinize the meanings, attributes, and uses of resilience in ecology and elsewhere to construct a typology of definitions. Second, we analyze core concepts and principles in resilience theory that cause disciplinary tensions between the social and natural sciences (system ontology, system boundary, equilibria and thresholds, feedback mechanisms, self-organization, and function). Third, we provide empirical evidence of the asymmetry in the use of resilience theory in ecology and environmental sciences compared to five relevant social science disciplines. Fourth, we contrast the unification ambition in resilience theory with methodological pluralism. Throughout, we develop the argument that incommensurability and unification constrain the interdisciplinary dialogue, whereas pluralism drawing on core social scientific concepts would better facilitate integrated sustainability research. PMID:26601176

  6. Why resilience is unappealing to social science: Theoretical and empirical investigations of the scientific use of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lennart; Jerneck, Anne; Thoren, Henrik; Persson, Johannes; O'Byrne, David

    2015-05-01

    Resilience is often promoted as a boundary concept to integrate the social and natural dimensions of sustainability. However, it is a troubled dialogue from which social scientists may feel detached. To explain this, we first scrutinize the meanings, attributes, and uses of resilience in ecology and elsewhere to construct a typology of definitions. Second, we analyze core concepts and principles in resilience theory that cause disciplinary tensions between the social and natural sciences (system ontology, system boundary, equilibria and thresholds, feedback mechanisms, self-organization, and function). Third, we provide empirical evidence of the asymmetry in the use of resilience theory in ecology and environmental sciences compared to five relevant social science disciplines. Fourth, we contrast the unification ambition in resilience theory with methodological pluralism. Throughout, we develop the argument that incommensurability and unification constrain the interdisciplinary dialogue, whereas pluralism drawing on core social scientific concepts would better facilitate integrated sustainability research.

  7. Family Resilience in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  8. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    literature on resilience in the area of disaster risk (see corresponding abstract of another session). The research gap, which was also highlighted in the 2012 National Academies of Sciences Paper (Disasters, Committee on Science and Public Policy, & Academies, 2012), is the lack of a consistent way to measure resilience, which is a complex systems concept, across different communities and over time. Without this measurement, evaluating the impact of projects, programs and policies on a community's resilience cannot be consistently made. In turn, the relative costs and benefits of potential interventions cannot be properly assessed to determine those which ought to be prioritized. The measurement of resilience contains both theoretical and practical components, but much of the research to date has been limited to the theoretical realm. There is a need for a set of indicators that can be systematically collected in the field to practically measure resilience. This presentation will examine both the theoretical and practical challenges this involves, and how this is being approached through a unique alliance between the research community, a private partner and field practitioners. We aim to help build consistency amongst those working on assessing and prioritizing effective resilience strategies. The Alliance between research partners and NGOs will be highlighted to show how such collaborations can support a continuous learning process in communities and contribute to improved flood resilience at community level and beyond. This includes the development and use of innovative evaluation tools that can aid communities in prioritizing projects and policies as well as demonstrating effectiveness to donors.

  9. Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping, Resilience and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions can widen the range of potential coping strategies that come to mind and subsequently enhance one's resilience against stress. Studies have shown that high stress, especially chronic levels of stress, strongly contributes to the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, researchers have also found that individuals who possess high levels of resilience are protected from stress and thus report lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 200 postdoctoral research fellows, the present study examined if (a) positive emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b) coping strategies mediated the link between positive emotions and resilience and (c) resilience moderated the influence of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results support the broaden-and-build theory in that positive emotions may enhance resilience directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of coping strategies-particularly via adaptive coping. Resilience also moderated the association of stress with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Although stress is unavoidable and its influences on anxiety and depressive symptoms are undeniable, the likelihood of postdocs developing anxiety or depressive symptoms may be reduced by implementing programmes designed to increase positive emotions, adaptive coping strategies and resilience. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Resilience in adults with cancer: development of a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshields, Teresa L; Heiland, Mark F; Kracen, Amanda C; Dua, Priya

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is a construct addressed in the psycho-oncology literature and is especially relevant to cancer survivorship. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for resilience that is specific to adults diagnosed with cancer. To establish the proposed model, a brief review of the various definitions of resilience and of the resilience literature in oncology is provided. The proposed model includes baseline attributes (personal and environmental) which impact how an individual responds to an adverse event, which in this paper is cancer-related. The survivor has an initial response that fits somewhere on the distress-resilience continuum; however, post-cancer experiences (and interventions) can modify the initial response through a process of recalibration. The literature reviewed indicates that resilience is a common response to cancer diagnosis or treatment. The proposed model supports the view of resilience as both an outcome and a dynamic process. Given the process of recalibration, a discussion is provided of interventions that might facilitate resilience in adults with cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Don't let the suffering make you fade away: an ethnographic study of resilience among survivors of genocide-rape in southern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zraly, Maggie; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia

    2010-05-01

    Rape has been used in contemporary armed conflicts to inflict physical, psychological, cultural and social damage. In endeavoring to address the psychological damage of collective violence, some researchers and global health practitioners are turning toward post-conflict mental health promotion approaches that centrally feature resilience. Though previous findings from resilience and coping research are robust, few studies have actually investigated resilience among genocide-rape survivors in cultural context in non-Western settings. This paper presents ethnographic data gathered over 14 months (September 2005 to November 2006) in southern Rwanda on resilience among genocide-rape survivors who were members of two women's genocide survivor associations. Study methods included a content analysis of a stratified purposive sample of 44 semi-structured interviews, as well as participant-, and non-participant-observation. Resilience among genocide-rape survivors in this context was found to be shaped by the cultural-linguistic specific concepts of kwihangana (withstanding), kwongera kubaho (living again), and gukomeza ubuzima (continuing life/health), and comprised of multiple sociocultural processes that enabled ongoing social connection with like others in order to make meaning, establish normalcy, and endure suffering in daily life. The results of this research show that the process of resilience among genocide-rape survivors was the same regardless of whether genocide survivor association membership was organized around the identity of genocide-rape survivorship or the identity of widowhood. However, the genocide-rape survivors' association members were more involved with directing resilience specifically toward addressing problems associated with genocide-rape compared to the members of the genocide widows' association. The findings from this research suggest that ethnographic methods can be employed to support resilience-based post-conflict mental health promotion

  12. Fishing for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Management approaches that focus on social–ecological systems—systems comprised of ecosystems, landscapes, and humans—are needed to secure the sustainability of inland recreational fisheries without jeopardizing the integrity of the underlying social and ecological components. Resilience management can be useful because it focuses on providing recreational capacity for fishermen under a variety of conditions while assuring that the social–ecological system is not pushed to a critical threshold that would result in a new, undesired system regime. Resilience management is based on a system perspective that accounts for the possible regimes a system could manifest. It aims to enhance system properties that allow continued maintenance of the system in a desired regime in which multiple goods and services, including recreational capacity, are provided. In this forum paper, we provide an overview of the potential of a resilience approach to the management of recreational fisheries and highlight the scientific and administrative challenges to its successful implementation.

  13. Resilience in adolescents with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIBASHI, Akiko; UEDA, Reiko

    2003-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer experience multiple stressors, evertheless some function well or are "resilient." Focusing on resilience in childhood cancer patients and understanding why and how resilience develops during the cancer experience is of great value . This knowledge may provide information to health care professionals to facilitate intervention for promoting resilience and improving quality of life in adolescents with cancer . The purpose of thisarticle is to review the lite...

  14. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social...... experiment is called Civic Desire. The founders explicitly call for new ways of organizing that can develop social sustainability. We discuss how these experiments may create platforms of new unforeseen goals that organizations may choose to follow. In conclusion we argue for organizational resilience...

  15. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  16. Support for research towards understanding the population health vulnerabilities to vector-borne diseases: increasing resilience under climate change conditions in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Bernadette

    2017-12-12

    Diseases transmitted to humans by vectors account for 17% of all infectious diseases and remain significant public health problems. Through the years, great strides have been taken towards combatting vector-borne diseases (VBDs), most notably through large scale and coordinated control programmes, which have contributed to the decline of the global mortality attributed to VBDs. However, with environmental changes, including climate change, the impact on VBDs is anticipated to be significant, in terms of VBD-related hazards, vulnerabilities and exposure. While there is growing awareness on the vulnerability of the African continent to VBDs in the context of climate change, there is still a paucity of research being undertaken in this area, and impeding the formulation of evidence-based health policy change. One way in which the gap in knowledge and evidence can be filled is for donor institutions to support research in this area. The collaboration between the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Centre for Research and Development (IDRC) builds on more than 10 years of partnership in research capacity-building in the field of tropical diseases. From this partnership was born yet another research initiative on VBDs and the impact of climate change in the Sahel and sub-Saharan Africa. This paper lists the projects supported under this research initiative and provides a brief on some of the policy and good practice recommendations emerging from the ongoing implementation of the research projects. Data generated from the research initiative are expected to be uptaken by stakeholders (including communities, policy makers, public health practitioners and other relevant partners) to contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of social, environmental and climate change on VBDs(i.e. the nature of the hazard, vulnerabilities, exposure), and improve the ability of African countries to adapt to and reduce the

  17. The role of resilience and purpose in life in habituation to heat and cold pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce W; Tooley, Erin M; Montague, Erica Q; Robinson, Amanda E; Cosper, Cynthia J; Mullins, Paul G

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the role of resilience in habituation to heat and cold pain in healthy women (n = 47). Heat and cold pain thresholds were each assessed across 5 equally spaced trials. Resilience, purpose in life, optimism, social support, and neuroticism were assessed using self-report measures. The hypothesis was that the resilience and the associated resilience factors would be positively related to habituation to heat and cold pain while controlling for neuroticism. Multilevel modeling was used to test the hypothesis. When considering each characteristic separately, resilience and purpose in life predicted greater habituation to heat pain while resilience, purpose in life, optimism, and social support predicted greater habituation to cold pain. When controlling for the other characteristics, both resilience and purpose in life predicted greater habituation to heat and cold pain. Resilience and associated characteristics such as a sense of purpose in life may be related to enhanced habituation to painful stimuli. Future research should further examine the relationship between resilience, purpose in life, and habituation to pain and determine whether psychosocial interventions that target resilience and purpose in life improve habituation and reduce vulnerability to chronic pain. This article showed that resilience and a sense of purpose in life were both related to the ability to habituate to heat and cold pain in healthy women. These personal characteristics may enhance habituation to pain by providing the confidence and motivation to persist in the face of painful stimuli.

  18. Resilience versus "Resilient Individual": What Exactly Do We Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature and definition of resilience, despite the extensive 40 years of research, is still unclear. Currently is resilience seen as a personality trait, sum of the traits/factors, result of adaptation, or as a process. The concept of resilience as personality traits is usually tied to uni-dimensional or "simplex" theories of resistance as Hardiness, Sense of Control, Ego-Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Sense of Coherence, or specific personality traits. Multidimensional concepts see resilience as a complex of personality and social (environmental factors that work in interaction, complement or replace each other, and, in aggregate, create a comprehensive picture of resilience. The concept of resilience as the result of adaptation examines resilience in terms of the presence/absence of adverse/pathological manifestations, consequences and outcomes in relation to the earlier effect of stressful, risky or otherwise unfavorable situations. Finally, the concept of resilience as the process examines individual's response to risk factors or wounds that are present in the environment. Resilience is thus a process consisting of interactions between individual characteristics and the environment. Most experts and a large part of resilience research is based on the first three concepts that however explore how "resilient" the individual is rather than resilience itself, since they are based on "diagnosing" or at best dimensional, at worse dichotomous rating of the individual's resilience (within personality trait approach, or on the evaluation of the presence/absence of factors/source of resilience, thereby they are still holding the "diagnostic" approach (within multidimensional approach. Only the examination of processes, such as the ongoing interaction between these risk factors, resilience factors, outcomes (expressions of personality, behavior, presence of problems, etc. and other variables allows us to understand resilience (the true nature of how

  19. Hair analysis by means of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique and support vector machine model for diagnosing addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vahid Dastjerdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of laboratory methods for diagnosing addiction, concealment ways, either physically or chemically, for creating false results have been in progress. In this research based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique (LIBS and analyzing hair of addicted and normal people, we are proposing a new method to overcome problems in conventional methods and reduce possibility of cheating in the process of diagnosing addiction. For this purpose, at first we have sampled hair of 17 normal and addicted people and recorded 5 spectrums for each sample, overall 170 spectrums. After analyzing the recorded LIBS spectra and detecting the atomic and ionic lines as well as molecular bands, relative intensities of emission lines for Aluminum to Calcium (Al/Ca and Aluminum to Sodium (Al/Na were selected as the input variables for the Support Vector Machine model (SVM.The Radial Basis, Polynomial Kernel functions and a linear function were chosen for classifying the data in SVM model. The results of this research showed that by the combination of LIBS technique and SVM one can distinguish addicted person with precision of 100%. Because of several advantages of LIBS such as high speed analysis and being portable, this method can be used individually or together with available methods as an automatic method for diagnosing addiction through hair analysis.

  20. Measuring resilience in integrated planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apneseth, K.; Wahl, A. M.; Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how a Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) can be used to profile the performance of a company in terms of the four abilities that characterize a resilient organization. It describes the development of a new, RAG-based tool founded on Resilience Engineering principles that can...... be used to assess an organization's resilience. The tool was tested in a case study involving a company in the offshore oil and gas industry. The company had decided to adopt an Integrated Operations (IO) approach to operations and maintenance planning and the tool was used to evaluate the impact...... of the Integrated Planning (IPL) process on its resilience....

  1. From shame to shame resilience: narratives of counselor trainees with eating issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Helena; Weaver, Kathryn; Domene, José F

    2015-02-01

    Using narrative analysis, the experiences of 7 Canadian counselor trainees with eating issues were explored for meanings of shame and resilience. Shame was experienced as layers of discounting and disconnection from self and others, which served as barriers to help seeking and recovery. Trainees' attempts to overcome shame were characterized by a dialectic conflict of protecting shame vs. prioritizing recovery. Finding a culture of safety and belonging, invalidating perfection, and redefining ideals emerged as elements that fostered resilience from the layers of shame. Recommendations for future research include exploring the important features of social support and examining how safe disclosure contributes to overcoming shame. Potential implications for counselor education programs include introducing self-care initiatives, discussions about counselor wellness and ethical practice, and education on eating issues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Could spirituality and religion promote stress resilience in survivors of childhood trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Koenig, Harold G

    2014-04-01

    Trauma is a precursor to many mental health conditions that greatly impact victims, their loved ones, and society. Studies indicate that neurobiological associations with adverse childhood experiences are mediated by interpersonal relationships and play a role in adult behavior, often leading to cycles of intergenerational trauma. There is a critical need to identify cost effective community resources that optimize stress resilience. Faith-based communities may promote forgiveness rather than retaliation, opportunities for cathartic emotional release, and social support, all of which have been related to neurobiology, behavior, and health outcomes. While spirituality and religion can be related to guilt, neurotic, and psychotic disorders, they also can be powerful sources of hope, meaning, peace, comfort, and forgiveness for the self and others. This article provides an overview of religion and spirituality as they relate to the neurobiology of resilience in victims of childhood trauma.

  3. Social Support Helps People Grow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, James T.; Dias, Katica L.

    2002-01-01

    Social support, a key factor in determining physical and mental health, strongly predicted changes in outdoor adventure participants' psychological resilience. The support received from the least supportive person best predicted gains in resilience. Outdoor education programs should provide a learning environment that is both challenging and…

  4. Does Resilience Mediate Carer Distress After Head and Neck Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Grahame K; Dall'Armi, Luci; Roydhouse, Jessica K; Forstner, Dion; Daher, Maysaa; Simpson, Teresa; White, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Caring for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) can have significant negative psychological and practical impact; however, some carers seem able to cope effectively. Little research has investigated this resilience among carers. The objective of this study was to investigate the resilience levels among carers of patients with HNC. Carers (n = 51) from 2 cancer services in New South Wales completed the Resilience Scale (RS), the Head and Neck Information Needs Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale cutoff scores (>8) were used to classify carers with clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression. The majority of carers (67% [34/51]) reported moderately high to high resilience. Rates of anxiety and depression among carers were 27.4% and 9.8%, respectively. Higher resilience scores were significantly correlated with lower anxiety and depression scores, as well as increasing age. Resilience Scale scores were independent of the severity of the HNC. There were no significant correlations between RS scores and Head and Neck Information Needs Questionnaire scores. Finally, increasing RS scores were associated with a decreasing probability of possible anxiety or depression. These results indicate that higher resilience in carers of HNC patients was associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further investigation into the relationship between resilience and carer psychological wellbeing is warranted. If further evidence supports the findings of this study, then investigating ways to build resilience will be an important clinical option for reducing carer morbidity associated with anxiety and depression. The RS could be used to assess resilience levels among carers of HNC patients.

  5. [Resilience in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Jiménez, Andrea; López-Díaz, Alba L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise and analyse articles published on resilience and old-age from 1990-2006. After a systematic search of five databases (Academic Search Premier-Ebsco Host, Medline, Psyc Articles, Ovid and Science Direct) 33 pieces of literature were included in the analysis. The selected articles had 31 different definitions of resilience, from eight disciplines, mainly health-related fields. It was also found that the research studied the association of resilience with individual (68 variables) and social/environmental factors (17 variables); the most frequent were age and health self-perception. Cultural and religious values were of special interest amongst the latter variables. The literature review demonstrated that resilience in old age is a topic having increasing research interest; this has been linked to various individual, social and cultural factors. However, this is a rapidly developing area that requires that a unified definition be established and that a theoretical and intervention model be created.

  6. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the

  7. Multi-Sited Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced with natu......Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced...... with natural disasters and climate change. In a globalized world, however, it is hard to discern what is “local” as global organizations play an increasingly visible and powerful role. This paper will argue that local understandings and practices of resilience cannot be disentangled from global understandings...... flooding in northern Ghana, this paper examines the mutual construction of “local” and “global” notions and practices of resilience through multi-sited processes. It is based on interviews and participant observation in multiple sites at the “local,” “regional” and “global” levels....

  8. Wellbeing And Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine; MacBeth, Angus

    2015-01-01

    , 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. DISCUSSION: The study will provide data on very early risk...

  9. New pathways to resilience

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    droughts, floods, and heat waves, along with shifting rainfall patterns, threaten to overwhelm the natural resilience of African communities, risking livelihoods and food security. .... As of March 2012, 68Fellows have pursued advanced research through a scholarship program on adaptation to climate change. • 11people ...

  10. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  11. Supporting local farming communities and crop production resilience to climate change through giant reed (Arundo donax L.) cultivation: An Italian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A; Impagliazzo, A; Fiorentino, N; Langella, G; Mori, M; Fagnano, M

    2017-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are well known for their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the soil carbon stock. Although such crops are often held to be in competition with food crops and thus raise the question of current and future food security, at the same time mitigation measures are required to tackle climate change and sustain local farming communities and crop production. However, in some cases the actions envisaged for specific pedo-climatic conditions are not always economically sustainable by farmers. In this frame, energy crops with high environmental adaptability and yields, such as giant reed (Arundo donax L.), may represent an opportunity to improve farm incomes, making marginal areas not suitable for food production once again productive. In so doing, three of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations would be met, namely SDG 2 on food security and sustainable agriculture, SDG 7 on reliable, sustainable and modern energy, and SDG 13 on action to combat climate change and its impacts. In this work, the response of giant reed in the marginal areas of an agricultural district of southern Italy (Destra Sele) and expected farm incomes under climate change (2021-2050) are evaluated. The normalized water productivity index of giant reed was determined (WP; 30.1gm -2 ) by means of a SWAP agro-hydrological model, calibrated and validated on two years of a long-term field experiment. The model was used to estimate giant reed response (biomass yield) in marginal areas under climate change, and economic evaluation was performed to determine expected farm incomes (woodchips and chopped forage). The results show that woodchip production represents the most profitable option for farmers, yielding a gross margin 50% lower than ordinary high-input maize cultivation across the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Automatic Recognition of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in Blood Microscopic Images Using K-means Clustering and Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Fatemeh; Najafabadi, Tooraj Abbasian; Araabi, Babak Nadjar

    2016-01-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a subtype of acute leukemia, which is characterized by the accumulation of myeloid blasts in the bone marrow. Careful microscopic examination of stained blood smear or bone marrow aspirate is still the most significant diagnostic methodology for initial AML screening and considered as the first step toward diagnosis. It is time-consuming and due to the elusive nature of the signs and symptoms of AML; wrong diagnosis may occur by pathologists. Therefore, the need for automation of leukemia detection has arisen. In this paper, an automatic technique for identification and detection of AML and its prevalent subtypes, i.e., M2-M5 is presented. At first, microscopic images are acquired from blood smears of patients with AML and normal cases. After applying image preprocessing, color segmentation strategy is applied for segmenting white blood cells from other blood components and then discriminative features, i.e., irregularity, nucleus-cytoplasm ratio, Hausdorff dimension, shape, color, and texture features are extracted from the entire nucleus in the whole images containing multiple nuclei. Images are classified to cancerous and noncancerous images by binary support vector machine (SVM) classifier with 10-fold cross validation technique. Classifier performance is evaluated by three parameters, i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Cancerous images are also classified into their prevalent subtypes by multi-SVM classifier. The results show that the proposed algorithm has achieved an acceptable performance for diagnosis of AML and its common subtypes. Therefore, it can be used as an assistant diagnostic tool for pathologists.

  13. Supporting development of rural settlements as a means for controlling the growth of large cities: three case studies in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, M

    1994-01-01

    A hypothesis is advanced that forceful support to small rural settlements can fundamentally redefine regional development and alleviate acute problems facing cities. Colombia is divided into 32 territorial units (departments), 1056 municipalities, which are agglomerations of four or five villages. The three projects were carried out under one contract during early 1993 for the department of Valle de Cauca, a prosperous area located in the Pacific southwest. A master plan for urban development was designed for each of the three villages. The population of the village of Villagorgona was 13,399, which was to exceed 18,000 in less than 5 years. Community development priorities were centered on converting an irrigation canal into the axis of a linear park, building a civic center, and creating a road system. The village of El Placer had a population of 8349 and its priorities included the construction of an upgraded aqueduct and a civic center, the improvement of roadways, the rehabilitation of the river and integrating it into the fabric of the settlement, and the creation of an urban code for local authorities to control growth and development. The village of Amaime had a population of 3730 in 1992. The development plan called for integration with the aqueduct being planned in El Placer, creation of a civic center, construction of a sewage treatment plant, rehabilitation of existing river banks, development of a recreational center, and creation of an urban code. These case studies demonstrated that the villages had higher population growth than the capital city of Cali, the inhabitants preferred to remain in the villages because of their satisfaction with the quality of life, the communities were interested in creating neighborhood organizations for improving the environment, the villages served as service centers for outlying farm inhabitants, and manifest interest was identified in changing from the village status to municipal status.

  14. Factors Influencing Resilience of Burn Patients in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Heui; Park, Jongui; Chong, Mi Kyong; Sok, Sohyune R

    2017-09-01

    To examine and identify the factors influencing the degree of resilience among Korean burn patients. A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. The study sample consisted of 138 burn patients recovering from the acute phase in H hospital, Seoul. The male patient participants numbered 93 (67.4%) and the female participants numbered 45 (32.6%). The average age of the participants was 46.79 years. Measures used were the Beck Depression Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, self-esteem scale, family support scale, and resilience scale. The analyses showed that the prediction model for resilience among burn patients was significant (F = 33.94, p resilience among burn patients was self-esteem (β = .35), followed by family support (β = .29). This study provides preliminary evidence that self-esteem is a major and primary predictor of resilience among burn patients, next followed by family support. In the nursing practice, nurses need to pay attention to the burn patient's self-esteem and family support. Concrete interventions and strategies to improve the resilience of burn patients are needed. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Study of a family that overcomes poverty issues: family resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángela Mattar Yunes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally, researches with families focus the difficulties and the negative aspects of family life by bringing up their maladjustments and failures. The interest in family resilience contributes to change this logic by demonstrating the healthy aspects of the family world. Nevertheless, the term resilience presents ideological controversies which are more severe when the discussion is about families and poverty. In order to diminish these contradictions this study adopted a systemic concept of resilience which refers to “those processes that make possible to overcome adversities”. A case study was realized with a low income family who lived in a “very poor” neighborhood in the deep south of Brazil. The methodological strategies to the formal investigation of the family were: life history of the family using the principles of reflexive interview, genograms and data analyses through the approach of the grounded theory. The results showed that the family lived a number of risk experiences such as adoption, privation of basic needs, migration and diseases. Among the indicators of their abilities of “overcoming adversities”, emerged the belief system as the core of the discourses. The family showed that they value the interpersonal relationships through intra and extra familiar interactions based in the patterns of help, learning, affection and solidarity. During the crisis the family gives meaning to the difficulties in order to maintaining the situation controlled through cohesion, open communication, mutual respect and getting support of the extended family/ social network. The pos-adversity period is perceived as benefic and transforming as the family feels stronger and with feelings of solidarity, which is a mark of this family. Their attitude in relation to the neighborhood is active in the sense of promoting the welfare of other families who live in the same social address. Would those above identified processes be adequate to

  16. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  17. Resilience and psychosocial outcomes in parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Wolfe, Joanne; Bradford, Miranda C; Shaffer, Michele L; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Curtis, J Randall; Syrjala, Karen L; Baker, K Scott

    2014-03-01

    The psychosocial function of parents of children with cancer can impact the well-being of the entire family. Resilience resources are likely related to psychosocial outcomes and may be amenable to intervention. We hypothesized that parents with lower resources would report worse outcomes. In the "Understanding Resilience in Parents of Children with Cancer" study, comprehensive surveys were mailed to consecutive, English-speaking parents of children with cancer who were treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and completed therapy between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010. Resilience resources were measured by the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; outcome measures included psychological distress, health-related behaviors, social and family function, and perceived communication with the medical team. Ninety-six parents (86% of contactable) completed the survey. Compared to population norms, enrolled parents had lower resilience resources, higher psychological distress, and more commonly reported binge drinking. Conversely, they reported higher social support and family adaptability (P resilience resources were associated with higher distress, lower social support, and lower family function (P resilience resources had higher odds of frequent sleep difficulties (OR 5.19, 95% CI 1.74,15.45), lower health satisfaction (OR 5.71, 95% CI 2.05,15.92), and decreased ability to express worries to the medical team (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.43,11.18). Parents of children with cancer are at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes and those with low resilience resources may be at greater risk. Interventions directed at promoting resilience resources may provide a novel and complimentary approach toward improving outcomes for families facing pediatric cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. California Earthquake Clearinghouse Crisis Information-Sharing Strategy in Support of Situational Awareness, Understanding Interdependencies of Critical Infrastructure, Regional Resilience, Preparedness, Risk Assessment/mitigation, Decision-Making and Everyday Operational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, A.; Morentz, J.; Beilin, P.

    2017-12-01

    The principal function of the California Earthquake Clearinghouse is to provide State and Federal disaster response managers, and the scientific and engineering communities, with prompt information on ground failure, structural damage, and other consequences from significant seismic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. The overarching problem highlighted in discussions with Clearinghouse partners is the confusion and frustration of many of the Operational Area representatives, and some regional utilities throughout the state on what software applications they should be using and maintaining to meet State, Federal, and Local, requirements, and for what purposes, and how to deal with the limitations of these applications. This problem is getting in the way of making meaningful progress on developing multi-application interoperability and the necessary supporting cross-sector information-sharing procedures and dialogue on essential common operational information that entities need to share for different all hazards missions and related operational activities associated with continuity, security, and resilience. The XchangeCore based system the Clearinghouse is evolving helps deal with this problem, and does not compound it by introducing yet another end-user application; there is no end-user interface with which one views XchangeCore, all viewing of data provided through XchangeCore occurs in and on existing, third-party operational applications. The Clearinghouse efforts with XchangeCore are compatible with FEMA, which is currently using XchangeCore-provided data for regional and National Business Emergency Operations Center (source of business information sharing during emergencies) response. Also important, and should be emphasized, is that information-sharing is not just for response, but for preparedness, risk assessment/mitigation decision-making, and everyday operational needs for situational awareness. In other words, the benefits of the Clearinghouse

  19. Improving Power Grid Resilience Through Predictive Outage Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandarpour, Rozhin; Khodaei, Amin; Arab, Ali

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, in an attempt to improve power grid resilience, a machine learning model is proposed to predictively estimate the component states in response to extreme events. The proposed model is based on a multi-dimensional Support Vector Machine (SVM) considering the associated resilience index, i.e., the infrastructure quality level and the time duration that each component can withstand the event, as well as predicted path and intensity of the upcoming extreme event. The outcome of the...

  20. Social Support as a Mediator of Posttraumatic Embitterment and Perceptions of Meaning in Life among Danwon Survivors of the Sewol Ferry Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Hee; Nam, Hee Sun; Kim, Hak Beom; Kim, Eun Ji; Won, Sung Doo; Chae, Jeong Ho

    2017-11-01

    Our research was designed to test and explore the relationships among embitterment, social support, and perceptions of meaning in life in the Danwon High School survivors of the Sewol ferry disaster. Seventy-five Sewol ferry disaster survivors were eligible for participation, and were invited to participate in the study 28 months after the disaster. Forty-eight (64%) survivors (24 males, 24 females) completed questionnaires; the Posttraumatic Embitterment Disorder (PTED) scale, the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). PTED scores were negatively correlated with scores on the FSSQ and the Presence of Meaning (MLQ-P) (r=-0.43 and -0.40, respectively). The hierarchical regression analysis showed that FSSQ scores may fully mediate the effects of PTED scores on MLQ-P scores, given that the indirect effect was significant whereas the direct effect was not (95% confidence interval=-0.5912 to -0.0365). These findings imply that therapies targeting embitterment may play a vital role in increasing positive cognitions, such as those related to perceived social support and the meaningfulness of life. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  1. Climate change and forest resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan; Vermeulen, Sonja

    2006-10-15

    Significant global climate change is inevitable. Tree species have a limited capacity to tolerate climate change or migrate through natural or artificial means. We do not know enough about the comparative resilience of forest-based, agricultural, marine or fresh water ecosystems. But it is clear that biodiverse forest ecosystems are under threat. And the threat extends beyond forests themselves. An estimated 60 million indigenous people are heavily dependent on the world's rainforests. Some 350 million people live in or close to dense forests and rely on them for subsistence or income. A further 1.2 billion people in developing countries depend on trees on farm to generate food or cash.

  2. Resilience theory incorporated into urban wastewater systems management. State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-García, P; Butler, D; Comas, J; Darch, G; Sweetapple, C; Thornton, A; Corominas, Ll

    2017-05-15

    Government bodies, utilities, practitioners, and researchers have growing interest in the incorporation of resilience into wastewater management. Since resilience is a multidisciplinary term, it is important to review what has been achieved in the wastewater sector, and describe the future research directions for the forthcoming years. This work presents a critical review of studies that deal with resilience in the wastewater treatment sector, with a special focus on understanding how they addressed the key elements for assessing resilience, such as stressors, system properties, metrics and interventions to increase resilience. The results showed that only 17 peer-reviewed papers and 6 relevant reports, a small subset of the work in wastewater research, directly addressed resilience. The lack of consensus in the definition of resilience, and the elements of a resilience assessment, is hindering the implementation of resilience in wastewater management. To date, no framework for resilience assessment is complete, comprehensive or directly applicable to practitioners; current examples are lacking key elements (e.g. a comprehensive study of stressors, properties and metrics, examples of cases study, ability to benchmark interventions or connectivity with broader frameworks). Furthermore, resilience is seen as an additional cost or extra effort, instead of a means to overcome project uncertainty that could unlock new opportunities for investment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Resilience in young children involved with child protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Kierra M P; Font, Sarah A

    2018-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk of poor developmental outcomes. However, some children display resilience, meaning they are high-functioning despite their adverse experiences. To date, few research studies have examined protective factors among very young maltreated children. Yet, domains of resilience, and the protective factors that promote resilience among maltreated children, are likely to differ by developmental stage. Drawing on ecological systems theory and life course theory, we examined how protective factors at multiple ecological levels across early childhood were related to social and cognitive resilience among very young children involved with child protective services. The results demonstrated that the buffering effects of protective factors varied by social or cognitive resilience and the cumulative effects of protective factors were more consistently related to later resilience than protective factors at specific time points. In addition, the influence of specific protective factors on resilience slightly varied by initial in-home or out-of-home placement. These findings have important policy and research implications for promoting optimal development among children involved in child protective services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is `Resilience' Maladaptive? Towards an Accurate Lexicon for Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichelli, Nicholas A.; Schuurman, Gregor W.; Hoffman, Cat Hawkins

    2016-04-01

    Climate change adaptation is a rapidly evolving field in conservation biology and includes a range of strategies from resisting to actively directing change on the landscape. The term `climate change resilience,' frequently used to characterize adaptation strategies, deserves closer scrutiny because it is ambiguous, often misunderstood, and difficult to apply consistently across disciplines and spatial and temporal scales to support conservation efforts. Current definitions of resilience encompass all aspects of adaptation from resisting and absorbing change to reorganizing and transforming in response to climate change. However, many stakeholders are unfamiliar with this spectrum of definitions and assume the more common meaning of returning to a previous state after a disturbance. Climate change, however, is unrelenting and intensifying, characterized by both directional shifts in baseline conditions and increasing variability in extreme events. This ongoing change means that scientific understanding and management responses must develop concurrently, iteratively, and collaboratively, in a science-management partnership. Divergent concepts of climate change resilience impede cross-jurisdictional adaptation efforts and complicate use of adaptive management frameworks. Climate change adaptation practitioners require clear terminology to articulate management strategies and the inherent tradeoffs involved in adaptation. Language that distinguishes among strategies that seek to resist change, accommodate change, and direct change (i.e., persistence, autonomous change, and directed change) is prerequisite to clear communication about climate change adaptation goals and management intentions in conservation areas.

  5. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  6. Resilience Design Patterns: A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, Christian; Hukerikar, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    hardware and software components. The resilience patterns and the design framework also enable exploration and evaluation of design alternatives and support optimization of the cost-benefit trade-offs among performance, protection coverage, and power consumption of resilience solutions. Here, the overall goal of this work is to establish a systematic methodology for the design and evaluation of resilience technologies in extreme-scale HPC systems that keep scientific applications running to a correct solution in a timely and cost-efficient manner despite frequent faults, errors, and failures of various types.

  7. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...... and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions.” This paper will define resilience and business continuity management by retracing the origins of both concepts through time. It will then compare them by highlighting their similarities...

  8. Contributors and Inhibitors of Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Wharton, Claire; Gordon, Karen; Jones, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Self-perceived resilience may enable coping and mitigate poor psychosocial outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. In order to inform the development of resilience-promoting interventions, we aimed to: (1) describe AYA patient-reported resilience and (2) identify AYA patient-reported contributors and inhibitors of resilience. Methods: The "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer" study was a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study. Consecutive Caucasian patients aged 14-25 years old enrolled 14-60 days following their diagnosis of cancer and completed one-on-one semi-structured interviews both at the time of enrollment and 3-6 months later. Constant comparative analyses identified salient themes describing modifiable contributors and inhibitors to patient-perceived resilience. Results: Seventeen patients (85% of those approached) enrolled in the study. The mean age was 17 years (SD=2.6) and 53% were female. All patient definitions of resilience inferred an ability to handle adversity. Five themes emerged as predominant contributors or inhibitors of resilience: (1) stress and coping; (2) goals, purpose, and planning; (3) optimism; (4) gratitude and meaning; and (5) connection and belonging. Merged analyses suggested that AYA resilience was a balance that may be enabled by promoting certain skills. Conclusion: AYA patients with cancer perceive resilience as a balance. Learned skills in stress management, goal-setting, and benefit-finding may empower AYAs during their cancer experience, in turn improving long-term psychosocial outcomes.

  9. Contributors and Inhibitors of Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Wharton, Claire; Gordon, Karen; Jones, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceived resilience may enable coping and mitigate poor psychosocial outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. In order to inform the development of resilience-promoting interventions, we aimed to: (1) describe AYA patient-reported resilience and (2) identify AYA patient-reported contributors and inhibitors of resilience. Methods: The “Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer” study was a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study. Consecutive Caucasian patients aged 14–25 years old enrolled 14–60 days following their diagnosis of cancer and completed one-on-one semi-structured interviews both at the time of enrollment and 3–6 months later. Constant comparative analyses identified salient themes describing modifiable contributors and inhibitors to patient-perceived resilience. Results: Seventeen patients (85% of those approached) enrolled in the study. The mean age was 17 years (SD=2.6) and 53% were female. All patient definitions of resilience inferred an ability to handle adversity. Five themes emerged as predominant contributors or inhibitors of resilience: (1) stress and coping; (2) goals, purpose, and planning; (3) optimism; (4) gratitude and meaning; and (5) connection and belonging. Merged analyses suggested that AYA resilience was a balance that may be enabled by promoting certain skills. Conclusion: AYA patients with cancer perceive resilience as a balance. Learned skills in stress management, goal-setting, and benefit-finding may empower AYAs during their cancer experience, in turn improving long-term psychosocial outcomes. PMID:25969794

  10. Building Ecological and Community Resilience and Measuring Success of the Department of Interior Hurricane Sandy Resilience Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. M.; Worman, S. L.; Bennett, R.; Bassow, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) partnered with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) to administer an external funding competition to support coastal resilience projects in the region affected by Hurricane Sandy. The projects complement the DOI Bureau-led projects, but are led by state and local governments, universities, non-profits, community groups, tribes, and other non-Federal entities. In total, the Hurricane Sandy Resilience Program invested over $750 million in approximately 180 projects to repair damage and improve the resilience of habitats, communities and infrastructure to future storms and sea level rise. Project activities include waterway connection and opening, living shoreline, marsh restoration, community resilience planning, data/mapping/modeling, and beach and dune restoration. DOI and NFWF initiated a resilience assessment in 2015 to evaluate the impact of this investment. The assessment began by clarifying the program's resilience goals and the development of ecological and socio-economic metrics across the project activities. Using these metrics, the evaluation is assessing the ecological and community outcomes, cost effectiveness of activities, improved scientific understanding, and temporal and spatial scaling of benefits across resilience activities. Recognizing the unique opportunity afforded by the scale and distribution of projects, NFWF and DOI have invested in monitoring through 2024 to better understand how these projects perform over time. This presentation will describe the evaluation questions, approach, long-term monitoring, online metrics portal, and findings to date.

  11. Standardisation or Resilience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinck Pedersen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities. Based on a close reading of predominant patient safety literature...... begin to address the uncertainty of medical practice as well as the necessary competences of healthcare professionals to act with ‘safety dispositions’ as a precondition for delivering safe care....

  12. Association between demographics and resilience - a cross-sectional study among nurses in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, S Y; Uthaman, T; Ayre, T C; Mordiffi, S Z; Ang, E; Lopez, V

    2018-03-08

    To give an overview of the level of resilience among nurses in Singapore and to examine associations between various demographics variables and resilience level. The World Health Organization reported a global needs-based shortage of over 9 million nurses and midwives in 2013. Building resilience among nurses has been postulated as one of the ways to support and retain nurses in the profession. A self-reported questionnaire consisting of questions on demographics and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale CD-RISC 10 was used. Univariate analysis identified marital status, age group, years of experience in nursing, highest education qualification and job grade to have significant associations with resilience. During multivariate analysis, only marital status, age group, highest educational qualification and job grade remained significant. A strong association was found between highest educational qualification and resilience level; nurses with bachelor's or postgraduate degree were about three times more likely than nurses with only a general nursing certificate to be of moderate/high resilience. The experience of life events (as exemplified by marital status, age and working experience) was associated with higher resilience levels. There is a need for healthcare organizations and nurse leaders to develop programmes focusing on building resilience among younger and less experienced nurses. Nurses should also be supported in their pursuits for higher education, which will in turn lead to higher resilience, and consequently, retention of nurses within the profession and institution. © 2018 International Council of Nurses.

  13. The dyadic effects of coping and resilience on psychological distress for cancer survivor couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Won; Shon, En-Jung; Paek, Minso; Daly, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the actor and partner effects of coping and resilience characteristics on psychological distress in cancer survivors and their spouses and to examine the mediating role of resilience characteristics in the relationship between coping and psychological distress. A total of 91 breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-spouse dyads were recruited from the University Hospital Registry in Cleveland, Ohio. Standardized questionnaires that assessed psychological distress, reframing and acquiring social support coping, and resilience characteristics were used. The actor-partner interdependence mediation model demonstrated that the resilience of the survivors and spouses was a strong predictor of their personal psychological distress. Survivors' and spouses' own resilience mediated the association between their reframing coping and psychological distress. However, only the survivor model confirmed the mediating effect of resilience characteristics in the relationship between social support coping and psychological distress. In addition, spouse psychological distress was influenced by survivor resilience, indicating a spouse-partner effect in the relationship between resilience characteristics and psychological distress. Our findings provide insight into the relationships between coping, resilience characteristics, and psychological distress at the individual and dyadic levels. Enhancing cancer survivors' and their spouses' positive thoughts and available external resources can improve resilience and, in turn, reduce their psychological distress of couples coping with cancer.

  14. Factors Associated With Caregivers' Resilience in a Terminal Cancer Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Cheol; Kim, Young Sung; Lee, Yong Joo; Choi, Youn Seon; Hwang, Sun Wook; Kim, Hyo Min; Koh, Su-Jin

    2018-04-01

    Resilience implies characteristics such as self-efficacy, adaptability to change, optimism, and the ability to recover from traumatic stress. Studies on resilience in family caregivers (FCs) of patients with terminal cancer are rare. This study aims to examine the factors associated with FCs' resilience in a terminal cancer care setting. This is a cross-sectional study of 273 FCs from 7 hospice and palliative care units in Korea. Resilience was categorized as high and low, and factors associated with resilience were grouped or categorized into subscales. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine relevant factors. High FCs' resilience was significantly associated with FCs' health status, depression, and social support. In a multivariate regression model, FCs' perception of good health (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-4.40), positive social support (aOR = 3.70, 95% CI = 1.07-12.87), and absence of depression (aOR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.59-6.13) remained significantly associated with high FCs' resilience. Lack of family support is associated with and may be a cause of diminished resilience. And more concern should be paid to FCs to improve FCs' health and emotional status. Education programs might be effective for improving caregivers' resilience. Further research with supportive interventions is indicated.

  15. Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dunn cavelty, myriam; Kaufmann, Mareile; Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    2015-01-01

    Diverse, sometimes even contradictory concepts and practices of resilience have proliferated into a wide range of security policies. In introducing this special issue, we problematize and critically discuss how these forms of resilience change environments, create subjects, link temporalities......, and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...... to be conceptualized and investigated in plural terms. We use temporalities and subjectivities as key analytical aspects to investigate the plural instantiations of resilience in actual political practice. These two issues – subjectivity and temporality – form the overall context for the special issue and are core...

  16. MODELING PRECIPITATION DEPENDENT FOREST RESILIENCE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Das

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of long term climate change that imparts stress on forest could be perceived by studying the regime shift of forest ecosystem. With the change of significant precipitation, forest may go through density change around globe at different spatial and temporal scale. The 100 class high resolution (60 meter spatial resolution Indian vegetation type map was used in this study recoded into four broad categories depending on phrenology as (i forest, (ii scrubland, (iii grassland and (iv treeless area. The percentage occupancy of forest, scrub, grass and treeless were observed as 19.9 %, 5.05 %, 1.89 % and 7.79 % respectively. Rest of the 65.37 % land area was occupied by the cropland, built-up, water body and snow covers. The majority forest cover were appended into a 5 km × 5 km grid, along with the mean annual precipitation taken from Bioclim data. The binary presence and absence of different vegetation categories in relates to the annual precipitation was analyzed to calculate their resilience expressed in probability values ranging from 0 to 1. Forest cover observed having resilience probability (Pr < 0.3 in only 0.3 % (200 km2 of total forest cover in India, which was 4.3 % < 0.5 Pr. Majority of the scrubs and grass (64.92 % Pr < 0.5 from North East India which were the shifting cultivation lands showing low resilience, having their high tendency to be transform to forest. These results have spatial explicitness to highlight the resilient and non-resilient distribution of forest, scrub and grass, and treeless areas in India.

  17. Redefining smart city concept with resilience approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafah, Y.; Winarso, H.

    2017-06-01

    The smart city concept originally aimed at dealing with various urban problems, in particular, those related to the urban environment and infrastructure, such as modeling transport flow in a city. As it developed, the concept is now widely used to accelerate the process of urban management by using IT technology and by the availability of big data. However, the smart city discourses are still debated. There is a number of critical literature on the discourses; some are more concerned with the use and development of information communication technology (ICT). ICT and modern technology are considered the key aspect of the smart city concept. Meanwhile, others emphasize the importance of the people who operate the technology. Very few, if any, literature emphasizes the importance of resilience in the smart city discourse. The city as a complex system should have the ability to be resilient, especially when technology fails either due to technical/man-made or natural disasters. This paper aims to redefine the smart city concept in urban planning through a literature study in the context of planning using a resilience approach. This paper describes and defines what the smart city concept is, what it means, as well as explains the relation and linkage of the importance of using resilience approach in defining the smart city. Factors of resilience will lead to a soft infrastructure approach, such as enhancement in many aspects, e.g. community capacity, social and human capital, knowledge inclusion, participation, social innovation, and social equity. Discussion and analysis are conducted through a deep literature study using systematic literature review methodology.

  18. Resilience in Homeland Security [video

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Dan; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, Dan O'Connor, Director Field Operations for the Chief Security Officer at FEMA, talks about the importance of resilience in Homeland Security. The term "resilience" refers to the ability to adapt to changing conditions and withstand and rapidly recover from disruption due to emergencies. Whether it is resilience towards acts of terrorism, cyber attacks, pandemics, and catastrophic natural disasters, our national preparedness is the shared responsibility of all levels of gov...

  19. Morphological brain measures of cortico-limbic inhibition related to resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Love, Aubrey; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi; Chang, Lin; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-09-01

    Resilience is the ability to adequately adapt and respond to homeostatic perturbations. Although resilience has been associated with positive health outcomes, the neuro-biological basis of resilience is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to identify associations between regional brain morphology and trait resilience with a focus on resilience-related morphological differences in brain regions involved in cortico-limbic inhibition. The relationship between resilience and measures of affect were also investigated. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed structural MRI scans. Self-reported resilience was measured using the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale. Segmentation and regional parcellation of images was performed to yield a total of 165 regions. Gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature were calculated for each region. Regression models were used to identify associations between morphology of regions belonging to executive control and emotional arousal brain networks and trait resilience (total and subscales) while controlling for age, sex, and total GMV. Correlations were also conducted between resilience scores and affect scores. Significant associations were found between GM changes in hypothesized brain regions (subparietal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, amygdala, anterior mid cingulate cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex) and resilience scores. There were significant positive correlations between resilience and positive affect and negative correlations with negative affect. Resilience was associated with brain morphology of regions involved in cognitive and affective processes related to cortico-limbic inhibition. Brain signatures associated with resilience may be a biomarker of vulnerability to disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interdisciplinary approach to disaster resilience education and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa; Revez, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the results of a survey on “Interdisciplinary working in disaster resilience” conducted by the WP4 work group of the ANDROID Network. The survey had the aim of gathering information on the state of art and practice in the field of disaster resilience and promoting co......-operation and interdisciplinary methodologies in research and education. The survey has been carried out by means of a questionnaire focusing on disaster-resilience projects and on the main challenges faced in interdisciplinary working. The results of the questionnaire, which collected 57 answers from more than 20 European...... in disaster-resilience design by social and cultural aspects, which are instead not often adequately considered in the practice. The establishment of an education on resilient design of urban system, which includes both social and technological aspects, emerges as a possible solution to overcome barriers...

  1. Life cycle assessment and the resilience of product systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    assessment (LCA), which main objective is determining the eco-efficiency of a product system with limited focus on its structure. The question is whether a product system which structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will result in being not only inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when...... assessed by means of LCA. This study proposes a theoretical modelling approach to compare vulnerable and resilient product systems within the framework of LCA, consisting of assessment of disturbance and system expansion. Examples are provided where the theory is made operational. The structure......Resilience is the capacity of systems to withstand and recover from disturbance, depends on the structure and architecture of a system, and plays a key role for the sustainability of complex systems. Despite its importance, resilience is not explicitly taken into account by studies of life cycle...

  2. Whole Community Resilience: Engaging Multiple Sectors with the Coastal Community Resilience Index and the Climate and Resilience Community of Practice in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempier, T.

    2017-12-01

    Communicating risk due to flooding, sea level rise, storm surge, and other natural hazards is a complex task when attempting to build resilience in coastal communities. There are a number of challenges related to preparing for, responding to, and recovering from coastal storms. Successful resilience planning must include a wide range of sectors including, but not limited to local government, business, non-profit, religious, academia, and healthcare. Years of experience working with communities in the Gulf of Mexico has helped create a process that is both inclusive and effective at bringing the right people to the table and gaining momentum towards resilience efforts. The Coastal Community Resilience Index (CRI), a self-assessment for community leaders, has been implemented in 54 Gulf communities with funding that provides small grant awards to help communities take action to address gaps and vulnerabilities identified in the assessment process. To maintain momentum with resilience actions, the Gulf Climate and Resilience Community of Practice (CoP) encourages local municipality participants to share lessons learned and best practices from their implementation projects in an annual symposium. Recently, both graduate and undergraduate students have been exposed to the CRI and CoP as avenues to work through solutions to complex problems at the local level. In addition, a new generation of high school students has been introduced to the CRI. Their engagement in the process is building a more informed citizenry that will take on the leadership and decision-making roles in the future. Investing in multiple age groups and sectors through the CRI and CoP is building capacity for whole community resilience in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will focus on methods that have been successful in the Gulf of Mexico for creating effective change in local municipalities towards resilience actions. Discussion will include decision support tools for engaging local

  3. Balancing psychache and resilience in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2014-06-01

    Psychache can and does co-exist alongside resilience and coping amongst trauma survivors. This has been the center of the a-integrative theory of aging demonstrating an attitude to life based on cognitive and emotional dimensions. Aging of Holocaust survivors (HS) is especially difficult when focus is brought to the issue of integrating their life history. The present study aimed to investigate the interplay between psychache and resilience amongst aging HS. Cross-sectional study of HS and a matched comparison group recruited from the general population was carried out. All underwent a personal interview and endorsed quantifiable psychache and resilience scales. We enrolled 214 elderly participants: 107 HS and 107 comparison participants. Mean age for the participants was 80.7± years; there were 101 women and 113 men in each group. Holocaust survivors did not differ in the level of resilience from comparisons (mean: 5.82 ± 0.68 vs. 5.88 ± 0.55, respectively). Psychache was significantly more intense in the HS group (F(8,205) = 2.21; p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the complex interplay between psychache and resilience. Aging HS still have to cope with high levels of psychache while realizing a life-long process of development through resilience.

  4. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  5. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  6. Communal resilience: the Lebanese case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric BOUTIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a turbulent and aggressive environment, organizations are subject to external events. They are sometimes destabilized and can disappear. This context explains the multiplication of works studying resilience of human organizations. Resilience is then defined as the ability of the organization studied to face an external shock.This paper proposes a state of the art of resilience concept and considers the interests of the transposition of the concept to the field of a territorial community. A case study will lead us to apply the concept of resilience to the Lebanese nation.

  7. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be dec...

  8. Changing disturbance regimes, ecological memory, and forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Jill F.; Allen, Craig D.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Frelich, Lee E.; Harvey, Brian J.; Higuera, Philip E.; Mack, Michelle C.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.; Metz, Margaret R.; Perry, George LW; Schoennagel, Tania; Turner, Monica G.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological memory is central to how ecosystems respond to disturbance and is maintained by two types of legacies – information and material. Species life-history traits represent an adaptive response to disturbance and are an information legacy; in contrast, the abiotic and biotic structures (such as seeds or nutrients) produced by single disturbance events are material legacies. Disturbance characteristics that support or maintain these legacies enhance ecological resilience and maintain a “safe operating space” for ecosystem recovery. However, legacies can be lost or diminished as disturbance regimes and environmental conditions change, generating a “resilience debt” that manifests only after the system is disturbed. Strong effects of ecological memory on post-disturbance dynamics imply that contingencies (effects that cannot be predicted with certainty) of individual disturbances, interactions among disturbances, and climate variability combine to affect ecosystem resilience. We illustrate these concepts and introduce a novel ecosystem resilience framework with examples of forest disturbances, primarily from North America. Identifying legacies that support resilience in a particular ecosystem can help scientists and resource managers anticipate when disturbances may trigger abrupt shifts in forest ecosystems, and when forests are likely to be resilient.

  9. The role of resilience and gratitude in posttraumatic stress and growth following a campus shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieselmeyer, Julie; Holguin, Jeff; Mezulis, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the role of resilience and gratitude in the relationship between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) following the campus shooting at Seattle Pacific University. The prevalence of community traumatic events such as school shootings has increased dramatically in the last decade. However, a significant number of individuals report positive changes such as enhanced appreciation for life, suggesting that some people are able to convert adverse experiences into personal growth. The purpose of this study was to understand characteristics about trauma and protective characteristics that contribute to PTG. Participants were 359 students, faculty, and staff (75% female; mean age = 27.26, SD = 12.61) enrolled or employed the day the shooting took place. Approximately four months following the event respondents completed self-report questionnaires about trauma exposure (i.e., physical and emotional proximity), PTS symptoms, PTG, resilience, and gratitude. Results supported our moderated-mediation hypothesis (B = 3.97, t = 4.11, 95th confidence interval [2.08, 5.88], p gratitude can be conceptualized as protective mechanisms, with resilience operating to prevent adverse outcomes while gratitude may promote positive outcomes following trauma. Given the prevalence of lifetime trauma, findings indicate that mental health professionals should consider a multifaceted approach to buffer the effects of trauma by preventatively cultivating resilience and enhancing gratitude in posttrauma interventions as a means to decrease PTS and increase PTG. Additional research is needed to understand how individuals develop positive traits as both protective and coping mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Resilience in Illness Model Part 2: Confirmatory Evaluation in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Joan E; Kintner, Eileen K; Robb, Sheri L; Stump, Timothy E; Monahan, Patrick O; Phillips, Celeste; Stegenga, Kristin A; Burns, Debra S

    Empirically derived and tested models are necessary to develop effective, holistic interventions to improve positive health outcomes in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer, yet few exist. This article is the second of 2 articles reporting on evaluation of the Resilience in Illness Model (RIM) as a predictive model to guide positive health research and practice. The aim of this study was to report the confirmatory model evaluation of the RIM. A confirmatory evaluation of RIM was done using baseline data from a sample of 113 AYA aged 11 to 24 years who were undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to enhance resilience. Data were analyzed using latent variable structural equation modeling. Goodness-of-fit indices supported RIM as a confirmed model that accounted for large amounts of variance in the outcomes of self-transcendence (62%) and resilience (72%), and in 3 of 5 mediators, specifically social integration (74%), courageous coping (80%), and hope-derived meaning (87%), as well as small to moderate amounts of variance in the remaining mediators of defensive coping (1%) and family environment (35%). Findings establish the RIM as a plausible predictive framework for explaining ways AYA with cancer transcend their illness and achieve resilience resolution and for guiding intervention studies in this population. Additional research is needed to explore RIM's transferability based on stage of illness, other chronic diseases, and cultural diversity. Results support the RIM as an appropriate guide for developing and evaluating interventions to foster positive adjustment in AYA with cancer.

  11. The Resilience in Illness Model (RIM) Part 1: Exploratory Evaluation in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Joan E.; Kintner, Eileen K.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Robb, Sheri L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Resilience is a positive health outcome identified by the Committee on Future Direction for Behavioral and Social Sciences as a research priority for the National Institutes of Health. The Resilience in Illness Model (RIM) was developed from a series of qualitative and quantitative studies, to increase understanding of how positive health protective factors (i.e. social integration, family environment, courageous coping and derived meaning) may influence resilience outcomes. The RIM also includes two risk factors, illness-related distress and defensive coping. Objective The purpose of this two-part paper is to report on evaluation of the RIM for adolescents/young adults with cancer (AYA). Here, in Part 1, our purpose is to describe the exploratory RIM evaluation and in Part 2 we describe the confirmatory RIM evaluation. Methods An exploratory evaluation of RIM was done using exploratory latent variable structural equation modeling with a combined sample from two studies of pre-adolescents, and AYA with cancer ages 10 -26 years (n=202). Results Results, including goodness-of-fit indices, support the RIM as a theory with a high level of explained variance for outcomes of resilience (67%) and self-transcendence (63%). Variance explained for proximal outcomes ranged from 18% to 76%. Conclusions Findings indicate that, following confirmatory testing, the RIM may be a useful guide to developing targeted interventions that are grounded in the experiences of the AYA. Implications for Practice Increased understanding of the AYA cancer experience to improve holistic care. PMID:23519038

  12. Resilience correlates with outcomes after total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokish, John M; Kissenberth, Michael J; Tolan, Stefan J; Salim, Tariq I; Tadlock, Josh; Kellam, Thomas; Long, Catherine D; Crawford, Ashley; Lonergan, Keith T; Hawkins, Richard J; Shanley, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Resilience, characterized by an ability to bounce back or recover from stress, is increasingly recognized as a psychometric property affecting many outcomes' domains including quality of life, suicide risk in active-duty military personnel, and recovery in cancer patients. This study examines the correlation between resilience, as measured by the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), and traditional outcome scores including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and Penn scores in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Seventy patients undergoing primary anatomic TSA were followed up for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 30 ± 3 months). Patients were stratified into groups a priori, based on deviation from the mean of the BRS score, into low-resilience (LR), normal-resilience (NR), and high-resilience (HR) patients, and outcome scores were calculated for each group. Postoperative BRS scores significantly correlated with ASES, Penn, and SANE scores (r = 0.41-0.44, P resilience group, the LR group had a Penn score that was 34 points lower than that in the HR group. Likewise, the LR group had a SANE score that averaged 40 points lower than that in the HR group (SANE score of 53 points in LR group and 92 points in HR group, P = .05). When we evaluated ASES subscores, it appeared that the pain subscale was responsible for most of the difference between the LR and HR groups (29 points and 48 points [out of 50 points], respectively; P = .03). Resilience is a major predictor of postoperative outcomes after TSA. Patients who are classified as having LR have outcome scores that are 30 to 40 points lower on traditional outcome scales than patients with HR. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Help is just a text away: the use of short message service texting to provide an additional means of support for health care students during practice placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pat; Moore, Emma; Griffiths, Garfield; Raine, Rosi; Stewart, Rob; Cownie, Matthew; Frutos-Perez, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    This article discusses the findings from a pilot study using short message service (SMS) texting to provide an additional means of support for health care students in practice placements. Pre-registration students were recruited students from 2nd year cohorts in Adult Nursing, Children's Nursing, Occupational Therapy, and Radiography to pilot the use of SMS texting with their private mobile phones from their work-based learning placements. The pilot was evaluated using an online questionnaire for students with follow-up telephone interviews, and face-to-face interviews with the four tutors. Data on the use of the service by students was also collated. Although the students made less use of the service than was anticipated, both staff and students were positive about the potential of this type of communication in providing an additional form of support for students in placements. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The ISO/IEC 9126-1 as a Supporting Means for the System Development Process of a Patient Information Web Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörbst, Alexander; Fink, Kerstin; Goebel, Georg

    2005-01-01

    The development of patient information systems faces the mayor problems of increasing and more complex content as well as the introduction of new techniques of system implementation. An integrated development demands for a method to deal with both aspects. The ISO/IEC 9126-1 offers a framework where both views can be integrated to a general view of the system and can be used as a basis for further development. This article wants to introduce the ISO/IEC 9126-1 as a supporting means for the development of patient information systems considering the example of a web service for a patient information system.

  15. The International Resilience Project: Promoting Resilience in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    The International Resilience Project was intended to determine the multidimensional, reciprocal, and dynamic factors--and relationships of factors--that parents, teachers, caregivers, and children themselves use to promote resilience in children. The samples were 589 children and their caregivers from 14 countries: Lithuania, Russia, Costa Rica,…

  16. Resilience Scale-25 Spanish version: validation and assessment in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; Calvete, Esther; Gómez del Barrio, Andrés; Beato, Luís; Muñoz, Pedro; Padierna, Jesús Ángel

    2014-08-01

    To validate into Spanish the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale - 25 (RS-25), assess and compare the scores on the scale among women from the general population, eating disorder (ED) patients and recovered ED patients. This is a cross-sectional study. ED participants were invited to participate by their respective therapists. The sample from the general population was gathered via an open online survey. Participants (N general population=279; N ED patients=124; and N recovered ED patients=45) completed the RS-25, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-BREF and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mean age of participants ranged from 28.87 to 30.42years old. Statistical analysis included a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and ANOVA. The two-factor model of the RS-25 produced excellent fit indexes. Measurement invariance across samples was generally supported. The ANOVA found statistically significant differences in the RS-25 mean scores between the ED patients (Mean=103.13, SD=31.32) and the recovered ED participants (Mean=138.42, SD=22.26) and between the ED patients and the general population participants (Mean=136.63, SD=19.56). The Spanish version of the RS-25 is a psychometrically sound measurement tool in samples of ED patients. Resilience is lower in people diagnosed with ED than in recovered individuals and the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Resilient Condition Assessment Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humberto Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov

    2012-08-01

    An architecture and supporting methods are presented for the implementation of a resilient condition assessment monitoring system that can adaptively accommodate both cyber and physical anomalies to a monitored system under observation. In particular, the architecture includes three layers: information, assessment, and sensor selection. The information layer estimates probability distributions of process variables based on sensor measurements and assessments of the quality of sensor data. Based on these estimates, the assessment layer then employs probabilistic reasoning methods to assess the plant health. The sensor selection layer selects sensors so that assessments of the plant condition can be made within desired time periods. Resilient features of the developed system are then illustrated by simulations of a simplified power plant model, where a large portion of the sensors are under attack.

  18. Resiliency as a mediator of the impact of sleep on child and adolescent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatburn A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alex Chatburn,1,2 Scott Coussens,1,2 Mark J Kohler1,3 1School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women’s and Children’s Health Network, North Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Children’s Research Centre, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Disturbed sleep is detrimental to child behavior; however, the precise means by which this association occurs is unclear. Sleep and resilience can theoretically share an underlying neural mechanism and therefore influence one another. However, the role of resilience in the association between sleep and behavior is not known. The associations between sleep, resilience, and problematic behavior in children and adolescents aged 7–18 years were investigated in this study. Methods: A correlational design was used to determine the relationships between total sleep problems, indices of resilience, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results: Sleep problems and resiliency variables were strongly correlated, and further, sleep problems were found to be predictive of resiliency scores. Resiliency significantly mediated the relationship between increased sleep problems and both overall internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and specifically, measures of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: Sleep impacted levels of resilience such that greater sleep disturbance reduced resilience and consequently increased problematic behavior, potentially predisposing individuals to psychopathology. Keywords: resilience, behavior, internalizing, externalizing, anxiety, depression, sleep

  19. Emotional Intelligence and resilience in mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex

    2016-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) and resilience may be considered as prerequisites for mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness (SMI), since they are often exposed to severe emotional stress during daily work. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study assessed both EI and resilience and their interrelationship in 61 individuals belonging to an assertive outreach team for patients suffering from SMI compared 61 control subjects without healthcare-related working conditions. EI was assessed by means of the German version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), resilience was assessed using the German version of the Resilience Scale. Both groups showed an average level of EI in all categories of the MSCEIT and indicated high levels of resilience. They did not differ significantly from each other, neither in terms of EI nor resilience. Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between EI and resilience, albeit small in magnitude. Our results suggest that mental health professionals are not more resilient and therefore not more 'protected' from stressors than the general population. Though this finding warrants cautious interpretation, the positive correlation between EI and resilience suggests that EI may be a potential target for education and training in order to strengthen resilience even in healthy individuals and vice versa.

  20. Fire, climate change, and forest resilience in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill F. Johnstone; F. Stuart Chapin; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Michelle C. Mack; Vladimir Romanovsky; Merritt Turetsky

    2010-01-01

    In the boreal forests of interior Alaska, feedbacks that link forest soils, fire characteristics, and plant traits have supported stable cycles of forest succession for the past 6000 years. This high resilience of forest stands to fire disturbance is supported by two interrelated feedback cycles: (i) interactions among disturbance regime and plant-soil-microbial...

  1. Rurality and resilience in education: place-based partnerships and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ongoing longitudinal intervention study (STAR)1 we found that, although similarities existed in the way teachers promoted resilience, rural schools (in comparison to other STAR case schools) took longer to implement strategies to buoy support and found it difficult to sustain such support. Using rurality we wanted to ...

  2. Resilience canvas: a heuristic tool for socio-hydrological management under change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Clark, J.; Buytaert, W.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Dewulf, A.; Hannah, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Although resilience thinking has been gaining interest in managing socio-hydrological systems in a changing world, there are still gaps between the resilience theory and its applications in policy making and management. This research introduces the notion of the "resilience canvas" as a heuristic tool to support social-hydrological water management under change. We argue that resilience is a set of three systematic properties including absorptive, adaptive and transformative capacities. For socio-hydrological systems, each capacity type arises from different sources and can be managed in different ways. The "resilience canvas" can be constructed by combining absorptive and adaptive capacities as the x and y axes. At the corners of the two-dimensional space, four resulting quadrates are found, including most resilient, vulnerable, susceptible, and resistant system states. The resilience canvas can be used not only to understand the development trajectories of socio-hydrological systems at different scales from single river basin to global level, but also to design bespoke interventions and strategies to maintain or enhance resilience. To address projected change-induced uncertainties, this research recommends that future efforts should be focused on shifting socio-hydrological systems from resistant towards resilient status. This implies that interventions including ecosystem restoration, technological innovations and developments in institutional arrangements and management practices, such as polycentric governance and public participation, may play important roles to address future uncertainties and enhance resilience.

  3. Study on business resilience factors toward earthquake and tsunami - A case study of Padang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Harkunti P.; Aini, Qurrata; Putri, Amalia Novianti

    2017-07-01

    As as the Capital of West Sumatera Province and as the largest city at the West Coast of Sumatera, the City of Padang has been assigned as one of the National Activity Center for Regional Economic Development. The city will be developed as a metropolitan city, which will be very much relied on the multi sectoral support such as business, services, industry, and tourism sectors. However, the city is located at a very high-risk zone for earthquake and tsunami. After 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the city has been stricken several times by large earthquake and tsunami threat, for example in 8.4 M September 2007 and 7.6 M September 2009 causing major casualties, severe damages, great economic loss as well as tsunami threat to the people. Without disaster risk reduction based development planning, the goal of Padang as metropolitan and National Activity Center is difficult to be achieved. Knowing the level of risk and its appropriate countermeasures from the perspective of business resilience becomes very important. Thus, this paper will present the detail study on business reliency for the Padang City, starting from (i) Earthquake and Tsunami Risk Assessment from the perspective of preparedness for Business in Padang Barat Subdistrict of Padang City, (ii) Assessment of resiliency level of Padang City Business after the 2009 event, and (iii) recommendation for considering the Business Resilience factors as part of DRR based CBD development Plan of Padang Barat sub district - Padang City. This study is not only able to identify physical and nonphusical aspect of business characteristic, but it has identified four major components of Bussiness Resiliency Indicators, i.e. Swift Recovery Factors (RR), Experience and Knowledge to Disaster (PP), Emergency Response Plan (RT) and Asset Protection (PA). Each major indicator consists of several indicators, with 19 total indicators. Further investigation on these indicators shown that total performance value of business resiliency is

  4. The quest for resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Gary; Välikangas, Liisa

    2003-09-01

    In less turbulent times, executives had the luxury of assuming that business models were more or less immortal. Companies always had to work to get better, but they seldom had to get different--not at their core, not in their essence. Today, getting different is the imperative. It's the challenge facing Coca-Cola as it struggles to raise its "share of throat" in noncarbonated beverages. It's the task that bedevils McDonald's as it tries to restart its growth in a burger-weary world. It's the hurdle for Sun Microsystems as it searches for ways to protect its high-margin server business from the Linux onslaught. Continued success no longer hinges on momentum. Rather, it rides on resilience-on the ability to dynamically reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change. Strategic resilience is not about responding to a onetime crisis or rebounding from a setback. It's about continually anticipating and adjusting to deep, secular trends that can permanently impair the earning power of a core business. It's about having the capacity to change even before the case for change becomes obvious. To thrive in turbulent times, companies must become as efficient at renewal as they are at producing today's products and services. To achieve strategic resilience, companies will have to overcome the cognitive challenge of eliminating denial, nostalgia, and arrogance; the strategic challenge of learning how to create a wealth of small tactical experiments; the political challenge of reallocating financial and human resources to where they can earn the best returns; and the ideological challenge of learning that strategic renewal is as important as optimization.

  5. Measuring Operational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    Julia Allen CERT Allen is a principal researcher within the CERT Program at the SEI. Allen’s areas of interest include operational resilience...funded research and development center. The government of the United States has a royalty-free government-purpose license to use, duplicate, or...Technologies Forum Twitter: #SEIVirtualForum We offer a diverse range of learning products—including classroom training, eLearning , certification, and more—to serve the needs of customers and partners worldwide.

  6. Stiffness, resilience, compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Bogdan M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Sage, J. Timothy, E-mail: jtsage@neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The flexibility of a protein is an important component of its functionality. We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to quantify the flexibility of the heme iron environment in the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c by measuring the stiffness and the resilience. These quantities are sensitive to structural differences between the active sites of different proteins, as illustrated by a comparative analysis with myoglobin. The elasticity of the entire protein, on the other hand, can be probed quantitatively from NRVS and high energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements, an approach that we used to extract the bulk modulus of cytochrome c.

  7. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  8. Resilient ageing: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Maxine M; Conner, Norma E

    2014-04-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept resilient ageing. Unique in comparison with other healthy ageing concepts, resilient ageing can be applied to all older people, regardless of age or affliction. The state of global population expansion in older people over the next 50 years calls for increased health promotion research efforts to ensure the maintenance of health and optimal quality of life for all older people. Literature for this concept analysis was retrieved from several databases, CINAHL, PubMed PsycINFO, for the years 1990-2012. Rodgers's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used because of its applicability to concepts that are still evolving. An integrative research review methodology was applied to peer-reviewed journal articles (n = 46) for an inductive analysis of the concept of resilient ageing. The antecedents, defining attributes, and consequence of resilient ageing were identified. Antecedents to resilient ageing were found to be adversity and protective factors, while the core attributes include coping, hardiness and self-concept. The consequence of the process of resilient ageing was optimal quality of life. Sense of coherence was found to be the surrogate term. The results obtained were further substantiated using Antonovsky's (1979) theory of salutogenesis. A theoretical definition and a model of resilient ageing were developed. In addition, a discussion was provided on the practice, policy and research implications for promoting the development of protective factors and resilient ageing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Adventure Education and Resilience Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Carter, Susan; Gray, Sky; Gass, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of an experiential, adventure-based program on levels of resilience in fifth-grade Latino students. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental design was used to measure the impact of the Santa Fe Mountain Center's Anti-Bullying Initiative on internal assets commonly associated with resilient individuals. Results indicated…

  10. Resilia cyber resilience best practices

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    RESILIA™ Cyber Resilience Best Practices offers a practical approach to cyber resilience, reflecting the need to detect and recover from incidents, and not rely on prevention alone. It uses the ITIL® framework, which provides a proven approach to the provision of services that align to business outcomes.

  11. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  12. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  13. "I know it when I see it." The complexities of measuring resilience among parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Starks, Helene; Jones, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Promoting parent resilience may provide an opportunity to improve family-level survivorship after pediatric cancer; however, measuring resilience is challenging. The "Understanding Resilience in Parents of Children with Cancer" was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of bereaved and non-bereaved parents. Surveys included the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, the Kessler-6 psychological distress scale, the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory, and an open-ended question regarding the ongoing impact of cancer. We conducted content analyses of open-ended responses and categorized our impressions as "resilient," "not resilient," or "unable to determine." "Resilience" was determined based on evidence of psychological growth, lack of distress, and parent-reported meaning/purpose. We compared consensus impressions with instrument scores to examine alignment. Analyses were stratified by bereavement status. Eighty-four (88 %) non-bereaved and 21 (88 %) bereaved parents provided written responses. Among non-bereaved, 53 (63 %) were considered resilient and 15 (18 %) were not. Among bereaved, 11 (52 %) were deemed resilient and 5 (24 %) were not. All others suggested a mixed or incomplete picture. Rater-determined "resilient" parents tended to have higher personal resources and lower psychological distress (p = resilient" parents also had higher post-traumatic growth (p = 0.02). Person-level analyses demonstrated that only 50-62 % of parents had all three instrument scores aligned with our impressions of resilience. Despite multiple theories, measuring resilience is challenging. Our clinical impressions of resilience were aligned in 100 % of cases; however, instruments measuring potential markers of resilience were aligned in approximately half. Promoting resilience therefore requires understanding of multiple factors, including person-level perspectives, individual resources, processes of adaptation, and emotional well-being.

  14. Governance and Capacity to Manage Resilience of Health Systems: Towards a New Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Blanchet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The term resilience has dominated the discourse among health systems researchers since 2014 and the onset of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is wide consensus that the global community has to help build more resilient health systems. But do we really know what resilience means, and do we all have the same vision of resilience? The present paper presents a new conceptual framework on governance of resilience based on systems thinking and complexity theories. In this paper, we see resilience of a health system as its capacity to absorb, adapt and transform when exposed to a shock such as a pandemic, natural disaster or armed conflict and still retain the same control over its structure and functions.

  15. The oak or the reed: how resilience theories are translated into disaster management policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Wenger

    2017-09-01

    The continued development of floodplains, facilitated by structural mitigation, is an example of a highly resilient but maladaptive feedback loop. This results in risk accumulation and higher consequences during extreme floods. Research explores ways interventions could alter feedbacks and transform to more desirable resilience regimes. It is proposed that negotiating long-term adaptation pathways should be the ultimate aim for planners and emergency managers rather than resilience, which tends to support the status quo. Emergency management concepts and frameworks need to be amended in the light of resilience theories to make it easier to achieve adaptive outcomes.

  16. Building community disaster resilience: perspectives from a large urban county department of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, Alonzo; Fielding, Jonathan E; Chandra, Anita; Williams, Malcolm; Eisenman, David; Wells, Kenneth B; Law, Grace Y; Fogleman, Stella; Magaña, Aizita

    2013-07-01

    An emerging approach to public health emergency preparedness and response, community resilience encompasses individual preparedness as well as establishing a supportive social context in communities to withstand and recover from disasters. We examine why building community resilience has become a key component of national policy across multiple federal agencies and discuss the core principles embodied in community resilience theory-specifically, the focus on incorporating equity and social justice considerations in preparedness planning and response. We also examine the challenges of integrating community resilience with traditional public health practices and the importance of developing metrics for evaluation and strategic planning purposes. Using the example of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project, we discuss our experience and perspective from a large urban county to better understand how to implement a community resilience framework in public health practice.

  17. Macroecological Patterns of Resilience Inferred from a Multinational, Synchronized Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier L. Baho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The likelihood of an ecological system to undergo undesired regime shifts is expected to increase as climate change effects unfold. To understand how regional climate settings can affect resilience; i.e., the ability of an ecosystem to tolerate disturbances without changing its original structure and processes, we used a synchronized mesocosm experiment (representative of shallow lakes along a latitudinal gradient. We manipulated nutrient concentrations and water levels in a synchronized mesocosm experiment in different climate zones across Europe involving Sweden, Estonia, Germany, the Czech Republic, Turkey and Greece. We assessed attributes of zooplankton communities that might contribute to resilience under different ecological configurations. We assessed four indicator of relative ecological resilience (cross-scale, within-scale structures, aggregation length and gap size of zooplankton communities, inferred from discontinuity analysis. Similar resilience attributes were found across experimental treatments and countries, except Greece, which experienced severe drought conditions during the experiment. These conditions apparently led to a lower relative resilience in the Greek mesocosms. Our results indicate that zooplankton community resilience in shallow lakes is marginally affected by water level and the studied nutrient range unless extreme drought occurs. In practice, this means that drought mitigation could be especially challenging in semi-arid countries in the future.

  18. Relationship between resilience and quality of life in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Abida; Malik, Jamil A; Batool, Azra

    2014-09-01

    To determine the relationship between resilience and quality of life of diabetes patients controlling the effect of personal level (i.e., gender, age, and income) and disease-specific (i.e., duration of disease, and current glucose level) demographics. Analytical study. Outpatient Departments of various hospitals in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, from October to November 2012. Patients diagnosed with diabetes taking treatment in an outdoor patients' facility were included. Patients with a major diabetes complications causing or coexistent with a physical disability, medical condition or psychiatric comorbidity were excluded. Informed consent was taken from patients before administration of questionnaires. The patients were asked to respond to a demographic sheet, State-Trait resilience inventory, and WHO-Quality of Life BREF. Statistical testing was conducting using bivariate correlation, Mann-Whitney U-test, and multiple linear regression analysis for moderation testing. There were 242 patients including (n=108, 44% females; and n=134, 56% males) aged 17 - 85 years with mean of 44.56 ± 16.56 years. Trait resilience predicted all aspects of quality of life of diabetic patients (b range = 0.30 to 0.42, p quality of life. Duration of diabetes moderated effect of state resilience on all aspects of quality of life (b interaction range = 0.20 to 0.26, p quality of life of diabetics. Trait resilience has unconditional positive effect on all aspect of quality of life. Long standing diabetics may benefit from intervention addressing state resilience.

  19. Socio-Environmental Resilience and Complex Urban Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Brian; Petri, Aaron; Pan, Haozhi; Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The increasing pressure of climate change has inspired two normative agendas; socio-technical transitions and socio-ecological resilience, both sharing a complex-systems epistemology (Gillard et al. 2016). Socio-technical solutions include a continuous, massive data gathering exercise now underway in urban places under the guise of developing a 'smart'(er) city. This has led to the creation of data-rich environments where large data sets have become central to monitoring and forming a response to anomalies. Some have argued that these kinds of data sets can help in planning for resilient cities (Norberg and Cumming 2008; Batty 2013). In this paper, we focus on a more nuanced, ecologically based, socio-environmental perspective of resilience planning that is often given less consideration. Here, we broadly discuss (and model) the tightly linked, mutually influenced, social and biophysical subsystems that are critical for understanding urban resilience. We argue for the need to incorporate these sub system linkages into the resilience planning lexicon through the integration of systems models and planning support systems. We make our case by first providing a context for urban resilience from a socio-ecological and planning perspective. We highlight the data needs for this type of resilient planning and compare it to currently collected data streams in various smart city efforts. This helps to define an approach for operationalizing socio-environmental resilience planning using robust systems models and planning support systems. For this, we draw from our experiences in coupling a spatio-temporal land use model (the Landuse Evolution and impact Assessment Model (LEAM)) with water quality and quantity models in Stockholm Sweden. We describe the coupling of these systems models using a robust Planning Support System (PSS) structural framework. We use the coupled model simulations and PSS to analyze the connection between urban land use transformation (social) and water

  20. Problem-based learning: Developing resilience in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Yuan Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A society needs mature and confident nurse practitioners, who are able to think analytically and flexibly, recognize needs for further preparation, and willing to engage in self-development. Concern is raised regarding how educators will build the capacity of resilient students with a knowledge base and a minimum set of skills in responding to various issues and for engaging in self-reflection. Drawing on the framework of nursing competencies and global standards for the education of professional nurses, resilient students may contribute through their social competence, problem-solving ability, sense of purpose, and persistence in the process to achieve the goal of the project. Educators should know how to build the resilient attribute in students by encouraging them to engage in self-reflection. This article discusses four areas that help students build resilience from project-based learning of a small group: the impact of problem-based learning at clinical practice, project/problem-based learning, resilient nursing student, and developing nursing students’ resilience. Self-assessment to check the promoting skills for teaching in a problem-based learning program helps the faculty holding the empowerment to encourage or support the students to face the challenge within the small team.

  1. Problem-based learning: developing resilience in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    A society needs mature and confident nurse practitioners, who are able to think analytically and flexibly, recognize needs for further preparation, and willing to engage in self-development. Concern is raised regarding how educators will build the capacity of resilient students with a knowledge base and a minimum set of skills in responding to various issues and for engaging in self-reflection. Drawing on the framework of nursing competencies and global standards for the education of professional nurses, resilient students may contribute through their social competence, problem-solving ability, sense of purpose, and persistence in the process to achieve the goal of the project. Educators should know how to build the resilient attribute in students by encouraging them to engage in self-reflection. This article discusses four areas that help students build resilience from project-based learning of a small group: the impact of problem-based learning at clinical practice, project/problem-based learning, resilient nursing student, and developing nursing students' resilience. Self-assessment to check the promoting skills for teaching in a problem-based learning program helps the faculty holding the empowerment to encourage or support the students to face the challenge within the small team. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

  2. Resilience among patients across the cancer continuum: diverse perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Yi, Jean C; Martinez-Gutierrez, Javiera; Reding, Kerryn W; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2014-02-01

    Each phase of the cancer experience profoundly affects patients' lives. Much of the literature has focused on negative consequences of cancer; however, the study of resilience may enable providers to promote more positive psychosocial outcomes before, during, and after the cancer experience. The current review describes the ways in which elements of resilience have been defined and studied at each phase of the cancer continuum. Extensive literature searches were conducted to find studies assessing resilience during one or more stages of the adult cancer continuum. For all phases of the cancer continuum, resilience descriptions included preexisting or baseline characteristics, such as demographics and personal attributes (e.g., optimism, social support), mechanisms of adaptation, such as coping and medical experiences (e.g., positive provider communication), as well as psychosocial outcomes, such as growth and quality of life. Promoting resilience is a critical element of patient psychosocial care. Nurses may enable resilience by recognizing and promoting certain baseline characteristics and optimizing mechanisms of adaptation.

  3. Coupling and quantifying resilience and sustainability in facilities management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Rimante Andrasiunaite; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Rode, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider how to couple and quantify resilience and sustainability, where sustainability refers to not only environmental impact, but also economic and social impacts. The way a particular function of a building is provisioned may have significant repercus......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider how to couple and quantify resilience and sustainability, where sustainability refers to not only environmental impact, but also economic and social impacts. The way a particular function of a building is provisioned may have significant...... repercussions beyond just resilience. The goal is to develop a decision support tool for facilities managers. Design/methodology/approach – A risk framework is used to quantify both resilience and sustainability in monetary terms. The risk framework allows to couple resilience and sustainability, so...... that the provisioning of a particular building can be investigated with consideration of functional, environmental, economic and, possibly, social dimensions. Findings – The method of coupling and quantifying resilience and sustainability (CQRS) is illustrated with a simple example that highlights how very different...

  4. System Dynamics Modeling for the Resilience in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florah, Kamanj; Kim, Jonghyun

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to model and evaluate emergency operation system (EOS) resilience using the System Dynamics. System Dynamics is the study of causal interactions between elements of a complex system. This paper identifies the EOS resilience attributes and their interactions by constructing a causal loop diagram. Then, the interactions are quantified based on literature review and simulated to analyze resilience dynamics. This paper describes the use of system dynamics to improve understanding of the resilience dynamics of complex systems such as emergency operation systems. This paper takes into account two aspects; the strength of resilience attributes interactions and the quantification of dynamic behaviour of resilience over time. This model can be applied to review NPP safety in terms of the resilience level and organization. Simulation results can give managers insights to support their decisions in safety management. A nuclear power plant (NPP) is classified as a safety critical organization whose safety objective is to control hazards that can cause significant harm to the environment, public, or personnel. There has been a significant improvement of safety designs as well as risk analysis tools and methods applied in nuclear power plants over the last decade. Conventional safety analysis methods such as PSA have several limitations they primarily focus on technical dimension, the analysis are linear and sequential, they are dominated by static models, they do not take a systemic view into account, and they focus primarily on why accidents happen and not how success is achieved. Hence new approaches to risk analysis for NPPs are needed to complement the conventional approaches. Resilience is the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust to its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. An EOS in a NPP refers to a system consisting of personnel

  5. Building Reading Resilience: Re-Thinking Reading for the Literary Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kate; Barnett, Tully; Poletti, Anna; Seaboyer, Judith; Kennedy, Rosanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of "reading resilience": students' ability to read and interpret complex and demanding literary texts by drawing on advanced, engaged, critical reading skills. Reading resilience is a means for rethinking the place and pedagogies of close reading in the contemporary literary studies classroom. Our…

  6. Self-esteem and resilience : The connection with risky behavior among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; Gajdosova, Beata; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    The aim was to explore the association of self-esteem and resilience with smoking and cannabis use among adolescents, separately for gender. A sample of 3694 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years) from elementary schools in Slovakia filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Resiliency scale and

  7. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  8. Resilient leadership and the organizational culture of resilience: construct validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lobo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Political, economic, and social unrest and uncertainty seem replete throughout the world. Within the United States, political vitriol and economic volatility have led to severe economic restrictions. Both government and private sector organizations are being asked to do more with less. The specter of dramatic changes in healthcare creates a condition of uncertainty affecting budget allocations and hiring practices. If ever there was a time when a "resilient culture" was needed, it is now. In this paper we shall discuss the application of "tipping point" theory (Gladwell, 2000) operationalized through a special form of leadership: "resilient leadership" (Everly, Strouse, Everly, 2010). Resilient leadership is consistent with Gladwells "Law of the Few" and strives to create an organizational culture of resilience by implementing an initial change within no more than 20% of an organization's workforce. It is expected that such a minority, if chosen correctly, will "tip" the rest of the organization toward enhanced resilience, ideally creating a self-sustaining culture of resilience. This paper reports on the empirical foundations and construct validation of "resilient leadership".

  9. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  10. Recognizing Stewardship Practices as Indicators of Social Resilience: In Living Memorials and in a Community Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather McMillen; Lindsay Campbell; Erika Svendsen; Renae Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Resilience theory has received increased attention from researchers across a range of disciplines who have developed frameworks and articulated categories of indicators; however, there has been less discussion of how to recognize, and therefore support, social resilience at the community level, especially in urban areas. The value of urban environmental stewardship for...

  11. Spatial modelling of disaster resilience using infrastructure components of baseline resilience indicators for communities (BRIC) in special region of Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscahyadi, Febriana; Meilano, Irwan; Riqqi, Akhmad

    2017-07-01

    Special Region of Yogyakarta Province (DIY) is one of Indonesian regions that often harmed by varied natural disasters which caused huge negative impacts. The most catastrophic one is earthquake in May, 27th 2006 with 6.3 magnitude moment [1], evoked 5716 people died, and economic losses for Rp. 29.1 Trillion, [2]. Their impacts could be minimized by committing disaster risk reduction program. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the natural disaster resilience within a region. Since infrastructure are might be able as facilities that means for evacuations, distribute supplies, and post disaster recovery [3], this research concerns to establish spatial modelling of natural disaster resilience using infrastructure components based on BRIC in DIY Province. There are three infrastructure used in this model; they are school, health facilities, and roads. Distance analysis is used to determine the level of resilient zone. The result gives the spatial understanding as a map that urban areas have better disaster resilience than the rural areas. The coastal areas and mountains areas which are vulnerable towards disaster have less resilience since there are no enough facilities that will increase the disaster resilience

  12. Social Innovation Systems for Building Resilient Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donagh Horgan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social innovation—while not a new practice in itself—has re-emerged since the global financial crisis in 2008 as an approach to solving our collective intractable global challenges. Despite its renewed popularity, there is no common definition for the phenomenon, not least in the context of its application when planning the built environment or civic infrastructures. This paper seeks to position the practice of social innovation as a means for holistic collaboration between disciplines to develop sustainable social ecologies and systems that provide for resilient communities. It tests a hypothesis that social innovation develops over phases (feedback loops—that of the network, framework and architecture phase—to design for social, environmental and economic resilience. It looks to theories emerging in other subject areas like sociology and technology, that can inform its application in a planning context, such as Actor-Network and Adaptive Complexity theories. It explores the mechanisms that provide for resilience through action research and engagement with a number of international case studies and scenarios. Lastly, the paper identifies further avenues of research pertaining to networks, frameworks and architectures to develop models of best practice for inclusive, sustainable and iterative community development.

  13. Resiliency scoring for business continuity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna; Anderson, Jamie

    Through this paper readers will learn of a scoring methodology, referred to as resiliency scoring, which enables the evaluation of business continuity plans based upon analysis of their alignment with a predefined set of criteria that can be customised and are adaptable to the needs of any organisation. This patent pending tool has been successful in driving engagement and is a powerful resource to improve reporting capabilities, identify risks and gauge organisational resilience. The role of business continuity professionals is to aid their organisations in planning and preparedness activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of potential disruptions and ensuring critical business functions can continue in the event of unforeseen circumstances. This may seem like a daunting task for what can typically be a small team of individuals. For this reason, it is important to be able to leverage industry standards, documented best practices and effective tools to streamline and support your continuity programme. The resiliency scoring methodology developed and implemented at Target has proven to be a valuable tool in taking the organisation's continuity programme to the next level. This paper will detail how the tool was developed and provide guidance on how it can be customised to fit your organisation's unique needs.

  14. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T. Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben H. J.; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; Dewalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I. Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans F. M.; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha-1), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha-1) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  15. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  16. A retrospective case series of implants used to restore partially edentulous patients with implant-supported removable partial dentures: 31-month mean follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Yoav; Levin, Liran; Sadan, Avishai

    2008-09-01

    The incorporation of dental implants into removable partial dentures is a common clinical practice, but it is poorly documented in the dental literature. The purpose of this retrospective case series study was to evaluate the survival of endosseous dental implants used in restoring partially edentulous patients with implant-supported removable partial dentures (ISRPDs) of different configurations, based on up to 10 years of follow-up. The sample consisted of 23 consecutively treated partially edentulous patients, who, between 1996 and 2005, had a total of 44 implants placed in different arch sites and who were treated with ISRPDs. The mean age was 44.2 +/- 7.5 years at inclusion. Mean follow-up time from implant placement was 31.5 months (range, 9 to 120 months). Smoking status, arch configuration before and after implant placement, follow-up time from implant placement, implant location, implant dimensions, implant and abutment survival, and overall satisfaction (assessed by questionnaire) with the restoration are presented. The overall implant survival rate was 95.5%; 2 implants failed. Kennedy Class I in the maxilla (6 patients) followed by Kennedy Class II in the mandible (4 patients) were the most prevalent arch configurations before implant placement. Arch configuration was modified by implant placement in 6 patients (26.1%). During follow-up, 1 abutment tooth was lost 2 years after prosthesis delivery. All patients were satisfied with their prosthesis. Implant-supported removable partial dentures could serve as a long-term predictable treatment modality. Careful patient selection, with an appropriate maintenance and recall system, is recommended to obtain satisfactory results.

  17. Application of a Resilience Framework to Military Installations: A Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    and ideas for this work . In particular we would like to thank the people at the participating installations and the many members of the public works ...Framework to Military Installations: A Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions N. Judson A.L. Pina E.V. Dydek S.B. Van Broekhoven...A.S. Castillo 4 October 2016 This material is based on work supported by the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Installation

  18. Transformation and Resilience on Urban Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, M.; Agboola, J.; Birkmann, J.; Grimmond, S. B.; Garschagen, M.; Link, H. D.; Narayanan, P.; Nishi, M.; Ramachandran, R., VI; Solecki, W.; Yamamuro, M.; Welle, T.; Ramachandran, P.; Ajibade, I.

    2016-12-01

    Large coastal cities are at the forefront of efforts to manage vulnerability and build resilience in the face of multiple, interlinked threats. This paper presents results from the Belmont Forum project Transformation and Resilience on Urban Coasts (TRUC). TRUC aims to shift academic and policy discussion from an assessment of resilience options to an understanding of how cities can transition from one mode of resilience planning to another. In particular TRUC questions the relationship between dominant development trajectories and structures and risk management. Should risk management be deployed to support, adjust or fundamentally change dominant development trajectories and its attendant distributional and procedural justice outcomes? TRUC deployed an interdisciplinary approach bringing together scenario workshops, integrated biophysical and vulnerability modelling, expert and household interviews to open spaces for stakeholders to reflect on existing risk management-development relationships, their determinants, preferences for transition to new states and barriers and opportunities for transition. Results are presented for five global megacities: Kolkata, Lagos, London, New York and Tokyo. Contemporary risk management for these global megacities is found to be rooted in historical events with policy innovation following on from extreme events rather than anticipating future risk. Emergent coastal hazards, most importantly heatwave, are consistently underemphasised in planning and technical capacity. Professionals express a desire to move risk management from a reactive mode aimed at protecting development gains towards a more proactive position and one that can embrace integrated development issues. Barriers to this transition include top-down and centralised planning that makes innovation difficult and slow and variable relations between science and policy communities that make it difficult for high level planners to access novel science opinion.

  19. Resilience and efficiency in transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, Alexander A; Kitsak, Maksim; Marchese, Dayton; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Seager, Thomas; Linkov, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Urban transportation systems are vulnerable to congestion, accidents, weather, special events, and other costly delays. Whereas typical policy responses prioritize reduction of delays under normal conditions to improve the efficiency of urban road systems, analytic support for investments that improve resilience (defined as system recovery from additional disruptions) is still scarce. In this effort, we represent paved roads as a transportation network by mapping intersections to nodes and road segments between the intersections to links. We built road networks for 40 of the urban areas defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. We developed and calibrated a model to evaluate traffic delays using link loads. The loads may be regarded as traffic-based centrality measures, estimating the number of individuals using corresponding road segments. Efficiency was estimated as the average annual delay per peak-period auto commuter, and modeled results were found to be close to observed data, with the notable exception of New York City. Resilience was estimated as the change in efficiency resulting from roadway disruptions and was found to vary between cities, with increased delays due to a 5% random loss of road linkages ranging from 9.5% in Los Angeles to 56.0% in San Francisco. The results demonstrate that many urban road systems that operate inefficiently under normal conditions are nevertheless resilient to disruption, whereas some more efficient cities are more fragile. The implication is that resilience, not just efficiency, should be considered explicitly in roadway project selection and justify investment opportunities related to disaster and other disruptions.

  20. Resilience and disaster risk reduction: an etymological journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D. E.

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines the development over historical time of the meaning and uses of the term resilience. The objective is to deepen our understanding of how the term came to be adopted in disaster risk reduction and resolve some of the conflicts and controversies that have arisen when it has been used. The paper traces the development of resilience through the sciences, humanities, and legal and political spheres. It considers how mechanics passed the word to ecology and psychology, and how from there it was adopted by social research and sustainability science. As other authors have noted, as a concept, resilience involves some potentially serious conflicts or contradictions, for example between stability and dynamism, or between dynamic equilibrium (homeostasis) and evolution. Moreover, although the resilience concept works quite well within the confines of general systems theory, in situations in which a systems formulation inhibits rather than fosters explanation, a different interpretation of the term is warranted. This may be the case for disaster risk reduction, which involves transformation rather than preservation of the "state of the system". The article concludes that the modern conception of resilience derives benefit from a rich history of meanings and applications, but that it is dangerous - or at least potentially disappointing - to read to much into the term as a model and a paradigm.

  1. Impact of resilience enhancing programs on youth surviving the Beslan school siege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Stefan; Dulaev, Igor; Mueller, Mario; Henley, Robert R; Gallo, William T; Kanukova, Zalina

    2010-04-22

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a resilience-enhancing program for youth (mean age = 13.32 years) from Beslan, North Ossetia, in the Russian Federation. The program, offered in the summer of 2006, combined recreation, sport, and psychosocial rehabilitation activities for 94 participants, 46 of who were taken hostage in the 2004 school tragedy and experienced those events first hand. Self-reported resilience, as measured by the CD-RISC, was compared within subjects at the study baseline and at two follow-up assessments: immediately after the program and 6 months later. We also compared changes in resilience levels across groups that differed in their traumatic experiences. The results indicate a significant intra-participant mean increase in resilience at both follow-up assessments, and greater self-reported improvements in resilience processes for participants who experienced more trauma events.

  2. Impact of resilience enhancing programs on youth surviving the Beslan school siege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallo William T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate a resilience-enhancing program for youth (mean age = 13.32 years from Beslan, North Ossetia, in the Russian Federation. The program, offered in the summer of 2006, combined recreation, sport, and psychosocial rehabilitation activities for 94 participants, 46 of who were taken hostage in the 2004 school tragedy and experienced those events first hand. Self-reported resilience, as measured by the CD-RISC, was compared within subjects at the study baseline and at two follow-up assessments: immediately after the program and 6 months later. We also compared changes in resilience levels across groups that differed in their traumatic experiences. The results indicate a significant intra-participant mean increase in resilience at both follow-up assessments, and greater self-reported improvements in resilience processes for participants who experienced more trauma events.

  3. Resilience to emotional distress in response to failure, error or mistakes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith; Panagioti, Maria; Bass, Jennifer; Ramsey, Lauren; Harrison, Reema

    2017-03-01

    Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience. The current systematic review synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure. For the definition of resilience we used the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (BDF) which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. Studies were identified through electronic searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge. Forty-six relevant studies reported in 38 papers met the inclusion criteria. These provided evidence of the presence of factors which confer resilience to emotional distress in response to failure. The strongest support was found for the factors of higher self-esteem, more positive attributional style, and lower socially-prescribed perfectionism. Weaker evidence was found for the factors of lower trait reappraisal, lower self-oriented perfectionism and higher emotional intelligence. The majority of studies used experimental or longitudinal designs. These results identify specific factors which should be targeted by resilience-building interventions. Resilience; failure; stress; self-esteem; attributional style; perfectionism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stable personal attributes and a resilient approach to work and career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Flint-Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Recent research has suggested that personal resilience should be viewed in terms of process and outcome. This has implications for the study of resilience in the work context. Research purpose: The main research aim was to explore, at a detailed level, relationships between enduring personal characteristics and a resilient approach to work and career. Motivation for the study: Moving away from the idea of resilience as a specific trait or set of traits raises the question of how general personality and ability constructs influence a resilient approach. Research approach, design and method: This was an exploratory, quantitative study involving predictor (ability and personality and criterion (satisfaction and involvement data for 168 senior managers in five businesses within a retail and distribution group. Main findings: Evidence was found for differential relationships between personal attributes and a resilient approach (measured in terms of positive vs. negative perspectives on work and career. For example, the personality factor of Openness to Experience was negatively related to Organisation and Career Satisfaction, but positively related to Career and Job Involvement. Practical/managerial implications: In designing selection, development and employee survey procedures, organisations need to be aware of the differential nature of the relationships between attributes and a resilient approach to work and career. Contribution/value-add: The study brings together recent research on resilience, personal attributes and work outcomes, and supports the potential of general attribute models for studying and improving the process of developing and exercising a resilient approach in the work context.

  5. The relationship between resilience and personality traits in doctors: implications for enhancing well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diann S. Eley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The health and well being of medical doctors is vital to their longevity and safe practice. The concept of resilience is recognised as a key component of well being and is an important factor in medical training to help doctors learn to cope with challenge, stress, and adversity. This study examined the relationship of resilience to personality traits and resilience in doctors in order to identify the key traits that promote or impair resilience.Methods. A cross sectional cohort of 479 family practitioners in practice across Australia was studied. The Temperament and Character Inventory measured levels of the seven basic dimensions of personality and the Resilience Scale provided an overall measure of resilience. The associations between resilience and personality were examined by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, controlling for age and gender (α = 0.05 with an accompanying 95% confidence level and multiple regression analyses.Results. Strong to medium positive correlations were found between Resilience and Self-directedness (r = .614, p < .01, Persistence (r = .498, p < .01, and Cooperativeness (r = .363, p < .01 and negative with Harm Avoidance (r = .−555, p < .01. Individual differences in personality explained 39% of the variance in resilience [F(7, 460 = 38.40, p < .001]. The three traits which contributed significantly to this variance were Self-directedness (β = .33, p < .001, Persistence (β = .22, p < .001 and Harm Avoidance (β = .19, p < .001.Conclusion. Resilience was associated with a personality trait pattern that is mature, responsible, optimistic, persevering, and cooperative. Findings support the inclusion of resilience as a component of optimal functioning and well being in doctors. Strategies for enhancing resilience should consider the key traits that drive or impair it.

  6. Resilience, Positive Coping, and Quality of Life Among Women Newly Diagnosed With Gynecological Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Myers-Virtue, Shannon; Kashy, Deborah; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Heckman, Carolyn; Rubin, Stephen C; Rosenblum, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been linked to psychological adaptation to many challenging life events. The goal was to examine 3 coping strategies--expressing positive emotions, positive reframing of the cancer experience, and cultivating a sense of peace and meaning in life--as potential mechanisms by which resilience translates to quality of life among women recently diagnosed with gynecological cancer. This cross-sectional study utilized baseline data from women diagnosed with gynecological cancer participating in an ongoing randomized clinical trial (n = 281; mean age, 55 years; 80% were white). Participants completed measures of resilience, positive emotional expression, positive reappraisal, cultivating a sense of peace and meaning, and quality of life. Univariate and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Greater resilience was related to higher quality of life (P resilience and quality of life. When considered as a set, cultivating a sense of peace and meaning had the strongest indirect effect (b = 0.281, SE = 0.073, P resilient women may report higher quality of life during gynecological cancer diagnosis because they are more likely to express positive emotions, reframe the experience positively, and cultivate a sense of peace and meaning in their lives. Interventions promoting a sense of purpose in one's life and facilitating expression of positive emotions may prove beneficial, particularly for women reporting higher levels of resilience.

  7. Resilient communities: implications for professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Neef, Martijn; Davis, Scott; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    As a result of societal changes like citizen empowerment and increasing attention for strengthening community resilience, relationships between citizens and professional responders in crisis management are changing. Citizens actively deal with crises themselves, implying adjustments to professional

  8. Sociotechnical Resilience: A Preliminary Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Sulfikar; Kant, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance. We propose that the triad of relations, structures, and practices are fundamental aspects required to comprehend the resilience of sociotechnical systems during times of crisis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Resilient retfærdighed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the idea of resilience as a point of departure for analysing some contemporary challenges to the climate justice movement posed by social-ecological sciences. Climate justice activists are increasingly rallying for a system-change, demanding fundamental changes to political bure...... is that the scientific framework behind resilience is not politically neutral and that this framework tends to weaken the activist’s demands for a just transition and place more emphasis on technical and bureaucratic processes....

  10. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Wu

    Full Text Available Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation, Herth Hope Index (HHI, and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience.The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI, and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001, educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001, educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001, avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001, confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001, and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037 significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience.Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation

  11. Resilience and vulnerability of permafrost to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.Torre Jorgenson; Vladimir Romanovsky; Jennifer Harden; Yuri Shur; Jonathan O' Donnell; Edward A.G. Schuur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Sergei. Marchenko

    2010-01-01

    The resilience and vulnerability of permafrost to climate change depends on complex interactions among topography, water, soil, vegetation, and snow, which allow permafrost to persist at mean annual air temperatures (MAATs) as high as +2 °C and degrade at MAATs as low as -20°C. To assess these interactions, we compiled existing data and tested effects of varying...

  12. Adolescent Spirituality and Resilience: Theory, Research, and Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwon; Esquivel, Giselle B.

    2011-01-01

    Spirituality is a universal phenomenon and an inherent aspect of human nature that unfolds during adolescence as the individual searches for transcendence, meaning, and purpose in life. Recently, spirituality has received attention as a source of resilience for adolescents. Theoretical perspectives and empirical research suggest that spirituality…

  13. The relationship between perceived parenting styles and resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective — The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between perceived arenting styles and resilience in adolescence. Method — The respondents were a sample of 360 English speaking subjects, with a mean age of 17.6 years. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to investigate this relationship.

  14. Resilient but not sustainable? Public perceptions of shale gas development via hydraulic fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrick Evensen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex energy development, such as associated with extraction and processing of shale gas, may affect the future sustainability and resilience of the small, often rural communities where development occurs. A difficulty for understanding the connection between sustainability, resilience, and shale gas development (hereafter "SGD" is that definitions of sustainability and resilience are often muddled and unclear. Nevertheless, the ways in which development could affect sustainability and resilience have been discussed and contested in academic literature. Little is known, however, about the general public's thoughts on how SGD relates to sustainability and resilience. Despite the overlap and conflation of these two concepts, research indicates some differences between characterizations of the two. While acknowledging difficulties in defining the terms, we included questions on a few broad attributes of the two concepts in a survey (n = 1202 of a random sample of residents in the Marcellus Shale region of NY and PA, to explore the relationship between support for / opposition to SGD and perceived importance of community sustainability and resilience. Our survey revealed that beliefs about the importance of sustainability, as measured by three items that clearly pool together as a single factor, are associated with opposition to SGD; beliefs about the importance of resilience, measured by four clearly connected items, are associated with support for SGD. This finding is particularly intriguing and relevant for communication and policy about sustainability and resilience in connection with energy development, because of the common conflation of the two terms.

  15. [The Structural Equation Model on Resilience of Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong Ha; Kim, Ok Soo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and test a structural equation model on resilience of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Participants were 204 patients with breast cancer who received chemotherapy treatment. They participated in a structured interview, which included social support, depression, symptom experience, self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and infection prevention behaviors. Data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 20.0 and AMOS 18.0. Lower depression (γ=-.33, p=.020) and symptom experience (γ=-.31, p=.012) and higher self-efficacy (γ=.32, p=.005) and hope (γ=.48, p=.016) were influenced by higher social support. Greater resilience was influenced by lower symptom experience (β=-.18, p=.016), higher self-efficacy (β=.49, p=.023), and higher hope (β=.46, p=.012), and these predictors explained 66.7% of variance in resilience. Greater resilience (β=.54, p=.009) made an impact on greater infection prevention behaviors. Resilience mediated the relations of symptom experience (β=-.10 p=.013), self-efficacy (β=.27, p=.006) and hope (β=.25, p=.009) with infection prevention behaviors. These predictors explained 24.9% of variance in infection prevention behaviors. The findings of the study suggest that breast cancer patientsw ith greater resilience who are receiving chemotherapy participate in increased infection prevention behaviors. Further research should be conducted to seek intervention strategies that improve breast cancer patients' resilience.

  16. Resilience and the rehabilitation of adult spinal cord injury survivors: A qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel; Mclean, Loyola; Betihavas, Vasiliki; Cleary, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    To synthesize the qualitative research evidence that explored how survivors of adult spinal cord injury experience and make sense of resilience. Spinal cord injury is often a sudden and unexpected life-changing event requiring complex and long-term rehabilitation. The development of resilience is essential in determining how spinal cord injury survivors negotiate this injury and rehabilitation. A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis of the research evidence. CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, Scopus and PsycINFO were searched, no restriction dates were used. Methodological quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Thematic synthesis focused on how survivors of adult spinal cord injury experience and make sense of resilience. Six qualitative research articles reported the experiences of 84 spinal cord injury survivors. Themes identified were: uncertainty and regaining independence; prior experiences of resilience; adopting resilient thinking; and strengthening resilience through supports. Recovery and rehabilitation following spinal cord survivors is influenced by the individual's capacity for resilience. Resilience may be influenced by previous life experiences and enhanced by supportive nursing staff encouraging self-efficacy. Survivors identified the need for active involvement in decision-making about their care to enable a sense of regaining control of their lives. This has the potential to have a significant impact on their self-efficacy and in turn health outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Resilience to urban poverty: theoretical and empirical considerations for population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E; Lim, Sungwoo; Sohn, Woosung

    2008-06-01

    To better understand the trajectory that propels people from poverty to poor health, we investigated health resilience longitudinally among African American families with incomes below 250% of the federal poverty level. Health resilience is the capacity to maintain good health in the face of significant adversity. With higher levels of tooth retention as a marker of health resilience, we used a social-epidemiological framework to define capacity for health resilience through a chain of determinants starting in the built environment (housing quality) and community context (social support) to familial influences (religiosity) and individual mental health and health behavior. Odds of retaining 20 or more teeth were 3 times as likely among adults with resilience versus more-vulnerable adults (odds ratio=3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3, 7.4). Children of caregivers with resilience had a lower incident rate of noncavitated tooth decay at 18- to 24-month follow-up (incidence risk ratio=0.8; 95% CI=0.7, 0.9) compared with other children. Health resilience to poverty was supported by protective factors in the built and social environments. When poverty itself cannot be eliminated, improving the quality of the built and social environments will foster resilience to its harmful health effects.

  18. Aligning Organizational Pathologies and Organizational Resilience Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Morales Allende

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing resilient individuals, organizations and communities is a hot topic in the research agenda in Management, Ecology, Psychology or Engineering. Despite the number of works that focus on resilience is increasing, there is not completely agreed definition of resilience, neither an entirely formal and accepted framework. The cause may be the spread of research among different fields. In this paper, we focus on the study of organizational resilience with the aim of improving the level of resilience in organizations. We review the relation between viable and resilient organizations and their common properties. Based on these common properties, we defend the application of the Viable System Model (VSM to design resilient organizations. We also identify the organizational pathologies defined applying the VSM through resilience indicators. We conclude that an organization with any organizational pathology is not likely to be resilient because it does not fulfill the requirements of viable organizations.

  19. Better resilience to disasters and improved livelihoods on South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... Research supported by IDRC and the former Canadian International Development Agency (now part of Global Affairs Canada) has increased the resilience of poor coastal communities in India and Sri Lanka to natural disasters and improved livelihoods. Carried out by the MS Swaminathan Research ...

  20. Trauma, resilience and vulnerability to PTSD: A review and clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature review examines the proportion of individuals who develop PTSD following trauma and the factors associated with vulnerability and resilience. These include gender, developmental factors, social support and personality factors. Psychological factors associated with maintenance of chronic PTSD are also briefly ...

  1. Modeling Forest Resilience in Hindu Kush Himalaya using Geo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48

    The theory of alternative stable states in a forest ecosystem suggests that the regime shift. 5 among various forest .... the TCC% data to define various forest formations, and estimated their resilience by accounting. 1 to precipitation. 2. 3 ..... Acknowledgements: The financial support for carrying out the work (Contract No. 29.

  2. Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The consortium's vision of climate-resilient development includes development that tackles poverty and maximizes people's capacity to adapt to climate change, while also expecting that change is needed to implement this vision. The research program is designed to produce evidence that will support this change.

  3. A qualitative exploration of resilience in pre-adolescent AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings indicate that the developmental assets that facilitate coping and foster resilience in these children relate to four main components: external stressors and challenges, external supports, inner strengths and interpersonal and problem-solving skills. Emerging key themes relate to the experience of illness, death, ...

  4. Early Childhood Education as a Resilience Intervention for Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…

  5. Resilience through participation and coping-enabling social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The articles included here show, albeit in different ways and to different degrees, that the resilience of HIV-affected children in the region is an outcome of their agency and interactions with their social environment. Policy actors and practitioners working to support HIV-affected children in Africa should take heed of the ...

  6. Questioning Technology in the Development of a Resilient Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard; Winn, Joss

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the impact that peak oil and climate change may have on the future of higher education. In particular, it questions the role of technology in supporting the provision of a higher education which is resilient to a scenario both of energy depletion and the need to adapt to the effects of global warming. One emerging area of…

  7. Macroecological patterns of resilience inferred from a multinational, synchronized experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baho, D.L.; Tavşanoğlu, Ü.N.; Šorf, Michal; Stefanidis, K.; Drakare, S.; Scharfenberger, U.; Agasild, H.; Beklioglu, M.; Hejzlar, Josef; Adrian, R.; Papastergiadou, E.; Zingel, P.; Sondergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.; Angeler, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2015), s. 1142-1160 ISSN 2071-1050 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * eutrophication * zooplankton * ecological resilience * synchronized mesocosm experiment * discontinuity analysis Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2015

  8. Support vector machine and fuzzy C-mean clustering-based comparative evaluation of changes in motor cortex electroencephalogram under chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surendra; Ghosh, Subhojit; Tetarway, Suhash; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the magnitude and spatial distribution of frequency spectrum in the resting electroencephalogram (EEG) were examined to address the problem of detecting alcoholism in the cerebral motor cortex. The EEG signals were recorded from chronic alcoholic conditions (n = 20) and the control group (n = 20). Data were taken from motor cortex region and divided into five sub-bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta-1 and beta-2). Three methodologies were adopted for feature extraction: (1) absolute power, (2) relative power and (3) peak power frequency. The dimension of the extracted features is reduced by linear discrimination analysis and classified by support vector machine (SVM) and fuzzy C-mean clustering. The maximum classification accuracy (88 %) with SVM clustering was achieved with the EEG spectral features with absolute power frequency on F4 channel. Among the bands, relatively higher classification accuracy was found over theta band and beta-2 band in most of the channels when computed with the EEG features of relative power. Electrodes wise CZ, C3 and P4 were having more alteration. Considering the good classification accuracy obtained by SVM with relative band power features in most of the EEG channels of motor cortex, it can be suggested that the noninvasive automated online diagnostic system for the chronic alcoholic condition can be developed with the help of EEG signals.

  9. A Fault Diagnosis Approach for Gas Turbine Exhaust Gas Temperature Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-tao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important gas path performance parameter of gas turbine, exhaust gas temperature (EGT can represent the thermal health condition of gas turbine. In order to monitor and diagnose the EGT effectively, a fusion approach based on fuzzy C-means (FCM clustering algorithm and support vector machine (SVM classification model is proposed in this paper. Considering the distribution characteristics of gas turbine EGT, FCM clustering algorithm is used to realize clustering analysis and obtain the state pattern, on the basis of which the preclassification of EGT is completed. Then, SVM multiclassification model is designed to carry out the state pattern recognition and fault diagnosis. As an example, the historical monitoring data of EGT from an industrial gas turbine is analyzed and used to verify the performance of the fusion fault diagnosis approach presented in this paper. The results show that this approach can make full use of the unsupervised feature extraction ability of FCM clustering algorithm and the sample classification generalization properties of SVM multiclassification model, which offers an effective way to realize the online condition recognition and fault diagnosis of gas turbine EGT.

  10. Resilience: a transversal occupational skill for current organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Piñeros-Botero

    2013-12-01

    some studies related to deal the resilience from the transverse occupational skills and the MCclelland approach TO KNOW TO BE AND TO KNOW TO DO, as a structural base for behavior and performance of people. Finally we propose an organizational resilience model that presents its functionality and categorization of profiles in occupational and individual skills that allow encouraging cultural and organizational behavior by means of optimization strategies to current organizations. The term organizations, is going to be used to talk about an industry or enterprise of any kind or financial sector.

  11. Analysis Resilient Algorithm on Artificial Neural Network Backpropagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Widodo; Tulus; Zarlis, Muhammad; Widia Sembiring, Rahmat; Hartama, Dedy

    2017-12-01

    Prediction required by decision makers to anticipate future planning. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Backpropagation is one of method. This method however still has weakness, for long training time. This is a reason to improve a method to accelerate the training. One of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Backpropagation method is a resilient method. Resilient method of changing weights and bias network with direct adaptation process of weighting based on local gradient information from every learning iteration. Predicting data result of Istanbul Stock Exchange training getting better. Mean Square Error (MSE) value is getting smaller and increasing accuracy.

  12. Job satisfaction and resilience in psychiatric nurses: A study at the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhimin; Gangaram, Poornima; Xie, Huiting; Chua, Stephanie; Ong, Samantha Bee Cheng; Koh, Sioh Eng

    2017-12-01

    Job satisfaction ranks highly as one of the main factors influencing turnover rates among nurses. Mental health nursing has been reported to be a particularly stressful specialty, yet little is known about the level of job satisfaction among psychiatric nurses in Singapore. Resilience is defined as a means of adapting to stress at the workplace, and could serve as a factor influencing job satisfaction. The present study aimed to explore the current level of job satisfaction among psychiatric nurses working in the only tertiary psychiatric institution in Singapore, the influencing factors, and the relationship between resilience and job satisfaction. A survey questionnaire consisting of the following was administered to all eligible nurses working in the Institute of Mental Health between the period of 16-24 December 2014: (i) The McCloskey and Mueller Satisfaction Scale; (ii) The Resilience Scale; and (iii) sociodemographic data form. A total of 874 nurses were eligible for participation in the study, and a total of 748 nurses responded, totalling 85.6% response. A mean satisfaction score of 95.21 and mean resilience score of 125.74 were obtained. Mean satisfaction and resilience scores were the highest for nurses with longer working experience and those of older age. A positive and significant association between satisfaction and resilience scores (P = 0.001) was obtained. Psychiatric nurses in Singapore are generally satisfied with their job, but this can be further improved with the strengthening of personal resilience. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Methodology to assess coastal infrastructure resilience to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca Marta

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the resilience of the line, several options have been considered to evaluate and reduce climate change impacts to the railway. This paper describes the methodological approach developed to evaluate the risks of flooding for a range of scenarios in the estuary and open coast reaches of the line. Components to derive the present day and future climate change coastal conditions including some possible adaptation measures are also presented together with the results of the hindcasting analysis to assess the performance of the modelling system. An overview of the modelling results obtained to support the development of a long-term Resilience Strategy for asset management is also discussed.

  14. Seagrasses under threat: Understanding the resilience of temperate seagrass meadows in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soissons, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being highly valuable ecosystems, seagrass meadows are threatened worldwide, mostly by human activities. In order to preserve seagrass meadows from collapse, we need to better understand their resilience in a changing environment. By means of various

  15. Resilience of Patients With Chronic Physical Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanei Gheshlagh, Reza; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Ebadi, Abbas; Dalvandi, Asghar; Dalvand, Sahar; Nourozi Tabrizi, Kian

    2016-07-01

    Resilience can be seen as an adaption to stress, such as that caused by health problems or disease, that attenuates the negative effects of stress. The present research performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to study resilience scores among adults diagnosed with chronic physical diseases. Electronic databases, including Persian language (scientific information database [SID], IranMedex, Magiran, IranDoc, and Medlib) and English language (Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Pre-Quest, and Scopus), were searched. Fifteen articles were found using the keywords disease or chronic disease, resilience or resiliency, and illness, either alone or in combination, both in Persian and English languages. Data analysis was carried out through meta-analysis (random-effects model), and heterogeneity was investigated by subgroup and meta-regression analyses. The data were analyzed in STAT software (12.0). The mean resilience score of the chronic disease patients (n = 3369) was 74.6 (95% CI: 51.8 - 97.4). In terms of diseases, the mean resilience score of cancer patients was 79.6 (95% CI: 48.3 - 111.1), whereas it was 79.6 for cardiovascular disease patients (95% CI: 45.8 - 113.3) and 64.6 for patients with other diseases (95% CI: 6.6 - 122.7). There was no relationship between the resilience of chronic disease patients and the year of the study (P = 0.711) and the sample size in the studies (P = 0.351). The mean resilience score of the patients was less than that of healthy individuals. As resilience can be acquired at any stage of life, irrespective of age and disease status, there is a need for training to improve resilience among patients through educational programs.

  16. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  17. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  18. Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands from 2013 to 2014 (NCEI Accession 0128219)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declining health of coral reef ecosystems led scientists to search for factors that support reef resilience: the ability of reefs to resist and recover from...

  19. Reefs for the future: Resilience of coral reefs in the main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declining health of coral reef ecosystems led scientists to search for factors that support reef resilience: the ability of reefs to resist and recover from...

  20. Family functioning, resilience, and depression among North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boyoung; Kim, Jae Yop; DeVylder, Jordan E; Song, Ahyoung

    2016-11-30

    North Korean refugees in South Korea are at high risk of depression, but there are few studies exploring protective factors in this population. We hypothesized that family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) and resilience would protect North Korean refugees from developing depressive symptoms. A subsample of 304 adult North Korean refugees drawn from the cross-sectional 2010 Nationwide Survey of Domestic Violence in South Korea was analyzed. Approximately 44% of respondents were identified as having depression, using scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. In models capturing the full spectrum of depressive symptoms (continuous), family cohesion was significantly associated with depression, and the relationship was partially mediated by resilience. In models predicting clinical depression (dichotomous), resilience fully mediated the relationship between family cohesion and clinical depression. In contrast, family adaptability was not associated with depression or resilience in this sample. These findings suggest that assessing and enhancing family cohesion and resilience may be essential for professionals working with refugees, and that refugees without family support may be at particularly high risk for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.