WorldWideScience

Sample records for resilient modulus evaluation

  1. Evaluation of Variability in Resilient Modulus Test Results (ASTM D4123)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Samples of asphalt mixture were evaluated in the laboratory under various conditions to evaluate the repeatability of the resilient modulus test and to evaluate the effect of stress on the measured resilient modulus. Some of the samples were prepared...

  2. Evaluation of Resilient Modulus of Subgrade and Base Materials in Indiana and Its Implementation in MEPDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement MEPDG hierarchical inputs for unbound and subgrade soil, a database containing subgrade MR, index properties, standard proctor, and laboratory MR for 140 undisturbed roadbed soil samples from six different districts in Indiana was created. The MR data were categorized in accordance with the AASHTO soil classifications and divided into several groups. Based on each group, this study develops statistical analysis and evaluation datasets to validate these models. Stress-based regression models were evaluated using a statistical tool (analysis of variance (ANOVA and Z-test, and pertinent material constants (k1, k2 and k3 were determined for different soil types. The reasonably good correlations of material constants along with MR with routine soil properties were established. Furthermore, FWD tests were conducted on several Indiana highways in different seasons, and laboratory resilient modulus tests were performed on the subgrade soils that were collected from the falling weight deflectometer (FWD test sites. A comparison was made of the resilient moduli obtained from the laboratory resilient modulus tests with those from the FWD tests. Correlations between the laboratory resilient modulus and the FWD modulus were developed and are discussed in this paper.

  3. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Alaskan Granular Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Resilient modulus (MR) of base course material is an important material input for : pavement design. In Alaska, due to distinctiveness of local climate, material source, : fines content and groundwater level, resilient properties of D-1 granular base...

  4. An Evaluation of the Resilient Modulus and Permanent Deformation of Unbound Mixtures of Granular Materials and Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres to Be Used in Subballast Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Sgnes, C.

    2016-07-01

    Over the last years rubber from scrap tyres has been reused in different civil works such as road embankments and railway platforms due to its resilient properties, low degradation and vibration attenuation. Unfortunately, this issue is still scarce. For instance, in Spain about 175.000 tonnes of scrap tyres were collected in 2014, of which only 0.6% were reused in civil works. Aiming to contribute to the reutilisation of large quantities of this waste material, this paper focuses on the analysis of unbound mixtures of granular materials with different percentages of rubber particles to be used as subballast layers. Mixtures are tested under cyclic triaxial tests so as to obtain their resilient modulus and evaluate their permanent deformations. It is found that as the rubber content increases, the resilient modulus decreases and the permanent deformation increases. Taking into account the usual loads transmitted to the subballast layer, the optimum rubber content that does not compromise the behaviour of the mixture is set in a range between 2.5% and 5% in terms of weight. (Author)

  5. Estimation of subgrade resilient modulus using the unconfined compression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    To facilitate pavement design, the new proposed mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide recommends the resilient : modulus to characterize subgrade soil and its use for calculating pavement responses attributable to traffic and environmental : lo...

  6. Resilient modulus prediction of soft low-plasticity Piedmont residual soil using dynamic cone penetrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hamed Mousavi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP has been used for decades to estimate the shear strength and stiffness properties of the subgrade soils. There are several empirical correlations in the literature to predict the resilient modulus values at only a specific stress state from DCP data, corresponding to the predefined thicknesses of pavement layers (a 50 mm asphalt wearing course, a 100 mm asphalt binder course and a 200 mm aggregate base course. In this study, field-measured DCP data were utilized to estimate the resilient modulus of low-plasticity subgrade Piedmont residual soil. Piedmont residual soils are in-place weathered soils from igneous and metamorphic rocks, as opposed to transported or compacted soils. Hence the existing empirical correlations might not be applicable for these soils. An experimental program was conducted incorporating field DCP and laboratory resilient modulus tests on “undisturbed” soil specimens. The DCP tests were carried out at various locations in four test sections to evaluate subgrade stiffness variation laterally and with depth. Laboratory resilient modulus test results were analyzed in the context of the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG recommended universal constitutive model. A new approach for predicting the resilient modulus from DCP by estimating MEPDG constitutive model coefficients (k1, k2 and k3 was developed through statistical analyses. The new model is capable of not only taking into account the in situ soil condition on the basis of field measurements, but also representing the resilient modulus at any stress state which addresses a limitation with existing empirical DCP models and its applicability for a specific case. Validation of the model is demonstrated by using data that were not used for model development, as well as data reported in the literature. Keywords: Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP, Resilient modulus, Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG, Residual

  7. Developing an economical and reliable test for measuring the resilient modulus and Poisson's ratio of subgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The resilient modulus and Poissons ratio of base and sublayers in highway use are : important parameters in design and quality control process. The currently used techniques : include CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test, resilient modulus test,...

  8. Determination of resilient modulus values for typical plastic soils in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The objectives of this research are to establish a resilient modulus test results database and to develop : correlations for estimating the resilient modulus of Wisconsin fine-grained soils from basic soil properties. A : laboratory testing program ...

  9. Resilient modulus characteristics of soil subgrade with geopolymer additive in peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nasuhi; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Rahayu, Wiwik

    2017-06-01

    Resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil are generally very low with high potential of deformation and low bearing capacity. The efforts to improve the peat subgrade resilient modulus characteristics is required, one among them is by adding the geopolymer additive. Geopolymer was made as an alternative to replace portland cement binder in the concrete mix in order to promote environmentally friendly, low shrinkage value, low creep value, and fire resistant material. The use of geopolymer to improve the mechanical properties of peat as a road construction subgrade, hence it becomes important to identify the effect of geopolymer addition on the resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil. This study investigated the addition of 0% - 20% geopolymer content on peat soil derived from Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province. Resilient modulus measurement was performed by using cyclic triaxial test to determine the resilience modulus model as a function of deviator stresses and radial stresses. The test results showed that an increase in radial stresses did not necessarily lead to an increase in modulus resilient, and on the contrary, an increase in deviator stresses led to a decrease in modulus resilient. The addition of geopolymer in peat soil provided an insignificant effect on the increase of resilient modulus value.

  10. Design values of resilient modulus of stabilized and non-stabilized base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The primary objective of this research study is to determine design value ranges for typical base materials, as allowed by LADOTD specifications, through laboratory tests with respect to resilient modulus and other parameters used by pavement design ...

  11. Resilient modulus for unbound granular materials and subgrade soils in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic Empirical (ME pavement design methods started to gain attention especially the last couple of years in Egypt and the Middle East. One of the challenges facing the spread of these methods in Egypt is lack of advanced properties of local soil and asphalt, which are needed as input data in ME design. Resilient modulus (Mr for example is an important engineering property that expresses the elastic behavior of soil/unbound granular materials (UGMs under cyclic traffic loading for ME design. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resilient modulus data for soil/UGMs in Egypt, a comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted to measure resilient modulus of typical UGMs and subgrade soils typically used in pavement construction in Egypt. The factors that affect the resilient modulus of soil/UGMs were reviewed, studied and discussed. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the most well-known Mr Prediction models for the locally investigated materials was investigated.

  12. Studies on resilient modulus value from cyclic loading tests for cohesive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the cyclic CBR test as a reference method in determination of resilient modulus (Mr is confronted with results of cyclic triaxial and unconfined uniaxial cyclic test. The main idea of conducted experiments is establish relationship between cyclic loading tests in testing of natural subsoil and road materials. The article shows results of investigation on cohesive soil, namely sandy silty clay, commonly problematic soil in Poland. The results of repeated loading triaxial test resilient modulus were displayed in order to compare them with cyclic CBR test results by using the Mr–Ө model. Some empirical correlation between factors obtained from triaxial test or uniaxial unconfined cyclic test and cyclic CBR test was introduced here. The behavior of resilient modulus was also examined in this paper.

  13. Contributions crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt to the resilient modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyapijati, Raden Hendra; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Sumabrata, R. Jachrizal

    2017-06-01

    Pavement on the structure of the surface layer receives direct load from the vehicles. Road surfaces are designed to withstand the wear from vehicle loads. Therefore, we need a way to improve the durability of the pavement. Road damage may reduce the life of roads and increase the maintenance costs. The retention rate of road surface material is affected by the environmental conditions, one of them is temperature. To overcome the issues related to temperature, material additives are added to the asphalt mixture. These additive materials would change the binding properties of bitumen and the characteristics of strain and stress before the damage due to repeated traffic loading. Crumb rubber (CR) is a type of polymer additives and thermoplastic elastomers are obtained from scrap tires and rubber waste that is utilized in order to preserve the environment. This study investigated the contribution of the crumb rubber in terms of the value of resilient modulus and resistance to deformation. Hot mix asphalt used was asphalt Pen 60/70, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and filler. Crumb rubber was made from scrap tire rubber, in the form of fine powder with sieve no. 30 (0.6 mm). CR additive was added to the base asphalt at several rates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% at a temperature of 177° C. The test data used the indirect tensile test with a tool UMATTA at temperatures of 25°, 35°, and 45° C. The test results showed that the levels of crumb rubber on the asphalt decreased the penetration rate, increased the bitumen softening point, and improved the resistance to permanent deformation. The addition of additive materials was evidenced to improve the penetration index, reduce the temperature sensitivity, and increase the viscosity. Subsequently, it can extend the temperature range of viscoelasticity. The contributions of crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt included the increase of the recoverable deformation and the decrease of the value of resilient modulus. This study

  14. The Evaluation Of Deformability Modulus By Rock Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Evaluation Of Deformability Modulus By Rock Mass Classification Systems: A Comparative Study. ... Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice ... The systems of classification of rock mass give, apart from useful qualitative and quantitative indications about the problems connected to the excavation of tunnels ...

  15. Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools (REACT) Achieving resiliency in any system requires capabilities that are beyond the boundaries of currently...

  16. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Modified with Different Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate comprehensive performance of high modulus asphalt concrete (HMAC and propose common values for establishing evaluation system. Three gradations with different modifiers were conducted to study the high and low temperature performance, shearing behavior, and water stability. The laboratory tests for HMAC included static and dynamic modulus tests, rutting test, uniaxial penetration test, bending test, and immersion Marshall test. Dynamic modulus test results showed that modifier can improve the static modulus and the improvements were remarkable at higher temperature. Moreover, modulus of HMAC-20 was better than those of HMAC-16 and HMAC-25. The results of performance test indicated that HMAC has good performance to resist high temperature rutting, and the resistances of the HMAC-20 and HMAC-25 against rutting were better than that of HMAC-16. Then, the common values of dynamic stability were recommended. Furthermore, common values of HMAC performance were established based on pavement performance tests.

  17. Evaluating Application Resilience with XRay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sui [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bronevetsky, Greg [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Li, Bin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Casas-Guix, Marc [Barcelona Supercomputing Center (Spain); Peng, Lu [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The rising count and shrinking feature size of transistors within modern computers is making them increasingly vulnerable to various types of soft faults. This problem is especially acute in high-performance computing (HPC) systems used for scientific computing, because these systems include many thousands of compute cores and nodes, all of which may be utilized in a single large-scale run. The increasing vulnerability of HPC applications to errors induced by soft faults is motivating extensive work on techniques to make these applications more resiilent to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithmspecific error detection and tolerance techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of how a given application is affected by soft faults to ensure that (i) efforts to improve application resilience are spent in the code regions most vulnerable to faults and (ii) the appropriate resilience technique is applied to each code region. This paper presents XRay, a tool to view the application vulnerability to soft errors, and illustrates how XRay can be used in the context of a representative application. In addition to providing actionable insights into application behavior XRay automatically selects the number of fault injection experiments required to provide an informative view of application behavior, ensuring that the information is statistically well-grounded without performing unnecessary experiments.

  18. Reframing Resilience: Pilot Evaluation of a Program to Promote Resilience in Marginalized Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C.; Gorby, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Resilience has been described as a paradigm for aging that is more inclusive than models that focus on physiological and functional abilities. We evaluated a novel program, Resilient Aging, designed to influence marginalized older adults' perceptions of their resilience, self-efficacy, and wellness. The multiweek group program incorporated an…

  19. Effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient modulus of subgrade soils predicted by cone penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient characteristics of subgrade soil predicted by the cone penetration test. An experimental program was conducted in which cone penetratio...

  20. Development of resilience evaluation method for nuclear power plants. Part 3. Study on evaluation method and applicability of resilience index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new index, called the resilience index, that evaluates the dynamic stability of the system safety of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident by considering the ability to recover system safety functions that have become lost in the situation. In this paper, a detailed evaluation procedure for the resilience index is described. The system safety of a PWR plant during a severe accident is then assessed according to the resilience index in order to discuss the applicability of the index. We find that the resilience index successfully represents management capability and, therefore, the resilience capability of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  1. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  2. Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  3. Resilient Plant Monitoring System: Design, Analysis, and Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humberto E. Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov; Maruthi T. Ravichandran

    2013-12-01

    Resilient monitoring systems are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools, and the performance of the overall system is evaluated using simulations. The measure of resiliency of the resulting system is evaluated using Kullback Leibler divergence, and is shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  4. Design, implementation, and evaluation of the Resilient Smalltalk embedded platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob Robert; Bak, Lars; Grarup, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    machine running on embedded systems. Programmers may connect to running virtual machines and service, monitor, or change the running systems. Furthermore, we present an evaluation of the Resilient platform in relation to the design goals through a case study of two development projects which successfully...

  5. Performance Evaluation of Resilience using Service Relocation for GMPLS Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Herrmann, Sven; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2015-01-01

    path when providing resiliency to cloud services in the network. The control plane of a GMPLSenabled optical network is simulated, thus evaluating the proposed Path Computation Element architecture for service relocation. The results show that for increased offered traffic in the network, the overall...

  6. Standardizing lightweight deflectometer modulus measurements for compaction quality assurance : research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The mechanistic-empirical pavement design method requires the elastic resilient modulus as the key input for characterization of geomaterials. Current density-based QA procedures do not measure resilient modulus. Additionally, the density-based metho...

  7. Evaluation of linear polymerization shrinkage, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of dental composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Queiroz de Melo Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear polymerization shrinkage (LPS, flexural strength (FS and modulus of elasticity (ME of 7 dental composites (Filtek Z350™, Filtek Z250™/3M ESPE; Grandio™, Polofil Supra™/VOCO; TPH Spectrum™, TPH3™, Esthet-X™/Denstply were measured. For the measurement of LPS, composites were applied to a cylindrical metallic mold and polymerized (n = 8. The gap formed at the resin/mold interface was observed using scanning electron microscopy (1500×. For FS and ME, specimens were prepared according to the ISO 4049 specifications (n = 10. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test. TPH Spectrum presented significantly higher LPS values (29.45 µm. Grandio had significantly higher mean values for FS (141.07 MPa and ME (13.91 GPa. The relationship between modulus of elasticity and polymerization shrinkage is the main challenge for maintenance of the adhesive interface, thus composites presenting high shrinkage values, associated with a high modulus of elasticity tend to disrupt the adhesive interface under polymerization.

  8. Resilience in the built environment: How to evaluate the impacts of flood resilient building technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU floods directive and its transcription into national legislation request exposed citizens and organisations to take individual measures to reduce flood risks on building scale. In response to that issue, a number of general approaches to buildings in flood risk areas and a set of strategies and technical guidance for the design and construction of flood resilient buildings have been developed in recent years. Particularly flood resilient building materials and constructions (FReMaCo, e.g. adapted exterior wall systems or floor arrangements, are expected to provide a considerable potential to limit flood damage if, for example, aperture technologies cannot stop water entering the building. However, there are significant uncertainties about the performance of FReMaCo that impede their comparison and hamper their uptake. To reduce those obstacles the paper discusses the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP (i to quantify and to compare the physical flood vulnerability of various building constructions and (ii to evaluate and to rank the impact of alternative FReMaCo options. The paper explores a set of eleven evaluation criteria ranging from statics criteria about buildings physics criteria up to durability criteria. The AHP generates a weight for each defined criterion and assigns a score for each FReMaCo option. Then, the AHP combines the criteria weights and the option scores to determine a global score for each construction alternative that evaluate the impact of FReMaCo options in a comprehensible manner. The application of AHP reduces the bias in the decision making process and is therefore of international interest, especially for those involved in improving the resilience properties of buildings.

  9. Elastic modulus of claystone evaluated by nano-/micro-indentation tests and meso-compression tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Auvray

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Toarcian claystone such as that of the Callovo-Oxfordian is a qualified multiphase material. The claystone samples tested in this study are composed of four main mineral phases: silicates (clay minerals, quartz, feldspars, micas (≈86%, sulphides (pyrite (≈3%, carbonates (calcite, dolomite (≈10% and organic kerogen (≈1%. Three sets of measurements of the modulus of deformability were compared as determined in (i nano-indentation tests with a constant indentation depth of 2 μm, (ii micro-indentation tests with a constant indentation depth of 20 μm, and (iii meso-compression tests with a constant displacement of 200 μm. These three experimental methods have already been validated in earlier studies. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the influence of the scaling effect on the modulus of deformability of the material. Different frequency distributions of the modulus of deformability were obtained at the different sample scales: (i in nano-indentation tests, the distribution was spread between 15 GPa and 90 GPa and contained one peak at 34 GPa and another at 51 GPa; (ii in the micro-indentation tests, the distribution was spread between 25 GPa and 60 GPa and displayed peaks at 26 GPa and 37 GPa; and (iii in the meso-compression tests, a narrow frequency distribution was obtained, ranging from 25 GPa to 50 GPa and with a maximum at around 35 GPa.

  10. Young's Modulus evaluation using Particle Image Velocimetry and Finite Element Inverse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, R. R.; Braga, R. A.; Barbosa, B. H. G.

    2015-07-01

    Most of the conventional design solutions using the Finite Element Method (FEM) have the material's properties defined. This is necessary to set those properties from commercial software library to run the simulations. However, some material's properties are not standardized which can provide unreliable results due to wrong input data to the simulations. In this case, non-destructive mechanical tests for measuring deformations can be used to generate displacements values in order to provide the material behavior through FEM inverse analysis methods. This paper is focused on using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) together with the Particle-Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm and the FEM inverse analysis to investigate Young's Modulus of the material ASTM A36 steel. The displacements of a cantilever beam were measured by means of PIV association to the speckle patterns provided by a laser beam. The results indicated Young's Modulus estimation error around 5% compared to the original material properties. It shows the potentiality of PIV associated to PSO in order to determine the mechanical properties of steel via the FEM inverse analysis in a robust and low cost procedure.

  11. Evaluation of the Stress Resilience Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Force population (Chappelle et al, 2013) and is comparable with highly tasked intelligence and remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) operations units. In...contrast to those units, burnout in our Security Forces sample was driven largely by cynicism as opposed to emotional exhaustion or concerns about...validation. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy , 14(4), 288-301. Doerfler, L. A., Addis, M. E., & Moran, P. W. (2002). Evaluating mental health

  12. Resilience Training for Healthcare Staff (RTHS) Implementation Evaluation Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    05-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 - JAN 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Resilience Training for...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Master Resilience ...Training (MRT) Medical Program includes a 2-hour Resilience Training for Healthcare Staff (RTHS) aimed to bolster resilience by preventing

  13. Young’s modulus evaluation and thermal shock behavior of a porous SiC/cordierite composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pošarac-Marković M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous SiC/Cordierite Composite Material with graphite content (10% was synthesized. Evaluation of Young modulus of elasticity and thermal shock behavior of these samples was presented. Thermal shock behavior was monitored using water quench test, and non destructive methods such are UPVT and image analysis were also used for accompaniment the level of destruction of the samples during water quench test. Based on the level of destruction graphical modeling of critical number of cycles was given. This approach was implemented on discussion of the influence of the graphite content on thermal stability behavior of the samples. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45012

  14. Evaluating economic costs and benefits of climate resilient livelihood strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for international development is to assist the poorest regions to achieve development targets while taking climate change into account. Such ‘climate resilient development’ (CRD must identify and implement adaptation strategies for improving livelihoods while also being cost-effective. While the idea that climate resilience and development goals should be compatible is often discussed, empirical evaluations of the economic impacts of actual CRD investments are practically non-existent. This paper outlines a framework to evaluate economic returns to CRD and applies it in two adaptation strategies trialed in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, eastern Indonesia. The evaluation framework is composed of three models: a household benefit cost model, a diffusion model, and a regional benefit cost model. The models draw upon the impact evaluation, technology diffusion, and risk assessment literatures, respectively. The analyzes are based on expert opinion and locally-derived information, and hence can be applied in data-poor situations typical of developing countries. Our results explore economic costs and benefits at the household and regional scale, and we identify key input variables that greatly influence the economic returns of the strategies. These variables should therefore be a focus of ongoing investment. We also discuss how the framework is more generally applicable, its limitations including challenges in accounting for less tangible social and ecosystem service benefits, potentially leading to the underestimation of impacts, and how the approach should be complemented by qualitative methods.

  15. Multidimensional evaluation processes to manage creative, resilient and sustainable city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fusco Girard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidimensional evaluation processes are considered as fundamental tools in managing the transition to the eco-city, toward a new ecological, urban and economic base, founded on synergies among three interdependent circuits of value creation: industrial economy, heritage economy and civil economy. The proposed approach can be a theoretical reference for next methodological and operative applications related to the port-city system, as example where the main contemporary contradictions/paradoxes come into being, and also the most suitable site where to reduce conflicts and transform them into synergies among creativity, resilience and sustainability for a human sustainable city.

  16. Evaluating Community Partnerships Addressing Community Resilience in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm V. Williams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience has grown in importance in national disaster response and recovery efforts. However, measurement of community resilience, particularly the content and quality of relationships aimed at improving resilience, is lacking. To address this gap, we used a social network survey to measure the number, type, and quality of relationships among organizations participating in 16 coalitions brought together to address community resilience in the Los Angeles Community Disaster Resilience project. These coalitions were randomized to one of two approaches (community resilience or preparedness. Resilience coalitions received training and support to develop these partnerships and implement new activities. Both coalition types received expert facilitation by a public health nurse or community educator. We also measured the activities each coalition engaged in and the extent to which partners participated in these activities at two time points. We found that the community resilience coalitions were initially larger and had lower trust among members than the preparedness communities. Over time, these trust differences dissipated. While both coalitions grew, the resilience community coalitions maintained their size difference throughout the project. We also found differences in the types of activities implemented by the resilience communities; these differences were directly related to the trainings provided. This information is useful to organizations seeking guidance on expanding the network of community-based organizations that participate in community resilience activities.

  17. Development of resilience evaluation method for nuclear power plant. Part 1. Proposal of resilience index for assessment of safety of nuclear power plant under severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demachi, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Masaaki; Itoi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In this research, a new index 'The Resilience Index' was proposed to evaluate the capability of nuclear power plant to recover from the situation of safety function lost. Three elements assumed to evaluate the resilience index are the achievement rate, necessary time, and probability of success of each accident management activity. The resilience index is expected to visualize the improvement of safety of each nuclear power plant against severe accidents. (author)

  18. Evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of crop stalks cell walls by nano-indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Wu; Siqun Wang; Dingguo Zhou; Cheng Xing; Yang Zhang; Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural biomaterials such as crop stalks are natural sources of cellulosic fiber and have great potential as reinforced materials in bio-composites. In order to evaluate their potential as materials for reinforcement, the nano-mechanical properties of crop-stalk cell walls, i.e. those of cotton (Gossypium herbaceu) stalk, soybean (Glycine max) stalk, cassava (...

  19. Evaluation of the indenter modulus (IM) method in the international round robin test about the cable condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimura, Yuusaku

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure the reliability and safety of nuclear power plants, the diagnosis of cable aging is important. The Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS) has been developing the indenter modulus (IM) method for more than a dozen years. Its usefulness was demonstrated in the research project 'Assessment of cable aging for nuclear power plant' by the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization in 2009. Furthermore, INSS participated in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project in 2013 to 2015, measuring and acquiring data of insulation materials of cables and cable jackets with insulation which had been never measured before by INSS. The main results are as follows. (1) The IM method is useful for new materials (for example, crosslinked polyolefins) which had never been measured before by INSS. (2) The IM method is also applicable to evaluation of cable jackets with insulation made of such materials as chlorosulfonated polyethylene. Therefore, the IM method is evaluated to be useful and applicable for most cable materials except those which have a high IM value initially and which have a small change in IM value during aging. (author)

  20. Evaluation of A Resilience Embedded System Using Probabilistic Model-Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available If a Micro Processor Unit (MPU receives an external electric signal as noise, the system function will freeze or malfunction easily. A new resilience strategy is implemented in order to reset the MPU automatically and stop the MPU from freezing or malfunctioning. The technique is useful for embedded systems which work in non-human environments. However, evaluating resilience strategies is difficult because their effectiveness depends on numerous, complex, interacting factors. In this paper, we use probabilistic model checking to evaluate the embedded systems installed with the above mentioned new resilience strategy. Qualitative evaluations are implemented with 6 PCTL formulas, and quantitative evaluations use two kinds of evaluation. One is system failure reduction, and the other is ADT (Average Down Time, the industry standard. Our work demonstrates the benefits brought by the resilience strategy. Experimental results indicate that our evaluation is cost-effective and reliable.

  1. Technique development for modulus, microcracking, hermeticity, and coating evaluation capability characterization of SiC/SiC tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xunxiang [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ang, Caen K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Singh, Gyanender P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Driven by the need to enlarge the safety margins of nuclear fission reactors in accident scenarios, research and development of accident-tolerant fuel has become an important topic in the nuclear engineering and materials community. A continuous-fiber SiC/SiC composite is under consideration as a replacement for traditional zirconium alloy cladding owing to its high-temperature stability, chemical inertness, and exceptional irradiation resistance. An important task is the development of characterization techniques for SiC/SiC cladding, since traditional work using rectangular bars or disks cannot directly provide useful information on the properties of SiC/SiC composite tubes for fuel cladding applications. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, experimental capabilities are under development to characterize the modulus, microcracking, and hermeticity of as-fabricated, as-irradiated SiC/SiC composite tubes. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy has been validated as a promising technique to evaluate the elastic properties of SiC/SiC composite tubes and microcracking within the material. A similar technique, impulse excitation, is efficient in determining the basic mechanical properties of SiC bars prepared by chemical vapor deposition; it also has potential for application in studying the mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composite tubes. Complete evaluation of the quality of the developed coatings, a major mitigation strategy against gas permeation and hydrothermal corrosion, requires the deployment of various experimental techniques, such as scratch indentation, tensile pulling-off tests, and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, a comprehensive permeation test station is being established to assess the hermeticity of SiC/SiC composite tubes and to determine the H/D/He permeability of SiC/SiC composites. This report summarizes the current status of the development of these experimental capabilities.

  2. Evaluation of the use of polymer modified bitumen in the production of high modulus asphalt for heavily-trafficked roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), has been introduced to South Africa to provide an optimum solution for the design and construction of heavily trafficked roads. Implementation of EME technology in South Africa...

  3. Evaluation of dimensions, approaches and concepts of resilience in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the social and economic dimensions, approaches and concepts of resilient city as one of the new approaches in the field of reducing vulnerability and promoting crisis management. This research is a review study, which has been collected and investigated and analyzed from various library and documentary resources.

  4. Evaluating and optimizing resilience of airport pavement networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faturechi, Reza; Levenberg, Eyal; Miller-Hooks, Elise

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of assessing and maximizing the resilience of an airport's runway and taxiway network under multiple potential damage-meteorological scenarios. The problem is formulated as a stochastic integer program with recourse and an exact solution methodology based on the i...

  5. Theoretical modeling developed to evaluate the hardness and reduced modulus for the C/a-Si composite film using nanoindentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, C.-F.; Lin, J.-F.; Chung, C.-K.; Wu, B.-H.

    2008-01-01

    A general mechanical model, which is composed of the mechanical models employed to describe the contact behaviors and deformations arising in all layers (including the substrate), is successfully developed in the present study for multilayer specimens in order to evaluate the contact projected area by a theoretical model, and thus the hardness and reduced modulus, using nanoindentation tests. The governing differential equations for the depth solutions of the indenter tip formed at all layers of the specimen under their contact load are developed individually. The influence of the material properties of the substrate on a multilayer specimen's hardness and reduced modulus at various indentation depths can thus be evaluated. Transition and pop-in occurred at depths near, but still before, the C (top layer)/a-Si (buffer layer) interface and the a-Si/Si (substrate) interface, respectively. Using the present analysis, the depths corresponding to the transition and pop-in behaviors can be predicted effectively

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Parenting Resilience Elements Questionnaire (PREQ) Measuring Resiliency in Rearing Children with Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Moriyama, Karin; Kaga, Makiko; Hiratani, Michio; Watanabe, Kyota; Yamashita, Yushiro; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ) measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD). A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: "knowledge of the child's characteristics," "perceived social supports," and "positive perceptions of parenting." Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that "knowledge of the child's characteristics" was associated with parenting behavior, whereas "perceived social supports" predicted depressive symptoms; "positive perceptions of parenting" influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions.

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Parenting Resilience Elements Questionnaire (PREQ) Measuring Resiliency in Rearing Children with Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kota; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Moriyama, Karin; Kaga, Makiko; Hiratani, Michio; Watanabe, Kyota; Yamashita, Yushiro; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ) measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD). A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: “knowledge of the child’s characteristics,” “perceived social supports,” and “positive perceptions of parenting.” Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that “knowledge of the child’s characteristics” was associated with parenting behavior, whereas “perceived social supports” predicted depressive symptoms; “positive perceptions of parenting” influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions. PMID:26633810

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Parenting Resilience Elements Questionnaire (PREQ Measuring Resiliency in Rearing Children with Developmental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Suzuki

    Full Text Available We developed a parenting resilience elements questionnaire (PREQ measuring the degree to which mothers possess elements that aid in adapting to challenges and difficulties related to children with developmental disorders (DD. A total of 424 parents of children with DD were recruited from five medical institutes. Psychometric properties of PREQ were evaluated using data of 363 mothers of children with DD. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, predicting depressive symptoms and parenting behavior with PREQ subscales, a general health questionnaire, and the total difficulties score of a strength and difficulties questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed three reliable factors: "knowledge of the child's characteristics," "perceived social supports," and "positive perceptions of parenting." Moreover, multiple regression analysis showed that "knowledge of the child's characteristics" was associated with parenting behavior, whereas "perceived social supports" predicted depressive symptoms; "positive perceptions of parenting" influenced both parenting behavior and depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that the PREQ may be used as a scale measuring resiliency in mothers of children with DD and is useful for evaluating their parenting ability in clinical interventions.

  9. Evaluating post-disaster ecosystem resilience using MODIS GPP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Amy E.; Renschler, Chris S.; Miles, Scott B.

    2013-04-01

    An integrated community resilience index (CRI) quantifies the status, exposure, and recovery of the physical, economic, and socio-cultural capital for a specific target community. However, most CRIs do not account for the recovery of ecosystem functioning after extreme events, even though many aspects of a community depend on the services provided by the natural environment. The primary goal of this study was to monitor the recovery of ecosystem functionality (ecological capital) using remote sensing-derived gross primary production (GPP) as an indicator of 'ecosystem-wellness' and assess the effect of resilience of ecological capital on the recovery of a community via an integrated CRI. We developed a measure of ecosystem resilience using remotely sensed GPP data and applied the modeling prototype ResilUS in a pilot study for a four-parish coastal community in southwestern Louisiana, USA that was impacted by Hurricane Rita in 2005. The results illustrate that after such an extreme event, the recovery of ecological capital varies according to land use type and may take many months to return to full functionality. This variable recovery can potentially impact the recovery of certain businesses that rely heavily on ecosystem services such as agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and tourism.

  10. Resilience Evaluation of Demand Response as Spinning Reserve under Cyber-Physical Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas AlMajali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the future, automated demand response mechanisms will be used as spinning reserve. Demand response in the smart grid must be resilient to cyber-physical threats. In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of demand response when used as spinning reserve in the presence of cyber-physical threats. We quantify this evaluation by correlating the stability of the system in the presence of attacks measured by system frequency (Hz and attack level measured by the amount of load (MW that responds to the demand response event. The results demonstrate the importance of anticipating the dependability of demand response before it can be relied upon as spinning reserve.

  11. Resiliency and the subjective evaluation of health in mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Kasprzak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Parents caring for children with developmental disorders are exposed to much higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing children. It has also been proved that parents of children with developmental disorders experience mental health deterioration, a sense of guilt, physical weakness, fatigue and exhaustion. Resiliency conditions cognitive and emotional flexibility, and enables an individual to adjust their own behavior to particular circumstances. The present study aims to verify whether there is a relationship between resiliency and the subjective evaluation of health under stress in a group of mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome. Participants and procedure The three measures used in the study were The Polish Resiliency Assessment Scale, The Subjective Evaluation of Health Scale, and a personal questionnaire. A group of 31 mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome and a group of 31 mothers whose children were not chronically ill and developed typically were examined. Results Mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome have similar levels of resiliency and its contributing factors compared to mothers with healthy children. However, when compared to mothers of healthy children, mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome show a more negative subjective evaluation of health. Moreover, we found that some resiliency factors (The ability to tolerate failures and view life as a challenge, and Optimism in life and the ability to focus in adversity correlate positively only in the group of mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome. Conclusions Findings obtained in the study allow us to consider resiliency along with having a healthy child, as a factor contributing to a positive evaluation of health.

  12. [Evaluation of depressive symptoms and resilience in patients on pharmacotherapeutic follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, N C; Abrão, P H O; Fernandes, M R; Beijo, L A; Marques, L A M

    This study aimed to carry out the pharmacotherapeutic follow-up of patients with depression and to assess its impact on the resilience of the patients. Patients were followed-up for 8 months. The pharmacist evaluated depressive symptoms, resilience, and the need for pharmaceutical intervention. The measurement tools used were the Dader method, PHQ-9, and a resilience scale. Data were analysed using BioStat 5.0 software and the performing of the Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation tests. There was a reduction in the rate of depressive symptoms from 12.9 to 5.2 (P<.0001), and an increase in the resilience score from 112.4 to 149.0 (P<.0001). Pharmaceutical interventions were made to resolve the drug related problems in the form of oral communication between pharmacist-patient or pharmacist-patient-doctor. The pharmaceutical care was effective in decreasing depression and contributed to the increased resilience of patients. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental Young's modulus calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Yu, K.

    1994-01-01

    Coil is a very important magnet component. The turn location and the coil size impact both mechanical and magnetic behavior of the magnet. The Young's modulus plays a significant role in determining the coil location and size. Therefore, Young's modulus study is essential in predicting both the analytical and practical magnet behavior. To determine the coil Young's modulus, an experiment has been conducted to measure azimuthal sizes of a half quadrant QSE101 inner coil under different loading. All measurements are made at four different positions along an 8-inch long inner coil. Each measurement is repeated three times to determine the reproducibility of the experiment. To ensure the reliability of this experiment, the same measurement is performed twice with a open-quotes dummy coil,close quotes which is made of G10 and has the same dimension and similar azimuthal Young's modulus as the inner coil. The difference between the G10 azimuthal Young's modulus calculated from the experiments and its known value from the manufacturer will be compared. Much effort has been extended in analyzing the experimental data to obtain a more reliable Young's modulus. Analysis methods include the error analysis method and the least square method

  14. The resilience in illness model, part 1: exploratory evaluation in adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Joan E; Kintner, Eileen K; Monahan, Patrick O; Robb, Sheri L

    2014-01-01

    Resilience is a positive health outcome identified by the Committee on Future Direction for Behavioral and Social Sciences as a research priority for the National Institutes of Health. The Resilience in Illness Model (RIM) was developed from a series of qualitative and quantitative studies, to increase understanding of how positive health protective factors (ie, social integration, family environment, courageous coping, and derived meaning) may influence resilience outcomes. The RIM also includes 2 risk factors: illness-related distress and defensive coping. The purpose of this 2-part article was to report on evaluation of the RIM for adolescents/young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Here, in part 1, our purpose was to describe the exploratory RIM evaluation, and in part 2 we describe the confirmatory RIM evaluation. An exploratory evaluation of RIM was done using exploratory latent variable structural equation modeling with a combined sample from 2 studies of preadolescents and AYAs with cancer aged 10 to 26 years (n = 202). Results, including goodness-of-fit indices, support the RIM as a theory with a high level of explained variance for outcomes of resilience (67%) and self-transcendence (63%). Variance explained for proximal outcomes ranged from 18% to 76%. Findings indicate that, following confirmatory testing, the RIM may be a useful guide to developing targeted interventions that are grounded in the experiences of the AYAs. Understanding of the AYA cancer experience to improve holistic care is increased.

  15. submitter Evaluation of Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in composite wires for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, Michinaka; Bartova, Barbora; Bjoerstad, Roger; Gerardin, Alexandre; Scheuerlein, Christian

    2015-01-01

    MgB2 wire is a promising superconductor for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider at CERN. The mechanical properties of MgB2 must be fully quantified for the cable design, and in this study, we evaluate the Young's modulus of MgB2 filaments in wires with a practical level of critical current. The Young's moduli of MgB2 filaments by two different processes, in situ and ex situ, were compared. Two different evaluation methods were applied to an in situ MgB2 wire, a single-fiber tensile test and a tensile test after removing Monel. In addition, the Young's modulus of the few-micron-thick Nb–Ni reaction layer in an ex situ processed wire was evaluated using a nanoindentation testing technique to improve the accuracy of analysis based on the rule of mixtures. The Young's moduli of the in situ and ex situ MgB2 wires were in the range of 76–97 GPa and no distinct difference depending on the fabrication process was found.

  16. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-12-12

    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  17. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  18. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11

  19. Evaluation of adhesive properties of three resilient denture liners by the modified peel test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Saeki, Hiroyuki; Kimoto, Suguru; Nishiwaki, Tsuyoshi; Nishiyama, Norihiro

    2009-02-01

    The characteristics of adhesive properties between a denture base and resilient denture liner were investigated by a modified peel test with an L-shaped metal attachment. Three commercially resilient denture lining materials, namely GC Reline Soft (S), GC Reline Extra Soft (ES), and GC Reline Ultra Soft (US), were evaluated. Acrylic resin (GC Acron) was used as denture base material. Peel specimens consisting of the denture base acrylic resin and resilient denture liner were tested after storage for 1 and 30 days in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The modified peel test method gave load-displacement curves and work of adhesion (W(A)) values of the denture base material and resilient denture liner. The W(A) of specimens after 1 day of storage ranged from 1.71 to 2.55 N mm(-1) and increased in the order from US to S to ES. On the other hand, the W(A) of specimens after 30 day of storage ranged from 1.44 to 2.47 N mm(-1) and increased in the order from US to ES to S. US had significantly lower W(A) after 1 and 30 days of storage than did S and ES (Pdenture liner.

  20. The Resilience in Illness Model Part 2: Confirmatory Evaluation in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Joan E; Kintner, Eileen K; Robb, Sheri L; Stump, Timothy E; Monahan, Patrick O; Phillips, Celeste; Stegenga, Kristin A; Burns, Debra S

    Empirically derived and tested models are necessary to develop effective, holistic interventions to improve positive health outcomes in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer, yet few exist. This article is the second of 2 articles reporting on evaluation of the Resilience in Illness Model (RIM) as a predictive model to guide positive health research and practice. The aim of this study was to report the confirmatory model evaluation of the RIM. A confirmatory evaluation of RIM was done using baseline data from a sample of 113 AYA aged 11 to 24 years who were undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to enhance resilience. Data were analyzed using latent variable structural equation modeling. Goodness-of-fit indices supported RIM as a confirmed model that accounted for large amounts of variance in the outcomes of self-transcendence (62%) and resilience (72%), and in 3 of 5 mediators, specifically social integration (74%), courageous coping (80%), and hope-derived meaning (87%), as well as small to moderate amounts of variance in the remaining mediators of defensive coping (1%) and family environment (35%). Findings establish the RIM as a plausible predictive framework for explaining ways AYA with cancer transcend their illness and achieve resilience resolution and for guiding intervention studies in this population. Additional research is needed to explore RIM's transferability based on stage of illness, other chronic diseases, and cultural diversity. Results support the RIM as an appropriate guide for developing and evaluating interventions to foster positive adjustment in AYA with cancer.

  1. Nondestructive Measurement of Dynamic Modulus for Cellulose Nanofibril Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Qing; Robert J. Ross; Zhiyong Cai; Yiqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films was performed using cantilever beam vibration (CBV) and acoustic methods to measure dynamic modulus. Static modulus was tested using tensile tension method. Correlation analysis shows the data measured by CBV has little linear relationship with static modulus, possessing a correlation coefficient (R

  2. Clinical evaluation of a new resilient denture liner. Part 1: Compliance and color evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Anamaria; Pesun, Igor J; Brosky, Mary E; Fines, Casey; Hodges, James S; DeLong, Ralph; Lai, Juey H

    2003-06-01

    A new experimental resilient denture liner (MPDS-SL; Lai Laboratories, Burnsville, MN) and Molloplast-B (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing, Syosset, NY) were clinically evaluated for compliance and color change over a 1-year period. In this crossover study, each of 20 patients had 2 dentures fabricated with long-term, silicone-based resilient liners, 1 denture with Molloplast-B and the other with MPDS-SL. Each denture was used for 6 months, during which time each patient kept a journal detailing his or her use and cleaning regimen. The 2 materials were assessed for compliance and color at the beginning of the study and again after 3 months and 6 months of use. Compliance was determined by applying a 3-lb force to the surface of the material following a square-wave pattern, using a closed-loop servohydraulic testing system. The force and position values were recorded using a storage oscilloscope. Compliance was measured at 3 locations on each denture and analyzed using data-acquisition software. Images of the dentures were captured using a zoom stereomicroscope with a charge-coupled video camera and image analysis software. The color was measured at 3 locations on each denture; RGB and L* a* b* were calculated. Compliance increased from baseline to 3 months and from 3 months to 6 months for almost all locations on both materials. Molloplast-B and MPDS-SL differed in average change in compliance at 6 months; the average change in compliance from baseline to 6 months was 453 (standard error, 46) for Molloplast-B and 284 (standard error, 46) for MPDS-SL (p = 0.019). For both materials, color changed significantly from baseline to 3 months and from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.01). MPDS-SL changed significantly less than Molloplast-B from baseline to 6 months for R (p = 0.039), G (p = 0.037), B (p = 0.005), and L* (p = 0.042). For both materials, compliance increased over 6 months of wear. The color change for MPDS-SL was considerably less significant than that for Molloplast-B.

  3. Conceptualizing and Re-Evaluating Resilience across Levels of Risk, Time, and Domains of Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines potential theoretical constraints on resilience across levels of risk, time, and domain of outcome. Studies of resilience are reviewed as they relate to the prevalence of resilience across levels of risk (e.g., single life events vs. cumulative risk), time, and domains of adjustment. Based on a thorough review of pertinent…

  4. Using simulation to evaluate the performance of resilience strategies and process failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Scott N.; Topp, Bryan Embry; Arnold, Dorian C; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Widener, Patrick; Hoefler, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Fault-tolerance has been identified as a major challenge for future extreme-scale systems. Current predictions suggest that, as systems grow in size, failures will occur more frequently. Because increases in failure frequency reduce the performance and scalability of these systems, significant effort has been devoted to developing and refining resilience mechanisms to mitigate the impact of failures. However, effective evaluation of these mechanisms has been challenging. Current systems are smaller and have significantly different architectural features (e.g., interconnect, persistent storage) than we expect to see in next-generation systems. To overcome these challenges, we propose the use of simulation. Simulation has been shown to be an effective tool for investigating performance characteristics of applications on future systems. In this work, we: identify the set of system characteristics that are necessary for accurate performance prediction of resilience mechanisms for HPC systems and applications; demonstrate how these system characteristics can be incorporated into an existing large-scale simulator; and evaluate the predictive performance of our modified simulator. We also describe how we were able to optimize the simulator for large temporal and spatial scales-allowing the simulator to run 4x faster and use over 100x less memory.

  5. Evaluation of a psychological health and resilience intervention for military spouses: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kees, Michelle; Rosenblum, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    The decade long conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have placed considerable strain on military families. Given robust data showing high rates of deployment-related psychological health problems in spouses and children, and the near absence of evidence-based psychological health programs for military families in the community, interventions are urgently needed to support and strengthen spouses as they adjust to deployment transitions and military life experiences. This Phase 1 pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a resiliency intervention for military spouses in civilian communities (HomeFront Strong; HFS), and generated preliminary efficacy data regarding impacts on psychological health and adjustment. Through two group cohorts, 14 women completed the intervention, with 10 women providing pre- and postgroup assessment data. Findings support feasibility of the intervention and high rates of program satisfaction. Participants reported learning new strategies and feeling more knowledgeable in their ability to use effective coping skills for managing deployment and military-related stressors. Participation in HFS was also associated with reduction in levels of anxiety and perceived stress, and improvements in life satisfaction and life engagement. HFS is a promising community-based intervention for military spouses designed to enhance resiliency, reduce negative psychological health symptoms, and improve coping. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Clemson University Science Master's Program in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure: A program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sell, Elizabeth Eberhart

    The Clemson University Science Master's Program (SMP) in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure is a program which aims to link engineering, materials, construction, environment, architecture, business, and public policy to produce graduates with unique holistic perspective and expertise to immediately contribute to the workforce in the area of sustainable and resilient infrastructure. A program evaluation of the SMP has been performed to study the effectiveness of the SMP and identify areas where the goals and vision of the SMP are achieved and areas where improvements can be made. This was completed by analysis of trends within survey responses, review of Master's thesis reports, and review of courses taken. It was found that the SMP has facilitated new interdisciplinary research collaborations of faculty in different concentration areas within the Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, as well as collaboration with faculty in other departments. It is recommended that a course which provides instruction in all eight competency areas be required for all SMP students to provide a comprehensive overview and ensure all students are exposed to concepts of all competency areas. While all stakeholders are satisfied with the program and believe it has been successful thus far, efforts do need to be made as the program moves forward to address and improve some items that have been mentioned as needing improvement. The concerns about concentration courses, internship planning, and advising should be addressed. This evaluation provides benefits to prospective students, current SMP participants, and outside program supporters. The goal of this evaluation is to provide support that the SMP is an effective and worthwhile program for participating students, while attempting to identify any necessary program improvements and provide recommendations for achieving these improvements. This goal has been accomplished.

  7. Clinical evaluation of a new resilient denture liner in long-term use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, S; Matsukawa, T; Nagasawa, T; Tsuru, H

    1989-12-01

    The new resilient denture liner "M" was evaluated for adhesion, color stability, surface texture, tissue response, deterioration and denture base stability, at periods of 1 month, 3 months and about 30 months after denture liner application. At the observation of approximately 30 months, the usage of 17 dentures had been discontinued within 2 years, and 6 dentures continued to be used. It could be considered that the main reasons why 17 dentures were discontinued were poor fitting caused by deterioration, and a decrease in the strength of the denture base caused by the denture liner lining. It was suggested that "M" was appropriate for long-term use (about 2 to 3 years), if patients faithfully practice denture cleaning, and if the strength of denture base is considered.

  8. The Resilience in Illness Model (RIM) Part 1: Exploratory Evaluation in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Joan E.; Kintner, Eileen K.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Robb, Sheri L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Resilience is a positive health outcome identified by the Committee on Future Direction for Behavioral and Social Sciences as a research priority for the National Institutes of Health. The Resilience in Illness Model (RIM) was developed from a series of qualitative and quantitative studies, to increase understanding of how positive health protective factors (i.e. social integration, family environment, courageous coping and derived meaning) may influence resilience outcomes. The RIM also includes two risk factors, illness-related distress and defensive coping. Objective The purpose of this two-part paper is to report on evaluation of the RIM for adolescents/young adults with cancer (AYA). Here, in Part 1, our purpose is to describe the exploratory RIM evaluation and in Part 2 we describe the confirmatory RIM evaluation. Methods An exploratory evaluation of RIM was done using exploratory latent variable structural equation modeling with a combined sample from two studies of pre-adolescents, and AYA with cancer ages 10 -26 years (n=202). Results Results, including goodness-of-fit indices, support the RIM as a theory with a high level of explained variance for outcomes of resilience (67%) and self-transcendence (63%). Variance explained for proximal outcomes ranged from 18% to 76%. Conclusions Findings indicate that, following confirmatory testing, the RIM may be a useful guide to developing targeted interventions that are grounded in the experiences of the AYA. Implications for Practice Increased understanding of the AYA cancer experience to improve holistic care. PMID:23519038

  9. Evaluation of Tensile Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio of a Bi-modular Rock from the Displacement Measurements in a Brazilian Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shantanu; Martin, C. Derek

    2018-02-01

    Unlike metals, rocks show bi-modularity (different Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios in compression and tension). Displacements monitored during the Brazilian test are used in this study to obtain the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio in tension. New equations for the displacements in a Brazilian test are derived considering the bi-modularity in the stress-strain relations. The digital image correlation technique was used to monitor the displacements of the Brazilian disk flat surface. To validate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio obtained from the Brazilian test, the results were compared with the values from the direct tension tests. The results obtained from the Brazilian test were repetitive and within 3.5% of the value obtained from the direct tension test for the rock tested.

  10. Evaluation of barriers and resilience to improve organizational performance in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. F.; Martin del Campo, C., E-mail: pnelson_007@yahoo.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec 62550, Morelos (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, several models are built from the information contained in the Condition Reports from the Corrective Action Program ar a nuclear power plant. Condition Reports are seen as indications of organizational stress levels with consequential Condition Reports being further evidence of organizational resilience being exceeded. Also contained in this paper is an examination of methods used to assess organizational resilience thresholds to preclude consequential events, based on examination of the number and severity of the Condition Reports. In combination with PSA risk insights, it is possible to identify risk significant procedures and their corresponding risk significant steps. Leading indicators can be used to identify the need for installing a barrier or defense to reduce human errors in a nuclear power plant. These indicators are developed from the Corrective Action Program data by detecting increases in events. Organizational barriers can then be identified to improve performance. The resulting identified barriers are evaluated to rank the value of each possible barrier, and determine the best barrier(s) to implement. The tool described in this paper is designed to provide a systematic approach to identify areas where improvements in organizational effectiveness best reduce the likelihood of consequential events. Due to the uncertainty of many of the factors that influence the performance of humans in nuclear power plant activities, we propose using Bayesian networks to identify sources of organizational errors leading to consequential events. This study, using actual nuclear power plant data, includes a method for data processing and highlights some potential uses of Bayesian networks for improving organizational effectiveness in the nuclear power industry. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of barriers and resilience to improve organizational performance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P. F.; Martin del Campo, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, several models are built from the information contained in the Condition Reports from the Corrective Action Program ar a nuclear power plant. Condition Reports are seen as indications of organizational stress levels with consequential Condition Reports being further evidence of organizational resilience being exceeded. Also contained in this paper is an examination of methods used to assess organizational resilience thresholds to preclude consequential events, based on examination of the number and severity of the Condition Reports. In combination with PSA risk insights, it is possible to identify risk significant procedures and their corresponding risk significant steps. Leading indicators can be used to identify the need for installing a barrier or defense to reduce human errors in a nuclear power plant. These indicators are developed from the Corrective Action Program data by detecting increases in events. Organizational barriers can then be identified to improve performance. The resulting identified barriers are evaluated to rank the value of each possible barrier, and determine the best barrier(s) to implement. The tool described in this paper is designed to provide a systematic approach to identify areas where improvements in organizational effectiveness best reduce the likelihood of consequential events. Due to the uncertainty of many of the factors that influence the performance of humans in nuclear power plant activities, we propose using Bayesian networks to identify sources of organizational errors leading to consequential events. This study, using actual nuclear power plant data, includes a method for data processing and highlights some potential uses of Bayesian networks for improving organizational effectiveness in the nuclear power industry. (Author)

  12. A Framework For Evaluating Comprehensive Fault Resilience Mechanisms In Numerical Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peng, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronevetsky, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-09

    As HPC systems approach Exascale, their circuit feature will shrink, while their overall size will grow, all at a fixed power limit. These trends imply that soft faults in electronic circuits will become an increasingly significant problem for applications that run on these systems, causing them to occasionally crash or worse, silently return incorrect results. This is motivating extensive work on application resilience to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithm-specific error detection and resilience techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of (1) which vulnerable parts of the application are most worth protecting (2) the performance and resilience impact of fault resilience mechanisms on the application. This paper presents FaultTelescope, a tool that combines these two and generates actionable insights by presenting in an intuitive way application vulnerabilities and impact of fault resilience mechanisms on applications.

  13. Evaluating Proposed Investments in Power System Reliability and Resilience: Preliminary Results from Interviews with Public Utility Commission Staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eto, Joseph [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers and regulatory agencies are expressing renewed interest in the reliability and resilience of the U.S. electric power system in large part due to growing recognition of the challenges posed by climate change, extreme weather events, and other emerging threats. Unfortunately, there has been little or no consolidated information in the public domain describing how public utility/service commission (PUC) staff evaluate the economics of proposed investments in the resilience of the power system. Having more consolidated information would give policymakers a better understanding of how different state regulatory entities across the U.S. make economic decisions pertaining to reliability/resiliency. To help address this, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was tasked by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA) to conduct an initial set of interviews with PUC staff to learn more about how proposed utility investments in reliability/resilience are being evaluated from an economics perspective. LBNL conducted structured interviews in late May-early June 2016 with staff from the following PUCs: Washington D.C. (DCPSC), Florida (FPSC), and California (CPUC).

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Method to Monitor Landfills Resilience against Methane Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusna, Noor Amalia; Maryono, Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Methane emission from landfill sites contribute to global warming and un-proper methane treatment can pose an explosion hazard. Stakeholder and government in the cities in Indonesia been found significant difficulties to monitor the resilience of landfill from methane emission. Moreover, the management of methane gas has always been a challenging issue for long waste management service and operations. Landfills are a significant contributor to anthropogenic methane emissions. This study conducted preliminary evaluation of method to manage methane gas emission by assessing LandGem and IPCC method. From the preliminary evaluation, this study found that the IPCC method is based on the availability of current and historical country specific data regarding the waste disposed of in landfills while from the LandGEM method is an automated tool for estimating emission rates for total landfill gas this method account total gas of methane, carbon dioxide and other. The method can be used either with specific data to estimate emissions in the site or default parameters if no site-specific data are available. Both of method could be utilize to monitor the methane emission from landfill site in cities of Central Java.

  15. Evaluation and Ranking of Organizational Resilience Factors by Using a Two-Step Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Tadić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a novel fuzzy multicriteria decision making approach to evaluate and rank organizational resilience factors with respect to user preference orders. Due to vagueness of the decision data, the precise numerical data are inadequate for real-life business situations. Human judgements can be expressed by linguistic expressions which are modeled by fuzzy sets. The complexity of the considered problem calls for analytic methods rather than intuitive decisions. Two fuzzy multi-criteria methods are proposed for solving the treated problem: Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchical Process (FAHP is applied to determine the relative importance of business processes and the relative importance of organizational resilience factors under each business process, and an extension of the fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS is applied to rank the organizational resilience factors. With respect to complexity and the type of considered management problem, we introduce a modified fuzzy decision matrix. The proposed algorithm has efficiently been applied in the assessment of organizational resilience factors to small and medium enterprises of the process industry.

  16. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  17. Reliability, Resilience, and Vulnerability criteria for the evaluation of Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.; Bolster, D.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the impact of water quality on the health of a general population is challenging due high degrees of uncertainty and variability in hydrological, toxicological and human aspects of the system. Assessment of the impact of changes in water quality of a public water supply is critical to management of that water supply. We propose the use of three different system evaluation criteria: Reliability, Resilience and Vulnerability (RRV) as a tool for assessing the impact of uncertainty in the arrival of contaminant mass through time with respect to human health risks on a variable population. These criteria were first introduced to the water resources community by Hashimoto et al (1982). Most simply one can understand these criteria as the following: Reliability is the likelihood of the system being in a state of success; Resilience is the probability that the system will return to a state of success at t+1 if it is in failure at time step t, and Vulnerability is the severity of failure, which here is defined as the maximum health risk. These concepts are applied to a theoretical example where the water quality at a water supply well varies over time: health impact is considered based on sliding, 30-year windows of exposure to water derived from the well. We apply the methodology, in terms of uncertainty in water quality deviations, to eight simulated breakthrough curves of a contaminant at the well: each curve represents equal mass of contaminant arriving at the well over a 70-year lifetime of the well, but different mass distributions over time. These curves are used to investigate the impact of uncertainty in the distribution through time of the contaminant mass at the well, as well as the initial arrival of the contaminant over the 70-year lifetime of the well. In addition to extending the health risk through time with uncertainty in mass distribution, we incorporate variability in the human population to examine the evolution of the three criteria within

  18. Standard test method for Young's modulus, tangent modulus, and chord modulus

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of Young's modulus, tangent modulus, and chord modulus of structural materials. This test method is limited to materials in which and to temperatures and stresses at which creep is negligible compared to the strain produced immediately upon loading and to elastic behavior. 1.2 Because of experimental problems associated with the establishment of the origin of the stress-strain curve described in 8.1, the determination of the initial tangent modulus (that is, the slope of the stress-strain curve at the origin) and the secant modulus are outside the scope of this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory require...

  19. Standardizing lightweight deflectometer modulus measurements for compaction quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the compaction of unbound geomaterials under unsaturated conditions and replace the conventional methods with a practical modulus-based specification using LWD, this study examined three different LWDs, the Zorn ZFG 3000 LWD, Dynatest 303...

  20. Stiffness, resilience, compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Bogdan M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Sage, J. Timothy, E-mail: jtsage@neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The flexibility of a protein is an important component of its functionality. We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to quantify the flexibility of the heme iron environment in the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c by measuring the stiffness and the resilience. These quantities are sensitive to structural differences between the active sites of different proteins, as illustrated by a comparative analysis with myoglobin. The elasticity of the entire protein, on the other hand, can be probed quantitatively from NRVS and high energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements, an approach that we used to extract the bulk modulus of cytochrome c.

  1. Evaluation of resilient abutment components on measured strain using dynamic loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D; Stanford, C M; Aquilino, S A

    1998-07-01

    Factors that affect transmission of strain from prostheses to bone may affect the long-term success of loaded implants. Current in vitro models are theoretically predictive (finite element modeling) or facsimile (photoelastic) in nature. A more clinically relevant in vitro model for strain evaluation should be investigated. This study attempted: (1) to validate a human cadaver bone model for vitro measurement of cortical bone strain, and (2) to evaluate the effect on cortical strain measurements of a resilient plastic component incorporated within a titanium implant in response to variable dynamic loading. Two IMZ (Interpore International) abutment alternatives were used: the titanium Abutment Complete and the polyoxymethylene Intra-mobile Element. The model system consisted of two implants placed in unfixed human cadaver ulna bone to simulate an implant bound edentulous region. Four biaxial rosette strain gauges simultaneously recorded cortical bone strain immediately mesial and distal to each implant. During experimentation a simulated prosthetic framework supported by either titanium or polyoxymethylene abutments was dynamically loaded 6 min from the terminal abutment along a cantilever extension. Cyclic nominal peak loads were applied with a materials testing machine at 20-N intervals from 20 to 200 N at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute. The protocol allowed frequency of load application to vary. A Newtonian linear correlation (r2 > or = 0.98) between load application and strain output was determined for each gauge position except for the terminal gauge located opposite the cantilever. Cortical strains recorded were within reported physiologic ranges involved in bone modeling and remodeling. Further, the polyoxymethylene abutment components did not result in reduction of peak microstrain at any gauge position. The Intra-mobile Element abutments, however, did increase the time required to complete 10 loading cycles when compared with the titanium Abutment

  2. Mechanical Components from Highly Recoverable, Low Apparent Modulus Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II (Inventor); Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Stanford, Malcolm K. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A material for use as a mechanical component is formed of a superelastic intermetallic material having a low apparent modulus and a high hardness. The superelastic intermetallic material is conditioned to be dimensionally stable, devoid of any shape memory effect and have a stable superelastic response without irrecoverable deformation while exhibiting strains of at least 3%. The method of conditioning the superelastic intermetallic material is described. Another embodiment relates to lightweight materials known as ordered intermetallics that perform well in sliding wear applications using conventional liquid lubricants and are therefore suitable for resilient, high performance mechanical components such as gears and bearings.

  3. Psychological health of military children: longitudinal evaluation of a family-centered prevention program to enhance family resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William

    2013-08-01

    Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include (1) understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level and (2) determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with deidentified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children aged 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included service member and civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist-Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent, and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families and suggest areas for future research. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Managing burned landscapes: Evaluating future management strategies for resilient forests under a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. L. Shive; P. Z. Fule; C. H. Sieg; B. A. Strom; M. E. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Climate change effects on forested ecosystems worldwide include increases in drought-related mortality, changes to disturbance regimes and shifts in species distributions. Such climate-induced changes will alter the outcomes of current management strategies, complicating the selection of appropriate strategies to promote forest resilience. We modelled forest growth in...

  5. Experimental evaluation of foil-supported resilient-pad gas-lubricated thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Z. N.

    1977-01-01

    A new type of resilient-pad gas thrust bearing was tested to determine the feasibility of the design. The bearing consists of carbon graphite pads mounted asymmetrically on foil beams. Two bearing configurations were tested at thrust loads from 27 to 80 newtons at speeds to 9000 rpm. The outside diameter of the bearing was 8.9 centimeters.

  6. Measuring resilience in integrated planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apneseth, K.; Wahl, A. M.; Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how a Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) can be used to profile the performance of a company in terms of the four abilities that characterize a resilient organization. It describes the development of a new, RAG-based tool founded on Resilience Engineering principles that can...... be used to assess an organization's resilience. The tool was tested in a case study involving a company in the offshore oil and gas industry. The company had decided to adopt an Integrated Operations (IO) approach to operations and maintenance planning and the tool was used to evaluate the impact...... of the Integrated Planning (IPL) process on its resilience....

  7. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  8. Shrinkage, stress, and modulus of dimethacrylate, ormocer, and silorane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Atais; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; da Silva Fonseca, Andrea Soares Quirino; Cavalcante, Larissa Maria Assad; Silikas, Nikolaos; Schneider, Luis Felipe Jochins

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the shrinkage, polymerization stress, elastic and bulk modulus resulting from composites formulated by siloranes, 2(nd) generation ormocers, and dimethacrylates. The bonded disc method was used to evaluate volumetric shrinkage. The polymerization stress was evaluated by mean of the Bioman. Cylindrical specimens (5 mm thickness and 6 mm diameter) were submitted to gradual loading. Young's and bulk modulus were obtained from the slope of the stress/strain curve. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%). Grandio and ormocer showed significant higher elastic and bulk modulus. Silorane presented significant lowest bulk modulus and maximum shrinkage. Ormocer and silorane presented lower values for the maximum rate of shrinkage. Extra-low shrinkage (ELS) composite presented the greatest maximum shrinkage. The higher maximum rate of shrinkage was attained by Grandio and ELS, statistically similar from each other. The silorane showed lower values of maximum stress and maximum rate of stress. The higher values of maximum stress were presented by ELS and Grandio, statistical similar between them. Grandio showed the significantly greatest maximum rate of stress. Silorane showed to promote lower shrinkage/stress among the composites, with the lowest elastic modulus. Ormocer showed lower shrinkage/stress than methacrylates despite of its high modulus.

  9. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  10. Evaluating Vulnerability and Resilience between Urban and Rural Area in a Regional Water Resources System under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.; Tsao, J. H.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    To the threat of climate change, the risk of water resources vary in different area but the same system because of the structure of water supply system and the different sensitivity and exposure to climate for different urbanization area. For example, the urban area with high population density is sensitive to any disturbance from drought and the rural area with unpopular tap water system is insensitive to disturbance of drought but highly risk to water shortage. The resilience of water supply relies on water storage from reservoirs or lakes and water management in urban area but relies on intake from groundwater in rural area. The strategies to water resources should be considered with the water mass flow between urban and rural area. To strengthen the whole water resources system, also, it is important to find where the vulnerability from, how to reduce it and how to build up the resilience for both urban and rural area. This study aims to evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of water resources in different township and city but in the same system. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate risk of each township and city in a water supply system. The cause of vulnerability will be identified and discussed in both urban and rural. The strategies to reduce vulnerability of water resources for urban and rural will be proposed and discussed in this study.

  11. Resilient ledelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rygh, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Master i styring og ledelse Denne masteroppgaven bygger på litteraturanalyse og intervju med forskere, lederutviklere, ledere og tillitsvalgte. Oppgaven utvikler en hypotese om en resilient lederstil, diskuterer om og hvordan ledere kan bidra til å bedre resiliens hos underordnede, samt identifiserer hva som kan kjennetegne resilient ledelse. Resilient ledelse kan defineres som det en leder gjør for å bedre de underordnedes evne til å få mer psykologisk motstandskraft, det vil si gjør d...

  12. Evaluation of 5-HTTLPR Gene Polymorphism and Resilience Components on the Development of Psychopathology in Adolescent Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÇARKAXHİU BULUT, Gresa; RODOPMAN ARMAN, Ayşe; GÜNEY, İlter; GÜLTEPE, Pınar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction More than one-fourth adolescents are exposed to unexpected frightening experiences and traumas until adulthood. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential role of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphism regarding resilience factors in the symptom variability of individuals exposed to sexual abuse. Methods Adolescents aged 11–17 years, who were admitted to the Marmara University Child Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic Forensic division with sexual abuse experience history, were informed about the research, and volunteers were included in the study. Turkish versions of “Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL)” was used to assess the psychopathology and functionality. The evaluation of participants also included self-reports based on “Eysenck Personality Inventory” and “Ways of Coping Inventory” for reflecting the resilience domain. Results The sample included 16 girls (88.9%) and 2 boys (11.1%), and the mean (±standard deviation) age was 14.58±1.97 years. Genotyping of the insertion/deletion polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the 5-HTT gene’s transcriptional control zone was established, and 8 participants (44.4%) were determined to be of the LL genotype, while 7 (38.8%) were LS and 3 (16.6%) were SS carriers. Considering the relationship between coping styles regarding resilience and genetic variants, 87.5% of participants (n=7) exhibiting problem-focused coping style were determined found to carry the LL allele, while 90% (n=9) who exhibited emotion-focused coping styles were the SS-LS allele carriers (p=0.003). Conclusion Our findings suggest that 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism has a significant impact on the formation of coping styles. More studies are needed to determine other factors involved in the complex relationship between 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism and development of psychopathology. PMID:29033635

  13. Resilience versus "Resilient Individual": What Exactly Do We Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature and definition of resilience, despite the extensive 40 years of research, is still unclear. Currently is resilience seen as a personality trait, sum of the traits/factors, result of adaptation, or as a process. The concept of resilience as personality traits is usually tied to uni-dimensional or "simplex" theories of resistance as Hardiness, Sense of Control, Ego-Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Sense of Coherence, or specific personality traits. Multidimensional concepts see resilience as a complex of personality and social (environmental factors that work in interaction, complement or replace each other, and, in aggregate, create a comprehensive picture of resilience. The concept of resilience as the result of adaptation examines resilience in terms of the presence/absence of adverse/pathological manifestations, consequences and outcomes in relation to the earlier effect of stressful, risky or otherwise unfavorable situations. Finally, the concept of resilience as the process examines individual's response to risk factors or wounds that are present in the environment. Resilience is thus a process consisting of interactions between individual characteristics and the environment. Most experts and a large part of resilience research is based on the first three concepts that however explore how "resilient" the individual is rather than resilience itself, since they are based on "diagnosing" or at best dimensional, at worse dichotomous rating of the individual's resilience (within personality trait approach, or on the evaluation of the presence/absence of factors/source of resilience, thereby they are still holding the "diagnostic" approach (within multidimensional approach. Only the examination of processes, such as the ongoing interaction between these risk factors, resilience factors, outcomes (expressions of personality, behavior, presence of problems, etc. and other variables allows us to understand resilience (the true nature of how

  14. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  15. The Resilience Program: preliminary evaluation of a mentalization-based education program

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Poul L.; Midgley, Nick; Zhu, Jin L.; Wistoft, Karen; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    In order to manage with the burden of mental health problems in the world we need to develop cost-effective and safe preventive interventions. Education about resilience to support the ability to cope with life challenges in general, may be a useful strategy. We consider the concepts of Theory of Mind and Mentalization to be relevant in this context. In this paper we describe a simple modular intervention program based on these concepts which can be tailored to specific needs and situations i...

  16. Adaptation and Evaluation of Military Resilience Skills Training for Pediatric Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Bursch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: An evidence-based trauma-informed resilience skills training program developed for deployed military personnel was adapted and pilot-tested with pediatric residents. We anticipated high satisfaction ratings and changes in knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy related to coping with stress and trauma. Methods: The intervention included 6 skill-based modules covering emotion regulation, communication with angry patients and parents, reflective narrative, inspirational goal setting, problem-solving, and developing a self-care toolbox. An optional survey was administered before and after the training. Results: After training, 76% rated resilience skills as important, 60% were satisfied, and 82% indicated the training changed how they will respond to patient-related grief and trauma. They became more likely to believe attendings are affected by patient deaths and to know what helps them cope when they disagree with the medical decision making of others, more skilled in recognizing signs of stress and trauma, and more knowledgeable about evidence-based interventions.

  17. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  18. The Resilience Program: preliminary evaluation of a mentalization-based education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Poul L; Midgley, Nick; Zhu, Jin L; Wistoft, Karen; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    In order to manage with the burden of mental health problems in the world we need to develop cost-effective and safe preventive interventions. Education about resilience to support the ability to cope with life challenges in general, may be a useful strategy. We consider the concepts of Theory of Mind and Mentalization to be relevant in this context. In this paper we describe a simple modular intervention program based on these concepts which can be tailored to specific needs and situations in individual therapy as well as group levels. The program has shown promising results in pilot studies and is now tested in controlled trials in settings such as schools and educational institutions, adults diagnosed with ADHD, and children in care.

  19. The Resilience Program: Preliminary evaluation of a mentalization-based education program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Lundgaard Bak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage with the burden of mental health problems in the world we need to develop cost-effective and safe preventive interventions. Education about resilience to support the ability to cope with life challenges in general, may be a useful strategy. We consider the concepts of Theory of Mind and Mentalization to be relevant in this context. In this paper we describe a simple modular intervention program based on these concepts which can be tailored to specific needs and situations in individual therapy as well as group levels. The program has shown promising results in pilot studies and is now tested in controlled trials in settings such as schools and educational institutions, adults diagnosed with ADHD and children in foster care.

  20. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure, and environmental (ecological nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies key factors influencing social, ecological, and infrastructure resilience discussing how these factors relate within urban systems. The achievement of resilience of urban and regional systems happens through the interaction of the different elements (social, psychological, physical, structural, and environmental, etc.; therefore, resilient city could be determined by synergy of resilient society, resilient infrastructure and resilient environment of the given area. Based on literature analysis, the current research provides some insights on conceptual framework for assessment of complex urban systems in terms of resilience. To be able to evaluate resilience and define effective measures for prevention and risk mitigation, and thereby strengthen resilience, we propose to develop an e-platform, joining risk parameters’ Monitoring Systems, which feed with data Resiliency Index calculation domain. Both these elements result in Multirisk Platform, which could serve for awareness and shared decision making for resilient people in resilient city.

  1. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  2. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  3. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  4. Decision aiding in public policy generation and implementation: a multicriteria approach to evaluate territorial resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Norese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A decision aid process should be the result of an interaction between analysts, decision makers and stakeholders. Decision aiding is sometimes required when the problem situation is new and a formal decision system does not exist. Its role becomes that of facilitating the Intelligence phase of a decision process. In other situations, a criticism of certain policy making processes and their use of data, which may be available in institutional databases or are required as indicators for the decision process, motivates an intervention oriented towards structure knowledge and improvements of these processes. A preliminary study, which includes modelling and application of multi-criteria methods, can clarify a complex and new situation, propose a consistent approach for the later phases of a decision process or propose a different and more effective use of the data. A case study is proposed here to describe this methodological approach in relation to the disaster resilience of municipalities near the mbrone River, in Tuscany (Italy.

  5. A field guide for rapid assessment of post-wildfire recovery potential in sagebrush and pinon-juniper ecosystems in the Great Basin: Evaluating resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and predicting vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Miller; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant

    2015-01-01

    This field guide provides a framework for rapidly evaluating post-fire resilience to disturbance, or recovery potential, and resistance to invasive annual grasses, and for determining the need and suitability of the burned area for seeding. The framework identifies six primary components that largely determine resilience to disturbance, resistance to invasive grasses,...

  6. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  7. In vivo biocompatibility evaluation of a new resilient, hard-carbon, thin-film coating for ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaseya, Tohru; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Shiose, Akira; Arakawa, Yoko; Rao, Santosh; Horvath, David J; Massiello, Alex L; Mielke, Nicole; Chen, Ji-Feng; Zhou, Qun; Dessoffy, Raymond; Kramer, Larry; Benefit, Stephen; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo the biocompatibility of BioMedFlex (BMF), a new resilient, hard-carbon, thin-film coating, as a blood journal bearing material in Cleveland Heart's (Charlotte, NC, USA) continuous-flow right and left ventricular assist devices (RVADs and LVADs). BMF was applied to RVAD rotating assemblies or both rotating and stator assemblies in three chronic bovine studies. In one case, an LVAD with a BMF-coated stator was also implanted. Cases 1 and 3 were electively terminated at 18 and 29 days, respectively, with average measured pump flows of 4.9 L/min (RVAD) in Case 1 and 5.7 L/min (RVAD) plus 5.7 L/min (LVAD) in Case 3. Case 2 was terminated prematurely after 9 days because of sepsis. The sepsis, combined with running the pump at minimum speed (2000 rpm), presented a worst-case biocompatibility challenge. Postexplant evaluation of the blood-contacting journal bearing surfaces showed no biologic deposition in any of the four pumps. Thrombus inside the RVAD inlet cannula in Case 3 is believed to be the origin of a nonadherent thrombus wrapped around one of the primary impeller blades. In conclusion, we demonstrated that BMF coatings can provide good biocompatibility in the journal bearing for ventricular assist devices. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Compressive modulus of adhesive bonded rubber block

    OpenAIRE

    Wiriya Thongruang; Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of a thin adhesive layer on the modulus of an elastic rubber block bonded between two plates. The plates were assumed to be rigid, both in extension and flexure, and subjected to vertical compression loading. The Gent’s approach was used to obtain the analytic deformations of the rubber and adhesive. The analytic deformations were then validated with the finite element model. There was a good agreement between both methods. The modulus of the bonded rubbe...

  9. Resilience in nursing students: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Jean; Revell, Susan Hunter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this integrative review was to investigate the state of knowledge on resilience in nursing students. Specifically the authors sought to define and describe the concept, and identify factors that affect and evaluate strategies to promote resilience in nursing students. Integrative literature review. Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL), Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and PsychINFO electronic databases were searched for publications between 1990 and 2014. Search terms included resilience, student, nurse, nursing student, hardiness, emotional resilience, research, resili*, and nurse*. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative approach was utilized to conduct the methodological review. Each article was assessed with an appraisal tool. The search resulted in the inclusion of nine articles. The majority of the literature utilized definitions of resilience from the discipline of psychology. One exception was a definition developed within nursing specific to nursing students. Factors that affect resilience were grouped into three themes: support, time, and empowerment. Strategies to promote resilience in nursing students were found in three of the nine articles, but their methods and findings were disparate. This review provides information about the concept of resilience in nursing students. Faculty awareness of the importance of resilience in nursing students can better prepare students for the role of the professional nurse. Support from family, friends and faculty impact a student's resilience. Through closely working with students in advisement, the clinical arena and the classroom faculty can promote resilience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compressive modulus of adhesive bonded rubber block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiriya Thongruang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effect of a thin adhesive layer on the modulus of an elastic rubber block bonded between two plates. The plates were assumed to be rigid, both in extension and flexure, and subjected to vertical compression loading. The Gent’s approach was used to obtain the analytic deformations of the rubber and adhesive. The analytic deformations were then validated with the finite element model. There was a good agreement between both methods. The modulus of the bonded rubber block, defined as effective modulus, was then studied. The effective modulus was increased by the factor (1+ (a/2t2(6Grh/Gat+1-1, which is composed of the shape factor of the rubber block (a/2t, ratio of the bonded and unbonded areas, and the shear stiffness factor (Grh/Gat, ratio of modulus and thickness of rubber and adhesive. The effective modulus does not depend on either factors, when the shear stiffness of the joint is high or Grh/Gat >10.

  11. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  12. EVALUATING THE ECOLOGICAL RESILIENT DRIVEN PERFORMANCE OF A TROPICAL WASTE STABILIZATION POND SYSTEM USING ECOLOGICAL SIGNATURE OF BIOLOGICAL INTEGRITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Lahiri Ganguly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using ecological signature of biological integrity as a measure of performance, the reclamation efficiency of waste stabilization ponds was evaluated over a period of four years in a tropical sewage treatment plant – cum fish culture consisting of two anaerobic, two facultative and four maturation ponds located serially across the sewage effluent gradient. The four maturation ponds were used for batch culture of fish. Samples of surface and bottom water as well as surface sediment were collected twice a month from different ponds of the system and examined for some nutrient cycling bacteria, primary production, chlorophyll content of micro-algae, phytoplankton, zooplankton abundance, fish growth and water quality parameters. Computation of ecological signature using aerobic mineralization index for heterotrophic and ammonifying bacteria revealed steady increase across the sewage effluent gradient. The heterotrophic and ammonifying bacterial populations appeared to have a direct function with the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand of water. The sum of total scores for different optimal conditions for fish growth increased as a function of the distance from the source of effluent implying that ecological resilience of the waste stabilization ponds has been accomplished by the sedimentation, chelation, and biological functional attributes mediated through redundancy of different subsystems, self- purification capacity of the system as a whole.

  13. Characterizing resilient behavior of naturally occurring bituminous sands for road construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available large capacity haul trucks and shovels. This paper focuses on determining in laboratory the resilient behavior of three oil sand materials with bitumen contents of 8.5, 13.3, and 14.5% by weight. The resilient modulus MR properties were obtained using a...

  14. Influence of substrate modulus on gecko adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klittich, Mena R.; Wilson, Michael C.; Bernard, Craig; Rodrigo, Rochelle M.; Keith, Austin J.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2017-03-01

    The gecko adhesion system fascinates biologists and materials scientists alike for its strong, reversible, glue-free, dry adhesion. Understanding the adhesion system’s performance on various surfaces can give clues as to gecko behaviour, as well as towards designing synthetic adhesive mimics. Geckos encounter a variety of surfaces in their natural habitats; tropical geckos, such as Gekko gecko, encounter hard, rough tree trunks as well as soft, flexible leaves. While gecko adhesion on hard surfaces has been extensively studied, little work has been done on soft surfaces. Here, we investigate for the first time the influence of macroscale and nanoscale substrate modulus on whole animal adhesion on two different substrates (cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane) in air and find that across 5 orders of magnitude in macroscale modulus, there is no change in adhesion. On the nanoscale, however, gecko adhesion is shown to depend on substrate modulus. This suggests that low surface-layer modulus may inhibit the gecko adhesion system, independent of other influencing factors such as macroscale composite modulus and surface energy. Understanding the limits of gecko adhesion is vital for clarifying adhesive mechanisms and in the design of synthetic adhesives for soft substrates (including for biomedical applications and wearable electronics).

  15. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. METHODS: Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p < 0.05 to assess force, resilience, and elastic modulus. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference in the forces generated, resilience and elastic modulus were found between the 0.032-in 0.036-in thicknesses (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Appliances made of low-nickel stainless steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  16. Building resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2011-04-01

    Failure is a familiar trauma in life, but its effects on people differ widely. Some reel, recover, and move on with their lives; others get bogged down by anxiety, depression, and fear of the future. Seligman, who is known as the father of positive psychology, has spent three decades researching failure, helplessness, and optimism. He created a program at the University of Pennsylvania to help young adults and children overcome anxiety and depression, and has worked with colleagues from around the world to develop a program for teaching resilience. That program is being tested by the U.S. Army, an organization of 1.1 million people where trauma is more common and more severe than in any corporate setting. Nevertheless, businesspeo-ple can draw lessons from resilience training, particularly in times of failure and stagnation. The program is called Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, and it has three components: the Global Assessment Tool, a test for psychological fitness (administered to more than 900,000 soldiers to date); self-improvement courses following the test; and "master resilience training" (MRT) for drill sergeants. MRT focuses on enhancing mental toughness, highlighting and honing strengths, and fostering strong relationships-core competencies for any successful manager.

  17. Quantifying resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  18. Ultra-high Modulus Nano-Fluoroelastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, David H.

    2004-03-01

    The cross-linking densities, glass transition temperatures, and physical properties of fluoroelastomers filled with a nanometer-size particle have been determined as a function of filler concentration and co-solvent using both dry and wet filler incorporation methodologies. Addition of alcohol to the casting solvent such as methyl isobutyl ketone results in about a factor of 1.5-3 increase in elastic modulus for elastomer of the same filler concentration. It is discovered that a properly prepared nano-fluoroelastomer can exhibit as much as a two-order-of-magnitude increase in elastic modulus as the filler concentration increases from zero to 35 parts per hundred of rubber (phr) by weight while the glass transition temperature does not change substantially with filler concentration. The effect of cross-linking density on the elastic modulus for these materials will be discussed in this paper.

  19. A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0–1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the material's first week of age. To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on random distributions of coarse aggregate, mortar, and air void phases. The model predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements of tensile modulus at early age.

  20. The elastic modulus of isolated polytetrafluoroethylene filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Drawe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report vibrational Raman spectra of small extended perfluoro-n-alkanes (CnF2n+2 with n = 6, 8–10, 12–14 isolated in supersonic jet expansions and use wavenumbers of longitudinal acoustic vibrations to extrapolate the elastic modulus of cold, isolated polytetrafluoroethylene filaments. The derived value E = 209(10 GPa defines an upper limit for the elastic modulus of the perfectly crystalline, noninteracting polymer at low temperatures and serves as a benchmark for quantum chemical predictions.

  1. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Yhojan; Pacheco, Yovana; Zapata, Elizabeth; Monsalve, Diana M; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rodríguez-Jimenez, Monica; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate the relationship between resilience and clinical outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Focus groups, individual interviews, and chart reviews were done to collect data on 188 women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis (n=51), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=70), systemic sclerosis (n=35), and Sjögren's syndrome (n=32). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed including disease activity by patient reported outcomes. Resilience was evaluated by using the Brief Resilience Scale. Bivariate, multiple linear regression, and classification and regression trees were used to analyse data. Resilience was influenced by age, duration of disease, and socioeconomic status. Lower resilience scores were observed in younger patients (50years) had higher resilience scores regardless of socioeconomic status. There was no influence of disease activity on resilience. A particular behaviour was observed in systemic sclerosis in which patients with high socioeconomic status and regular physical activity had higher resilience scores. Resilience in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is a continuum process influenced by age and socioeconomic status. The ways in which these variables along with exercise influence resilience deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Simplified equation for Young's modulus of CNT reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, RameshBabu; Gifty Honeyta A, Maria

    2017-12-01

    This research investigation focuses on finite element modeling of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced concrete matrix for three grades of concrete namely M40, M60 and M120. Representative volume element (RVE) was adopted and one-eighth model depicting the CNT reinforced concrete matrix was simulated using FEA software ANSYS17.2. Adopting random orientation of CNTs, with nine fibre volume fractions from 0.1% to 0.9%, finite element modeling simulations replicated exactly the CNT reinforced concrete matrix. Upon evaluations of the model, the longitudinal and transverse Young's modulus of elasticity of the CNT reinforced concrete was arrived. The graphical plots between various fibre volume fractions and the concrete grade revealed simplified equation for estimating the young's modulus. It also exploited the fact that the concrete grade does not have significant impact in CNT reinforced concrete matrix.

  3. Evaluating the Resilience of the Bottom-up Method used to Detect and Benchmark the Smartness of University Campuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giovannella, Carlo; Andone, Diana; Dascalu, Mihai; Popescu, Elvira; Rehm, Matthias; Mealha, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    A new method to perform a bottom-up extraction and benchmark of the perceived multilevel smartness of complex ecosystems has been recently described and applied to territories and learning ecosystems like university campuses and schools. In this paper we study the resilience of our method

  4. Using AgMIP Regional Integrated Assessment Methods to Evaluate Vulnerability, Resilience and Adaptive Capacity for Climate Smart Agricultural Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, John M.; Homann-Kee Tui, S.; Descheemaeker, K.K.E.; Masikati, Patricia; Valdivia, Roberto O.

    2018-01-01

    The predicted effects of climate change call for a multi-dimensional method to assess the performance of various agricultural systems across economic, environmental and social dimensions. Climate smart agriculture (CSA) recognizes that the three goals of climate adaptation, mitigation and resilience

  5. Thickness dependence of nanofilm elastic modulus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Wang, A. B.; Cheng, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 15 (2009), s. 152111-152113 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nanofilm * elastic modulus * thickness dependence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.554, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/94/152111/1

  6. Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    1998-01-01

    time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  7. The Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness Program Evaluation. Report 4. Evaluation of Resilience Training and Mental and Behavioral Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Stephen Soldz, Director, Center for Research, Evaluation and Program Development, Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis . The authors are grateful...C. E. Lance & R. J. Vandenberg (Eds.), Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Doctrine, verity, and fable in the organizational

  8. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  9. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change

  10. Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Pedro, Francisco Gil [Departamento de Fisica Teórica UAM and Instituto de Fisica Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-21

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  11. Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco; Gil Pedro, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  12. Fibonacci difference sequence spaces for modulus functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldip Raj

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we introduce Fibonacci difference sequence spaces l(F, Ƒ, p, u and  l_∞(F, Ƒ, p, u by using a sequence of modulus functions and a new band matrix F. We also make an effort to study some inclusion relations, topological and geometric properties of these spaces. Furthermore, the alpha, beta, gamma duals and matrix transformation of the space l(F, Ƒ, p, u are determined.

  13. Theory of thermal expansivity and bulk modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish

    2005-01-01

    The expression for thermal expansivity and bulk modulus, claimed by Shanker et al. to be new [Physica B 233 (1977) 78; 245 (1998) 190; J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59 (1998) 197] are compared with the theory of high pressure-high temperature reported by Kumar and coworkers. It is concluded that the Shanker formulation and the relations based on this are equal to the approach of Kumar et al. up to second order

  14. Modulus for the coal ash. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rank, V.

    1944-06-30

    This summary outlined the procedure for obtaining a modulus to determine the effects of varying ash content. This modulus was to indicate the relative amounts of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide after addition of alkalais or alkaline-earth constituents found in catalysts. The calculation of the modulus was based upon stoichiometric ratios of these oxides to other major components of ash as represented in the major minerals in the ash. The assumptions about the conditions in low- to intermediate-temperature coking included the following: (1) magnesium oxide was found only in biotite, which contained potassium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, and water in the respective mole ratios 1:4:2:6:1. (2) Potassium oxide outside of biotite was found only in muscovite, which contained potassium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, and water in the respective mole ratios 1:1:6:2. (3) Sodium oxide was combined only with aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide in the mole ratios 1:1:6. (4) Phosphoric acid was found as aluminum phosphate. (5) Lime was found in anortite, which contained calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, or calcium oxide combined with aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide in the mole ratios 1:1:2. (6) Aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide existed mainly in the hydrated state with the two of them combined with water in the mole ratios 1:2:2. The completed formula for the modulus was given as M = (aluminum oxide) + (silicon dioxide) - 0.65(magnesium oxide) - 4.90(potassium oxide + sodium oxide) - 3.96(calcium oxide) - 0.72(phosphorous pentoxide), where the parentheses should be filled by numbers in weight units for the respective compounds.

  15. Young's modulus and degree of conversion of different combination of light-cure dental resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, N; Söderholm, Kj

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate Young's modulus and degree of conversion of several combinations of bisGMA, UEDMA, TEGDMA light-cure dental resin. Young's modulus and DC% were studied for 21 different resin combinations of bisGMA, TEGDMA and UEDMA. Small universal testing machine and photo-calorimetry were used for the tests. The results were evaluated using ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests and regular t-test. Young's modulus varied between 2.37±0.2 GPa (100% TEGDMA) and 4.15±0.2 GPa (100% bisGMA). By adding TEGDMA to bisGMA or UEDMA, the Young's modulus decreased significantly (pphysical properties of the mixtures.

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial resilience training for heart health, and the added value of promoting physical activity: a cluster randomized trial of the READY program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakenham Kenneth I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and poor social support are significant risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD, and stress and anxiety can trigger coronary events. People experiencing such psychosocial difficulties are more likely to be physically inactive, which is also an independent risk factor for CHD. Resilience training can target these risk factors, but there is little research evaluating the effectiveness of such programs. This paper describes the design and measures of a study to evaluate a resilience training program (READY to promote psychosocial well-being for heart health, and the added value of integrating physical activity promotion. Methods/Design In a cluster randomized trial, 95 participants will be allocated to either a waitlist or one of two intervention conditions. Both intervention conditions will receive a 10 × 2.5 hour group resilience training program (READY over 13 weeks. The program targets five protective factors identified from empirical evidence and analyzed as mediating variables: positive emotions, cognitive flexibility, social support, life meaning, and active coping. Resilience enhancement strategies reflect the six core Acceptance and Commitment Therapy processes (values, mindfulness, defusion, acceptance, self-as-context, committed action and Cognitive Behavior Therapy strategies such as relaxation training and social support building skills. Sessions include psychoeducation, discussions, experiential exercises, and home assignments. One intervention condition will include an additional session and ongoing content promoting physical activity. Measurement will occur at baseline, two weeks post intervention, and at eight weeks follow-up, and will include questionnaires, pedometer step logs, and physical and hematological measures. Primary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of psychosocial well-being and depression. Secondary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of

  17. A Measure of Team Resilience: Developing the Resilience at Work Team Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Kathryn; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2018-03-01

    This study develops, and initial evaluates, a new measure of team-based resilience for use in research and practice. We conducted preliminary analyses, based on a cross-sectional sample of 344 employees nested within 31 teams. Seven dimensions were identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The measure had high reliability and significant discrimination to indicate the presence of a unique team-based aspect of resilience that contributed to higher work engagement and higher self-rated team performance, over and above the effects of individual resilience. Multilevel analyses showed that team, but not individual, resilience predicted self-rated team performance. Practice implications include a need to focus on collective as well as individual behaviors in resilience-building. The measure provides a diagnostic instrument for teams and a scale to evaluate organizational interventions and research the relationship of resilience to other constructs.

  18. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  19. Towards a Resilience Metric Framework for Cyber-Physical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Friedberg, Ivo; McLaughlin, Kieran; Smith, Paul; Wurzenberger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is widely accepted as a desirable system property for cyber-physical systems. However, there are no metrics that can be used to measure the resilience of cyber-physical systems (CPS) while the multi-dimensional nature of performance in these systems is considered. In this work, we present first results towards a resilience metric framework. The key contributions of this framework are threefold: First, it allows to evaluate resilience with respect to different performance indicators...

  20. Evaluating the Resilience of the Bottom-up Method used to Detect and Benchmark the Smartness of University Campuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannella, Carlo; Andone, Diana; Dascalu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    A new method to perform a bottom-up extraction and benchmark of the perceived multilevel smartness of complex ecosystems has been recently described and applied to territories and learning ecosystems like university campuses and schools. In this paper we study the resilience of our method...... by comparing and integrating the data collected in several European Campuses during two different academic years, 2014-15 and 2015-16. The overall results are: a) a more adequate and robust definition of the orthogonal multidimensional space of representation of the smartness, and b) the definition...

  1. Evaluation of vegetation post-fire resilience in the Alpine region using descriptors derived from MODIS spectral index time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Colombo, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    In this study a method based on the analysis of MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series is proposed to estimate the post-fire resilience of mountain vegetation (broadleaf forest and prairies) in the Italian Alps. Resilience is defined herewith as the ability of a dynamical system to counteract disturbances. It can be quantified by the amount of time the disturbed system takes to resume, in statistical terms, an ecological functionality comparable with its undisturbed behavior. Satellite images of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) with spatial resolution of 250m and temporal resolution of 16 days in the 2000-2012 time period were used. Wildfire affected areas in the Lombardy region between the years 2000 and 2010 were analysed. Only large fires (affected area >40ha) were selected. For each burned area, an undisturbed adjacent control site was located. Data pre-processing consisted in the smoothing of MODIS time series for noise removal and then a double logistic function was fitted. Land surface phenology descriptors (proxies for growing season start/end/length and green biomass) were extracted in order to characterize the time evolution of the vegetation. Descriptors from a burned area were compared to those extracted from the respective control site by means of the one-way analysis of variance. According to the number of subsequent years which exhibit statistically meaningful difference between burned and control site, five classes of resilience were identified and a set of thematic maps was created for each descriptor. The same method was applied to all 84 aggregated events and to events aggregated by main land cover. EVI index results more sensitive to fire impact than NDVI index. Analysis shows that fire causes both a reduction of the biomass and a variation in the phenology of the Alpine vegetation. Results suggest an average ecosystem resilience of 6-7 years. Moreover

  2. Of resilient places: planning for urban resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmood, Abid

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that resilience of a place cannot necessarily be associated only with the level of its vulnerability to the environment or security. A place-based perspective to resilience helps understand the capacity of communities to withstand or adapt with change. Resilience of a place does not only refer to contingencies—such as formulating immediate responses to crisis situations or incidents such as earthquakes, floods or other disasters in vulnerable areas—but also considers long-te...

  3. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social-ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

  4. Young Modulus of Crystalline Polyethylene from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Meier, Robert J.; Heinemann, M.; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    The Young modulus for crystalline polyethylene is calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics based on density functional theory in the local density approximation (DFT-LDA). This modulus, which can be seen as the ultimate value for the Young modulus of polyethylene fibers, is found to be 334 GPa.

  5. Effect of bulk modulus on performance of a hydrostatic transmission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    results demonstrates that bulk modulus should be considered as a variable parameter to obtain a more realistic model. Additionally, a PID controller is insufficient in presence of variable bulk modulus, whereas a fuzzy controller provides robust angular velocity control. Keywords. Hydrostatic transmission; bulk modulus; PID ...

  6. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  7. Dynamic modulus of nanosilica modified porous asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. K.; Masri, K. A.; Ahmad, J.; Samsudin, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) is a flexible pavement layer with high interconnected air void contents and constructed using open-graded aggregates. Due to high temperature environment and increased traffic volume in Malaysia, PA may have deficiencies particularly in rutting and stiffness of the mix. A possible way to improve these deficiencies is to improve the asphalt binder used. Binder is normally modified using polymer materials to improve its properties. However, nanotechnology presently is being gradually used for asphalt modification. Nanosilica (NS), a byproduct of rice husk and palm oil fuel ash is used as additive in this study. The aim of this study is to enhance the rutting resistance and stiffness performance of PA using NS. This study focused on the performance of PA in terms of dynamic modulus with the addition of NS modified binder to produce better and more durable PA. From the result of Dynamic SPT Test, it shows that the addition of NS was capable in enhancing the stiffness and rutting resistance of PA. The addition of NS also increase the dynamic modulus value of PA by 50%.

  8. Low modulus Ti–Nb–Hf alloy for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M., E-mail: Marta.Gonzalez.Colominas@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Materials Science, Elisava Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona, La Rambla 30-32, 08002 Barcelona (Spain); Peña, J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Materials Science, Elisava Escola Superior de Disseny i Enginyeria de Barcelona, La Rambla 30-32, 08002 Barcelona (Spain); Gil, F.J.; Manero, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    β-Type titanium alloys with a low elastic modulus are a potential strategy to reduce stress shielding effect and to enhance bone remodeling in implants used to substitute failed hard tissue. For biomaterial application, investigation on the mechanical behavior, the corrosion resistance and the cell response is required. The new Ti25Nb16Hf alloy was studied before and after 95% cold rolling (95% C.R.). The mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing and its corrosion behavior was analyzed by potentiostatic equipment in Hank's solution at 37 °C. The cell response was studied by means of cytotoxicity evaluation, cell adhesion and proliferation measurements. The stress–strain curves showed the lowest elastic modulus (42 GPa) in the cold worked alloy and high tensile strength, similar to that of Ti6Al4V. The new alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance in terms of open circuit potential (E{sub OCP}), but was similar in terms of corrosion current density (i{sub CORR}) compared to Ti grade II. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the chemical composition of the alloy does not induce cytotoxic activity. Cell studies in the new alloy showed a lower adhesion and a higher proliferation compared to Ti grade II presenting, therefore, mechanical features similar to those of human cortical bone and, simultaneously, a good cell response. - Highlights: • Presents low elastic modulus and high strength and elastic deformability. • Exhibits good biocompatibility in terms of cytotoxicity and cell response. • Corrosion resistance of this alloy is good, similar to that of Ti grade II. • Potential candidate for implants used to substitute failed hard tissue.

  9. Building Resilience in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to succeed in life. That is why Kenneth Ginsburg, M.D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing ... resilience in children, teens, and young adults. Dr. Ginsburg has identified seven “C”s of resilience, recognizing that “ ...

  10. Resiliant Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task goal is to develop and demonstrate an innovative software architecture, the “Resilient Spacecraft Executive”, that will enable highly-resilient...

  11. Developing the resilience typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in resilience in internal crisis management and crisis communication. How an organization can build up resilience as a response to organisational crisis, at a time when the amount of crises seem only to increase, is more relevant than ever before. Nevertheless resilience...... is often perceived in the literature as something certain organisations have by definition, without further reflection on what it is that creates this resiliency. This article explores what it is that creates organisational resilience, and in view of the different understandings of the resilience...... phenomenon, develops a typology of resilience. Furthermore the resilience phenomenon is discussed against the definition of a crisis as a cosmological episode, and implications for future research is discussed and summarized....

  12. The evaluation of microleakage and bond strength of a silicone-based resilient liner following denture base surface pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Duygu; Sarac, Y Sinasi; Basoglu, Tarik; Yapici, Oktay; Yuzbasioglu, Emir

    2006-02-01

    The failure of adhesion between a silicone-based resilient liner and a denture base is a significant clinical problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of denture base resin surface pretreatments with different chemical etchants preceding the silicone-based resilient liner application on microleakage and bond strength. The initial effects of chemical etchants on the denture base resin in terms of microstructural changes and flexural strength were also examined. Forty-two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin (Meliodent) specimens consisting of 2 plates measuring 30 x 30 x 2 mm were prepared and divided into 7 groups (n = 6). Specimen groups were treated by immersion in acetone for 30 (A30) or 45 (A45) seconds, methyl methacrylate monomer for 180 (M180) seconds, and methylene chloride for 5 (MC5), 15 (MC15) or 30 (MC30) seconds. Group C had no surface treatment and served as the control. Subsequently, an adhesive (Mollosil) and a silicone-based resilient denture liner (Mollosil) were applied to the treated surfaces, and all specimens were immersed in the radiotracer solution (thalium-201 chloride) for 24 hours. Tracer activity (x-ray counts), as a parameter of microleakage, was measured using a gamma camera. For bond-strength measurement, 84 rectangular PMMA specimens (10 x 10 x 40 mm) were surface-smoothed for bonding and treated with the different chemical etchants using the same previously described group configurations. The adhesive and the silicone-based denture liner were applied to the treated surfaces. Tensile bond-strength (MPa) was measured in a universal testing machine. Flexural strength measurement was performed with 49 PMMA specimens (65 x 10 x 3.3 mm according to ISO standard 1567) in 7 groups (n = 7), with 1 flat surface of each treated with 1 of the chemical etchants preceding adhesive application. The flexural strength (MPa) was measured using a 3-point bending test in a universal testing machine. The data were

  13. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience —A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas depending...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just...the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of

  14. A two-crown finite element technique for the determination of tearing modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, X.Z.; Combescure, A.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of approach to the subject of crack instability for the design of structures containing cracks has increased considerably over the last few years. The tearing modulus theory recently enunciated by Paris and co-workers has emerged as one of the leading criterions for stable crack growth and for instability, and the estimation of T termed Tearing modulus in the theory has since been extensively investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Analytical methods exist for calculating the tearing modulus of various crack configurations in simple-shaped structures under certain loading conditions. However, for arbitrary structures under general loading, more sophisticated calculation techniques are required. Extending the virtual crack extension method introduced independently by Hellen and Parks, a new numerical approach for calculating the tearing modulus is presented hereafter and put in a form suitable for the instability analysis of structures containing one single crack or several interacting cracks. As it is well-known that the calculation of the energy release rate in elasticity by the virtual crack extension method is related to a stiffness derivative to which only a small region around the crack tip has a contribution, the technique described in the paper shows that it would be reasonable to evaluate the tearing modulus, or rather, the second derivative of potential energy with respect to the crack length, by means of two stiffness derivative calculations in two crowns around the crack tip. In particular, when one crown is strictly included in another one, computation is largely curtailed at this point with some saving of computer time, but a very accurate value of tearing modulus is obtained. As an interesting consequence, an another expression of the tearing modulus is carried out. In Section 4: the classical tearing modulus is proved to be precisely equivalent to a line integral which is independent of integration path. Numerical example

  15. Geometrical modulus of a casting and its influence on solidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Havlicek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Object: The work analyses the importance of the known criterion for evaluating the controlled solidification of castings, so called geometrical modulus defined by N. Chvorinov as the first one. Geometrical modulus influences the solidification process. The modulus has such specificity that during the process of casting formation it is not a constant but its initial value decreases with the solidification progress because the remaining melt volume can decrease faster than its cooling surface.Methodology: The modulus is determined by a simple calculation from the ratio of the casting volume after pouring the metal in the mould to the cooled mould surface. The solidified metal volume and the cooled surface too are changed during solidification. That calculation is much more complicated. Results were checked up experimentally by measuring the temperatures in the cross-section of heavy steel castings during cooling them.Results: The given experimental results have completed the original theoretical calculations by Chvorinov and recent researches done with use of numerical calculations. The contribution explains how the geometrical modulus together with the thermal process in the casting causes the higher solidification rate in the axial part of the casting cross-section and shortening of solidification time. Practical implications: Change of the geometrical modulus negatively affects the casting internal quality. Melt feeding by capillary filtration in the dendritic network in the casting central part decreases and in such a way the shrinkage porosity volume increases. State of stress character in the casting is changed too and it increases.

  16. Development of a framework for resilience measurement: Suggestion of fuzzy Resilience Grade (RG) and fuzzy Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammad Fam, Iraj; Nirumand, Fereshteh

    2017-01-01

    Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes. Considering the resilience potential measurement as a concern in complex working systems, the aim of this study was to quantify the resilience by the help of fuzzy sets and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. In this paper, we adopted the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method to measure resilience in a gas refinery plant. A resilience assessment framework containing six indicators, each with its own sub-indicators, was constructed. Then, the fuzzy weights of the indicators and the sub-indicators were derived from pair-wise comparisons conducted by experts. The fuzzy evaluating vectors of the indicators and the sub-indicators computed according to the initial assessment data. Finally, the Comprehensive Resilience Index (CoRI), Resilience Grade (RG), and Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG) were established. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, an illustrative example in a gas refinery complex (an instance of socio-technical systems) was provided. CoRI of the refinery ranked as "III". In addition, for the six main indicators, RG and REWG ranked as "III" and "NEWZ", respectively, except for C3, in which RG ranked as "II", and REWG ranked as "OEWZ". The results revealed the engineering practicability and usefulness of the proposed method in resilience evaluation of socio-technical systems.

  17. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...... and resources. This poster will present the conceptual framework for this project focusing on species resilience....

  18. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  19. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial agents on Acanthamoeba sp. and evidence of a natural resilience to amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Taravaud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The free-living amoeba (FLA Acanthamoeba sp. is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause amoebic keratitis (AK or granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE. While current treatments of AK are long with some relapses, no consensus therapy has been developed for GAE remaining lethal in 90% of the cases. In this context, efficient antiacanthamoebal drugs have to be identified. In this work, 15 drugs used in the treatment of AK or GAE or in other parasitic diseases were evaluated for their in vitro activity on A. castellanii. Hexamidine, voriconazole and clotrimazole exhibited the highest activities with IC50 values at 0.05 μM, 0.40 μM and 0.80 μM, respectively, while rifampicin, metronidazole and cotrimoxazole were inactive. Among 15 drug associations evaluated, no synergistic effect was observed, and one antagonism was determined between hexamidine and chlorhexidine. Interestingly, amphotericin B was the only drug presenting an increase of IC50 as a function of treatment duration. The amoebae susceptibility to amphotericin B cultured in the presence of 250 μM of the drug was similar to the one of a naive control, revealing that no resistant strain could be selected. However, the amoebae susceptibility always returned to an initial level at each passage. This natural and non-acquired adaptation to amphotericin B, qualified as resilience, was observed in several strains of A. castellanii and A. polyphaga. Using a pharmacological approach with effectors of different cellular mechanisms or transports, and an ultrastructural analysis of amphotericin B-treated amoebae, the involvement of several mitochondria-dependent pathways as well as multidrug resistant transporters was determined in amphotericin B resilience. Based on the observations from this study, the relevance of using amphotericin B in GAE treatments may be reconsidered, while the use of some other drugs, such as rifampicin or cotrimoxazole, is not relative

  20. Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Hoess, Andreas; Thersleff, Thomas; Ott, Marjam; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Some of the current clinical and biomechanical data suggest that vertebroplasty causes the development of adjacent vertebral fractures shortly after augmentation. These findings have been attributed to high injection volumes as well as high Young's moduli of PMMA bone cements compared to that of the osteoporotic cancellous bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of castor oil as a plasticizer for PMMA bone cements. The Young's modulus, yield strength, maximum polymerization temperature, doughing time, setting time and the complex viscosity curves during curing, were determined. The cytotoxicity of the materials extracts was assessed on cells of an osteoblast-like cell line. The addition of up to 12 wt% castor oil decreased yield strength from 88 to 15 MPa, Young's modulus from 1500 to 446 MPa and maximum polymerization temperature from 41.3 to 25.6°C, without affecting the setting time. However, castor oil seemed to interfere with the polymerization reaction, giving a negative effect on cell viability in a worst-case scenario.

  1. Reliability, resilience and vulnerability criteria for the evaluation of time-dependent health risks: A hypothetical case study of wellhead protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.; Bolster, D.

    2012-12-01

    A hypothetical case study of groundwater contaminant protection was carried out using time-dependent health risk calculations. The case study focuses on a hypothetical zoning project for parcels of land around a well field in northern Indiana, where the control of cancer risk relative to a mandated cancer risk threshold is of concern in the management strategy. Within our analysis, we include both uncertainty in the subsurface transport and variability in population behavior in the calculation of time-dependent health risks. From these results we introduce risk maps, a visual representation of the probability of an unacceptable health risk as a function of population behavior and the time at which exposure to the contaminant begins. We also evaluate the time-dependent risks with three criteria from water resource literature: reliability, resilience, and vulnerability (RRV). With respect to health risk from a groundwater well, the three criteria determine: the probability that a well produces safe water (reliability), the probability that a contaminated well returns to an uncontaminated state within a specified time interval (resilience), and the overall severity in terms of health impact of the contamination at a well head (vulnerability). The results demonstrate that the distributions of RRV values for each parcel of land are linked to the time-dependent concentration profile of the contaminant at the well, and the toxicological characteristics of the contaminant. The proposed time-dependent risk calculation expands on current techniques to include a continuous exposure start time, capable of reproducing the maximum risk while providing information on the severity and duration of health risks. Overall this study suggests that, especially in light of the inherent complexity of health-groundwater systems, RRV are viable criteria for relatively simple and effective evaluation of time-dependent health risk. It is argued that the RRV approach, as applied to

  2. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  3. The importance of being resilient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, J.

    2012-04-01

    Despite many efforts to pin down resilience in terms of measurable indicators and indices, there is little agreement about what is the most appropriate scale, level of (dis)integration, functional relationship and trade-off between the various constituents of resilience. More than anything else, resilience is knowledge. Knowing how to prepare, respond and recover from hazard strikes. More than that, resilience is a capacity to deploy that knowledge. To help oneself to get back on feet after having sustained a blow. To learn how to. Resilience has many forms and manifestations. People convalescing after having lost what was dear to them. Communities recovering from shattering blows. Economies getting back on track after having sustained major shocks and losses. However, resilience has also negative connotation: the persistent overlooking of the threat and perceived powerlessness of individuals, in front of unacquainted community or nonsensical institutions, to make any difference. During the flood emergency situations, the community resilience is determined at individual level by the willpower and readiness of community members to help others in need ('we don't step away') and themselves, and the degree to which they know how to. In this sense, the preparedness comprises capability and experience that can be acquired or trained, and commitment which is transmitted by moral obligation and community membership. In the most cases it is not the professional staff trained for emergency situation which arrives as first at the place of disaster, however well the emergency response is organised. Before the professional rescue teams, the ordinary people intervene, or can do so, with positive or negative outcomes. The articles revisits recent flood events and identify factors and measures that boost community resilience to flood (REF). In Italy, the analysed events included 2000 Soverato, 2006 Vibo Valentia floods, both places situated in Calabria on Ionian and Tyrrhenian

  4. Performance Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt with Different Proportions of RAP Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil Arshad, Ahmad; Awang, Haryati; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2018-03-01

    Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is old asphalt pavement that has been removed from a road by milling or full depth removal. The use of RAP in hot mix asphalt (HMA) eliminates the need to dispose old asphalt pavements and conserves asphalt binders and aggregates, resulting in significant cost savings and benefits to society. This paper presents a study on HMA with different RAP proportions carried out to evaluate the volumetric properties and performance of asphalt mixes containing different proportions of RAP. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP) and asphalt mixes containing 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia for AC14 dense graded asphalt gradation. Volumetric analysis was performed to ensure that the result is compliance with specification requirements. The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while the Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The Hamburg wheel tracking test was used to evaluate the rutting performance of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility, resilient modulus and rutting resistance between asphalt mixes with RAP and the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% RAP material.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt with Different Proportions of RAP Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Arshad Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is old asphalt pavement that has been removed from a road by milling or full depth removal. The use of RAP in hot mix asphalt (HMA eliminates the need to dispose old asphalt pavements and conserves asphalt binders and aggregates, resulting in significant cost savings and benefits to society. This paper presents a study on HMA with different RAP proportions carried out to evaluate the volumetric properties and performance of asphalt mixes containing different proportions of RAP. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP and asphalt mixes containing 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia for AC14 dense graded asphalt gradation. Volumetric analysis was performed to ensure that the result is compliance with specification requirements. The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while the Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The Hamburg wheel tracking test was used to evaluate the rutting performance of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility, resilient modulus and rutting resistance between asphalt mixes with RAP and the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% RAP material.

  6. Full deflection profile calculation and Young’s modulus optimisation for engineered high performance materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, A.; Pullen, A. D.; Latham, J. P.; Bowen, J.; Carlsson, M.; Stitt, E. H.; Marigo, M.

    2017-04-01

    New engineered materials have critical applications in different fields in medicine, engineering and technology but their enhanced mechanical performances are significantly affected by the microstructural design and the sintering process used in their manufacture. This work introduces (i) a methodology for the calculation of the full deflection profile from video recordings of bending tests, (ii) an optimisation algorithm for the characterisation of Young’s modulus, (iii) a quantification of the effects of optical distortions and (iv) a comparison with other standard tests. The results presented in this paper show the capabilities of this procedure to evaluate the Young’s modulus of highly stiff materials with greater accuracy than previously possible with bending tests, by employing all the available information from the video recording of the tests. This methodology extends to this class of materials the possibility to evaluate both the elastic modulus and the tensile strength with a single mechanical test, without the need for other experimental tools.

  7. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  8. Evaluation of tensile bond strength of heat cure and autopolymerizing silicone-based resilient denture liners before and after thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Nishtha; Datta, Kusum

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effect of simulated mouth conditions reproduced with thermocycling on the tensile bond strength of two silicone based resilient denture liners with acrylic resin bases. Two silicone-based soft denture liners (Mollosil - Chairside autopolymerization and Molloplast B - Heat polymerization) were tested. For each liner, 30 specimens with a cross-sectional area of 10 Χ 10 mm and thickness 3 mm were processed between two acrylic blocks (Trevalon). Specimens were divided into a control group that was stored for 24 hours in water at 37°C and a test group that was thermocycled (2500 cycles) between baths of 5° and 55°C. Tensile bond strength (kg/cm²) was determined in a universal testing machine using crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The student t-test was used to determine the significance of the difference in bond strength between the two liners. The mean tensile bond strength for control and thermocycled specimens of the two liners were: Mollosil (6.82 kg/cm² and 8.41 kg/cm²) and Molloplast-B (16.30 kg/cm² and 13.67 kg/cm²), respectively. Comparison of bond strength of control specimens with thermocycled specimens of the liners indicated a significant difference for both Mollosil (P=0.045) and Molloplast-B (P=0.027). Comparison between control specimens of both liners and thermocycled specimens of both liners indicated a highly significant difference (Ptensile bond strength than autopolymerizing liner Mollosil regardless of thermocycling. The bond strength of Mollosil increased after thermocycling while that of Molloplast-B decreased after thermocycling. Although heat-polymerized denture liners require more processing time than autopolymerizing liners, but they display much better adhesion properties to denture base resin and should thus be preferred when soft liner has to be used for a longer duration of time.

  9. Generic metrics and quantitative approaches for system resilience as a function of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Devanandham; Emmanuel Ramirez-Marquez, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Resilience is generally understood as the ability of an entity to recover from an external disruptive event. In the system domain, a formal definition and quantification of the concept of resilience has been elusive. This paper proposes generic metrics and formulae for quantifying system resilience. The discussions and graphical examples illustrate that the quantitative model is aligned with the fundamental concept of resilience. Based on the approach presented it is possible to analyze resilience as a time dependent function in the context of systems. The paper describes the metrics of network and system resilience, time for resilience and total cost of resilience. Also the paper describes the key parameters necessary to analyze system resilience such as the following: disruptive events, component restoration and overall resilience strategy. A road network example is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed resilience metrics and how these analyses form the basis for developing effective resilience design strategies. The metrics described are generic enough to be implemented in a variety of applications as long as appropriate figures-of-merit and the necessary system parameters, system decomposition and component parameters are defined. - Highlights: ► Propose a graphical model for the understanding of the resilience process. ► Mathematical description of resilience as a function of time. ► Identification of necessary concepts to define and evaluate network resilience. ► Development of cost and time to recovery metrics based on resilience formulation.

  10. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  11. Psychological resilience contributes to low emotional distress in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Sujung; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Chul; Song, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Suk

    2013-09-01

    Although a considerable number of cancer patients suffer from emotional distress which may have an impact on their quality of life, it still remains poorly understood which psychosocial factors contribute to individual vulnerabilities to emotional distress of cancer patients. Recently, resilience has been suggested as the capacity to cope with adversities like cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationships between resilience and emotional distress in cancer patients. One hundred fifty-two cancer patients who were consecutively hospitalized for their scheduled treatments at the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were enrolled and completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale to measure resilience and emotional distress. The relationships between the levels of psychological resilience and emotional distress were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Psychological resilience levels were negatively associated with emotional distress after controlling for relevant covariates. The highest quartile of resilience level was associated with a 90% (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.34, P cancer patients, resilience was also found to be a significant protective factor for emotional distress (adjusted OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.79, P = 0.02). The present study suggests that psychological resilience may independently contribute to low emotional distress in cancer patients. The relationship between resilience and emotional distress was also significant in the subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. Psychosocial interventions to enhance resilience might provide useful approaches to overcome cancer-related emotional distress.

  12. Magnetic-field-dependent shear modulus of a magnetorheological elastomer based on natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In-Hyung; Yoon, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Jae-Eun; Jeong, Un-Chang; Kim, Jin-Su; Chung, Kyung Ho; Oh, Jae-Eung

    2013-01-01

    A magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) is a smart material that has a reversible and variable modulus in a magnetic field. Natural rubber, which has better physical properties than silicone matrices, was used as a matrix in the fabrication of the MREs used in this study. Carbonyl iron powder (CIP), which has a rapid magnetic reaction, was selected as a magnetic material to generate the magnetic-field-dependent modulus in the MREs. The MRE specimens were cured in an anisotropic mold, which could be used to induce a uniaxial magnetic field via permanent magnets, to control the orientation of the CIP, and the shear modulus of the MREs was evaluated under a magnetic field induced by using a magnetic flux generator (MFG). Because the use of a conventional evaluation system to determine the magnetic-field-dependent shear modulus of the MREs was difficult, an evaluation system based on single degree-of-freedom vibration and electromagnetics that included an MFG, which is a device that generates a magnetic field via a variable induced current, was designed. An electromagnetic finite element method (FEM) analysis and design of experiments (DoE) techniques were employed to optimize the magnetic flux density generated by the MFG. The optimized system was verified over the range to determine the magnetic flux density generated by the MFG in order to use a magnetic circuit analysis to identify the existence of magnetic saturation. A variation in the shear modulus was observed with increasing CIP volume fraction and induced current. The experimental results revealed that the maximum variation in the shear modulus was 76.3% for 40 vol% CIP at an induced current of 4 A. With these results, the appropriate CIP volume fraction, induced current, and design procedure of the MFG can be proposed as guidelines for applications of MREs based on natural rubber.

  13. New resilience instrument for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Liang, Mu Zi; Li, Peng Fei; Sun, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Hu, Guang Yun; Yu, Yuan Liang; Wang, Shu Ni; Qiu, Hong Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Resilience is an important concept in the cancer literature and is a salient indicator of cancer survivorship. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new resilience instrument that is specific to patients with cancer diagnosis (RS-SC) in Mainland China. First, a resilience framework was constructed for patients with cancer diagnosis. Second, items were formulated based on the framework to reflect different aspects of resilience. Third, two rounds of expert panel discussion were performed to select important and relevant items. Finally, two cross-sectional studies were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Fifty-one items were generated based on the resilience framework and the final 25-item RS-SC resulted in a five-factor solution including Generic Elements, Benefit Finding, Support and Coping, Hope for the Future and Meaning for Existence, accounting for 64.72% of the variance. The Cronbach's α of the RS-SC was 0.825 and the test-retest reliability was 0.874. The RS-SC is a brief and specific self-report resilience instrument for Chinese patients with cancer and shows sound psychometric properties in this study. The RS-SC has potential applications in both clinical practice and research with strength-based resiliency interventions.

  14. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  15. Influence of the type of measuring device in determining the static modulus of elasticity of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Araújo

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the results obtained in static modulus of elasticity tests of plain concrete cylindrical specimens. The purpose of this study is to identify and evaluate the influence of several factors involved in modulus of elasticity tests such as the strain measurement device used (dial indicators, electrical surface bonded strain gages, externally fixed strain gages and linear variation displacement transducer - LVDT, the type of concrete (Class C30 and Class C60 and cylindrical specimen size (100 mm x 200 mm and 150 mm x 300 mm. The modulus tests were done in two different laboratories in the Goiânia, GO region and were performed according to code ABNT NBR 8522:2008, which describes the initial tangent modulus test, characterized by strains measured at tension values of 0.5 MPa and 30% of the ultimate load. One hundred and sixty specimens were tested with statistically satisfactory results. It was concluded that the type of strain measurement device greatly influenced the modulus of elasticity results. Tests in specimens 100 mm x 200 mm showed highest statistical variation.

  16. Individual resilience in rural people: a Queensland study, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, D G; Buikstra, E; Baker, P; Rogers-Clark, C; Pearce, S; Ross, H; King, C; Watson-Luke, A

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of phase 1 of a study into community and individual resilience in rural Australians. The aim of the study was to develop, implement and evaluate a model that enhances psychological wellness in rural people and communities. The study used a critical participatory action research methodology to work in partnership with key individuals and groups in a rural community in Queensland which, anecdotally, was identified by its community representatives as having confronted and responded positively to and dealt with adversities such as drought, hailstorms and bushfire. A focus in the project was to identify vulnerable as well as resilient elements in individuals and the community, with an emphasis on identifying and then using existing individual, group and community resilience as exemplars for those who are less resilient. The study recognised that not all members of the community were resilient; clearly there are more and less resilient groups within this community. Additionally, it was acknowledged that resilience was not a steady state within an individual. Rather, an individual's level of resilience could vary over their lifetime. A participatory action research design was chosen for this study which aimed to identify individual and community resilience factors in a community. The study is being undertaken in three phases. In phase 1 of the study (the focus of this article), 10 in-depth interviews and one focus group (with four participants) were conducted. Individuals identified by a network of community service providers as being particularly resilient were selected to participate in this phase, with the aim of identifying these individuals' perceptions of individual and community resilience. This article reports on the factors identified that impact on the individual resilience of rural people. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data surrounding individual resilience revealed three themes: images of resilience; characteristics of

  17. The psychobiology of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2009-02-01

    Although adverse environments are well known to be a risk factor for psychopathology, many individuals respond adaptively to such environments. There is growing interest in the underlying mechanisms involved in such resilience. Several cognitive-affective processes may be involved, and these may be mediated by particular neuronal circuits and neurochemical systems. This article summarizes some of the relevant work on the role of fear conditioning, reward processing, and social behavior in resilience. There is a growing body of data on how particular gene-environment interactions affect these processes, and thus underpin resilience. Ultimately, a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning resilience may lead to novel interventions.

  18. Calculation of the shear modulus of a two-dimensional vortex lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ŠáŠik, R.; Stroud, D.

    1994-06-01

    We have calculated the temperature-dependent shear modulus μ(T) of a vortex lattice in a two-dimensional superconductor. We include fluctuations by expanding the Ginzburg-Landau free-energy functional in states from the lowest Landau level, and evaluate the shear modulus by standard Monte Carlo techniques for rectangular samples containing up to 224 vortices. At the thermodynamic melting transition, which is apparently first order as found by previous workers, the shear modulus falls from a finite value in the solid phase to zero in the liquid. Despite the first-order transition, the magnitude of the drop may be near the universal value envisioned in dislocation-unbinding theories.

  19. Effects of SBS Configuration on Performance of High Modulus Bitumen Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’ is obviously less than loss modulus (G”, which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The morphology indicated that star SBS improved the softening point more obviously, tending to form a cross-linked network in bitumen. As for linear SBS, it is dispersed in bitumen in the form of globules and enhances the ductility of binder.

  20. Determination of elastic modulus in nickel alloy from ultrasonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    als scientists, and solid-state theorists; they connect to tech- nological, structural economics and safety, to various mate- rials phenomena and to their fundamental interatomic forces. (Ledbetter 1983). In any material which is a multiphase alloy, the elastic modulus is determined by the modulus of the indi- vidual phases and ...

  1. Generalized Vector-Valued Sequence Spaces Defined by Modulus Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işik Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the vector-valued sequence spaces , , and , and , using a sequence of modulus functions and the multiplier sequence of nonzero complex numbers. We give some relations related to these sequence spaces. It is also shown that if a sequence is strongly -Cesàro summable with respect to the modulus function then it is -statistically convergent.

  2. On Young's modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    multi-walled nanotubes have a modulus > 1060 GPa (that of graphene sheet) is currently not understood. However, in the present paper, a novel analysis based on transmi- ssion electron microscopy of carbon nanotube/aluminum nanocomposites is given to calculate approximately the. Young's modulus of multi-walled ...

  3. Resilient moves: Tinkering with practice theory to generate new ways of thinking about using resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Kay; Hart, Angie

    2015-07-01

    Recent public health policies have re-endorsed the key role all health and social care professionals have in tackling the social determinants of health inequalities. With inequalities firmly entrenched, and much theorising focused on reproduction rather than transformation, sustaining practitioner commitment and engagement with this work and maintaining confidence in achieving change is challenging. One increasingly popular way to intervene in practice to begin to address inequalities has been the use of resilience, even though resilience is frequently critiqued for its collusion with neoliberal imperatives in favouring individualised rather than socio-political responses. This article examines these concerns through the use of the practice turn and specifically 'slim-line' practice theory and 'tinkering' to explore the potential for reframing resilience theory and practice. Using an original data set derived from evaluations of resilience-based programmes, held with parents and practitioners between 2008 and 2012, this article re-examines participants' understandings of resilience. We show how practice theory reveals entangled and emergent meanings, competencies and materials that constitute resilience as a social practice comprised of resilient moves. The implications of this reframing are discussed in relation to ontology, agency and change; but also for resilience theory and practice and public health practices more generally. In conclusion, we argue practice theory's attention to context as more than mere backdrop to action helps shift inequality theorising beyond the individual and reproduction towards deeper, detailed social understandings of transformation and change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Stiffness modulus and creep properties of the coconut shell in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coconut shell (CS) is an agricultural waste engineered into a road construction material. This study was conducted to evaluate the stiffness modulus and dynamic creep properties of the asphaltic concrete containing CS as an aggregate replacement. A mixture design incorporating the bitumen penetration grade 60/70 was ...

  5. Influence of heat treatment and veneering on the storage modulus and surface of zirconia ceramic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siavikis, G.; Behr, M.; van der Zel, J.M.; Feilzer, A.J.; Rosentritt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Glass-ceramic veneered zirconia is used for the application as fixed partial dentures. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the heat treatment during veneering, the application of glass-ceramic for veneering or long term storage has an influence on the storage modulus of

  6. Cantilever-beam dynamic modulus for wood composite products. Part 1, apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Turk; John F. Hunt; David J. Marr

    2008-01-01

    A cantilever-beam vibration-testing apparatus has been developed to provide a means of dynamic and non-destructive evaluation of modulus of elasticity for small samples of wood or wood-composite material. The apparatus applies a known displacement to a cantilever beam and then releases the beam into its natural first-mode vibration and records displacement as a...

  7. Resilience and impact of children's intellectual disability on Indian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Anugraha Merin; John, Romate

    2017-12-01

    Resilience of parents in the context of raising a child with intellectual disability is gaining attention as a mechanism that addresses their inherent strengths to withstand the potential associated strain. Understanding its underlying factors has applications in fostering their resilience. The present study explored the resilience of parents and its relationship with the impact of child's disability. A total of 121 parents were assessed using Connor Davidson Resilience Scale and National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped Disability Impact Scale. The results revealed that parenting a child with intellectual disability posed them with both positive and negative experiences. Their evaluations about the condition of the child significantly influenced their resilience. The positive perceptions about the child's disability operated as a protective element, whereas their negative evaluations acted as a risk element of resilience. The findings have specific importance in designing interventions for families of persons with intellectual disability.

  8. A Novel Estimation Framework for Quality of Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2016-01-01

    satisfaction and a new reliability evaluation perspective has been presented through the measurement parameters. Moreover, the limitations of traditional reliability evaluation methods have been raised; accordingly, the selective resilience pa- rameter algorithm and the modern reliability evaluation method...

  9. How Resilience Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at coping skills that carry people through life and why some have them and others do not. Suggests that resilience is a reflex, a way of facing and understanding the world, and that resilient people and companies face reality with staunchness, make meaning out of hardship, and improvise. (JOW)

  10. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  11. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    . Whereas current safety approaches primarily aim to reduce or eliminate the number of things that go wrong, Resilient Health Care aims to increase and improve the number of things that go right. Just as the WHO argues that health is more than the absence of illness, so does Resilient Health Care argue...... rights reserved....

  12. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  13. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature...

  14. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...

  15. The Resilient Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of a Brief Web and Mobile Phone Intervention for Men With Depression: Men's Positive Coping Strategies and Associated Depression, Resilience, and Work and Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea Susan; Proudfoot, Judy; Whittle, Erin Louise; Clarke, Janine; Player, Michael J; Christensen, Helen; Wilhelm, Kay

    2017-08-10

    Previous research has identified that men experiencing depression do not always access appropriate health services. Web-based interventions represent an alternative treatment option for men, are effective in reducing anxiety and depression, and have potential for wide dissemination. However, men do not access Web-based programs at the same rate as women. Programs with content explicitly tailored to men's mental health needs are required. This study evaluated the applicability of Man Central, a new Web and mobile phone intervention for men with depression. The impact of the use of Man Central on depression, resilience, and work and social functioning was assessed. A recruitment flier was distributed via social media, email networks, newsletters, research registers, and partner organizations. A single-group, repeated measures design was used. The primary outcome was symptoms of depression. Secondary outcomes included externalizing symptoms, resilience, and work and social functioning. Man Central comprises regular mood, symptom, and behavior monitoring, combined with three 15-min interactive sessions. Clinical features are grounded in cognitive behavior therapy and problem-solving therapy. A distinguishing feature is the incorporation of positive strategies identified by men as useful in preventing and managing depression. Participants were directed to use Man Central for a period of 4 weeks. Linear mixed modeling with intention-to-treat analysis assessed associations between the intervention and the primary and secondary outcomes. A total of 144 men aged between 18 and 68 years and with at least mild depression enrolled in the study. The symptoms most often monitored by men included motivation (471 instances), depression (399), sleep (323), anxiety (316), and stress (262). Reminders were scheduled by 60.4% (87/144). Significant improvements were observed in depression symptoms (Pdepression risk, and externalizing symptoms (Psocial functioning (Pdepressive symptoms

  17. From Risk to Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    This thesis investigates unpredictability in contemporary disaster and emergency management. The thesis traces the shift from risk thinking towards the resilience approach that has recently characterized the field. It asks how resilience manifests itself in practice and discusses how to incorporate...... this approach into preparedness planning to improve the ability of socio-technological systems to cope with unexpected disruptions. Those working in the field understand resilience as a broad umbrella term linked to risk thinking and concerned with flexible systems that are able to absorb and adapt...... resilience and complexity discourses in an attempt to conjoin the two concepts. This broad discussion leads into a case study of resilience thinking in contemporary disaster and emergency management: preparedness planning for long-term disruptions of the Øresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden. Through...

  18. Zoogeomorphology and resilience theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Anzah, Faisal; Goff, Paepin D.; Villa, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Zoogeomorphology, the study of animals as geomorphic agents, has been largely overlooked in the context of resilience theory and biogeomorphic systems. In this paper, examples are provided of the interactions between external landscape disturbances and zoogeomorphological agents. We describe cases in which naturally occurring zoogeomorphological agents occupy a landscape, and examine whether those zoogeomorphic agents provide resilience to a landscape or instead serve as a landscape stress capable of inducing a phase-state shift. Several cases are described whereby the presence of exotic (introduced) zoogeomorphic agents overwhelms a landscape and induce collapse. The impact of climate change on species with zoogeomorphological importance is discussed in the context of resilience of a landscape. We conclude with a summary diagram illustrating the relationships existing between zoogeomorphic impacts and landscape resilience in the context of our case studies, and speculate about the future of the study of zoogeomorphology in the framework of resilience theory.

  19. Effect of LED light-curing time for the adhesive resin on the modulus of elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senawongse, Pisol; Harnirattisai, Choltacha; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the elastic modulus of successive layers where an adhesive resin was cured by different light-curing times. Eighty dentin discs which were 2 mm thick were prepared from 40 sound third molars. The dentin discs were further divided into four groups and bonded with 3M Single Bond 2 and cured with an LED for 5, 10, 15 and 20s. Bonded specimens were restored with a microhybrid resin composite. Specimens were cut perpendicular to the resin dentin interface, embedded in epoxy resin, and polished. Polished specimens were evaluated for the elastic modulus at the layer of dentin, hybrid layer, adhesive resin, and resin composite at 24 hours after preparation. Light-curing times influenced the elastic modulus of hybrid layer and adhesive resin. The significant differences of elastic modulus among successive layers were found. The results suggested that extension of light-curing times of adhesive resin from 5 to 20 seconds increased the mechanical properties of the resin dentin interface.

  20. Ultrasonic measurement of viscoelastic shear modulus development in hydrating cement paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Subramaniam, Kolluru V; Lin, Fengbao

    2010-06-01

    A test procedure for measuring changes in amplitude and phase of SH ultrasonic waves from the interface between fused-quartz and cement paste samples is presented. The phase change is determined from the temporal shift in the reflected signal relative to the incident signal. The sensitivity of the measured parameters to changes in acoustic impedance of the materials in contact with fused-quartz is evaluated for different angles of incidence. It is shown that a reflection measurement at normal incidence at nano-second temporal resolution does not provide sufficient sensitivity to measure the viscous component of shear modulus of low viscosity fluids and cannot be applied to cement paste while it is in a fluid state. Monitoring the measured amplitude and phase at oblique angle of incidence allows for measuring fluids with acoustic impedance comparable to cement paste. The reflection measurements are used to determine the evolution of elastic and viscous components of shear modulus cement paste with time. Influence of sampling rate and temperature effects on the phase measurements are evaluated and shown to be significant. It is shown that the initial loss of workability of cement paste through setting process is associated with a larger relative increase in the viscous component of shear modulus. Following the initial rapid rise of the viscous component of shear modulus, there is a larger relative increase in the elastic component, which can be related to the emergence of a solid structure capable of retaining an imprint. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the resilience of a real-world social-ecological system: lessons from a multidisciplinary evaluation of a South African pastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Linstädter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, social-ecological systems (SESs worldwide have undergone dramatic transformations with often detrimental consequences for livelihoods. Although resilience thinking offers promising conceptual frameworks to understand SES transformations, empirical resilience assessments of real-world SESs are still rare because SES complexity requires integrating knowledge, theories, and approaches from different disciplines. Taking up this challenge, we empirically assess the resilience of a South African pastoral SES to drought using various methods from natural and social sciences. In the ecological subsystem, we analyze rangelands' ability to buffer drought effects on forage provision, using soil and vegetation indicators. In the social subsystem, we assess households' and communities' capacities to mitigate drought effects, applying agronomic and institutional indicators and benchmarking against practices and institutions in traditional pastoral SESs. Our results indicate that a decoupling of livelihoods from livestock-generated income was initiated by government interventions in the 1930s. In the post-apartheid phase, minimum-input strategies of herd management were adopted, leading to a recovery of rangeland vegetation due to unintentionally reduced stocking densities. Because current livelihood security is mainly based on external monetary resources (pensions, child grants, and disability grants, household resilience to drought is higher than in historical phases. Our study is one of the first to use a truly multidisciplinary resilience assessment. Conflicting results from partial assessments underline that measuring narrow indicator sets may impede a deeper understanding of SES transformations. The results also imply that the resilience of contemporary, open SESs cannot be explained by an inward-looking approach because essential connections and drivers at other scales have become relevant in the globalized world. Our study thus has

  2. Defining resilience: A preliminary integrative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Bonnie; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The term “resilience” is ubiquitous in technical literature; it appears in numerous forms, such as resilience, resiliency, or resilient, and each use may have a different definition depending on the interpretation of the writer. This creates difficulties in understanding what is meant by ‘resilience’ in any given use case, especially in discussions of interdisciplinary research. To better understand this problem, this research constructs a preliminary integrative literature review to map different definitions, applications and calculation methods of resilience invoked within critical infrastructure applications. The preliminary review uses a State-of-the-Art Matrix (SAM) analysis to characterize differences in definition across disciplines and between regions. Qualifying the various usages of resilience will produce a greater precision in the literature and a deeper insight into types of data required for its evaluation, particularly with respect to critical infrastructure calculations and how such data may be analyzed. Results from this SAM analysis will create a framework of key concepts as part of the most common applications for “resilient critical infrastructure” modeling.

  3. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  4. A review of definitions and measures of system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyedmohsen; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and evaluating the resilience of systems, potentially complex and large-scale in nature, has recently raised significant interest among both practitioners and researchers. This recent interest has resulted in several definitions of the concept of resilience and several approaches to measuring this concept, across several application domains. As such, this paper presents a review of recent research articles related to defining and quantifying resilience in various disciplines, with a focus on engineering systems. We provide a classification scheme to the approaches in the literature, focusing on qualitative and quantitative approaches and their subcategories. Addressed in this review are: an extensive coverage of the literature, an exploration of current gaps and challenges, and several directions for future research. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of definitions and measures of system resilience. • Focus given to resilience in engineering systems is provided. • Nearly 150 articles across several domains are reviewed. • Future directions in resilience research are discussed.

  5. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Bassett, G.W.; Buehring, W.A.; Collins, M.J., III; Folga, S.M.; Petit, F.D.; Phillips, J.A.; Verner, D.R.; Whitfield, R.G. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-03

    There is strong agreement among policymakers, practitioners, and academic researchers that the concept of resilience must play a major role in assessing the extent to which various entities - critical infrastructure owners and operators, communities, regions, and the Nation - are prepared to respond to and recover from the full range of threats they face. Despite this agreement, consensus regarding important issues, such as how resilience should be defined, assessed, and measured, is lacking. The analysis presented here is part of a broader research effort to develop and implement assessments of resilience at the asset/facility and community/regional levels. The literature contains various definitions of resilience. Some studies have defined resilience as the ability of an entity to recover, or 'bounce back,' from the adverse effects of a natural or manmade threat. Such a definition assumes that actions taken prior to the occurrence of an adverse event - actions typically associated with resistance and anticipation - are not properly included as determinants of resilience. Other analyses, in contrast, include one or more of these actions in their definitions. To accommodate these different definitions, we recognize a subset of resistance- and anticipation-related actions that are taken based on the assumption that an adverse event is going to occur. Such actions are in the domain of resilience because they reduce both the immediate and longer-term adverse consequences that result from an adverse event. Recognizing resistance- and anticipation-related actions that take the adverse event as a given accommodates the set of resilience-related actions in a clear-cut manner. With these considerations in mind, resilience can be defined as: 'the ability of an entity - e.g., asset, organization, community, region - to anticipate, resist, absorb, respond to, adapt to, and recover from a disturbance.' Because critical infrastructure resilience is important

  7. Toward a digital resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn J. Wright

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As we contend with human impacts on the biosphere, there is rightfully a great emphasis now on community adaptation and resilience to climate change. Recent innovations in information technologies and analyses are helping communities to become more resilient. However, not often discussed in this vein is a path toward digital resilience. If mapping and information tools are to help communities, it stands to reason that they must be resilient themselves, as well as the data that they are based on. In other words, digital tools can help make communities resilient by providing data, evidence-based advice on community decisions, etc., but the resilience of the tools themselves can also be an issue. Digital resilience means that to the greatest extent possible, data and tools should be freely accessible, interchangeable, operational, of high quality, and up-to-date so that they can help give rise to the resilience of communities or other entities using them. Given the speed at which humans are altering the biosphere, the usefulness and effectiveness of these technologies must keep pace. This article reviews and recommends three fundamental digital practices, particularly from the standpoint of geospatial data and for community resilience and policy-making. These are: (1 create and implement a culture that consistently shares not only data, but workflows and use cases with the data, especially within maps and geographic information systems or GIS; (2 use maps and other visuals to tell compelling stories that many different kinds of audiences will understand and remember; and (3 be more open to different kinds of partnerships to reduce project costs, yield better results, and foster public awareness and behavioral change.

  8. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on Rd. Author Affiliations. M El Hamma1 R Daher1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences Aïn Chock, University of Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco. Dates.

  9. Frequency-dependent complex modulus of the uterus: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Miklos Z [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hobson, Maritza A [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Varghese, Tomy [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Harter, Josephine [Department of Surgical Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kliewer, Mark A [Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hartenbach, Ellen M [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zagzebski, James A [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    The frequency-dependent complex moduli of human uterine tissue have been characterized. Quantification of the modulus is required for developing uterine ultrasound elastography as a viable imaging modality for diagnosing and monitoring causes for abnormal uterine bleeding and enlargement, as well assessing the integrity of uterine and cervical tissue. The complex modulus was measured in samples from hysterectomies of 24 patients ranging in age from 31 to 79 years. Measurements were done under small compressions of either 1 or 2%, at low pre-compression values (either 1 or 2%), and over a frequency range of 0.1-100 Hz. Modulus values of cervical tissue monotonically increased from approximately 30-90 kPa over the frequency range. Normal uterine tissue possessed modulus values over the same range, while leiomyomas, or uterine fibroids, exhibited values ranging from approximately 60-220 kPa.

  10. Arithmetic convergent sequence space defined by modulus function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taja Yaying

    2019-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce the sequence spaces $AC(f$ and $AS(f$ using arithmetic convergence and modulus function, and study algebraic and topological properties of this space, and certain inclusion results.

  11. VALIDATION OF SMURF ESTIMATION OF SHEAR MODULUS IN HYDROGELS

    OpenAIRE

    MCALEAVEY, STEPHEN; COLLINS, ERIN; KELLY, JOHANNA; ELEGBE, ETANA; MENON, MANOJ

    2009-01-01

    A validation study of the Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF) method for shear modulus estimation is presented. SMURF estimates of uniform gelatin and Zerdine™ phantoms covering a modulus range of 2 to 18 kPa are compared with results obtained by unconfined mechanical compression and sonoelastography. The results show agreement within the measurement uncertainties over the range indicated for all three methods. Repeatability and variation on the order of 5% of the phantom m...

  12. Tissue modulus calculated from beam theory is biased by bone size and geometry: implications for the use of three-point bending tests to determine bone tissue modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenthe, G Harry; Voide, Romain; Boyd, Steven K; Müller, Ralph

    2008-10-01

    Current practice to determine bone tissue modulus of murine cortical bone is to estimate it from three-point bending tests, using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. However, murine femora are not perfect beams; hence, results can be inaccurate. Our aim was to assess the accuracy of beam theory, which we tested for two commonly used inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 (B6) and C3H/He (C3H). We measured the three-dimensional structure of male and female B6 and C3H femora (N=20/group) by means of micro-computed tomography. For each femur five micro-finite element (micro-FE) models were created that simulated three-point bending tests with varying distances between the supports. Tissue modulus was calculated from beam theory using micro-FE results. The accuracy of beam theory was assessed by comparing the beam theory-derived moduli with the modulus as used in the micro-FE analyses. An additional set of fresh-frozen femora (10 B6 and 12 C3H) was biomechanically tested and subjected to the same micro-FE analyses. These combined experimental-computational analyses enabled an unbiased assessment of specimen-specific tissue modulus. We found that by using beam theory, tissue modulus was underestimated for all femora. Femoral geometry and size had strong effects on beam theory-derived tissue moduli. Owing to their relatively thin cortex, underestimation was markedly higher for B6 than for C3H. Underestimation was dependent on support width in a strain-specific manner. From our combined experimental-computational approach we calculated tissue moduli of 12.0+/-1.3 GPa and 13.4+/-2.1 GPa for B6 and C3H, respectively. We conclude that tissue moduli in murine femora are strongly underestimated when calculated from beam theory. Using image-based micro-FE analyses we could precisely quantify this underestimation. We showed that previously reported murine inbred strain-specific differences in tissue modulus are largely an effect of geometric differences, not accounted for by beam theory. We

  13. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  14. Non-toxic invert analog glass compositions of high modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi are described. They and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consist essentially of, in mols, 15 to 40% SiO2, 6 to 15% Li2O, 24 to 45% of at least two bivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Ca, NzO, MgO and CuO; 13 to 39% of at least two trivalent oxides selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, La2O3, and Y2O3 and up to 15% of one or more tetravelent oxides selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2. The high modulus, low density glass compositions contain no toxic elements. The composition, glass density, Young's modulus, and specific modulus for 28 representative glasses are presented. The fiber modulus of five glasses are given.

  15. Validation of SMURF estimation of shear modulus in hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Stephen; Collins, Erin; Kelly, Johanna; Elegbe, Etana; Menon, Manoj

    2009-04-01

    A validation study of the Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF) method for shear modulus estimation is presented. SMURF estimates of uniform gelatin and Zerdine phantoms covering a modulus range of 2 to 18 kPa are compared with results obtained by unconfined mechanical compression and sonoelastography. The results show agreement within the measurement uncertainties over the range indicated for all three methods. Repeatability and variation on the order of 5% of the phantom modulus are found for observations made at a single point within the phantom. Averaging of modulus estimates from several adjacent scan lines further decreases the variation. By using multiple radiation force peaks to induce a shear wave of known wavelength and measure the frequency of the wave, SMURF obtains modulus estimates from tracking data acquired along a single A-line. This is significant, as speckle can bias the measured phase of the shear wave. SMURF is shown to be insensitive to a constant phase error in the shear wave measurement. This results in greatly reduced correlated noise in the modulus estimates, in contrast with methods which track at multiple locations and do not cancel phase errors.

  16. Determination of elastic modulus of ceramics using ultrasonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmita, Firmansyah; Wibisono, Gatot; Judawisastra, Hermawan; Priambodo, Toni Agung

    2018-04-01

    Elastic modulus is important material property on structural ceramics application. However, bending test as a common method for determining this property require particular specimen preparation. Furthermore, elastic modulus of ceramics could vary because it depends on porosity content. For structural ceramics industry, such as ceramic tiles, this property is very important. This drives the development of new method to improve effectivity or verification method as well. In this research, ultrasonic testing was conducted to determine elastic modulus of soda lime glass and ceramic tiles. The experiment parameter was frequency of probe (1, 2, 4 MHz). Characterization of density and porosity were also done for analysis. Results from ultrasonic testing were compared with elastic modulus resulted from bending test. Elastic modulus of soda-lime glass based on ultrasonic testing showed excellent result with error 2.69% for 2 MHz probe relative to bending test result. Testing on red and white ceramic tiles were still contained error up to 41% and 158%, respectively. The results for red ceramic tile showed trend that 1 MHz probe gave better accuracy in determining elastic modulus. However, testing on white ceramic tile showed different trend. It was due to the presence of porosity and near field effect.

  17. Effective elastic modulus of isolated gecko setal arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autumn, K; Majidi, C; Groff, R E; Dittmore, A; Fearing, R

    2006-09-01

    Conventional pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) are fabricated from soft viscoelastic materials that satisfy Dahlquist's criterion for tack with a Young's modulus (E) of 100 kPa or less at room temperature and 1 Hz. In contrast, the adhesive on the toes of geckos is made of beta-keratin, a stiff material with E at least four orders of magnitude greater than the upper limit of Dahlquist's criterion. Therefore, one would not expect a beta-keratin structure to function as a PSA by deforming readily to make intimate molecular contact with a variety of surface profiles. However, since the gecko adhesive is a microstructure in the form of an array of millions of high aspect ratio shafts (setae), the effective elastic modulus (E(eff)) is much lower than E of bulk beta-keratin. In the first test of the E(eff) of a gecko setal adhesive, we measured the forces resulting from deformation of isolated arrays of tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) setae during vertical compression, and during tangential compression at angles of +45 degrees and -45 degrees . We tested the hypothesis that E(eff) of gecko setae falls within Dahlquist's criterion for tack, and evaluated the validity of a model of setae as cantilever beams. Highly linear forces of deformation under all compression conditions support the cantilever model. E(eff) of setal arrays during vertical and +45 degrees compression (along the natural path of drag of the setae) were 83+/-4.0 kPa and 86+/-4.4 kPa (means +/- s.e.m.), respectively. Consistent with the predictions of the cantilever model, setae became significantly stiffer when compressed against the natural path of drag: E(eff) during -45 degrees compression was 110+/-4.7 kPa. Unlike synthetic PSAs, setal arrays act as Hookean elastic solids; setal arrays function as a bed of springs with a directional stiffness, assisting alignment of the adhesive spatular tips with the contact surface during shear loading.

  18. Psycho-social resilience, vulnerability and suicide prevention: impact evaluation of a mentoring approach to modify suicide risk for remote Indigenous Australian students at boarding school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Russo, Sandra; Rutherford, Katrina; Tsey, Komla; Wenitong, Mark; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Chris; Jacups, Susan

    2016-02-01

    The proposed study was developed in response to increased suicide risk identified in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students who are compelled to attend boarding schools across Queensland when there is no secondary schooling provision in their remote home communities. It will investigate the impact of a multicomponent mentoring intervention to increase levels of psychosocial resilience. We aim to test the null hypothesis that students' resilience is not positively influenced by the intervention. The 5-year project was funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council from December 2014. An integrated mixed methods approach will be adopted; each component iteratively informing the other. Using an interrupted time series design, the primary research methods are quantitative: 1) assessment of change in students' resilience, educational outcomes and suicide risk; and 2) calculation of costs of the intervention. Secondary methods are qualitative: 3) a grounded theoretical model of the process of enhancing students' psychosocial resilience to protect against suicide. Additionally, there is a tertiary focus on capacity development: more experienced researchers in the team will provide research mentorship to less experienced researchers through regular meetings; while Indigenous team members provide cultural mentorship in research practices to non-Indigenous members. Australia's suicide prevention policy is progressive but a strong service delivery model is lacking, particularly for Indigenous peoples. The proposed research will potentially improve students' levels of resilience to mitigate against suicide risk. Additionally, it could reduce the economic and social costs of Indigenous youth suicide by obtaining agreement on what is good suicide prevention practice for remote Indigenous students who transition to boarding schools for education, and identifying the benefits-costs of an evidence-based multi-component mentoring intervention to

  19. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Therefore the resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. Also, due to practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems future systems are likely to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. As a result the techniques that seek to improve resilience must navigate the complex trade-off space between resilience and the overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power efficiency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience using the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. Each established solution is described in the form of a pattern that

  20. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  1. Resistance and resilience: A conceptual framework for silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. DeRose; James N. Long

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, forest management goals include building or maintaining resistance and/or resilience to disturbances in the face of climate change. Although a multitude of descriptive definitions for resistance and resilience exist, to evaluate whether specific management activities (silviculture) are effective, prescriptive characterizations are necessary. We introduce...

  2. Resilience Does Not Predict Academic Performance in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Omana, Rodrigo Enrique; Garcia-Rodriguez, Maria de los Angeles; Hinojosa-Amaya, Jose Miguel; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud Enrique; Avilan, Rosa Ivette Guzman; Cruz, Juan Jose Bazaldua; Guzman-Lopez, Santos

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated resilience in an academic environment as it relates to academic success or failure. This work sought to assess resilience in regular and remedial students of gross anatomy during the first and second semesters of medical school and to correlate this personal trait with academic performance. Two groups of students were…

  3. Polymerization Shrinkage and Flexural Modulus of Flowable Dental Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Cavalcanti Xavier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear polymerization shrinkage (LPS, flexural strength (FS and modulus of elasticity (ME of low-viscosity resin composites (Admira Flow™, Grandio Flow™/VOCO; Filtek Z350 Flow™/3M ESPE; Tetric Flow™/Ivoclar-Vivadent was evaluated using a well-established conventional micro-hybrid composite as a standard (Filtek Z250™/3M ESPE. For the measurement of LPS, composites were applied to a cylindrical metallic mould and polymerized (n = 8. The gap formed at the resin/mould interface was observed using SEM (1500×. For FS and ME, specimens were prepared according to the ISO 4049 specifications (n = 10. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test. The conventional resin presented significantly lower LPS associated with high FS and ME, but only the ME values of the conventional resin differed significantly from the low-viscosity composites. The relationship between ME and LPS of low-viscosity resin composites when used as restorative material is a critical factor in contraction stress relief and marginal leakage.

  4. Rolling, slip and traction measurements on low modulus materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaarwerk, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Traction and wear tests were performed on six low modulus materials (LMM). Three different traction tests were performed to determine the suitability of the material for use as traction rollers. These were the rolling, slip and endurance traction tests. For each material the combination LMM on LMM and LMM on steel were evaluated. Rolling traction test were conducted to determine the load - velocity limits, the rolling traction coefficient of the materials and to establish the type of failures that would result when loading beyond the limit. It was found that in general a simple constant rolling traction coefficient was enough to describe the results of all the test. The slip traction tests revealed that the peak traction coefficients were considerably higher than for lubricated traction contacts. The endurance traction tests were performed to establish the durability of the LMM under conditions of prolonged traction. Wear measurements were performed during and after the test. Energetic wear rates were determined from the wear measurements conducted in the endurance traction tests. These values show that the roller wear is not severe when reasonable levels of traction are transmitted.

  5. Resilient Diffusive Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS TRUSTEES OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE FEBRUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...To) SEP 2011 – SEP 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-11-2-0257 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM...diversified virtual machines. The concepts lead to a view of cloud computing in which vulnerabilities are different at every host, attackers cannot

  6. Resilience and reworking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus; Fold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    of this article is to shed light on the agency of individual workers involved in rapid industrialization processes. In this endeavor we draw inspiration from recent contributions that have integrated Cindi Katz's threefold categorization of agency as reworking, resilience and resistance. In combination...... and resilience can be conceptualized as transformative trajectories - workers’ situated knowledge and practices evolve and change over time and is conditioned by the specific labor market contexts through which the individual moves....

  7. Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbesville, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff

  8. Latent resilience in ponderosa pine forest: effects of resumed frequent fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Larson; R. Travis Belote; C. Alina Cansler; Sean A. Parks; Matthew S. Dietz

    2013-01-01

    Ecological systems often exhibit resilient states that are maintained through negative feedbacks. In ponderosa pine forests, fire historically represented the negative feedback mechanism that maintained ecosystem resilience; fire exclusion reduced that resilience, predisposing the transition to an alternative ecosystem state upon reintroduction of fire. We evaluated...

  9. Variable modulus cellular structures using pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Michael E.; Niemiec, Robert J.; Gandhi, Farhan S.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a novel variable modulus cellular structure based on a hexagonal unit cell with pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) inclusions. The cell considered is pin-jointed, loaded in the horizontal direction, with three PAMs (one vertical PAM and two horizontal PAMs) oriented in an "H" configuration between the vertices of the cell. A method for calculation of the hexagonal cell modulus is introduced, as is an expression for the balance of tensile forces between the horizontal and vertical PAMs. An aluminum hexagonal unit cell is fabricated and simulation of the hexagonal cell with PAM inclusions is then compared to experimental measurement of the unit cell modulus in the horizontal direction with all three muscles pressurized to the same value over a pressure range up to 758 kPa. A change in cell modulus by a factor of 1.33 and a corresponding change in cell angle of 0.41° are demonstrated experimentally. A design study via simulation predicts that differential pressurization of the PAMs up to 2068 kPa can change the cell modulus in the horizontal direction by a factor of 6.83 with a change in cell angle of only 2.75°. Both experiment and simulation show that this concept provides a way to decouple the length change of a PAM from the change in modulus to create a structural unit cell whose in-plane modulus in a given direction can be tuned based on the orientation of PAMs within the cell and the pressure supplied to the individual muscles.

  10. Assessing the Relationship Between Social Vulnerability and Community Resilience to Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrand, Kelly; Mayer, Brian; Brumback, Babette; Zhang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the disaster literature by measuring and connecting two concepts that are highly related but whose relationship is rarely empirically evaluated: social vulnerability and community resilience. To do so, we measure community resilience and social vulnerability in counties across the United States and find a correlation between high levels of vulnerability and low levels of resilience, indicating that the most vulnerable counties also tend to be the least resilient. W...

  11. Intervention studies to foster resilience - A systematic review and proposal for a resilience framework in future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmitorz, A; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Tüscher, O; Kalisch, R; Kubiak, T; Wessa, M; Lieb, K

    2018-02-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the phenomenon that many people are able to adapt to the challenges of life and maintain mental health despite exposure to adversity. This has stimulated research on training programs to foster psychological resilience. We evaluated concepts, methods and designs of 43 randomized controlled trials published between 1979 and 2014 which assessed the efficacy of such training programs and propose standards for future intervention research based on recent developments in the field. We found that concepts, methods and designs in current resilience intervention studies are of limited use to properly assess efficacy of interventions to foster resilience. Major problems are the use of definitions of resilience as trait or a composite of resilience factors, the use of unsuited assessment instruments, and inappropriate study designs. To overcome these challenges, we propose 1) an outcome-oriented definition of resilience, 2) an outcome-oriented assessment of resilience as change in mental health in relation to stressor load, and 3) methodological standards for suitable study designs of future intervention studies. Our proposals may contribute to an improved quality of resilience intervention studies and may stimulate further progress in this growing research field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficiency factor and modulus of elasticity of lightweight concrete with expanded clay aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G Moravia

    Full Text Available Nowadays lightweight concrete is used on a large scale for structural purposes and to reduce the self-weight of structures. Specific grav- ity, compressive strength, strength/weight ratio and modulus of elasticity are important factors in the mechanical behavior of structures. This work studies these properties in lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC and normal-weight concrete (NWC, comparing them. Spe- cific gravity was evaluated in the fresh and hardened states. Four mixture proportions were adopted to evaluate compressive strength. For each proposed mixture proportion of the two concretes, cylindrical specimens were molded and tested at ages of 3, 7 and 28 days. The modulus of elasticity of the NWC and LWAC was analyzed by static, dynamic and empirical methods. The results show a larger strength/ weight ratio for LWAC, although this concrete presented lower compressive strength.

  13. Shear modulus imaging with spatially-modulated ultrasound radiation force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Stephen; Menon, Manoj; Elegbe, Etana

    2009-10-01

    The application of Spatially-Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF) to shear modulus imaging is demonstrated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and porcine liver. Scanning and data acquisition was performed with a Siemens Antares ultrasound scanner and VF7-3 linear array operating at 4.21 MHz. Modulus estimates in uniform phantoms of Zerdine with shear moduli of 5.1 and 12.4 kPa exhibited standard deviations within 6% of the mean value. Zerdine spheres 1 cm in diameter (nominally 2.7, 4.7 and 15 kPa) in a 8 kPa (nominal) background are clearly resolved. Cross sectional images of a soft conical inclusion in a gelatin-based phantom indicate a spatial resolution of approximately 2.5 mm. Images of the shear modulus of an ex-vivo sample of porcine liver tissue show an average value of 3 kPa. A stifflesion induced with 0.5 mL of 10% glutaraldehyde is clearly visible as a region of shear modulus in excess of 10 kPa. A modulus gradient associated with the diffusion of the glutaraldehyde is visible. Two pulse sequences were examined, differing only in the timing of the beams used to generate the shear waves. Details of the beam sequences and subsequent signal processing are presented.

  14. Shear Modulus Imaging with Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Stephen; Menon, Manoj; Elegbe, Etana

    2011-01-01

    The application of Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF) to shear modulus imaging is demonstrated in tissue mimicking phantoms and porcine liver. Scanning and data acquisition was performed with a Siemens Antares ultrasound scanner and VF7-3 linear array operating at 4.21 MHz. Modulus estimates in uniform phantoms of Zerdine™ with shear moduli of 5.1 and 12.4 kPa exhibited standard deviations within 6% of the mean value. Zerdine spheres 1 cm in diameter (nominally 2.7, 4.7, and 15 kPa) in a 8 kPa (nominal) background are clearly resolved. Cross sectional images of a soft conical inclusion in a gelatin-based phantom indicate a spatial resolution of approximately 2.5 mm. Images of the shear modulus of an ex-vivo sample of porcine liver tissue show an average value of 3kPa. A stiff lesion induced with 0.5 mL of 10% glutaraldehyde is clearly visible as a region of shear modulus in excess of 10 kPa. A modulus gradient associated with the diffusion of the glutaraldehyde is visible. Two pulse sequences were examined, differing only in the timing of the beams used to generate the shear waves. Details of the beam sequences and subsequent signal processing are presented. PMID:20458875

  15. Determination of Rock Mass Modulus Using the Plate Loading Method at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Riggins, M.

    1999-08-02

    A suite of plate loading tests has recently been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Fielding of these in situ tests as well as other approaches undertaken for the determination of rock mass modulus are described. The various methodologies are evaluated and their data compared. Calculation by existing empirical methods and numerical modeling are compared to each other as well as to field data.

  16. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Excel database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  17. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI JPEG Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  18. Resilient response characterisation of hot-mix asphalt mixes for a new South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The South Africa National Road Agency Ltd (SANRAL) is in the process of revising the South African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM). A necessary part of this programme is to develop resilient response models. Dynamic (complex) modulus has been used...

  19. Fundamental study on applicability of resilience index for system safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new index called Resilience index, which evaluate the reliability of system safety of nuclear power plant under severe accident by considering the capability to recover from the situation the system safety function was lost. In this paper, a detailed evaluation procedure for the Resilience index was described. System safety of a PWR plant under severe accident was then assessed according to the Resilience index concept to discuss applicability of the index. We found that the Resilience index successfully visualize the management capability, and therefore, resilience capability of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  20. Determination of Young's Modulus of Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Ung; Yoon, Duhee; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical properties of graphene are interesting research subjects because its Young's modulus and strength are extremely high. Values of ˜1 TPa for the Young's modulus have been reported [Lee et al. Science, 321, 385 (2008), Koenig et al. Nat. Nanotech. 6, 543 (2011)]. We made a graphene sample on a SiO2/Si substrate with closed-bottom holes by mechanical exfoliation. A pressure difference across the graphene membrane was applied by putting the sample in a vacuum chamber. This pressure difference makes the graphene membrane bulge upward like a balloon. By measuring the shifts of the Raman G and 2D bands, we estimated the amount of strain on the graphene membrane. By comparing the strain estimated from the Raman measurements with numerical simulations based on the finite element method, we obtained the Young's modulus of graphene.

  1. Thermophysical Analysis of High Modulus Composite Materials for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sung

    2009-01-01

    High modulus composite materials are used extensively in aerospace vehicles mainly for the purpose of increasing strength and reducing weight. However, thermal properties have become essential design information with the use of composite materials in the thermal design of spacecraft and spacecraft electronics packages. This is because the localized heat from closely packed devices can lead to functional failure of the aerospace system unless the heat is dissipated. In this study, thermal responses of high modulus advanced materials are considered for aerospace thermal design. The advanced composite material is composed of a continuous high modulus pitch based fiber and epoxy resin. In order to compare this advanced composite material with conventional aerospace composite materials, the thermophysical analysis of both materials was performed. The results include thermal conductivity measurements of composite materials and various thermal analytical techniques with DSC, TGA, TMA and DMA.

  2. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    literature on resilience in the area of disaster risk (see corresponding abstract of another session). The research gap, which was also highlighted in the 2012 National Academies of Sciences Paper (Disasters, Committee on Science and Public Policy, & Academies, 2012), is the lack of a consistent way to measure resilience, which is a complex systems concept, across different communities and over time. Without this measurement, evaluating the impact of projects, programs and policies on a community's resilience cannot be consistently made. In turn, the relative costs and benefits of potential interventions cannot be properly assessed to determine those which ought to be prioritized. The measurement of resilience contains both theoretical and practical components, but much of the research to date has been limited to the theoretical realm. There is a need for a set of indicators that can be systematically collected in the field to practically measure resilience. This presentation will examine both the theoretical and practical challenges this involves, and how this is being approached through a unique alliance between the research community, a private partner and field practitioners. We aim to help build consistency amongst those working on assessing and prioritizing effective resilience strategies. The Alliance between research partners and NGOs will be highlighted to show how such collaborations can support a continuous learning process in communities and contribute to improved flood resilience at community level and beyond. This includes the development and use of innovative evaluation tools that can aid communities in prioritizing projects and policies as well as demonstrating effectiveness to donors.

  3. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, Alexander A; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-19

    Building resilience into today's complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks.

  4. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, Alexander A.; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today’s complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks.

  5. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  6. Evaluation of the Kòts'iìhtła ("We Light the Fire") Project: building resiliency and connections through strengths-based creative arts programming for Indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanian, Sahar; Young, Stephanie K; Mantla, Mason; Daniels, Anita; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The creative arts - music, film, visual arts, dance, theatre, spoken word, literature, among others - are gradually being recognised as effective health promotion tools to empower, engage and improve the health and well-being in Indigenous youth communities. Arts-based programming has also had positive impacts in promoting health, mental wellness and resiliency amongst youth. However, often times the impacts and successes of such programming are not formally reported on, as reflected by the paucity of evaluations and reports in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate a creative arts workshop for Tłįchǫ youth where youth explored critical community issues and found solutions together using the arts. We sought to identify the workshop's areas of success and challenge. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a community-led, youth-driven model to strengthen resiliency through youth engagement in the arts in circumpolar regions. Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted observational field notes, focus groups, questionnaires, and reflective practice to evaluate the workshop. Four youth and five facilitators participated in this process overall. Youth reported gaining confidence and new skills, both artistic and personal. Many youth found the workshop to be engaging, enjoyable and culturally relevant. Youth expressed an interest in continuing their involvement with the arts and spreading their messages through art to other youth and others in their communities. Engagement and participation in the arts have the potential to build resiliency, form relationships, and stimulate discussions for community change amongst youth living in the North.

  7. Evaluation of the K[Formula: see text]ts'iìhtła ("We Light the Fire") Project: building resiliency and connections through strengths-based creative arts programming for Indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanian, Sahar; Young, Stephanie K; Mantla, Mason; Daniels, Anita; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background The creative arts - music, film, visual arts, dance, theatre, spoken word, literature, among others - are gradually being recognised as effective health promotion tools to empower, engage and improve the health and well-being in Indigenous youth communities. Arts-based programming has also had positive impacts in promoting health, mental wellness and resiliency amongst youth. However, often times the impacts and successes of such programming are not formally reported on, as reflected by the paucity of evaluations and reports in the literature. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate a creative arts workshop for Tłįchǫ youth where youth explored critical community issues and found solutions together using the arts. We sought to identify the workshop's areas of success and challenge. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a community-led, youth-driven model to strengthen resiliency through youth engagement in the arts in circumpolar regions. Design Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted observational field notes, focus groups, questionnaires, and reflective practice to evaluate the workshop. Four youth and five facilitators participated in this process overall. Results Youth reported gaining confidence and new skills, both artistic and personal. Many youth found the workshop to be engaging, enjoyable and culturally relevant. Youth expressed an interest in continuing their involvement with the arts and spreading their messages through art to other youth and others in their communities. Conclusions Engagement and participation in the arts have the potential to build resiliency, form relationships, and stimulate discussions for community change amongst youth living in the North.

  8. Evaluation of the Kòts'iìhtła (“We Light the Fire” Project: building resiliency and connections through strengths-based creative arts programming for Indigenous youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Fanian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The creative arts – music, film, visual arts, dance, theatre, spoken word, literature, among others – are gradually being recognised as effective health promotion tools to empower, engage and improve the health and well-being in Indigenous youth communities. Arts-based programming has also had positive impacts in promoting health, mental wellness and resiliency amongst youth. However, often times the impacts and successes of such programming are not formally reported on, as reflected by the paucity of evaluations and reports in the literature. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate a creative arts workshop for Tłįchǫ youth where youth explored critical community issues and found solutions together using the arts. We sought to identify the workshop’s areas of success and challenge. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a community-led, youth-driven model to strengthen resiliency through youth engagement in the arts in circumpolar regions. Design: Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted observational field notes, focus groups, questionnaires, and reflective practice to evaluate the workshop. Four youth and five facilitators participated in this process overall. Results: Youth reported gaining confidence and new skills, both artistic and personal. Many youth found the workshop to be engaging, enjoyable and culturally relevant. Youth expressed an interest in continuing their involvement with the arts and spreading their messages through art to other youth and others in their communities. Conclusions: Engagement and participation in the arts have the potential to build resiliency, form relationships, and stimulate discussions for community change amongst youth living in the North.

  9. Evaluation of the Kts'iìhtła (“We Light the Fire”) Project: building resiliency and connections through strengths-based creative arts programming for Indigenous youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanian, Sahar; Young, Stephanie K.; Mantla, Mason; Daniels, Anita; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background The creative arts – music, film, visual arts, dance, theatre, spoken word, literature, among others – are gradually being recognised as effective health promotion tools to empower, engage and improve the health and well-being in Indigenous youth communities. Arts-based programming has also had positive impacts in promoting health, mental wellness and resiliency amongst youth. However, often times the impacts and successes of such programming are not formally reported on, as reflected by the paucity of evaluations and reports in the literature. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate a creative arts workshop for Tłįchǫ youth where youth explored critical community issues and found solutions together using the arts. We sought to identify the workshop’s areas of success and challenge. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a community-led, youth-driven model to strengthen resiliency through youth engagement in the arts in circumpolar regions. Design Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted observational field notes, focus groups, questionnaires, and reflective practice to evaluate the workshop. Four youth and five facilitators participated in this process overall. Results Youth reported gaining confidence and new skills, both artistic and personal. Many youth found the workshop to be engaging, enjoyable and culturally relevant. Youth expressed an interest in continuing their involvement with the arts and spreading their messages through art to other youth and others in their communities. Conclusions Engagement and participation in the arts have the potential to build resiliency, form relationships, and stimulate discussions for community change amongst youth living in the North. PMID:26265489

  10. Shear Modulus Imaging with Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force

    OpenAIRE

    McAleavey, Stephen; Menon, Manoj; Elegbe, Etana

    2009-01-01

    The application of Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF) to shear modulus imaging is demonstrated in tissue mimicking phantoms and porcine liver. Scanning and data acquisition was performed with a Siemens Antares ultrasound scanner and VF7-3 linear array operating at 4.21 MHz. Modulus estimates in uniform phantoms of Zerdine™ with shear moduli of 5.1 and 12.4 kPa exhibited standard deviations within 6% of the mean value. Zerdine spheres 1 cm in diameter (nominally 2.7, 4.7, a...

  11. Isentropic Bulk Modulus: Development of a Federal Test Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    bulk modulus space from synthetic iso -paraffinic fuels to petroleum-based diesel fuels. The test fuels are identified in Table 1. A testing order and...10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Pressure (psi) Thousands Speed -of-Sound (m/s) r R 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 0 2 4 6 8...Thousands Speed -of-Sound (m/s) r R 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Pressure (psi) Thousands Bulk Modulus (psi) r R

  12. Temperature, Frequency and Young’s Modulus of a Wineglass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitta Miller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A crystal soda-lime wineglass, heated to temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 150 °C, was tapped and the frequency recorded. It was shown that the relative change in the frequency at different temperatures can be used to determine the effect of temperature on Young’s Modulus of the glass. This simple method of tapping a wineglass is proposed as an effective way of determining the relative effect of temperature on Young’ Modulus of glass.

  13. Family Resilience in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  14. Fishing for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Management approaches that focus on social–ecological systems—systems comprised of ecosystems, landscapes, and humans—are needed to secure the sustainability of inland recreational fisheries without jeopardizing the integrity of the underlying social and ecological components. Resilience management can be useful because it focuses on providing recreational capacity for fishermen under a variety of conditions while assuring that the social–ecological system is not pushed to a critical threshold that would result in a new, undesired system regime. Resilience management is based on a system perspective that accounts for the possible regimes a system could manifest. It aims to enhance system properties that allow continued maintenance of the system in a desired regime in which multiple goods and services, including recreational capacity, are provided. In this forum paper, we provide an overview of the potential of a resilience approach to the management of recreational fisheries and highlight the scientific and administrative challenges to its successful implementation.

  15. Resilience in adolescents with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIBASHI, Akiko; UEDA, Reiko

    2003-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer experience multiple stressors, evertheless some function well or are "resilient." Focusing on resilience in childhood cancer patients and understanding why and how resilience develops during the cancer experience is of great value . This knowledge may provide information to health care professionals to facilitate intervention for promoting resilience and improving quality of life in adolescents with cancer . The purpose of thisarticle is to review the lite...

  16. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  17. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  18. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social...... experiment is called Civic Desire. The founders explicitly call for new ways of organizing that can develop social sustainability. We discuss how these experiments may create platforms of new unforeseen goals that organizations may choose to follow. In conclusion we argue for organizational resilience...

  19. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  20. Elastic Modulus of Osteoporotic Mouse Femur Based on Femoral Head Compression Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Chang-Soo; Yun, Hui-Suk; Kim, Han Sung; Ko, Cheolwoong

    2017-01-01

    A biomechanical test is a good evaluation method that describes the structural, functional, and pathological differences in the bones, such as osteoporosis and fracture. The tensile test, compression test, and bending test are generally performed to evaluate the elastic modulus of the bone using mice. In particular, the femoral head compression test is mainly used for verifying the osteoporosis change of the femoral neck. This study conducted bone mineral density analysis using in vivo microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to observe changes in osteoporosis over time. It proposed a method of identifying the elastic modulus of the femur in the normal group (CON group) and the osteoporotic group (OVX group) through finite element analysis based on the femoral head compression test and also conducted a comparative analysis of the results. Through the femoral head compression test, it was verified that the CON group's ultimate and yield loads were significantly higher than those of the OVX group. It was considered that this result was caused by the fact that the bone mineral density change by osteoporosis occurred in the proximal end more often than in the femur diaphysis. However, the elastic modulus derived from the finite element analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups.

  1. A resilience approach can improve anadromous fish restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, John R.; Wilson, Karen A.; Mather, Martha E.; Snyder, Noah P.

    2016-01-01

    Most anadromous fish populations remain at low levels or are in decline despite substantial investments in restoration. We explore whether a resilience perspective (i.e., a different paradigm for understanding populations, communities, and ecosystems) is a viable alternative framework for anadromous fish restoration. Many life history traits have allowed anadromous fish to thrive in unimpacted ecosystems but have become contemporary curses as anthropogenic effects increase. This contradiction creates a significant conservation challenge but also makes these fish excellent candidates for a resilience approach. A resilience approach recognizes the need to maintain life history, population, and habitat characteristics that increase the ability of a population to withstand and recover from multiple disturbances. To evaluate whether a resilience approach represents a viable strategy for anadromous fish restoration, we review four issues: (1) how resilience theory can inform anadromous fish restoration, (2) how a resilience-based approach is fundamentally different than extant anadromous fish restoration strategies, (3) ecological characteristics that historically benefited anadromous fish persistence, and (4) examples of how human impacts harm anadromous fish and how a resilience approach might produce more successful outcomes. We close by suggesting new research and restoration directions for implementation of a resilience-based approach.

  2. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 124, No. 2, May 2014, pp. 235–242. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed by generalized spherical mean operator. M EL HAMMA and R DAHER. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences Aïn Chock, University of Hassan II,.

  3. Device to measure elastic modulus of superconducting windings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903547X, 7901386.

  4. Device for measuring elastic modulus of superconducting coils (See 7903169)

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This device was made to measure elastic modulus of the Po dipole superconducting coils. More elaborated devices, but based on the same concept, were later used to measure the apparent elastic moduli of the LHC superconducting magnet coils. See also 7903169, 7901386.

  5. Modulus of smoothness and theorems concerning approximation on compact groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vaezi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the generalized shift operator defined by (Shuf(g=∫Gf(tut−1gdt on a compact group G, and by using this operator, we define “spherical” modulus of smoothness. So, we prove Stechkin and Jackson-type theorems.

  6. Binding Energy and Compression Modulus of Infinite Nuclear Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MeV at the normal nuclear matter saturation density consistent with the best available density-dependent potentials derived from the G-matrix approach. The results of the incompressibility modulus, k∞ is in excellent agreement with the results of other workers. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, ...

  7. On Young's modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    ssion electron microscopy of carbon nanotube/aluminum nanocomposites is given to calculate approximately the. Young's modulus of multi-walled carbon nanotubes. 2. Experimental. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthe- sized by arc discharge technique with 20 V d.c. and 100 amps current. The CNT/Al ...

  8. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and -functionals. The main result of the paper is the proof of the equivalence theorem for a -functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on R d . Author Affiliations. M El Hamma1 R Daher1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences Aïn Chock, University of Hassan II, Casablanca, Morocco ...

  9. Corneal modulus and IOP measurements in canine eyes using Goldmann applanation tonometry and Tono-pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junhua; Pan, Xueliang; Weber, Paul A; Liu, Jun

    2011-10-04

    To experimentally examine the effect of corneal modulus on Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and Tono-pen (Tono-pen XL, Reichert, Inc., Depew, NY) measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) in a canine eye model. Twenty-one canine globes were recovered from healthy animals. IOP was controlled at 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mm Hg and measured by GAT and Tono-pen following standard protocols. The corneas were dissected and uniaxial tensile tests were performed on corneal strips. The correlation between GAT and Tono-pen errors and corneal secant modulus was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The influence of corneal thickness and the true pressure was also examined. At a true IOP of 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mm Hg, the GAT readings were 1.1 ± 1.0, 5.1 ± 1.5, 9.5 ± 2.0, 17.3 ± 1.6, and 25.3 ± 1.8 mm Hg, respectively. The corresponding Tono-pen readings were 7.8 ± 1.7, 12.4 ± 1.7, 16.1 ± 1.9, 22.5 ± 2.1, and 28.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg, respectively. The mean secant modulus at 1% strain of the canine corneal strips was 1.54 ± 0.43 megapascal (MPa). Corneal secant modulus was significantly correlated with GAT errors when the true IOP was 30 mm Hg (R = 0.49; P < 0.05). No significant correlation was observed between tonometric errors and corneal thickness. Both GAT and Tono-pen errors increased significantly at higher pressures (P < 0.001). Both GAT and Tono-pen underestimated IOP in canine eyes. There was preliminary experimental evidence for a correlation between corneal modulus and GAT in the canine eyes and a higher corneal modulus was associated with higher GAT readings at a certain pressure level. The tonometric errors appeared to be pressure-dependent.

  10. High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun

    2007-12-01

    Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with effective coupling agents and higher filler loading, viscous flow can be greatly decreased due to the

  11. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Hill Clarvis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilience thinking that have emerged from scholarship on social-ecological system resilience as a lens through which to assess investing in disaster risk reduction (DRR for resilience. It draws on an established framework of resilience principles and examples of resilience investments to explore how resilience principles can actually inform decisions around DRR and resilience investing. It proposes some key lessons for diversifying sources of finance in order to, in turn, enhance “financial resilience”. In doing so, it suggests a series of questions to align investments with resilience building, and to better balance the achievement of the resilience principles with financial requirements such as financial diversification and replicability. It argues for a critical look to be taken at how resilience principles, which focus on longer-term systems perspectives, could complement the focus in DRR on critical and immediate stresses.

  12. Determining the complex modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Shalinie; See, Howard; Thomas, Graham; Swain, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the visco-elastic response of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material during setting. A novel squeeze film Micro-Fourier Rheometer (MFR, GBC Scientific Equipment, Australia) was used to determine the complex modulus of an alginate irreversible hydrocolloid dental impression material (Algident, ISO 1563 Class A Type 1, Dentalfarm Australia Pty. Ltd.) during setting after mixing. Data was collected every 30s for 10 min in one study and every 10 min for a total of 60 min in another study. A high level of repeatability was observed. The results indicate that the MFR is capable of recording the complex shear modulus of alginate irreversible hydrocolloid for 60 min from the start of mixing and to simultaneously report the changing visco-elastic parameters at all frequencies between 1 Hz and 100 Hz. The storage modulus shows a dramatic increase to 370% of its starting value after 6 min and then reduces to 55% after 60 min. The loss modulus increases to a maximum of 175% of its starting value after 10 min and then reduces to 94% after 60 min. The MFR enables the changes in the complex modulus through the complete setting process to be followed. It is anticipated this approach may provide a better method to compare the visco-elastic properties of impression materials and assist with identification of optimum types for different clinical requirements. The high stiffness of the instrument and the use of band-limited pseudo-random noise as the input signal are the main advantages of this technique over conventional rheometers for determining the changes in alginate visco-elasticity.

  13. Resilience Design Patterns: A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, Christian; Hukerikar, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to integrate the various HPC resilience techniques into composite solutions, nor are there methods to holistically evaluate the adequacy and efficacy of such solutions in terms of their protection coverage, and their performance \\& power efficiency characteristics. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this paper, we develop a structured approach to the design, evaluation and optimization of HPC resilience using the concept of design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the problems caused by various types of faults, errors and failures in HPC systems and the techniques used to deal with these events. Each well-known solution that addresses a specific HPC resilience challenge is described in the form of a pattern. We develop a complete catalog of such resilience design patterns, which may be used by system architects, system software and tools developers, application programmers, as well as users and operators as essential building blocks when designing and deploying resilience solutions. We also develop a design framework that enhances a designer's understanding the opportunities for integrating multiple patterns across layers of the system stack and the important constraints during implementation of the individual patterns. It is also useful for defining mechanisms and interfaces to coordinate flexible fault management across

  14. Optimal Resilient Dynamic Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    updates in $O(\\log n+\\delta)$ amortized time. Our dynamic dictionary also supports range queries in $O(\\log n+\\delta+t)$ worst case time, where $t$ is the size of the output. Finally, we show that every resilient search tree (with some reasonable properties) must take~$\\Omega(\\log n + \\delta)$ worst...

  15. [Resilience in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Jiménez, Andrea; López-Díaz, Alba L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise and analyse articles published on resilience and old-age from 1990-2006. After a systematic search of five databases (Academic Search Premier-Ebsco Host, Medline, Psyc Articles, Ovid and Science Direct) 33 pieces of literature were included in the analysis. The selected articles had 31 different definitions of resilience, from eight disciplines, mainly health-related fields. It was also found that the research studied the association of resilience with individual (68 variables) and social/environmental factors (17 variables); the most frequent were age and health self-perception. Cultural and religious values were of special interest amongst the latter variables. The literature review demonstrated that resilience in old age is a topic having increasing research interest; this has been linked to various individual, social and cultural factors. However, this is a rapidly developing area that requires that a unified definition be established and that a theoretical and intervention model be created.

  16. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the

  17. Multi-Sited Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced with natu......Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced...... with natural disasters and climate change. In a globalized world, however, it is hard to discern what is “local” as global organizations play an increasingly visible and powerful role. This paper will argue that local understandings and practices of resilience cannot be disentangled from global understandings...... flooding in northern Ghana, this paper examines the mutual construction of “local” and “global” notions and practices of resilience through multi-sited processes. It is based on interviews and participant observation in multiple sites at the “local,” “regional” and “global” levels....

  18. Wellbeing And Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine; MacBeth, Angus

    2015-01-01

    , 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. DISCUSSION: The study will provide data on very early risk...

  19. New pathways to resilience

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    droughts, floods, and heat waves, along with shifting rainfall patterns, threaten to overwhelm the natural resilience of African communities, risking livelihoods and food security. .... As of March 2012, 68Fellows have pursued advanced research through a scholarship program on adaptation to climate change. • 11people ...

  20. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  1. Pseudo-variables method to calculate HMA relaxation modulus through low-temperature induced stress and strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canestrari, Francesco; Stimilli, Arianna; Bahia, Hussain U.; Virgili, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposal of a new method to analyze low-temperature cracking of bituminous mixtures. • Reliability of the relaxation modulus master curve modeling through Prony series. • Suitability of the pseudo-variables approach for a close form solution. - Abstract: Thermal cracking is a critical failure mode for asphalt pavements. Relaxation modulus is the major viscoelastic property that controls the development of thermally induced tensile stresses. Therefore, accurate determination of the relaxation modulus is fundamental for designing long lasting pavements. This paper proposes a reliable analytical solution for constructing the relaxation modulus master curve by measuring stress and strain thermally induced in asphalt mixtures. The solution, based on Boltzmann’s Superposition Principle and pseudo-variables concepts, accounts for time and temperature dependency of bituminous materials modulus, avoiding complex integral transformations. The applicability of the solution is demonstrated by testing a reference mixture using the Asphalt Thermal Cracking Analyzer (ATCA) device. By applying thermal loadings on restrained and unrestrained asphalt beams, ATCA allows the determination of several parameters, but is still unable to provide reliable estimations of relaxation properties. Without them the measurements from ATCA cannot be used in modeling of pavement behavior. Thus, the proposed solution successfully integrates ATCA experimental data. The same methodology can be applied to all test methods that concurrently measure stress and strain. The statistical parameters used to evaluate the goodness of fit show optimum correlation between theoretical and experimental results, demonstrating the accuracy of this mathematical approach

  2. Building Ecological and Community Resilience and Measuring Success of the Department of Interior Hurricane Sandy Resilience Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. M.; Worman, S. L.; Bennett, R.; Bassow, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) partnered with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) to administer an external funding competition to support coastal resilience projects in the region affected by Hurricane Sandy. The projects complement the DOI Bureau-led projects, but are led by state and local governments, universities, non-profits, community groups, tribes, and other non-Federal entities. In total, the Hurricane Sandy Resilience Program invested over $750 million in approximately 180 projects to repair damage and improve the resilience of habitats, communities and infrastructure to future storms and sea level rise. Project activities include waterway connection and opening, living shoreline, marsh restoration, community resilience planning, data/mapping/modeling, and beach and dune restoration. DOI and NFWF initiated a resilience assessment in 2015 to evaluate the impact of this investment. The assessment began by clarifying the program's resilience goals and the development of ecological and socio-economic metrics across the project activities. Using these metrics, the evaluation is assessing the ecological and community outcomes, cost effectiveness of activities, improved scientific understanding, and temporal and spatial scaling of benefits across resilience activities. Recognizing the unique opportunity afforded by the scale and distribution of projects, NFWF and DOI have invested in monitoring through 2024 to better understand how these projects perform over time. This presentation will describe the evaluation questions, approach, long-term monitoring, online metrics portal, and findings to date.

  3. Indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic thin films by atomic force microscopy: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passeri, D., E-mail: daniele.passeri@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Rossi, M.; Alippi, A. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Tamburri, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Lucci, M.; Davoli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Berezina, S. [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, 01026, Univerzitna 1 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2009-11-15

    We propose a nanoindentation technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) that allows one to deduce both indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic materials from the force versus penetration depth dependence, obtained by recording the AFM cantilever deflection as a function of the sample vertical displacement when the tip is pressed against (loading phase) and then removed from (unloading phase) the surface of the sample. Reliable quantitative measurements of both indentation modulus and hardness of the investigated sample are obtained by calibrating the technique through a set of different polymeric samples, used as reference materials, whose mechanical properties have been previously determined by standard indentation tests. By analyzing the dependence of the cantilever deflection versus time, the proposed technique allows one to evaluate and correct the effect of viscoelastic properties of the investigated materials, by adapting a post-experiment data processing procedure well-established for standard depth sensing indentation tests. The technique is described in the case of the measurement of indentation modulus and hardness of a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate), deposited by chronoamperometry on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate.

  4. Nano-fillers to tune Young’s modulus of silicone matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lijin; Xu Zhonghua; Sun Leming; Caveney, Patrick M.; Zhang Mingjun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated nanoparticles, nanofibers, and nanoclays for their filler effects on tuning the Young’s modulus of silicone matrix, a material with broad in vivo applications. Nano-fillers with different shapes, sizes, and surface properties were added into silicone matrix, and then their filler effects were evaluated through experimental studies. It was found that spherical nanoparticles could clearly improve Young’s modulus of the silicone matrix, while nanoclays and carbon nanofibers had limited effects. Smaller spherical nanoparticles were better in performance compared to larger nanoparticles. In addition, enhanced distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix has been observed to improve the filler effect. In order to minimize toxicity of the nanoparticles for in vivo applications, spherical nanoparticles coated with amine, acid, or hydroxide groups were also investigated, but they were found only to diminish the filler effect of nanoparticles. This study demonstrated that spherical nanoparticles could serve as fillers to tune Young’s modulus of silicone matrix for potential applications in medicine.

  5. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  6. RNEDE: Resilient Network Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat Venkatasubramanian, Tanu Malik, Arun Giridh; Craig Rieger; Keith Daum; Miles McQueen

    2010-08-01

    Modern living is more and more dependent on the intricate web of critical infrastructure systems. The failure or damage of such systems can cause huge disruptions. Traditional design of this web of critical infrastructure systems was based on the principles of functionality and reliability. However, it is increasingly being realized that such design objectives are not sufficient. Threats, disruptions and faults often compromise the network, taking away the benefits of an efficient and reliable design. Thus, traditional network design parameters must be combined with self-healing mechanisms to obtain a resilient design of the network. In this paper, we present RNEDEa resilient network design environment that that not only optimizes the network for performance but tolerates fluctuations in its structure that result from external threats and disruptions. The environment evaluates a set of remedial actions to bring a compromised network to an optimal level of functionality. The environment includes a visualizer that enables the network administrator to be aware of the current state of the network and the suggested remedial actions at all times.

  7. Diamond-like carbon coatings enhance the hardness and resilience of bearing surfaces for use in joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M E; Whiteside, L A; Xu, J; Katerberg, B J

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating to enhance the hardness and resilience of a bearing surface in joint replacement. The greater hardness of a magnesium-stabilized zirconium (Mg-PSZ) substrate was expected to provide a harder coating-substrate composite microhardness than the cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) also used in arthroplasty. Three femoral heads of each type (CoCr, Mg-PSZ, DLC-CoCr and DLC-Mg-PSZ) were examined. Baseline (non-coated) and composite coating/substrate hardness was measured by Vickers microhardness tests, while nanoindentation tests measured the hardness and elastic modulus of the DLC coating independent of the Mg-PSZ and CoCr substrates. Non-coated Mg-PSZ heads were considerably harder than non-coated CoCr heads, while DLC coating greatly increased the microhardness of the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates. On the nanoscale the non-coated heads were much harder than on the microscale, with CoCr exhibiting twice as much plastic deformation as Mg-PSZ. The mechanical properties of the DLC coatings were not significantly different for both the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates, producing similar moduli of resilience and plastic resistance ratios. DLC coatings greatly increased hardness on both the micro and nano levels and significantly improved resilience and resistance to plastic deformation compared with non-coated heads. Because Mg-PSZ allows less plastic deformation than CoCr and provides a greater composite microhardness, DLC-Mg-PSZ will likely be more durable for use as a bearing surface in vivo. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Systematic Review of Quantitative Resilience Measures for Water Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sangmin; Lee, Seungyub; Judi, David R.; Parvania, Masood; Goharian, Erfan; McPherson, Timothy N.; Burian, Steven J.

    2018-02-07

    Over the past few decades, the concept of resilience has emerged as an important consideration in the planning and management of water infrastructure systems. Accordingly, various resilience measures have been developed for the quantitative evaluation and decision-making of systems. There are, however, numerous considerations and no clear choice of which measure, if any, provides the most appropriate representation of resilience for a given application. This study provides a critical review of quantitative approaches to measure the resilience of water infrastructure systems, with a focus on water resources and distribution systems. A compilation of 11 criteria evaluating 21 selected resilience measures addressing major features of resilience is developed using the Axiomatic Design process. Existing gaps of resilience measures are identified based on the review criteria. The results show that resilience measures have generally paid less attention to cascading damage to interrelated systems, rapid identification of failure, physical damage of system components, and time variation of resilience. Concluding the paper, improvements to resilience measures are recommended. The findings contribute to our understanding of gaps and provide information to help further improve resilience measures of water infrastructure systems.

  9. A Systematic Review of Quantitative Resilience Measures for Water Infrastructure Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the concept of resilience has emerged as an important consideration in the planning and management of water infrastructure systems. Accordingly, various resilience measures have been developed for the quantitative evaluation and decision-making of systems. There are, however, numerous considerations and no clear choice of which measure, if any, provides the most appropriate representation of resilience for a given application. This study provides a critical review of quantitative approaches to measure the resilience of water infrastructure systems, with a focus on water resources and distribution systems. A compilation of 11 criteria evaluating 21 selected resilience measures addressing major features of resilience is developed using the Axiomatic Design process. Existing gaps of resilience measures are identified based on the review criteria. The results show that resilience measures have generally paid less attention to cascading damage to interrelated systems, rapid identification of failure, physical damage of system components, and time variation of resilience. Concluding the paper, improvements to resilience measures are recommended. The findings contribute to our understanding of gaps and provide information to help further improve resilience measures of water infrastructure systems.

  10. Influence of heat treatment and veneering on the storage modulus and surface of zirconia ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavikis, Georgius; Behr, Michael; van der Zel, Jef M; Feilzer, Albert J; Rosentritt, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Glass-ceramic veneered zirconia is used for the application as fixed partial dentures. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the heat treatment during veneering, the application of glass-ceramic for veneering or long term storage has an influence on the storage modulus of zirconia. Zirconia bars (Cercon, DeguDent, G; 0.5x2x20 mm) were fabricated and treated according to veneering conditions. Besides heating regimes between 680°C and 1000°C (liner bake and annealing), sandblasting (Al(2)O(3)) or steam cleaning were used. The bars were investigated after 90 days storage in water and acid. For investigating the influence of veneering, the bars were veneered in press- or layer technique. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in a three-point-bending design was performed to determine the storage modulus between 25°C and 200°C at a frequency of 1.66 Hz. All specimens were loaded on top and bottom (treatment on pressure or tensile stress side). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for evaluating the superficial changes of the zirconia surface due to treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann Whitney U-test (α=0.05). Sintered zirconia provided a storage modulus E' of 215 (203/219) GPa and tan δ of 0.04 at 110°C. A 10%-decrease of E' was found up to 180°C. The superficial appearance changed due to heating regime. Sandblasting reduced E' to 213 GPa, heating influenced E' between 205 GPa (liner bake 1) and 222 GPa (dentin bake 1). Steam cleaning, annealing and storage changed E' between 4 GPa and 22 GPa, depending on the side of loading. After veneering, strong E'-reduction was found down to 84 GPa and 125 GPa. Veneering of zirconia with glass-ceramic in contrast to heat treating during veneering procedure had a strong influence on the modulus. The application of the glass-ceramic caused a stronger decrease of the storage modulus.

  11. Resilience in aging: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-05-01

    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging.

  12. Multigene Genetic Programming for Estimation of Elastic Modulus of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohammadi Bayazidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new multigene genetic programming (MGGP approach for estimation of elastic modulus of concrete. The MGGP technique models the elastic modulus behavior by integrating the capabilities of standard genetic programming and classical regression. The main aim is to derive precise relationships between the tangent elastic moduli of normal and high strength concrete and the corresponding compressive strength values. Another important contribution of this study is to develop a generalized prediction model for the elastic moduli of both normal and high strength concrete. Numerous concrete compressive strength test results are obtained from the literature to develop the models. A comprehensive comparative study is conducted to verify the performance of the models. The proposed models perform superior to the existing traditional models, as well as those derived using other powerful soft computing tools.

  13. High modulus invert analog glass compositions containing beryllia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Glass compositions having a Young's modulus of at least 15 million psi and a specific modulus of at least 110 million inches consisting essentially of, in mols, 10-45% SiO2, 2-15% Li2O, 3-34% BeO, 12-36% of at least one bivalent oxide selected from the group consisting of CaO, ZnO, MgO and CuO, 10-39% of at least one trivalent oxide selected from the group consisting of Al2O3, B2O3, La2O3, Y2O3 and the mixed rare earth oxides, the total number of said bivalent and trivalent oxides being at least three, and up to 10% of a tetravalent oxide selected from the group consisting of ZrO2, TiO2 and CeO2.

  14. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest that very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems will require future systems to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. The resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. These techniques must seek to improve resilience at reasonable overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various solutions, application-level as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power eciency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software ecosystems, which are expected to be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience based on the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. The catalog of resilience design patterns provides designers with reusable design elements. We define a design framework that enhances our understanding of the important

  15. Connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most properties of Jacobi elliptic functions found in the literature do not involve any change in the modulus parameter m. For example, the quadratic relations cn2(x, m)=1 − sn2(x, m), dn2(x, m)=1 − msn2(x, m),. (2) and the addition formulas for sn(x + y, m), cn(x + y, m), dn(x + y, m) just involve. Jacobi elliptic functions with the ...

  16. Resin composites: Modulus of elasticity and marginal quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Ana R; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian; Flury, Simon

    2014-09-01

    To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity but quite similar polymerization contraction. MOD cavities (n=30) were prepared in extracted premolars, restored and then subjected to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. Marginal quality of the restorations before and after loading was analyzed on epoxy replicas under a scanning electron microscope. The percentage of gap-free margins and occurrence of paramarginal fractures were registered. Modulus of elasticity and polymerization contraction were analyzed with parametric and margins with nonparametric ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, respectively. The number of paramarginal fractures was analyzed with exact Fisher tests (α=0.05). Grandio demonstrated significantly more gap-free enamel margins than Charisma and Filtek Supreme XTE, before and after loading (p0.05). No significant effect of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (pGrandio when compared to Charisma (p=0.008). The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can be improved by the selection of a resin composite with modulus of elasticity close to that of dentine, although an increase in paramarginal enamel fractures can result as a consequence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using data logging to measure Young’s modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David

    2018-03-01

    Historically the Young’s modulus of a material is measured by increasing the applied force to a wire and measuring the extension. The cross sectional area and original length allow this to be plotted as a graph of stress versus strain. This article describes how data logging sensors can be used to measure how the force changes with extension, allowing a strain versus stress graph to be plotted into the region of plastic deformation.

  18. A maximum modulus theorem for the Oseen problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kračmar, S.; Medková, Dagmar; Nečasová, Šárka; Varnhorn, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 6 (2013), s. 1059-1076 ISSN 0373-3114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304; GA MŠk LC06052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Oseen problem * maximum modulus theorem * Oseen potentials Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10231-012-0258-x

  19. Charged string solutions with dilaton and modulus fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetic, M

    1994-01-01

    We find charged, abelian, spherically symmetric solutions (in flat space-time) corresponding to the effective action of $D=4$ heterotic string theory with scale-dependent dilaton $\\p$ and modulus $\\vp$ fields. We take into account perturbative (genus-one), moduli-dependent `threshold' corrections to the coupling function $f(\\p,\\vp)$ in the gauge field kinetic term $f(\\p,\\vp) F^2_{\\m\

  20. Determination of dynamic Young’s modulus of vulnerable speleothems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Pavel; Lednická, Markéta; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Kubina, Lukáš; Gribovszki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 156-163 ISSN 1335-1788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : dynamic Young´s modulus * speleothem * bulk density * X-Ray Computed Tomography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.390, year: 2015 http://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2015/n2/10Konecny.pdf

  1. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  2. From resilience thinking to Resilience Planning: Lessons from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellberg, M M; Ryan, P; Borgström, S T; Norström, A V; Peterson, G D

    2018-04-14

    Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Resilience Planning practitioners from nine organizations and reviewed strategic planning documents to investigate: 1) the key contributions of the approach to their existing strategic planning, and 2) what enabled and hindered the practitioners in applying and embedding the new approach in their organizations. Our results reveal that Resilience Planning contributed to developing a social-ecological systems perspective, more adaptive and collaborative approaches to planning, and that it clarified management goals of desirable resource conditions. Applying Resilience Planning required translating resilience thinking to practice in each unique circumstance, while simultaneously creating support among staff, and engaging external actors. Embedding Resilience Planning within organizations implied starting and maintaining longer-term change processes that required sustained multi-level organizational support. We conclude by identifying four lessons for successfully applying and embedding resilience practice in an organization: 1) to connect internal "entrepreneurs" to "interpreters" and "networkers" who work across organizations, 2) to assess the opportunity context for resilience practice, 3) to ensure that resilience practice is a learning process that engages internal and external actors, and 4) to develop reflective strategies for managing complexity and uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  3. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength of a polyvinyl acetate-based resilient liner following various denture base surface pre-treatment methods and immersion in artificial salivary medium: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jacob M; Ganapathy, Dhanraj M; Ariga, Padma

    2012-07-01

    This study was formulated to evaluate and estimate the influence of various denture base resin surface pre-treatments (chemical and mechanical and combinations) upon tensile bond strength between a poly vinyl acetate-based denture liner and a denture base resin. A universal testing machine was used for determining the bond strength of the liner to surface pre-treated acrylic resin blocks. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the t-test (α =.05). This study infers that denture base surface pre-treatment can improve the adhesive tensile bond strength between the liner and denture base specimens. The results of this study infer that chemical, mechanical, and mechano-chemical pre-treatments will have different effects on the bond strength of the acrylic soft resilient liner to the denture base. Among the various methods of pre-treatment of denture base resins, it was inferred that the mechano-chemical pre-treatment method with air-borne particle abrasion followed by monomer application exhibited superior bond strength than other methods with the resilient liner. Hence, this method could be effectively used to improve bond strength between liner and denture base and thus could minimize delamination of liner from the denture base during function.

  4. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength of a polyvinyl acetate-based resilient liner following various denture base surface pre-treatment methods and immersion in artificial salivary medium: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Philip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This study was formulated to evaluate and estimate the influence of various denture base resin surface pre-treatments (chemical and mechanical and combinations upon tensile bond strength between a poly vinyl acetate-based denture liner and a denture base resin. Materials and Methods: A universal testing machine was used for determining the bond strength of the liner to surface pre-treated acrylic resin blocks. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the t-test (α =.05. Results: This study infers that denture base surface pre-treatment can improve the adhesive tensile bond strength between the liner and denture base specimens. The results of this study infer that chemical, mechanical, and mechano-chemical pre-treatments will have different effects on the bond strength of the acrylic soft resilient liner to the denture base. Conclusion: Among the various methods of pre-treatment of denture base resins, it was inferred that the mechano-chemical pre-treatment method with air-borne particle abrasion followed by monomer application exhibited superior bond strength than other methods with the resilient liner. Hence, this method could be effectively used to improve bond strength between liner and denture base and thus could minimize delamination of liner from the denture base during function.

  5. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...... and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions.” This paper will define resilience and business continuity management by retracing the origins of both concepts through time. It will then compare them by highlighting their similarities...

  6. Standardisation or Resilience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinck Pedersen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities. Based on a close reading of predominant patient safety literature...... begin to address the uncertainty of medical practice as well as the necessary competences of healthcare professionals to act with ‘safety dispositions’ as a precondition for delivering safe care....

  7. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  8. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  9. Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dunn cavelty, myriam; Kaufmann, Mareile; Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    2015-01-01

    Diverse, sometimes even contradictory concepts and practices of resilience have proliferated into a wide range of security policies. In introducing this special issue, we problematize and critically discuss how these forms of resilience change environments, create subjects, link temporalities......, and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...... to be conceptualized and investigated in plural terms. We use temporalities and subjectivities as key analytical aspects to investigate the plural instantiations of resilience in actual political practice. These two issues – subjectivity and temporality – form the overall context for the special issue and are core...

  10. Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Scali

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience. METHODS: We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10 in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21-0.93]. This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44-7.01]. CONCLUSION: Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a "vaccination" effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.

  11. Resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native Public Health: An Underexplored Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Tippens, Julie A; McCrary, Hilary C; Ehiri, John E; Sanderson, Priscilla R

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the conceptualization, application, and measurement of resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health promotion. We searched 9 literature databases to document how resilience is discussed, fostered, and evaluated in studies of AIAN health promotion in the United States. The article had to (1) be in English; (2) peer reviewed, published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015; (3) identify the target population as predominantly AIANs in the United States; (4) describe a nonclinical intervention or original research that identified resilience as an outcome or resource; and (5) discuss resilience as related to cultural, social, and/or collective strengths. Sixty full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion by 3 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and verified for relevance to inclusion criteria by the third reviewer. Attributes of resilience that appeared repeatedly in the literature were identified. Findings were categorized across the lifespan (age group of participants), divided by attributes, and further defined by specific domains within each attribute. Nine articles (8 studies) met the criteria. Currently, resilience research in AIAN populations is limited to the identification of attributes and pilot interventions focused on individual resilience. Resilience models are not used to guide health promotion programming; collective resilience is not explored. Attributes of AIAN resilience should be considered in the development of health interventions. Attention to collective resilience is recommended to leverage existing assets in AIAN communities.

  12. Fisheries regulatory regimes and resilience to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea, Elena; Pearlman, Isaac; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E

    2017-05-01

    Climate change is already producing ecological, social, and economic impacts on fisheries, and these effects are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude in the future. Fisheries governance and regulations can alter socio-ecological resilience to climate change impacts via harvest control rules and incentives driving fisher behavior, yet there are no syntheses or conceptual frameworks for examining how institutions and their regulatory approaches can alter fisheries resilience to climate change. We identify nine key climate resilience criteria for fisheries socio-ecological systems (SES), defining resilience as the ability of the coupled system of interacting social and ecological components (i.e., the SES) to absorb change while avoiding transformation into a different undesirable state. We then evaluate the capacity of four fisheries regulatory systems that vary in their degree of property rights, including open access, limited entry, and two types of rights-based management, to increase or inhibit resilience. Our exploratory assessment of evidence in the literature suggests that these regulatory regimes vary widely in their ability to promote resilient fisheries, with rights-based approaches appearing to offer more resilience benefits in many cases, but detailed characteristics of the regulatory instruments are fundamental.

  13. Resilience in adult cancer care: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Manuela; Matzka, Martin; Dubey, Catherine; White, Kate

    2015-01-01

    In cancer care, empirical research and theory development on resilience has primarily been the domain of pediatric settings. This article aims to (a) describe current scientific perspectives on the concept of resilience, (b) summarize quantitative research on resilience in adult cancer care, and (c) identify implications for cancer nursing. An integrative literature review using PubMed, CINAHL®, and PsycINFO databases was performed and full-text, peer-reviewed articles published since 2003 were included. To summarize quantitative research, 252 articles were retrieved yielding 29 eligible studies, of which 11 articles were evaluated and synthesized. Appropriate articles were reviewed and data were extracted and tabulated for synthesis. Resilience is a dynamic process of facing adversity related to a cancer experience. It may be facilitated through nursing interventions after people affected by cancer have been confronted with the significant adversity posed by diagnosis, treatment, (long-term) symptoms, and distress. Resilience in adult cancer care is an under-researched area. Studies confirm the association with improved health outcomes (e.g., psychological well-being, mental and physical health). Resilience is an important issue for adult cancer care. Researchers must carefully define a conceptual framework for developing nursing interventions aimed at furthering resilience in adult cancer care.

  14. Factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong H; Yoo, Il Y

    2010-07-01

    To identify factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer. The participants were 74 children, 10-15 years old who were diagnosed with cancer at least 6 months prior to data collection. The instruments used were; a self-reported questionnaire on resilience, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, measurements of relationship with friends and teachers. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. The average score for resilience was 98.49 (range: 32-128). There was no statistically significant relationship with resilience for age, gender, religion, existence of siblings, mother's age, academic performance, duration of illness or type of cancer. In bivariate analysis, family adaptability and cohesion (r= 0.535, P resilience. However, the results of multiple regression analysis showed that only family function (beta= 0.257, P resilience. School age children with cancer who reported higher family function and positive relationships with friends showed higher resiliency than their counterparts. Thus, it is important to help the families of children with cancer to enhance family function and help children to adjust to school re-entry by maintaining ties with school friends and teachers during treatment. Development of counselling programmes for parents to promote family adaptation and cohesion and educational programmes for classmates and teachers are recommended.

  15. Childhood trauma and resilience in psoriatic patients: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Maria Luigia; De Simone, Clara; Di Pietro, Salvatore; Acanfora, Mariateresa; Caldarola, Giacomo; Moccia, Lorenzo; Callea, Antonino; Panaccione, Isabella; Peris, Ketty; Rinaldi, Lucio; Janiri, Luigi; Di Nicola, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology, involving the immune system, genetic factors, and external/internal triggers, with psychosomatic aspects. The aim of the study was to investigate childhood trauma and resilience in a psoriatic sample compared with healthy controls. Correlations between childhood trauma, resilience, quality of life, clinical data and psoriatic features were also evaluated. Seventy-seven psoriatic patients and seventy-six homogeneous healthy controls were enrolled. We used the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) to assess the severity of psoriasis and the Skindex-29 to measure health-related quality of life. The psychometric battery included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-Risc) to assess trauma exposure and resilience, respectively. Psoriatic patients showed a significant prevalence of childhood trauma and a lower resilience level compared to healthy controls. Associations between traumatic experiences, low resilience and reduced quality of life in psoriatic subjects were also observed. A multidisciplinary approach is helpful to investigate clinical aspects, trigger factors and psychophysiological stress response in psoriatic subjects. Improving resilience with an early psychological intervention focused on self-motivation and strengthening of self-efficacy could facilitate the management of psoriasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Resilience in Homeland Security [video

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Dan; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, Dan O'Connor, Director Field Operations for the Chief Security Officer at FEMA, talks about the importance of resilience in Homeland Security. The term "resilience" refers to the ability to adapt to changing conditions and withstand and rapidly recover from disruption due to emergencies. Whether it is resilience towards acts of terrorism, cyber attacks, pandemics, and catastrophic natural disasters, our national preparedness is the shared responsibility of all levels of gov...

  17. Communal resilience: the Lebanese case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric BOUTIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a turbulent and aggressive environment, organizations are subject to external events. They are sometimes destabilized and can disappear. This context explains the multiplication of works studying resilience of human organizations. Resilience is then defined as the ability of the organization studied to face an external shock.This paper proposes a state of the art of resilience concept and considers the interests of the transposition of the concept to the field of a territorial community. A case study will lead us to apply the concept of resilience to the Lebanese nation.

  18. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be dec...

  19. Modeling tidal marsh distribution with sea-level rise: evaluating the role of vegetation, sediment, and upland habitat in marsh resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, Lisa M; Callaway, John C; Morris, James T; Stralberg, Diana; Parker, V Thomas; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    Tidal marshes maintain elevation relative to sea level through accumulation of mineral and organic matter, yet this dynamic accumulation feedback mechanism has not been modeled widely in the context of accelerated sea-level rise. Uncertainties exist about tidal marsh resiliency to accelerated sea-level rise, reduced sediment supply, reduced plant productivity under increased inundation, and limited upland habitat for marsh migration. We examined marsh resiliency under these uncertainties using the Marsh Equilibrium Model, a mechanistic, elevation-based soil cohort model, using a rich data set of plant productivity and physical properties from sites across the estuarine salinity gradient. Four tidal marshes were chosen along this gradient: two islands and two with adjacent uplands. Varying century sea-level rise (52, 100, 165, 180 cm) and suspended sediment concentrations (100%, 50%, and 25% of current concentrations), we simulated marsh accretion across vegetated elevations for 100 years, applying the results to high spatial resolution digital elevation models to quantify potential changes in marsh distributions. At low rates of sea-level rise and mid-high sediment concentrations, all marshes maintained vegetated elevations indicative of mid/high marsh habitat. With century sea-level rise at 100 and 165 cm, marshes shifted to low marsh elevations; mid/high marsh elevations were found only in former uplands. At the highest century sea-level rise and lowest sediment concentrations, the island marshes became dominated by mudflat elevations. Under the same sediment concentrations, low salinity brackish marshes containing highly productive vegetation had slower elevation loss compared to more saline sites with lower productivity. A similar trend was documented when comparing against a marsh accretion model that did not model vegetation feedbacks. Elevation predictions using the Marsh Equilibrium Model highlight the importance of including vegetation responses to sea

  20. The International Resilience Project: Promoting Resilience in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    The International Resilience Project was intended to determine the multidimensional, reciprocal, and dynamic factors--and relationships of factors--that parents, teachers, caregivers, and children themselves use to promote resilience in children. The samples were 589 children and their caregivers from 14 countries: Lithuania, Russia, Costa Rica,…

  1. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what

  2. Connection between ''exchange'' contribution to elastic modulus and spontaneous magnetostriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryabin, A.V.; Kazantsev, V.K.; Shevtsov, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    Transformation of temperature dependences of thermal expansion coefficient, elastic modulus, magnetic and magnetostriction susceptibility is studied at concentration magnetic transitions in quasi-bi nary sections of Fesub(65)Nisub(35-x)Crsub(x), Fesub(50)Nisub(50-x)Mnsub(x), Crsub(10)Fesub(x)Nisub(90-x). It is shown that the ratio between exchange contribution to the elastic modules ΔEsub(A) and a value of spontaneous magnetostriction w sub(m) is not practicall dependent on temperature and composition. Unambiguous relation between ΔEsub(A) and w sub(m) testifies on the unique nature of invar anomaly of thermal expansion and elasticity

  3. The quest for resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Gary; Välikangas, Liisa

    2003-09-01

    In less turbulent times, executives had the luxury of assuming that business models were more or less immortal. Companies always had to work to get better, but they seldom had to get different--not at their core, not in their essence. Today, getting different is the imperative. It's the challenge facing Coca-Cola as it struggles to raise its "share of throat" in noncarbonated beverages. It's the task that bedevils McDonald's as it tries to restart its growth in a burger-weary world. It's the hurdle for Sun Microsystems as it searches for ways to protect its high-margin server business from the Linux onslaught. Continued success no longer hinges on momentum. Rather, it rides on resilience-on the ability to dynamically reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change. Strategic resilience is not about responding to a onetime crisis or rebounding from a setback. It's about continually anticipating and adjusting to deep, secular trends that can permanently impair the earning power of a core business. It's about having the capacity to change even before the case for change becomes obvious. To thrive in turbulent times, companies must become as efficient at renewal as they are at producing today's products and services. To achieve strategic resilience, companies will have to overcome the cognitive challenge of eliminating denial, nostalgia, and arrogance; the strategic challenge of learning how to create a wealth of small tactical experiments; the political challenge of reallocating financial and human resources to where they can earn the best returns; and the ideological challenge of learning that strategic renewal is as important as optimization.

  4. HESS Opinions: A conceptual framework for assessing socio-hydrological resilience under change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Feng; Clark, Julian; Karpouzoglou, Timothy; Dewulf, Art; Buytaert, Wouter; Hannah, David

    2017-07-01

    Despite growing interest in resilience, there is still significant scope for increasing its conceptual clarity and practical relevance in socio-hydrological contexts: specifically, questions of how socio-hydrological systems respond to and cope with perturbations and how these connect to resilience remain unanswered. In this opinion paper, we propose a novel conceptual framework for understanding and assessing resilience in coupled socio-hydrological contexts, and encourage debate on the inter-connections between socio-hydrology and resilience. Taking a systems perspective, we argue that resilience is a set of systematic properties with three dimensions: absorptive, adaptive, and transformative, and contend that socio-hydrological systems can be viewed as various forms of human-water couplings, reflecting different aspects of these interactions. We propose a framework consisting of two parts. The first part addresses the identity of socio-hydrological resilience, answering questions such as resilience of what in relation to what. We identify three existing framings of resilience for different types of human-water systems and subsystems, which have been used in different fields: (1) the water subsystem, highlighting hydrological resilience to anthropogenic hazards; (2) the human subsystem, foregrounding social resilience to hydrological hazards; and (3) the coupled human-water system, exhibiting socio-hydrological resilience. We argue that these three system types and resiliences afford new insights into the clarification and evaluation of different water management challenges. The first two types address hydrological and social states, while the third type emphasises the feedbacks and interactions between human and water components within complex systems subject to internal or external disturbances. In the second part, we focus on resilience management and develop the notion of the resilience canvas, a novel heuristic device to identify possible pathways and to

  5. Measuring Operational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    Julia Allen CERT Allen is a principal researcher within the CERT Program at the SEI. Allen’s areas of interest include operational resilience...funded research and development center. The government of the United States has a royalty-free government-purpose license to use, duplicate, or...Technologies Forum Twitter: #SEIVirtualForum We offer a diverse range of learning products—including classroom training, eLearning , certification, and more—to serve the needs of customers and partners worldwide.

  6. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  7. Resilient ageing: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Maxine M; Conner, Norma E

    2014-04-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept resilient ageing. Unique in comparison with other healthy ageing concepts, resilient ageing can be applied to all older people, regardless of age or affliction. The state of global population expansion in older people over the next 50 years calls for increased health promotion research efforts to ensure the maintenance of health and optimal quality of life for all older people. Literature for this concept analysis was retrieved from several databases, CINAHL, PubMed PsycINFO, for the years 1990-2012. Rodgers's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used because of its applicability to concepts that are still evolving. An integrative research review methodology was applied to peer-reviewed journal articles (n = 46) for an inductive analysis of the concept of resilient ageing. The antecedents, defining attributes, and consequence of resilient ageing were identified. Antecedents to resilient ageing were found to be adversity and protective factors, while the core attributes include coping, hardiness and self-concept. The consequence of the process of resilient ageing was optimal quality of life. Sense of coherence was found to be the surrogate term. The results obtained were further substantiated using Antonovsky's (1979) theory of salutogenesis. A theoretical definition and a model of resilient ageing were developed. In addition, a discussion was provided on the practice, policy and research implications for promoting the development of protective factors and resilient ageing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Adventure Education and Resilience Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Carter, Susan; Gray, Sky; Gass, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of an experiential, adventure-based program on levels of resilience in fifth-grade Latino students. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental design was used to measure the impact of the Santa Fe Mountain Center's Anti-Bullying Initiative on internal assets commonly associated with resilient individuals. Results indicated…

  9. Resilia cyber resilience best practices

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    RESILIA™ Cyber Resilience Best Practices offers a practical approach to cyber resilience, reflecting the need to detect and recover from incidents, and not rely on prevention alone. It uses the ITIL® framework, which provides a proven approach to the provision of services that align to business outcomes.

  10. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  11. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  12. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David

    2018-04-25

    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Resilience correlates with outcomes after total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokish, John M; Kissenberth, Michael J; Tolan, Stefan J; Salim, Tariq I; Tadlock, Josh; Kellam, Thomas; Long, Catherine D; Crawford, Ashley; Lonergan, Keith T; Hawkins, Richard J; Shanley, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Resilience, characterized by an ability to bounce back or recover from stress, is increasingly recognized as a psychometric property affecting many outcomes' domains including quality of life, suicide risk in active-duty military personnel, and recovery in cancer patients. This study examines the correlation between resilience, as measured by the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), and traditional outcome scores including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and Penn scores in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Seventy patients undergoing primary anatomic TSA were followed up for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 30 ± 3 months). Patients were stratified into groups a priori, based on deviation from the mean of the BRS score, into low-resilience (LR), normal-resilience (NR), and high-resilience (HR) patients, and outcome scores were calculated for each group. Postoperative BRS scores significantly correlated with ASES, Penn, and SANE scores (r = 0.41-0.44, P resilience group, the LR group had a Penn score that was 34 points lower than that in the HR group. Likewise, the LR group had a SANE score that averaged 40 points lower than that in the HR group (SANE score of 53 points in LR group and 92 points in HR group, P = .05). When we evaluated ASES subscores, it appeared that the pain subscale was responsible for most of the difference between the LR and HR groups (29 points and 48 points [out of 50 points], respectively; P = .03). Resilience is a major predictor of postoperative outcomes after TSA. Patients who are classified as having LR have outcome scores that are 30 to 40 points lower on traditional outcome scales than patients with HR. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Linking gas-sorption induced changes in coal permeability to directional strains through a modulus reduction ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jishan; Chen, Zhongwei [Shool of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, WA, 6009 (Australia); Elsworth, Derek [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Penn State University, PA 16802-5000 (United States); Miao, Xiexing; Mao, Xianbiao [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (China)

    2010-07-01

    Although coal-gas interactions have been comprehensively investigated, most prior studies have focused on one or more component processes of effective stress or sorption-induced deformation and for resulting isotropic changes in coal permeability. In this study a permeability model is developed to define the evolution of gas sorption-induced permeability anisotropy under the full spectrum of mechanical conditions spanning prescribed in-situ stresses through constrained displacement. In the model, gas sorption-induced coal directional permeabilities are linked into directional strains through an elastic modulus reduction ratio, R{sub m}. It defines the ratio of coal bulk elastic modulus to coal matrix modulus (0 < R{sub m} < 1) and represents the partitioning of total strain for an equivalent porous coal medium between the fracture system and the matrix. Where bulk coal permeability is dominated by the cleat system, the portioned fracture strains may be used to define the evolution of the fracture permeability, and hence the response of the bulk aggregate. The coal modulus reduction ratio provides a straightforward index to link anisotropy in deformability characteristics to the evolution of directional permeabilities. Constitutive models incorporating this concept are implemented in a finite element model to represent the complex interactions of effective stress and sorption under in-situ conditions. The validity of the model is evaluated against benchmark cases for uniaxial swelling and for constant volume reservoirs then applied to match changes in permeability observed in a field production test within a coalbed reservoir. (author)

  15. Introduction of fracture resistance to the design and evaluation of open graded friction courses in Florida : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A dog-bone direct tension test (DBDT) to accurately determine tensile properties of asphalt concrete, : including OGFC, was conceived, developed and validated. Resilient modulus, creep, and strength tests : were performed at multiple temperatures on ...

  16. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  17. ‘Pieces of kit’ are not enough: the role of infrastructure in community resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orr Paula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood resilience is about the ability of people and places to cope with, recover from and adapt to flooding in ways that maintain quality of life and identities. In the past UK flood risk management prioritised engineering solutions to prevent flooding (barriers, walls, etc; today there is greater emphasis on resilience. Cutter et al (2010 developed a model that describes community resilience capacities/resources in terms of social, institutional, infrastructure and economic resilience along with community capital. This paper draws on the findings of an evaluation of thirteen flood resilience community ‘pathfinder’ projects run in England between 2013 – 2015, which aimed to enable and stimulate communities to develop innovative local solutions and improve resilience to flooding. Actions to improve flood infrastructure included installing property resilience measures or setting up community flood stores providing equipment to deal with emergencies. The paper explores the way that ‘infrastructure resilience capacities’ were developed and examines how physical infrastructure contributed to community flood resilience. It finds that the development of infrastructure resilience depends on strong relations between community members (‘community capital’ as well as relationships between community organisations and flood management institutions (‘institutional resilience’. The conclusions discuss the implications for infrastructure schemes in other places.

  18. Longitudinal Examination of Resilience After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwitz, Jennifer H; Sima, Adam P; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Dreer, Laura E; Bergquist, Thomas F; Zafonte, Ross; Johnson-Greene, Douglas; Felix, Elizabeth R

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate (1) the trajectory of resilience during the first year after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (2) factors associated with resilience at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury; and (3) changing relationships over time between resilience and other factors. Longitudinal analysis of an observational cohort. Five inpatient rehabilitation centers. Patients with TBI (N=195) enrolled in the resilience module of the TBI Model Systems study with data collected at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Not applicable. Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Initially, resilience levels appeared to be stable during the first year postinjury. Individual growth curve models were used to examine resilience over time in relation to demographic, psychosocial, and injury characteristics. After adjusting for these characteristics, resilience actually declined over time. Higher levels of resilience were related to nonminority status, absence of preinjury substance abuse, lower anxiety and disability level, and greater life satisfaction. Resilience is a construct that is relevant to understanding brain injury outcomes and has potential value in planning clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resilient leadership and the organizational culture of resilience: construct validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lobo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Political, economic, and social unrest and uncertainty seem replete throughout the world. Within the United States, political vitriol and economic volatility have led to severe economic restrictions. Both government and private sector organizations are being asked to do more with less. The specter of dramatic changes in healthcare creates a condition of uncertainty affecting budget allocations and hiring practices. If ever there was a time when a "resilient culture" was needed, it is now. In this paper we shall discuss the application of "tipping point" theory (Gladwell, 2000) operationalized through a special form of leadership: "resilient leadership" (Everly, Strouse, Everly, 2010). Resilient leadership is consistent with Gladwells "Law of the Few" and strives to create an organizational culture of resilience by implementing an initial change within no more than 20% of an organization's workforce. It is expected that such a minority, if chosen correctly, will "tip" the rest of the organization toward enhanced resilience, ideally creating a self-sustaining culture of resilience. This paper reports on the empirical foundations and construct validation of "resilient leadership".

  20. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  1. Resilience vs. Adaptation: Framing and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Wong-Parodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Responses to climate change may be viewed as requiring primarily “Resilience” or “Adaptation.” We examine how those two terms affect lay responses to the risks of coastal flooding and sea level rise. We use two tasks requiring substantial participant involvement, one providing minimal information and one substantial information. In Study 1, participants spent ten minutes writing an essay about a picture with flooding, labeled with “Resilience” or “Adaptation.” In Study 2, participants used an interactive aid to evaluate moving to a coastal community described as having a policy of Resilience or Adaptation, or having No Stated Policy. In Study 1, both groups judged the threat of flood similarly. In Study 2, Resilience was associated with increased concern about risks, but less willingness to take individual protective action.

  2. Measuring soil sustainability via soil resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Marie; Wilmes, Paul; Schrader, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    Soils are the nexus of water, energy and food, which illustrates the need for a holistic approach in sustainable soil management. The present study therefore aimed at identifying a bioindicator for the evaluation of soil management sustainability in a cross-disciplinary approach between soil science and multi-omics research. For this purpose we first discuss the remaining problems and challenges of evaluating sustainability and consequently suggest one measurable bioindicator for soil management sustainability. In this concept, we define soil sustainability as the maintenance of soil functional integrity. The potential to recover functional and structural integrity after a disturbance is generally defined as resilience. This potential is a product of the past and the present soil management, and at the same time prospect of possible soil responses to future disturbances. Additionally, it is correlated with the multiple soil functions and hence reflecting the multifunctionality of the soil system. Consequently, resilience can serve as a bioindicator for soil sustainability. The measurable part of soil resilience is the response diversity, calculated from the systematic contrasting of multi-omic markers for genetic potential and functional activity, and referred to as potential Maximum Ecological Performance (MEPpot) in this study. Calculating MEPpot will allow to determine the thresholds of resistance and resilience and potential tipping points for a regime shift towards irreversible or permanent unfavorable soil states for each individual soil considered. The calculation of such ecosystem thresholds is to our opinion the current global cross-disciplinary challenge. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  4. Effect of time of sintering of a castable with andalusite aggregates in the rupture modulus and elastic modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.R.; Garcia, G.C.R.; Claudinei, S.; Ribeiro, S.

    2011-01-01

    The studied castable contain andalusite aggregates, and when sintered in temperatures above 1280 deg C, transformed into mullite improving the properties of concrete due to its low expansion and thermal conductivity, creep resistance and thermal shock. The refractory was homogenized in a mixer with 5.5% m/m of water and poured into a metal mold resulting in prismatic bars. After curing for 48 hours, were sintered at 1450 ° C for 0 h, 1 h, 2.5 h and 10 h with heating and cooling rates of 2 ° C / min. The results of elastic modules were, respectively, in GPa: 25.75±1.75, 37.79±0.36, 39.03±1.97 and 54.47±4.01, and rupture, MPa: 8.40±0.78, 11.94±0.68, 10.91±0.91 and 11,34±1.16, showing the increase in elastic modulus for longer times and for times exceeding one hour, no significant changes in results of the modulus of rupture , stabilizing the change of this refractory's properties after the first hour of sintering. (author)

  5. Predictors of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Min; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Shu, Hsiu-Lan; Chang, Shu-Chen; Hsiao, Chih-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    To report a study examining the relationships among coping, anxiety and resilience and to identify predictors of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment. Anxiety is the main psychological disturbance in adolescents with cancer, but predictors in the context of anxiety related cancer treatments have not been investigated. Cross-sectional study. Adolescents (n = 131) recruited from three medical centres between 2010-2011. The eligible participants were diagnosed with cancer, without mental disease and receiving chemotherapy. Participants were assessed with the paediatric cancer coping scale, revised children's manifest anxiety scale, second edition, and the Haase adolescent resilience in illness scale. Over 20% of participants scored high on worry. The most commonly used coping strategy was cognitive coping, followed by problem-oriented coping and finally by defensive coping. There was a statistically significant correlation between defensive coping and level of worry. Resilience was positively correlated with cognitive coping and problem-oriented coping. The cognitive coping and defensive coping were found to predict anxiety and resilience significantly by a step-wise multiple regression analysis and accounted for 40·9% and 46·5% of total variance, respectively. Cognitive coping and defensive coping are predictors for the level of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment. Health providers should evaluate coping behaviour in patients and work towards a cognitive and problem-oriented coping style that will benefit the patient's mental health during treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Physical resilience of older cancer survivors: An emerging concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan-Porter, Wei; Cohen, Harvey J; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Sloane, Richard; Pendergast, Jane F; Snyder, Denise C; Morey, Miriam C

    2016-11-01

    To characterize factors contributing to physical resilience in older cancer survivors, as demonstrated by resistance to decline or recovery (resilience). We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of cancer survivors ≥65years old and ≥5years from cancer diagnoses. Physical function was assessed quarterly over 2years, with Short-Form 36 physical function subscale. Participants with ≥2 follow-up assessments (n=594) were evaluated for physical resilience: 1) Resistance was defined as lack of any decline, where decline was a drop of ≥13 points, and 2) resilience (i.e., recovery) was defined as regaining ≥50% of lost function, subsequent to decline. Mean age was 73.1years and 89.1% were Caucasian. Forty-nine percent (n=289) were resistant to decline in function; these individuals were younger, had higher education and income, were more likely to be Caucasian, and had higher baseline physical function (mean difference [MD] 7.8 points, 95% CI 5.0-10.8) and general health (MD 7.5 points, 95% CI 4.9-10.1). Fifty-seven percent (n=137 of 239) demonstrated resilience, with 91.2% (n=125) recovering within 6months of declines; these participants had higher baseline physical function (MD 6.6 points, 95% CI 1.8-11.4), but similar pre-decline function. More participants who were resistant, and more who showed resilience, reported high self-efficacy and social support. The majority of older cancer survivors exhibited physical resilience; this was associated with high baseline health, physical function, self-efficacy, and social support. Assessing and targeting psychosocial factors may be important for interventions seeking to promote physical resilience. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. System Dynamics Modeling for the Resilience in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florah, Kamanj; Kim, Jonghyun

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to model and evaluate emergency operation system (EOS) resilience using the System Dynamics. System Dynamics is the study of causal interactions between elements of a complex system. This paper identifies the EOS resilience attributes and their interactions by constructing a causal loop diagram. Then, the interactions are quantified based on literature review and simulated to analyze resilience dynamics. This paper describes the use of system dynamics to improve understanding of the resilience dynamics of complex systems such as emergency operation systems. This paper takes into account two aspects; the strength of resilience attributes interactions and the quantification of dynamic behaviour of resilience over time. This model can be applied to review NPP safety in terms of the resilience level and organization. Simulation results can give managers insights to support their decisions in safety management. A nuclear power plant (NPP) is classified as a safety critical organization whose safety objective is to control hazards that can cause significant harm to the environment, public, or personnel. There has been a significant improvement of safety designs as well as risk analysis tools and methods applied in nuclear power plants over the last decade. Conventional safety analysis methods such as PSA have several limitations they primarily focus on technical dimension, the analysis are linear and sequential, they are dominated by static models, they do not take a systemic view into account, and they focus primarily on why accidents happen and not how success is achieved. Hence new approaches to risk analysis for NPPs are needed to complement the conventional approaches. Resilience is the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust to its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. An EOS in a NPP refers to a system consisting of personnel

  8. Influence of elastic modulus of intraradicular posts on the fracture load of roots restored with full crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Estivalete MARCHIONATTI

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the fracture load and displacement of roots restored with posts of different elastic modulus. Material and method Thirty-six replicas of epoxy resin mixed with glass microfibers were made from an endodontically-treated human premolar root prepared to a length of 12 mm with a custom drill, leaving the apical 4 mm unprepared. Replicas were randomly restored with (n = 12: FP-LM (fiber post with low elastic modulus– 50 GPa, FP-HM (fiber post with high elastic modulus – 67 GPa and MP (metallic post – 208 GPa, using self-curing adhesive and dual resin cement. Cores were built up with composite resin and metallic crowns were cemented in all the roots with self-adhesive resin cement with self-curing mode. Specimens were subjected to a fracture load test (45° inclination/0.5 mm/min and displacement was registered at 100 N. Result One-way ANOVA showed that elastic modulus of the post did not affect the fracture load means (p = 0.203 (FP-LM: 237.4 ± 65.11 N; FP-HM: 236.7 ± 92.85 N; MP: 295.8 ± 108.7 N but was statistically significant for the displacement (p < 0.00: Tukey’s test showed that FP-LM displacement mean (0.81 ± 0.15 mm was significantly higher than those for FP-HM (0.46 ± 0.26 mm; p = 0.00 and MP (0.62 ± 0.07 mm; p = 0.04. Conclusion Posts with different elastic modulus exhibit similar fracture loads, but a lower displacement is achieved when fiber posts with a high elastic modulus and metallic posts are used.

  9. Organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and resilience of nursing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Gaioli, Cheila Cristina Leonardo de Oliveira; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Mininel, Vivian Aline; Vegro, Thamiris Cavazzani

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and identify the capacity of resilience of nursing workers. quantitative research. For data collection, were used the Brazilian Instrument for Evaluation of Organizational Culture (IBACO - Instrumento Brasileiro para Avaliação da Cultura Organizacional) and the Resilience Scale (RS). participants reported the existence of centralization of power and devaluation of workers, despite recognizing the existence of collaboration at work and practices for improving interpersonal relations. In relation to the capacity of resilience, 50% of workers showed high level, and 42.9% a medium level of resilience. The correlation tests revealed negative values between the IBACO and RS domains, indicating that the lower the appreciation of individuals in the institution, the greater their capacity of resilience. the organizational values reflect the work organization model in the institution that devalues the workers' needs and requires greater capacity of resilience.

  10. Building community disaster resilience: perspectives from a large urban county department of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, Alonzo; Fielding, Jonathan E; Chandra, Anita; Williams, Malcolm; Eisenman, David; Wells, Kenneth B; Law, Grace Y; Fogleman, Stella; Magaña, Aizita

    2013-07-01

    An emerging approach to public health emergency preparedness and response, community resilience encompasses individual preparedness as well as establishing a supportive social context in communities to withstand and recover from disasters. We examine why building community resilience has become a key component of national policy across multiple federal agencies and discuss the core principles embodied in community resilience theory-specifically, the focus on incorporating equity and social justice considerations in preparedness planning and response. We also examine the challenges of integrating community resilience with traditional public health practices and the importance of developing metrics for evaluation and strategic planning purposes. Using the example of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project, we discuss our experience and perspective from a large urban county to better understand how to implement a community resilience framework in public health practice.

  11. Association between morningness and resilience in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Jin; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Cheol-Soon; Cha, Boseok; Lee, Yu Jin; Soh, Minah; Park, Jin Ah; Young, Park So; Song, Eun Hye

    2016-01-01

    Circadian typology and sleep quality may be essential factors associated with the promotion of resilience. However, previous studies investigating the association between circadian typology and resilience did not analyze the effects of sleep quality on resilience. Thus, the present study evaluated the association between circadian typology and resilience in Korean college students after controlling for sleep quality. Additionally, this study investigated several sleep-related variables, including sleep duration, social jetlag and sunlight exposure during the daytime, to examine the modifiable behavioral features of morningness and also investigated whether the findings regarding morningness-related modifiable habits were associated with resilience. This study included 1094 participants (947 males and 147 females) between 19 and 29 years of age (22.8 ± 1.9 years) who completed the 10-item Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), the Korean version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Korean version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a survey about social jetlag that determined misalignments between weekday and weekend times of awakening and activity duration under conditions of sunlight between 10:00 and 15:00. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sleep duration, mean daily sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 15:00 and age were positive predictors of morningness, whereas social jetlag was a negative predictor of morningness. Of these morningness-related modifiable behavioral features, mean daily sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 15:00 significantly predicted greater resilience. An additional multiple linear regression analysis revealed that morningness was a positive predictor of resilience after controlling for age, sex, depression, anxiety and sleep quality. These results support the idea that morningness and better sleep quality are

  12. Effects of Specimen Size on The Flexural Strength and Weibull Modulus of Nuclear Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se Hwan; Kim, Dae In; Kim, Eung Seon; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan

    2010-01-01

    Flexural strength and the Weibull modulus of porous graphite are key material data for the design, and safety and lifetime evaluation of VHTR graphite core components. For brittle materials like graphite, it follows from the experiments that the mean strength of a set of large specimens is smaller than the mean strength of a set of small specimens since it is more likely to find a major flaw in a large than in a small. This size effects of strength is the most prominent and relevant consequence of the statistical behavior of the strength of brittle materials. Weibull was the first to develop a statistical theory of brittle fracture based on the weakest link hypothesis. Using some empirical arguments necessary to make a simple and good fitting of his experimental data he derived the Weibull distribution of the probability of failure, where the Weibull parameter, m, is being used in the probabilistic methods in materials science and structure mechanics, for example, in the design and safety analysis of graphite core components in VHTR. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the specimen size effects on the flexural strength and Weibull modulus of nuclear graphite of different coke particle sizes and different forming methods

  13. Low modulus and bioactive Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite prepared by spark plasma sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Tan, Yanni; Liu, Yong; Liu, Shifeng; Zhou, Rui; Tang, Hanchun

    2017-11-01

    A titanium mesh scaffold composite filled with Ti/α-TCP particles was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructures and interfacial reactions of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The compressive strength and elastic modulus were also measured. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility was evaluated by using simulated body fluid and cells culture, respectively. After high temperature sintering, Ti oxides, Ti x P y and CaTiO 3 were formed. The formation of Ti oxides and Ti x P y were resulted from the diffusion of O and P elements from α-TCP to Ti. CaTiO 3 was the reaction product of Ti and α-TCP. The composite of 70Ti/α-TCP incorporated with Ti mesh showed a high compressive strength of 589MPa and a low compressive modulus of 30GPa. The bioactivity test showed the formation of a thick apatite layer on the composite and well-spread cells attachment. A good combination of mechanical properties and bioactivity indicated a high potential application of Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite for orthopedic implants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Patch Similarity Modulus and Difference Curvature Based Fourth-Order Partial Differential Equation for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiao Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional fourth-order nonlinear diffusion denoising model suffers the isolated speckles and the loss of fine details in the processed image. For this reason, a new fourth-order partial differential equation based on the patch similarity modulus and the difference curvature is proposed for image denoising. First, based on the intensity similarity of neighbor pixels, this paper presents a new edge indicator called patch similarity modulus, which is strongly robust to noise. Furthermore, the difference curvature which can effectively distinguish between edges and noise is incorporated into the denoising algorithm to determine the diffusion process by adaptively adjusting the size of the diffusion coefficient. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only preserve edges and texture details, but also avoid isolated speckles and staircase effect while filtering out noise. And the proposed algorithm has a better performance for the images with abundant details. Additionally, the subjective visual quality and objective evaluation index of the denoised image obtained by the proposed algorithm are higher than the ones from the related methods.

  15. Use of Model-Based Design Methods for Enhancing Resiliency Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Lenora A.

    The most common traditional non-functional requirement analysis is reliability. With systems becoming more complex, networked, and adaptive to environmental uncertainties, system resiliency has recently become the non-functional requirement analysis of choice. Analysis of system resiliency has challenges; which include, defining resilience for domain areas, identifying resilience metrics, determining resilience modeling strategies, and understanding how to best integrate the concepts of risk and reliability into resiliency. Formal methods that integrate all of these concepts do not currently exist in specific domain areas. Leveraging RAMSoS, a model-based reliability analysis methodology for Systems of Systems (SoS), we propose an extension that accounts for resiliency analysis through evaluation of mission performance, risk, and cost using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) modeling and design trade study variability modeling evaluation techniques. This proposed methodology, coined RAMSoS-RESIL, is applied to a case study in the multi-agent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) domain to investigate the potential benefits of a mission architecture where functionality to complete a mission is disseminated across multiple UAVs (distributed) opposed to being contained in a single UAV (monolithic). The case study based research demonstrates proof of concept for the proposed model-based technique and provides sufficient preliminary evidence to conclude which architectural design (distributed vs. monolithic) is most resilient based on insight into mission resilience performance, risk, and cost in addition to the traditional analysis of reliability.

  16. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  17. Dynamic determination of modulus of elasticity of full-size wood composite panels using a vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Guan; Houjiang Zhang; Lujing Zhou; Xiping Wang

    2015-01-01

    A vibration testing method based on free vibration theory in a ‘‘free–free” support condition was investigated for evaluating the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of full-size wood composite panels (WCPs). Vibration experiments were conducted on three types of WCPs (medium density fibreboard, particleboard, and plywood) to determine the dynamic MOE of the panels. Static...

  18. Resiliency scoring for business continuity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna; Anderson, Jamie

    Through this paper readers will learn of a scoring methodology, referred to as resiliency scoring, which enables the evaluation of business continuity plans based upon analysis of their alignment with a predefined set of criteria that can be customised and are adaptable to the needs of any organisation. This patent pending tool has been successful in driving engagement and is a powerful resource to improve reporting capabilities, identify risks and gauge organisational resilience. The role of business continuity professionals is to aid their organisations in planning and preparedness activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of potential disruptions and ensuring critical business functions can continue in the event of unforeseen circumstances. This may seem like a daunting task for what can typically be a small team of individuals. For this reason, it is important to be able to leverage industry standards, documented best practices and effective tools to streamline and support your continuity programme. The resiliency scoring methodology developed and implemented at Target has proven to be a valuable tool in taking the organisation's continuity programme to the next level. This paper will detail how the tool was developed and provide guidance on how it can be customised to fit your organisation's unique needs.

  19. Increasing Resiliency Through Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [unaffiliated

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology to quantify the economic and resiliency benefit provided by renewable energy (RE) in a hybrid RE-storage-diesel microgrid. We present a case study to show how this methodology is applied to a multi-use/ multi-function telecommunications facility in southern California. In the case study, we first identify photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) technologies that minimize the lifecycle cost of energy at the site under normal, grid-connected operation. We then evaluate how those technologies could be incorporated alongside existing diesel generators in a microgrid to increase resiliency at the site, where resiliency is quantified in terms of the amount of time that the microgrid can sustain the critical load during a grid outage. We find that adding PV and BESS to the existing backup diesel generators with a fixed fuel supply extends the amount of time the site could survive an outage by 1.8 days, from 1.7 days for the existing diesel-only backup system to 3.5 days for the PV/diesel/BESS hybrid system. Furthermore, even after diesel fuel supplies are exhausted, the site can continue to operate critical loads during daytime hours using just the PV/BESS when there is sufficient solar resource. We find that the site can save approximately $100,000 in energy costs over the 25-year lifecycle while doubling the amount of time they can survive an outage. The methodology presented here provides a template for increasing resiliency at telecomm sites by implementing renewable energy solutions, which provide additional benefits of carbon emission reduction and energy cost savings.

  20. Resilience and efficiency in transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, Alexander A; Kitsak, Maksim; Marchese, Dayton; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Seager, Thomas; Linkov, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Urban transportation systems are vulnerable to congestion, accidents, weather, special events, and other costly delays. Whereas typical policy responses prioritize reduction of delays under normal conditions to improve the efficiency of urban road systems, analytic support for investments that improve resilience (defined as system recovery from additional disruptions) is still scarce. In this effort, we represent paved roads as a transportation network by mapping intersections to nodes and road segments between the intersections to links. We built road networks for 40 of the urban areas defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. We developed and calibrated a model to evaluate traffic delays using link loads. The loads may be regarded as traffic-based centrality measures, estimating the number of individuals using corresponding road segments. Efficiency was estimated as the average annual delay per peak-period auto commuter, and modeled results were found to be close to observed data, with the notable exception of New York City. Resilience was estimated as the change in efficiency resulting from roadway disruptions and was found to vary between cities, with increased delays due to a 5% random loss of road linkages ranging from 9.5% in Los Angeles to 56.0% in San Francisco. The results demonstrate that many urban road systems that operate inefficiently under normal conditions are nevertheless resilient to disruption, whereas some more efficient cities are more fragile. The implication is that resilience, not just efficiency, should be considered explicitly in roadway project selection and justify investment opportunities related to disaster and other disruptions.

  1. Resilient communities: implications for professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Neef, Martijn; Davis, Scott; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    As a result of societal changes like citizen empowerment and increasing attention for strengthening community resilience, relationships between citizens and professional responders in crisis management are changing. Citizens actively deal with crises themselves, implying adjustments to professional

  2. Assessment instruments of urban resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Saporiti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to highlight the aspects related to the resilient capacity of a neoecosistema. Clarifying what does it means to speak about a resilient neoecosistema and which are the specific characters that make him capable of change and adaptation when facing an environmental, social or economic threat, it will be possible to understand the efficacy related to the model of urban development. From the individuation of perturbing factors of this capacity, it will be possible to generate a panel of the resilient capacity linked to three different ambits that represent the three characteristic elements of natural ecosystems: its physic structure, the persons and the interaction processes between them so we would be able to make explicit the specific characters of resilience distinguished from those of sustainability and urban quality.  

  3. Sociotechnical Resilience: A Preliminary Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Sulfikar; Kant, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance. We propose that the triad of relations, structures, and practices are fundamental aspects required to comprehend the resilience of sociotechnical systems during times of crisis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Improving Resilience and Self-Esteem among University Students with Entrepreneurship Simulation Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihadi, Kususanto; Cheow, Damien Z. Y.; Yong, Jonathan H. E.; Sundrasagran, Megaanesh

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the frequency of playing a board game that simulates entrepreneurial experience called "Traders" on the university students' resilience and self-esteem. Traders Board Game (TBG) was developed in 2015 with an aim to improve several entrepreneurship skills among young adults, and resilience being…

  5. Resilience of Networked Infrastructure with Evolving Component Conditions: Pavement Network Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal; Miller-Hooks, Elise; Asadabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with quantifying the resilience of a network of pavements. Calculations were carried out by modeling network performance under a set of possible damage-meteorological scenarios with known probability of occurrence. Resilience evaluation was performed a priori while accounting for...

  6. Shear Elastic Modulus on Patellar Tendon Captured from Supersonic Shear Imaging: Correlation with Tangent Traction Modulus Computed from Material Testing System and Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi Jie; Fu, Siu Ngor

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the elastic properties of a tendon could enhance the diagnosis and treatment of tendon injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the shear elastic modulus on the patellar tendon captured from a Supersonic Shear Imaging (SSI) and the tangent traction modulus computed from a Material testing system (MTS) on 8 fresh patellar pig tendons (Experiment I). Test-retest reliability of the shear elastic modulus captured from the SSI was established in Experiment II on 22 patellar tendons of 11 healthy human subjects using the SSI. Spearman Correlation coefficients for the shear elastic modulus and tangent traction modulus ranged from 0.82 to 1.00 (all p<0.05) on the 8 tendons. The intra and inter-operator reliabilities were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93-0.98) respectively. The results from this study demonstrate that the shear elastic modulus of the patellar tendon measured by the SSI is related to the tangent traction modulus quantified by the MTS. The SSI shows good intra and inter-operator repeatability. Therefore, the present study shows that SSI can be used to assess elastic properties of a tendon.

  7. Resilient retfærdighed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the idea of resilience as a point of departure for analysing some contemporary challenges to the climate justice movement posed by social-ecological sciences. Climate justice activists are increasingly rallying for a system-change, demanding fundamental changes to political bure...... is that the scientific framework behind resilience is not politically neutral and that this framework tends to weaken the activist’s demands for a just transition and place more emphasis on technical and bureaucratic processes....

  8. Resilience and Psychosocial Function Among Mainland Chinese Parents of Children With Cancer: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Guan, Hui Jie; Wu, Liu Hong; Xiao, Min Yi; Luo, Dong Mei; Quan, Xiao Ming

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is commonly used to refer to the capacity to resist negative psychological reactions when encountering aversive circumstances. However, clinicians generally define resilience as a lack of psychological distress or an adoption of positive attitude in response to a potentially traumatic event. Although resilience was initially considered to be a psychological variable, it has gradually become seen as a psychosocial indicator now used in clinical settings in the Western world but is still a relatively new topic in most Eastern countries. In this study, we aimed to extend our understandings of the psychological responses of a group of mainland Chinese parents upon being informed that their children were diagnosed with cancer, using resilience as a major indicator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of resilience among mainland Chinese parents in response to knowing that their children were diagnosed with cancer and to examine the relationships between resilience and other psychosocial outcomes. A descriptive and a cross-sectional survey design was used and involved a sample of 125 parents who visited a specialist cancer hospital in southeast China between September 2013 and February 2014. The participants reported lower level of resilience as compared with a control population in the Chinese community (P Resilience was negatively correlated with uncertainty in illness (P resilience group reported better psychosocial functions than did those from the low-resilience group (P resilience, which predicts 38.3% (adjusted R) of total variation in psychological resilience. A high level of resilience in parents of children diagnosed with cancer is associated with better psychosocial function in response to the traumatic event. Additional attention should be given to those Mainland Chinese parents who demonstrated a low level of resilience in response to their child's diagnosis. This is particularly important because of the long and stressful process for

  9. Methodology to assess coastal infrastructure resilience to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca Marta

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the resilience of the line, several options have been considered to evaluate and reduce climate change impacts to the railway. This paper describes the methodological approach developed to evaluate the risks of flooding for a range of scenarios in the estuary and open coast reaches of the line. Components to derive the present day and future climate change coastal conditions including some possible adaptation measures are also presented together with the results of the hindcasting analysis to assess the performance of the modelling system. An overview of the modelling results obtained to support the development of a long-term Resilience Strategy for asset management is also discussed.

  10. ECONOMIC RESILIENCE AND CROWDSOURCING PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra L. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased interdependence and complexity of modern societies have increased the need to involve all members of a community into solving problems. In times of great uncertainty, when communities face threats of different kinds and magnitudes, the traditional top-down approach where government provides solely for community wellbeing is no longer plausible. Crowdsourcing has emerged as an effective means of empowering communities with the potential to engage individuals in innovation, self-organization activities, informal learning, mutual support, and political action that can all lead to resilience. However, there remains limited resource on the topic. In this paper, we outline the various forms of crowdsourcing, economic and community resilience, crowdsourcing and economic resilience, and a case study of the Nepal earthquake. his article presents an exploratory perspective on the link can be found between crowdsourcing and economic resilience. It introduces and describes a framework that can be used to study the impact of crowdsourcing initiatives for economic resilience by future research. An initial a set of indicators to be used to measure the change in the level of resilience is presented.

  11. Resilience | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widely accepted (Gunderson 2000, cited under Original Definition). Currently, the concept is commonplace in academics, management, and policy. Although the idea has quantitative roots in the ecological sciences and was proposed as a measurable quality of ecosystems, the broad use of resilience led to an expansion of definitions and applications. Holling’s original definition, presented in 1973 (Holling 1973, cited under Original Definition), was simply the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain. Ecological resilience, therefore, emphasizes that the dynamics of complex systems are nonlinear, meaning that these systems can transition, often abruptly, between dynamic states with substantially different structures, functions, and processes. The transition of ecological systems from one state to another frequently has important repercussions for humans. Recent definitions are more normative and qualitative, especially in the social sciences, and a competing definition, that of engineering resilience, is still often used. Resilience is an emergent phenomenon of complex systems, which means it cannot be deduced from the behavior of t

  12. Burnout and health among critical care professionals: The mediational role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Oscar; Aparicio-Zaldivar, Eva

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the mediational role of resilience in relationships between burnout and health in critical care professionals; to determine relationships among resilience level, three burnout dimensions, and physical/mental health; and to establish demographic differences in psychological variables evaluated. Cross-sectional study. A total of 52 critical care professionals, mainly nurses, were recruited from an intensive care unit of Madrid (Spain). All participants were assessed with the questionnaires 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Short Form-12 Health Survey. No demographic differences were found. Three burnout dimensions were negatively associated with mental health and resilience. Mediational analyses revealed resilience mediated 1) the relationships between emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation with mental health (partial mediations) and 2) the relationship between personal accomplishment and mental health (total mediation). Resilience minimises and buffers the impact of negative outcomes of workplace stress on mental health of critical care professionals. As a result, resilience prevents the occurrence of burnout syndrome. Resilience improves not only their mental health, but also their ability to practice effectively. It is therefore imperative to develop resilience programs for critical care nurses in nursing schools, universities and health centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relationship Between Psychological Resilience and Life Satisfaction of University Academic Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze ÜLKER TÜMLÜ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic staff psychological resilience and life satisfaction. The research is a descriptive study in relational survey model. The study group includes 94 faculty members chosen randomly in 2011-2012 academic years in Kastamonu University. As a data collection instruments, life satisfaction scale developed by Diener et al in 1985, adapted to Turkish by Köker in 1991 and Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale/CD-RISC developed by Connor and Davidson in 2003, adapted to Turkish by Karaırmak in 2010, were used. In the study correlation method was used in order to determine the relationship between resilience and life satisfaction, regression analysis was used in order to determine whether the resilience predict life satisfaction. In addition, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used in the analysis of resilience in terms of age, gender, marital status, degree, years of service and years of service at the university in the study. When the outcomes were evaluated, a significant, positive relationship was found between life satisfaction and resilience. The psychological resilience predicts life satisfaction in a meaningful way and resilience explains 7% of the total variance about life satisfaction. In addition, resilience levels of the university academic staff does not differ meaningfully from the gender, age, marital status, degree, years of service and years of service at university.

  14. Aligning Organizational Pathologies and Organizational Resilience Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Morales Allende

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing resilient individuals, organizations and communities is a hot topic in the research agenda in Management, Ecology, Psychology or Engineering. Despite the number of works that focus on resilience is increasing, there is not completely agreed definition of resilience, neither an entirely formal and accepted framework. The cause may be the spread of research among different fields. In this paper, we focus on the study of organizational resilience with the aim of improving the level of resilience in organizations. We review the relation between viable and resilient organizations and their common properties. Based on these common properties, we defend the application of the Viable System Model (VSM to design resilient organizations. We also identify the organizational pathologies defined applying the VSM through resilience indicators. We conclude that an organization with any organizational pathology is not likely to be resilient because it does not fulfill the requirements of viable organizations.

  15. FOAMED CEMENT COMPOSITES: DETECTION OF THE MODULUS OF ELASTICITY USING DIC ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON WITH OTHER METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Ďureje

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A modulus of elasticity was determined for eight differently foamed cement paste samples. Samples were loaded in the laboratory by a hydraulic press. The force acting on the sample was read directly from the laboratory press. Digital Image Correlation (DIC analysis were used to draw deformations. Before loading pressure test was applied a random contrast pattern to the samples. Samples were captured by the camera in a one-second interval during the loading pressure test. The images were edited in the Adobe Photoshop Lightroom and then evaluated using Ncorr software. The result is a vertical and horizontal shift field. On the basis of the results obtained, it was possible to calculate the modulus of elasticity of each sample.

  16. Investigation of test methods for measuring compressive strength and modulus of two-dimensional carbon-carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Sawyer, James Wayne; Yamaki, Y. Robert

    1989-01-01

    An experimental evaluation has been conducted to ascertain the the usefulness of two techniques for measuring in-plane compressive failure strength and modulus in coated and uncoated carbon-carbon composites. The techniques involved testing specimens with potted ends as well as testing them in a novel clamping fixture; specimen shape, length, gage width, and thickness were the test parameters investigated for both coated and uncoated 0/90 deg and +/-45 deg laminates. It is found that specimen shape does not have a significant effect on the measured compressive properties. The potting of specimen ends results in slightly higher measured compressive strengths than those obtained with the new clamping fixture. Comparable modulus values are obtained by both techniques.

  17. Effects of coating with different ceromers on the impact strength, transverse strength and elastic modulus of polymethyl methacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Esma Başak; Atala, Mustafa Hayati; Eşer, Bekir; Polat, Nilüfer Tülin; Asiltürk, Meltem; Gültek, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) after coating with different ceromers. For transverse strength and modulus of elasticity tests, specimens of 65×10×2.5 mm dimensions were prepared (5 groups, n=10). For impact strength test, specimens of 60×7.5×4 mm dimensions were prepared (5 groups, n=10). Test group specimens were coated with one of four different types of ceromers, and specimens in the control group were not coated. After specimens were tested for transverse and impact strengths, the data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Conover post hoc tests (pceromers caused a statistically significant increase in the elastic modulus of PMMA. While GLYMO-TEOS-ZrO2 significantly decreased the impact strength, the other ceromers did not cause any statistically significant difference in impact strength. Coating with ceromers substantially improved the mechanical properties of PMMA.

  18. Towards a Theoretical Grounding of Climate Resilience Assessments for Smallholder Farming Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilience assessments are increasingly used to inform management decisions and development interventions across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. In light of current and future climate change and variability, there is growing interest in applying such tools and frameworks to assess and strengthen the climate resilience of smallholder farming systems. However, these assessments are often undertaken without explicit consideration of the resilience thinking in which they are grounded. This makes it difficult to understand how the conceptual aspects of resilience are translating into resilience assessment practice. This paper provides an important first step in tackling this gap, by identifying and using key characteristics of resilience thinking to evaluate existing resilience assessment tools and frameworks and drawing insights for assessing the climate resilience of smallholder farming systems. We find that power, politics, and agency, identified as important in the resilience literature, are not fully incorporated within current tools and frameworks. This leads to inadequate consideration of spatial and temporal trade-offs. We propose six recommendations for assessing the climate resilience of smallholder farming systems in SSA in order to enhance the linkages between resilience theory and practice. These are: (1 better integrate vulnerability and resilience; (2 recognize that resilience does not equal development or poverty reduction; (3 recognize the benefits and limitations of adopting flexible, participatory approaches; (4 integrate issues of power into assessment tools; (5 target specific systems; and (6 encourage knowledge sharing, empirical studies, and critical evaluation. Our findings contribute to improved understanding of applications of resilience thinking to enhance natural resource management.

  19. Effect of carbon and glass fiber posts on the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of a composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; de Oliveira, Jonas Alves; do Valle, Accacio Lins; Zogheib, Lucas Villaca; Ferreira, Paulo Martins; Bastos, Luiz Gustavo Cavalcanti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prefabricated fiber posts on the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of a composite resin. Thirty bar-shaped specimens measuring 25 x 2.0 x 2.0 mm were made, containing posts that were 1.3 mm in diameter and 20 mm long. Each group contained 10 specimens: Group 1, resin without post; Group 2, resin with carbon fiber post; Group 3, resin with glass fiber post. The samples were immersed in water at 37 degrees C until the three-point loading test was performed at a speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = 0.05). Both fiber posts were similar in strength and both were stronger than the control. Group 3 obtained a higher mean modulus of elasticity than Groups 1 and 2, which were similar. The results of this study demonstrated that the presence of a fiber post significantly raised flexural strength values and the glass fiber post significantly increased the modulus of elasticity of the evaluated composite resin.

  20. Shear Modulus for Nonisotropic, Open-Celled Foams Using a General Elongated Kelvin Foam Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    An equation for the shear modulus for nonisotropic, open-celled foams in the plane transverse to the elongation (rise) direction is derived using an elongated Kelvin foam model with the most general geometric description. The shear modulus was found to be a function of the unit cell dimensions, the solid material properties, and the cell edge cross-section properties. The shear modulus equation reduces to the relation derived by others for isotropic foams when the unit cell is equiaxed.

  1. Evaluation of Fatigue Life of CRM-Reinforced SMA and Its Relationship to Dynamic Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is an essential problem of asphalt concrete that contributes to pavement damage. Although stone matrix asphalt (SMA has significantly provided resistance to rutting failure, its resistance to fatigue failure is yet to be fully addressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM on stiffness and fatigue properties of SMA mixtures at optimum binder content, using four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% CRM by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the dynamic stiffness (indirect tensile test, dynamic creep (repeated load creep, and fatigue test (indirect tensile fatigue test at temperature of 25°C. The indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (200, 300, and 400 kPa. Experimental results indicate that CRM-reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue life compared to the mixtures without CRM. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the fatigue life and resilient modulus as compared to permanent strain; thus resilient modulus might be a more reliable indicator in evaluating the fatigue life of asphalt mixture.

  2. Evaluation of fatigue life of CRM-reinforced SMA and its relationship to dynamic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdel Aziz, Mahrez; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Koting, Suhana

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue cracking is an essential problem of asphalt concrete that contributes to pavement damage. Although stone matrix asphalt (SMA) has significantly provided resistance to rutting failure, its resistance to fatigue failure is yet to be fully addressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on stiffness and fatigue properties of SMA mixtures at optimum binder content, using four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% CRM by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the dynamic stiffness (indirect tensile test), dynamic creep (repeated load creep), and fatigue test (indirect tensile fatigue test) at temperature of 25°C. The indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (200, 300, and 400 kPa). Experimental results indicate that CRM-reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue life compared to the mixtures without CRM. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the fatigue life and resilient modulus as compared to permanent strain; thus resilient modulus might be a more reliable indicator in evaluating the fatigue life of asphalt mixture.

  3. Evaluation of Fatigue Life of CRM-Reinforced SMA and Its Relationship to Dynamic Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdel Aziz, Mahrez; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue cracking is an essential problem of asphalt concrete that contributes to pavement damage. Although stone matrix asphalt (SMA) has significantly provided resistance to rutting failure, its resistance to fatigue failure is yet to be fully addressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on stiffness and fatigue properties of SMA mixtures at optimum binder content, using four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% CRM by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the dynamic stiffness (indirect tensile test), dynamic creep (repeated load creep), and fatigue test (indirect tensile fatigue test) at temperature of 25°C. The indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (200, 300, and 400 kPa). Experimental results indicate that CRM-reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue life compared to the mixtures without CRM. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the fatigue life and resilient modulus as compared to permanent strain; thus resilient modulus might be a more reliable indicator in evaluating the fatigue life of asphalt mixture. PMID:25050406

  4. Joint Use of Constant Modulus and Least Squares Criteria in Linearly-Constrained Communication Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Djigan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the application of the linear constraints and RLS inverse QR decomposition in adaptive arrays based on constant modulus criterion. The computational procedures of adaptive algorithms are presented. Linearly constrained least squares adaptive arrays, constant modulus adaptive arrays and linearly constrained constant modulus adaptive arrays are compared via simulation. It is demonstrated, that a constant phase shift in the array output signal, caused by desired signal orientation and array weights, is compensated in a simple way in linearly constrained constant modulus adaptive arrays.

  5. Apparatus for in-situ nondestructive measurement of Young's modulus of plate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jerry Qixin (Inventor); Perez, Robert J. (Inventor); DeLangis, Leo M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining stiffness of a plate-like structure including a monolithic or composite laminate plate entails disposing a device for generating an acoustical pulse against a surface of the plate and disposing a detecting device against the same surface spaced a known distance from the pulse-generating device, and using the pulse-generating device to emit a pulse so as to create an extensional wave in the plate. The detecting device is used to determine a time of flight of the wave over the known distance, and the wave velocity is calculated. A Young's modulus of the plate is determined by a processor based on the wave velocity. Methods and apparatus for evaluating both isotropic plates and anisotropic laminates are disclosed.

  6. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  7. Impedance and modulus spectroscopic study of nano hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogiya, B. V.; Jethava, H. O.; Tank, K. P.; Raviya, V. R.; Joshi, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2, HAP) is the main inorganic component of the hard tissues in bones and also important material for orthopedic and dental implant applications. Nano HAP is of great interest due to its various bio-medical applications. In the present work the nano HAP was synthesized by using surfactant mediated approach. Structure and morphology of the synthesized nano HAP was examined by the Powder XRD and TEM. Impedance study was carried out on pelletized sample in a frequency range of 100Hz to 20MHz at room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and a.c. conductivity with frequency of applied field was studied. The Nyquist plot as well as modulus plot was drawn. The Nyquist plot showed two semicircle arcs, which indicated the presence of grain and grain boundary effect in the sample. The typical behavior of the Nyquist plot was represented by equivalent circuit having two parallel RC combinations in series.

  8. Low elastic modulus titanium–nickel scaffolds for bone implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Huifeng; Ruan, Jianming, E-mail: jianming@csu.edu.cn

    2014-01-01

    The superelastic nature of repeating the human bones is crucial to the ideal artificial biomedical implants to ensure smooth load transfer and foster the ingrowth of new bone tissues. Three dimensional interconnected porous TiNi scaffolds, which have the tailorable porous structures with micro-hole, were fabricated by slurry immersing with polymer sponge and sintering method. The crystallinity and phase composition of scaffolds were studied by X-ray diffraction. The pore morphology, size and distribution in the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The porosity ranged from 65 to 72%, pore size was 250–500 μm. Compressive strength and elastic modulus of the scaffolds were ∼ 73 MPa and ∼ 3GPa respectively. The above pore structural and mechanical properties are similar to those of cancellous bone. In the initial cell culture test, osteoblasts adhered well to the scaffold surface during a short time, and then grew smoothly into the interconnected pore channels. These results indicate that the porous TiNi scaffolds fabricated by this method could be bone substitute materials. - Highlights: • A novel approach for the fabrication of porous TiNi scaffolds • Macroporous structures are replicated from the polymer sponge template. • The pore characteristics and mechanical properties of TiNi scaffolds agree well with the requirement of trabecular bone. • Cytocompatibility of TiNi scaffolds is assessed, and it closely associated with pore property.

  9. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  10. A Framework and Metric for resilience concept in water infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Olyaei, M.

    2017-12-01

    The collaborators of water industries are looking for ways and means to bring resilience into our water infrastructure systems. The key to this conviction is to develop a shared vision among the engineers, builders and decision makers of our water executive branch and policy makers, utilities, community leaders, players, end users and other stakeholders of our urban environment. Among water infrastructures, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have a significant role on urban systems' serviceability. These facilities, especially when located in coastal regions, are vulnerable to heavy rain, surface runoff, storm surges and coastal flooding. Flooding can cause overflows from treatment facilities into the natural water bodies and result in environmental predicament of significant proportions. In order to minimize vulnerability to flood, a better understanding of flood risk must be realized. Vulnerability to floods frequency and intensity is increasing by external forcing such as climate change, as well as increased interdependencies in urban systems. Therefore, to quantify the extent of efforts for flood risk management, a unified index is needed for evaluating resiliency of infrastructure. Resiliency is a key concept in understanding vulnerability in dealing with flood. New York City based on its geographic location, its urbanized nature, densely populated area, interconnected water bodies and history of the past flooding events is extremely vulnerable to flood and was selected as the case study. In this study, a framework is developed to evaluate resiliency of WWTPs. An analysis of the current understanding of vulnerability is performed and a new perspective utilizing different components of resiliency including resourcefulness, robustness, rapidity and redundancy is presented. To quantify resiliency and rank the wastewater treatment plants in terms of how resilient they are, an index is developed using Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique. Moreover

  11. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011. Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many researches. Of all this recent and varied range of literature, our focus is on those texts that combine resilience with strategies, processes and models for resilient cities, communities and regions. Starting from the resilience strategies developed as response for risks mitigation, the paper thus explores other approaches and experiences on cities resilience that have been conducted: the aim is to compare and identify innovation in the planning process towards risks mitigation. In this paper we present a summary of the initial survey stage of our research, with three main aims: understanding the approaches to resilience developed so far and identifying which aspects these approaches share (or not;understanding which strategies are being proposed for resilient regions, cities or social-ecological systems;understanding whether proposed resilience strategies involve innovations in urban and regional development disciplines. The aim is to understand whether the proposed concept of resilience, or rather strategies, constitute progress and contribute to innovation in the areas of urban planning and design in relation to risk mitigation. Three main families of literature have been identified from the recent literature promoting resilience as a key strategy. The first aim of the research is to understand which particular concept and which aspects of resilience are used, which resilience strategies are proposed, how the term ‘city’ is defined and interpreted

  12. Numerical evaluation of the modulus of longitudinal elasticity in structural round timber elements of the Eucalyptus genus Avaliação numérica do módulo de elasticidade longitudinal em peças roliças estruturais de madeira do gênero Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Christoforo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the standards that deal with the determination of the properties of rigidity and strength for structural round timber elements do not take in consideration in their calculations and mathematical models the influence of the existing irregularities in the geometry of these elements. This study has as objective to determine the effective value of the modulus of longitudinal elasticity for structural round timber pieces of the Eucalyptus citriodora genus by a technique of optimization allied to the Inverse Analysis Method, to the Finite Element Method and the Least Square Method.Atualmente, os documentos normativos que tratam da determinação das propriedades de rigidez e resistência para elementos estruturais roliços de madeira, não levam em consideração em seus cálculos e modelos matemáticos a influência das irregularidades existentes na geometria dessas peças. Este trabalho tem como objetivo determinar o efetivo valor do módulo de elasticidade longitudinal para peças estruturais roliças de madeira do gênero Eucalyptus citriodora, por intermédio de uma técnica de otimização aliada ao Método da Análise Inversa, ao Método dos Elementos Finitos e ao Método dos Mínimos Quadrados.

  13. Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen

    2011-02-01

    The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.

  14. Military Climate Resilience Planning and Contemporary Urban Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    3 2.3 Psychological resilience...use of the term resilience must begin by asking core-level questions. A further overview of resilience in the areas of psychology , organizations, and...use of resilience during planning and design. 2.3 Psychological resilience While resilience is solidly rooted and established in the engineering

  15. The Effectiveness of Resiliency based on Islamic Spirituality Training on Mental Health and Spiritual Resiliency among Mothers of Slow Pace (Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Bakhshizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Birth and presence of slow pace children in each family can be considered as challenging and adverse event that probably leads to stress and frustration and mental health related complications. According to several studies that show positive and significant relationship between resiliency and values and religious beliefs and their impact on mental health,the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of resiliency skills training based on Islamic spirituality in promoting mental health and spiritual resilience among mothers of Slow Pace children. Methods: The present study used a semi-experimental design with pre test-post test which was conducted among mothers of Slow Pace Children in Dehdasht, Iran, and the countryside using random sampling, in which 30 of these mothers were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups, participated in this study. Twelve sessions of resiliency training based on Islamic spirituality were held for experimental group of 15 people.The tools used in this study included a mental health questionnaire-28 (Ghq and resiliency based on Islamic spirituality researcher made scale that were completed by individuals in pre and post tests. Finally, collected data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: Analysis of data using multivariate analysis of covariance showed that utilization of Intervention program among mothers of Slow Pace children in experimental group was significantly (P>0/05 effective on mental health and components of resiliency based on Islamic spirituality. In other words, spiritual resiliency skills training was led to improve depressive symptoms, social functioning and components of spiritual resiliency such as patience, contentment, Submission and thanksgiving. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that through changes in attitude of Slow Pace children's mothers, resiliency skills training based on Islamic

  16. ESTIMATION OF MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND RUPTURE OF Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell WOOD THROUGH NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed aiming at evaluating the use of constant dynamic elastic obtained by non-destructive testing, as a parameter in the estimation of mechanical properties of Eucalyptus cloeziana obtained by destructive test. With equipment emitting ultrasonicwaves from transducers adapted to dry spots of 45 kHz, we determined the ultrasonic velocity relates to distance and time of transmission of the wave along the length of specimens used in test with nominal dimensions of 2.0 x 2.0 x 30.0 cm in thickness, width and length,respectively. To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound, the samples were tested for evidencedestructively in a universal test for determining the modulus of elasticity and rupture in staticbending. The results showed that the ultrasonic method is a fast and efficient tool for inference of non-destructive wood mechanical properties. However, differences in the adjustment of statistical models showed that the best regression parameters were obtained toestimating the modulus of elasticity, compared with the modulus of rupture.

  17. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  18. Thermodynamic regularities in compressed liquids: II. The reduced bulk modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taravillo, Mercedes; Caceres, Mercedes; Nunez, Javier; Baonza, Valentin G

    2006-01-01

    In a previous work, we analysed some regularities found in the behaviour of the thermal expansion coefficient, α p , in compressed liquids. We confirmed that a given liquid presents a characteristic pressure range in which the condition (∂α p /∂T) p =0 is fulfilled within a narrow range of reduced densities. We also found that the density at which the condition (∂α p /∂T) p =0 is satisfied, ρ α , decreases with temperature, a key feature not described before. Earlier studies by other authors suggested that similar regularities are expected for the reduced bulk modulus, B. We present here a detailed analysis of the temperature and density dependence of B from existing experimental results at high pressures. Several liquids have been analysed: argon, krypton, xenon, ethylene, tetrafluoromethane, trifluoromethane, carbon dioxide, carbon disulfide, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, ethanol, 1-hexanol, m-cresol, and quinoline. We locate that the density ρ B that fulfils the condition (∂B/∂T) ρ =0 occurs at a particular region of the phase diagram, between 3.4 and 2.4 times the critical density of each liquid. Interestingly, the previously found density ρ α is close to ρ B , in a similar region of the reduced phase diagram. However, we note that ρ B typically decreases to a lesser extent with temperature than ρ α . In addition, we have found that ρ B (T) behaves in a parallel fashion for the different liquids, showing larger values of ρ B as the complexity of the molecules increases. These findings provide a strong basis for developing general equation of state models to describe the behaviour of liquids in the high-pressure regime

  19. Thermodynamic regularities in compressed liquids: II. The reduced bulk modulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taravillo, Mercedes; Caceres, Mercedes; Nunez, Javier; Baonza, Valentin G [Departamento de Quimica Fisica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    In a previous work, we analysed some regularities found in the behaviour of the thermal expansion coefficient, {alpha}{sub p}, in compressed liquids. We confirmed that a given liquid presents a characteristic pressure range in which the condition ({partial_derivative}{alpha}{sub p}/{partial_derivative}T){sub p}=0 is fulfilled within a narrow range of reduced densities. We also found that the density at which the condition ({partial_derivative}{alpha}{sub p}/{partial_derivative}T){sub p}=0 is satisfied, {rho}{sub {alpha}}, decreases with temperature, a key feature not described before. Earlier studies by other authors suggested that similar regularities are expected for the reduced bulk modulus, B. We present here a detailed analysis of the temperature and density dependence of B from existing experimental results at high pressures. Several liquids have been analysed: argon, krypton, xenon, ethylene, tetrafluoromethane, trifluoromethane, carbon dioxide, carbon disulfide, n-butane, n-hexane, toluene, ethanol, 1-hexanol, m-cresol, and quinoline. We locate that the density {rho}{sub B} that fulfils the condition ({partial_derivative}B/{partial_derivative}T){sub {rho}}=0 occurs at a particular region of the phase diagram, between 3.4 and 2.4 times the critical density of each liquid. Interestingly, the previously found density {rho}{sub {alpha}} is close to {rho}{sub B}, in a similar region of the reduced phase diagram. However, we note that {rho}{sub B} typically decreases to a lesser extent with temperature than {rho}{sub {alpha}}. In addition, we have found that {rho}{sub B}(T) behaves in a parallel fashion for the different liquids, showing larger values of {rho}{sub B} as the complexity of the molecules increases. These findings provide a strong basis for developing general equation of state models to describe the behaviour of liquids in the high-pressure regime.

  20. Resilient controls for ordering uncertain prospects change and response

    CERN Document Server

    Pham, Khanh D

    2014-01-01

    Providing readers with a detailed examination of resilient controls in risk-averse decision, this monograph is aimed toward researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics and electrical engineering with a systems-theoretic concentration. This work contains a timely and responsive evaluation of reforms on the use of asymmetry or skewness pertaining to the restrictive family of quadratic costs that have been appeared in various scholarly forums.  Additionally, the book includes a discussion of the current and ongoing efforts in the usage of risk, dynamic game decision optimization and disturbance mitigation techniques with output feedback measurements tailored toward the worst-case scenarios. This work encompasses some of the current changes across uncertainty quantification, stochastic control communities, and the creative efforts that are being made to increase the understanding of resilient controls. Specific considerations are made in this book for the application of decision theory to resilient ...

  1. Theory and Practice of a Leakage Resilient Masking Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasch, Josep; Faust, Sebastian; Gierlichs, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    model, most of them are unfortunately rather inefficient and come without practical security evaluations nor implementation attempts. In this work, we take a further step towards closing the gap between theoretical leakage resilient cryptography and more practice-oriented research. In particular, we...

  2. Strengthening Resilience in Tsunami-affected Communities (India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Resilience in Tsunami-Affected Communities in Sri Lanka and India : getting started on monitoring and evaluation plans; notes for partners. Download PDF. Reports. Report of Writeshop : a Writeshop to enhance the capacities of IDRC post Tsunami project partner in India on documentation, 29 September ...

  3. Variation of Hardness and Modulus across thickness of Zr-Cu-Al Metallic Glass Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z. Humberto Melgarejo; J.E. Jakes; J. Hwang; Y.E. Kalay; M.J. Kramer; P.M. Voyles; D.S. Stone

    2012-01-01

    We investigate through-thickness hardness and modulus of Zr50Cu45Al5 metallic glass melt-spun ribbon. Because of their thinness, the ribbons are challenging to measure, so we employ a novel nanoindentation based-method to remove artifacts caused by ribbon flexing and edge effects. Hardness and modulus...

  4. Elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies: applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J.K.

    1975-01-01

    Creep properties of Inconel alloy MA 753 were studied. It was found that below 1500 0 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent upon temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, for superalloy systems such as INCONEL alloy MA 753 and Mar-M 200, which show high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature, modulus corrections are unimportant and their true activation energies remain high. In contrast, at very high temperatures, as a consequence of the high temperature values and the sharper changes in the slope of the young modulus vs. temperature curve, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant--it is found to be about -142 kcal/ mole for INCONEL alloy MA 753 at 1900 0 F and thus reducing the creep activation energy at this temperature from 202 kcal/mole to that of vacancy self-diffusion. It is noted that in general and especially at high temperatures the creep equation used to analyze creep data and creep activation energies must include the elastic modulus terms. Up to now, the neglect of these terms have by-in-large been justified. However, with the advent of very high temperature creep tests on the high temperature dispersion strengthened systems, the modulus terms must be taken into consideration. With respect to alloy designing for high temperature creep resistance, in addition to other considerations to obtain high temperature creep resistance, a high value of elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature at high temperatures is required

  5. Determination of young's modulus of PZT-influence of cantilever orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Woldering, L.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Calculation of the resonance frequency of cantilevers fabricated from an elastically anisotropic material requires the use of an effective Young’s modulus. In this paper a technique to determine the appropriate effective Young’s modulus for arbitrary cantilever geometries is introduced. This

  6. Estimation of the Young’s modulus of cellulose Iß by MM3 and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young’s modulus provides a measure of the resistance to deformation of an elastic material. In this study, modulus estimations for models of cellulose Iß relied on calculations performed with molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics (QM) programs. MM computations used the second generation emp...

  7. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Wu

    Full Text Available Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation, Herth Hope Index (HHI, and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience.The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI, and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001, educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001, educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001, avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001, confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001, and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037 significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience.Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation

  8. Protocol for determining Apparent Young's Modulus of human teeth using laser speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Palmer, Rosario; González-Peña, Rolando J.; Martínez-Celorio, René A.; López, Francisco J.; Paredes, Vanessa; Cibrián, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Digital Speckle Shearing Pattern Interferometry (DSSPI) allows to directly quantify deformations in teeth that are subjected to stress. Eighteen second premolars (2PM) were studied both before and after endodontic treatment made with the ProTaper method in order to evaluate the variation of dental elasticity. We present a protocol for determination tooth Apparent Young's Modulus (AYM). Each tooth underwent different flexion loads from 50 to 300 g. DSSPI technique, makes it possible to show the deformation at each point of a line, selected by the researcher, that goes from the attachment point (Point 0) to the root area where the load is applied (Point 300-350, depending on the tooth size). The deformation of each tooth was characterized by the deformation value of point 150, located around the mid-area of tooth. This value was obtained from a linear regression applied on the deformation values of all the points in the fitted line. The correlation coefficients of these fitted regression lines were always higher than 0.972. The elasticity constant of each tooth was obtained as the slope of a new regression line, corresponding to the different loads applied on the tooth versus the corresponding deformation at point 150. This value, divided by the length of the tooth, is the apparent Young's modulus (AYM), which is expressed in arbitrary units (a.u.). Values of the AYM before (4.16 104 a.u) and after endodontic treatment using the ProTaper method (4.30 104 a.u.) showed no statistically significant difference in the elasticity of teeth (p>0.7).

  9. All-ceramic crowns over single implant zircon abutment. Influence of young's modulus on mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Amilcar Chagas; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different Young moduli of the ceramic crown on the distribution of tensions in the region of the abutment-crown interface by making use of 2D finite element analysis. Two representative models of a sagittally sectioned maxilla were built through AutoCad program showing an implant in the region of the upper central incisor and were restored by means of IPS e.max Press or Procera AllCeram on zircon abutment. Numerical analysis (Ansys 10.0) was performed under 2 loading conditions (50 N): on the lingual face, at 45 degrees with the implant's long axis (L1) and perpendicular to the incisal edge (L2). The von Mises equivalent stress (σvM) and maximum principal stress (σmax) were obtained. It was noticed that, independent of the restoring system, the maximum σvM values were in the incisal region of the cementation interface for both loading conditions. The IPS e.max Press system showed higher σvM on the adhesive interface with higher L1 influence. The same behavior was also observed as regards the σmax variation. It was concluded that a restoring system with a lower Young modulus shows higher stress concentration on the abutment-crown interface when cemented on an abutment with a high Young modulus. Thus, IPS e.max Press system provides higher stress concentration in the resin cement layer than Procera AllCeram system, suggesting that the resin cement layer shows lower failure risk when the Procera crown is used.

  10. Concepts of Resilience for Coastal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-06

    Resilience Study Definition American Society of Civil Engineers (2006) http://www.asce.org/Content.aspx?id=8478 “Resilience refers to the capability to...AR5/images/uploads/WGIIAR5-Glossary_FGD.pdf “The capacity of a social- ecological system to cope with a hazardous event or disturbance, responding or...dunes, wetlands Ecological Resilience The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change Ecological Resilience

  11. Assessing the impact of wood decay fungi on the modulus of elasticity of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) by stress wave non-destructive testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong Yang; Zhehui Jiang; Chung Y. Hse; Ru Liu

    2017-01-01

    Small wood specimens selected from six slash pine (Pinus elliottii) trees were inoculated with brown-rot and white-rot fungi and then evaluated for static modulus of elasticity (MOE) and dynamic MOE (MOEsw). The experimental variables studied included a brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and a white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor) for six exposure periods (2, 4,...

  12. Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) study: Methodology and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial evaluating an occupation-based diabetes management intervention for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A; Carandang, Kristine; Vigen, Cheryl; Blanchard, Jeanine; Sequeira, Paola A; Wood, Jamie R; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Whittemore, Robin; Peters, Anne L

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the study protocol used to evaluate the Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) intervention and reports on baseline characteristics of recruited participants. REAL Diabetes is an activity-based intervention designed to address the needs of young adults diagnosed with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) from low socioeconomic status or racial/ethnic minority backgrounds. The REAL intervention incorporates tailored delivery of seven content modules addressing various dimensions of health and well-being as they relate to diabetes, delivered by a licensed occupational therapist. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, participants are assigned to the REAL Diabetes intervention or an attention control condition. The study's primary recruitment strategies included in-person recruitment at diabetes clinics, mass mailings to clinic patients, and social media advertising. Data collection includes baseline and 6-month assessments of primary outcomes, secondary outcomes, and hypothesized mediators of intervention effects, as well as ongoing process evaluation assessment to ensure study protocol adherence and intervention fidelity. At baseline, participants (n=81) were 51% female, 78% Latino, and on average 22.6years old with an average HbA1c of 10.8%. A majority of participants (61.7%) demonstrated clinically significant diabetes distress and 27.2% reported symptoms consistent with major depressive disorder. Compared to participants with T1D, participants with T2D had lower diabetes-related self-efficacy and problem-solving skills. Compared to participants recruited at clinics, participants recruited through other strategies had greater diabetes knowledge but weaker medication adherence. Participants in the REAL study demonstrate clinically significant medical and psychosocial needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Characteristic Function Modulus of Vibroacoustic Signal Given a Limit State Parameter of Diagnosed Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Naumenko, A. P.; Kudryavtseva, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    Improvement of distinguishing criteria, determining defects of machinery and mechanisms, by vibroacoustic signals is a recent problem for technical diagnostics. The work objective is assessment of instantaneous values by methods of statistical decision making theory and risk of regulatory values of characteristic function modulus. The modulus of the characteristic function is determined given a fixed parameter of the characteristic function. It is possible to determine the limits of the modulus, which correspond to different machine’s condition. The data of the modulus values are used as diagnostic features in the vibration diagnostics and monitoring systems. Using such static decision-making methods as: minimum number of wrong decisions, maximum likelihood, minimax, Neumann-Pearson characteristic function modulus limits are determined, separating conditions of a diagnosed object.

  14. E-modulus evolution and its relation to solids formation of pastes from commercial cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Geiker, Mette; Figueiras, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    Models for early age E-modulus evolution of cement pastes are available in the literature, but their validation is limited. This paper provides correlated measurements of early age evolution of E-modulus and hydration of pastes from five commercial cements differing in limestone content. A recently developed methodology allowed continuous monitoring of E-modulus from the time of casting. The methodology is a variant of classic resonant frequency methods, which are based on determination of the first resonant frequency of a composite beam containing the material. The hydration kinetics — and thus the rate of formation of solids — was determined using chemical shrinkage measurements. For the cements studied similar relationships between E-modulus and chemical shrinkage were observed for comparable water-to-binder ratio. For commercial cements it is suggested to model the E-modulus evolution based on the amount of binder reacted, instead of the degree of hydration.

  15. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified...... matrix density, and increased microdamage. We could not detect any change in the effective Young's modulus of the calcified matrix in the bisphosphonate treated groups. The observed increase in apparent Young's modulus was due to increased bone mass and altered trabecular architecture rather than changes...... in the calcified matrix modulus. We hypothesize that the expected increase in the Young's modulus of the calcified matrix due to the increased calcified matrix density was counteracted by the accumulation of microdamage. Udgivelsesdato: 2004 May...

  16. Proposal of Design Formulae for Equivalent Elasticity of Masonry Structures Made with Bricks of Low Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ridwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bricks of low elastic modulus are occasionally used in some developing countries, such as Indonesia and India. Most of the previous research efforts focused on masonry structures built with bricks of considerably high elastic modulus. The objective of this study is to quantify the equivalent elastic modulus of lower-stiffness masonry structures, when the mortar has a higher modulus of elasticity than the bricks, by employing finite element (FE simulations and adopting the homogenization technique. The reported numerical simulations adopted the two-dimensional representative volume elements (RVEs using quadrilateral elements with four nodes. The equivalent elastic moduli of composite elements with various bricks and mortar were quantified. The numerically estimated equivalent elastic moduli from the FE simulations were verified using previously established test data. Hence, a new simplified formula for the calculation of the equivalent modulus of elasticity of such masonry structures is proposed in the present study.

  17. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  18. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...... that the availability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying relevant resilience techniques....

  19. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  20. Impact of resilience enhancing programs on youth surviving the Beslan school siege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Stefan; Dulaev, Igor; Mueller, Mario; Henley, Robert R; Gallo, William T; Kanukova, Zalina

    2010-04-22

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a resilience-enhancing program for youth (mean age = 13.32 years) from Beslan, North Ossetia, in the Russian Federation. The program, offered in the summer of 2006, combined recreation, sport, and psychosocial rehabilitation activities for 94 participants, 46 of who were taken hostage in the 2004 school tragedy and experienced those events first hand. Self-reported resilience, as measured by the CD-RISC, was compared within subjects at the study baseline and at two follow-up assessments: immediately after the program and 6 months later. We also compared changes in resilience levels across groups that differed in their traumatic experiences. The results indicate a significant intra-participant mean increase in resilience at both follow-up assessments, and greater self-reported improvements in resilience processes for participants who experienced more trauma events.

  1. HOW RESILIENT IS THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL? FLEXIBILITY OR/AND SECURITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta GHEBREA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to assess the resilience of the European social model (ESM against recent challenges. Resilience depends on effectively managing the contradictions of the ESM. Flexicurity is an example of managing contradictions between security and flexibility. The contribution of flexicurity to the resilience of the ESM is determined by the development of the abilities necessary for resilience. Our research evaluates the performance of these abilities using statistical and document analyses. The results show that flexicurity policies perform satisfactorily relative to their resilience abilities. Still, the ability to respond is less effective due to significant differences among the Member States (regarding the implementation of flexicurity policies and to insufficient openness and functionality of the European labour market. Nevertheless, the European flexicurity policies redefine the ESM by adding a touch of a more mobile, autonomous and free-spirited approach, thus representing a solution to both preserve valuable tradition and modernise the ESM.

  2. Impact of resilience enhancing programs on youth surviving the Beslan school siege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallo William T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate a resilience-enhancing program for youth (mean age = 13.32 years from Beslan, North Ossetia, in the Russian Federation. The program, offered in the summer of 2006, combined recreation, sport, and psychosocial rehabilitation activities for 94 participants, 46 of who were taken hostage in the 2004 school tragedy and experienced those events first hand. Self-reported resilience, as measured by the CD-RISC, was compared within subjects at the study baseline and at two follow-up assessments: immediately after the program and 6 months later. We also compared changes in resilience levels across groups that differed in their traumatic experiences. The results indicate a significant intra-participant mean increase in resilience at both follow-up assessments, and greater self-reported improvements in resilience processes for participants who experienced more trauma events.

  3. Systemic aspects of conjugal resilience in couples with a child facing cancer and marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie; Péloquin, Katherine; Vachon, Marie-France; Duval, Michel; Sultan, Serge

    The negative impact of paediatric cancer on parents is well known and is even greater when intensive treatments are used. This study aimed to describe how couples whose child has received a transplant for the treatment of leukaemia view conjugal resilience and to evaluate the role of we-ness as a precursor of conjugal adjustment. Four parental couples were interviewed. Interviews were analysed in two ways: inductive thematic analysis and rating of verbal content with the We-ness Coding Scale . Participants report that conjugal resilience involves the identification of the couple as a team and cohesion in the couple. Being a team generates certain collaborative interactions that lead to conjugal resilience. A sense of we-ness in parents is associated with fluctuation in the frequency of themes. Participants' vision of conjugal resilience introduced novel themes. The sense of we-ness facilitates cohesion and the process of conjugal resilience.

  4. Systemic aspects of conjugal resilience in couples with a child facing cancer and marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The negative impact of paediatric cancer on parents is well known and is even greater when intensive treatments are used. This study aimed to describe how couples whose child has received a transplant for the treatment of leukaemia view conjugal resilience and to evaluate the role of we-ness as a precursor of conjugal adjustment. Methods: Four parental couples were interviewed. Interviews were analysed in two ways: inductive thematic analysis and rating of verbal content with the We-ness Coding Scale. Results: Participants report that conjugal resilience involves the identification of the couple as a team and cohesion in the couple. Being a team generates certain collaborative interactions that lead to conjugal resilience. A sense of we-ness in parents is associated with fluctuation in the frequency of themes. Discussion: Participants’ vision of conjugal resilience introduced novel themes. The sense of we-ness facilitates cohesion and the process of conjugal resilience.

  5. Linking disaster resilience and urban sustainability: a glocal approach for future cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asprone, Domenico; Manfredi, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Resilience and sustainability will be two primary objectives of future cities. The violent consequences of extreme natural events and the environmental, social and economic burden of contemporary cities make the concepts of resilience and sustainability extremely relevant. In this paper we analyse the various definitions of resilience and sustainability applied to urban systems and propose a synthesis, based on similarities between the two concepts. According to the proposed approach, catastrophic events and the subsequent transformations occurring in urban systems represent a moment in the city life cycle to be seen in terms of the complex sustainability framework. Hence, resilience is seen as a requirement for urban system sustainability. In addition, resilience should be evaluated not only for single cities, with their physical and social systems, but also on a global scale, taking into account the complex and dynamic relationships connecting contemporary cities. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  6. A novel critical infrastructure resilience assessment approach using dynamic Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Xie, Min; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Yiliu; Ji, Renjie; Feng, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    The word resilience originally originates from the Latin word "resiliere", which means to "bounce back". The concept has been used in various fields, such as ecology, economics, psychology, and society, with different definitions. In the field of critical infrastructure, although some resilience metrics are proposed, they are totally different from each other, which are determined by the performances of the objects of evaluation. Here we bridge the gap by developing a universal critical infrastructure resilience metric from the perspective of reliability engineering. A dynamic Bayesian networks-based assessment approach is proposed to calculate the resilience value. A series, parallel and voting system is used to demonstrate the application of the developed resilience metric and assessment approach.

  7. The study of stiffness modulus values for AC-WC pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, AS; Muis, Z. A.; Iskandar, T. D.

    2018-02-01

    One of the parameters of the asphalt mixture in order for the strength and durability to be achieved as required is the stress-and-strain showing the stiffness of a material. Stiffness modulus is a very necessary factor that will affect the performance of asphalt pavements. If the stiffness modulus value decreases there will be a cause of aging asphalt pavement crack easily when receiving a heavy load. The high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete causes more stiff and resistant to bending. The stiffness modulus value of an asphalt mixture material can be obtained from the theoretical (indirect methods) and laboratory test results (direct methods). For the indirect methods used Brown & Brunton method, and Shell Bitumen method; while for the direct methods used the UMATTA tool. This study aims to determine stiffness modulus values for AC-WC pavement. The tests were conducted in laboratory that used 3 methods, i.e. Brown & Brunton Method, Shell Bitumen Method and Marshall Test as a substitute tool for the UMATTA tool. Hotmix asphalt made from type AC-WC with pen 60/70 using a mixture of optimum bitumen content was 5.84% with a standard temperature variation was 60°C and several variations of temperature that were 30, 40, 50, 70 and 80°C. The stiffness modulus value results obtained from Brown & Brunton Method, Shell Bitumen Method and Marshall Test which were 1374,93 Mpa, 235,45 Mpa dan 254,96 Mpa. The stiffness modulus value decreases with increasing temperature of the concrete asphalt. The stiffness modulus value from the Bitumen Shell method and the Marshall Test has a relatively similar value.The stiffness modulus value from the Brown & Brunton method is greater than the Bitumen Shell method and the Marshall Test, but can not measure the stiffness modulus value at temperature above 80°C.

  8. Fostering resilience through changing realities. Introduction to operational resilience capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, D.; Vorm, J. van der; Beek, F.A. van der; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The reality of operations does not always follow the book. Operational circumstances may develop into surprising situations that procedures have not accounted for. Still, we make things work. Resilient performance recognizes surprise early and acts upon it through adaptation, which is critical for

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Resilience in the operatives unitsof National Iranian Drilling Company (regional study: Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Resilience engineering is a new approach in safety science. Its goal is to maintain organizational capacity in an acceptable level to help system in managing the crisis. Indeed, resilience engineering rely on systems abilities instead of weaknesses, and try to find indicators that help the system durability. .Material and Method: In this study,first, 6 resilience engineering factors were chosen and sent toexperts in the form of paired comparison sheets. On the other hand, a valid standard questionnaire distributed among drilling rigs operational workers for measuring the NIDC resilience level. Finally,the priority of corrective actionswas determinedaccording to the score of the two analyzedquestionnaires. .Results: The results of resilience engineering factors weighting showed that the management commitment has the highest value andthe second place belonged to the correct culture. The indicators’scores,based on the distributed questionnaires among workers, showed that all of the six factors had similar scoreswhich can be evaluated as fairly good. Finally, the results of prioritization of indicators ofresilience engineering, basedon the combination ofthe questionnaire and experts opinions showed that management commitment is the most effective resilience factor in the organization. ..Conclusion: Management commitment and the current culture are the most importantcontributing factorsin company resilience level. Experienced workforce was the best strengthof the company and the effect of financial issues on resilience and safety was the biggest problem ahead.

  10. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: ly463526@gmail.com [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Degener, Jan [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Gaudreau, Matthew [Balsillie School of International Affairs, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, 67 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2L 6C2 (Canada); Li, Yangfan, E-mail: yangf@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Kappas, Martin [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH{sub 3}-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management.

  11. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Degener, Jan; Gaudreau, Matthew; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH 3 -N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management

  12. Resilience Associated with Self-Disclosure and Relapse Risks in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ayako; Yoshioka, Shin-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the self-disclosure and risks of relapse associated with promoting resilience of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and participating in self-help groups. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was administered to 48 patients with AUD and participating in self-help groups; this questionnaire consisted of basic attributes, a bidimensional resilience scale to assess both innate and acquired resilience factors, a scale to assess depth of self-disclosure, and a scale assessing relapse risks. We conducted an evaluation by dividing the respondents into a high group and low group based on their median values for both innate and acquired resilience. Innate/acquired resilience had a mutually reinforcing relationship, and, compared with the low resilience group, the high resilience group had significantly reduced risks for relapses and resulted in deeper self-disclosure. Patients with high resilience had lower risk of alcohol relapse and deeper self-disclosure. The results suggest that one way of supporting patients with AUD in recovery is assisting them in building personal relationships with others and in deepening self-disclosure in a setting where they can relax, thus promoting their natural ability to recover.

  13. Climate Adaptation and Resiliency Planning : Agency Roles and Workforce Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report is one of two NCST Research Reports produced as part of a project to evaluate the state of practice and adequacy of technical tools for resiliency and adaptation planning. A companion report, Network Requirements for Assessing Criticality...

  14. Ethiopia Pastoralist Areas Resilience Improvement and Market Expansion (PRIME) Project IE

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This baseline survey serves as the first stage of an impact evaluation designed to determine the impact of the project's interventions on households? resilience to...

  15. Climate Adaptation and Resiliency Planning : Agency Roles and Workforce Development Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report is one of two NCST Research Reports produced as part of a project to evaluate the state of practice and adequacy of technical tools for resiliency and adaptation planning. A companion report, Network Requirements for Assessing Criticality...

  16. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  17. Seeding Stress Resilience through Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Ashokan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generalized set of physiological and psychological responses observed when an organism is placed under challenging circumstances. The stress response allows organisms to reattain the equilibrium in face of perturbations. Unfortunately, chronic and/or traumatic exposure to stress frequently overwhelms coping ability of an individual. This is manifested as symptoms affecting emotions and cognition in stress-related mental disorders. Thus environmental interventions that promote resilience in face of stress have much clinical relevance. Focus of the bulk of relevant neurobiological research at present remains on negative aspects of health and psychological outcomes of stress exposure. Yet exposure to the stress itself can promote resilience to subsequent stressful episodes later in the life. This is especially true if the prior stress occurs early in life, is mild in its magnitude, and is controllable by the individual. This articulation has been referred to as “stress inoculation,” reminiscent of resilience to the pathology generated through vaccination by attenuated pathogen itself. Using experimental evidence from animal models, this review explores relationship between nature of the “inoculum” stress and subsequent psychological resilience.

  18. Cyber Resilience in de Boardroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Zielstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Grand Conference - Building a Resilient Digital Society - took place in Amsterdam on October 16, 2012. The international conference aimed for top decision-makers of industry government and other organisations. Two hundred participants from twenty-two nations participated. Three Dutch

  19. MSY from catch and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...

  20. Strengthening community resilience: a toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Scott; Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    While community resilience is said to have gained a lot of traction politically and given credence by disaster management professionals, this perception is not always shared by the individual members of communities. One solution to addressing the difficulty of individuals ‘conceptualising’ the

  1. Coral reef resilience through biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

  2. Integrative approaches: promoting socioecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Long; Carl Skinner; M. North; C.T. Hunsaker; L. Quinn-Davidson

    2014-01-01

    This chapter begins by discussing current challenges for ecosystem management that emerged from multiple chapters of the full synthesis. It then considers integrative approaches to promote resilience, including general strategies that recognize the integrated nature of socioecological systems, the importance of promoting disturbance regimes upon which these systems...

  3. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Southwick

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1 how do we define resilience, (2 what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3 how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4 what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture.

  4. Transdisciplinary Application of Cross-Scale Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana M. Sundstrom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  5. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.

    2018-03-01

    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  6. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Stefanovski, Petar; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Raleva, Marija; Dejanova, Beti

    2015-12-15

    A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. Two hundred eighteen (218) women, treated for early breast cancer responded to Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, in order to assess the level of psychological resilience and the level of depression. There is a significant negative correlation between depression and resilience in our sample (r = - 0.562, p resilience. There is no statistically significant correlation between the ages of the participants; time passed since diagnosis, cancer stage and resilience levels. This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  7. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M.; Bonanno, George A.; Masten, Ann S.; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  8. The effect of frequency on Young's modulus and seismic wave attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1994-07-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effect of frequency, water-saturation, and strain amplitude on Young's modulus and seismic wave attenuation on rock cores recovered on or near the site of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of this investigation is to perform the measurements using four techniques: cyclic loading, waveform inversion, resonant bar, and ultrasonic velocity. The measurements ranged in frequency between 10 -2 and 10 6 Hz. For the dry specimens Young's modulus and attenuation were independent of frequency; that is, all four techniques yielded nearly the same values for modulus and attenuation. For saturated specimens, a frequency dependence for both Young's modulus and attenuation was observed. In general, saturation reduced Young's modulus and increased seismic wave attenuation. The effect of strain amplitude on Young's modulus and attenuation was measured using the cyclic loading technique at a frequency of 10 -1 Hz. The effect of strain amplitude in all cases was small. For some rocks, such as the potential repository horizon of the Topopah Spring Member tuff (TSw2), the effect of strain amplitude on both attenuation and modulus was minimal

  9. Multidimensional approach to complex system resilience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama Dessavre, Dante; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Barker, Kash

    2016-01-01

    Recent works have attempted to formally define a general metric for quantifying resilience for complex systems as a relationship of performance of the systems against time. The technical content in the proposed work introduces a new model that allows, for the first time, to compare the system resilience among systems (or different modifications to a system), by introducing a new dimension to system resilience models, called stress, to mimic the definition of resilience in material science. The applicability and usefulness of the model is shown with a new heat map visualization proposed in this work, and it is applied to a simulated network resilience case to exemplify its potential benefits. - Highlights: • We analyzed two of the main current metrics of resilience. • We create a new model that relates events with the effects they have. • We develop a novel heat map visualization to compare system resilience. • We showed the model and visualization usefulness in a simulated case.

  10. An analytic model of the shear modulus at all densities and temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Burakovsky, L.; Greeff, C. W.; Preston, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    An analytic model of the shear modulus applicable at temperatures up to melt and at all densities is presented. It is based in part on a relation between the melting temperature and the shear modulus at melt. Experimental data on argon are shown to agree with this relation to within 1%. The model of the shear modulus involves seven parameters, all of which can be determined from zero-pressure experimental data. We obtain the values of these parameters for 11 elemental solids. Both the experim...

  11. Spontaneous magnetic contribution to a bulk modulus of ferromagnetic metals (with gadolinium taken as an example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodryakov, V.Yu.; Povzner, A.A.; Zelyukova, O.G.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach to the description of magnetic contribution into ferromagnetic metals elastic modulus variations is developed on the basis of the Landau second type phase transitions theory. It is shown that the magnetostriction variation of not considered previously Landau's thermodynamic parameters α and β is an essential reason for all-round compression elastic modulus varying with magnetization. In addition, to detect the magnetic contribution into the elastic modulus from experimental data an expression is derived for its temperature dependence in a paramagnetic developed and experimental data is made for a ferromagnetic phase of gadolinium [ru

  12. E-modulus evolution and its relation to solids formation of pastes from commercial cements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Lino; Azenha, Miguel; Geiker, Mette

    2012-01-01

    developed methodology allowed continuous monitoring of E-modulus from the time of casting. The methodology is a variant of classic resonant frequency methods, which are based on determination of the first resonant frequency of a composite beam containing the material. The hydration kinetics — and thus...... the rate of formation of solids — was determined using chemical shrinkage measurements. For the cements studied similar relationships between E-modulus and chemical shrinkage were observed for comparable water-to-binder ratio. For commercial cements it is suggested to model the E-modulus evolution based...

  13. Reliable measurement of elastic modulus of cells by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Zhoulong

    2012-04-01

    The elastic modulus of an oral cancer cell line UM1 is investigated by nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope with a flat-ended tip. The commonly used Hertzian method gives apparent elastic modulus which increases with the loading rate, indicating strong effects of viscoelasticity. On the contrary, a rate-jump method developed for viscoelastic materials gives elastic modulus values which are independent of the rate-jump magnitude. The results show that the rate-jump method can be used as a standard protocol for measuring elastic stiffness of living cells, since the measured values are intrinsic properties of the cells. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Effect of steam oxidation on strength, elastic modulus, and strain at fracture of graphite 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, C.; Hightower, G.; Burnette, R.

    1977-12-01

    Stackpole Carbon's graphite grade 2020, a candidate material for support posts in GA HTGRs, was oxidized in steam-helium mixtures to 25 wt % burnoff. The effects of the oxidation on ultimate strength, elastic modulus, and strain at fracture are reported. A large number of nonoxidized and oxidized tensile specimens were tested to failure. Average losses of 6.7 wt % in strength and 7.4 wt % in elastic modulus at 1% burnoff were obtained. No significant change in strain at fracture was observed for burnoffs up to 5%. The elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength of the oxidized samples correlated with bulk density

  15. AN EVALUATION OF THE USEFULNESS OF ACTOR NETWORK THEORY IN UNDERSTANDING THE COMPLEXITIES OF VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE IN POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brewer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is replete with accounts of the struggle to effectively target and deploy postdisaster aid so as to achieve maximum benefit to recipients, both direct and indirect, over the short- and longer-term. Generally these stories balance success with lessons learned from failure, in order to inform practice in future recovery and reconstruction events. They are often derived from the heroic accounts of key actors in case studies, on the understandable basis that these carefully selected individuals will have been pivotal in designing and directing the implementation of aid programmes. The influence of non-humans such as organisations, systems, processes, or elements of the constructed environment are considered only insofar as they impact upon the experiences of the raconteurs. However actor network theory, a technique originally developed to examine phenomena at the sociotechnological interface, ascribes human characteristics such as motives and behaviours equally to human and non-human actants, ultimately to better explain the worldly consequences of their interaction. This paper reports on the ex post application of ANT to data collected in an earlier actor-centric study, to both evaluate its usefulness in disaster research and to identify potential gaps in the disaster research agenda.

  16. Emotion Regulation Ability and Resilience in a Sample of Adolescents from a Suburban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Mestre

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earlier research has identified a remarkable number of related factors to resilience during adolescence. Historically, theoretical treatments of resilience have been focused almost exclusively on psychosocial levels of analysis to derive explanatory models. However, there is insufficient understanding of the role of emotion regulation explaining competent functioning despite the experience of adversity (resilience, especially during adolescence. This study explores the relationship between both, emotional regulation abilities and strategies, and resilience in a sample of adolescents from suburbs high-schools (Jerez de la Frontera, Spain. The study also examines how using different emotional regulation strategies may help the development of resilience levels at this stage. Participants of the study were 164 adolescents ranging from 13 to 16 years old (M = 13.98; SD = 0.66. Emotion regulation was measured using the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ, Garnefski et al., 2001, and sections D and H of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, a performance test (Emotion Regulation Ability sections, MSCEIT, Spanish version, Mayer et al., 2003. Resilience was evaluated with ERE (Educative Resilience Scale for children and adolescents, Saavedra and Castro, 2009. Verbal Intelligence (Yuste, 1997 and personality traits (Cattell and Cattell, 1986 were assessed as two independent variables. Results supported the idea that emotion regulation ability (MSCEIT, D and H sections, Extremera et al., 2006 is a significant predictor of adolescents' resilience. Moreover, cognitive regulation strategies, such as positive reappraisal, predicted perceived resilience among students. Sociability (A factor of HSPQ, sociability also correlated with resilience levels. Hence, these results are promising, implying that emotion regulation ability may act as a helpful tool preventing adolescents from irrational risky behaviors, commonly assumed at this

  17. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijing; Liu, Ye; Li, Xuelian; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation), Herth Hope Index (HHI), and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience. The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, Presilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation, and age.

  18. A Social-Ecological Resilience Assessment and Governance Guide for Urbanization Processes in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a social-ecological resilience assessment and attempts to explicitly examine the impacts of urbanization on resilience, with a view to explore how to strengthen social-ecological governance of the resilience of urban ecosystems. We use a combined Grey-Fuzzy evaluation model to discuss a case study of the Su-Xi-Chang city cluster, a metropolitan area in East China, in which total social-ecological resilience scores generally exhibited an upward trend, from 0.548 in 2001 to 0.760 in 2013. In the same period, resilience increased in relation to deterioration of environmental quality, pollution discharge, and landscape and ecological governance change, but decreased in relation to social-economic development. Besides, different contributions of indicators to their related resilience values reveal the heterogeneity of the resilience in terms of various disturbances. In addition, several scenarios are posited in an attempt to detect the relationship between social-ecological resilience and urbanization with the goal of improving urban governance. The results suggested that rapid urbanization under rigid and vertically organized forms of governance would cause the social-ecological system to lose resilience, or even to bring it near collapse. When the growth rate of urban land expansion reaches 16%, disturbances caused by urbanization would push the social-ecological system over a particular threshold, where the way it functions changes. However, it is found that adaptive and collaborative governance, incorporating increases in both public participation and the efficiency of environment administration, would strengthen social-ecological governance of resilience to provide the urban system with a wide operating space, and even with accelerated urbanization ratios.

  19. Leveraging Social Media Data to Understand Disaster Resilience: A Case Study of Hurricane Isaac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L.; Lam, N.; Cai, H.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal communities are facing multiple threats from natural hazards, such as hurricanes, flooding, and storm surge, and show uneven response and recovery behaviors. To build a sustainable coast, it is critical to understand how coastal hazards affect humans and how to enhance disaster resilience. However, understanding community resilience remains challenging, due to the lack of real-time data describing community's response and recovery behaviors during disasters. Public discussion through social media platforms provides an opportunity to understand these behaviors by categorizing real-time social media data into three main phases of emergency management - preparedness, response, and recovery. This study analyzes the spatial-temporal patterns of Twitter use and content during Hurricane Isaac, which struck coastal Louisiana on August 29, 2012. The study area includes counties affected by Hurricane Isaac in Louisiana and Mississippi. The objectives are three-fold. First, we will compute a set of Twitter indices to quantify the Twitter activities during Hurricane Issac and the results will be compared with those of Hurricane Sandy to gain a better understanding of human response in extreme events. Second, county-level disaster resilience in the affected region will be computed and evaluated using the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model. Third, we will examine the relationship between the geographical and social disparities in Twitter use and the disparities in disaster resilience and evaluate the role of Twitter use in disaster resilience. Knowledge gained from this study could provide valuable insights into strategies for utilizing social media data to increase resilience to disasters.

  20. Evaluation of the Permanent Deformations and Aging Conditions of Batu Pahat Soft Clay-Modified Asphalt Mixture by Using a Dynamic Creep Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Allam A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the permanent deformation and aging conditions of BatuPahat soft clay–modified asphalt mixture, also called BatuPahat soft clay (BPSC particles; these particles are used in powder form as an additive to hot-mix asphalt mixture. In this experiment, five percentage compositions of BPSC (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% by weight of bitumen were used. A novel design was established to modify the hot-mix asphalt by using the Superpave method for each additive ratio. Several laboratory tests evaluating different properties, such as indirect tensile strength, resilient stiffness modulus, and dynamic creep, was conducted to assess the performance of the samples mixed through the Superpave method. In the resilient modulus test, fatigue and rutting resistance were reduced by the BPSC particles. The added BPSC particles increased the indirect tensile strength. Among the mixtures, 4% BPSC particles yielded the highest performance. In the dynamic creep test, 4% BPSC particles added to the unaged and short-term aged specimens also showed the highest performance. Based on these results, our conclusion is that the BPSC particles can alleviate the permanent deformation (rutting of roads.

  1. A field guide for selecting the most appropriate treatment in sagebrush and pinon-juniper ecosystems in the Great Basin: Evaluating resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses, and predicting vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Miller; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant

    2014-01-01

    This field guide identifies seven primary components that largely determine resilience to disturbance, as well as resistance to invasive grasses and plant succession following treatment of areas of concern. The primary components are (1) characteristics of the ecological site, (2) current vegetation prior to treatment, (3) disturbance history, (4) type, timing, and...

  2. Static modulus of elasticity of concrete measured by the ultrasonic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Rodrigues, S.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lately, a huge number of accidents caused by problems found in the durability of concrete structures due to inappropriate project design, lack of control of quality during the project s execution, inadequate maintenance practices and an aggressive environment has been reported. This finding has required from the professionals constant inspections and evaluations of the real conditions of all concrete structures. In order to perform those inspections, one should know not only the elastic modulus to analyze the concrete structural behaviour but also to investigate its performance, since the strains may yield cracks able to compromise the durability- of structures. Non-destructive testing techniques, particularly the ultrasonic testing, are performed to evaluate and determine the quality of a concrete structure or element. Currently, such essays have been widely researched and analyzed all over the world because they enable the examination of structures without damaging them. The purpose of the present study was to correlate the ultrasonic pulse velocity and the elastic modulus of several concrete specimens molded with a range of water-cement ratios, different kinds of aggregates and curing methods. All the concrete specimens were tested in different ages to determine the pulse velocity and the static modulus of elasticity standardized according to KBR 8522, through mechanical extensometers, electrical strain gauge and LVTD inductive transducer.

    Recientemente se ha registrado un gran número de accidentes causados por problemas relacionados con la durabilidad de las estructuras de hormigón y debidos a un inadecuado proyecto de diseño, ausencia de control de calidad durante la ejecución del proyecto, prácticas inadecuadas de construcción y un ambiente agresivo. Este hallazgo ha dado lugar a que los ingenieros realicen constantes inspecciones y evaluaciones de la condición real de todas las estructuras de hormigón. Para llevar a cabo

  3. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

    2009-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  4. Wind Diffusivity Current, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time Ekman current (in zonal, meridional, and modulus sets) and Ekman upwelling data. This data begins with wind velocity...

  5. Longitudinal ultrasonic velocity as a predictor of Young`s modulus in porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panakkal, J.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Thane (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-12-01

    The relationship between Young`s modulus and longitudinal ultrasonic velocity is discussed by using examples from various types of ceramics: nuclear, structural, powder metal, clay and super-conducting. A semi-empirical model is suggested based on the existing theories (elasticity, powder metallurgy, scattering, and connected grain) of ultrasound wave propagation in porous materials. The linear relationship between Young`s modulus and ultrasonic velocity over a change of Young`s modulus by 50 percent is demonstrated in porous materials and generalized to suggest the use of ultrasonic velocity as a predictor of Young`s modulus in porous materials. The values extrapolated from this relationship for nonporous materials are in good agreement with the experimental values. The behavior is also compared with that predicted from the various models.

  6. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  7. Failure Modes of a Unidirectional Ultra-High-Modulus Carbon-Fiber/Carbon-Matrix Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaldivar, R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effects of various microstructural features on the in situ, room-temperature tensile fracture behavior of an ultra-high-modulus, unidirectional carbon/carbon (C/C...

  8. Magnetic contribution to bulk modulus of elasticity of ferromagnetic metal (with gadolinium as an example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodryakov, V.Yu.; Povzner, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic contribution into the bulk modulus of elasticity of ferromagnetic metal within the external magnetic fields depending on temperature was studied in terms of diamagnetic approach to the theory of phase transformations. The effect of magnetostriction on the Landau thermodynamic coefficients was determined to bring about that contribution. The value of the magnetic constituent of the bulk modulus of elasticity within B = 2.5 T magnetic field was calculated on the basis of data on ultrasonic measurements. The exact comparison with the experiment was conducted using data on the dependence of the bulk modulus of elasticity of gadolinium ferromagnetic phase on the external magnetic field as an example. Dissimilar nature of variation of the elastic modulus of bulk elasticity at transition of rare-earth magnetics and of 3d-metal ferromagnetic alloys to the ferromagnetic state was observed [ru

  9. Short cellulosic fiber/starch acetate composites — micromechanical modeling of Young’s modulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Joffe, Roberts; Peltola, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    This study is presented to predict the Young’s modulus of injection-molded short cellulosic fiber/plasticized starch acetate composites with variable fiber and plasticizer content. A modified rule of mixtures model is applied where the effect of porosity is included, and where the fiber weight...... (density and Young’s modulus). The measured Young’s modulus of the composites varies in the range 1.1—8.3 GPa, and this is well predicted by the model calculations. A property diagram is presented to be used for the tailor-making of composites with Young’s modulus in the range 0.2—10 GPa....

  10. Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    of air voids. Second, SAP addition may at the same time lead to increased compressive strength (as shown in [5]) and reduced E-modulus. A prediction based solely on compressive strength therefore overrates the modulus of elasticity, so the empirical models are unsafe to use for concrete with SAP......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... of a mechanical property, and the same methodology can probably be applied to other mechanical properties. It is often assumed that a range of mechanical properties of concrete can be derived if the compressive strength is known. The link between the compressive strength and other mechanical properties is often...

  11. Experimental Study of Estimating the Subgrade Reaction Modulus on Jointed Rock Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehwan; Jeong, Sangseom

    2016-06-01

    The subgrade reaction modulus for rock foundations under axial loading is investigated by model footing tests. This study focuses on quantifying a new subgrade reaction modulus by considering rock discontinuities. A series of model-scale footing tests are performed to investigate the effects of the unconfined compressive strength, discontinuity spacing and inclination of the rock joint. Based on the experimental results, it is observed that the subgrade reaction modulus of the rock with discontinuities decreases by up to approximately 60 % of intact rock. In addition, it is found that the modulus of subgrade reaction is proportional to the discontinuity spacing, and it decreases gradually within the range of 0°-30° and tends to increase within the range of 30°-90°.

  12. Hardness and Elastic Modulus of Titanium Nitride Coatings Prepared by Pirac Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siyuan; Wu, Shoujun; Zhang, Guoyun; Zhang, Weiguo

    In the present work, hardness and elastic modulus of a titanium nitride coatings prepared on Ti6Al4V by powder immersion reaction-assisted coating (PIRAC) are tested and comparatively studied with a physical vapor deposition (PVD) TiN coating. Surface hardness of the PIRAC coatings is about 11GPa, much lower than that of PVD coating of 22GPa. The hardness distribution profile from surface to substrate of the PVD coatings is steeply decreased from ˜22GPa to ˜4.5GPa of the Ti6Al4V substrate. The PIRAC coatings show a gradually decreasing hardness distribution profile. Elastic modulus of the PVD coating is about 426GPa. The PIRAC coatings show adjustable elastic modulus. Elastic modulus of the PIRAC coatings prepared at 750∘C for 24h and that at 800∘C for 8h is about 234 and 293GPa, respectively.

  13. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  14. The dimensional stability and elastic modulus of cemented simulant Winfrith reactor (SGHWR) sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, T.R.; Lee, D.J.

    1985-12-01

    Dimensional changes and elastic modulus have been monitored on cemented simulant sludge stored in various environments. Specimens prepared using a blended cement show no serious detrimental effects during sealed storage, underwater storage or freeze/thaw cycling. (author)

  15. Young modulus and internal friction of a fiber-reinforced composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Lei, M.; Austin, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    By a kilohertz-frequency resonance method we determined the Young modulus and internal friction of a uniaxially fiber-reinforced composite. The composite comprised glass fibers in an epoxy-resin matrix. We studied three fiber contents: 0, 41, and 49 vol %. The Young modulus fit a linear rule of mixture. The internal friction fit a classical free-damped-oscillator model where one assumes a linear rule of mixture for three quantities: mass, force constant, and mechanical-resistance constant

  16. Young's modulus of a copper-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductive wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Moulder, J.C.; Austin, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Young's modulus was determined for a 0.6-mm-dia niobium-titanium superconductive wire. Two methods were used: continuous-wave-resonance and laser-pulse-excitation. Young's moduli were also determined for the components - copper and Nb-Ti - in both wire and bulk forms. Some mechanical-deformation effects on Young's modulus were also measured. From the component' elastic moduli, that of the composite was predicted accurately by a simple rule-of-mixtures relationship

  17. A low elastic modulus Ti-Nb-Hf alloy bioactivated with an elastin-like

    OpenAIRE

    González, Marta; Salvagni, Emiliano; Rodríguez Cabello, J.C.; Rupérez de Gracia, Elisa; Gil Mur, Francisco Javier; Manero Planella, José María; Peña, Javier

    2012-01-01

    b-type titanium alloys with low Young’s modulus are desirable to reduce stress shielding effect and enhance bone remodeling for implants used to substitute failed hard tissue. For biomaterials application, the surface bioactivity is necessary to achieve optimal osseointegration. In the previous work, the low elastic modulus (43 GPa) Ti-25Nb-16Hf (wt %) alloy was mechanically and microstructurally characterized. In the present work, the biological behavior of Ti-25Nb- 1...

  18. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eisenman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  19. Special Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special Educators

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Brienne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Of The DissertationSpecial Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special EducatorsbyBrienne DowningDoctor of Education in Educational LeadershipUniversity of California, San Diego, 2017California State University, San Marcos, 2017Professor Jacqueline Thousand, ChairSpecial education teachers are in high demand and greatly needed to meet the needs of the growing population of students qualified fo...

  20. Elastic Modulus of Fe72.5Ga27.5 Magnetostrictive Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Xi, Zhu; Jing-Hua, Liu; Cheng-Bao, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    The elastic modulus of Fe 72.5 Ga 27.5 magnetostrictive alloy is determined by testing ac impedance resonance frequency and first-principle calculations. The observed elastic modulus is 90.2 GPa for a directionally solidified sample and 103.4 GPa for a water-quenched sample tested in a dc magnetic field of 32.7 mT without compressive pre-stress. The bulk modulus by first-principles calculation is 179.3 GPa which is basically consistent with the experimental result. The elastic modulus first increases and then decreases with increasing dc magnetic field, attributed to magnetostriction occurrence in the Fe 72.5 Ga 27.5 alloy. The elastic modulus increases with increasing compressive pre-stress, resulting from the initial magnetic states change under the applied compressive pre-stress. The elastic modulus increases match well with the improved magnetostriction after quenching. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Developing the elastic modulus measurement of asphalt concrete using the compressive strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief; Suparma, Latif Budi; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2017-11-01

    Elastic modulus is a fundamental property of an asphalt mixture. An analytical method of the elastic modulus is needed to determine the thickness of flexible pavement. It has a role as one of the input values on a stress-strain analysis in the finite element method. The aim of this study was to develop the measurement of the elastic modulus by using compressive strength testing. This research used a set of specimen mold tool and Delta Dimensi software to record strain changes occurring in the proving ring of compression machine and the specimens. The elastic modulus of the five types of aggregate gradation and 2 types of asphalt were measured at optimum asphalt content. Asphalt Cement 60/70 and Elastomer Modified Asphalt (EMA) were used as a binder. Manufacturing success indicators of the specimens used void-in-the-mix (VIM) 3-5 % criteria. The success rate of the specimen manufacturing was more than 76%. Thus, the procedure and the compressive strength test equipment could be used for the measurement of the elastic modulus. The aggregate gradation and asphalt types significantly affected the elastic modulus of the asphalt concrete.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  3. Happiness unpacked: positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Fredrickson, Barbara L; Brown, Stephanie L; Mikels, Joseph A; Conway, Anne M

    2009-06-01

    Happiness-a composite of life satisfaction, coping resources, and positive emotions-predicts desirable life outcomes in many domains. The broaden-and-build theory suggests that this is because positive emotions help people build lasting resources. To test this hypothesis, the authors measured emotions daily for 1 month in a sample of students (N = 86) and assessed life satisfaction and trait resilience at the beginning and end of the month. Positive emotions predicted increases in both resilience and life satisfaction. Negative emotions had weak or null effects and did not interfere with the benefits of positive emotions. Positive emotions also mediated the relation between baseline and final resilience, but life satisfaction did not. This suggests that it is in-the-moment positive emotions, and not more general positive evaluations of one's life, that form the link between happiness and desirable life outcomes. Change in resilience mediated the relation between positive emotions and increased life satisfaction, suggesting that happy people become more satisfied not simply because they feel better but because they develop resources for living well.

  4. Building Resilient Communities Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    University - Faculty of Liberal Arts Colleen Vaughan JIBC School of Public Safety Dan Sandink Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction Daniel...First Nations, Métis and Inuit people has been a very real positive outcome and the mini-poster carrying this focus will be an important step in...Executive Summary Promoting Canadian Aboriginal Disaster Resilience in First Nations, Métis and Inuit Communities Eric Bussey, Brenda L. Murphy

  5. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  6. Political Subculture: A Resilience Modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A RESILIENCE MODIFIER by Gordon S. Hunter September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr. Second Reader...Approved by: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr., DPA Thesis Advisor Lauren S. Fernandez, DSc Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chair...addition, I must acknowledge the continued support, guidance, and encouragement of Dr. Sam Clovis and Dr. Lauren Fernandez who have led me on the path to

  7. Focusing the Meaning(s of Resilience: Resilience as a Descriptive Concept and a Boundary Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the variety of definitions proposed for "resilience" within sustainability science and suggests a typology according to the specific degree of normativity. There is a tension between the original descriptive concept of resilience first defined in ecological science and a more recent, vague, and malleable notion of resilience used as an approach or boundary object by different scientific disciplines. Even though increased conceptual vagueness can be valuable to foster communication across disciplines and between science and practice, both conceptual clarity and practical relevance of the concept of resilience are critically in danger. The fundamental question is what conceptual structure we want resilience to have. This article argues that a clearly specified, descriptive concept of resilience is critical in providing a counterbalance to the use of resilience as a vague boundary object. A clear descriptive concept provides the basis for operationalization and application of resilience within ecological science.

  8. Identifying Resilient and Non-Resilient Middle-Adolescents in a Formerly Black-Only Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Bouwer, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non-resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient and non-resilient…

  9. Migration, remittances, livelihood trajectories, and social resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adger, W Neil; Kelly, P Mick; Winkels, Alexandra; Huy, Luong Quang; Locke, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    We argue that all aspects of demographic change, including migration, impact on the social resilience of individuals and communities, as well as on the sustainability of the underlying resource base. Social resilience is the ability to cope with and adapt to environmental and social change mediated through appropriate institutions. We investigate one aspect of the relationship between demographic change, social resilience, and sustainable development in contemporary coastal Vietnam: the effects of migration and remittances on resource-dependent communities in population source areas. We find, using longitudinal data on livelihood sources, that emigration and remittances have offsetting effects on resilience within an evolving social and political context. Emigration is occurring concurrently with, not driving, the expansion of unsustainable coastal aquaculture. Increasing economic inequality also undermines social resilience. At the same time diversification and increasing income levels are beneficial for resilience.

  10. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  11. Center for Evaluation of Resilience Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    from the pancreas, which in turn stimulates cellular glucose  uptake. Low blood glucose levels promote  pancreatic  glucagon release, stimulating...Assessment   Cortisol   Glucoregulation   HEENT: Dental Readiness; Vision Readiness; Hearing Readiness   HIV Status   Medication Use   Pregnancy ...neuropsychological tests or oral health or vision tests or diagnostic techniques, otological or diagnostic techniques, cardiovascular or hypertension or pregnancy

  12. Evaluating Options for Improving California's Drought Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. A.; Schwarz, A.; Wi, S.; Correa, M.; Brown, C.

    2015-12-01

    Through a unique collaborative arrangement, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) have together performed a baseline climate change analysis of the California state (State Water Project) and federal (Central Valley Project) water systems. The first step in the baseline analysis was development of an improved basinwide hydrologic model covering a large area of California including all major tributaries to the state and federal water systems. The CalLite modeling system used by DWR for planning purposes allowed simulation of the system of reservoirs, rivers, control points, and deliveries which are then used to create performance metrics that quantify a wide range of system characteristics including water deliveries, water quality, and environmental/ecological factors. A baseline climate stress test was conducted to identify current vulnerabilities to climate change through the linking of the modeling chain with Decision Scaling concepts through the UMass bottom-up climate stress-testing algorithm. This procedure allowed the first comprehensive climate stress analysis of the California state and federal water systems not constrained by observed historical variability and wet-dry year sequences. A forward-looking drought vulnerability and adaptation assessment of the water systems based on this workflow is ongoing and preliminary results will be presented. Presentation of results will include discussion of the collaborative arrangement between DWR and UMass, which is instrumental to both the success of the research and the education of policy makers.

  13. Determination of the elastic modulus of fly ash-based stabilizer applied in the trackbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojda, Vít; Lidmila, Martin; Pýcha, Marek

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a unique application of a fly ash-based stabilizer in the trackbed of a railway main line. The key goals of the stabilizer application are to protect the subgrade against the ingress of rain water, to increase the frost resistance and to remediate the natural ground constituted of weathered rock. The stabilizer was designed as a mixture of fly ash, generated as a waste material from coal plants, gypsum, calcium oxide and water. The mixture recipe was developed in a laboratory over several years. In 2005, a trial section of a railway line with subgrade consisting of clay limestone (weathered marlite) was built in the municipality of Smiřice. Since then, periodical measurements including collection of samples for laboratory evaluation of the fly ash-based stabilizer have taken place. Over the time span of the measurements, changes in mineral composition and development of fly ash transforming structures leading to the formation of C-A-S-H gel were detected. This paper describes the experimental laboratory investigation of the influence of dynamic loading on the elastic modulus of fly ash stabilizer samples and the development of permanent deformation of the samples with increasing number of loading cycles.

  14. A fuzzy logic based method to monitor organizational resilience: application in a brazilian radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Vidal, Mario C.R.; Cosenza, Carlos A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Resilience is the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under expected and unexpected conditions. This definition focuses on the ability to function, rather than on being impervious to failure, and thereby overcomes the traditional conflict between productivity and safety. Resilience engineering (RE) has fast become recognized as a valuable complement to the established approaches to safety of complex socio-technical systems and methods to monitor organizational resilience are needed. However, few, if any, comprehensive and systematic research studies focus on developing an objective, reliable and practical assessment model for monitoring organizational resilience. Most methods cannot fully solve the subjectivity of resilience evaluation. In order to remedy this deficiency, the aim of this research is to adopt a Fuzzy Set Theory (FST) approach to establish a method for resilience assessment in organizations based on leading safety performance indicators, defined according to the resilience engineering principles. The method uses FST concepts and properties to model the indicators and to assess the results of their application. To exemplify the method we performed an exploratory case study at the process of radiopharmaceuticals dispatch package of a Brazilian radioactive facility. (author)

  15. Resilience Building in Students: The Role of Academic Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eCassidy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy relates to an individual’s perception of their capabilities. It has a clear self-evaluative dimension leading to high or low perceived self-efficacy. Individual differences in perceived self-efficacy have been shown to be better predictors of performance than previous achievement or ability and seem particularly important when individuals face adversity. The study investigated the nature of the association between academic self-efficacy (ASE academic resilience. Undergraduate student participants (N=435 were exposed to an adverse situation case vignette describing either personal or vicarious academic adversity. ASE was measured pre-exposure and academic resilience was measured post- exposure. ASE was correlated with, and a significant predictor of, academic resilience and students exhibited greater academic resilience when responding to vicarious adversity compared to personal adversity. Identifying constructs that are related to resilience and establishing the precise nature of how such constructs influence resilience will assist the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in students.

  16. Resilience and protective factors among people with a history of child maltreatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Li, Muzi; D'Arcy, Carl

    2018-05-01

    To provide an overview of resilience and protective factors associated with a better life following child maltreatment exposure, to compare protective factors across specific subtypes of maltreatment, and to explore existing issues in the current state of the literature. Electronic databases and grey literature up to October 2017 were systematically searched for English language with observational study designs for the research on resilience and childhood maltreatment. Systematic review and qualitative approaches were used to synthesize the results. Study quality and heterogeneity were also examined. Initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 247 papers being reviewed. A total of 85 articles met eligibility criteria of this review. Most of these studies had low or middle study quality. There were two subgroups of studies reviewed: (1) 11 studies examined whether resilience protected against the negative consequence of childhood maltreatment, and, (2) 75 studies explored what protective factor was associated with a kind of adaptive functioning. Although the conceptualization of resilience significantly varied from study to study, protective factors associated with resilience at individual, familial, and societal levels reduced the likelihood of negative consequences of childhood maltreatment. Negative consequences following childhood maltreatment can be prevented or moderated if protective factors are provided in time. Future research needs to address the conceptualization issue of resilience. Public and population mental health preventions should focus on early childhood and apply preventive strategies as early as possible. Cost-effective studies should be considered in the evaluation of resilience prevention program.

  17. Resilience Building in Students: The Role of Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy relates to an individual's perception of their capabilities. It has a clear self-evaluative dimension leading to high or low perceived self-efficacy. Individual differences in perceived self-efficacy have been shown to be better predictors of performance than previous achievement or ability and seem particularly important when individuals face adversity. The study investigated the nature of the association between academic self-efficacy (ASE) and academic resilience. Undergraduate student participants (N = 435) were exposed to an adverse situation case vignette describing either personal or vicarious academic adversity. ASE was measured pre-exposure and academic resilience was measured post-exposure. ASE was correlated with, and a significant predictor of, academic resilience and students exhibited greater academic resilience when responding to vicarious adversity compared to personal adversity. Identifying constructs that are related to resilience and establishing the precise nature of how such constructs influence academic resilience will assist the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in students. PMID:26640447

  18. Measuring Resilience in the Adolescent Population: A Succinct Tool for Outpatient Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Jordan; Vitale, Patty; Gaughan, John P; Feldman-Winter, Lori

    2017-10-01

    To create a valid tool to measure adolescent resilience, and to determine if this tool correlates with current participation in risk behaviors and prior adverse childhood events. One hundred adolescents were recruited from primary care clinics in New Jersey for this cross-sectional study. A "7Cs tool" was developed to measure resilience using the 7Cs model of resilience. All participants completed the 7Cs tool, the Adverse Childhood Events Survey, and the Health Survey for Adolescents to identify current risk behaviors. Demographic and background data were also collected. To assess the validity of the 7Cs tool, Cronbach alpha, principal factor analysis, Spearman coefficients, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. The χ 2 test and ORs were used to determine if any relationships exist between resilience and prior adverse childhood events and risk taking behaviors. Participants ranged from 13 to 21 years old (65% female). Internal consistency was established using Cronbach alpha (0.7). Lower resilience correlated with higher adverse childhood events (P = .008) and Health Survey for Adolescents scores (P adolescent resilience and guide pediatricians' counseling against risk behaviors. Further studies will evaluate resilience-building interventions based on results from this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cooperative Spatial Retreat for Resilient Drone Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Hyeok; Kwon, Young-Min; Park, Kyung-Joon

    2017-05-03

    Drones are broadening their scope to various applications such as networking, package delivery, agriculture, rescue, and many more. For proper operation of drones, reliable communication should be guaranteed because drones are remotely controlled. When drones experience communication failure due to bad channel condition, interference, or jamming in a certain area, one existing solution is to exploit mobility or so-called spatial retreat to evacuate them from the communication failure area. However, the conventional spatial retreat scheme moves drones in random directions, which results in inefficient movement with significant evacuation time and waste of battery lifetime. In this paper, we propose a novel spatial retreat technique that takes advantage of cooperation between drones for resilient networking, which is called cooperative spatial retreat (CSR). Our performance evaluation shows that the proposed CSR significantly outperforms existing schemes.

  20. Vulnerability and resilience: a critical nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2016-02-01

    Not all forms of human fragility or vulnerability are unavoidable. Sometimes we knowingly and intentionally impose conditions of vulnerability on others; and sometimes we knowingly and intentionally enter into and assume conditions of vulnerability for ourselves (for example, when we decide to trust or forgive, enter into intimate relationships with others, become a parent, become a subject of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment, and the like). In this article, I propose a presently overlooked basis on which one might evaluate whether the imposition or assumption of vulnerability is acceptable, and on which one might ground a significant class of vulnerability-related obligations. Distinct from existing accounts of the importance of promoting autonomy in conditions of vulnerability, this article offers a preliminary exploration of the nature, role, and importance of resilience promotion, its relationship to autonomy promotion, and its prospects for improving human wellbeing in autonomy inhibiting conditions.